Title: Florida Entomologist
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Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1963
Copyright Date: 1917
 Subjects
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
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General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Volume ID: VID00177
Source Institution: University of Florida
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The

FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST


Volume 46, No. 2


June, 1963


CONTENTS
Page

Meifert, D. W., R. L. Fye, and G. C. LaBrecque-Effect on
House Flies of Exposure to Residual Applications of
Chemosterilants ------------------------------------- .-- ... 161

Peterson, Alvah-Some Eggs of Moths Among the
Amatidae, Arctiidae, and Notodontidae-Lepidoptera -.... 169


Schneider, Robert F., and Lewis Berner-A New Southeast-
ern Species of Baetisca (Ephemeroptera: Baetiscidae)

N ews of N ote ....------------....... -----... ... -----..........----..-...-. ...----

Scott, Harold George, and Chester J. Stofanovich-
Digestion of Juniper Pollen by Collembola ------.-------


183

188


189


Loomis, H. F.-A New Florida Milliped Genus of the
Family Paraiulidae ----.----..-------------. ----------------------. 193


De Leon, Donald-A New Genus and Twelve New Species
of Mites from Mexico and Southeast United States
(Acarina: Blattisocidae) ---.-----..--...--------------.....---......---------

Kurczewski, Frank E.-Some New Pompilid Prey Records
from Southern Florida (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae)....


197


209


Published by The Florida Entomological Society














THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY


OFFICERS FOR 1962-1963

President................---------------------------------......................................................Henry True
Vice-President....................---------------------....----...------------............................. G. W. Dekle
Secretary--------...........-------------...........----------------------................................................... S. H. Kerr
Treasurer......------..................................................... -----------------------Robert E. Waites
John O'Neill
Other Members of Executive Committee ....... W. G. Genung
W. C. Rhoades

Editorial Board
Lewis Berner--------------............................-----..----...---..-.........Editor
Thomas J. Walker....-----.-------......Associate Editor
Robert E. Waites--.......------................... Business Manager



THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST is issued quarterly-March, June, Septem-
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University Station, University of Florida, Gainesville. The Secretary can
be reached at the same address.
Authors are urged to consult a style manual when preparing manuscripts.
For form of literature citations, see recent issues of THE FLORIDA EN-
TOMOLOGIST. Further, authors are referred to "Suggestions for the prepara-
tion of papers submitted for publication in THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST."
FLA. ENT. 41(4): 193-194. 1958.
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EFFECT ON HOUSE FLIES OF EXPOSURE TO RESIDUAL
APPLICATIONS OF CHEMOSTERILANTS

D. W. MEIFERT, R. L. FYE, AND G. C. LABRECQUE
Entomology Research Division, Agric. Res. Serv., U. S. D. A.

Sexual sterilization by chemicals as a means for the reduction or eradi-
cation of an insect species has been suggested by Knipling (1959, 1960) and
Lindquist (1961 a, b). Initial field experiments, conducted in Florida, dem-
onstrated that marked reductions in populations of house flies (Musca
domestic L.) could be achieved with a bait containing a chemosterilant
(LaBrecque et al., 1962). Although the results with baits showed promise
for this method of application, additional methods of presenting the chem-
osterilants to the insects would greatly improve the versatility of the ster-
ilization technique. Investigations were therefore made to determine the
effectiveness of residual applications of apholate, tepa, 5-fluoroorotic acid,
and metepa in producing sterility in house flies.
The chemosterilants in methanol were applied to the inner surfaces
(bottom and sides) of pint mason jars at the rate of 10, 25, 50, 100, and
250 mg./sq. ft. To obtain an even coating, 2.5 ml. of solutions of the de-
sired concentration was placed in the jar, and the jar was rotated so the
solution washed over its entire inner surface. Rotation was continued until
the solvent evaporated. Jars treated with 2.5 ml. of methanol alone served
as checks. Twenty-four hours later five males or females less than two
hours old were introduced into each of the jars. The mouths of the jars
were then covered with organdy cloth treated with repellent M-2020 to pre-
vent the flies from resting on this surface. The jars were kept in an up-
right position during exposure periods of 2, 3, or 4 hours. After exposure
the flies were allowed to escape into cages containing food and water, and
24 hours later five virgin flies of the opposite sex were introduced. Ovi-
position medium was made available at regular intervals throughout the
next 26 days. Each lot of medium was inspected frequently for eggs and
the fertility of any eggs observed was determined by the subsequent pres-
ence of larvae. The jars were aged with the organdy cloth covers and re-
tested after 14, 30, and 60 days. The results are given in Table 1.
Sterility of house flies can be acquired through tarsal contact with a
chemosterilant. The 250-mg. deposit of tepa was effective in sterilizing
both sexes of flies at all exposure periods after aging for 30 days but was
not effective after 60 days. The 100-mg. deposit sterilized the males for
at least 14 days (30 days in one test) at all exposure periods and was effec-
tive after 1, 14, and 30 days in sterilizing most of the females at all exposure
periods. The 50-mg. deposit was effective in sterilizing the males after 14
days of aging at exposure periods of three or four hours and after one
day at two hours, whereas most of the females were sterilized after three
or four hours' exposure to the 50-mg. deposit but were not affected after
the two-hour exposure. The deposits of 25 and 10 mg. were not consistently
effective with the males but the 25-mg. deposit sterilized the females after
one day of aging at all exposure periods but had no effect thereafter. The
10-mg. deposit was not effective. The metepa deposits of 250 and 100 mg.
were effective in sterilizing the males at all exposure periods after 30 days


















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168 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 46, No. 2

and ineffective after 60 days, except the 250-mg. deposit at the three-hour
exposure. These deposits were toxic to the females after one day of aging
and sterility was not consistent thereafter. The 50-mg. deposit sterilized
the males for 30 days at exposure periods of three or four hours and for 14
days at two hours. The 25-mg. deposit was effective for 14 days at ex-
posure periods of three or four hours and for one day at two hours. The
deposit of 10 mg. was effective for one day at all exposure periods but not
effective thereafter. The 50- and 25-mg. deposits sterilized the females
after one day but had no effect after aging. The ten-mg. deposit was not
effective. Apholate and 5-fluoroorotic acid, when applied at dosages ranging
between 10 and 250 mg./sq. ft. with exposure periods of two, three, or
four hours, were not effective.

SUMMARY
House flies were sterilized by tarsal contact with residues of tepa and
metepa but not apholate or 5-fluoroorotic acid on glass surfaces.

LITERATURE CITED
Knipling, E. F. 1959. Sterile-male method of population control. Science
130: 902-904.
Knipling, E. F. 1960. The eradication of the screw-worm fly. Sci. Amer.
203(4): 54-61.
LaBrecque, G. C., C. N. Smith, and D. W. Meifert. 1962. A field experi-
ment in the control of house flies with chemosterilant baits. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 55(4): 449-451.
Lindquist, A. W. 1961a. New ways to control insects. Pest Control
29(6):,9, 11, 12, 14, 16, 18, 19, 36, 38, 40.
Lindquist, A. W. 1961b. Chemicals to sterilize insects. Jour. Wash. Acad.
Sci. 109-114.














SOME EGGS OF MOTHS AMONG THE AMATIDAE,
ARCTIIDAE, AND NOTODONTIDAE-
LEPIDOPTERA1

ALVAH PETERSON
Ohio Historical Society Museum, Columbus, Ohio

This is the second of a series of papers dealing with the eggs of moths
among the more common families of the Lepidoptera. The first dealt with
the eggs of a number of species of the Geometridae. Their common char-
acteristics and differences were described, illustrated and compared.
In this paper the eggs of species seen to date among the Amatidae,
Arctiidae and Notodontidae are considered. These families are presented
together chiefly because the eggs of the species seen have characteristics
common to all. Also the number of species in each of these families is not
large. In North America each family possesses approximately the follow-
ing number of species: Amatidae-26 species; Arctiidae-200 species; and
Notodontidae-120 species. The author has seen the eggs of 6 species of
Amatidae, 22 species of Arctiidae and 17 species of Notodontidae distributed
among several genera in each family.
Similar to the Geometridae, adults of many Amatidae, Arctiidae, and
Notodontidae are attracted to "black light" lures at night, especially if
the lures are adjacent to white surfaces. The moths are captured and
placed in individual pint or quart size polyethylene bags for egg deposition.
They are kept in a warm place, 75+ F., adjacent to a north or west window.
Most of the species will deposit some to many eggs on the bag. With some
species it is necessary to cage many moths individually before eggs are
obtained. Some require foliage, twigs, straw, or paper toweling in the bags
for deposition.
The following characteristics are common to nearly all of the eggs of
the Amatidae, Arctiidae and Notodontidae. Individual eggs are nearly
perfect circles (plates 1-4) when viewed from above or at right angles to
the substrate on which they rest. Side views of single eggs (Plate 5)
may vary from almost complete spheres to half spheres or less. A few
resemble blunt cones (12A-14A)2 with rounded top, others are doughnut-
like objects (30A).
The color of the eggs is usually uniform over the entire surface. They
may be near white, pearl-like, cream colored or light yellow, orange or
green. A few are partly bluish-black and one species is pitch black. Most
species possess a transparent or translucent chorion and an adhesive exter-
nal covering, consequently if the developing larva possesses a dark head,
dark setae or pigment areas on the body, these may be seen through the

1 This investigation was supported by a research grant from the Na-
tional Science Foundation assigned to the Ohio Historical Society Museum,
Columbus, Ohio. Most of the eggs presented in this study were collected
in Ohio, Florida, North Carolina, Minnesota and Michigan. The author is
indebted to C. P. Kimball for the determination of the moths depositing the
eggs used in this publication, except those shown in Figures 20, 20A, and
to A. E. Brower and P. H. Dunn for eggs sent to be photographed.
2 Numbers in parentheses refer to figures.












170 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 46, No. 2

egg shell a few hours or days before the larva hatches. When eggs possess
an opaque chorion (25,40) no change in color of the embryo is visible during
the incubation period.
The texture of the chorion among most species is smooth, shiny and
with or without reticulation, tiny depressions or papillae. Under high mag-
nification, 90X, the surface may appear to be finely granular. This appear-
ance is due to the structure of the embryonic tissues visible through the
chorion. Among many species tiny indentations occur on the chorion.
These are bounded with lines or ridges that produce hexagonal or irregular
reticulations which usually cover most of the egg surface above the base.
In some cases they are absent at the top center adjacent to the micropyle
openings) and on the surface next to the substrate. These tiny structures
are seen most readily on living eggs, hatched eggs or on the chorion of
empty eggs after the internal tissues have been removed or dissolved.
Among some species these tiny structures are visible in Kodachrome trans-
parencies when viewed with a stereoscopic microscope using light reflected
through the transparency.
Among the Amatidae (1-4, 1A-4A) the circular eggs vary in width
from 0.7 mm. to 1.0 mm. Side views of the eggs as a rule are partial
spheres with their vertical diameters approximating two-thirds their widths.
The surface of the eggs of six species seen is somewhat shiny and their
color varies from near white to cream and light yellow to pastel green. The
chorion possesses tiny hexagonal or irregular reticulations. In some cases
these are visible only in hatched or empty eggs. Representatives of the
following genera are discussed and figured: Cosmosoma, Syntomeida, Cis-
seps, and Ctenucha.
Eggs of (1,1A) Cosmosoma myrodora Dyar are shiny, pearly white and
have a slightly granular appearance under high magnification, 90X. The
chorion of the egg is transparent and possesses very fine and faint reticula-
tions uniformly distributed over most of the egg. Females within bags
scattered their loosely attached eggs over the polyethylene.
Eggs of (2,2A) Syntomeida epilais jucundissima Dyar are shiny, smooth
and light yellow. The chorion of an egg is transparent and possesses very
tiny hexagonal and irregular reticulations on the entire surface above the
substrate. These reticulations are smaller near the top center of an egg.
Eggs were deposited in the field in flat clusters on the foliage of oleander,
also the eggs in a cluster were not in contact with each other.
Eggs of (3,3A) Cisseps fulvicollis Hbn. are shiny, smooth and cream
white. The nearly spherical chorion is transparent and uniformly covered
with tiny hexagonal reticulations. Eggs in bags were deposited singly or
in small clusters. They were firmly attached to the polyethylene and to
each other when in contact.
Eggs of (4,4A) Ctenucha virginica Charp. are smooth and distinctly
butter yellow. Vary faint hexagonal reticulations occur over the entire
transparent chorion above the substrate on which it rests. Eggs were de-
posited singly or in small clusters in polyethylene bags. They were not
in contact with each other.
Among the Arctiidae (5-23, 5A-23A) the circular eggs vary in width
from 0.5 mm. to 1.1 mm. Side views show variations from nearly complete
spheres to half spheres. A few are somewhat to distinctly cone shaped
(12-14) with the upper top portions bluntly rounded. The surface of the












Peterson: Some Eggs of Moths Among the Amatidae 171

eggs in most species is shiny. Some fifteen genera are represented among
the twenty-two species studied. The species among five of the genera,
namely, Apantesis, Cycnia, Halisidota, Haploa and Utetheisa possess eggs
with transparent chorions and without reticulations, dimples, or papillae.
All species among the other ten genera Cisthene, Crambidia, Diacrisia,
Estigmene, Eubaphe, Holomelina, Hypoprepia, Isia, Parisimia, and Seir-
arctia possess very faint to conspicuous reticulations (dimples) on the
chorion covering all or most of the surface above the base of each egg.
The color of the eggs shows considerable variation among the different
species. They may be opaque white to a translucent pearly white, a light
yellow to orange with a brownish cast or somewhat greenish and slate
colored with a greenish-brown cast.
Eggs of (5,5A) Crambidia lithosioides Dyar are shiny and light yellow-
ish brown. The chorion is transparent and possesses above its base ir-
regular, conspicuous dimples mostly hexagonal in shape. These dimples
are much smaller near the top center of the eggs. Eggs were deposited
in small clusters of about 25 on polyethylene. They were firmly attached
to the polyethylene and not in contact with each other.
Eggs of (6,6A) Cisthene bellicula Dyar are shiny and near white. The
chorion is transparent and possesses above its base irregular conspicuous
depressions usually hexagonal in shape and variable in size. Eggs were
deposited singly and scattered on the polyethylene bag.
Eggs of (7,7A) Hypoprepia fucosa plumbea Hy. Edw. are shiny and
slate colored with a green to a deep brown tint. The chorion is transparent
and possesses above its base numerous small to large irregular depressions
usually hexagonal in shape and variable in size. These can be seen in fresh
eggs or in Kodachrome transparencies. Eggs were deposited loosely on
glass and removed for a photograph.
Eggs of (8,8A) Cycinia tenera Hbn. are somewhat shiny and pearl-like
with a yellow to light green tint. The chorion is transparent and without
dimples, depressions or reticulations. Under high magnification living eggs
are finely granular. Eggs were deposited loosely in small clusters and close
to each other but not in contact.
The eggs of species in a given genus among the Arctiidae usually re-
semble each other closely except for size and slight differences in color.
Among the four species of Halisidota seen the chorion is transparent and


PLATE I.
Figure 1. Eggs on polyethylene. Amatidae, Cosmosoma myrodora Dyar.
Figure 2. Natural deposition of ova on oleander foliage. Amatidae, Syn-
tomeida epialis jucundissima Dyar.
Figure 3. Eggs on polyethylene. Amatidae, Cisseps fulvicollis Hbn.
Figure 4. Eggs on polyethylene. Amatidae, Ctenucha virginica Charp.
Figure 5. Eggs on polyethylene. Arctiidae, Crambidia lithosioides Dyar.
Figure 6. Egg on polyethylene Arctiidae, Cisthene bellicula Dyar.
Figure 7. Eggs loose on glass. Arctidae, Hypoprepia fucosa plumbea
Hy. Edw.
Figure 8. Eggs on polyethylene. Arctiidae, Cycnia tenera Hbn.
Figure 9. Eggs on polyethylene. Arctiidae, Halisidota cinctipes Hy.
Edw.
Figure 10. Eggs on polyethylene, Arctiidae, Halisidota tessellaris (A. and
S.)
























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Peterson: Some Eggs Among Moths of the Amatidae 173

without depressions, papillae and reticulations. The inner content of a
newly deposited egg usually shows an inner, translucent, uniformly colored,
circular area (10) surrounded by a more opaque band which possesses a
few inconspicuous greenish or near white spots. Their widths vary. Halisi-
dota cinctipes Hy. Ed. and H. tessellaris (A. and S.) have the same width,
0.8 mm. while the widths of the eggs of H. maculata Harris and H. long
Grt. are 0.95 mm. and 1.0 mm. respectively.
Eggs of (9, 9A) Halisidota cinctipes Hy. Edw. are smooth, shiny, and
pearl-like with a greenish tint. Eggs were deposited in large flat clusters,
90 to 100 per cluster, and firmly attached to polyethylene.
Eggs of (10, 10A) Halisidota tessellaris A. and S., pale tussock moth,
are smooth, shiny and resemble white pearls. Eggs were deposited in large
flat clusters, containing about 100 eggs per cluster. Some of the eggs in
each cluster were firmly attached to each other but lightly attached to the
polyethylene.
Eggs of (11, 11A) Apantesis phalerata (A and S) are shiny, smooth and
pearl-like with a yellowish tint. The chorion is transparent and without
depressions or reticulations. The slightly cone shaped ova are deposited in
small clusters, 20 to 30, on foliage and polyethylene. When in contact with
each other in a cluster they are lightly sealed together and to the poly-
ethylene.
Eggs of (12, 12A) Apantesis intermedia Stretch are shiny, smooth, non-
adhesive and slightly yellowish. The chorion is transparent, and without de-
pressions or reticulations. The bluntly, cone-shaped ova are deposited in
lots of about 175. They are free, loose and non-adhesive when deposited in
polyethylene bags. In this respect they differ from most species of Arctii-
dae.
Eggs of (13, 13A) Eubaphe laeta Guer. are shiny, smooth and somewhat
yellowish. The chorion is transparent and possesses faint tiny reticulations
on the top third of each egg with no reticulations at the top center spot.
The adhesive eggs were deposited in small clusters of about 25 on poly-
ethylene. Some of the eggs in a cluster were in contact with each other.
Eggs of (14, 14A) Holomelina aurantiaca (Hbn.) are shiny, smooth
and light yellow to orange. The chorion is transparent and under high
magnification, 90X, shows the presence of very tiny, inconspicuous reticula-
tions which cover most of the chorion above the substrate. The eggs are
bluntly cone-shaped and deposited in small clusters on polyethylene or oak


PLATE II.
Figure 11. Eggs on polyethylene. Arctiidae, Apantesis phalerata (A. and
S.)
Figure 12. Eggs loose on glass. Arctiidae, Apantesis intermedia Stretch.
Figure 13. Eggs on polyethylene. Arctiidae, Eubaphe laeta Guer.
Figure 14. Eggs loose on glass. Arctiidae. Holomelina aurantiaca
(Hbn.)
Figure 15. Eggs on polyethylene. Arctiidae, Isia isabella (A. and S.)
Figure 16. Eggs on polyethylene. Arctiidae, Diacrisia virginica, Fabr.
Figures 17-19. Eggs on polyethylene and foliage. Arctiidae, Estigmene
area Dru. 17-female and eggs deposited on polyethylene, 18-a
small cluster- of eggs on foliage, 19-enlarged view of a few eggs in
a cluster.
Figure 20. Eggs ready to hatch. Arctiidae, Estigmene congrua (Wlk.)








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Peterson: Some Eggs of Moths Among the Amatidae 175

foliage. Each egg in a cluster is separate from all others and lightly at-
tached to polyethylene.
Eggs of (15, 15A) Isia isabella (A and S), banded woollybear, are
shiny, smooth, near white, faintly greenish, pearl-like objects. The chorion
is transparent and possesses faint tiny reticulations which cover the top
third of each egg except for a small clear area at. the top center. Eggs
were deposited in continuous flat masses of 125 to 175. Many of the eggs
were in contact with each other and lightly attached to polyethylene, drop-
ping off when placed in a preservative.
Eggs of (16, 16A) Diacrisia virginica Fabr., yellow woollybear, are
shiny, smooth, and uniformly light yellow. The chorion is transparent and
possesses above its base very small, faint, irregular to hexagonal reticula-
tions which converge toward a clear round area at the top center. Eggs
are deposited in clusters of about 60 on polyethylene. They are lightly
adhesive to the polyethylene. All of the eggs adjacent to each other in a
cluster are firmly glued together.
Eggs of (17-19, 17A-19A) Estigmene acrea Gru., salt-marsh caterpillar,
are somewhat shiny and light lemon yellow and usually slightly darker
near the apex. The chorion is transparent and all of the exposed surface
is covered with tiny irregular dimples. These are elongate and tend to
be smaller near the top center of the egg. Under high magnification, 90X
plus, very tiny round opaque objects may be seen scattered about the mar-
gins of the hexagonal dimples in an irregular manner. Eggs were deposited
on polyethylene in large continuous flat masses of 200 to 350. All eggs in
a cluster are firmly attached to each other and to paper but not to poly-
ethylene.
Eggs of (20, 20A) Estigmene congrua (Wlk.) are somewhat shiny and
a light lemon yellow. The chorion is transparent and covered with tiny
irregular dimples except for a small clear spot near the top center. Among
eggs about to hatch most of the dimples show about their margins very
tiny nearly white dots, most easily seen when the dimples are located above
dark portions of a larva. Eggs were deposited on facial tissue in continuous
flat masses, each containing 110 to 250 ova.
The similarity of the descriptions of these species of Estigmene indi-
cate that all species in this genus are apt to resemble each other closely.


PLATE III.
Figure 21. Eggs on polyethylene. Arctiidae, Seirarctia echo (A. and S.)
Figure 22. Eggs on polyethylene. Arctiidae, Parasemia parthenos
(Harr.)
Figure 23. Eggs on polyethylene. Arctiidae, Utetheisa bella (Linn.)
Figure 24. Egg on polyethylene. Notodontidae, Lophodonta angulosa (A.
and S.)
Figures 25-26. Eggs on polyethylene. Notodontidae, Datana ranaeceps
Guer. 25-portion of a large mass, some hatched. 26-several en-
larged hatched and prehatch ova.
Figure 27. Eggs on polyethylene. Notodontidae, Nadata gibbosa (A. and
S.)
Figure 28. Eggs on polyethylene. Notodontidae, Symmerista albifrons
(J. E. Smith)
Figure 29. Eggs on polyethylene. Notodontidae, Ellida caniplaga Wlk.
Figure 30. Eggs on polyethylene. Notodontidae, Dasylophia anguina A.
and S.












21.


r >P


25.












Peterson: Some Eggs of Moths Among the Amatidae 177

Eggs of (21, 21A) Seirarctia echo (A. and S.) are somewhat shiny and
lemon yellow. The chorion is nearly transparent and possesses small
rounded or hexagonal depressions on all of the exposed surface above the
substrate. Eggs are deposited in flat masses of more than 100 on poly-
ethylene. All eggs in a given mass are in contact with each other and
firmly sealed together.
Eggs of (22, 22A) Parasemia parthenos (Harr.), the Saint Lawrence
Tiger moth, are slightly shiny and almost an opaque white with a faint
greenish tint. The chorion is translucent and above the base is completely
covered with tiny, conspicuous, irregular or hexagonal reticulations which
become smaller and somewhat elongated near the small clear area at the
top center. Eggs were deposited on polyethylene in flat masses of 150 to
200. All eggs in a given mass are in contact with each other and firmly
glued together.
Eggs of (23, 23A) Utetheisa bella (Linn.), bella moth, are shiny and
light pastel yellow. The chorion is transparent and without depressions or
reticulations. Eggs were deposited in small flat clusters of about 20 on
oak foliage or polyethylene. Eggs in each cluster were separate and not
glued together.
Eggs of (similar to 23, 23A) Haploa colona (Hbn.) closely resemble
those of Utetheisa bella (Linn.) except they are slightly larger, 0.7 mm.
by 0.6 mm.
Among the Notodontidae (24-40, 24A-40A) the circular eggs vary in
width from 0.8 mm. to 1.4 mm. In general their average size is larger
than the average size of eggs among the Amatidae or Arctiidae. Side
views, (24A to 40A) show variations from one-half spheres to others with
vertical elevations equal to the width of the egg. Some have flattened tops
(25A, 30A, and 37A) that may be slightly depressed (30A) or possess a
ring-like depression (26, 26A) near the top. The surface of the chorion
may be shiny or chalk-like. All species among the twelve genera figured
have chorions that possess tiny depressions with reticulations that are
usually hexagonal in shape. The color of the eggs among the species seen
varies from near white, cream white, yellowish green, green, light blue,
bluish-black to pitch black.
Eggs of one species only have been seen in each of the following genera,


PLATE IV.
Figure 31. Eggs about to hatch. Notodontidae, Heterocampa astarte
Dbldy.
Figure 32. Eggs on polyethylene, Notodontidae, Heterocampa cubana Grt.
Figure 33, 34. Eggs on polyethylene, Notodontidae, Heterocampa umbrata
Wlk. 33-small cluster, 34-greatly enlarged ova.
Figure 35. Egg on polyethylene, Notodontidae, Heterocampa manteo
Dbldy.
Figure 36. Eggs on polyethylene. Notodontidae, Heterocampa guttivitta
Wlk.
Figure 37. Eggs on polyethylene. Notodontidae, Schizura ipomoeae
Dbldy.
Figure 38. Eggs on polyethylene. Notodontidae, Gluphisia septentrionalis
Bdv.
Figure 39. Eggs on polyethylene. Notodontidae, Ichthyura albosigma
Fitch.
Figure 40. Two ova on polyethylene. Notodontidae, Cerura modest Hud.












JA


a BHHHBBB


~4
37n













Peterson: Some Eggs of Moths Among the Amatidae 179

Lophodonta, Datana, Nadata, Symmerista, Ellida, Pheosia, Dasylophia,
Schizura, Gluphisia, Ichthyura and Cerura while eggs of five species of
Heterocampa have been studied.
Eggs of (24, 24A) Lophodonata angulosa (A. and S.) are chalk-like
and cream white. The chorion is translucent and the entire surface is uni-
formly covered with very tiny, regular, hexagonal reticulations. Almost
all of these tiny areas, except those on the flat base and a small area near
the top center, show near white opaque dots at the six corners of each hex-
agonal reticulation. Eggs were deposited singly or in small clusters on
polyethylene to which they were lightly attached.
Eggs of (25, 26, 25A, 26A) Datana ranaeceps Guer. are chalk white with
a ring-like depression about the top near the margin and a depressed bluish
spot at the top center. The chorion is almost opaque white and shows faint
indications of tiny hexagonal reticulations covering the entire surface.
Eggs of one female were deposited on polyethylene in a single flat layer
of 350 or more ova. Each egg in the mass was in contact with one or sev-
eral ova and firmly glued to each other yet loosely attached to the poly-
ethylene.
Eggs of (27, 27A) Nadata gibbosa (A. and S.) are somewhat shiny and
near white with a yellowish or greenish tint. The chorion is nearly trans-
parent and completely covered with inconspicuous, tiny, mostly hexagonal
reticulations. Opaque dots are present about the margins of the hexagonal
reticulations. Eggs were deposited in small or large masses on paper
toweling and polyethylene. All eggs in a mass in contact with each other
were firmly glued together.
Eggs of (28, 28A) Symmerista albifrons (J. E. Smith), red-humped
oakworm, are smooth, shiny and light yellow. The chorion is transparent
and above its base covered with tiny, very inconspicuous, frequently hex-
agonal, dimple-like reticulations. The top of each egg is flattened slightly.
Eggs were deposited on polyethylene and paper toweling in fairly large
flat masses containing 30 to 50 ova. All eggs in a mass were in contact
with other ova and tightly sealed together; also they were tightly glued
to paper or cork.
Eggs of (29, 29A) Ellida caniplaga Wlk. are smooth, slightly shiny, and
light yellowish green. The chorion is transparent and above the base
possesses tiny, inconspicuous, nearly hexagonal reticulations that converge
toward a small clear, slightly elevated area at the top center. Eggs were
deposited on polyethylene in small flat clusters with the ova in each cluster
glued together and to the polyethylene.
Eggs of Phoesia rimosa Pack. are 1.3 mm x 0.7 mm., smooth, nearly
opaque white, and similar to (38A) in shape. The chorion is translucent
and densely covered with exceedingly small hexagonal reticulations. The
reticulations are smaller and more elongate near the tiny slightly depressed
spot at the top center. Adjacent to the substrate the chorion is clear and
free of reticulations. Eggs were deposited singly or in small clusters on
the polyethylene and not firmly attached.

PLATE V.
Side view shapes and sizes of the eggs shown on Plates 1 to 4.
Figures 1A to 4A Amatidae, figures 5A to 23A Arctiidae, figures 24A to
40A Notodontidae.

























o87 ,57mm. o7xo7mm. 0. mm.

IA- 2A. 3A.


4A.56 027 m


5 A. 6A. 7A. 8A,








08 0 0680M. x8 0.65mm. 0.78 x0 -0.7-m .oOSm

MA /OA. HIA. IZA.






0.7 0086 0, ox o.4 m o-8 x006 mm0.08 O 6 .



13 A. 14A. 15 A, 16 A.









00 mm 00.8 000,. OR x0.7mm. F.1 O.Sm.M

17-19A. ICA. 2 1A. 2.2 A.


0.6 x .450 8

2.3A,


24A.


28A. A.








3ZA. 3.54.


o.G7A.mm


"M.


08 A.4 mn.

358A


O00.85n- m o s -7A.











30A, 31 A.


35A.








37.000m,


.36A









40A












Peterson: Some Eggs of Moths Among the Amatidae 181

Eggs of (30, 30A) Dasylophia anguina A. and S. are smooth, shiny
and yellowish white. They take on a greenish tint when deposited on
foliage. The doughnut shaped chorion is transparent and completely cov-
ered with tiny inconspicuous, hexagonal reticulations including the part in
contact with the substrate and the slightly depressed flattened top. Some
fifty eggs were scattered singly over the polyethylene and lightly attached.
The eggs of the following five species of Heterocamnpa (31-36, 31A-36A)
are of considerable size and resemble each other in many respects except
for slight variations in size and shape.
Eggs of (31, 31A) Heterocampa astarte Dbldy. are smooth, shiny, and
light greenish yellow. The chorion is transparent and completely covered
with tiny, inconspicuous, hexagonal reticulations that are readily visible in
eggs about to hatch (31). Eggs were deposited singly and in small groups
on polyethylene and laurel oak foliage to which they were firmly attached.
Eggs of (32, 32A) Heterocampa cubana Grt. are smooth, somewhat
shiny, and a light grass green. The chorion is transparent and completely
covered with tiny hexagonal reticulations. Under high magnification fresh
ova or Kodachrome transparencies display papillae-like structures. These
occur on the embryonic tissue under the chorion. Eggs were deposited
singly or in small groups on the polyethylene.
Eggs of (33, 34, 33A-34A) Heterocampa umbrata Wlk. are smooth,
slightly shiny and light green. The chorion is transparent and completely
covered with tiny, inconspicuous, hexagonal reticulations. Under high
magnification, 90X, fresh ova appear to possess rounded papillae on their
surface. These are present on the embryonic tissue under the transparent
chorion. Eggs were deposited singly or in small flat clusters yet not in
contact with each other. They were lightly adhesive to polyethylene.
Eggs of (35, 35A) Heterocampa manteo Dbldy are smooth, shiny and
pearl-like with a greenish tint. The chorion is transparent and completely
covered with tiny inconspicuous hexagonal reticulations except for a small
circular clear area at the top center. The hexagonal areas are smaller and
most conspicuous near the top center. Eggs were deposited singly and
firmly attached to the polyethylene.
Eggs of (36, 36A) Heterocampa guttivitta Wlk. are smooth, slightly
shiny, and near white with a blueish tint, especially noticeable at the top
center. The chorion is translucent and almost completely covered with
tiny hexagonal reticulations except near the base where they are larger
and less conspicuous. Each hexagonal reticulation on the top portion of an
egg possesses tiny rounded dots at most of its corners. Eggs were deposited
in small clusters on oak foliage and on polyethylene and firmly attached.
Eggs of (37, 37A) Schizura ipomoeae Dbldy. are smooth, shiny and
a light yellowish green. The chorion is transparent and possesses incon-
spicuous tiny hexagonal reticulations on its surface above its base. These
reticulations are smaller yet more prominent adjacent to the clear flat area
at the top center. Eggs were deposited in small clusters of 20 to 30 on
the polyethylene. In some clusters the eggs were in contact with each
other, and in all cases they were firmly attached to the substrate.
Eggs of (38, 38A) Gluphisia septentrionalis Bdv. are smooth, shiny,
and almost colorless with a faint green tint. The chorion is transparent and
above its base possesses tiny inconspicuous irregular hexagonal reticula-
tions. Fresh ova and Kodachrome transparencies show many rounded












The Florida Entomologist


papillae, variable in size. These occur on the embryonic tissue below the
chorion. Eggs were deposited firmly on polyethylene, singly or in small
clusters of five to ten.
Eggs of (39, 39A) Ichthyura albosigma Fitch are smooth, somewhat
shiny and greenish white changing to a deep slate blue near the top center.
This is very noticeable previous to hatching. The chorion is transparent
and completely covered with tiny inconspicuous hexagonal reticulations.
Eggs were deposited firmly to polyethylene in a scattered manner, also
numerous scales adhered to the eggs as seen in the figure (39).
Eggs of (40, 40A) Cerura modest Hud. are opaque and near black. An
empty chorion is black above its base. The portion adjacent to the substrate
is brownish and translucent. The entire chorion appears to be covered
with tiny hexagonal reticulations. These are elongated and converge to-
ward the tiny micropyle ring near the top center. Reflected light on pre-
served specimens show a darker area about the top center. Some fifty eggs
were deposited quite firmly to the polyethylene in a scattered manner.

SUMMARY
The following statements about the eggs of the Amatidae, Arctiidae,
and Notodontidae are based on the information obtained from approximately
ten to twenty per cent of the species from each family known to occur in
the United States. Specimens came from five states, namely, Minnesota,
Michigan, Ohio, North Carolina or Florida. All eggs from the three fam-
ilies seen to date resemble each other in that they are circular when viewed
from above or from a point perpendicular to the substrate on which they
rest. Plate 5 shows their vertical shapes and sizes. 'These vary from
almost complete spheres to less than one-half spheres, or they may be
bluntly cone shaped. A few possess flattened tops with slight depressions
at the top center. The chorion in most species is transparent or translu-
cent and with or without numerous small depressions and reticulations.
Color changes in the developing embryo are visible among species possess-
ing transparent or translucent chorions. Significant differences usually
exist among most species, however, eggs from species belonging to a given
genus may resemble each other closely.

SOME PUBLICATIONS ON EGGS OF MOTHS BY ALVAH PETERSON
1923. The peach tree borer in New Jersey (eggs described and illustrated).
N. J. Agric. Expt. Sta. Bul. 391: 3-141.
1930. Life history of the oriental peach moth at Riverton, N. J., in rela-
tion to temperature (eggs described and illustrated). Co-author
G. J. Haeussler. U.S.D.A. Tech. Bul. 183: 1-37.
1960. Photographing eggs of insects. Fla. Ent. 43(1): 1-7.
1960. A leaf skeletonizer, Lobesia liriodendrana (Kearfoot), Olethreutidae
on Magnolia grandiflora in Florida (eggs described and illustrated).
Fla. Ent. 43(3): 105-114.
1961. Some types of eggs deposited by moths, Heterocera-Lepidoptera.
Fla. Ent. 44(3): 107-112.
1962. Some eggs of insects that change color during incubation. Fla. Ent.
45(2): 81-87.
1962. Some eggs of moths among the Geometridae-Lepidoptera. Fla. Ent.
45(3): 109-119.


182


Vol. 46, No. 2





ST


B







4


IA


1


f;L






















23r Js
"4-j


26,


4I~


27.1


* A


,m.



















433. _____________


35. -


a.m







i8n
5?ik


40.


mm















A NEW SOUTHEASTERN SPECIES OF BAETISCA
(EPHEMEROPTERA: BAETISCIDAE)1

ROBERT F. SCHNEIDER 2 AND LEWIS BERNER s

There are 11 species in the mayfly genus Baetisca presently known from
the United States and of these five have been reported as occurring in the
Southeast (Berner, 1955). We are presenting the description of another
new southeastern form and recording the occurrence of an additional one.
Although descriptions of new species of mayflies are normally based on
the adult, almost always the male, the nymphs of Baetisca are so diverse
that this stage provides an easier and more suitable form for differentiation
of species.
Baetiscac becki, new species
Baetisca becki is closely related to B. rogersi Berner but the nymphs
can easily be separated on the basis of a number of significant differences.
The male nymphs of becki are smaller than those of rogersi and in lateral
view have a distinctly different profile. The thorax of becki is more rounded
than that of rogersi and the lateral projections anterior to the large lateral
mesothoracic spines are weak and unlike the prominent ones of rogersi.
Further, the lateral mesothoracic spines of becki are long, smooth, and thin
while those of rogersi are much heavier and coarser with the margins more
strongly dentate. Additionally, becki lacks the prominent, blackish tu-
bercles found over the mesothorax of rogersi. The mid-dorsal abdominal
tubercles, prominent on rogersi, are much reduced in becki. Other points
of departure include the presence of prominent dorsal mesothoracic spines
in becki and a pattern of ventral spots that is quite different from that
of rogersi.
HOLOTYPE: Nymph (male). Body length 6.6 mm.; caudal filaments
2.0 mm.
Head: Frontal projections moderately well developed; genal projec-
tions prominent, flattened, and rounded, shelf-like. Entire head, except for
frontal shelf and eyes mottled with blackish spots.
Thorax: Lateral margins of thorax dentate, but much less so than in
B. rogersi; dentation more prominent at base of mesothoracic spines along
anterior edge. Lateral mesothoracic spines prominent, sharp-tipped. Lat-
eral margin of mesothorax with small expansion just posterior to anterior
edge, a second and much larger expansion in front of, and continuous with,
mesothoracic spine. A pair of prominent submedian tubercles present in
posterior third of mesonotum and on a line with the posterior edge of the
lateral spines. Surface of pro- and mesonota, except for lateral projections,
covered with blackish mottling. Ventrally with pattern of dark brown
spots as follows: large spot on pleurum at base of each leg; single spot on

1 This investigation was supported in part by a grant (No. RG-4058)
from the National Institutes of Health, U. S. Public Health Service, to
Berner.
2 Bureau of Sanitary Engineering, Florida State Board of Health, Pen-
sacola.
SDepartment of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville.
This species is named in honor of William M. Beck, Jr.












The Florida Entomologist


median line of prosternum; submedian spots on mesosternum near anterior
margin just anterior to leg base; metasternum with spots similar to those
of mesosternum and with a geminate median spot.
Legs: Metathoracic femora with a few spots arranged linearly; tibiae
with brown area at base. Claws of meso- and metathoracic legs subequal
to tibiae of those legs; claw of prothoracic leg approximately % length
of tibia.


Figures 1-2. Dorsal and profile views of half-grown nymph of Baetisca
rogersi for comparison with mature nymph of B. becki, Fig. 5.B
Figures 3-4. Dorsal and profile views of young nymph of B. callosa.

Drawings made by Mr. Paul Laessle, Staff Artist, Department of Bi-
ology, University of Florida.


184


Vol. 46, No. 2












Schneider: New Southeastern Species of Baetisca 185:

Abdomen: Lateral margins of segments 6-9 dentate; expanded and
produced posteriorly. Posterior margin of tergite 6 hirsute. Tergites 7-9
with heavy, brown, median line extending from anterior margin beyond
middle of tergite; laterally each of these segments heavily mottled with
dark brown. Postero-median elevation present on tergites 7-9, not kneeled
and strongly produced as in B. rogersi. Pattern of heavy brown spots on
venter. Caudal filaments pale.
Holotype: Nymph (male) preserved in alcohol. Florida, Escambia
County, Perdido River, May 5, 1961; collected by Robert F. Schneider. In
the University of Florida Collections.
Paratypes: 2 nymphs. One specimen in University of Florida Collec-
tions, the second in the Florida State Board of Health Collections. Florida,
Santa Rosa County, Sweetwater Creek, March 9, 1960; Robert F. Schneider,
collector.
Baetisca becki has been collected only in extreme northwestern Florida.
The two nymphs from Sweetwater Creek were taken from the sandy bottom
under six to ten inches of water. Since the initial collection, the creek has
been carefully examined six times, yet no other becki nymphs were col-
lected. The holotype nymph was found on a sand bar covered by a thin
layer of organic detritus.


Figures 5-6. Dorsal and profile views of B. becki.












The Florida Entomologist


A year later, May 3, 1962, 13 additional nymphs were collected from
the Perdido River and returned alive to the laboratory at Pensacola in an
attempt to rear them. Some lived as long as June 6, but none was able to
emerge. To date no adults have been reared nor is this stage known.
The two streams from which the nymphs were collected are very similar,
both being swiftly flowing, clear, shallow, and sandbottomed. The pH is
almost constant at 5.4 and dissolved oxygen remains near saturation
throughout the year. Water temperature was 13 C, during the March col-
lections in Sweetwater Creek and 17 to 19C. during the May collections in
the Perdido River.
Baetisca becki is quite similar to most of the known Baetisca species
in being an inhabitant of sandbottomed, swiftly-flowing streams.

Baetisca callosa Traver
A series of young nymphs, some half grown, are being referred to this
species. Comparison with photographs of the holotype and paratypes of
B. callosa show no differences which would justify describing these speci-
mens as a new species, although for some time one of us (Berner) consid-
ered them to be undescribed. Perhaps when mature nymphs from the type
locality in West Virginia and from the newly reported collecting area in
Mississippi are available, the validity of the assignment to callosa can be
ascertained.
Baetisca callosa, if correctly identified by all concerned, would have a
wide distribution. The type locality, a tributary of the Potamac River, is
in West Virginia. Traver (in Needham et al., 1935) further reports the
occurrence of the species in the northern part of New York state and Mc-
Dunnough (1932) records callosa from Kazubazua, Quebec.
The description of B. columbiana by Edmunds (1960) of a form closely
similar to B. callosa is of some interest as it shows that the thoracic con-
formation of the callosa type is more widespread than previously supposed.
Other known Baetisca species have much better development of the lateral
mesothoracic spines than callosa. The only other species in which there is
a deviation from the sharp-spined mesothorax is B. gibbera Berner in
which the processes are short and blunt.
Daggy (1941), in his discussion of B. laurentina, states (p. 241) "A
series of 31 immature naiads collected from the Churchill River, 20 miles
south of Churchill, Manitoba, August 5, 1937 (RHD), are tentatively placed
here. They do not have the dorsal and lateral spines developed more than
as rounded tubercles. In size they correspond to two B. callosa Traver par-
atypes kindly given the writer by Dr. Traver.
"From examination of immature naiads of B. laurentina and other
Baetisca species, it seems to the writers that callosa Traver merely repre-
sents a very young stage of some species probably already described-
perhaps carolina Traver. The particular species and the synonymy in-
volved will have to be worked out by careful hearings from the type locality
in West Virginia."
We do not agree with Dr. Daggy's suggestion that callosa is a young
stage of carolina. One of us (Berner) has collected B. carolina nymphs in
several stages of development and there is no suggestion that the thoracic
spines are not well developed in young nymphs. Further the spines of


186


Vol. 46, No. 2












Schneider: New Southeastern Species of Baetisca 187

young nymphs of B. rogersi are often better developed than in mature
specimens. The same observations have been made with respect to the
nymphs of B. obesa, and B. escambiensis.
Generally the streams from which our specimens were collected had a
moderate to swift flow, were 30-50 feet in width, and ranged in depth up to
several feet. Most had gravel beds interspersed with sand. B. callosa
nymphs were collected from among the pebbles where the water was swiftly
flowing and about one foot deep.
All specimens of callosa were recorded from Mississippi and all were
collected by Dr. C. Dennis Hynes. The sites are as follows: Monroe Co.,
2.6 miles east of the junction of Hwys. 8 and 278, July 24, 1954; Itawamba
Co., Bull Mountain Creek, Hwy. 25, July 24, 1954; Smith Co., Leaf River at
Hwy. 20, August 15, 1954; Covington Co., Leaf River at Hwy. 84, August
15, 1954; Lawrence Co., Silver Creek near Hwy. 84, August 15, 1954.

LITERATURE CITED
Berner, Lewis. 1955. The southeastern species of Baetisca (Ephemerop-
tera: Baetiscidae). Quart. Jour. Fla. Acad. ,Sci. 18(1): 1-19, 23
figs.
Daggy, Richard H. 1941. Taxonomic and biological investigations on Min-
nesota mayflies (Ephemeroptera). Ph.D. thesis, Univ. Minn. Li-
brary, St. Paul.
Edmunds, George F., Jr. 1960. The mayfly genus Baetisca in western
North America. Pan-Pacific Ent. 36 (2) : 102-104, 1 fig.
McDunnough, J. 1932. New species of North American Ephemeroptera
II. Canad. Ent. 64: 209-215, 1 fig.
Needham, James G., Jay R. Traver, and Yin-Chi Hsu. 1935. The biology
of mayflies. xvi + 759 p., 40 pls., 168 figs. Comstock Publishing
Co., Ithaca, N. Y.












188 The Florida, Entomologist Vol. 46, No. 2

NEWS OF NOTE

William L. Thompson ("Tommy"), a long-time member of the Florida
Entomological Society, was honored at the May commencement exercises
at the University of Florida when he was awarded the degree Doctor of
Science. The presentation and citation follow:

PRESENTATION
May 4, 1963
Mr. President:
I have the privilege and distinct personal pleasure of recommending
to you William Louden Thompson for the honorary degree of Doctor of
Science.
Known and beloved as "Tommy" to those in the Agricultural Experi-
ment Stations and by those in the Citrus Industry which he served so well,
thousands of Floridians are delighted by this opportunity to express our
respect and affection.
Mr. Thompson came from Pennsylvania, and received his formal train-
ing at the then Pennsylvania State College. He came to Florida in 1925,
on appointment to the State Plant Board. Returning briefly to Pennsyl-
vania in 1926, he again came to us in 1927, and completed 37 years of service
last June with the Agricultural Experiment Stations of the University. He
retired as Entomologist Emeritus.
Research is not complete until committed to paper. He has 141 scien-
tific articles to his credit as sole or senior author. Perhaps a better picture
of this man comes with the fact that, in addition to these, he co-authored
114 others. He is a scientist's scientist.
Along the way he has been honored. He received one of the "Best
Paper" awards of our Florida Horticultural Society and served as the
Society's President in 1960. Numerous honorary and professional societies
have honored him by electing him to membership.
Mr. President, I am most happy to present to you William Louden
Thompson for the honorary degree of Doctor of Science.
J. R. Beckenbach
Director, Agricultural Experiment Stations


THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
CITATION
WILLIAM LOUDEN THOMPSON, as a painstaking scientist you have
helped to make possible the important citrus industry of our great state.
Your distinguished research career is in the printed record. In the process,
you have endeared yourself to your co-workers and to the men of Industry
of your adopted state.
THEREFORE, as a token of our appreciation for your many contribu-
tions to our well-being and progress, and by the authority vested in me by
the Board of Control, I hereby confer upon you the degree, Doctor of
Science, together with all of the rights, privileges, and emoluments thereto
appertaining.
J. Wayne Reitz
President
May 4, 1963















DIGESTION OF JUNIPER POLLEN BY COLLEMBOLA

HAROLD GEORGE SCOTT AND CHESTER J. STOJANOVICH 1

Owing to the semi-transparent exoskeleton of Onychiurus pseudofime-
tarius Folsom (Collembola, Hypogastruridae), the intestinal food bolus is
visible in both living and preserved specimens. With cautious treatment,
it is possible to clear away much of the body musculature and expose the
intestinal contents to minute microscopic examination.
For this study, alcohol-preserved specimens of 0. pseudofimetarius were
cleared in beechwood cresote and mounted in Canada balsam. In specimens
cleared less than 36 hours, the exoskeleton is too opaque for precise exam-
ination of the bolus. In specimens cleared more than 72 hours the bolus
has been destroyed. In specimens cleared about 48 hours the bolus is clearly
visible, though shrunken from the intestinal wall.
To obtain suitable mounts, specimens were observed closely after 36
hours, and were mounted in balsam just before optimum clarity was
achieved to allow for additional clearing which occurred in the balsam.
Under the microscope, pollen grains of Juniperus pachyphloea were
observed intact and in various stages of digestion (Figure 1).
The spheroidal pollen grain of J. pachyphloea (about 20 microns in di-
ameter) consists of a thin tough outer coat (exine), two thick inner coats
(outer and inner intine), and the protoplast with vacuoles. Furrows, pores,
and bladders are absent (Wodehouse, 1935 and 1945; Brown and Yater,
1949).
According to Muller-Stoll (1948), the spictate exine is constructed of
complex carbohydrate, the stiff outer intine of pectin, the flexible inner in-
tine of cellulase and pectin, and the protoplast of lipid and protein (no
starch).
Observation of the pollen grains in the intestine of 0. pseudofimetarius
indicates that either (1) the digestive enzymes penetrated the exine at some
chemically susceptible point, or (2) the exine of each grain was burst by
the intine in response to moisture as described by Wodehouse (1945, p. 26).
Whichever occurred, the protoplast was attacked at the level of (or just
prior to) the cardiac valve. The inner intine was attacked in the mid-
intestine, approximately at the juncture of abdominal segments II and III.
The outer intine was attacked in the mid-intestine approximately at the
middle of abdominal segment III, while the exine was broken up just prior
to the pyloric valve.
Based upon these observations, it is probable that proteinase, lipase,
cellulase, pectinase, and an exinase were secreted at the points indicated
in the figure. These observations correlate in general with available knowl-.
edge on insect digestion (Day and Waterhouse, 1953; Folsom and Welles,
1906).

1Training Branch, Communicable Disease Center, Public Health Service,
U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Atlanta 22, Georgia.














The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 46, No. 2


INTACT POLLEN GRAIN
PROTOPLAST
INNER INTINE -.
OUTER INTINE.._
EXINE


CARDIAC VALVE----


EXINASE__


HIND INTESTINE---


PROTOPLAST DIGESTED


INNER INTINE DIGESTED







OUTER INTINE DIGESTED





EXINE DIGESTED


DIGESTION OF JUNIPER POLLEN BY COLLEMBOLA (DIAGRAMMATIC)


190












Scott: Digestion of Juniper Pollen by Collembola 191

LITERATURE CITED
Brown, G. T., and W. M. Yater. 1949. Pollen slide studies. Charles C.
Thomas-Publisher, Springfield, Illinois, xii + 122 pp.
Day, M. F., and D. F. Waterhouse. 1953. Structure and functions of the
alimentary system and the mechanism of digestion. (in: Insect
physiology, edited by K. D. Roeder.) John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New
York, xiv + 1100 pp.
Folsom, J .W., and M. U. Welles. 1906. Epithelial degeneration, regenera-
tion, and secretion in the mid-intestine of Collembola. Univ. Ill.
Bull. 4(6): 97-127, 9 p1s.
Muller-Stoll, W. R. 1948. Zytomorphogische Studien am Pollen von Taxus
baccata L. und anderen Koniferen. Planta 35(5/6) : 601-641.
Wodehouse, R. P. 1935. Pollen grains. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New
York, xv + 574 pp.
Wodehouse, R. P. 1945. Hayfever plants. Chronica Botanica Co., Wal-
tham, Mass., xx + 245 pp.










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A NEW FLORIDA MILLIPED GENUS OF
THE FAMILY PARAIULIDAE

H. F. LooMIS 1

Only two species of the milliped family Paraiulidae, which is well rep-
resented in the United States, have been reported from Florida, whence both
originally were described. The first species, Pseudoiulus obtectus Bollman,
was founded on a number of specimens but the remarks on the males indi-
cate that none was mature. The habitat was given as Bloomington, Indiana,
and Pensacola, Florida. Present knowledge of speciation in the family,
however, has forced the conclusion that two species were represented. The
holotype, suspected of having been deposited in the U. S. National Museum,
has not been found, but in the Chamberlin and Hoffman "Checklist of the
Millipeds of North America" a footnote states that Dr. N. B. Causey has
seen a mature male from Pensacola that validates Bollman's binomial
although the supporting facts still have not been published. The second
species, Ethoiulus bufonius Chamberlin, was based on "many specimens"
found in the stomach of a toad at Gainesville, and has not again been
reported.
Recently, the wife of the writer discovered several specimens in South
Central Florida that materially extend the range of the family southward
in the state and appear to represent a new genus and species, the generic
name here proposed being in allusion to the collector.

Gyniulus, new genus
Genotype: Gyniulus myakkensis, new species.
DIAGNOSIS: Apparently most closely related to Aniulus Chamberlin
but the principal differences are found in the males; the coxal joint of each
anterior gonopod being more widely expanded than in any other genus,
and the sternum of segment 8 raised into a high, transverse, ridge, conspicu-
ous in lateral view, the anterior face of the sternum concave, not at all
produced forward at middle. Also, of possible diagnostic value may be the
reduced second female legs which have submoniliform outer joints, the last
with a tiny claw.
DESCRIPTION: Body of small to intermediate size; males more slender
than females and with segments 6 and 7 noticeably swollen; mandibulary
stipes short and only a little concave along the lower margin. Segment 1
enlarged as usual.
Anterior gonopods with each coxa broad, extending laterad beyond the
apical joint a considerably distance, the outer limit angled; mesally the
coxa continued upward into a rather thin blade greatly exceeding the
apical joint, its faces paralleling the body axis. Posterior gonopods each
composed of two branches of same height and equalling apex of anterior
coxa, the seminal branch heavier and more curved than the posterior one
which ends in a slightly expanded, bifid tip directed cephalad. First male
legs enlarged as usual, joints 4 and 5 granular-tubercular on anterior face.

'Collaborator, U.S.D.A., ARS, Crops Research Division, Miami, Florida.












194 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 46, No. 2

Second legs much reduced in size but with coxae enlarged, laterally ex-
panded, disto-mesally produced into thin, parallel, continuous lobes reaching
forward between the first legs. Sternum of segment 8 raised into a high,
transverse ridge, somewhat caudally directed and easily seen in side view,
the anterior face of the ridge concave, the lower or inner portion of the
sternum channeled on each side to receive the basal portion of the accessory
blades of the posterior gonopods.
Females with first legs shorter but somewhat thicker than the third or
following ones. Second legs very small, the three outer joints of subequal
dimensions, submoniliform, the distal joint with a small but distinct,
sharply conic claw. Segment 2 with lower limits extending much below
those of segments 1 or 3.

Gyniulus myakkensis, new species.
Figures 1-5.
Holotype male, two male and three female paratypes collected under
Spanish moss and palmetto debris at campground near south entrance of
Myakka State Park, Florida, Oct. 26, 1962, by E. M. Loomis. All specimens
deposited in U. S. National Museum milliped collection.









5
















LEGENDS FOR FIGURES.
Gyniulus myakkensis, new species. Fig. 1. Left gonopods, lateral view.
Fig. 2. Left anterior gonopod, anterior view. Fig. 3. Legs 1 and 2, with
seminal processes of male, posterior view. Fig. 4. Side of segments 1, 2,
and mandibulary stipes of male. Fig. 5. First three segments, second legs,
and genitalia of female, lateral view. Male drawings from holotype.











Loomis: A New Florida Milliped Genus 195

DESCRIPTION: Largest male holotypee) 19 mm long, 1.4 mm wide, 49 seg-
ments; largest female 22 mm long, 1.7 mm wide, 47 segments; from above
segments 6 and 7 of males noticeably enlarged. Living color dark blackish-
brown above, sides lighter, mottled with whitish spots except for a con-
spicuous black area surrounding each pore.
Eyes composed of seven very definite rows of ocelli- 2 or 3, 4, 5, 6,
7, 8, 8 or 9, beginning near antenna. Dorsal surface of segments very finely
reticulated, shining, with longitudinal aciculations of variable length but
mostly quite long. Anterior and posterior subsegments slightly convex,
the posterior moreso; transverse sulcus strong across dorsum, bowed for-
ward on the side, near the pore, on anterior half of body but gradually
straightening thereafter. Repugnatorial pores distinct, surrounded by a
narrow rim and set in a distinct depression of the surface adjacent to the
sulcus on anterior segments but separated from it by twice the diameter of
pore and rim on posterior end of body. Last segment with apex acute, pro-
jecting straight back a short distance beyond anal valves.
Males with gonopods as shown in Figures 1 and 2. First and second
legs shown in Figure 3, the anterior face of joints 4 and 5 of the former
granular-tubercular. Mandibulary stipes and sides of segments 1 and 2
shown in Figure 4.
Females with side of segments 1-3, second legs, and genitalia shown in
Figure 5.
























































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A NEW GENUS AND TWELVE NEW SPECIES OF MITES
FROM MEXICO AND SOUTHEAST UNITED STATES
(ACARINA: BLATTISOCIDAE)1

DONALD DE LEON
Erwin, Tennessee

Most of the mites described in the following paper were collected from
decaying fruit or from under the bark of dead trees; in both habitats they
were associated with nematodes, acarids, oribatids, other mesostigmatids,
and a variety of insects in various stages of development. A few species
were taken from within the coralla of flowers. Although a considerable
amount of time was spent observing the mites in an effort to determine
their food, feeding was not observed.
In the descriptions all measurements are in microns. The letters ADS
and PDS stand for "anterior dorsal shield" and "posterior dorsal shield",
respectively as defined by Evans (1958); in the designation of setae the
lettering used by Hirschmann (1962) has been followed. Leg measurements
are from the base of the coxa to the pretarsal claws; tarsal lengths include
the pretarsi and the pretarsi all bear claws and pulvilli. All drawings are
of females unless otherwise indicated.
The species listed from Erwin, Tennessee, were collected some 14 miles
south of Erwin at an elevation of about 2700 feet; the native woody vegeta-
tion is composed chiefly of rhododendron, laurel, and mixed hardwoods with
a scattering of hemlock and white pine.

Proctolaelaps regalis, n. sp.
(Figures 1-2)
Proctolaelaps regalis belongs to the species group having the rostral
seta slender, the fixed digit with a row of closely-set teeth, and the dorsal
setae of moderate lengths; it is distinct from other members of this group
in not having seta il, i2, sl. The male is unknown.
FEMALE: Dorsal shield (Figure 1, left) 409 long, 270 wide; ADS with
19 pairs, PDS with 22 pairs of setae; seta rl 14, 11-4 26, Z1-4 29, Z5 51,
Sl 26, S2 28, S3 24, S4 27, S5 19 long. Tectum not observable. Principal
shields of ventral surface (Figure 1, right) with prominent reticulations;
anal shield 88 long, 64 wide. Rostrum (Figure 2) with seta Cl 26, C2 19,
C3 36 long. Chelicerae with fixed digit 32 long and with a row of about 15
small teeth, movable digit poorly oriented, but with at least 2 fairly large
teeth. Legs rather stout; leg I 326, II 289, III 284, IV 376 long; tarsus
IV 136 long, without macrosetae. Spermatheca not observable.
Holotype: Female, Coral Gables, Florida, June 5, 1956 (D. De Leon),
from fallen fruit of Eugenia jambos.

Proctolaelaps neptunis, n. sp.
(Figures 3-5)
Proctolaelaps neptunis belongs to the species group having the anterior

1 Cost of engraving borne by a grant from the Pinellas Foundation, Inc.,
St. Petersburg, Florida.












The Florida Entomologist


rostral seta coarse and stout; it differs from the one other species in the
group, P. hypudaei (Oud.), in having the corniculus tridentate, the ADS
with 21 pairs of setae, and in other characters.
FEMALE: Dorsal shield (Figure 3, left) moderately sclerotized, reticu-
late only anterolaterally, 336 long, 220 wide and the ADS with 21 pairs of
seta, the PDS with 20 pairs of setae; rl 15, r5 33, il 23, II 29, 12 32, 13 34,
14 43, 15 8, Z1 31, Z2 27, Z3 29, Z4 31, Z5 55, S5 26 long. Tectum not ob-
servable. Principal shields of ventral surface (Figure 3, right) normal;
sternal shield faintly reticulated anteriorly; anal shield 85 long, 74 wide.
Rostrum (Figure 3A) with seta C1 25, C2 15, C3 21 long. Chelicerae
(Figure 4) with fixed digit 17 long. Legs rather stout; leg I 400, II 285,
III 279, IV 431; tarsus IV 162 long, metatarsus with a macroseta 60 long,
tarsus proper with a macroseta 86 long.
MALE: Dorsal shield 239-253 long, 178 wide. Ventrianal shield with
5 pairs of preanals. Corniculus somewhat more slender and more strongly
curved than female's, the tip bifid in 1 specimen and apparently simple in
others, rostral setae resemble female's. Spermatodactyl (Figure 5) 27
long.
Holotype: Female, Key Largo, Florida, January 6, 1959 (D. De Leon),
from seaweed on shore slightly above average tide level. Paratypes:
2 females, 2 males collected with holotype.

Proctolaelaps lobatus, n. sp.
(Figures 6-10)
Proctolaelaps lobatus belongs to the species group having the anterior
rostral seta slender, the fixed digit with a row of closely-set teeth, and the
setae of the dorsal shield short; it differs from all others in this group in
having 21 pairs of setae on the ADS and 20 pairs of setae on the PDS.
FEMALE: Body whitish to light brown; dorsal shield (Figure 6, left)
456-529 long, 301 wide; seta il 20, rl 17, sl 22, Il 15, Z1 16, Z5 38-42, S5 16
long; interscutal scapular seta 26 long. Tectum not observable. Principal
shields of ventral surface (Figure 6, right) without reticulations; anal
shield 95 long, 90 wide. Rostrum (Figure 7) with seta C1 33, C2 22, and
C3 48 long. Chelicerae (Figure 8) with fixed digit 28 long; tip of movable
digit closes at a point well short of tip of fixed digit (the point indicated by
arrow in drawing). Legs rather slender; leg I 443, II 334, III 361, IV 478
long; tarsus IV 171 long and without macrosetae. Spermatheca and duct
(Figure 9) about 150 long.


Figures 1-2.-Proctolaelaps regalis, n. sp. 1, dorsum (left) and venter
(right); 2, rostrum.
Figures 3-5.-Proctolaelaps neptunis, n. sp. 3, dorsum (left) and venter
(right); 3A, rostrum; 4, chelicerae; 5, spermatodactyl.
Figures 6-10.-Proctolaelaps lobatus, n. sp. 6, dorsum (left) and venter
(right); 7, rostrum; 8, chelicerae; 9, spermatheca; 10, male ventrianal
shield.
Figures 11-16.-Proctolaelaps micropilis, n. sp. 11, dorsum (left) and ven-
ter (right); 12, tectum; 13, rostrum; 14, chelicerae; 15, spermatheca;
16, spermatodactyl.
Figures 17-19.-Proctolaelaps brevicomis, n. sp. 17, dorsum (left) and ven-
ter (right); 18, rostrum; 19, chelicerae.


Vol. 46, No. 2


































































T












The Florida Entomologist


MALE: Dorsal shield 399 long, 289 wide with chaetotaxy as for female.
Ventrianal shield (Figure 10) 159 long, 253 wide. Spermatodactyl 130 long,
similar in shape to that of P. micropilis. Legs unarmed.
Holotype: Female, Key Largo, Fla., December 8, 1958 (D. De Leon),
in flower of Lantana involucrata. Paratypes: 1 female, collected with
holotype; 1 female, 3 males, Coral Gables, Fla., May 25, 1956 in flower
tube of L. camera.

Proctolaelaps micropilis, n. sp.
(Figures 11-16)
Proctolaelaps micropilis belongs to the species group having the rostral
seta slender, the fixed digit with a row of closely-set teeth, and the ADS
and PDS each with 22 pairs of setae. The minute setae of the dorsum dis-
tinguish it from other members of this group.
FEMALE: Dorsal shield (Figure 11, left) weakly sclerotized, 473 long,
322 wide; seta il 25-30, rl 11, 15 10, Z5 30 long, all other setae 12-16 long.
Principal shields of ventral surface (Figure 11, right) normal; anal shield
84-94 long, 81 wide. Rostrum (Figure 13) with seta Cl 33, C2 22, C3 39
long. Chelicerae (Figure 14) with fixed digit 32 long. Legs rather slender;
leg I 399, II 329, III 343, IV 461 long; tarsus IV 163 long and without macro-
setae. Spermatheca (Figure 15) with duct 85 long.
MALE: Dorsal shield 417 long, 299 wide with chaetotaxy as for female.
Ventrianal shield reticulated, 181 long, 199 wide with 7 pairs of preanal
setae. Spermatodactyl (Figure 16) about 145 long.
Holotype: Female, Coral Gables, Florida, November 24, 1954 (D. De
Leon), from withered flower of Eriobotrya japonica. Paratypes: 1 female,
South Miami, Fla., October 14, 1954; 3 female, 1 male, 2 nymphs collected
with holotype. Usually 1 female and 2 to 3 nymphs along with 2 to 3
eggs were present in a single flower.

Proctolaelaps brevicomis, n. sp.
(Figures 17-19)
Proctolaelaps brevicomis belongs to the species group having the rostral
seta slender, the fixed digit with a row of closely-set teeth, and the ADS
and PDS each with 22 pairs of setae. It resembles P. micropilis in general
appearance, but differs most noticeably from that species in having some
setae of the dorsal shield much longer than others and seta z2 larger and
coarser than the other setae on the ADS. The male and immature stages
are unknown.
FEMALE: Dorsal shield (Figure 17, left) lightly sclerotized and without
reticulations, 393 long 210 wide; rl 14, sl 8, il 19, z2 23, Il 19, 12 17,
13 28, 14 24, 15 13, Z1 17, Z2 19, Z3 24, Z4 33, Z5 58, S5 28 long. Tectum
not observable. Principal shields of ventral surface (Figure 17, right)
normal; anal shield 89 long, 69 wide. Rostrum (Figure 18) with seta C1
22, C2 17, C3 22 long. Chelicerae (Figure 19) with fixed digit 21 long.
Legs rather short and stubby; leg I 326, II 237, III 252, IV 339 long; tarsus
IV 99 long, without macrosetae. Spermatheca not observable.
Holotype: Female, Florida City, Fla., March 7, 1959 (D. De Leon),
from leaf of Sabal palmetto.


200


Vol. 46, No. 2












De Leon: New Genus and New Species of Mites 201

Neojordensia tennesseensis, n. sp.
(Figures 20-23)
Neojordensia tennesseensis appears to be closely related to N. lawrencei
Evans; it differs most noticeably from that species in having proportion-
ally shorter setae on the dorsal shield, the ventrianal shield longer than
wide, and five pairs of interscutal setae. Hirschmann (1962) suppresses
Neojordensia Evans placing it under Iphidozercon Berlese, but Neojordensia
seems to me to warrant its having generic status.
FEMALE: Body dark brown, dorsal shield (Figure 20, left) smooth and
shining with only the anterior and posterior ends reticulated, the ADS with
23, the PDS with 20 pairs of setae; seta il 19, 11 11, 12 11, 13 11, 14 15,
ZI 14, Z2 14, Z3 15, Z4 25, Z5 40 long. The tectum is shown in Figure 21.
Principal shields of ventral surface (Figure 20, right) with sternal shield
prominently reticulated; peritrematal shield fused with exopodal shield in
region of coxa IV. Rostrum (Figure 22) with seta Cl 22, C2 14, C3 23
long. Chelicerae (Figure 23) with fixed digit 30 long. Legs rather slender
and short; leg I 324, II 232, III 235, IV 325 long; tarsus IV 109 long, with-
out macrosetae. Spermatheca not observable.
Holotype: Female, Erwin, Tennessee, October 10, 1961 (D. De Leon),
from punky hardwood log.

Orolaelaps, n. gen.
Melicharine mites resembling Lasioseius in chaetotaxy of dorsal shield,
but chelicerae resembling those of Proctolaelaps. Seta II, 3, and 4 and S5
missing from PDS. Dorsal shield entire. Sternal shield with v1 very
coarse and spine-like, v2 very coarse with distal end obliquely faced, v3
slender; a yoke-shaped thickening (indicated by dotted lines in Figure 24)
extends internally across shield between vi and v2. All legs with pulvilli
and claws. The male and immature stages are not known.
Type species: Orolaelaps quisqualis, n. sp.

Orolaelaps quisqualis, n. sp.
(Figures 24-27)
FEMALE: Dorsal shield (Figure 24, left) light brown, moderately
sclerotized with entire surface reticulated, 316 long, 191 wide; ADS with 20,
PDS with 11 pairs of setae; seta il 10, rl 26, 12 36, 15 4, Z1 32, Z2 28,
Z3 36, Z4 41, Z5 44, S1 35, S2 36-47, S3 37, S4 42 long. Tectum with an-
terior margin somewhat variable as shown in Figure 25. Principal ven-
tral shields (Figure 24, right) with prominent reticulations; sternal shield
with v1 24 long, 4 wide, v2 17 long, 5 wide, posterior medial part of shield
without reticulations; anal shield 60 long, 49 wide. Rostrum (Figure 26)
with seta Cl 8, C2 6, C3 15 long. Chelicerae (Figure 27) with fixed digit
16 long, apparently without pilus dentilis. Legs short and stout; leg I 282,
II 228, III 223, IV 292 long; tarsus IV 104 long, without macrosetae; setae
of legs rather long and slender. Spermatheca not observable.
Holotype: Female, Erwin, Tennessee, October 2, 1960 (D. De Leon),
from apple decaying on ground. Paratypes: 5 females, Erwin, Tenn., Au-
gust 27-September 12, 1962, from apples decaying on ground.












202 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 46, No. 2

Lasioseius spectabilis, n. sp.
(Figures 28-32)
The female of Lasioseius spectabilis closely resembles L. muricatus
(C. L. Koch) especially in having juglaria, but it clearly differs from that
species in being much smaller, in having the dorsal shield setae flanged and
the metapodalia fused with each other; the male differs most noticeably in
being more heavily armed and in lacking the bifid elevation on the ventri-
anal shield; the larva also differs from the illustration given for muricatus
by Hirschmann (1962).
FEMALE: Dorsal shield (Figure 28, left) 434-470 long, 266-302 wide,
the ADS with 23, the PDS with 15 pairs of setae; il 24, rl 12, I1 32, 14 42,
Z1 31-37, Z4 56, Z5 60, S1 31-42, S5 53 long. Tectum not observable. Prin-
cipal shields of ventral surface are shown in Figure 28, right; ventrianal
shield 182-200 long, 237-276 wide with 6 pairs of preanal setae. Rostrum
(Figure 29) with seta C1 30, C2 17, C3 33 long. Peritrematal shield not
fused with exopodal in region of coxa IV. Chelicerae (Figure 30) with
fixed digit 26 long and with 5 to 6 large teeth proximally. Leg I slender,
363-398 long; tarsus I 118 long; legs II-IV stout; leg II 281-320, III 281-
320, IV 440 long; tarsus IV 156 long; metatarsus with a macroseta 45 long,
tarsus proper with a macroseta 42 long, both setae tapering to a rather
coarse point. Spermatheca (Figure 31) with cervix 11 long, situated be-
tween coxae III and IV.
MALE: Dorsal shield 395 long, 256 wide; chaetotaxy as for female; a
lobe present anterior of r2 with its inner edge bearing a narrow, sclerotized,
crescent-shaped body about 27 across. Leg I slender; femur I with a conical
basal spur 18 long on posterior margin, a short, simple seta projects from
the spur at about mid-length; leg II stout, femur II with a posterodistal
knob from which a coarse seta projects, both together about 30 long; leg
III stout, femur III with a spur about 18 long situated at about mid-length
on anterior margin; leg IV greatly enlarged, femur IV 100 long, 81 wide;
genu IV 88 long, 72 wide; coxa IV with a very large, conical spur about
110 long with a nearly right-angle bend about 35 from tip (in one specimen
this spur is shorter and lacks bend); femur IV with a spur about 35 long on
posterior margin; tarsus IV with 2 small rounded knobs at about mid-
length, the proximal knob the smaller; a coarse macroseta 56 long set on a
short tubercle is situated dorsal of larger knob; macroseta of metatarsus
63 long and tapering to a slender point. Spermatodactyl (Figure 32)
23 long.


Figures 20-23.-Neojordensia tennesseensis, n. sp. 20, dorsum (left) and
venter (right); 21, tectum; 22, rostrum; 23, chelicerae.
Figures 24-27.-Orolaelaps quisqualis, n. gen., n. sp. 24, dorsum (right)
and venter (left); 25, tectum showing variation; 26, rostrum; 27, cheli-
cerae.
Figures 28-32.--Lasioseius spectabilis, n. sp. 28, dorsum (left) and venter
(right); 28A, dorsum (left) and venter (right) of larva; 29, rostrum;
30, chelicerae; 31, spermatheca; 32, spermatodactyl.
Figures 33-35.-Lasioseius epicriodopsis, n. sp. 33, dorsum (left) and ven-
ter (right); 34, rostrum; 35, spermatodactyl.
Figures 36-38.-Lasioseius porulosus, n. sp. 36, dorsum (left) and venter
(right); 37, rostrum; 38, chelicerae.


__ __










De Leon: New Genus and New Species of Mites 203


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204 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 46, No. 2

LARVA: The chaetotaxy of the dorsum of the body and the posterior
ventral part is shown in Figure 28A.
Holotype: Female, Erwin, Tenn., September 19, 1962 (D. De Leon),
in association with fruiting body of fungus, Peniphora gigantea, on log of
Pinus strobus. Paratypes: 2 females, 2 males, 2 nymphs, 1 larva, col-
lected with holotype; 1 male, 1 nymph from under bark of dead Liriodendron
tulipifera, October 2, 1962.

Lasioseius epicriodopsis, n. sp.
(Figures 33-35)

Lasioseius epicriodopsis is distinct from all other members of this
genus in having the ADS with rows of small tubercles and macrosetae on
genu, tibia, and tarsus of leg IV.
FEMALE: Dorsal shield (Figure 33, left) 500 long, 316 wide, the ADS
with 22, the PDS with 15 pairs of setae; il 37, rl 18, r5 60, II 37, Z1 36,
Z4 49, Z5 60, S1 36, S5 38 long. Tectum trilobed. The principal shields of
the ventral surface are shown in Figure 33, right; ventrianal shield 166
long, 235-261 wide; sternal, genital, and ventrianal shields covered with
what appear to be small pits. Rostrum (Figure 34) with seta C1 32,
C2 22, C3 43 long. Chelicerae with fixed digit 40 long, with a row of 16
small, rounded teeth, movable digit with a row of 8 rounded knobs. Leg I
slender, 525, II 407, III 382, IV 656 long; tarsus IV 224-247 long; genu IV
with 2 macrosetae, the proximal 46, the distal 38 long, the tips blunt; tibia
IV with a blunt-tipped macroseta 43 long; metatarsus IV with a blunt-tipped
macroseta 49 long and a bulbous-tipped macroseta 96 long, tarsus proper
with a bulbous-tipped macroseta 91 long, situated at about mid-length.
Spermatheca not observable.
MALE: Dorsal shield 383 long, 230 wide, rather abruptly narrowed be-
ginning at a point about on level with posterior margins of coxae IV;
chaetotaxy resembling that of female, but most setae simple. Legs un-
armed except for a spine, 8 long, on a small tubercle on rear margin of
femur II. Spermatodactyl (Figure 35) 28 long.
Holotype: Female, Erwin, Tenn., September 11, 1962 (D. De Leon),
from under the bark of a Liriodendron tulipifera log. Paratypes: 4 fe-
males, 1 male, collected with holotype.

Lasioseius porulosus, n. sp.
(Figures 36-38)

Lasioseius porulosus resembles L. quadrisetosus Chant; it differs most
noticeably from that species in having most of the setae of the dorsal shield
simple, the sternal shield about as wide as long, the ventrianal shield much
longer than wide, and in the position of the pores of that shield.
FEMALE: Dorsal shield (Figure 36, left) 405 long, 220 wide, lightly
sclerotized with reticulations rather faint; ADS with 16, PDS with 15 pairs
of setae; il 26, rl 17, r5 37 (r2-4 not present), II 23, Zi 27, Z4 63, Z5 69,
S5 32 long. Tectum not observable. The principal shields of the ventral
surface are shown in Figure 36, right; ventrianal shield 155 long, 141 wide;
peritrematal shield fused with exopodal in region of coxa IV, the exopodal
shield forming a short, rather wide, bluntly pointed hook behind coxa IV.












De Leon: New Genus and New Species of Mites 205

Rostrum (Figure 37) with seta C1 23, C2 14, C3 18 long. Chelicerae (Figure
38) with fixed digit 28 long. Legs slender; leg I 398, II 337, III 308, IV
460 long; tarsus IV 163 long, macroseta of metatarsus 43, of tarsus proper
49 long. Spermatheca not observable.
Holotype: Female, Erwin, Tenn., June 11, 1960 (D. De Leon), on Leu-
cothoJ Catesbaei. Paratype: 1 female, Erwin, Tenn., August 3, 1960, on
nettle.
Lasioseius athiashenriotae, n. sp.
(Figures 39-41)
Lasioseius athiashenriotae appears to be allied to L. humberti A.-H.;
it differs most noticeably from that species in having most of the setae of
the dorsal shield strongly pectinate, rl missing, fewer interscutal setae
lateral of the dorsal shield, and the metapodalia fused.
FEMALE: Dorsal shield (Figure 39, left) 443 long, 260 wide; ADS with
19-21 pairs of setae (r6 is on the shield in some specimens and off the
shield in others on one or both sides; the same applies to r7 which is shown
off the shield in the drawing), sl in some specimens is almost in the po-
sition where rl would be if present; PDS with 15 pairs of setae; il 24,
r5 43, II 26, Z1 29, Z4 48-58, Z5 65-74, Sl 35, S5 52 long; 5-7 interscutal
setae lateral of dorsal shield. Tectum not observable. The principal shields
of the ventral surface are shown in Figure 39, right; ventrianal shield 159
long, 163 wide; accessory metapodal fused to primary, together 27-38 long;
peritrematal shield fused with exopodal in region of coxa IV. Rostrum
(Figure 40) with seta C1 26, C2 17, C3 23 long. Fixed digit 24 long with
a row of about 12 small teeth, pilus dentilis very small. Legs slender;
leg I 346, II 301, III 289, IV 391 long; tarsus IV 150 long, macroseta of











^. 40 44






S\ 42
3,9 41
Figures 39-41.-Lasioseius athiashenriotae, n. sp. 39, dorsum (left) and
venter (right); 40, rostrum; 41, spermatodactyl.
Figures 42-45.-Lasioseius mumai, n. sp. 42, dorsum (left) and venter
(right); 43, tectum; 44, rostrum; 45, chelicerae.












The Florida Entomologist


metatarsus 32-42 long, serrate, macroseta of tarsus proper 33-36 long,
weakly serrate. Spermatheca not observable.
MALE: Dorsal shield 335 long, 195 wide with chaetotaxy as for female;
ventrianal shield 126 long, 179 wide with 5 pairs of preanal setae. Sperma-
todactyl (Figure 41) 27 long.
Holotype: Female, Boutte, Louisiana, December 15, 1956 (D. De Leon),
on Lonicera sp. Paratypes: 2 females, Cordoba, Vera., Feb. 4 and 5, 1957,
on Erythrina sp. and Xanthoxylon sp.; 1 male, 1 female Florida City, Fla.,
Mar. 7, 1959, on herbaceous plant. Additional specimens were collected
on Pithecollobium near Veracruz, Vera; specimens are also at hand from
Winter Park, Fla., collected by M. H. Muma and recorded as feeding on
white fly fungus on orange plant. The mite is named in honor of Mme.
C. Athias-Henriot, Acarologist, Ecole Nationale d'Agriculture d'Alger.

Lasioseius mumai, n. sp.
(Figures 42-45)
Lasioseius mumai appears to be allied to L. athiashenriotae, but differs
most noticeably from that species in having 22 pairs of setae on the ADS,
12 pairs of setae lateral of the dorsal shield, and two pairs of metapodal
shields.
FEMALE: Dorsal shield (Figure 42, left) brown, 534 long, 300 wide with
37 pairs of setae; reticulation prominent; posterior of Z4 shield punctate;
il 28, rl 13, r5 54, Il 29, Z1 34, Z4 56, Z5 59, S1 40, S4 57, S5 60 long.
Tectum (Figure 43) without lobes. The principal shields of the ventral
surface are shown in Figure 42, right and are punctate as indicated; ventri-
anal shield 190 long, 233 wide; peritrematal shield fused with exopodal in
region of coxa IV. Rostrum (Figure 44) with seta C1 35, C2 20, C3 38
long. Chelicerae (Figure 45) with fixed digit 34 long. Legs rather stout;
leg I 470, II 389, III 385, IV 548 long; tarsus IV 184 long, macroseta of
metatarsus 47 long, of tarsus proper 43 long. Setae of legs and dorsal
shield set on small tubercles. Spermatheca not observable.
Holotype: Female, Erwin, Tennessee, September 21, 1962 (D. De Leon),
from fungus on Magnolia log. The species is named in honor of Dr. Martin
H. Muma, Entomologist, Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, Florida.
Types and paratypes of the above-named species are in the author's
collection. The Canadian National Museum, however, has received speci-
mens of Orolaelaps quisqualis, Lasioseius athiashenriotae, L. spectabilis,
and L. epicriodopsis.

NEW LOCALITY RECORDS FOR SOME DESCRIBED SPECIES:
Proctolaelaps
curtipilis (Chant).-East of Perrine, Florida, female and nymphs from
Kafir corn, Sept., 1956.
hypudaei (Oud.).-South Miami, Fla., female from Aeschynanthus Lob-
bians, May, 1955; Erwin, Tenn., female from Kalmia latifolia. Aug.,
1960.
utahensis (Chant).-Erwin, Tenn., males, females, and nymphs from de-
caying apples and from under the bark of log of Liriodendron tulipi-
fera.


206


Vol. 46, No. 2












De Leon: New Genus and New Species of Mites 207

Melichares
dentriticus (Berl.).-South Miami, Fla., female from grapefruit twig,
Oct., 1954; Erwin, Tenn., females from Rhododendron sp. and Blephia
ciliata, Aug., 1960 and from decaying apples, Nov., 1962.
Neojordensia
orientalis Chant.-South Miami, Fla., female from Sanpaulia sp., Sept.,
1954.
Lasioseius
arboreus Chant.-Erwin, Tenn., males, females, and immature stages
from strawberry plants, haypile, decaying apples, and from under
dead bark of oak, birch, and willow, Sept., Oct., 1961, 1962.
confusus Evans.-Erwin, Tenn., female from decaying apple, Aug., 1962.
ometes (Oud.).-Erwin, Tenn., males and females from under bark of
logs of Quercus sp., Liriodendron tulipifera and Pinus strobus, Sept.,
1962.
phytoseioides Chant.-Coral Gables, Fla., from floor sweepings of old
house, July, 1955.
scapulatus Kennett.-Veracruz, Vera., female from Sida acuta, Dec.,
1956.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Dr. Evert E. Lindquist, Entomologist, Research Branch, Canada Depart-
ment of Agriculture, who is preparing a paper on this family, obligingly
went over the species described here; his work prevented duplication in
several instances. Mr. G. Owen Evans of the British Museum (Natural
History) kindly verified the identification of L. ometes.

LITERATURE CITED
Athias-Henriot, C. 1959. Phytoseiidae et Aceosejidae d'Algerie. III. Con-
tribution aux Aceosejidae. Bull. Soc. d'Hist. Nat. d'Afr. du Nord.
50 (Mai/Juin): 158-195.
Chant, D. A. 1960. Descriptions of five new species of mites from India
(Acarina: Phytoseiidae, Aceosejidae). Canad. Ent. 92: 58-65.
Evans, G. 0. 1958. A revision of the British Aceosejinae (Acarina:
Mesostigmata). Zool. Soc. London., Proc. 131 (Part 2): 177-229.
Hirsehmann, W. 1962. Acarologie-Gangsystematik der Parasitenformes.
Gamasiden. Folge 5, Teil 5: 1-56, pls. 1-21, 31, 32. Hirschmann-
Verlag., Fiirth/Bay.












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SOME NEW POMPILID PREY RECORDS FROM SOUTHERN
FLORIDA (HYMENOPTERA: POMPILIDAE)

FRANK E. KURCZEWSKI 1

This paper, a continuation of previous studies (Kurczewski, 1961 and
1962) on the prey and prey transportation of spider wasps of eastern United
States, presents several new host relationships made in June and July,
1962, in Highlands and DeSoto Counties, Florida. The prey records for
Cryptocheilus i. idoneum Banks and Anoplius (Arachnophroctonus) ameri-
canus trifasciatus (Beauvois) are the first for these subspecies in North
America. Ageniella (Ageniella) partita Banks using prey without having
amputated any of its legs is of interest. Priocnemis (Priocnemis) cornica
(Say) and Episyron posters (Fox) have not been studied biologically in
Florida and new prey records for these species are included.
As with previous prey, spiders are filed with the number in parenthesis
following the specific determination2; these specimens have been deposited
in the American Museum of Natural History. I am grateful to Wilton Ivie
for identifying the prey spiders, to Richard Archbold for providing the re-
search facilities of the Archbold Biological Station, Lake Placid, Florida,
and to Dr. William T. Keeton for reading the manuscript critically. Funds,
in part, for this study were provided by a Sigma Xi RESA Grant-in-Aid of
Research.
SUBFAMILY PEPSINAE
Cryptocheilus idoneum idoneum Banks. (Arcadia, Florida; July 2,
1962; 1135 hours). A female of this large, all black pompilid, 18.5 mm.
long, was seen in a sloping area adjacent to the Peace River on white sand
amidst decumbent vegetation dragging an 18.5 mm. long, immature female
Lycosa impavida Walckenaer (Lycosidae) (P 43) slowly backwards. The
wasp held the spider in its mandibles by a fore leg, dorsum up, and pro-
ceeded with it haltingly. At intervals, the spider became entangled in the
vegetation at which time the wasp let loose its hold and walked circuitously
around the prey, flicking its wings nervously. During one of these inter-
ruptions I collected both the wasp and its prey. A few meters up the slope
from the area of collection, where the sand became flat, was a circular
hole 1.3 cm. in diameter which went straight down to a depth of 18 cm.
It appeared that the wasp had attacked the spider at the mouth of this
burrow.
The transport of prey wherein the spider is grasped in the wasp's man-
dibles by an anterior portion of its body and dragged backwards on the
ground seems to be the rule in Cryptocheilus and the closely related genus
Priocnemioides. Evans (1959) observed a Cryptocheilus idoneum birkmanni

1Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
2 Each wasp and its spider prey are given an association number so that
in the future these specimens can be located readily in case of revisionary
studies either on the wasps or on their prey. The latter are then placed
with their number, the numbers after the past summer ranging from P 1
to P 97 consecutively, in some well known museum in order to facilitate
their finding in case other scientists working in this field should want to
refer to these specimens.












The Florida Entomologist


Banks dragging backwards a Lycosa tigana Gertsch and Wallace, holding
it by the anterior end, probably by the chelicerae. Janvier (1930) found
a species of Priocnemioides dragging backwards a Lycosa grasped in the
wasp's mandibles by an anterior leg.
Priocnemis (Priocnemis) cornica (Say). (Arcadia, Florida; June 30,
1962; 1030 hours). A relatively large female of P. cornica, 8 mm. long,
was noted stinging a 5.5 mm. long, immature Sosippus floridanus Simon
(Lycosidae) (P 41) on flat sand containing sparse, upright vegetation above
and adjacent to the Peace River. The wasp straddled its prey which was
dorsum up, curved its abdomen underneath and upward until its apex
touched the ventral side of the spider's cephalothorax. The sting was
inserted somewhere in the vicinity of the bases of the first or second pair
of legs. As I placed a net over the pair, the wasp flew upward into it
and the spider, not yet fully paralyzed, staggered wobbly across the sand
surface.
Ageniella (Ageniella) partita Banks. (Archbold Biological Station,
Lake Placid, Florida; July 14, 1962; 0927 hours). A 6.5 mm. long female
A. partita was seen running rapidly forward over a sandy car trail along
which dense saw-palmetto was growing. She held a 5.5 mm. long, imma-
ture male Gnaphosa sericata (L. Koch) (Gnaphosidae) (P 45) underneath,
dorsum up, head forward, grasping the spider in her mandibles by either a
chelicera or one of the pedipalps. After being taken from the wasp, the
spider showed only slight paralysis, moving its appendages, especially the
legs, considerably. It is noteworthy that none of the spider's legs were
amputated; most species of Ageniella, including partita, usually cut off
some or all of their prey's legs. This probably facilitates the unique for-
ward method of prey transport of this genus.
Evans and Yoshimoto (1962) observed this species in Florida straddling
a Gnaphosa sericata venter up, grasping it by the anterior end and trans-
porting it forward over the ground; all of the spider's legs had been ampu-
tated. Townes (1957) recorded A. partita taking as prey Arctosa littoralis
(Hentz) (Lycosidae) and Zelotes sp. (Gnaphosidae).

SUBFAMILY POMPILINAE
Episyron posters (Fox). (Lake Annie, Highlands County, Florida;
June 29, 1962; 1140 hours). A 7 mm. long female of this species was ob-
served finishing her burrow in a bare patch of white, moist sand surrounded
by high vegetation. She dug rapidly, her fore legs working alternately,
throwing a nearly continuous stream of sand backwards beneath and behind
her abdomen. After finishing her excavation, the wasp walked out of the
burrow head first and flew to a shrub nearby upon which she had cached her
prey, a 9.5 mm. long, female Drexelia direct (Hentz) (Araneidae) (P 40),
in the axile of a leaf about 90 cm. above the sand surface. The wasp
grasped the spider in her mandibles by a fore leg and pulled it from the
leaf axile, towing it backwards up the vertical stem to a height of about
100 cm., from which point she flew, prey underneath, onto the sand surface
two meters south of her open entrance. She pulled her prey across the
sand surface, walking backwards, grasping the spider in her mandibles by
the coxa of its second right leg; the prey was kept dorsum up at all times.
I then captured the wasp and her prey. The wasp's burrow was 5 mm. in


210


Vol. 46, No. 2












Kurczewski: Some New Pompilid Prey Records 211

diameter at the entrance and below the sand surface had a diameter of 4.5
mm. It entered the sand at nearly a 600 angle with the horizontal, was
4.8 cm. long, and terminated in an oval cell 3.6 cm. beneath the sand
surface.
(Arcadia, Florida; June 30, 1962; 1105 hours). A female E. posters,
8.5 mm. long, was observed walking rapidly around the open entrance of
its nest which was in flat, bare sand adjacent to the Peace River; its an-
tennae incessantly tapped the sand surface while its wings flicked nervously.
Lying dorsum up on the sand surface 3.5 cm. west of the open entrance
was a 6 mm. long, female Eustala anastera (Walckenaer) (Araneidae)
(P 42). I collected separately the wasp and its prey. The entrance and
the burrow of the recently dug nest were both 5 mm. in diameter; the
latter entered the sand at approximately a 400 angle with the horizontal,
was 6.6 cm. long, and terminated in an oval cell 4.2 cm. beneath the soil
surface. An elliptical mound of recently excavated, loose sand 3.5 cm. wide
and 4.0 cm. long lay in front of the open entrance.
(Lake Annie, Highlands County, Florida; July 18, 1962; 09,51 hours).
An 8 mm. long, female E. posters was noted finishing her nest in open,
moist, white sand. After walking twice around the area of the entrance,
her wings flicking incessantly, she flew to a point 40 cm. above the sand
surface on a sedge nearby and pulled a spider from the top floret, grasping
her prey in her mandibles by a leg. Holding the 7 mm. long, female Eustala
anastera (Walckenaer) (P 46) underneath, she made a quick flight, landing
and depositing her prey on the sand surface, venter up, 2 cm. east of her
open entrance. The wasp walked to her nest and entered her burrow head
first, backing out shortly thereafter while throwing a few more scuffs of
sand with her fore legs backward beneath her body. Entering her nest
head forward, she turned around inside the burrow, reappeared head first,
walked out of the nest onto the sand surface, grasped the spider in her
mandibles by its spinnerets and backed with it into her nest. Seven minutes
later, the wasp appeared head first in the entrance, making her final closure
by coming out of the entrance about 1 cm. and then backing into her bur-
row while at the same time raking sand backwards with her fore legs. I
captured the wasp and began excavating her nest. The burrow entered in
a straight line at approximately a 500 angle with the soil surface and, mid-
way, made a gradual curve to the right, the entire length being 5.7 cm. At
a depth of 3.5 cm. beneath the sand surface there was an oval cell in which
the spider lay on its side. A slightly curved, sausage-shaped, white, 2 mm.
long egg was attached to the abdomen of the spider ventrally and laterally
one third of the distance from the basal abdominal constriction. Both the
entrance and burrow diameters of this nest were 4.5 mm. There had been
a 2.5 cm. long, 2.9 cm. wide mound of loose sand in front of the entrance
before the final closure.
At the same locality, on the same day, at 1107 hours, another female
was observed attempting to dig her nest in this same patch of sand. She
made three false starts in an area slightly less than 20 cm. in diameter,
and then moved north about 30 cm. where she completed digging her nest.
After leaving her nest entrance open, the wasp flew two meters to an up-
right grass, grasped her spider in her mandibles by a leg, and pulled it,
walking backwards, from the top of a surrounding sheath 30 cm. above
the sand surface. Holding her prey underneath, she made a rapid flight,












212 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 46, No. 2

landing and depositing her spider, venter up, 30 cm. south of her entrance.
The wasp walked rapidly forward into her open entrance, turned around
inside the burrow, exited head forward five seconds after entering, made
a low, rapid flight to her spider and, grasping it in her mandibles by its spin-
nerets, began dragging it backwards hurriedly toward her nest. I captured
the 7 mm. long wasp and her 4.5 mm. long, immature Neoscona arabesca
(Walckenaer) (Araneidae) (P 47) before she reached the nest entrance.
The wasp's burrow entered the sand at a 450 angle with the soil surface,
was 6.5 cm. long and ended in an oval cell 4.5 cm. beneath the sand surface.
The open entrance to the nest was 5.5 mm. in diameter and the burrow
diameter was 4.5 mm.
Krombein (1953, 1955, 1958, 1959) has made several observations on
nesting females of E. posters at Kill Devil Hills, North Carolina. His
notes are in close agreement with those presented above. He recorded the
following genera of prey from Kill Devil Hills: Araneus, Argiope, Eustala,
Gea, Neoscona, and Neosconella (all Araneidae).
Anoplius (Arachnophroctonus) americanus trifasciatus (Beauvois).
(Archbold Biological Station, Lake Placid, Florida; July 9, 1962; 0918
hours). A 14.5 mm. long female of americanus trifasciatus was observed
taking fluids from the severed, fourth right coxal joint of a 16.5 mm. long,
female Geolycosa hubbelli Wallace (Lycosidae) (P 44) on a sandy car trail
leading through dense, saw-palmetto habitat. The spider's amputated leg
was lying on the sand surface 1 cm. west of the pair and had already at-
tracted several, small, red ants. The spider had been placed venter up and
its legs were tucked in towards the underside of its body. I am uncertain
whether the spider would have been used as provender or whether it had
been captured solely for nourishment. The wasp had not tried to trans-
port it.
Rau (1922) recorded the nominate subspecies A. americanus americanus
(Beauvois) preying on Pardosa milvina (Hentz) (Lycosidae) and Philo-
dromus sp. (Thomisidae). Evans and Yoshimoto (1962) noted A. ameri-
canus juxtus (Cresson) using as prey the lycosids Arctosa littoralis (Hentz)
and Schizocosa crassipes Walckenaer. Hurd and Wasbauer (1956) recorded
the latter subspecies preying upon Peucetia viridans Hentz (Oxyopidae).

LITERATURE CITED
Evans, H. E. 1959. Prey records for some midwestern and southwestern
spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae). Jour. Kans. Ent. Soc.
32: 75-76.
Evans, H. E., and C. M. Yoshimoto. 1962. The ecology and nesting be-
havior of the Pompilidae (Hymenoptera) of the northeastern United
States. Misc. Pub. Ent. Soc. Amer. 3: 65-119.
Hurd, P. D., Jr., and M. S. Wasbauer. 1956. New host records for North
American spider-wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae). Jour. Kans.
Ent. Soc. 29: 168-169.
Janvier, H. (M. F. Claude-Joseph). 1930. Recherches biologiques sur les
prddateurs du Chili. Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. (10) 13: 235-354.
Krombein, K. V. 1953. Biological and taxonomic observations on the
wasps in a coastal area of North Carolina (Hymenoptera: Aculeata).
Wasmann Jour. Biol. 10: 257-341.













Kurczewski: Some New Pompilid Prey Records 213

Krombein, K. V. 1955. Some notes on the wasps of Kill Devil Hills, North
Carolina, 1954. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 57: 145-160.
Krombein, K. V. 1958. Biological notes on some wasps from Kill Devil
Hills, North Carolina, and additions to the faunal list. Proc. Ent.
Soc. Wash. 60: 97-110.
Krombein, K. V. 1959. Biological notes on some ground-nesting wasps at
Kill Devil Hills, North Carolina, 1958, and additions to the faunal
list. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 61: 193-199.
Kurczewski, F. E. 1961. Some observations and prey records of Pom-
pilidae (Hymenoptera) from northeastern United States. Bull.
Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 56: 23-24.
Kurczewski, F. E. 1962. Observations, including new prey records, of
some nearctic Pompilidae (Hymenoptera). Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc.
57: 85-90.
Rau, P. 1922. Ecological and behavior notes on Missouri insects. Trans.
Acad. Sci. St. Louis 24: 1-71.
Townes, H. 1957. Nearctic wasps of the subfamilies Pepsinae and Cero-
palinae. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 209: 286 pp.




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