Title: Florida Entomologist
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Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1963
Copyright Date: 1917
 Subjects
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
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Volume ID: VID00176
Source Institution: University of Florida
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The

FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Volume 46, No. 3 September, 1963



CONTENTS
Page
Morse, Roger A., Jon E. MacDonald, and Cyprian Zmarlic-
ki-The Effect of Queen Mutilation on Queen Cell Con-
struction in the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L.) Colony.. 219
Burditt, Arthur K., Jr., and Allen G. Selhime-Experimental
Materials to Control Citrus Scale Insects in Florida-. 223
Burden, G. S., and B. J. Smittle-Chemosterilant Studies
with the German Cockroach................................................ 229
DuBose, William P.-Collection of Two Mosquito Species
Following Subfreezing Temperatures ............................. ---------------234
Tappan, William B.-Mole Cricket Control in Shade Tobacco
P lant B eds ............................................................................ 235
Kurczewski, Frank E.-A First Florida Record and Note on
the Nesting of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) texense
Saussure (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) ..............................------------. 243
De Leon, Donald-A New Dermatophagoides: It Prevents
the Rising of Self-Rising Flour (Acarina: Epidermo-
ptidae) --.....................................................-------------------------------..........----......... 247
Wolfenbarger, Dan A, and L. W. Getzin-Selective Toxi-
cants and Toxicant-Surfactant Combinations for Leaf-
miner, Liriomyza munda Frick, Control and Parasite
Survival .........................................................-----------------------------------................ 251


Published by The Florida Entomological Society











THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY


OFFICERS FOR 1962-1963

President......---------.....--------------------.................................................................--Henry True
Vice-President ...............................................................--------------------G. W. Dekle
Secretary---------------------------------.......................................................................... S. H. Kerr
Treasurer....--------................................................-----------.......----------Robert E. Waites
John O'Neill
Other Members of Executive Committee ....... W. G. Genung
i W. C. Rhoades

Editorial Board
Lewis Berner--...---- --------------- ... Editor
Thomas J. Walker------------Associate Editor
Robert E. Waites..-...-.................--------- Business Manager



THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST is issued quarterly-March, June, Septem-
ber, and December. Subscription price to non-members $5.00 per year in
advance; $1.25 per copy. Entered as second class matter at the post
office at Gainesville, Florida.
Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be sent to the Editor,
Biology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville. Subscriptions and
orders for back numbers are handled by the Business Manager, Box 2425,
University Station, University of Florida, Gainesville. The Secretary can
be reached at the same address.
Authors are urged to consult a style manual when preparing manuscripts.
For form of literature citations, see recent issues of THE FLORIDA EN-
TOMOLOGIST. Further, authors are referred to "Suggestions for the prepara-
tion of papers submitted for publication in THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST."
FLA. ENT. 41(4): 193-194. 1958.
One zinc etching, not to exceed one-half page in size, or the equivalent
thereof, will be allowed free. The actual cost of all additional illustrations
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THE EFFECT OF QUEEN MUTILATION ON QUEEN
CELL CONSTRUCTION IN THE HONEY BEE
(APIS MELLIFERA L.) COLONY

ROGER A. MORSE, JON E. MACDONALD, AND CYPRIAN ZMARLICKI
Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.

Butler (1954) showed that queen substance inhibits queen cell construc-
tion in the honey bee colony. Queen substance (9-oxodecenoic acid) is pro-
duced in the mandibular glands of the queen and has been identified and
synthesized (Butler, Callow and Johnston, 1961). Queen substance will
not inhibit queen cell construction completely but in the presence of queen
scent (Butler, 1961) inhibition is complete. Gary and Morse (1960, 1962)
showed that extirpation of the mandibular glands from a living queen
would usually result in the construction of queen cells. The number of
queen cells constructed was less than when the queen was removed from the
colony. Simpson (1960) demonstrated that amputation of a queen's front
legs likewise resulted in queen cell construction. He suggested that a
queen's front legs might be used to distribute queen substance over her
body, whence it is licked by worker bees, though the data did not prove that
the front legs were so used.
The experiments reported in this paper were undertaken to test the
effect of amputation and mutilation of the queen on queen cell construction.

METHODS AND MATERIALS

Two tests, the first involving 40 colonies and the second 36 colonies of
bees were undertaken. The colonies had no queen cells at the -outset of the
experiment. They contained about 40,000 bees each and between five and
seven full frames of brood.
In the first test the colonies were divided into groups of ten and one
group served as a check group. The three treatments included tying the
front legs together, amputation of the front legs, and amputation of the
hind legs. The legs were tied by using a fine strand of copper wire and the
tie was made between the basitarsus and the tibia. The legs were removed
by making the cut between the coxa and trochanter. Some queens did not
survive these operations and these colonies were excluded from the data
presented in Table 1. The leg tie did not hold on three queens and these
are not included.
The second test involved three groups of ten colonies, of which one
group was a check, and a fourth group of six colonies. In this test the
front legs were removed from one group and the hind legs from another
as was done in the first test. The tip of the posterior plate of the mesono-
tum of the queen was removed with a scalpel to make a thoracic injury
in the group of six colonies. The mesonotum was selected only because it
was a convenient area in which to make an injury. Only two queens sur-
vived this last operation and thus this group is not treated statistically
though the data are presented in Table 1.













The Florida Entomologist


RESULTS
The data show that removal of either the hind legs or the fore legs of
the queen will usually prompt queen cell construction in the colony. The
two colonies which had queens with mutilated thoraces also constructed
queen cells but since only two of the six queens treated survived, they are
not treated statistically (Table 1). Statistical analysis of the data shows
that the difference between the treatments and the check in test I is highly
significant (P<.05) while the tests were not significantly different from
each other (P<.750). In test II the treatments did not vary as much from
the checks as in test I (P<.250). However, these values are highly prej-
udiced against the experiment since only the fact that a colony built queen
cells was considered. We know that the number of queen cells a colony
constructs is an indication of its degree of queenlessness but there is also
great variation in the number built. Our knowledge in this area is meager
and does not allow us to prepare an ideal statistical analysis which would
integrate the number of colonies reacting, together with the number of
queen cells constructed.

TABLE I. QUEEN CELLS PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF VARYING
QUEEN TREATMENT.

No. of No. of queen cells
No. of Colonies constructed
Colonies Building
In test Cells Total Range

Test I (initiated June 27, observations July 5)

Check 10 1 1 1
Front Legs Tied 7 6 32 3-10
Front Legs Removed 9 9 51 1-10
Hind Legs Removed 10 5 44 4-14

Test II (initiated August 2, observations August 12)

Check 10 2 3 1-2
Front Legs Removed 8 4 35 2-22
Hind Legs Removed 9 5 33 2-13
Thorax Cut 2 2 9 3-6


DISCUSSION
The method by which queen substance is distributed to worker bees
is not clear. Since worker honey bees are almost constantly licking their
queen's body and since the presence of queen substance over the whole body
has been proved, it would appear that there is some mechanism of spread-
ing the material over the body from the mandibular glands where it is
produced. In an experiment where the mandibular glands were removed,


220


Vol. 46, No. 3













Morse: Queen Mutilation in Honey Bees


a mock operation (that is the whole operation except plucking out of the
gland) was done. No queen cells resulted from the mock operation. Ad-
mittedly this is not as harsh a treatment as when the gland itself is re-
moved. In looking for a method of distributing queen substance over the
body it was natural to consider the fore legs. Removal of the fore legs is
a drastic treatment and thus the variations on the treatment reported here
were conducted. At the present time we have not been able to separate the
effects of mutilation from the loss or lack of queen substance secretion and/
or its distribution. The method by which queens distribute queen substance
to worker bees remains a moot question.

LITERATURE CITED
Butler, C. G. 1954. The method and importance of the recognition by a
colony of honeybees (Apis mellifera) of the presence of its queen.
Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London. 105: 11-29.
Butler, C. G. 1961. The scent of queen honeybees (A. mellifera L.) that
causes partial inhibition of queen rearing. Jour. Insect Physiol.
7: 258-64.
Butler, C. G., R. K. Callow, and Norah Johnston. 1961. The isolation and
synthesis of queen substance, 9-oxodec-trans-2-enoic acid, a honeybee
pheromone. Proc. Roy. Soc. (B) 155: 417-32.
Gary, N. E., and R. A. Morse. 1960. A technique for the removal of man-
dibular glands from living queen honey bees. (Preliminary note).
Bee World. 41: 229-30.
Gary, N. E., and R. A. Morse. 1962. Queen cell construction in honey bee
(Apis mellifera L.) colonies headed by queens without mandibular
glands. Proc. Roy. Ent. Soc. London (A) 37: 76-8.
Simpson, J. 1960. Induction of queen rearing in honeybee colonies by am-
putation of their queens' front legs. Bee World. 41: 286-7.


221












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EXPERIMENTAL MATERIALS TO CONTROL
CITRUS SCALE INSECTS IN FLORIDA

ARTHUR K. BURDITT, JR., AND ALLEN G. SELHIME
Entomology Research Division, Agric. Res. Serv., U. S. D. A.

Several experimental scalicides and acaricides have been tested at the
Orlando Citrus Insects Laboratory of the Entomology Research Division dur-
ing the past two years to determine their effectiveness against citrus pests.
Whenever possible, experimental materials have been evaluated as control
agents for citrus rust mites (Phyllocoptruta oleivora [Ashmead]), citrus
red mites (Panonychus citri [McGregor]), and Texas citrus mites (Eute-
tranychus banksi [McGregor]), as well as against Florida red scales
(Chrysomphalus aonidum [Linnaeus]), and purple scales (Lepidosaphes
beckii [Newman]). None of the materials now registered for use on citrus
has given satisfactory control of mites and scales.
The ideal material for use on citrus would control rust mites, spider
mites, and scales, without affecting populations of parasites and predators.
Parasites are especially important in keeping populations of most species
of scales at low levels in Florida. Use of an insecticide or acaricide that
will also kill these parasites may result in buildup of species of scales that
usually are not serious pests. Since control measures for scales frequently
are not necessary in Florida, specific acaricides are needed for use in citrus
groves. Continuous use of a single material or group of materials of sim-
ilar chemical composition may result in development of resistance of the
mites to these chemicals. Recent experiments have been planned to test
new chemicals primarily against mites, but data on scales and their natural
enemies have been obtained whenever possible. Data on mite control have
been published elsewhere (Burditt et al., 1962).1 Effects on scale insects
and their parasites are reported in this paper.

PROCEDURES
Three of the experiments conducted during 1960 and 1961 involved
single-tree plots, replicated five to eight times. Insecticides were applied
by means of a truck-mounted hydraulic sprayer with a single gun, operated
at 500 p.s.i. In other grove experiments, conducted in cooperation with
commercial operators in the vicinity of Orlando, insecticides were applied
with an air-blast speed sprayer. Plots treated with this sprayer were five
rows wide, with counts being made on the center five trees of the mid-
dle row.
Scale counts and total populations of parasites and predators were de-
termined in the laboratory with 10X magnification. Generally ten "in-
side" leaves (from the previous year's growth) were collected from each
tree and examined. In the later experiments usually only mature female
scales were counted, although, as noted in Tables 1-3, all living scales were
counted in earlier experiments. Scales with living parasites included those
with eggs and larvae, where they could be detected, as well as pupae of
the parasitic species.

'Burditt, Arthur K. Jr., Allen G. Selhime, and Herbert Spencer. 1962. Ex-
perimental materials to control citrus mites. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 74: 38-43.













224 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 46, No. 3

RESULTS
EXPERIMENT 1.-Eight materials, with each treatment replicated eight
times on single-tree plots, were applied to Valencia orange trees early in
June, 1960. Three of the materials, zineb, oil, and ethion, are included in
the "Florida Better Fruit Program Spray and Dust Schedule for Citrus,"
published by the Florida Citrus Commission. The other five, Kepone,2
dimethoate, toxaphene, Methyl Trithion, and a mixture of parathion and
carbophenothion (Trithion) in oil, have been used experimentally for con-
trol of mites or scales on citrus. Treatments were applied by means of a
hydraulic sprayer mounted on a truck, with a single gun and a No. 7 noz-
zle, at .500 p.s.i. at the pump.
Florida red scale was the predominant species of scale present in this
grove. A few yellow scales (Aonidiella citrina [Coquillett]), chaff scales
(Parlatoria pergandii Comstock), purple scales, and Glover scales (Lepido-
saphes gloverii [Packard]) were also present.
The scale population was determined about ten weeks after treatment
(Table 1). Dimethoate gave significantly better control of scales than
any of the other materials except Kepone plus oil. There were no signifi-
cant differences in the control obtained among the five treatments contain-
ing oil. Ethion, when used alone, gave poor control of scales.

TABLE 1.-INFESTATION OF LIVING SCALES ON VALENCIA ORANGE TREES
SPRAYED ON JUNE 1-8, 1960.

Amount Total Scale Population on
Material per 100 80 Leaves*
(Formulation) Gallons August 16** December 12**

Dimethoate (4EC) 1 pt. 8 a 8 a
Kepone (50WP) 1 lb.
+ oil (NP90) 5 qt. 20 ab 20 ab
Zineb (65WP) 1 lb.
+ oil (NP90) 5 qt. 52 bc 57 c
Toxaphene (8EC) 1 pt.
+ oil (NP90) 5 qt. 54 b c 47 c
Methyl Trithion (4EC) 1 qt. 56 b c d 19 a b
Parathion ( lb.) +
Trithion (/2 lb.)
per gallon of oil 1 qt. 63 cd 34 bc
Oil (NP90) 5 qt. 80 bcd 33 bc
Ethion (4EC) 1 pt. 160 d 27 abc


All living stages except crawlers counted.
** Differences between treatments followed by the
5% level.


same letter are not significant at the


A second scale count, made six months after treatments were applied
(Table 1), showed that the scale population had declined, especially on trees

2 Chemical names of proprietary compounds are listed at the end of this
paper.













Burditt: Materials to Control Citrus Scale Insects 225

that formerly had a heavier scale infestation. By examining infestations
in untreated plots, it was determined that much of this decline was due to
parasites, especially Pseudhomalopoda prima Girault, attacking Florida
red scales. Dimethoate and Kepone plus oil were still among the most
effective materials tested, although they were not significantly better than
Methyl Trithion or ethion.
EXPERIMENT 2.-Valencia orange trees were treated with either di-
methoate or malathion to compare the effectiveness of these two materials
as scalicides. Treatments were applied on September 27, 1960, with the
same equipment used in Experiment 1. Results (Table 2) showed that
scale infestations were significantly lower on the dimethoate treatments
than on the malathion treatments. In this experiment populations of Flor-
ida red scales in untreated plots also were reduced significantly during the
fall by parasites, chiefly P. prima.

TABLE 2.-INFESTATION OF LIVING FLORIDA RED SCALES ON VALENCIA
ORANGE TREES SPRAYED ON SEPTEMBER 27, 1960.

Population on 50 leaves*

Treatment per 100 gal. Sept. 20** Oct. 25** Dec. 20**

Dimethoate (4EC) 1 pt. 333 a 2 a 0 a
Malathion (25WP) 2 lb. 352 a 69 b 15 b
Unsprayed 361 a 273 c 45 b

All living stages except crawlers counted.
** Differences between treatments followed by the same letter are not significant at the
5% level.

EXPERIMENT 3.-At the Orlando Citrus Insects Laboratory, citrus seed-
lings in pots were treated with either one pint of dimethoate or two pints
of malathion per 100 gallons. These plants were heavily infested with citrus
snow scales (Unaspis citri [Comstock]), and Florida red scales, as well as
some Glover scales, purple scales, and a few chaff scales. Almost complete
control was obtained with dimethoate compared with 80 percent control
of these species with malathion (Table 3).

TABLE 3.-SCALE INFESTATIONS ON CITRUS SEEDLINGS THREE WEEKS
AFTER TREATMENT WITH DIMETHOATE AND MALATHION.

Population on 30 Leaves*

Scale Dimethoate (4EC) Malathion (4EC) Untreated
1 pt. 2 pt.

Chaff 1 4 11
Purple 0 4 41
Glover 0 3 59
Florida red 0 2 110
Citrus snow 0 31 115

All living stages except crawlers counted.













The Florida Entomologist


A series of potted citrus trees heavily infested with black scales (Saisse-
tia oleae [Bernard]), in a large greenhouse, were sprayed with either one
pint of dimethoate (4 EC) or two pints of malathion (4 EC) plus four
quarts of oil per 100 gallons with a 30-gallon sprayer. A month after
treatment, eight living black scales were found on ten twigs (six inches
in length) from the plants treated with malathion compared with 29 on
those treated with dimethoate. However, the dimethoate-treated plants
were producing a new flush of growth whereas those treated with mala-
thion-plus-oil were suffering from shock due to the treatment.
EXPERIMENT 4.-In June, 1961, part of a grove of Hamlin orange trees
was treated with either one-half or one pint of dimethoate (Cygon) per 100
gallons by means of an air-blast sprayer. A standard parathion at one-
half pint per 100 gallons was applied to the remaining trees.

TABLE 4.-INFESTATION OF SCALES ON HAMLIN ORANGE TREES SPRAYED
WITH DIMETHOATE (4EC) AND PARATHION (4EC) (STANDARD) ON JUNE
20-21, 1961.


Number of Living Adult Female Scale
Scale Species Insecticide per 100 Leaves
(per 100 gallons) June 19 Aug. 15-23' Sept. 26

Purple Parathion ('A pt.) 540 32 50
Dimethoate (1 pt.) 310 145 57
Dimethoate (/ pt.) 343 96 29

Florida red Parathion (/2 pt.) 355 41 1
Dimethoate (1 pt.) 252 7 0
Dimethoate ( pt.) 262 18 0

Glover Parathion (1/ pt.) 42 7 12
Dimethoate (1 pt.) 15 1 6
Dimethoate (1A pt.) 108 9 4

Chaff Parathion ( pt.) 23 4 13
Dimethoate (1 pt.) 7 3 11
Dimethoate ( pt.) 3 13 7



The data (Table 4) show that the dimethoate was not as effective as
parathion in reducing the purple scale infestation. However, more living
parasites were found in purple scales on trees treated with dimethoate than
on those treated with parathion (Table 5).
In recent greenhouse experiments with dimethoate at the above dosages
applied with a three-gallon hand sprayer, leaf burning of seedlings resulted.
Sour orange and rough lemon seedlings were more sensitive than other
varieties tested. The leaf burning was due to breaking of the emulsion
when the mixture was not agitated continuously.


226


Vol. 46, No. 3













Burditt: Materials to Control Citrus Scale Insects 227

TABLE 5.-POPULATION OF SCALES CONTAINING LIVING PARASITES ON
HAMLIN ORANGE TREES SPRAYED WITH DIMETHOATE (4EC) AND PARA-
THION (4EC) ON JUNE 20-21, 1961.

Number Scales with Living Parasites
Scale Species Insecticide per 100 Leaves
(per 100 gallons) June 19 Aug. 15-23 Sept. 26

Purple Parathion (/2 pt.) 238 22 8
Dimethoate (1 pt.) 102 88 14
Dimethoate ( pt.) 272 66 16
Florida red Parathion ( pt.) 47 11 1
Dimethoate (1 pt.) 33 0 1
Dimethoate ( pt.) 73 3 0
Glover Parathion ( pt.) 10 0 0
Dimethoate (1 pt.) 0 0 0
Dimethoate ( pt.) 20 1 0
Chaff Parathion ( pt.) 0 0 0
Dimethoate (1 pt.) 0 0 0
Dimethoate ( pt.) 2 3 1


SUMMARY
Most of the materials used in these experimental studies gave satis-
factory control of some species of citrus pests. Some materials, however,
were effective only as acaricides and had no effect on scale populations.
Dimethoate gave effective control of scales, especially Florida red scale
and citrus snow scale. Dimethoate has also given control of spider mites
in limited tests.

CHEMICAL NAMES OF PROPRIETARY COMPOUNDS
carbophenothion (Trithion)......... S- [ (p-chlorophenylthio) methyl]
O,0-diethyl phosphorodithioate
Delnav................----------.................-----------..a mixture of 2,3-p-dioxanedithiol
S,S-bis (O,O-diethyl phosphorodithioate)
(70%) and related compounds
Kepone.........------------........-----------......................decachlorooctahydro-1,3,4-metheno-
2H-cyclobuta [cd] pentalen-2-one

Methyl Trithion....-------------....................,O-dimethyl S-p-chlorophenylthiomethyl
phosphorodithioate






















































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CHEMOSTERILANT STUDIES WITH THE
GERMAN COCKROACH

G. S. BURDEN AND B. J. SMITTLE
Entomology Research Division, Agric. Res. Serv., U. S. D. A., Orlando, Fla.

The practical and efficient means of eliminating the various species of
house-invading cockroaches is a problem to be coped with in spite of the
various possible chemical, biological, and pathogenic control methods. The
German cockroach (Blattella germanica [L.]) is the species of greatest
concern in households as well as business establishments and control meth-
ods sometimes give results that leave much to be desired. Satisfactory con-
trol can be achieved by means of a carefully planned program which may
entail the combined use of several methods or a single efficient method.
Among the methods that have given control of other species, the newest
is the use of insects sterilized by radiation. It can be realized that the
irradiation and subsequent release of sterile-male cockroaches in an in-
fested house would pose a problem. Very few housewives would tolerate
the introduction of more cockroaches into their homes in spite of any mass
of scientific data proving the ultimate efficiency and value of such a tech-
nique. In view of this fact it is conceivable that the use of a chemosterilant
would be a more logical means of achieving the same results. It would be
desirable to utilize a chemosterilant that would produce sterility in both
sexes and act as a toxicant to those individuals not sterilized. This means
of cockroach control could le accomplished by the use of highly attractive
baits, residual spray or dust deposits, or a combination of these methods,
depending upon the safety of the compounds used.
The use of chemicals to sterilize insects has been discussed by Knipling
(1955, 1959, 1960) and Lindquist (1961). Folic acid antagonists have been
used to induce sterility in female fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster Mei-
gen) and house flies (Musca domestic L.) (Goldsmith and Frank, 1952;
Mitlin et al., 1957; LaBrecque et al., 1960), whereas alkylating agents, or
radiomimetic compounds, have been used to sterilize male and female house-
flies (LaBrecque, 1961; LaBrecque et al., 1962), two species of mosquitoes
(Weidhaas et al., 1962), and the screw-worm fly (Cochliomyia hominivorax
[Coquerel]) (Chamberlain, 1962). During the latter part of 1960, experi-
ments were initiated at Orlando, Florida, to determine the effect of various
chemicals on the development and fertility of German cockroaches, the re-
sults of which are presented herein.
The studies were initiated by allowing nymphs to feed on their normal
diet treated with candidate sterilants. All chemicals were evaluated ini-
tially at concentrations of 0.05% and 0.5%; then, depending on the effec-
tiveness of these tests, secondary evaluations were conducted at higher or
lower concentrations. Fifty grams of pulverized, compressed dog food was
saturated with 25 ml. of an acetone solution of chemical and thoroughly
dried. The treated food was then stored in tightly closed jars. Second-
nymphal-instar German cockroaches were placed in small battery jars con-
taining harborages, water, and treated food. A control colony subsisting
on untreated food was established for concurrent development. These
small colonies (250 nymphs for each concentration of chemical) were main-
tained and the effect of the chemicals on nymphal development was re-
corded. These results are shown in Table 1.














The Florida Entomologist


TABLE 1.-EFFECTS ON NYMPHAL DEVELOPMENT OF VARIOUS CHEMICALS
ADMINISTERED IN THE DIET OF GERMAN COCKROACH NYMPHS (250
NYMPHS PER TEST).

Percent
Chemical concen- Effect on nymphs
tration


Aminopterin

Aphamide



Apholate



2-Chloroethyl
methanesulfonate

Kepone



Metepa


Methiotepa



Methotrexate



Methyl apholate


Oxydiethylene 2-methyl-
1 -aziridinecarboxylate

Tepa



Thiourea


0.05
.5
.05
.5
1.0
2.0
.05
.5
1.0
2.0
.05
.5
1.0
.005
.01
.05
.5
.05
.5
1.0
.05
.1
.25
.5
0.005
.025
.05
.5
.0,5
.5
1.0
.05
.5
1.0
.05
.1
.25
.5
.05
.5


Toxicant
Toxicant
No effect
No effect
Delayed development
Delayed development; partial toxicant
No effect
No effect
Delayed development
Delayed development; toxicant
No effect
Delayed development
Delayed development; partial toxicant
No effect
Delayed development; partial toxicant
Toxicant
Toxicant
No effect
No effect
Delayed development; toxicant
No effect
No effect
Delayed development
Partial toxicant
Partial toxicant
Toxicant
Toxicant
Toxicant
No effect
No effect
Delayed development
No effect
No effect
No effect
No effect
No effect
Delayed development; partial toxicant
Delayed development; partial toxicant
Partial toxicant
Toxicant


230


Vol. 46, No. 3













Burden: Chemosterilant Studies with Cockroach 231

At a concentration of 0.05% in the food, aminopterin (N- (p- ([ (2,4-di-
amino-6-pteridyl) methyl] amino) benzoyl) glutamic acid), Kepone (decachlo-
rodctahydro-1,3,4-metheno-2H-cyclobuta[cd]pentalen-2-one), and methotrex-
ate were toxicants and thiourea was a partial toxicant to the nymphs. At
this same concentration aphamide (N,N'-ethylenebis[P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-
N-methylphosphinic amide]), apholate, 2-chloroethyl methanesulfonate, oxy-
diethylene 2-methyl-l-aziridinecarboxylate, metepa, methiotepa, methyl
apholate, and tepa had no effect on nymphal development. As shown in
Table 1, the 0.5% concentration, as well as the higher or lower concentra-
tions of all chemicals used in the secondary tests, either caused delayed de-
velopment, were toxicants or partial toxicants, resulted in a combination of
these effects, or had no effect on nymphal development. Additional testing
with aminopterin was not possible due to an exhausted supply.
Further tests were conducted with cockroaches fed treated food to de-
termine whether the chemicals affected the reproductive potential of either
sex. When the nymphs fed the treated food reached the last instar, the
sexes were separated. The male and female nymphs were maintained
separately in wide-mouthed quart jars containing harborages, water, and
treated food. When adulthood was attained, 25 adults of each sex were
crossed as follows:

Treated males X untreated females
Untreated males X treated females
Treated males X treated females
Untreated males X untreated females (control)

The untreated adults were obtained from the normal colony and were of
equivalent age. All crosses were maintained in wide-mouthed quart jars
containing harborages, water, and untreated food. Observations were made
on these crosses .until the insects produced offspring or died. If offspring
(F1) were produced, 25 male and 25 female nymphs were moved to another
jar and observations were made on the viability of the obthecae produced
by the F1 adults. Results of the effective compounds are shown in Table 2.
Aphamide at a concentration of 2.0% and methyl apholate at a concen-
tration of 1.0% in the food caused sterility, as evidenced by crosses of
treated males and females. With methyl apholate, a cross of treated males
and untreated females and the reciprocal cross resulted in deformed
o6thecae and delayed and/or reduced hatch. Due to high mortality in the
feeding studies, sufficient specimens were not available for additional crosses
to determine whether only one or both sexes were sterilized by 2.0% of
aphamide in the diet. Additional tests with these two chemicals will be
necessary; however, the supply of aphamide may be limited.
Males fed the diet containing 1.0% of apholate were sterilized, as evi-
denced by the treated-untreated and treated-treated crosses. Treated fe-
males crossed with untreated males produced deformed and normal oothe-
cae, which resulted in delayed and reduced hatch of the F1 generation. It
was not possible to determine whether 2.0% of apholate would sterilize
females since complete mortality occurred in both sexes tested at this con-
centration in the feeding studies (Table 1).
Methiotepa at a concentration of 0.25% in the diet produced sterility
in the male cockroaches, as shown by the crosses. The treated females
crossed with untreated males produced deformed and normal odthecae, which

















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resulted in reduced hatch, as compared with the control. A diet containing
0.5% of this chemical also produced sterility, as evidenced by the treated-
treated cross; however, due to high mortality, sufficient specimens were
not available to determine whether the females were sterilized.
Males treated with 0.1% of tepa were sterilized, as indicated by the
treated-untreated and treated-treated crosses, but the productivity of
treated females of the reciprocal cross was normal. At a concentration of
0.25% in the food, tepa produced sterility in both sexes. In addition to
causing sterility, 0.5% of tepa was more toxic to the German nymphs than
the 0.25% concentration. The remaining chemicals, and some of the others
at concentrations evaluated but not included in the table, did not induce
sterility nor did they prevent the females from producing viable o6thecae
in the F1 generations.
SUMMARY
Twelve chemicals were evaluated as possible sterilants for German
cockroaches by allowing nymphal stages to ingest treated diets. Crossing
studies indicated that tepa caused sterility in males and females at a con-
centration of 0.25% in the diet whereas only males were sterilized by a
concentration of 0.1%. Apholate and methiotepa at concentrations of 1.0%
and 0.25%, respectively, sterilized males whereas treated females pro-
duced deformed and normal oothecae resulting in delayed and/or reduced
hatch. Crosses with treated-treated sexes indicated that 1.0% methyl
apholate in the diet would induce sterility, but crosses of a treated sex with
an untreated sex resulted in the production of deformed but viable odthecae
with delayed and/or reduced hatch. At a concentration of 2.0% in the
diet, aphamide (N,N'-ethylenebis [P,P-bis (1-aziridinyl) -N-methylphosphinic
amide]) produced sterility, as evidenced in a cross of treated males and
females; however, high mortality prevented determining whether one or
both sexes were sterilized.

LITERATURE CITED

Chamberlain, W. F. 1962. Chemical sterilization of the screw-worm. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 55: 240-8.
Goldsmith, E. D., and I. Frank. 1952. Sterility in the female fruit fly,
Drosophila melanogaster, produced by the feeding of a folic acid an-
tagonist. Amer. Jour. Physiol. 171(3): 726-7.
Knipling, E. F. 1955. Possibilities of insect control or eradication through
the use of sexually sterile males. Jour. Econ. Ent. 48: 459-62.
Knipling, E. F. 1959. Sterile-male method of population control. Sci-
ence. 130: 902-4.
Knipling, E. F. 1960. The eradication of the screw-worm fly. Scientific
American. 203(4): 54-61.
LaBrecque, G. C., P. H. Adcock, and Carroll N. Smith. 1960. Tests with
compounds affecting house fly metabolism. Jour. Econ. Ent. 53:
802-5.
LaBrecque, G. C. 1961. Studies with three alkylating agents as house fly
sterilants. Jour. Econ. Ent. 54: 684-9.
LaBrecque, G. C., Carroll N. Smith, and D. W. Meifert. 1962. A field
experiment in the control of house flies with chemosterilant baits.
Jour. Econ. Ent. 55: 449-51.


233














The Florida Entomologist


Lindquist, A. W. 1961. New ways to control insects. Pest Control. 29
(6): 9-19, 36-40.
Mitlin, Norman, B. A. Butt, and Thomas J. Shortino. 1957. Effect of mit-
otic poisons on house fly oviposition. Physiol. Zool. 30: 133-6.
Weidhaas, D. E., H. R. Ford, J. B. Gahan, and Carroll N. Smith. 1962.
Preliminary observations on chemosterilization of mosquitoes. Proc.
48th Ann. Meeting N. J. Mosq. Extermin. Assoc.













COLLECTION OF TWO MOSQUITO SPECIES FOLLOWING SUBFREEZING TEMPERA-
TUREs-During the cold wave which brought record low temperatures to
Tampa, Florida, December 12-14, 1962, collection of mosquitoes was attempt-
ed at MacDill Air Force Base near Tampa. The first and more severe of two
subfreezing temperature periods began after 11 o'clock p.m. on December
12 and extended for almost 12 hours to 11 o'clock a.m. on December 13. A
record low temperature of 18.50F was recorded on December 13 at the base
weather station between 7:00-8:00 a.m.
On the afternoon following the first freeze, attempts were made to col-
lect adult salt marsh mosquitoes, but none was located either in the urban
portion of the base or in the mangrove swamps on the southwest point of
the MacDill peninsula. Tidal pools were also examined at that time for the
presence of larvae. One pool yielded approximately 100 first and second
stage larvae of Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wied.) and Anopheles atropus D.
and K. The pool was located in an open area and had an estimated maxi-
mum depth of about two inches. Larvae were shipped to the 6570th Epi-
demiological Laboratory, Lackland Air Force Base, Texas, and reared to
the adult stage.-William P. DuBose, Jr.1

11st Lieutenant, USAF, MSC, USAF Epidemiological Laboratory, Lack-
land AFB, Texas. The contents herein reflect the personal views of the
author and are not to be construed as a statement of official Air Force policy.


234


Vol. 46, No. 3















MOLE CRICKET CONTROL IN SHADE TOBACCO
PLANT BEDS 1

WILLIAM B. TAPPAN
North Florida Experiment Station, Quincy

The Southern mole cricket, Scapteriscus acletus Rehn and Hebard, and
the change, S. vicinus Scudder, have long been recognized as pests in tobac-
co plant beds in the Quincy, Florida, area, with the Southern mole cricket
being the more prevalent species. Chamberlin and Madden (1942) observed
that mole crickets were increasing in importance as plant bed pests, caus-
ing little damage by actual feeding on plants, but some injury from bur-
rowing in the soil layer subjacent to the soil surface. Tobacco seedlings
in the soil layer superjacent to the burrows often died from lack of mois-
ture caused by the disruption of capillarity existing between the water table
and the soil surface. Not only did the burrowing cause death of plants, but
it caused the soil to become so desiccated that seed failed to germinate.
Damage by these pests was counteracted by use of overhead irrigation to
return the soil to its original position or by compacting the soil into posi-
tion by pressing the raised burrows with the foot or some improvised tamp-
ing tool. These methods were laborious and unsatisfactory; therefore, in-
secticidal control measures were indicated.
The first economic mole cricket control developed for shade tobacco
consisted of a bait containing a stomach poison of either calcium arsenate
or paris green (Chamberlin and Madden, 1942). Although this bait gave
satisfactory control at that time, its effectiveness as a stomach poison de-
pended to a large extent upon the actual feeding of the mole crickets upon
the bait. Later, sodium fluosilicate proved to be satisfactory as a stomach
poison in a bait (Wisecup and Hayslip, 1953). Control with contact poi-
sons became a reality with the advent of organic chlorinated-hydrocarbon
and phosphate insecticides in the 1940's. Kelsheimer (1950), working with
vegetables and other crop plants, found that chlordane wettable powder or
emulsifiable concentrate incorporated into the soil prior to seeding of plant
beds gave excellent protection from mole crickets. However, the bait
method persisted because it was economical and had the prestige of estab-
lished grower usage (Reid and Cuthbert, 1955; Kuitert and Tissot, 1956;
and Guthrie et al., 1958). Although baits continued to be recommended,
the toxic ingredient was changed to chlordane, which also acts as a contact
poison if, or when, enough bait is broadcast onto a plant bed. Guthrie
et al. (1958) recommended using a drench containing parathion for flue-
cured tobacco plant beds. In shade-tobacco plant beds, control of all insects
is based upon prevention of damage to insure an adequate supply of healthy
insect-free plants of uniform size for transplanting in the field. The pre-
vention of all insect damage is not always obtained, as is often the case in
a control program of this type, but shade tobacco growers continually strive
for that degree of perfection in order to glean the highest monetary return
from their crop.
Observations prior to 1958 indicated that the critical mole cricket con-
trol period in plant beds was approximately 40 to 50 days from seeding, de-

1 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series, No. 1658.













The Florida Entomologist


pending upon weather conditions. After that time the seedling root sys-
tems were developed sufficiently to withstand the burrowing effects of mole
crickets. In view of Kelsheimer's work (1950), it appeared that a chlor-
inated hydrocarbon insecticide formulation containing a lower and safer
concentration of the toxic ingredient would give effective results when in-
corporated into the plant bed soil. This prompted tests in 1958 and 1959 to
ascertain if granular forms of chlordane or heptachlor would provide the
necessary protection during the critical control period.
Hayslip (1943) recognized the importance of temperature in the biology
of mole crickets, and observed that dissemination flights were heavy follow-
ing rains in warm weather. It was later reported (Wisecup and Hayslip,
1953) that mole crickets were most active in the surface soil at night, when
temperatures were above approximately 700 F. and the soil was wet. Since
mole crickets are poikilothermic, their physical activities are influenced by
minimum as well as maximum air temperatures. Therefore, studies were
made to determine mean nightly air temperatures that prevailed during the
critical control periods, and at which points mole cricket activity was most
influenced.
PROCEDURES
Preparation of the plant-bed soil for seeding was begun in August of
each year proceeding 1958 and 1959 as outlined by Kincaid (1947). In ad-
dition, Dowfume W-40, at 40 ounces per 100 square yards, was injected
broadcast in October for nematode control. A structure, 64 x 32 x 8 feet,
covered on the top and four sides, with tobacco shade cloth, was constructed
over the beds before seed were sown for protection of the beds and seed-
lings from the elements.
The bed area was divided into plots or beds 5.7 x 27.0 feet in size and
Separated from each other by alleys 1.8 feet wide. Treated plots and un-
treated checks were randomized and replicated three times. Two rates of
chlordane granules (5%) at 1.32 and 2.64 ounces active ingredient per 100
square yards were applied broadcast by hand on January 15, 1958, and im-
mediately worked into the top four to five inches of soil with a rotary tiller.
One rate each of heptachlor and chlordane granules (5%) at 0.66 and 1.32
ounces active ingredient per 100 square yards, respectively, was applied on
January 12, 1959, in plots. 4.3 x 27.0 feet. Two days later, January 17, 1958,
and January 14, 1959, the beds were seeded, and observations of mole cricket
activity were made daily thereafter. The amount of activity was deter-
mined by measuring the length of burrows in inches. After measurement,
the raised burrows were returned to the surface level of the beds by com-
pressing with a blunt tamping tool. This permitted measurement of mole
cricket activity in each 24-hour period. Phytotoxicity observations were
made concurrently, and air temperatures at 3.5 feet above ground were re-
corded nightly from 5:30 P.M. to 6:30 A.M. with a hygro-thermograph.
The average of the maximum and minimum temperatures during this period
was reported as the mean.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Severe cold weather during February, 1958, retarded seedling develop-
ment and extended the critical control period from 50 to approximately 80
days. Ordinarily plants would have been transplanted in the field around


236


Vol. 46, No.. 3













Tappan: Mole Cricket Control in Tobacco Beds 237

March 20 or about three weeks before the test was completed. However,
the seedlings were not large enough to withstand the drying effect of mole
cricket activity until 83 days after seeding. The critical control period
in 1959 reverted to a normal 50 days in length because of favorable weather
conditions.
Most persistent control of mole cricket activity in 1958 was obtained
with the low rate of chlordane, which gave protection for 81 days after
treatment (Table 1). The high rate was less effective, which may have
been due to poor distribution of the material in the soil. In 1959, the low
rate of chlordane gave protection for only 29 days after treatment, but
was more effective than the lower rate of heptachlor. Prevailing mean
nightly air temperatures were higher during the latter part of January
and early February, 1959, as compared to the same period in 19.58 (Figures
1 and 2). These higher temperatures enhanced mole cricket activity, which
may explain the relatively poor results with the low rate of chlordane in
1959. Nevertheless, serious damage to the germinating tobacco seed from
mole chicket activity was prevented by the low rate of chlordane. In addi-
tion, chlordane and heptachlor appeared safe for treating plant bed soils,
as no noticeable stunting or leaf distortion was observed.


JANUARY


FEBRUARY MARCH APRIL


Figure 1. Distribution of total mole cricket activity, in relation to
mean nightly air temperature and number of days after soil treatments
with chlordane granules in shade tobacco plant beds, 1958.

Mean air temperature and total mole cricket activity in treated and
untreated beds were found to be positively and significantly related through
linear correlation. Correlation coefficients in 1958 and 1959 were 0.670 and
0.849, respectively; significant values at the 5% and 1% levels were 0.553



















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Tappan: Mole Cricket Control in Tobacco Beds 239

and 0.684 for each of the two years. Therefore, total mole cricket activity
varied directly with mean nightly air temperature.
Figure 1 shows that in 1958 mole cricket activity was nonexistent dur-
ing the latter part of January and early February, when mean nightly air
temperatures varied above and below 450 F. (broken line). The longest
period of temperatures above 450 F. during that time was four nights, six
through nine days after treatment. Seldom was the mean air temperature
above 450 F. for more than two nights at a time, except seven nights prior
to the first observation of cricket activity in the beds 45 days after treat-
ment. This suggested that mean air temperatures must remain above


JANUARY


FEBRUARY MARCH


ouu .T
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100 U

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DAYS AFTER TREATMENT

Figure 2. Distribution of total mole cricket activity in relation to
mean nightly air temperature and number of days after soil treatments
with chlordane and heptachlor granules in shade tobacco plant beds, 1959.














240 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 46, No. 3

450 F. for several nights in order to raise the soil temperature sufficiently
to stimulate mole cricket activity. A decrease in mole cricket activity oc-
curred 66 days after treatment, when the mean nightly air temperature
dropped below 450 F. This tentatively indicated that 450 F. was the crit-
ical mean nightly air temperature. Mole cricket activity was distributed
in sporadic outbreaks, which may have been influenced by the cricket's
feeding habits as well as temperatures. The greatest amounts of activity
were recorded 51 and 81 days after treatment, when mean nightly air tem-
peratures were 64 and 680 F., respectively.
In 1959, (Figure 2) mean air temperature had been above 45 F. (broken
line) for one night before the first mole cricket activity was observed 14
days after treatment. This was 31 days sooner than in 1958 (Figures 1
and 2). The soil had acquired some warmth four nights previously, when
the mean air temperature had been above 60 F. This acquired warmth
was probably not lost entirely, although the mean air temperature dropped
below 450 F. for two of the next three nights. Therefore, one night of ex-
posure to mean air temperature above 450 F. was adequate to raise the soil
temperature sufficiently to stimulate mole cricket activity in the beds.
Mole cricket activity decreased in a similar manner to that in 1958, when
mean nightly air temperatures fell below 45 F. 22 and 40 days after treat-
ment. The highest peaks of mole cricket activity occurred 29 and 33 days
after treatment, when mean nightly air temperatures were 670 and 720 F.,
respectively.
It is difficult to conceive that mole crickets reached their maximum po-
tential of activity at anytime during the tests due to the relatively low pre-
vailing mean nightly air temperatures. For that reason, it is unlikely that
mole crickets will ever be serious pests in shade tobacco plant beds during
. the critical control period. Mole crickets will, however, remain perennial
pests and may cause some damage during periods of very mild weather in
January and February following seeding of untreated plant beds.
Plans are being made to study mole cricket activity in relation to soil
temperatures at varying depths. The critical mean nightly temperature in
the soil may possibly be higher than 45 F.

SUMMARY
Tests were conducted in 1958 and 1959 to (1) determine whether soil
treatments with chlordane and heptachlor granules (5%) would give pro-
tection from mole cricket activity 45 to 50 days following seeding of shade
tobacco plant beds; and (2) study the relationship of prevailing mean night-
ly air temperatures with mole cricket activity. Chlordane was applied in
1958 at 1.32 and 2.64 ounces active ingredient per 100 square yards. In
1959, heptachlor and chlordane were applied at 0.66 and 1.32 ounces active
ingredient per 100 square yards, respectively.
Chlordane at the low rate gave protection from mole cricket activity for
81 and 29 days after treatment in 1958 and 1959, respectively. The other
treatments were less effective.
Linear correlations showed that mole cricket activity was significantly
and positively related to mean nightly air temperature. Mole cricket activ-
ity decreased sharply when mean air temperature dropped below 450 F.
The highest peaks of mole cricket activity occurred when mean air tempera-
ture was above 600 F.










Tappan: Mole Cricket Control in Tobacco Beds 241

LITERATURE CITED
Chamberlin, F. S., and A. H. Madden. 1942. Insect pests of cigar-type
tobaccos in the Southern districts. U. S. Dept. Agric. Circ. 639: 3-6.
Guthrie, F. E., R. L. Rabb, and H. E. Scott. 1958. Tobacco insect control
-1958. North Carolina Pesticide Manual. 1958: 63.
Hayslip, N. C. 1943. Notes on biological studies of mole crickets at Plant
City, Florida. Fla. Ent. 26(3): 33-46.
Kelsheimer, E. G. 1950. Control of mole-crickets. Fla. Agric. Expt. Sta.
Circ. S-15, 7 pp.
Kincaid, R. R. 1947. Management of cigar-wrapper tobacco plant beds in
Florida. Fla. Agric. Expt. Sta. Press Bull. 637, 4 pp.
Kuitert, L. C., and A. N. Tissot. 1956. Insect pests of flue-cured tobacco
and their control. Fla. Agric. Expt. Sta. Bull. 573: 19-20.
Reid, W. J., Jr., and F. P. Cuthbert, Jr. 1955. U. S. Dept. of Agric. Home
and Garden Bull. 44, 8 pp.
Wisecup, C. B., and N. C. Hayslip. 1943. Rev. 1953. Control of Mole
Crickets. U. S. Dept. Agric. Leaflet 237, 8 pp.


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A FIRST FLORIDA RECORD AND NOTE ON THE NESTING
OF TRYPOXYLON (TRYPARGILUM) TEXENSE
SAUSSURE (HYMENOPTERA: SPHECIDAE)

FRANK E. KURCZEWSKI 1

In July, 1962, while in residence at the Archbold Biological Station, Lake
Placid, I observed several females of a Trypoxylon nesting under a recently
erected concrete bridge spanning the Peace River at Arcadia, utilizing old
nests of other wasps. The species was identified subsequently by Dr. Karl
V. Krombein, United States National Museum, as Trypoxylon (Trypar-
gilum) texense Saussure; Dr. Krombein, who read the manuscript criti-
cally, informed me that this record was the first for this species from
Florida.
Most females were nesting in abandoned mud nests of Sceliphron cae-
mentarium (Drury) plastered on the underside of the bridge near the
tops of the supporting pillar connections. These mud nests were 5-7 cm.
long and 3-4 cm. wide at the middle. Females of texense usually parti-
tioned these in the center with a wall of mud making two cells, each 20-35
mm. long; one mud nest was not partitioned into two cells but was simply
cleaned out and used. Rau (1928) noted this species in Illinois also occu-
pying the abandoned nests of Sceliphron caementarium. Hartman (1905)
observed females in Texas "occupying a cell of an old mud-dauber's nest."
Evans (1959) obtained larvae 6f texense from old Sceliphron nests.
Three other texense females at this locality were nesting in abandoned
burrows of Tachysphex apicalis Fox, these being dug into the nearly verti-
cal sand cliff forming the west bank of the river. The burrows utilized by
females of texense had entrances 6.8-8.2 cm. from the top of the four-foot-
high bank, and were 4.0-6.1 cm. long, terminating in oval cells 14-22 mm.
long. Each burrow was 5-6 mm. in diameter and enlarged slightly at the
entrance to 6.5 mm. Hungerford and Williams (1912) observed texense
in Kansas nesting in deserted burrows of the bees Melitoma grisella (Cock-
erell and Porter) and Anthophora occidentalis Cresson; one tunnel of Meli-
toma was about 5 inches (12-13 cm.) long. Hartman found most females
very unselect in choosing their nest site, "occupying almost any small
crevice in wooden or stone walls." They used holes one-half inch in di-
ameter but preferred "tubes of smaller calibre."
Richards (1934) and, more recently, Krombein (1951) have emphasized
that, in the subgenus Trypargilum, the male guards the nest while the
female is away. Hartman was the first to call attention to this for texense.
At Arcadia, males guarded two nests in abandoned Tachysphex burrows but
were not observed guarding deserted Sceliphron nests. Females periodically
carrying prey spiders to their nests in flight were met frequently at the
entrance by males in those nests which had males on guard. At the arrival
of the female with prey, males stationed themselves looking out of the en-
trance, their head just filling the orifice.
In burrows of Tachysphex apicalis, females of texense placed their
spiders mostly in tandem, packed close together, and usually venter up.

1 Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.














The Florida Entomologist


The spider's legs were not tucked close to the body as in some pompilid
prey, but were mostly extended laterally. Spiders in two of these nests
were not only placed within the terminal cell but were laid also beyond the
limits of the cell into the burrows for 6 and 10 mm., respectively. In aban-
doned Sceliphron nests, spiders were venter up or on their side, packed
tightly, but rarely neatly aligned in tandem.
Fully provisioned nests of texense at Arcadia contained 13 to 15 spiders.
Hungerford and Williams noted one cell containing 9 spiders and found
51 spiders in a burrow consisting of three cells. Hartman observed texense
capturing "eight to twenty-five spiders for a single cell, the average being
about fifteen."
Paralysis of all prey observed was very slight and spiders moved their
appendages, especially the legs, considerably. Some prey, when placed up-
right, were even able to walk. Hartman noted that most prey are alive
when brought into the nest and "the majority of these live to about the
third day."
At Arcadia, five families of spiders were used by texense as prey. A
list of species, which were determined by Mr. Wilton Ivie, American Mu-
seum of Natural History, from two partially provisioned cells and one which
was complete is presented in Table 1. It was noted that two cells contained
almost exclusively Tetragnathidae and Araneidae, respectively.

TABLE 1.-SPECIES OF PREY OF Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) texense.

Species Number of Specimens

Oxyopidae
imm. Oxyopes salticus Hentz 5
imm. female Oxyopes salticus Hentz 1
female Oxyopes salticus Hentz 1
male Oxyopes salticus Hentz 4
Araneidae
imm. Neoscona arabesca (Walckenaer) 2
imm. Gea ergaster (Walckenaer) 2
imm. Argiope trifasciata (Forskal) 2

Tetragnathidae
imm. Tetragnatha pallescens F. Cambridge 6
imm. male Tetragnatha versicolor Walckenaer 1
Thomisidae
imm. Misumenops delphinus (Walckenaer) 1
Salticidae
imm. Zygoballus nervous Peckham 1
female Habronattus brunneus (Peckham) 1
male Habronattus brunneus (Peckham) 1


Hungerford and Williams recorded the following genera of prey from two
Kansas localities: Rucinia, Argiope, Xysticus, Philodromus, Metepeira,


244


Vol. 46, No. 3













Kurczewski: Nesting of Trypoxylon texense


Misumena, Dendryphantes, and Phidippus. Hartman did not note genera
and species of prey but recorded three families, Araneidae, Thomisidae, and
Salticidae.
The egg of T. texense is white, curved, sausage-shaped, about 2.5 mm.
long, and is laid ventrally and laterally on the abdomen of one of the
spiders, its attachment being near the basal abdominal constriction. It
is usually placed on the last prey brought into the nest.
After ovipositing, the wasp closes her nest with a single or double plug
of mud; in the latter case, there is usually a 5 mm. space between the
inner and outer plug. Rau, also found the cells of texense sometimes closed
with a double plug. About half of the females that Hartman studied made
a final closure of two mud plugs, there being a fourth to half inch space
between them.
LITERATURE CITED
Evans, H. E. 1959. Studies on the larvae of digger wasps (Hymenoptera,
Sphecidae). Part V: Conclusion. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 85: 137-
191.
Hartman, C. 1905. Observations on the habits of some solitary wasps of
Texas. Bull. Univ. Texas, No. 65: 72 pp.
Hungerford, H. B., and F. X. Williams. 1912. Biological notes on some
Kansas Hymenoptera. Ent. News 23: 241-260.
Krombein, K. V. 1951. Subfamily Trypoxyloninae. In Muesebeck, Krom-
bein, Townes, and others. Hymenoptera of America North of Mex-
ico: Synoptic Catalog, U. S. Dept. Agri. Monogr. No. 2, pp. 954-957.
Rau, P. 1928. Field studies in the behavior of the non-social wasps.
Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 25: 325-489.
Richards, 0. W. 1934. The American species of the genus Trypoxylon
(Hymenoptera, Sphecoidea). Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London 82:
173-362.


245

















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I 'I















A NEW DERMATOPHAGOIDES: IT PREVENTS
THE RISING OF SELF-RISING FLOUR
(ACARINA: EPIDERMOPTIDAE)1

DONALD DE LEON
Erwin, Tennessee

Mites of the genus Dermatophagoides Bogdanov, 1864, have varied hab-
its. Some are parasites on birds and on man, some are free living, feeding
on a wide variety of food. The Dermatophagoides described below came
from self-rising, biscuit flour in a kitchen flour bin used almost daily.
In the course of conversation with a housewife one day, she remarked
that every summer for some years past she had trouble with her biscuits
often not rising properly. "This summer", she said, "is no exception."
An examination of a sample of the flour in the bin revealed a heavy mite
infestation. It was not determined whether the mites fed on the baking
powder in the flour and thus prevented its rising or whether some chemical
in the mites counter-acted the baking powder, but it seems almost certain
from the information given me by the housewife that the mites in some way
caused the difficulty.







3 1















EXPLANATION OF FIGURES
Dermatophagoides culinae, n. sp. Fig. 1, dorsal (left) and ventral
(right) views of female; fig. 2, anal gland of female; fig. 3, dorsal propodo-
somal shield of male (note posterolateral extensions which include setae
see and sci); fig. 4, posteroventral area of male hysterosoma; figs. 5-8, legs
I-IV respectively of male.
Cost of engravings borne by a grant from the Pinellas Foundation, Inc.,
St. Petersburg, Florida.
St. Petersburg, Florida.













The Florida Entomologist


In the description all measurements are in microns and I have followed
Hughes (1961) in the names used to designate setae.

Dermatophagoides culinae, new species 2
Dermatophagoides culinae appears to be most closely allied to D. farinae
Hughes. It differs most noticeably from that species in that it is a larger
mite, the apex of tarsus III of the female bears a flattened, notched ex-
pansion, tibia IV bears a solenidion and a seta, and apodemes I of the
male join medially to form a Y-shaped structure.
FEMALE: Idiosoma lightly sclerotized, 390 long, 300 wide with pattern
of striation and setae arranged as shown in figure 1, left. Seta ps appar-
ently absent; seta see 130, he 15, la 11, Ip 35, sae 18, sai 300, and pal
196 long. Some specimens have a large, brown, oval area between setae
la and Ip; all specimens bear, slightly posterolateral of seta la, a small,
oval sclerotized ring in the cuticula. Lateral of the anal flap is a gland or
gland-like body (Figure 2) about 14 long, the duct of which can be followed
down to near the base of seta pal. Fixed digit with a double row of teeth,
3 teeth in the outer row, 2 in the inner row. Legs with setae and solenidia
as shown in figure 1, right. Tarsus I in some specimens, as shown in figure
1, bears a coarse, short, ventral spur at about midlength; in other speci-
mens this spur is replaced by a long seta.
MALE: Idiosoma 308-401 long, 217-281 wide; hysterosoma with a large
shield extending forward to between d2 and d3, laterally to slightly anterior
of seta Ip, and posteriorly to the ventral surface with a pair of arms bor-
dering the anal flaps. Lateral pore of hysterosoma present. Leg I is
greatly enlarged, leg III is enlarged, but not as much as leg I, leg II
slightly smaller than leg III, and leg IV is much smaller and shorter than
leg III. The chaetotaxy of the legs is shown in figures .5-8.
Holotype: Female, Erwin, Tenn., August 6, 1961 (D. De Leon), from
self-rising biscuit flour in household kitchen. Paratypes: 3 females, 2
males collected with holotype.
The following key to the species of the world has been prepared almost
entirely from descriptions in the literature. Hughes (1961) suppresses
Pyroglyphus Cunliffe, 1958, placing it in Dermatophagoides. I have ex-
amined specimens of P. morlani Cunliffe, 1958; it does not appear to me to
belong to Dermatophagoides and so it has not been included in the key. I
doubt that D. africanus Hughes, 1961, belongs here and so it too has been
omitted.
KEY TO Dermatophagoides BOGDANOV, 1864
(Males)3

1. Hysterosoma without or with only 1 pair of long setae at posterior
end..........--- ............-- --------. ---- ------------------------ -----------------------------2

'Dr. E. W. Baker, A.R.S., U.S.D.A., made the primary identification of
the new species.
I D. toxopei (Oud.) is not included in the key as the male appears to be
unknown. Dubinin (1953) includes it in his key, but the characters he gives
for distinguishing it from D. pteronyssinus (posterior part of propodosomal
shield rounded) are those given by Oudemans (1928) for the female. D.
toxopei was taken from the webs of Schizotetranychus asparagi (Oud.) on
Asparagus sprengeri.


248


Vol. 46, No. 3













De Leon: A New Dermatophagoides


Hysterosoma with at least 2 pairs of long setae at posterior end............ 3
2. Hysterosoma with posterior end evenly rounded; outer pair of pos-
terior setae not much coarser than inner pair. (On rats and
birds) .-----------------..-------..----------......--............................................. crassus (Can.)
Hysterosoma with posterior end produced and somewhat bilobed;
outer pair of posterior setae much coarser than inner pair. (On
mold, mammal skins, and from granary)......................------ -longior (Berl.)
3. Apodemes III united transversely anterior of genitalia (From
woodpecker nares, Korea) ---------------..................-----..-----............... sorensoni Tibbetts
Apodemes III not united with each other--.....------- --.----------.........................4
4. Leg I very much thicker than leg II-............................------------------------..........................--- 5
Leg I about the same size as leg II-------------.....................---..----------......................----.. 6
5. Apodemes I joining at midline to form a V. (In poultry and pig
meal)-...............-......---.....-----....-...........................------------------------------............. farinae Hughes
Apodemes I joining at midline to form a Y. (In self-rising flour)
.---.- ....--------.......---.--.. ---- ----------. culinae, n. sp.
6. Shield surrounding anus round or broadly oval. (On mammal skins
and dried insects)-.................................................pteronyssinus (Trous.)
Shield surrounding anus constricted or abruptly narrowed anteriorly....7
7. Apodemes I uniting at midline to form a Y. (From human urine)
.....-........... ......----.----- ----.-----------.......takeuchii (Sasa)
Apodemes I not forming a Y........-..............-------------------------------...........................-- 8
8. Leg IV very much smaller than legs I-III. (From sputum) saitoi (Sasa)
Leg IV of about the same size as legs I-III. (From feathers &
human skin).................-------------------..----..................----scheremetewskyi Bogdan.

(Females)4

1. Hysterosoma without or with only 1 pair of long setae at posterior end..2
Hysterosoma with at least 2 pairs of long setae at posterior end.......... 3
2. Leg I with solenidion near distal end of tarsus about 1/3 as long as
solenidion at distal end of tibia; ventral humeral seta much
shorter than half the width of the body........................----------..--longior (Berl.)
Leg I with solenidion near distal end of tarsus nearly as long as
solenidion at distal end of tibia; ventral humeral seta about half
as long as width of body...--..------------------.................----.....................crassus (Can.)
3. Dorsal propodosomal shield greatly widened anteriorly, the lateral
extensions each with a pore and a seta ................sorensoni Tibbetts
Dorsal propodosomal shield not greatly widened anteriorly or if
widened the lateral extensions without pores or setae..................-----------4...
4. Ventral humeral seta about as long as width of body....---......-....-..-..-..-............-----..5
Ventral humeral seta not much more or shorter than half the width
of the body........-..............----------- -----............. ---------------------------........................... 6
5. Dorsal propodosomal shield narrow, the sides nearly parallel; pos-
terior margin of shield forming an ogival-shaped point................
.--...-.- --------.. --....------------- ..... pteronyssinus (Trous.)

SThe female of D. takeuchii (Sasa) is not known.


249














The Florida Entomologist


Dorsal propodosomal shield widening suddenly posteriorly, the pos-
terior margin rounded, semicircular......................toxopei (Oudemans)
6. Leg IV much smaller and shorter than leg III; lateral margins of
dorsal shield strongly concave-........------------------....................................saitoi (Sasa)
Leg IV of about the same size as leg III; lateral margins of dorsal
shield slightly convex or weakly concave...----............---.---....--...............-------.--7......
7. Tibia IV without either a seta or solenidion---.....-.....-.............farinae Hughes
Tibia IV with a seta and/or a solenidion...........--..............................----------------8....
8. Femur I with a seta about as long as solenidion at distal end of
tibia I -................-- ......----------.......---------- ----................culinae, n. sp.
Femur I with a seta very much shorter than solenidion at distal
end of tibia I-............-..----..........------------------......------scheremetewskyi Bogdanov

LITERATURE CITED

Cunliffe, F. 1958. Pyroglyphus morlani, a new genus and species of mite
forming a new family, Pyroglyphidae, in the Acaridiae. Ent. Soc.
Wash. Proc. 60(2): 85-86.
Dubinin, V. B. 1953. Arachnoidea-Feather mites (Analgesoidea) Part
2-Epidermoptidae-Freyanidae. Fauna USSR 6, 6: 1-412.
Hughes, A. M. 1961. The mites of stored food. Minist. Agri., Fisheries,
and Food. Tech. Bul. 9. 287 p., illus. London.
Oudemans, A. C. 1928. Acarologische aanteekeningen. Ent. Ber. VII
(159): 293.
Sasa, M. 1950. Mites of the genus Dermatophagoides Bogdanov 1864
found from three cases of human acariasis. Jap. J. Exp. Med. 20:
519-525.
Tibbetts, T. 1955. A new nasal mite from a Korean woodpecker. Ent.
Soc. Wash. Proc. 57(4): 197-201.


250


Vol. 46, No. 3
















SELECTIVE TOXICANTS AND TOXICANT-SURFACTANT
COMBINATIONS FOR LEAFMINER, LIRIOMYZA
MUNDA FRICK, CONTROL AND
PARASITE SURVIVAL

DAN A. WOLFENBARGER 2 AND L. W. GETZIN 8
Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Weslaco

The leafminer, Liriomyza munda Frick, is an important pest of various
vegetable crops. Several insecticides, applied for the control of the leaf-
miner, did not reduce populations of the hymenopterous parasite, Deros-
tenus variipes (Cwfd.),' according to Getzin (1959). Subsequent to the
publication of these data it was thought other phosphate compounds would
offer selective action relative to the leafminer-parasite relationship.
It has been reported that control of certain foliage-feeding insects can
be increased by surfactants or surface active agents to insecticides. Sur-
factants, both alone and in combination with various toxicants, were evalu-
ated for initial and residual effectiveness to show where the addition of
a surfactant would aid in reducing toxicant concentrations for leafminer
control. Additional experiments were designed to (1) gain information on
losses in pepper yields due to leafminer infestations, (2) investigate re-
ports of leafminer tolerance to methyl parathion, and (3) evaluate new
chemicals for leafminer control and parasite survival. Wolfenbarger (1956)
evaluated the effects of leafminer infestations on potatoes but not on
peppers.
MATERIALS, METHODS, AND RESULTS
Experimental plots of peppers (Yolo Wonder), cantaloupes (Wescan),
and Southernpeas (California Blackeye No. 5) were planted at Progreso,
Mission or Weslaco. Plots were one or two rows wide and 25 to 40 feet
in length and arranged in a randomized complete block design. Most ma-
terials were applied with a carbon-dioxide small plot sprayer with approxi-
mately 34 p.s.i. and 27 gallons per acre. Plots two rows wide 25 feet in
length were sprayed with a tractor mounted small plot sprayer at a rate
of 64 gallons of the finished spray per acre at 60 p.s.i. in experiments 6,
7 and 9. The dust applications were applied at the rate of 25 pounds per
acre with a rotary hand duster. Five leaves per plot were sampled except
as indicated.
All insecticidal effects were evaluated as described by Wolfenbarger
(1962). Leaf samples, in pint ice cream carton cages, were held at 270 C
for five days for leafminer pupal development and adult parasite emergence.

1 Contribution of Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Substation
No. 15, Weslaco.
2 Associate Entomologist.
Present address Western Washington Experiment Station, Puyallup,
Washington.
4 Ganaspidium pusillae adults were determined by L. H. Weld, and
Derostenus variipes were identified by B. D. Burks, of the Parasite Intro-
duction and Insect Identification Branch, Entomology Research Division,
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland.













252 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 46, No. 3

Pupae were counted and held with the adult hymenopterous parasites which
had emerged from the leaves in glass vials until adult leafminer and para-
site emergence was complete. These were then sorted by species and
counted.
EXPERIMENT 1.-Chemical distributors and growers alike often consider
methyl parathion and ethyl parathion as insecticides that will react sim-
ilarly with leafminers. During the spring and summer of 1960 numerous
reports indicated that methyl parathion was not controlling leafminer pop-
ulations. Therefore, methyl parathion and related compounds were com-
pared for toxicity to the leafminer during the 1960-61 seasons. Excellent
control of the leafminer was obtained with ethyl parathion, Delnav, and
dimethoate (Table 1).

TABLE 1.-CONTROL OF THE LEAFMINER, Liriomyza munda, IN PEPPERS WITH
INSECTICIDES Two DAYS AFTER TREATMENT. MISSION, TEXAS, 1960.

Actual toxicant Percent
Treatment* per acre control

Parathion 0.5 98
Methyl parathion 0.05 21
Ethion 0..5 66
Ethion 0.25 66
Delnav 0.5 93
Diazinon 0.5 99
Dimethoate 0.25 99
Check (Pupae/leaf) (10.5)


Applied 5/25.

The methyl parathion gave little control of leafminers. It is possible
that a degree of tolerance to methyl parathion exists although the data are
limited. This tolerance may have occurred from repeated applications of
methyl parathion.
EXPERIMENT 2.-Pepper seedlings and mature plants have been killed
and defoliated respectively by leafminer ovipositional punctures and dam-
age by the mining larvae within the leaf tissue. Experiment 2 was there-
fore designed to evaluate yield losses where dimethoate was used to con-
trol the leafminer infestations. The data of the leafminer infestations,
plant stands, plant growth and yields are summarized in Table 2. The
leafminer infestation was severe only during the month of July in this field
and the difference between treatments are the result of the initial damage
only. Since dimethoate was a very effective chemical for leafminer control
(Getzin, 1959), the treated plots were virtually free of mining damage.
Seedling mortality, as measured by recording the percentage of living and
dead plants three weeks after planting, was severe in all treatments. The
30% mortality that occurred in the plots receiving weekly applications of
dimethoate was apparently caused by high temperatures and a severe ac-
cumulation of salts from the irrigation water. The additional seedling













Wolfenbarger: Selective Toxicants for Leafminers 253

mortality above 30% in the remaining two treatments was considered to
have resulted from leafminer damage. The plant stands were recorded
after the field was thinned and the plant heights were severely affected by
the above mentioned adverse conditions. The one application of dimetho-
ate increased the plant stand and growth over the untreated check. The
plant stand and plant growth in the plots receiving weekly applications of
dimethoate were increased 67% and 44%, respectively, over the check.

TABLE 2.-LEAFMINER INFESTATIONS AND YIELDS RELATIVE TO
INSECTICIDAL APPLICATIONS. PROGRESS, TEXAS, 1960.


Insecticide treatment
Weekly One No
Observation applications application applications

Mined cotyledons per 50 plants
on July 21 8 70 70
% mined leaves on August 4 0 0 0.2
% mined leaves on August 25 0 0.1 0.1
% seedling mortality on July 28 30 53 54
Plants per 12 ft. of row on August 18 40 32 24
Av. plant height on September 8 6.9 in. 5.5 in. 4.8 in.
Yield (Ton/acre) 6.29 5.80 4.75



Fruit yields from the plots receiving either the weekly insecticide ap-
plications or the single insecticide application were greater than those of
the check because the plant stand was reduced in the check plot. The fruit
size and the average weight of fruit per plant were greater for the check
plots than for the treatments.
The effect of leafminer damage to peppers in this test must be evaluated
along with the damage that resulted from adversely high temperatures and
the accumulation of salt from irrigation water. The combination of these
factors caused a greater loss of plants than could be attributed to any of
these factors individually. Protection of pepper seedlings as afforded by
the use of insecticides provided a greater plant stand than fields not treated
with insecticides. This protection would be of most benefit for summer
plantings when high temperatures and salt accumulations are also a prob-
lem. The weekly applications of dimethoate were made to obtain plots
completely free of leafminer damage and it is not intended that such a pro-
cedure should be followed by commercial producers.
EXPERIMENT 3.-Plots one row wide and 25 feet in length were arranged
in a randomized complete block design for the evaluation of various insecti-
cides, fungicides, surfactants, and a nematocide on Southern peas for leaf-
miner control (Table 3). Dimethoate at all rates, EPN, malathion, ethion,
phosphamidon, demeton, Sevin, and Delnav were effective initially. Only
dimethoate at both rates, Delnav and Sevin gave control six days after
application. No material gave control 12 days after application.



















The Florida, Entomologist


254


















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258 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 46, No. 3

Adult populations of the leafminer parasite, Ganaspidium pusillae Weld.,
were highest three days after application in the Dilan treatment although
not significantly higher than the untreated check, Atlox 3300, the fungicide
Terrachlor, Pyrellin, and sulphur. Six days after the application more
G. pusillae adults were found in the malathion treated plots than any of
the other treated areas although Dilan was not significantly poorer than
malathion. Delnav and dimethoate (at both rates) appeared to be non-
selective although few leafminer larvae were found six days after applica-
tion. The methyl parathion, Karathane, Maneb, Sevin, and Kepone treat-
ments had significantly lower G. pusillae populations than did the remain-
ing treatments. Zineb, initially, was significantly poorer than Dilan and
appeared to be selective. Twelve days after application no differences were
found between treatments, and parasite populations were low although the
treatments had little or no effect upon their numbers.
EXPERIMENT 4.-Table 4 shows results from comparisons of various
phosphate insecticides and two new carbamates for control of leafminers
attacking Southern peas. Bayer 29493, dimethoate, and ethion were the
most effective materials at the indicated rates. Seven days after applica-
tion ethion and dimethoate were the most effective materials. Dibrom,
Tedion, and Kepone were ineffective three days after application and the
carbamate insecticides Bayer 39007 and Zectran were relatively ineffective.
At the low rate, dimethoate gave some indication of selective action three
days after application. Both carbamate insecticides appeared to be toxic
to the attacking parasite species while Kepone, Tedion, and the untreated
check had significantly higher G. pusillae populations than did the remainder
of the treatments. Ten to 13 days after the insecticidal application, para-
site and leafminer infestations were not affected by the foliar applications.
EXPERIMENT 5.-Table 5 compares several compounds in relation to the
standard parathion and the untreated check for leafminer control on South-
ern peas. Three and seven days after the first application all treatments
were superior to the untreated check and Telodrin. Parathion, Imidan,
Vapona, Bayer 29493, and methyl demeton were equal in effectiveness.
Bayer 29493, methyl demeton, and Vapona plots had high populations of
parasites three days after application. Imidan and parathion were toxic to
D. variipes populations and were significantly poorer than the selective ma-
terials. Seven days after application no parasites were found.
EXPERIMENT 6.-Results of various toxicants in relation to leafminre
infestations and parasite survival on tomatoes are described in Table 6.
The most effective material for leafminer control was GC 4072; SD 3562
exhibited initial effectiveness but did not show residual effectiveness.
EXPERIMENT 7.-On Southern peas all the insecticides, when added to
the surfactants, B-1956 and X-100, each at three rates, gave significant ini-
tial control (Table 7). Delnav in combination with X-100 and B-1956 gave
excellent residual control and was significantly better than the remaining
toxicant-surfactant combinations. Diazinon and parathion in combination
with B-1956 gave increased control as the surfactant concentration was
increased. The B-19.56 (1 pint concentration) plus toxicant combination
equalled the untreated check in leafminer populations at seven days. This
was not exhibited in the X-100 insecticide combinations.













Wolfenbarger: Selective Toxicants for Leafminers 259


TABLE 5.-CONTROL OF Liriomyza munda WITH FOLIAR APPLICATIONS OF
INSECTICIDES AND PERCENT PARASITE SURVIVAL ON TOMATOES, (HOME-
STEAD 24), PROGRESS, TEXAS. 1961.


D. variipes
on days
Pupae per leaf on days after last
after** last application application
toicant as indicated as indicated
toxicant
Treatments* (Lbs/A) 3 7 3

Parathion 0.5 0 a 0 a 0 b
Telodrin (SD 4402) 0.25 0.5 b 0.7 b 16 ab
Imidan (R-1504) 0.6 0. 0 a 0 a 1 b
Vapona 0.5 0.1 a 0.2 b 30 a
Bayer 29493 1.0 0 a 0.1 a 29 a
Methyl demeton 0.75 0.1 a 0.1 a 30 a
Check 0.4 b 1.6 b 6 ab


Applied 6/2, 6/16.
** 15 leaflets sampled.




TABLE 6.-CONTROL OF Liriomyza munda WITH FOLIAR APPLICATIONS OF
INSECTICIDES AND PERCENT PARASITE SURVIVAL ON TOMATOES (HOME-
STEAD 24), PROGRESS, TEXAS. 1961.

D. variipes
on days
after last
Pupae per leaf on days after application
last application as as
indicated indicated
Treatment* (Lbs/A) 3 11 3

Toxaphene 3.0 1.2 ab 3.7 b 1 b
GC 4072 0.75 0 a 0.5 ab 1 b
SD 3562 0.25 0.5 ab 1.0 ab 8 b
Dylox** 3.0 2.0 b 0.2 a 15 a
Genite 2.0 1.5 b 3.4 b 9 b
Check 1.2 ab 2.6 ab 12 a

Applied 4/22, 4/28, 5/8, 6/2.
** Dusts applied 4/24, 4/28, 5/9, 6/2.
f (25 leaves sampled).


















The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 46, No. 3


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Wolfenbarger: Selective Toxicants for Leafminers 263

EXPERIMENT 8.-Diazinon was compared with other phosphate insecti-
cides for leafminer control on peppers in Table 8. Leafminers are a limit-
ing factor to pepper production as high infestations can severely defoliate
pepper plants. Five days after the third application all materials except
Thiodan effectively reduced leafminer infestations while only Bayer 25141
reduced infestations 11 days after the fourth application.
EXPERIMENT 9.-Six phosphate insecticides (Table 9) were evaluated
and compared for leafminer control. The plots were one row wide and 25
feet in length, arranged in a randomized complete block design, and sprayed
at 27 gallons per acre and 34 p.s.i. Three days after application Imidan
and Dibrom were inferior to ethion and ronnel while seven days after ap-
plication only ethion was effective. No material was effective 15 days after
application and none appeared to be selective as few parasites were found
in any of the plots including the untreated check.

TABLE 9.-SCREENING INSECTICIDES FOR LEAFMINER CONTROL ON SOUTH-
ERNPEAS (CALIFORNIA BLACKEYE No. 5) WITH FOLIAR SPRAYS, WESLACO,
TEXAS. 1961.

Leafminer pupae per leaf on
Actual days after last application
toxicant as indicated**
toxicant
Material* (Lbs/At 3 7

Imidan 0.125 2.85 c 4.05 ab
Imidan 0.25 1.70 abed 3.90 ab
Imidan 0.5 1.65 abed 2.25 ab
Imidan 0.75 1.45 abc 4.20 abc
Imidan 1.0 0.25 ab 3.15 ab
Ethion 0.25,. 0.10 a 0.65 ab
Ethion 0.5 0 a 0.75 ab
Ethion 0.75 0.10 a 0.80 ab
Ethion 1.0 0.05 a 0.15 a
Dibrom 1.25 2.35 bed 2.40 ab
Phosdrin 0.25 2.10 abed 1.65 ab
Phosdrin 0.75 0.65 abc 2.10 ab
ASP 51 1.0 0.95 abc 1.65 ab
Ronnel 1.0 1.35 abc 1.20 ab
Ronnel 2.0 0 a 1.70 ab
Check 3.90 d 2.60 ab


Applied 8/21.
** a, b, c, d. Any two means in the same column and associated with the same super-
script letter are not significantly different according to Duncan's multiple range test at 5%
level.

DISCUSSION
The data indicate that a tolerance to methyl parathion is found in leaf-
miner population. Wene (1956) evaluated methyl parathion in 1953 and









The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 46, No. 3


showed that at identical rates methyl parathion equalled ethyl parathion
in leafminer control.
The data do show that losses in peppers are due to leafminer infestation.
Weekly applications of dimethoate did increase pepper yields approxi-
mately two tons per acre. In fall plantings, however, it is often difficult
to distinguish what factor or factors reduce plant height and numbers.
Salt content of the water used to irrigate plots when August temperatures
are high combined with insect infestations are features to consider when
evaluating losses in a small seeded crop such as peppers. Wene et al. (1955)
found that in water with a high salt content (2400-2700 ppm) pepper plants
were reduced in height and had fewer leaves per plant than did plants irri-
gated with water containing 420-600 ppm salt. Also, there was a significant
increase in the percent leaves per plant infested by leafminers in the high
salt content.
Tables 4-7 show that variations exist in Derostenus variipes popula-
tions. Dylox, Vapona, methyl demeton, Bayer 29493 and dimethoate offer
promise as selective toxicants. Vapona, methyl demeton and Bayer 29493
were the only materials not evaluated by Getzin (1959) and found to be
relatively selective to D. variipes populations. The Triton surfactants,
B-1956 and X-100, when combined with Delnav, were very effective in com-
parison to Parathion and Diazinon. Surfactants have been mentioned only
sporadically in entomological literature relative to insects attacking veg-
etable crops. Small, soft-bodied insects such as leafminers and aphids, as
well as mites, probably offer the most promise for the evaluation of the
effectiveness of surfactants, either alone or in combination with insecticides.
Carbamate insecticides do not appear to be effective leafminer controlling
agents.
The chemical names of the proprietary insecticides used in these evalua-
tions are listed below:

Delnav-2,3-p-dioxanedithion S, S-bis (0,0-diethyl phosphorodithioate)
Diazinon-O,O-diethyl O-(2-idopropyl 1,4 methyl 6 pyrimidinyl phos-
phorothioate)
EPN-ethyl p-nitrophenyl benzene thiophosphonate
Dylox-dimethyl 2,2,2-trichloro-l-hydroxy-phenyl mercapto methyl phos-
phorodithioate
Sevin-1-napthyl N-methyl carbamate
Kepone-dacachlorooctahydro 1,3,4-methano-2H chlorobuta (led) penta-
len 2-one
Phosdrin-l-methoxycarbonyl-l-propen-2-yl dimethyl phosphate
Dilan-2-nitro 1,1-bis (p-chlorophenyl) propane and butane mixture
(1-2 ratio)
Zineb-zinc ethylene disdithiocarbamate
Dibrom-1,2-dibromo-2,2-dichloroethyl dimethyl phosphate
TEPP-tetraethyl phyrophosphate
AC 24055-1,1-dimethyl-3-(p-acetamidophenyl) trizine
Maneb-Manganous ethylene disdithiocarbamate
Karathane-dinitro (1-methyl hept yl) phenyl crotonate
HRS-16-Bis (pentachlorocyclopentadienyl)
Tedion-p-chlorophenyl 2,4,5-trichloro phenyl
Pyrellin-pyrethrum, allethrin, pine oil mixtures
Nemagon-1,2-dibromo-3-chloro propane
Terrachlor-penta chlorononitro benzene
Genite-2,4 dichloro phenyl benzene sulfonate
Bayer 39007-o-isopropoxyphenyl methyl carbamate
Zectran-4-dimethyl znimo-3,5-xylyl methyl carbamate
Bayer 29493-O,0-dimethyl 0- (4-methylthio)-m-tolyl) phosphorothioate


264












Wolfenbarger: Selective Toxicants for Leafminers


Vapona (DDVP)-O,0-dimethyl 2,2-dichloro vinyl phosphate
Imidan (R1504)-O,O-dimethyl S-phth alimidomethyl phosphorodithio-
ate
GC 4072-diethyl-1-(2,4 dichlorophenyl)-2-chloro vinyl phosphate
SD 3562-2-dimethyl carbamoyl-1-methyl vinyl dimethyl phosphate
Thiodan-6,7,8,9,10,10-hexachloro-1,5,5a,6,9,9a-hexahydro-6,9-methano-
2,4,3-benzodioxathiepin 3-oxide
Bayer 25141-0,0-diethyl O-p-(methyl sulfinyl) phenyl phosphorothio-
ate
LITERATURE CITED
Getzin, L. W. 1959. Selective insecticides for vegetable leafminer control
parasite survival. Jour. Econ. Ent. 53(5): 872-875.
Wene, George P. 1956. Control of serpentining leafminer infestations on
seedling tomatoes and cantaloupes. Rio Grande Valley Hort. Soc.
10: 67-68.
Wene, George P., H. W. Gausman, and W. R. Cowley. 1955. Effect of salt
content of irrigation water on the growth of pepper and the magni-
tude of the serpentine leafminer infestation. Rio Grande Valley Hort.
Soc. 9: 28-29.
Wolfenbarger, D. 0. 1958. Serpentine leafminer: brief history and sum-
mary of control measures in South Florida. Jour. Econ. Ent. 51(2):
357-359.
Wolfenbarger, Dan A. 1962. Toxicant-surfactant combinations and toxi-
cants for leafminer, Liriomyza munda Frick, control. Texas Agr.
Exp. Sta. Progress Report. 2246.







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