Volume 46, No. 4
True, Henry H.-Entomology-The Profession
of Opportunity .....-------.-----.------.. ... ..----------..-.. .. ....---
Rhoades, W. C.-The History and Use of Agricultural
Chemicals ....................----------- --........ .......
Brooks, R. F., and W. L. Thompson-Investigations of
New Scalicides for Florida Citrus ...---...- ...-...- ......-------.--.
Trost, Lucille M. W., and Lewis Berner-The Biology of
Callibaetis floridanus Banks (Ephemeroptera:
Baetidae) .................-------... ..............---------
Rhoades, W. C.-A Synecological Study of the Effects of
the Imported Fire Ant Eradication Program .......-----......---
Minutes of the 46th Annual Meeting of The Florida
Entom logical Society ......................... .........................
N ew s N otes ....... ... ................................. ............. 318
Yearian, W. C., and R. C. Wilkinson-An Artificial Rear-
ing Medium for Ips calligraphus Germ ..........................
Published by The Florida Entomological Society
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
OFFICERS FOR 1963-64
President.......---------------------......................-------......................--........--.-- G. W. Dekle
Vice-President........................-------------------..------......--.......--..-..........--N. C. Hayslip
Secretary .......-...--.--...........--------.....-...--....--..--.....................-----------.....-.....--S. H. Kerr
Treasurer............-------------........--.....--....---.....--........-....-------.... Robert E. Waites
W. G. Genung
Other Members of Executive Committee ..... A. K. Burditt, Jr.
Thomas J. Walker.. ....------------............... Associate Editor
Robert E. Waites..--...----....................-----Business Manager
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ENTOMOLOGY-THE PROFESSION OF OPPORTUNITY1
HENRY H. TRUE
A presidential address allows the speaker a go-od deal of latitude in
choosing his subject. Over the almost half century of our Society's exist-
ence we have had many excellent addresses from a succession of able Presi-
dents ranging over the whole field of entomological endeavour. For ex-
ample in a recent year we have had Milledge Murphey's inspiring message
emphasizing the importance ,of either an individual or an organization such
as ours having a sense of purpose. In 1959, Bill Hunter gave us a stimulat-
ing talk on the role of imagination in entomology. Two of his examples
were the pioneering work in the control of insects such as the screw worm
by means of sterilization, and the development of other new concepts such
as the use of microbial insecticides. These were topics of a somewhat gen-
eral nature. Last year by contrast, Lewis Berner made a skillful presenta-
tion of some very careful scientific work in the specific field of insect be-
I have attempted to make the theme and the keynote of this year and
of this meeting the subject of opportunity in entomology and thus have
chosen as my title "Entomology-The Profession of Opportunity". I hope
to emphasize the fact that entomology is truly a profession of opportunity.
I use the word 'opportunity' in two senses. First our profession itself has
had and continues to have opportunities to benefit man in every field of his
endeavor and has risen magnificently to these opportunities. Secondly, in so
doing, to those individuals electing to follow the profession of entomology it
offers a multitude of opportunities for interesting and satisfying careers,
for contributing to man's health, enjoyment, comfort and economic well-
being and progress, and for personal prestige, attainments, and financial re-
wards. These opportunities have been taken advantage of by approximately
4500 men and women in the United States who are now engaged in the
profession of entomology, but they are not exhausted as there is a con-
tinuing need for qualified :entomologists and will be for the foreseeable
This is our Society's 46th Annual Meeting. About the time it was
founded I was engaged in my first entomological activity. This consisted
of dipping a whisk broom into a bucket of poison and flicking it over po-
tato vines to kill Colorado potato beetles. This early and involuntary in-
troduction.to the problems of insect control as one phase of a boyhood spent
close to the land may have influenced the voluntary decision a few years
later to study entomology. I am inclined to think that it did. At any rate
fewer youths now have 'this type of experience or the chance to have their
interests stimulated in such aspects of Nature because fewer live on farms
now than at any time in our history. In the past 20-odd years, for example,
in spite of the astronomical increase in its total population Florida's farm
population has decreased by 40% from approximately 300,000 in 1940 to
about 180,000 now. Therefore it is important that young people with any
interest in the biological sciences or in Nature be made aware of the op-
1 Presidential address read at the 46th Annual Meeting of The Florida
The Florida Entomologist
portunities our profession offers, whenever and wherever possible and by
each of us.
The importance of entomology in raising crops is, I suppose, recognized
by any informed person. It is obvious that with greatly expanding popula-
tions, food requirements also expand and insects attacking our food crops
must be controlled more and more effectively. An example of an oppor-
tunity our profession had to do this is offered by the sweet corn industry in
Florida. This industry was virtually non-existent in Florida as recently
as 18 years ago. By contrast in the 1959-60 season the value of the Florida
sweet corn crop was 131/2 million dollars, being exceeded in dollar value
by only three other vegetable crops. The creation of this important con-
tribution to Florida's agricultural economy was directly due to agricultural,
and particularly, entomological research.
Although entomological work on crops is critically important to the
present health and living standards, and to the future survival, of man, this
is only one field where entomology has great opportunities to benefit man-
kind and has risen to these opportunities. Another area, of course, in which
entomology has made tremendous contributions is in the field of public
health. It is now possible to travel widely and to reside in many tropical
regions with no fear of, for example, yellow fever or malaria because of
research on the part of medical entomologists. Medicine, like agriculture,
has had a terrific assist from entomology.
It would perhaps be impossible to list all fields of human activity in
which entomology is important and in which it offers satisfying careers. A
partial list would include not only agriculture (embracing the production
of food and fibre crops, ornamentals, and livestock), and medicine (em-
bracing the role of insects in both human and animal diseases), but educa-
tion, structural pest control, mosquito control, forestry, governmental reg-
ulatory work, research for either governmental or private organizations,
the production, sale, and servicing of products designed to control harmful
or annoying insects, and beekeeping. In other words a man or a woman
can be an entomologist and also play an important part in, for example, the
citrus industry, the cattle industry, the chemical industry, etc. Put another
way, an entomologist can, in addition to being an entomologist, be an im-
portant and outstanding educator, governmental official, businessman, or a
member of some other broad category. Our profession has room and need
for all types of people from basic research workers to salesmen, from in-
troverts to extroverts.
As our profession has broadened during the life of our Society, so has
the field of possible careers. When I was taking entomology as an under-
graduate, the acceptable and insofar as I can remember I think almost the
only careers which were considered respectable for entomology majors were
in state or governmental work or in teaching. In contrast, the brochure en-
titled "Opportunities in Professional Entomology", published by the En-
tomological Society of America and last printed in 1962, states that of the
estimated 4500 professional entomologists in the United States, about 25%
work for the United States Department of Agriculture, 10% for other Fed-
eral agencies, and 15% for state institutions. This is a total of 50%, leav-
ing 50% employed by non-governmental organizations, or self-employed.
Some non-governmental employers, as listed in the same brochure, are in-
Vol. 46, No. 4
True: Entomology-Profession of Opportunity
secticide manufacturers, pest control firms, privately endowed colleges, uni-
versities, and private research foundations.
It is apparent from this very superficial survey that the student choos-
ing entomology has a wider choice of employers, industries, and institu-
tions and of types 'of work than in many other fields that he might select.
He also has the satisfaction of knowing that he is entering a profession
dedicated to the task of improving the lot of mankind and that offers stim-
ulating opportunities for personal recognition. Furthermore, financial re-
wards are comparable to those in most other scientific fields.
There is at times, I think, a tendency among those of us who were
trained in or who are practicing entomology to feel that our profession is
not sufficiently recognized. If there is any justification for this: feeling per-
haps one reason is that, generally speaking, entomologists are better scien-
tists than public relations experts, and another reason might be the very
diversity of entomological activities, as I have tried to point out. This di-
versity means that the science of entomology is diffused, so to speak, thru a
good many other professions or activities which have little to do with each
other, for example, medicine, agriculture, and forestry. Thus perhaps en-
tomology as a distinct profession does not stand out sharply enough in the
eyes of the public as a whole. Whatever the reason, and however long it
takes to gain our profession greater recognition, which will surely come,
let us be proud to be entomologists, and let us on every possible occasion em-
phasize that entomology is a true profession of opportunity. Thank you.
FOR ALL PURPOSES
Carefully Executed a Delivered on Time
PEPPER PRINTING COMPANY
All your pest control
Fungicides and Dips
Delivered when you need them from one of
our warehouses that's near you.
FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY COMPANY
POST OFFICE BOX 658
JACKSONVILLE 1, FLORIDA
THE HISTORY AND USE OF AGRICULTURAL
W. C. RHOADES
The first question that would probably be asked is: What are agricul-
tural chemicals? Let me explain:
1. Insecticides: The type of agricultural chemical most familiar
and probably the most important. It is used, of course, to
control injurious insects affecting plants, animals, and man.
2. Fungicides: Probably the second most important type of agri-
cultural chemical, though the Plant Pathologists might disagree.
It is used to control or prevent diseases that attack plants.
3. Herbicides: Used to control noxious and unwanted vegetation.
4. Rodenticides: Used to control rodent populations.
5. Antibiotics: A rather new development by comparison, used
to control plant diseases caused by fungi and bacteria.
6. Plant regulators: Used to make plants grow faster or slower
according to the desires of man. Accelerates, retards, or other-
wise alters the behavior of plants.
7. Defoliants: Used to make plants shed their leaves to facilitate
maturing and harvesting.
8. Desiccants: Chemicals which artificially speed drying of plant
tissue to make harvesting easier.
Some of the agricultural chemicals used today have been used by farm-
ers for nearly 100 years. All of them are used to reduce losses caused by
pests and to produce insect and worm-free foods for our tables. In recent
years some of these chemicals have come into wide use by the public and
by health officials. They are used to eradicate or control pests which spread
diseases to all species of warm blooded animals, thus saving probably mil-
lions of lives and billions of dollars caused by the ravages of these pests.
In these days of plenty, we find it very difficult to remember that our
forefathers often suffered famine and death caused by pests. The Bible
mentions many injurious pests, from mildew to locusts, and gives dramatic
accounts of the wasted fields and lost harvests they caused. The only tools
man had at his command then were magic spells, waving fans, and flails
wielded by weary slaves. These were little more than feeble human pro-
tests against the overwhelming number of these pests.
When the first white men came to North America they found a race
of rather primitive men living in reasonable harmony with a relatively sta-
ble environment. Under these conditions, this continent supported a popu-
lation of about one million persons and provided in excess of 2000 acres
per capital. Then as now, many species of insects attacked every crop that
grew and neither man nor beast escaped their ravages.
In the years that followed, with agriculture on a subsistence basis and
a -seemingly endless supply of land available, there was plenty for all, and
1 Presidential address (1962) read at the 46th Annual Meeting of the
Florida Entomological Society.
The Florida Entomologist
farmers raised only feeble objections to share-cropping with the pests.
Later as the urban populations increased, each individual farmer was called
upon to meet the food and fiber requirements of an ever-increasing number
of individuals. This he had to do on a decreasing number of acres per
capital. This trend has continued until today we have only ten acres or
less per person, six or seven of these acres are classified as farm land but
only about two are devoted to crop production.
For the first two hundred years, although complaining bitterly at times,
farmers generally had little choice but to rely upon nature to control their
insect enemies. Then as losses mounted and standards of perfection de-
manded by an increasingly more discriminating consuming public rose, the
farmers began to clamor for governmental aid and scientific guidance in
the solution of their insect control problems.
As recently as some fifty years ago, one farmer had to produce only
enough food and fiber for himself and four others whereas today he has to
produce enough for himself and twenty-seven others. The consumers have
become even more discriminating today than ever before. The demand that
all food products be free from all types of pest damages has placed a heavy
responsibility and burden on the present day farmer.
The early state and federal entomologists were essentially naturalists,
and they preached the gospel of biological and cultural insect control meth-
ods. For years these measures dominated all entomological endeavor be-
cause these officials had no other means of control, but when these methods
proved inadequate, they turned to chemicals which showed promise. Thus
we entered the age of chemical insect control.
The large-scale practical use of insecticides is one of the important
technological developments of the 20th century. While it is true numerous
materials such as lye, lime, turpentine, soap and fish oil, to name a few, were
used as insecticides prior to the year 1800, the really effective use of agri-
cultural insecticides had its origin with the first use of Paris green to con-
trol the Colorado potato beetle in 1867. As the uses for Paris green were
expanded to include the control of the codling moth, cankerworms, cotton
leafworms, and many other leaf-feeding species, insecticide usage increased
The success of Paris green naturally led to the testing and study of
many related arsenical compounds, some of which possessed characteristics
that were highly advantageous for certain specific uses. Lead arsenate
was tested quite extensively and intensively in the 1890's but did not come
into commercial use until after the turn of the century. Calcium arsenate
became popular for control of the Colorado potato beetle in 1912 and for
cotton boll weevil control in 1919. Cryolite and related fluorine compounds;
pyrethrum, rotenone, nicotine, petroleum oils, tars, cresols, and many lesser
products became popular insecticides in the 1930's and '40's.
With the advent of DDT for agricultural use in 1945 and the large
array of chlorinated hydrocarbon and organophosphate insecticides that
followed in rapid succession, many of the older materials suffered a rapid
decline in popularity, and they were almost entirely replaced by the more
effective synthetic organic insecticides. As the entomologists and chemists,
working hand in hand, produced and placed in the hands of the people who
needed to use them, such as farmers, nurserymen, public health officials,
conversationists, and home gardeners, new pesticides such as DDT and hun-
Vol. 46, No. 4
Rhoades: The History and Use of Chemicals
dreds of other new chemicals possessing heretofore unknown pesticidal
qualities, a number of competent scientists expressed concern because they
feared the widespread use of these materials might create a public health
problem. Immediately a number of publicity seekers and misguided indi-
viduals seized upon the idea that the public was being poisoned, and the
whole country was deluged with an amazing flood of scare stories. Then,
as the general public began to show some concern, and as charges and
counter-charges were hurled back and forth in several places, the scientists
settled down to a detailed analysis and factual study of the problem. The
public health aspects of the problem were reviewed by several prominent
scientific bodies, notably the World Health Organization, the U. S. Public
Health Service, and the Food Protection Committee of the National Re-
search Council. The general conclusions drawn in each instance were: (1)
the large scale usage of pesticides in the manner recommended by the man-
ufacturer or competent authorities and consistent with the rules and regu-
lations under existing laws could not be inconsistent with sound public
health programs and (2) although the careless or unauthorized use of pesti-
cidal chemicals might pose potential hazards requiring further considera-
tion and study, there was no cause for alarm.
I would like to conclude these few remarks by quoting a few excerpts
or statements from some prominent scientists and learned societies:
1. "If all the food in the world-including surplus stores were dis-
tributed equally and each person received identical quantities, we would all
be malnourished. If the entire world were fed on our level (United States),
all available food would be only enough to feed less than half the Human
Race". Dr. George Borgstrom, Dept. of Food Science, Michigan State
2. "It seems evident that the American people cannot be fed ade-
quately unless crops and livestock are protected from insects, and other
pests". Pesticides Subcommittee, National Academy of Sciences.
3. "There is no confirmed record of clinical effect from eating food
treated with pesticides according to approved agricultural practice". Jour-
nal of American Medical Association, July 28, 1962.
4. "During years of investigation, it has been impossible to confirm
the allegation that insecticides, when properly used, are the cause of any
disease, either of man or animals." Dr. Wayland J. Hayes, Jr., Public
Health Service, U. S. Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare.
5. "Too my knowledge not one death (excluding accidental deaths) or
serious illness has been caused among the people exposed to the insecticide
(DDT) in connection with the control of insects. I estimate that no less
than 5 million lives have been saved; no less than 100 million illnesses have
been prevented, through the use of DDT for controlling malaria, typhus,
dysentery and many other diseases." E. F. Knipling, A.R.S., U.S.D.A.
6. "Industry, government and non-profit institutions have labored to
create these chemical tools, and to research, develop, test, and establish
safety standards for them. Nevertheless, like other tools of our civiliza-
tion, they are susceptible to misuse and abuse which can result in destruc-
tion to crops, harm to humans, and pollution of our environment. But in-
stances of such misuse and abuse must not be allowed to obscure the fact
that these tools are vital to the health and even the survival of humanity".
Manufacturing Chemists Association, Inc.
In closing I would like to remind everyone that practically all insecti-
cides are poisons and should be treated as such. STOP!! Read the label
Recently cleared by USDA for
protection of certain vegetables,
non-bearing fruits and ornamentals.
Now, from the laboratories of
American Cyanamid Company
comes another new advance in
insecticides... CYGON 400. Wide-
ly tested under the name di-
methoate, CYGON brings an
added dimension to phosphate
insecticides. It combines sys-
temic activity with low-hazard
to man and animal.
Wide safety margin
Unlike previous systemics,
which have generally been of a
rather high order of toxicity,
CYGON is so low in toxicity to
warm blooded animals that its
use does not require "special"
than those normally taken with
CYGON 400 gives outstanding
control of aphids, leafhoppers
and leaf miners and has so far
been cleared by USDA for use
on potatoes, tomatoes and
watermelons. CYGON can also be
used on non-bearing apples,
pears and citrus fruits to con-
trol aphids, mites, thrips and
pear psylla. In addition, CYGON
can be used to control aphids,
thrips, leaf miners, scales, leaf-
hoppers and mites attacking a
number of ornamental plants.
CYGON 400 will be widely
available this year in one gal-
lon and five gallon sizes. For
further information, write ad-
C VA 1VTA MI D
AMERICAN CYANAMID COMPANY
PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY
INVESTIGATIONS OF NEW SCALICIDES FOR
FLORIDA CITRUS 1
R. F. BROOKS AND W. L. THOMPSON
Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, Florida
Chemical control measures frequently are needed to control scale in-
sects on Florida citrus. Four important species are purple scale, Lepido-
saphes beckii (Newm.), Florida red scale, Chrysomphalus aonidum (L.),
snow scale, Unaspis citri (Comst.), and black scale, Saissetia oleae (Bern.).
In recent years purple scale and Florida red scale have been reduced in
importance by the establishment of effective Aphytis sp. parasites (Muma
and Clancy, 1961), but snow scale and black scale have become more diffi-
cult to control. Snow scale is found primarily on the woody portions of
citrus trees in Lake, Orange, Seminole, and Volusia Counties, where it may
kill large limbs and weaken or kill entire trees. Heavy infestations of
black scale affect the color and size of grapefruit (Brooks and Thompson,
The experiments reported here were designed to find better materials
for the control of purple scale, Florida red scale, snow scale, and black
scale. None of the scalicides recommended in Florida adequately controls
all of these scale insects and each has other deficiencies. Oil, for example,
must be properly timed or it will reduce the soluble solids content of juice,
retard degreening, and increase the susceptibility of trees to cold injury
(Thompson and Sites, 1945). Parathion may be used any time of the year
without these effects, but special precautions must be taken because it is
an extremely hazardous material.
METHODS AND RESULTS
Each experiment was arranged in a randomized blocks design, and the
data were subjected to an analysis of variance with Duncan's new multiple
range test at the 1 per cent level. All insecticides listed in the tables were
applied with a high pressure sprayer equipped with double Boyce handguns.
All insecticides used without approved common names are listed in Table 1.
Snow scale populations were determined by counting all third stage
or mature female scales on a square inch of bark surface. Three bark sam-
ples were taken from each tree. Purple scale and Florida red scale popu-
lations were determined by recording the number of third stage female
scale on 50 leaves randomly picked from each tree. Black scale popula-
tions were determined by counting the number of crawlers on 25 twigs at
random around each tree as described by Brooks and Thompson (1962).
EXPERIMENTS 1, 2 AND 3.-During January 1962, three experiments
compared scalicides for the control of snow scale. Experiments 1 and 3
were in groves near Apopka and Zellwood in Orange County, while Ex-
periment 2 was located near Sanford in Seminole County. Single tree plots
in four replicates were used at Apopka and Zellwood, while two-tree plots
in five replicates were used at Sanford. Counts were made 42 days after
1Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 1663.
The Florida Entomologist
TABLE 1. CHEMICAL NAMES OF COMPOUNDS USED WITHOUT
APPROVED COMMON NAMES.
American Cyanamid 47,300
General Chemical 3707
0,0-dimethyl 0-(3-methyl-4-nitrophenyl) phos-
Equal parts of Guthion and its ethyl homolog
0,0,diethyl S-p-chlorophenylthiomethyl phos-
An experimental organophosphorus insecticide
1 naphthyl N-methylcarbamate
A non systemic phosphate insecticide
An experimental organophosphorus insecticide
All of the trees were Valencia orange four to six years old and six to
eight feet high. Those near Zellwood and Sanford had been recently de-
foliated by frost.
The results of these experiments are shown in Table 2. There was no
significant difference in the effectiveness of parathion, Guthion, or Sevin
in the control of snow scale.
TABLE 2. EVALUATION 01F- SEVIN, PARATHION AND GUTHION
FOR THE CONTROL OF CITRUS SNOW SCALE.
No. of 3rd Stage Female Snow Scale
Treatment in Amounts per Sq. In. of Bark Surface at*:
per 100 Gallons
Ap~opka** Sanfordt Zellwood$
Parathion 4E, % pint 9.13 a 2.60 a 2.86 a
Guthion 2E, 1 pint 12.60 a 3.10 a 5.22 a
Sevin 50W, 2 lbs. 27.36 a 7.20 a 7.72 a
No scalicide 61.03 b 30.70 b 37.48 b
Results of Duncan's test: Treatment means followed by the same letter are not sig-
nificantly different at the 1% level.
** Treatments applied January 5, 1962.
t Treatments applied January 10, 1962.
Treatments applied January 16, 1962.
Vol. 46, No. 4
Brooks: Investigations of Scalicides for Citrus
EXPERIMENT 4.-A grove of pink grapefruit with a past history of
high black scale populations was selected for this experiment. This grove
was near Minneola and consisted of trees approximately 12 years old and
from 12 to 14 feet high. The treatments shown in Table 3 were used on
plots of four trees in four replicates. Most of these treatments were ap-
plied on May 15, when there was a maximum number of crawlers on the
leaves, but two treatments were also applied as single applications on March
29, when the crawlers were at a low level. The 1.3 per cent oil spray was
applied only on March 29.
TABLE 3. EFFECTIVENESS OF INSECTICIDES AGAINST BLACK SCALE
NEAR MINNEOLA, FLORIDA, 1962.
Number of Black Scale
Treatment in Amounts Application Crawlers per Twig*
per 100 gallons Date on June 13, 1962
Guthion 2E, 1 pint 5-1.5-62 0.06 a
Guthion 2E, 1/2 pint + 0.5% oil 5-15-62 0.16 a
Sevin 50W, 2 lbs. 5-15-62 0.29 a
Guthion 2E, 1 pint 3-29-62 0.75 a
Parathion 15W, 1 lb. + 0.5% oil 5-15-62 2.27 a
Ethion 4E, 1 pint + 0.5% oil 5-15-62 3.48 ab
1.3% emulsified oil 3-29-62 4.85 b
Zectran 2E, 2 quarts 5-15-62 5.02 b
Dimethoate 4E, 14 pint + 0.5% oil 5-15-62 5.23 b
GC 3707 4E, 1/2 pint 5-15-62 5.86 b
Parathion 25W, 1 lb. 5-15-62 6.55 b
Shell 3562, 4 oz. actual 5-15-62 6.63 b
Parathion 25W, 1 lb. 3-29-62 15.76 c
No scalicide 26.57 d
Results of D'uncan's test: Treatment means followed by the same letters are not sig-
nificantly different at the 1% level.
The average number of black scale crawlers found on June 13 is pre-
sented in Table 3. These data show that Guthion, Sevin, and the mixtures
of emulsified oil with Guthion, parathion or ethion provided the best con-
trol and that all of these treatments except oil-ethion were superior to
parathion. In addition, Guthion applied as early as March 29 gave far
better control than either oil applied the same day or parathion applied
March 29 or May 15. The remaining treatments, which included Zectran,
GC-3707, Shell 3562, and dimethoate with oil, were as effective as the stand-
ard treatment, parathion.
EXPERIMENTS 5 AND 6.-Experiment 5 was conducted in a grove of
mature Temple orange trees, 14 to 16 feet high, near Lake Placid. The
plots in this experiment consisted of two trees, and these were replicated
five times. All treatments listed in Table 4 were applied on June 5, 1961,
but untreated plots could not be included.
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 46, No. 4
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cd c0 cc c0 c0 Bi -Q .0 3 -o u U
10 OM CO CO O Oi O M) 0 0 Ci
c I R Ci 00 l C0 L" c) f-L t> 1 0
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The Florida Entomologist
Experiment 6 was in a grove of mature Valencia orange trees 18 to 22
feet high near Babson Park. The treatments listed in Table 4 were applied
July 16 and 17 to plots of four trees replicated four times.
The results of Experiment 5 are presented in Table 4. These data
show that in all plots except those treated with Sevin both Florida red
scales and purple scale were effectively controlled for 203 days after treat-
ment. Sevin reduced the Florida red scale population for a short interval,
but purple scales multiplied rapidly on all plots sprayed with this material.
The number of scales found 42 and 126 days after the application of
each treatment in Experiment 6 is shown in Table 5. These data reveal that
purple scale and especially Florida red scale declined without chemical
treatment. This decline was hastened by most of the scalicides, but Sevin
and the Shell compounds 3562 and 7438 produced abnormal increases in
Florida red scale. These three compounds and GC-3707 also had a similar
effect on purple scale. These effects were not observed when the one-pound
dosage of Sevin was used with oil, but this mixture lacked residual effec-
Satisfactory control of both species was provided by parathion, Ameri-
can Cyanamid 47,300, Stauffer 2404, and the mixtures of parathion, ethion
and dimethoate with emulsified oil. A number of other treatments were
effective against Florida red scale, but not against purple scale.
Sevin and Guthion were as effective as parathion for the control of
citrus snow scale and superior in the control of black scale. However,
the application of Sevin resulted in an increase in populations of purple
scale and Florida red scale. Guthion was not effective against purple scale,
but did not cause a population build-up.
Combinations of emulsified oil with ethion, dimethoate, parathion, or
malathion were effective in controlling purple scale and Florida red scale.
The ethion-oil and parathion-oil combinations also were effective in con-
trolling black scale. Dimethoate, American Cyanamid 47,300 and Stauffer
2404 also showed promise against purple and Florida red scales.
No one scalicide effectively controlled all four species of scale insects,
but parathion was effective against all except black scale. A combination
of parathion and emulsified oil controlled black scale, and the combination
of ethion and oil controlled black, purple and Florida red scale. Guthion
was not particularly effective against purple scale, but gave good control
of the other three species.
Brooks, R. F., and W. L. Thompson. 1962. Control of black scale in Flor-
ida. Jour. Econ. Ent. 55(5): 813-814.
Muma, M. H., and D. W. Clancy. 1961. Parasitism of purple scale and
Florida red scale in Florida. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 74: 29-32.
Thompson, W. L., and J. W. Sites. 1945. Relationships of solids and ratio
to the timing of oil sprays on citrus. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc.
Vol. 46, No. 4
THE BIOLOGY OF CALLIBAETIS FLORIDANUS BANKS
LUCILLE M. W. TROST AND LEWIS BERNER
Department of Biology, University of Florida
Although the mayfly genus Callibaetis has been known for many years,
little exact information is available concerning its life history, ecology,
and behavior. We have, therefore, tried to observe one species intensively
over a period of approximately 18 months so that a knowledge of its bi-
ology could form the basis for further study.
Callibaetis is noteworthy among North American mayflies because of
ovoviviparity 2, which was first described by Needham et al. (1935) and
confirmed later by Berner (1941) and Edmunds (1945). Cloeon dipterum,
of Europe, has also been described as being an ovoviviparous species by
numerous workers. Although the phenomenon has not been observed in all
species of Callibaetis, it is likely that the habit is universal for the genus.
The same cannot be said for Cloeon.
Callibaetis floridanus Banks was selected as the species for this study
primarily because of its availability in all parts of Florida where the ob-
servations were to be made. The species has been known since 1900, but
the nymph and male were not described until 1941. One of us in an
earlier study (Berner, 1950) distinguished two forms of the species, one
occurring in the more northern part of Florida, the other limited to the
southern end of the peninsula. Our present observations are based mostly
on the form from the northern part of the state (form B).
Collections of nymphs were made by the usual methods; subimagoes
were taken from vegetation in the field; and mated females were collected
both at a lighted sheet and light traps, but most were obtained from low
spider webs at the banks of a pond near Gainesville. Females, caught in
the webs, were often found still living, usually with a reddish mass of eggs,
already extruded, adhering to their abdomens. The mass was washed into
a jar of water and the young hatched immediately on contact with the
To compare field-reared nymphs with those reared in the laboratory,
the newly hatched insects were kept in cages made from parachute silk
fastened to a wire frame; the tops of the cages were covered with clear
plastic. At the same time that nymphs were placed in the field cages,
others were placed, in lots of 15-25, in pans filled with pond water which
had been strained through parachute silk to remove predators and com-
petitive forms. Washed vegetation was also added to each pan. Other
nymphs from the same batch were treated in still a third way. These were
individually isolated in small jars each with a small clump of filamentous
1We would like to thank the following people for assistance or helpful
discussion during the course of the study: M. W. Provost, J. S. Haeger,
D. B. Ward, A. M. Laessle, P. Laessle, M. J. Westfall, R. F. Hussey and
C. H. Trost.
2 The term ovoviviparous is used here in the same sense as in the papers
by Berner (1941) and Edmunds (1945).
286 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 46, No. 4
green algae. It was usually very difficult to isolate the nymphs before
they had reached the third instar, but as soon as possible after this stage
was reached, they were placed in the jars. Water in the jars was replaced
twice weekly with freshly strained pond water and a new piece of alga was
substituted for the old. The nymphs usually were measured every second
night to determine amount of growth and to observe whether molting had
Swarming of adults was studied with the aid of 7 x 50 binoculars.
Few details of the behavior of the subimago or adult could be obtained
in the laboratory; therefore, almost all of the behavioral observations on
them were made in the field.
Six different areas were selected for study. The chief observations
were made at a temporary, fresh-water pond (Fig. 1) located at Stengel
Field, a small airport near Gainesville, Florida. The pond receives a large
run-off from the airfield and the water level is subject to extreme fluctua-
tions in short periods of time. The pond is also contaminated by a sewage
outlet in one small area. During dry weather the sewage does not run into
the pond but when the water level rises the ditch carrying the sewage be-
comes confluent with the pond. The vegetation of this pond is composed
chiefly of temporarily submerged, terrestrial plants. Generally the water
is shallow and the usual inhabitations of temporary fresh waters soon in-
Four ditches adjacent to roads were also selected for study areas as
water remains in them most of the time except for unusually long dry
spells. These, also, have the usual components of such temporary situa-
Figure 1. Stengel Field pond during a period of high water.
Trost: Biology of Callibaetis Floridanus Banks
tions. In the east coastal area of Florida the Sebastian Inlet Mosquito
Control Impoundment was selected for investigation. This is a shallow
(two to six inches) area of approximately ten acres which has only small
and widely separated patches of aquatic plants interspersed with black and
white mangrove trees. There are large water temperature fluctuations
daily; however, the impoundment is permanent and is fed by a sulfur-water
DEVELOPMENT: The life cycle of Callibaetis floridanus is comparatively
short and all stages can be found at all times of the year. Mature nymphs
have been collected during every month and collections made at any time
of the year will produce nymphs of all instars. We also have records of
adults for all months of the year in Florida, even as far north as Gaines-
ville. In this study it was found that the length of time required for
nymphal development varies with the time of year during which the nymphs
are studied. We believe this variation in time of development is primarily
due to temperature. The shortest time recorded from oviposition to emerg-
ence of the subimago was 27 days (August 19 to September 14), although
other nymphs from the same brood and reared under the same conditions
took up to 35 days to complete their life history. These results were
duplicated both in the laboratory and in the field. During this period water
temperature fluctuated between 28 and 32 C. In late October and early
November the complete nymphal cycle took approximately 60 to 75 days.
At this time the average water temperature ranged from 18 to 20 C. How-
ever, in these latter hearings, the nymphs were kept in the laboratory be-
cause there was no convenient standing water in the ponds used for the
study and it was extremely difficult to obtain gravid female imagoes. The
mortality of the nymphs in this later period also seemed to be much higher
than that which occurred during the summer.
Needham (1935) stated that the nymphal stage lasts five to six weeks
from the laying of the eggs to emergence, however, he gave no data to
substantiate his estimate. Dickinson (1948) found mature Callibaetis
floridanus (form A) nymphs in temporary ponds in the Gainesville area
within five to six weeks after the first water appeared in the ponds.
Our observations indicate that Callibaetis floridanus nymphs appar-
ently pass through 9 to 11 instars with the most common number being
10 prior to emergence. Taylor and Richards (1963) state "Judging from
the number of rings in the Palmen body of an adult mayfly, which Need-
ham et al. state as representing successive molts, the mayfly Callibaetis
appears to undergo approximately 15 molts." If their estimate is correct,
there are 16 instars in the nymphal life of the insect.
Although 235 nymphs were reared and measured, it was difficult to
determine the number of molts with certainty. In the early instars the
nymphs are of such minute size that it is virtually impossible to find the
exuviae to provide conclusive proof of molting. The number of instars
was determined by measurement of the living nymphs every other day
with an ocular micrometer. Because of the relative size constancy of the
head exoskeleton, we selected change in width across the eyes as a criterion
of growth. Using this measurement it was usually possible to ascertain
size changes in the nymphs. At times, however, very likely due to errors
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 46, No. 4
introduced in measuring active, live nymphs, this value seemed to grow
smoothly from one size interval to another. Usually there is an easily
observable difference in this measurement between instars, but the value
does not hold constant. The first two instars are generally rigidly set in
size and the nymphs are very similar, but following this stage much vari-
ation develops (Table 1).
TABLE 1. VARIATION IN MEASUREMENTS* AS CORRELATED WITH
HEAD SIZE OF Callibaetis floridanus.**
Head Body Median
Instar width Lengtht filament Cerci
1 -- 0.13 0.42-0.71 0 0.37-0.67
2 0.17 0,79-1.00 0 1.00-1.08
I 0.21 0.92-1.17 0.29 0.76-1.12
3 0.25 1.25-1.50 0.17-0.25 1.17-1.50
0.29 1.33-1.96 0.13-0,38 0.58-1.66
4 0.33 1.50-1.91 0.25-1.08 1.04-2.00
0.38 1.83-2.33 0.92-1.50 1.75-2.16
0.42 1.91-2.41 0.75-1.08 1.75-2.58
5 0-- 0.46 1.91-2.66 0.83-1.2 _- 1.91-2.58
0.50 1.91-2.91 1.08-1.83 2.16-2.75
0.54 2.33-3.08 1.17-1.83 2.41-2.75
6 --- 0.58 2.50-2.91 1.58-2.16 2.41-2.91
0.62 2.99-3.24 2.16-2.58 2.83-3.33
0_ 7 7 .16-3.L_ 2.50-2.5 _. 08-.41
7 0.71 3.33-3.58 2.41-2.66 3.41-3.54
0.75 3.49-3.58 2.41-2.58 3.32-3.62
0.79 3.6 -3.74 2.50-2.66 3.66-3.74
8 0.83 2.50-3.00 2.58-1.83 2.50-3.16
S0.92 58-3.83 2.50-2.91 3.62-3.74
0.93 3.74-4.33 3.04-3.33 4.41-4.58
i.ou 5.16 3.33 4.9)
1.04 6.07-6.36 3.99-4.21 5.91-6.49
1.08 6.24-7.49 4.08-4.41 6.16-6.66
10-- 1.21 6.16-7.49 3.99-4.91 5.91-7.24
1.25 5.41 3.49 5.49
1.33 8.32 5.41 8.32
** 285 specimens measured.
t Excluding antennae and caudal filaments.
On September 14, 1962, a collection of 650 Callibaetis floridanus
nymphs was made at random from Stengel Field pond. These specimens
were immediately preserved for later measurement to attempt to establish
a size range for particular instars. That such conclusions as to correla-
tion of size range and instar cannot be drawn is obvious from an examination
Trost: Biology of Callibaetis Floridanus Banks
of Figure 2. The curve is bell-shaped which simply means that the great
bulk of the nymphs were in the intermediate-size range. The early instars
were too small to be collected in the field and the latter instars were small
in number, probably because of the greater natural death rate of older
nymphs, predation, and emergence. Further, there are size differences
because of sexual dimorphism. The measurement of the head was selected
for the study because the changes in abdominal length between instars
produces too many inaccuracies to give a reliable indicator of size changes.
Additionally, the length of the caudal filaments varies too much to be of
any use as a marker for a particular instar.
S 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
HEAD SIZE IN DIVISIONS I DIVISION= 0.03 MM.
Figure 2. Measurements of
head widths of 650
When a series of nymphs of a selected instar is measured there is a
considerable amount of variation within that one instar (Table 2). For
our evaluation only female nymphs in the last instar were selected. The
considerable size variation in body length may have been due, in part,
to the fact that the nymphs were collected during different times of the
year. From our observations, it seems that the general size of the popu-
lation varies as a unit. From April to August, specimens taken from the
Stengel Field pond were predominantly in the smaller size range. During
late August and early September there was a trend toward increase in
size, until in late September and October the large size predominated.
At that time the pond dried and the study, of necessity, ceased.
The Florida Entomologist
TABLE 2. MEASUREMENTS OF EIGHT LAST-INSTAR, FEMALE NYMPHS
(all figures in millimeters)
Head Width Thorax Width Total Length*
1.00 1.41 5.17
1.04 1.41 6.07
1.04 1.41 6.41
1.08 1.25 6.24
1.08 1.66 6.82
1.25 1.41 5.41
1.33 2.08 8.15
1.33 2.08 8.32
Excluding antennae and caudal filaments.
NYMPHAL STAGES: The first instar nymph hatches at the moment of
contact of the egg with water by breaking the chorion. As the species is
ovoviviparous, the eggs are retained in the body of the female for about
a week with each female carrying four to five hundred of them.
The newly hatched nymph is quite active. Measurements made of
these first instar forms showed a head width of 0.13 mm. and a body length,
not including caudal filaments or antennae, varying between 0.,52 and 0.71
mm. Cerci measure between 0.37 and 0.67 mm.; the median caudal fila-
ment is not present at this stage (Table 1). The head and the thorax are
approximately equal in width. Five ocelli are present on the dorsal sur-
face of the head, the two posterior ones will become the compound eyes
and the three anterior will remain as the true ocelli. However, in the first
instar this division is not obvious. There are no gills.
Transformation of the first to the second instar takes approximately
three to four days under summer conditions, where the water temperature
ranges between 28 and 32 degrees centigrade. The second instar nymph
is quite different from the first instar and more closely resembles the
later instars. Now there are six pairs of gills, all single and minute; the
eyes have differentiated enough to distinguish the simple from the com-
pound. The width of the head measures 0.17 mm. and the body length
varies from 0.79 to 1.00 mm. The median tail has still not developed, but
the cerci are between 1.00 and 1.08 mm. in length.
The median caudal filament first appears as a stump at the beginning
of the third instar and has a length of 0.17 to 0.29 mm. The cerci measure
approximately 0.76 to 1.49 mm. All seven pairs of gills are developed but
they are still single and minute. Head width has begun to show a consid-
erable amount of variation and ranges between 0.21 and 0.25 mm. and
body length varies between 0.92 and 1.5 mm. The time interval between
the second and third and between the third and fourth instars, lasts from
two to five days with the most common period being three under summer
conditions when the temperature ranges between 28 and 32 degrees C.
The time interval is consistent with the suggestion of Taylor and Richards
(1963) of an average of two to three days for each instar.
Vol. 46, No. 4
Trost: Biology of Callibaetis Floridanus Banks 291
The fourth instar, also lasting from two to five days, cannot be differ-
entiated from the third except in size. The head width lies between 0.29
and 0.38 mm.; body length between 1.33 and 2.33 mm.; cerci are 0.58-2.16
mm.; and the median filament ranges from 1.3 to 1.5 mm.
Beginning with the fifth instar, the gills are all present and are com-
pound as in mature nymphs. From this stage onward the variability be-
comes so great that development or size change in each instar cannot be
characterized. Table 1 is a summary of the comparative measurements of
the nymphs as correlated with head width. In it an attempt has been made
to indicate instar by head sizes, but it can be seen from this table that
there is an overlap in this characteristic so that there are no clear-cut size
groups distinguishing the various instars.
The transformation to the subimagal stage occurs in late afternoon
or early evening. In an earlier study (Berner, 1950), it was reported
that emergence in the field in February took place between 3:45 and 4:00
p. m. Our observations made chiefly between June and September show a
peak of emergence between 6:00 and 9:00 p. m. in the field. In the lab-
oratory emergences on August 18 and 19 peaked between 8:15 and 9:15
p.m. (Fig. 3). On those two dates sunset occurred at 7:10 p. m. and the
light intensity during the hours of emergence of the insects ranged between
50 and 0 foot candles. Similar observations made on September 9 and 10
showed that the mayflies were emerging between 6:00 and 7:30 p. m. On
these latter dates the sun set at approximately 6:45 and light intensity
ranged from 100 to 0 foot candles. Further observations both in the field
and laboratory confirm these emergence times.
( 25: I
o z 12 --- --
0 1 0
T IM L TE
,, 150 --- ^ 8-
bgins 3. E a emergence dof the eiveni g of Auguat
600 6:15 6;30 6"45 -7,00 7:15 815 830 8.45 9,00
Figure 3. Emergence of subimagoes of Callibaetis floridanus at 15-
minute intervals. Left graph shows numbers emerging, beginning at 6:00
p.m., during the evening of September 9 and 10; the graph on the right
begins at 8:15 p.m. and shows emergence during the evenings of August
18 and 19.
The Florida Entomologist
The transformations described above were those of nymphs which had
been caught during the morning of the day on which the observations were
made. Nymphs kept in the laboratory for more than one day seemed to
lose their normal synchronization and, although they still emerged in the
evening, the hour ranged from 6:00 p. m. to 2:00 a. m.
The subimaginal molt of Callibaetis floridanus has been reported as
occurring about seven to nine hours following emergence of the winged
stage (Berner, 1950). Taylor and Richards (1963) observed the subimagal
stage to last approximately 12 hours under laboratory conditions. Cer-
tainly, transformation to the imagal stage takes place on the morning
after emergence and it may occur any time between 6:30 and 10:00 a. m.
from June through October. The hour of transformation seems to be cor-
related with weather conditions but on any given day most of the insects
molt about the same time. We noted that the molt occurred in the field
approximately 15 minutes after the subimagoes were exposed to bright
NYMPHS: Molting of the nymphal exuviae occurs at time intervals which
are dependent upon speed of maturation and growth of the individual.
Ecdysis was observed taking place at all times of the day and night, but
the great majority of these molts occurred between 3:30 and 10:00 P. M.,
with the greatest number concentrated between 6:30 and 8:00 P. M. It
is an extremely rapid process and difficult to observe in detail. The nymph
does not show any unusual activity prior to molting and this compounds
the difficulty of close observation. Generally, after several seconds of vio-
lent swimming activity the nymph pushes upward and forward from a mid-
dorsal split in the skin. We observed very few cases of death resulting
from trouble during molting, and these were generally because the nymphs
were somehow unable to become completely free of their exuviae.
Immediately after shedding, the nymph is light green, and during the
stadium becomes dark brown. The period during which the nymph is ready
to transform to the subimago is one of the most dangerous in the life of a
mayfly. At this time the nymph is not only forced to leave the protective
background of aquatic vegetation so that it is exposed to aquatic predators,
but also any difficulty in the actual emergence process often results in
death. We have observed mortality rates as high as 14 per cent in Calli-
baetis floridanus at the time of emergence due to factors other than preda-
The emergence of the last instar nymph to the subimaginal stage is
much more easily observed than the nymphal molts. Not only is the actual
emergence slightly slower but the event is noted by a changed pattern of
activity. The first indication of approaching emergence is the disappear-
ance of normal feeding activities and increasing unrest. The nymph then
stops feeding and clings to submergent vegetation, often flexing tail and
abdomen over the head. The immediate, signs of emergence are charac-
terized by marked agitation. The nymph darts wildly and in a random fash-
ion, resting only for seconds in rather unnatural positions, sometimes up-
side down, sometimes on its side or at the surface. At the beginning of
this stage the nymph is relatively pale but soon there is a rapid darkening
of the integument until it becomes dark brown. The gills beat constantly
Vol. 46, No. 4
Trost: Biology of Callibaetis Floridanus Banks 293
and rapidly, the beat at times becoming an almost steady trembling. When
the nymph rests, the whole body expands and contracts rhythmically with
the head moving smoothly forward and back from the body and with legs
following the same slow, pulsating rhythm. The nymph begins spending
more and more time at the water surface. After from two to ten minutes
of this activity, with an average of about five minutes, a split occurs in the
median dorsal area of the mesonotum. The subimago then pushes forward
breaking through the cuticle covering the head. The wings are pulled from
the nymphal sheaths, immediately opened, and are ready for use. The
subimago then leaves the exuviae and flies from the surface of the water
to nearby vegetation.
The act of emergence is very rapid. We have studied it most in-
tensively in those subimagoes which emerged with folded wings and were,
therefore, not able to fly from the water surface. In general, these insects
are marked by having a longer period of underwater agitation prior to
emergence. Perhaps an imperceptible split may have appeared in the
exuviae permitting water to leak in, resulting in either wet wings or the
death of the nymph. We have not observed any nymphs to survive which
attempted to emerge without success for more than 15 minutes. After this
length of time the movements become feeble and death soon results.
SUBIMAGO: The subimago, which emerges in late afternoon or early eve-
ning, flies immediately to nearby vegetation to rest quietly until the fol-
lowing morning when the subimaginal molt takes place. Even though
molting occurs during the transformation to the imaginal stage, there
appears to be no size change and the subimago and the imago are both
similar in that respect to the mature nymphs (Table 3).
TABLE 3. MEASUREMENTS OF FIVE FEMALE IMAGOES (in millimeters).
Head Width Total Length* Wing Length
1.04 5.07 5.16
1.08 4.99 5.14
1.33 9.61 7.32
1.41 8.73 7.65
1.46 9.82 7.82
Excluding antennae and caudal filaments.
Sometime during the night the subimagoes move away from the
nymphal habitat. This observation has been repeatedly confirmed by the
fact that large concentrations have been found 200 or more feet away
from water. In the migration large numbers are trapped in low hanging
spider webs spun on vegetation over the water or at its edge.
When ready to transform the subimagoes begin greater activity. They
fly readily if the vegetation on which they are resting is disturbed. If not
disturbed, they swing the abdomen slowly from side to side. The wings,
held upright, soon begin to jerk and flutter slightly. They are then slowly
extended laterally until completely separated, with the jerking and flut-
The Florida Entomologist
tering motions continuing. The body is finally pushed forward and upward
in the exuviae and the imago appears with legs folded close to the body.
Wings are pulled from the subimaginal wingsheath and rapidly unfold to
be held vertically, clear and glistening in the sunlight.
Within about 15 seconds after the beginning of molting, the adult
has emerged and moved forward from the shed skin. The tails may not
yet be completely freed, but the adult continually flexes the abdomen until
at last they are pulled entirely clear. The new adults remain motionless
for at least 20 to 30 minutes, are extremely hesitant about flying, and when
disturbed will only move to a nearby holdfast and again become motion-
less. If the wings are touched against anything during this quiescent
period, they may adhere to it. This quiet period may therefore be cor-
related, with the period required for drying and hardening of the exo-
Mating flights of Callibaetis floridanus have been observed twice in an
open field near the Stengel Field pond in Gainesville. The flights took
place in the morning beginning at 9:15 and 10:30 A. M., 20 or 30 minutes
after the subimaginal molt. On another occasion in August, at 6:50 a. m., a
single male was seen rising and falling as though participating in a mating
flight, and between June and October, numerous imagoes were observed
flying up from the vegetation between 6:50 and 10:30 a. m.
The adults clung motionless to the vegetation until approximately
one to three minutes before the beginning of the mating flight. At this
time they began to move the front legs up and down, then soon took to
the wing. Once initiated, the flight occurred over an open field, rather than
over water. The flight is sudden and follows a zigzag path upwards to a
height of from 4 to 25 feet. There is then a rapid and abrupt rise and
fall ranging from several inches to as much as two feet. Females fly into
the swarm of males and fall into the rhythm.
Males seem to approach the females from below as in other species
of mayflies. After copulation in the air, the females were noted resting
on vegetation and the males returned to join the swarm. The two swarms
observed were small, the number of adults in flight at any one time being
only three to five over a ten square foot area of the field, even at a time
when the nymphal population in the pond was very high.
In a personal communication, Dr. R. L. Blickle reported that on April
11, 1957, at Sebastian, Florida, he observed a flight of Callibaetis flori-
danus. He first noted the imagoes at 6:20 a. m. when the temperature was
21..5 C., and they were still in flight when he left the area at 7:30 a. m.
The mayflies were dancing over an area, of at least ten acres. In his ob-
servations Dr. Blickle noted the adults hovering at a height of from four
to twenty feet above the ground. At the time, the wind was from the
east, ranging from two to seven, but mostly below five miles per hour, and
the humidity was 80 per cent. The temperature ranged from 19.5 C. at
5:40 a. m. to 22 c. at 7:30 a. m., when his observation ceased.
Dr. Maurice Provost (personal communication) reported a similar
flight which he observed near Fort Pierce, Florida. He noted that the hov-
ering adults were so thick that the vegetation over several acres was shim-
Vol. 46, No. 4
Trost: Biology of Callibaetis Floridanus Banks
mering with them. We saw no large swarms during our observations,
probably because of drought conditions.
Shortly after the swarming flight, the males die. Even in captivity
they generally do not live longer than 21 hours after emergence from the
nymphal stage, although some have been kept alive for nearly two days
(Berner, 1950). Females, however, become quiescent when they settle on
vegetation and may live for five to seven days or longer until oviposition.
As has been pointed out previously (Berner, 1941), longevity is apparently
correlated with ovoviviparity.
The females oviposit early in the morning approximately five to seven
days after the mating flight. On arrival at the pond at Stengel Field with
the first dim light of dawn, around 5:45 a. m. in July and August, the sur-
face of the water was already littered with females which had very recently
died. Ovipositing females fly immediately to the water surface where a
milky mass of eggs is extruded within one to five seconds, after landing.
When the female oviposits, she lays the abdomen flat on the water sur-
face, releases the eggs, and then floats, wings held upright. One or two
minutes later, as she attempts to leave the water's surface, the female
generally fails and floats motionless with the wings still held upright.
After a while, as she struggles to rise, her wings become caught in the
surface film and she is trapped. About 20 minutes from the beginning
of oviposition the female is dead from exhaustion.
If mated females are kept without water or do not have their abdomen
dipped into the water between five and seven days after mating, they will
die soon after a period of activity without extruding the eggs. Females
captured after mating and held until the eggs mature, will readily release
them when the tip of the abdomen is touched to water. Captive, mated
females remain quiescent until time for oviposition and then they become
extremely active, fluttering about in the container in which they are held.
If they are not touched to water after this point is reached, they will die
within about six hours. However, under natural conditions when caught
in spider webs, the female will expel the eggs even though she is not in
contact with water.
Live females taken from spider webs located six to eight inches above
the water surface, often had a viscous reddish-brown mass of eggs pro-
truding from the ventral surface of the abdomen which was released upon
dipping in water. The mass would hatch into young five to ten seconds
HABITAT: Callibaetis floridanus nymphs can be found in a wide variety
of aquatic habitats. We have collected them in many ditches and tem-
porary ponds. They have been taken from sinkhole ponds, cypress swamps
and the quiet zone of slow streams. One of us in an earlier discussion
(Berner, 1950) reported their occurrence in the Florida Everglades.
The nymphs have a wide range of tolerance to water conditions. Dis-
solved oxygen was found to range from 0.7 at 5:00 a. m. to 5.25 p. p. m.
at 3:00 p. m. on a sunny day. The majority of specimens collected during
this study have come from water with a pH varying between 6.0 and 7.0,
296 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 46, No. 4
but they have been recorded from very acid and very basic conditions,
where the pH ranged lower than 4.0 and above 10.0 (Berner, 1950).
Callibaetis floridanus nymphs are also tolerant of some salinity, and
it is the only North American mayfly for which this is known to be true.
All of the nymphs used in this study have come from fresh-water, but
experimentally they were found to be able to live in, and emerge normally
from water with salinities up to 12 p. p. t., approximately one-third that
of sea water. These observations are in agreement with those of Berner
and Sloan (1954), who reported nymphs in an area subject to tidal fluctu-
Nymphs have been found associated with a wide variety of vegeta-
tion. In the Stengel Field temporary pond the vegetation was composed
predominantly of submerged terrestrial plants until late August, when
mats of green algae became common. The terrestrial vegetation included
the following: Corydalis micranthum (Engel M.), Descurainia pinnata
Walt., Geranium carolinianum Walt., Rumex sp., Vicia sativa L., and
Trifolium carolinianum Walt. These plants also comprise the main veg-
etation of the area in which the subimagoes molted and the mating flights
The plants associated with other study areas were more, predominantly
aquatic and included Hydrocotyle sp., Galium sp., Pontedaria sp., Cerato-
phyllum sp., and Chara sp. In addition, Callibaetis floridanus nymphs have
been recorded in association with Micranthemum micranthemoides, Lug-
wigia sp., Myriophyllum sp., Polygonum sp., Saururus cernuus, and Eleo-
The nymphs tend to occur in the tangle of vascular plants rather than
among the mats of algae. They were never collected in areas covered
with water hyacinths or duckweed. Reasons which might account for
their absence were suggested in "The Mayflies of Florida" (Berner, 1950).
FEEDING: Analysis of the stomach contents of nymphs showed them to
be non-specific plant feeders. The bulk of the food material was com-
posed of plant epidermis, but also included the algae Spirogyra, Ulothrix,
Protococcus, Mougetia, Hydrodictyon, Oedogonium and diatoms. The pre-
dominance of epidermis was probably the result of the fact that the nymphs
examined were taken from the Stengel Field temporary pond in which the
vegetation was almost entirely terrestrial and which was in the process of
dying with concurrent decay of tissues. This would make the stripping of
the epidermis from the dead plants much easier than stripping it from liv-
ing aquatic plants.
Food material passes through the digestive tract of the nymph very
rapidly. During active feeding we have observed the nymphs extruding
a mass of fecal matter in volume equal to about one-third to one-fourth
the volume of the digestive tract every twenty to forty seconds. This ob-
servation seems to be in agreement with the statement of Dethier (1954),
regarding feeding and digestion of phytophagous insects, that one-half
to two-thirds of the food taken is eliminated as feces. He, further states
that during digestion of plant materials, most of the proteins, fat and
simple carbohydrates are utilized, oil is secreted but not used and cellulose
and starch are excreted unchanged.
Trost: Biology of Callibaetis Floridanus Banks
WEATHER: Rainfall is, of course, of great influence on aquatic populations.
During years of heavy rainfall when the roadside ditches and temporary
ponds are filled to overflowing, the population of Callibaetis floridanus
rises to a peak. It seems that the nymphs may be found in every puddle
and the adult population is drawn in large numbers to the lights in win-
dows nearby. Conversely, during years of drought, the population size
decreases greatly. The nymphs can be found only by wide and intensive
collecting and are scarce when found. Weeks of careful nightly checking
of lighted store windows in towns may often yield not a single adult or
subimago. The temporary pools are dried and in most cases even the
permanent waters areas are shrunken in the face of continual drought.
All of the members of the ecosystem are forced closer together with very
unfavorable effects upon the numbers of Callibaetis floridanus. Rainfall
influences the population in other ways also. Emergence and swarming
may be greatly hampered by heavy downpours. The winged stages are
very dependent upon a high moisture content in the air. Subimagoes are
unable to complete the final molt successfully under dry conditions, and
adults will usually die within 24 hours if not kept in a fairly moist atmos-
Temperature also influences rates of development. Degree of toler-
ance to low and high temperatures is rather striking. Nymphs have been
collected from water less than a degree above freezing and have been found
in shallow water in the summer at a temperature of 34.5 degrees centi-
grade, a temperature close to the upper lethal temperature of the species
(experimentally determined to be between 35 and 38 degrees C.). When
the water temperature ranges as low as 0 to 5 degrees C., the nymphs
become so lethargic that they may become easy targets for predators.
PREDATION: All stages of Callibaetis floridanus are sought by predators.
Small fish formed the most highly predacious group of the aquatic fauna.
When the fish population in an area increased the nymphal population
usually decreased, and when the fish became very abundant, nymphs
were usually completely exterminated. Second, and almost equal in im-
portance as predators, were the dytiscid larvae and the belastomatids. The
Naucoridae are also extremely predacious, but are not as common as the
above mentioned groups. Other groups observed to prey upon Callibaetis
floridanus nymphs include Odonata and Hemiptera (Notonectidae, Corixi-
dae, and Nepidae):
As the temporary ponds dried, birds became serious predators on the
fauna. It was not possible to tell that they were feeding on mayfly
nymphs specifically, but our observations indicated that they ate anything
that could be caught. Boat-tailed grackles (Cassidix mexicanus), red-
winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), killdeer (Charadrius vociferus),
and one snowy egret (Florida thula) were seen feeding from dawn to dusk
at the Stengel Field pond.
The population of Callibaetis floridanus seems to fluctuate seasonally
between temporary and permanent bodies of water and the fluctuation
is related to the abundance of predators (Table 4). During the winter
when the predator population is at a low point and the temporary ponds
are usually empty, the permanent bodies of water support a substantial
population of mayfly nymphs. As warm weather arrives and the associated
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The Florida Entomologis
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Trost: Biology of Callibaetis Floridanus Banks 299
fauna begins to increase in numbers, the Callibaetis population starts to
decrease. Usually by the time the predator population is approaching
its maximum, the temporary ponds contain water with the fauna consist-
ing only of such fleeting forms as fairy shrimps. The Callibaetis popula-
tion now seems to move to these ponds and increases along with the in-
creasing predator population. One large advantage of life for the mayfly
in temporary ponds is the frequent absence of fish, one of the most effective
predators. By late fall as the ponds dry, the permanent bodies of water
decrease in number of predators and Callibaetis nymphs flourish there
Dragonflies are the most successful predators on the subimaginal and
adult stages. They patrol the ponds in large number in the morning, and
one of the first evidences of a mayfly mating flight is the heavy concentra-
tions of erratically darting dragonflies. In addition to taking adults in
flight, we have observed both dragonflies and damselflies take subimagoes
or adults which were resting on vegetation.
Spiders are effective mayfly predators, snaring both emerging sub-
imagoes and ovipositing imagoes in their webs or catching the insects at the
Birds likely eat the winged stages but we have been unable to verify
predation. Decimation of adult populations appears to be attributable
chiefly to dragonflies and damselflies.
In spite of high mortality rates from predation, molting accidents,
and disease, the insects are still highly successful as a result of the large
number of young produced, adaptive concealing coloration, and the speed
of movement of the nymphs.
Berner, Lewis. 1941. Ovoviviparous mayflies in Florida. Fla. Ent. 24(2):
Berner, Lewis, 1950. The mayflies of Florida. Gainesville. University
of Florida Press. xii + 267 p., 24 pls., 19 maps.
Berner, Lewis, and W. C. Sloan. 1954. The occurrence of a mayfly (Cal-
libaetis floridanus) nymph in brackish water. Ecology 35(1): 98.
Dethier, V. G. 1954. Evolution of feeding preferences in phytophagous
insects. Evolution 8: 33-54.
Dickinson, J. C., Jr. 1948. An ecological reconnaissance of the biota of
some ponds and ditches in northern Florida. Quart. Jour. of Fla.
Acad. of Sci. 11(2-3): 1-28.
Edmunds, G. F. 1945. Ovoviviparous mayflies of the genus Callibaetis
(Ephemeroptera:Baetidae). Ent. News 56(7): 169-171.
Needham, J. G., J. R. Traver, and Yin-Chi Hsu. 1935. The biology of
mayflies with a systematic account of North American species. Ith-
aca. Comstock Publishing Co. xiv + 759 p.
Taylor, R. L., and A. G. Richards. 1963. The subimaginal cuticle of the
mayfly Callibaetis sp. (Ephemeroptera). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 56
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A SYNECOLOGICAL STUDY OF
THE EFFECTS OF THE IMPORTED FIRE ANT
II. LIGHT TRAP, SOIL SAMPLE, LITTER SAMPLE AND
SWEEP NET METHODS OF COLLECTING
W. C. RHOADES2, 3
The imported fire ant, Solenopsis saevissima richteri Forel, found in
Florida as well as in other Southeastern states, where it is a pest in pas-
tures, hayfields, croplands, golf courses, and lawns. There is a wide di-
versity of opinion concerning the effects of this insect and of the large scale
eradication and control programs on other forms of wildlife. To obtain
reliable quantitative data on this subject, a cooperative study was begun
in 1959 with the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission of Florida and
the Division of Plant Industry, State of Florida Department of Agriculture.
The over-all study is concerned with the fire ant itself and the use of hep-
tachlor for its eradication and the effect of both on other forms of wild-
life, including mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, annelids, and arthropods.
The methods of collecting arthropods and annelids were as follows:
1. alcohol pitfalls, 2. soil samples, 3. sweep nets, 4. litter samples, and 5.
light traps. This paper reports the results of all methods of collecting
except the alcohol pitfall method, which was reported on in a previous
paper. (Rhoades, 1962)
Studies on the effects of large-scale insect eradication or control pro-
grams on other forms of wildlife have been confined to limited experiments
using wettable powders, dusts, and emulsion concentrate formulations of
insecticides, but none has been conducted using granular formulations.
Hoffman et. al. (1949) made intensive studies on the effects of airplane
applications of DDT on forest invertebrates in Pennsylvania. Much vari-
ation in response was found among different kinds of animals in this pre-
liminary study. The investigators felt that further work was needed.
Stickel (1949) studied the effect on wildlife of DDT dust used for tick con-
1Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 1649.
2 Entomologist, University of Florida, North Florida Experiment Sta-
tion, Quincy, Florida.
3 Acknowledgments. The author is indebted to Mr. Harold Denmark,
Chief Entomologist, Division of Plant Industry, State of Florida Department
of Agriculture; Mr. R. W. Murray, Biologist, Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission of Florida and to Drs. A. N. Tissot, L. C. Kuitert, M. H. Muma
and E. G. Kelsheimer, Entomologists with the Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Stations for their helpful suggestions in the carrying on of this proj-
ect. The author would also like to thank Mr. T. J. Spilman, Insect Identi-
fication and Parasite Introduction Research Branch, U.S.D.A., A.R.S.; Mr.
0. L. Cartwright, Associate Curator, Department of Insects, U. S. National
Museum for their help in identifying specimens; Mr. James M. Stanley,
Agricultural Engineer, U.S.D.A., A.R.S. and Mr. E. S. Holmes, Assistant
Agricultural Engineer, University of Florida for furnishing and assisting
in setting up the light traps used in these studies.
The Florida Entomologist
trol on a 206-acre plot of Texas prairie. Ground feeding birds suffered
most severely while other birds were less affected. Some reptiles were
killed, but mammals were affected very little, if at all. Springer and Web-
ster (1951) investigated the effects of DDT applications in New Jersey
tidal salt marshes. Birds apparently suffered little direct harm, though
local movements of swallows and gulls occurred in response to depletion
or increase of available food. None of these tests were made under Florida
conditions, or with granular formulations, and they were not as extensive
and comprehensive as the test reported in this paper.
METHOD OF PROCEDURE
Three ecologically similar areas, each approximately 1,280 acres in
size and located in Okaloosa and Washington Counties in Northwest Flor-
ida were selected for this study. Area 1 is located eleven miles north and
two miles west of Crestview, Florida on State Road 2. It was heavily in-
fested with imported fire ants and was the one selected to receive treatment
with heptachlor granules at the rate of 1/4 pounds technical material per
acre. Area 2 is located ten miles north of Crestview, Florida, on State
Road 85. It was also heavily infested with imported fire ants and was se-
lected as the area that would not be treated with insecticides so that a
study could be made of the effects of the imported fire ants upon other
forms of wildlife. Area 3 is located two miles northeast of Chipley, Flor-
ida, on State Road 273. This area had no infestation of imported fire ants
and was used as a check area.
Figure 1. Light trap
(15-Watt BL Flourescent Omnidirectional
Vol. 46, No. 4
Rhoades: Imported Fire Ant Eradication Program 303
Samples were taken in all areas for one year prior to treatment in
order to establish, as accurately as possible, the normal insect and earth-
worm populations. Each area was sub-divided into four plots, each of
which was sampled by the various methods once a month. Pre-treatment
sampling was started in September 1959 and continued through August
Four light traps in each area, (Fig. 1), were set and operated through
one night each month. These traps were set as nearly as possible on the
20th of each month. The total catch of each light trap was preserved in
70% alcohol and brought into the laboratory for identification. Each speci-
men was identified to family level and in the case of the indicator forms
to the species level. Each of the twelve light traps were located in an im-
proved pasture adjacent to cultivated crop land and as close to pine timber
as possible. This was done so as to attract the same type of insects in each
Soil samples were taken once each month in three situations-in crop
land, pine timber, and fallow fields. Each sample consisted of one cubic
foot of soil which was sifted through an 8-mesh soil sieve, and all speci-
mens were collected, preserved in 70% alcohol, and brought into the lab-
oratory for identification. Each specimen was identified to family level
and indicator forms to species level.
Litter samples were taken once each month in two locations-pine tim-
ber and fallow fields. The litter was collected from an area 18 inches by
36 inches in six different spots at each location making a total of 48 sam-
ples in each area per month. This was placed in waterproof paper bags,
sealed and brought into the laboratory and processed through modified Ber-
lese Funnels (Fig. 2) where the insects were caught in 70% alcohol and
preserved until they were identified.
/ ',, ...
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The Florida Entomologist
Sweep net samples were taken once each month in two locations-pas-
ture land and fallow fields. A total of 25 sweeps were taken at three loca-
tions in each of the above situations and combined for each sample, mak-
ing a total of 75 sweeps per sample. Each of the 8 samples, per area was
placed in a waterproof bag, sealed and brought into the laboratory where
they were processed and identified.
Vegetation in the fallow fields and open pine timber consisted of weeds
and native grasses, while that in improved pastures consisted primarily of
Pensacola bahiagrass. The crops grown were primarily corn and cotton
in all three areas.
Indicator species selected for the various methods of collection were
Conoderus falli (wireworm)
Calosoma calidum (ground beetle)
Epicauta vittata (blister beetle)
Phyllophaga spp. (may beetles)
Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi (spotted cu
Tetracha carolina (tiger beetle)
Lethocerus americanus (giant water bug)
Nezara viridula (southern green stink bug)
Carneocephala flaviceps (leafhopper)
Prosapia bicincta (spittle bug)
Protoparce quinquemaculata (tomato hornworm)
Heliothis zea (corn earworm)
Apantesis virgo (tiger moth)
Estigmene area (salt marsh caterpillar)
1. Conoderus fall (wireworm)
2. Annelids (earthworms)
1. Anthonomis grandis (boll weevil)
2. Adalia bipunctata (two-spotted lady beetle )
1. Locustidae (grasshoppers)
2. Carneocephala flaviceps (leafhopper)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Area 1 was treated in September, 1960, by airplane, using 114 pounds
technical heptachlor per acre. This treatment eradicated the imported fire
ant from the area and severely reduced the numbers of other insects for
several months depending upon the species. Some were reduced more and
over a longer period than others, as is shown in Table 1.
Area 2 was not treated, and studies were made to determine the effect
of the imported fire ant on other forms of wildlife including other insects.
This study showed no apparent effect upon other arthropods or annelids.
The effect they had on other forms of wildlife such as mammals, birds, etc.
was studied by the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission of Florida.
Area 3 was not infested with imported fire ants, received no treatment
with insecticides, and was used as the check area.
Vol. 46, No. 4
Rhoades: Imported Fire Ant Eradication Program 307
A ten acre plot was selected in each of Areas 1 and 2 for studying the
spread and increase of fire ants. Only active mounds were counted. Five
weeks after Area 1 was treated, no active mounds were found. This area
remained void of active colonies for 22 months, at the end of which time
one active colony was found. In Area 2, the fire ants remained active and
the number of colonies had increased from 96 in September 1959 to 198 in
August 1961, when they leveled off at 195 active colonies in August 1962
Table 1 shows the number of specimens caught expressed as percent-
ages. Pretreatment counts were taken and normal populations were estab-
lished during a twelve-month period extending from September 1959 through
August, 1960. These counts were given a value of 100 percent in all three
study areas and are shown in the first column in each area. The figures
shown in the second column are for the first year after treatment, Sep-
tember, 1960 through August, 1961, while those in the third column in
each area are for the second year after treatment, and extend from Sep-
tember, 1961 through August, 1962.
For example, in Area 1 only 35 percent as many Conoderus falli were
taken for the year 1960-61 as were taken the year 1959-60; while there
were 105 percent as many specimens taken during the year 1961-62, show-
ing that they had increased to 5 percent above pre-treatment level the
second year after treatment. This same species remained approximately at
pre-treatment levels in the other two study areas. Note that the treatment
had varying degrees of effect upon other species reported in this table.
Wireworm, ground beetle, striped blister beetle, may beetle, spotted
cucumber beetle, tiger beetle, and spittle bug were severely reduced in num-
bers one month after treatment and remained at a low level for approxi-
mately one year. They then began increasing in numbers until they had
reached approximately normal figures by the end of the second year after
treatment. In Area 2 where studies were made to determine the effect of
the imported fire ants on other insects, more specimens were caught during
each of the following two years than during pre-treatment sampling, indi-
cating that fire ants had no effect on the population of these, insects. Area
3 showed an increase in specimens caught each year over the previous year's
Giant water bug, Southern green stinkbug, leafhopper, tomato horn-
worm, corn earworm, tiger moth and salt marsh caterpillar were reduced
in numbers immediately after the insecticide was applied but not so se-
verely as those mentioned above, or for as long a period. The results for
Areas 2 and 3 are approximately the same as for these areas reported
Results from this method of sampling showed that the wireworm pop-
ulation was severely reduced in the treated area for approximately 12
months particularly in cultivated and fallow fields. The reduction was not
so severe in pine timber soil samples.
The reduction in population of annelids was not as severe as was the
reduction of wireworms nor for as long a period of time; however, it is
Vol. 46, No. 4
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Rhoades: Imported Fire Ant Eradication Program 309
considered to be a significant reduction. The results were about the same
in all three locations where samples were taken. In Areas 2 and 3 more
specimens were collected, in most instances, the second and third years than
for the first year.
Boll weevils and two spotted lady beetles were significantly reduced in
numbers by the treatment but not as severely as some of the other species.
They were more severely reduced in pine timber litter than they were in
fallow field litter, probably because they prefer the former type litter for
hibernation. The lady beetle was more affected than was the boll weevil.
In Areas 2 and 3 again more specimens were collected the last two years
of the test than were collected during the first year when population trends
All species of grasshoppers were combined for this study; since no
one species was dominant, it was felt that more accurate results could be
obtained by counting all specimens. The number of egg-pods were far
less in fence rows and roadsides in and around the treated area during the
first winter after treatment than the preceding year, the second year after
treatment, or in the two untreated areas. It is assumed that this is a con-
tributing factor in the slow build up of specimens in the treated area dur-
ing the first year after treatment. Grasshoppers were more affected by
the treatment than was the leafhopper.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
A study was begun in September 1959 to obtain quantitative data on
the effects of the imported fire ant Solenopsis saevissima richteri Forel and
of the large-scale eradication and control programs on other forms of wild-
life. Particular attention was given to the effect of the insecticide on ben-
Three ecologically similar 1,280-acre areas in northwest Florida were
selected: (1) infested, treated with 1% pounds per acre of technical hep-
tachlor in granular form by airplane in September 1960; (2) infested, not
treated-to study the effect of the fire ants on other forms; (3) not in-
fested, not treated-for a check area.
Four methods of sampling invertebrates were used-light trap, soil
sample, litter sample, and sweet net. From 4 to 48 samples, depending upon
method of sampling, were taken from each area for 12 months prior to
treatment of Area 1, and the same number taken for 24 months in all areas
after Area 1 was treated. The indicator species reported in this paper were
severely reduced in numbers immediately after treatment was applied and
remained at a low level for several months before they began increasing.
They reached approximate normal populations within 12 months and main-
tained these populations during the second 12-month period.
Imported fire ants were eradicated from the treated area and those in
the infested, untreated area apparently had no effect upon the other species
reported in this, paper.
310 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 46, No. 4
Hoffman, C. H., H. K. Townes, H. H. Swift, and R. I. Sailer. 1949. Field
studies on the effects of airplane applications of DDT on forest in-
vertebrates. Ecol. Monogr. 19: 1-46.
Rhoades, W. C. 1962. A gynecological study of the effects of the imported
fire ant eradication program. I. Alcohol pitfall method of collecting
Fla. Ent. 45(4): 161-173.
Springer, Paul E., and John R. Webster. 1951. Biological effects of DDT
application on tidal salt marshes. Mosquito News 2(2): 67-74.
Stickel, George. 1949. Effects of DDT dust on wildlife. Amer. Midl. Nat.
Murray, Robert W. 1962. A synecological study of the effects of the im-
ported fire ant eradication program. Proc. 16th Ann. Conf. South-
eastern Assoc. of Game and Fish Commissioners. Charleston, South
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MINUTES OF THE 46th ANNUAL MEETING OF THE
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
The 46th annual meeting of the Florida Entomological Society was
held at the Outrigger Inn in St. Petersburg, Florida on September 12-13,
1963. A pre-meeting "bull session" of selected topics was held the eve-
ning of September 11, with J. E. Brogdon as moderator.
President H. H. True opened the convention at 9:00 a.m., September 12.
One hundred twenty-eight persons registered. Thirty-one papers were pre-
sented, including three invitational papers. The invitational papers were:
Opportunities for Entomologists in Central America. Russell D.
Caid, United Fruit Company, La Lima, Honduras.
Life History and Control Studies of the Human Bot Fly (Derm-
atobia hominis (Linn.). W. W. Neel, Chemagro Corporation,
Governmental Registration Requirements for Pesticides. D. Lyle
Goleman, American Cyanamid Company, Princeton, New Jer-
The first business meeting was called to order at 10:20 A.M. on Sep-
tember 12 by President True. Fifty members were present.
The minutes of the 45th annual meeting were presented and approved
President True informed the membership that he had appointed a
Public Relations Committee as directed at the previous, annual meeting
and that the Executive Committee had authorized the Public Relations Com-
mittee to spend up to $300.00 to help carry out its responsibilities during
President True read the following proposed change in the By-Laws:
"Article III, Section 1.-The Society may issue a publication
containing the transactions of the organization's meetings and
such other matter as may be of interest to entomologists. A copy
of each issue (THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST) shall be sent
to each member of the Florida Entomological Society. The di-
rection of the publication of the Society shall be entrusted to a
Board of Managers. This Board shall consist of a Business Man-
ager, who shall be the Treasurer of the Society, and an Editor and
an Associate Editor. The Executive Committee shall appoint the
Editor and Associate Editor, each of whom shall serve for a period
of three (3) calendar years. Previous to December 1 the editors'
third year in office, the Executive Committee shall make appoint-
ments for the ensuing three-year term. The official publication
shall be issued at such intervals as may be determined by the
Society or by the Board of Managers".
L. Berner moved the adoption of the amended Section 1 as read by
the President. The motion was seconded and approved by voice vote.
President True announced that the membership had approved by mail
ballot the election to Honorary Membership of W. L. Thompson and Alvah
Peterson. The Secretary was directed to send the scrolls conferring Hon-
orary Membership to Mr. Thompson and Dr. Peterson.
The followingcoint es were appointed by President True:
..- Auditing: F._ __Mead Chairman; F. A. Robinson; F. L. Wilson.
Resolutions: E. G. Kelsheimer, Chairman; J. B. O'Neil; W. P.
Editor L. Berner reported that the first supplement to the Florida
Entomologist would soon be issued. It will contain two papers, one by
A. Peterson and one by M. H. Muma. The supplement will contain about
40 pages, the entire cost to be borne by funds available to the authors.
The membership gave a standing ovation to Editor Berner for his ex-
cellent service as editor for the past 14 years.
312 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 46, No. 4
REPORT OF THE PUBLIC RELATIONS COMMITTEE
By amendment to Article II, Section 6 of the By-Laws, the Florida
Entomological Society at its 45th Annual Meeting established a permanent
Public Relations Committee of five members and outlined its duties. This
is a report of the activities of this committee during 1962-63.
The committee requested and received permission from the Executive
Committee to spend up to $300.00 for expenses; $53.55 of this amount was
used by the committee for telephone, postage and legislative services.
Mr__James Brogdon did an outstanding job for the committee and the
Society in the are__iT 'public education and publicity for entomology. He
made about 12 talks to lay groups in which ten minutes or more were de-
voted to an explanation of what the science and profession of entomology
is and its contributions to society. These talks were made to garden clubs,
home demonstration leaders, and similar groups. Mr. Brogdon also collab-
orated with Dr. Louis Kuitert in making a television movie on the need
for and importance of insect control. This program was shown by educa-
tional T. V. stations and some commercial stations around the state.
Mr. Brogdon is also cooperating with the Local Arrangements Com-
mittee to secure the best possible news coverage on this meeting.
Other members of the. committee also were active in the public rela-
tions field through correspondence with laymen on various aspects of en-
tomological activities during the year.
Another major activity of the committee was in the field of legislation
affecting entomology. The 1963 Florida Legislative Session provided the
opportunity for this work.
Through the efforts of Mr. William Tappan, arrangements were made
to have House and Senate Journals sent to each member of the committee.
These were surveyed for proposed laws affecting the public interest in the
field of entomology and copies of these laws were secured through the
Ballinger Legislative Service in Tallahassee.
The committee supported several proposed laws as being in the public
interest. This action, in each case by unanimous vote of the committee, was
taken through correspondence with the Chairman of the legislative com-
mittee considering the bills. Where a decision to support or oppose a bill
was not unanimous in the Public Relations Committee, no action was taken.
Most of the bills with which the committee was concerned were re-
ferred to the Committee on Public Health A in the Senate. Action was
taken on five bills and the committee's recommendations were approved in
each instance. Senator Cliff Herrell was Chairman of the committee on
Public Health A and was most cooperative and helpful in considering the
recommendations that were submitted by this committee on behalf of
Laws that were successfully supported were: H. B. 864-Giving au-
thority to the Florida Commissioner of Agriculture to refuse or revoke reg-
istration of adulterated or misbranded pesticides; S. B. 174-Establishing
a laboratory on the Gulf Coast west of the St. Marks River to study the
biology and control of stable flies, deer flies, and other arthropods of pub-
lic health importance; S. B. 222-Relating to nuisances injurious to health,
including the breeding of flies, mosquitoes etc.; S. B. 261-Deleting the six
months experience requirement for graduate entomologists to take the
structural pest control examination; and S. B. 395-Concerning the conduct
of examinations for structural pest control.
While the efforts of this committee in the field of legislation is not
impressive in terms of volume, it is felt that a good beginning was made
for more effective action by future committees in this important field of
One other matter that the Public Relations Committee was asked to
investigate during the past year is the question of certification or regis-
tration of professional entomologists. It is the feeling of the majority of
this committee that certification or registration of professional entomol-
ogists is a desirable objective. However, the committee feels that this
objective can and should be attained through a separate, nonaffiliated Pro-
Minutes of The 46th Annual Meeting 313
fessional Entomologists Association, hopefully, with the blessing, and sup-
port of the Florida Entomological Society.
J. R. King
J. E. Brogdon
W. B. Tappan
A. J. Rogers, Chairman
President True initiated a discussion of financing the future activities
of the Public Relations Committee. After discussion by L. Berner,_B. C.
Wilkinson and S. H. Kerr, a motion was made by S. H. Kerr that the in-
coming Executive Committee be authorized by the membership to provide
the Public Relations Committee with operating funds up to $300.00 per
year. The motion was seconded. L. Berner moved the adoption of an
amendment to the motion which would remove the $300.00 limit and leave
the limit to the discretion of the Executive Committee. The motion to
amend was seconded and then defeated by voice vote. H. V. Weems moved
the adoption of an amendment which retained the $300.00 limit but which
would permit the Executive Committee to vote on making more money
available if an appeal was made to it for extra funds by the Public Rela-
tions Committee. The motion to amend was seconded and passed by voice
vote. The original motion, now amended, passed by voice vote.
An ovation was given the Public Relations Committee in acknowledg-
ment of their services on behalf of the Society and of the Profession of
The secretary read the membership a letter from Mrs. Frank S. Cham-
berlain thanking the Society for the citation and plaque honoring her late
The first business session was adjourned by President True at 11:05
The second business session was convened by President True at 11:55
A. M. September 13. Forty-five members were present.
REPORT OF TREASURER-BUSINESS MANAGER FOR YEAR
ENDING AUGUST 31, 1963
Cash used for change at 45th Annual Meeting in Gainesville $ 100.00
Cash returned by J. E. Brogdon from Hospitality Fund ............ 20.44
Registration Fees .................................. ......................... .... ....--... 298.00
Banquet Fees ................................................---------------------------------..................------............... 535.27
Hospitality Hour Fund from A. A. Chadwick .-..............-----------...........---.... 150.00
Dues ....----.... --------------.....-....---...--....--------------............------.. --.. -.. 763.75
Subscriptions ........................................................................................ 524.00
Advertisements ..........................................................-----------------------------------------.................. 1087.22
Reprints and Plates .......................................................................... 518.96
Back Issues ....................................................................-------------------------------------------......--........ 67.25
Cash on hand July 31, 1962 .---.............------------...--.........-------... 1490.55
Cash used for change at 45th Annual Meeting in Gainesville $ 100.00
J. E. Brogdon-Hospitality Hour Fund .......................................... 100.00
Rutherfords-2 Engraved plaques for F.E.S. Awards .......... 50.74
Don Byrne-Transportation of Trailer containing
Exotic Insect Exhibit .-...-..-.................................................-----------------------.......-------- 46.75
Bell & Hintermister, Inc.-Banquet dinners and bar service 495.12
Holiday Inn Restaurant-1 luncheon .................................------------------------........... 1.75
The Florida Entomologist
U. F. Teaching Hospital-Coffee and juice served at breaks 24.00
Pepper Printing Co.-Printing Programs for
45th Annual Meeting ...........................................-----------------.................. 60.57
Frank A. Robinson-for cards to make up banquet tickets .... 1.65
Robert E. Carson-Entertainment at women's luncheon .......... 15.00
U. F. Transportation Dept.-Bus transportation from Med.
Center to Computer Center at 45th Annual Meeting ...... 8.00
Guaranty Federal Savings & Loan Assn.-
Deposit to F.E.S. Account ..-....--...................----..--......-......--------.....-------... 1000.00
Storter Printing Co.-Invoice and statement forms
and envelopes ....................-------..........--------................---....-...--....-----------......... 56.55
Pepper Printing Co.-Printing of the Florida Entomologist .... 2920.72
Postmaster, Gainesville, Florida-Postage and Box Rent --..... 93.91
Western Union-Confirmation on running ads in
Florida Entomologist .---.......... --------------..---.....-------.....-----........-. 7.01
Bank Service Charges ...........................................----------------------------...................... 3.50
Cash on hand August 31, 1963 ..................................... ............... 570.17
Savings Account-Guaranty Federal Savings & Loan Assn. $3000.00
Total interest earned from Feb. 9, 1961 to June 28, 1963 ...... 194.50
Cash on hand August 31, 1963 .-.....--.....------.-------.. ..--..-...--....-------.. 570.17
R. E. Waites, Business Manager
REPORT OF THE AUDITING COMMITTEE
We find all records of the Florida Entomological Society in good order
and correct as presented by its Business Manager, Dr. R. E. Waites, for
the period August 1, 1962 through August 25, 1963. The committee com-
mends Dr. Waites not only for having the records in good order and bal-
anced, but also for his conscientious approach to the job.
F. A. Robinson
F. L. Wilson
F. W. Mead, Chairman
REPORT OF THE HONORS AND AWARDS COMMITTEE
The Honors and Awards Committee has selected two members of the
Society to receive the Award of the Florida Entomological Society for out-
standing contributions and meritorious service to entomology and to the
public welfare of the state and nation. The committee recommends that
Drs. Carroll N. Smith and Germain C. LaBrecque of the Insects Affecting
Man Research Laboratory should be honored for their joint contributions
in developing a method of controlling certain insects by the sterile-male
technique through the use of chemosterilants.
Be it known by all men who shall read these presents, that the
Florida Entomological Society on this twelfth day of September, in
the year of our Lord, nineteen hundred and sixty-three, does here-
by recognize and honor Dr. Carroll N. Smith and Dr. Germain C.
LaBrecque who directed a research team of the Insects Affecting
Man Research Laboratory, for outstanding and meritorious service
to Science and to the public in developing the practical application
of the use of chemosterilants for the control of certain insects by
the sterile-male technique.
Vol. 46, No. 4
Minutes of The 46th Annual Meeting
The recipients and associates have screened 2,330 compounds
as potential chemosterilants against house flies. Of these, 40 have
had additional laboratory studies. Three chemosterilants have
been in field trials. The research team has studied the effect of
several chemosterilants against house flies on the reproductive or-
gans, sperm development, periods of the immature stages, and
mating habits. Additional biological studies of flies with special
references to mating behavior have been made by the group.
Dr. Smith is President-Elect of the Entomological Society of
America. Carroll, as he is known by his many friends and col-
leagues, has been with Insects Affecting Man and Animals Re-
search Branch, Entomology Research Division, U.S.D.A., since
1935. He joined the staff of Insects Affecting Man Research Lab-
oratory in 1946 and has been Director of the Laboratory since
1954. He has many outstanding accomplishments in the biologies
of ticks, the control of ticks, chiggers, flies, mosquitoes and fleas,
and repellents for insects affecting man. Carroll, a medical en-
tomologist, is known professionally in many parts of the world.
Dr. LaBrecque, known by his friends and colleagues as Jerry,
joined the staff of the Insects Affecting Man Research Laboratory
in March, 1951. He has outstanding accomplishments on the bi-
ologies of sand flies and house flies, control of sand flies, fleas,
and house flies with insecticides in this country and in Egypt. In
the past five years, he has been author or co-author on twelve pub-
lications relating to laboratory and field studies with chemosteri.
lants on house flies.
L. C. Kuitert, Chairman
Since neither recipient could be present, President True instructed
the committee to present the citations and plaques to Drs. Smith and
LaBrecque in person in Gainesville.
REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE, TO CONSIDER A NEW
ENTOMOLOGY IN ACTION EXHIBIT
This committee had three charges: (1) to determine the need
or desirability of up-dating the exhibit; (2) to determine what
would be required to put the exhibit in A-1 condition and to ensure
its maximum usefulness; and (3) to determine the approximate
The committee has discussed these questions several times
and have agreed upon the following:
1. The committee recommends that the Society keep the present
exhibit which contains excellent pictures of insect life and
some of the activities of entomologists.
2. That a new exhibit be developed which will stress the areas of
entomological activities, such as the area of morphology, phys-
iology, taxonomy, medical entomology, toxicology, etc., the idea
being that each area have two or three photographs with a
brief description on the subject. Such an exhibit should give a
young person information as to the possibilities of entomology
as a career. This exhibit should be constructed out of light
material so that it can be easily moved. The committee felt
that aluminum panels should be used to support the pictures
and the written material.
3. The cost of such an exhibit, with members doing the work,
should be approximately 200 dollars.
4. If the Society feels this is a worth-while expense, that the in-
coming president appoint a committee to develop the idea, with
later appointments to be made from the membership of the
The Florida Entomologist
areas to be shown, i.e., a forest entomologist would be added to
the committee to develop the photographs and written ma-
terials for that facet of entomology, a taxonomist for the field
of taxonomy, etc.
5. That the membership be encouraged to take advantage of the
present Entomology in Action exhibit and illustrated talk for
use in their area.
J. E. Brogdon
R. E. Waites
Milledge Murphey, Chairman
F. G. Butcher made a motion that the recommendations of the com-
mittee be carried out. The motion was seconded and passed by voice vote.
REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE TO CONSIDER THE ESTABLISHMENT
OF A SCHOLARSHIP
Our committee was appointed to consider the feasibility of
using the income from our Society's reserve fund to set up some
sort of small scholarship in the Department of Entomology at the
University .of Florida. The committee was to consider the methods
of handling such a project as well as its desirability, and it was
to make its recommendations at the annual meeting.
Our report must be in two parts:
First, the committee unanimously agreed that the income from the
Society's reserve fund should be used to help and encourage stu-
dents majoring or minoring in entomology. We felt that such
use would further the profession of entomology and the interests
of our Society.
Second, the committee was unable to agree upon a single plan to
accomplish the objective stated above. The committee did agree
that each of two plans were worthy of the Society's consideration
and that only one of the two should be adopted at this time.
One plan is that an annual award of $100.00 should be made
to an upper division student majoring or minoring in entomology.
If less than $100.00 is available in accumulated interest, the award
would be reduced by multiples of $25.00 until the award would
come from the money available. The recipient of the award
would be selected by a committee of three, appointed annually by
the president. Two of the three members would ordinarily be
from the faculty of the Department of Entomology, but the presi-
dent could vary this at his discretion. The selection committee
should consider all eligible students and would select as the
awardee the student who showed the greatest promise for genuine
contributions to entomology. The committee would report its de-
cision at the annual meeting of the Society, and the award would
be formally presented at the annual meeting or as soon afterwards
The second of the two alternative plans is that a Florida En-
tomological Society loan fund be established. Accumulated in-
terest from the Society's reserve fund would be used in setting
up the fund, and each year the fund would be increased by the
transfer to it of all interest earned. The fund would be admin-
istered free of charge by the Student Financial Aid Office. Loans
would be restricted to upper division students, with a major or
minor in entomology, and no loan would be made without the ap-
proval of any one of the three Society members designated an-
nually by the President of the Society. The loans could be short
term (repayable within the trimester) or long term but would
normally be long term since another fund is presently adequately
providing for entomology students requiring short term loans.
Short term loans would be subject to a 2% service, charge, while
long term notes would bear interest at the rate of 4% beginning
Vol. 46, No. 4
Minutes of The 46th Annual Meeting 317
on the date, of the note. Repayment of a long term loan would be-
gin no later than six months following graduation or leaving
school and would be at a rate of no less than $25.00 per month.
Interest and service charges would further increase the funds
available for loan.
L. C. Kuitert
T. J. Walker, Chairman
After some discussion of the committee report by several members,
J. W. Wilson made a motion that the Society proceed to a consideration
of the two alternative proposals offered by the committee to dispense the
monies, the two plans to be considered and voted upon a seriatim. The
motion was seconded and carried by voice vote.
J. W. Wilson moved that the Society vote on the committee's first
alternative of giving a yearly grant of $100.00 to a student of entomology.
The motion was seconded. After considerable discussion, largely on the
issue of the desirability of studying other uses of the monies, the motion
was defeated by voice vote.
F. G. Butcher made a motion to table the consideration of the second
alternative and to have a new committee appointed to make further con-
sideration of ways to use these monies. The motion was seconded and
passed by voice vote.
REPORT OF THE RESOLUTIONS COMMITTEE
Be it resolved by the Florida Entomological Society that:
1. The Society give special recognition to Editor Lewis Ber-
ner for devotion to the duties of his office for the 14 years he has
held the position, and the development of supplements to the Flor-
2. The Society give recognition to the Business Manager,
R. E. Waites, for his many years of careful work.
3. The Society give recognition to the Public Relations Com-
mittee under the leadership of its chairman, A. J. Rogers, for
their outstanding contribution to the advancement of the prestige
of our profession during the first year of that committee's exist-
4. The Society give recognition to the city of St. Petersburg
and to the Outrigger Inn management for helping to make our
meeting such an outstanding success.
5. The Society give special recognition to the Program Chair-
man and his committee for the outstanding program, for the in-
novation in format of the program, and for the Entomologists
6. The Society give a vote of thanks for the diligent efforts
of Mr. R. R. Reed and his Local Arrangements Committee, and
to Mr. Collins for his assistance with the projection equipment dur-
ing the meeting.
7. The Society give a standing ovation to the present and im-
mediate past presidents for the excellent performance of their
G. H. Beames
J. B. O'Neil
W. P. Hunter
E. G. Kelsheimer, Chairman
President True announced that in accordance with the newly amended
Article III, Section 1 of the By-Laws, the Executive Committee had named
the editors whose 3-year terms would begin January 1, 1964. T. J. Walker
was appointed Editor, and S. H. Kerr appointed Associate Editor.
The Florida Entomologist
The place of the next meeting was announced by President True to
be the Beach Club Hotel in Fort Lauderdale. The dates were tentatively
set as September 9-11, 1964. L. Berner moved that the Executive Commit-
tee give additional consideration to changing dates, and having the meet-
ing later in September if possible. The motion was seconded and passed
by voice vote.
REPORT OF THE NOMINATING COMMITTEE
The nominating committee offers the following slate of officers
for the coming year, 1964.
President G. W. Dekle
Vice President N. C. Hayslip
Treasurer-Business Manager R. E. Waites
Secretary S. H. Kerr
Executive Committee A. K. Burditt, Jr.
P. E. Huber
R. B. Workman
R. M. Baranowski, Chairman
R. B. Workman made a motion that the slate of officers named by the
Nominating Committee be elected. The motion was seconded and passed
by voice vote.
H. H. True handed over the gavel to the new President, G. W. Dekle.
The meeting was adjourned at 12:55 P.M.
There were three meetings of the Executive Committee in 1962-63.
The first was held at the Deauville Hotel, Miami Beach on November 1,
1962. Additional meetings were held on September 11 and September 13,
1963, during the annual meeting in St. Petersburg.
S. H. Kerr,
Dr. Carroll N. Smith, a long-time member of the Florida Entomologi-
cal Society, and Investigations Leader, U.S.D.A., E. R. D., Laboratory for
Insects Affecting Man and Animals, Gainesville, Florida, was installed as
the new P-esidentmfithaEntomological Society of America at the annual
meeting held in St. Louis, December 2-5.
Mr. Irwin H. Gilbert, Assistant Station Leader, at the same laboratory
as Dr. Smith, was given a special award by the U.S.D.A. for outstanding
special services in planning, design, and utilization of facilities. The award
was also presented at the St. Louis meetings of the Entomological Society
of America, December 2-5.
Dr. Roland F. Hussey, Professor of Biological Sciences and Biology,
University of Florida, was asked to continue for an indefinite term as
Editor of the Annals of the Entomological Society of America. Dr. Hussey
has been serving in this editorial position for the past six years.
Vol. 46, No. 4
Minutes of The 46th Annual Meeting
AN ARTIFICIAL REARING MEDIUM FOR
Ips Calligraphus Germ. 1
W. C. YEARIAN and R. C. WILKINSON 2
An aseptic medium for rearing bark beetles was developed in conjunc-
tion with studies on the interrelations of blue stain fungi, Ceratocystis
spp., and three southeastern bark beetles in the genus Ips DeGeer. Modi-
fications of the medium developed by Vanderzant and Davich (1958)8 for
rearing the boll weevil were screened as diets for larvae of Ips calligraphus.
The only medium which permitted complete larval development is made
according to the following formula (amounts sufficient to make 100 grams
of the medium):
Cellulose, powdered 10.00
Brewers' yeast 7.00
Choline chloride 0.13
Vitamin Diet Fortification Mixture in Dextrose 0.50
Methyl para-hydroxybenzoate 0.15
Sorbic acid 0.20
Peanut oil 0.35
The preparation of the medium was as follows: (1) The agar was
placed in the water and heated until solution was attained; (2) The agar
solution and peanut oil were mixed in a food blender; (3) The combined
dry ingredients were slowly added with the blender operating at low speed
and the whole homogenized; (4) The hot medium was poured from the
blender into 20 x 100 mm. petri dishes at 40 ml. per dish and allowed to
cool. Reaction of the medium was approximately pH 5.
Ips calligraphus eggs were obtained from the phloem of infested pine
bolts. The eggs were teased from the oviposition niches with a dissecting
needle and transferred with a sable brush to a petri dish. The collected
eggs were washed for 5 minutes in the following modification of the steri-
lizing solution used by Vanderzant and Davich 0.25 g. of mercuric chlo-
ride. 6.5 g. of sodium chloride, 1.25 ml. of hydrochloric acid, 250 ml. of
1 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 1795.
2 Respectively, Research Assistant and Assistant Entomologist, Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, Florida.
8 Vanderzant, Erma S., and T. B. Davich. 1958. Laboratory rearing
of the boll weevil: a satisfactory larval diet and oviposition studies. Jour.
Econ. Ent. 51(3) : 288-291.
Nutritional Biochemicals Corp., Cleveland 28, Ohio.
The Florida Entomologist
ethanol, and 750 ml. of distilled water. They were then rinsed for 3 min-
utes in !sterile water and transferred aseptically with a sable brush to
a petri dish lined with moist filter paper and incubated at 80F. Five newly
hatched larvae were transferred from the incubation dish to individual de-
pressions made in the surface of the medium in a rearing dish. Depressions
were just large enough to accommodate the larvae so that they could gain
a purchase in the medium and initiate feeding. The dishes were held in
a cabinet maintained at 80,F and 30 to 40% relative humidity.
More than 1,000 larvae were used in evaluating 20 batches of the
medium, and the tests involved 200 rearing dishes. Larval survival on the
medium averaged 10%, and 99% of the pupae developed into adults. Most
of the unexplained mortality occurred in the first instar, and later larval
mortality was associated with failure to re-enter the medium after molting
at the surface. Length of time required for the developmental stages of
the insect on the medium was comparable to that under natural conditions.
Wild adults were maintained on the medium in excess of 30 days without
appreciable mortality, but no egg deposition occurred.
Sorbic acid and methyl para-hydroxybenzoate gave satisfactory mi-
crobial control for a period of 45 days. No microbial activity was detected
in isolations from medium exposed to air-borne organisms in the laboratory
for 10 minutes daily for a 21-day period.
Although only limited larval survival has been obtained with this
medium, it is a useful tool in establishing aseptic lines of Ips bark beetles.
Further refinements of the medium and improved procedures in handling
the larvae should improve the effectiveness of this technique.
Vol. 46, No. 4