Volume 47, No. 3
BELL, K. 0., AND W. H. WHITCOMB-Field Studies on Egg
Predators of the Bollworm, Heliothis Zea (Boddie).... 171
HUNTER, PRESTON E.-Five New Mites of the Subfamily
Ereynetinae (Acarina: Ereynetidae) ............---------------.............. 181
HAYNIE, JOHN D., AND ROWLAND B. FRENCH-Some Factors
Affecting the Coloration of Citrus Honey ........---------............. 195
BECK, WILLIAM, JR., AND ELISABETH C. BECK-New Chiron-
omidae from Florida (Diptera) ...-----...-.....--------------...... ...... 201
WOLFENBARGER, D. 0.-Avocado Whitefly Control ...........---------..... 209
DE LEON, DONALD-Four New Ameroseius Berlese 1903
from the United States (Acarina: Ameroseiidae) ........ 213
Published by The Florida Entomological Society
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
OFFICERS FOR 1964-65
President---------------..............................................---------....------..............---G. W. Dekle
Vice-President ...............----------------------------.......................................N. C. Hayslip
Secretary --..-..--....------------..............---..--.........-----......--..-----............... S. H. Kerr
Treasurer..... ..............................----------------------....... ------Robert E. Waites
W. G. Genung
Other Members of Executive Committee ........ A. K. Burditt, Jr.
Board of Managers
Thomas J. Walker--.--....-.....--........--------...------......--............Editor
Stratton H. Kerr---------..-........-......- Associate Editor
Robert E. Waites-.......----- .......------....... Business Manager
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST is issued quarterly-March, June, Septem-
ber, and December. Subscription price to non-members $5.00 per year in
advance; $1.25 per copy. Entered as second class matter at the post office
at Gainesville, Florida.
Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be sent to the Editor,
Entomology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville. Subscriptions
and orders for back numbers are handled by the Business Manager, Box
12425, University Station, University of Florida, Gainesville. The Secre-
tary can be reached at the same address.
When preparing manuscripts, authors should consult Style Manual for
Biological Journals (American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washing-
ton, D. C., 1960). For form of literature citations, see recent issues of
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST. Further, authors are referred to "Sug-
gestions for the preparation of papers submitted for publication in THE
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST." Fla. Ent. 41 (4): 193-194. 1958.
One page of figures and/or tables is allowed free. An additional one-
fourth page of figures and/or tables is allowed free for each printed page
beyond the fourth printed page. Authors will be charge $2.50 for each
one-fourth page or less of tables and/or figures in excess of the above
allowances. An author may have his manuscript published as soon as it
has been reviewed and edited by paying the full costs of publication ($9-18
per printed page). Such manuscripts are published in addition to (rather
than instead of) those normally published. Reprints of articles may be
ordered when the proofs are received for corrections; 25 copies are fur-
nished free to authors.
REPRINTS WITHOUT COVERS
No. Pages 50 copies 100 copies 100 copies
1-4 ..........---------------.......... ..................... $ 5.25 $ 6.25 $ .98
5-8 -..-.. .--.- -------------............ 8.75 10.75 2.10
9-16 ..--....-...............------------...................... ---------. 13.00 17.10 3.00
17-20 ..............---------------------...........................--... 19.25 23.50 4.00
More than 20 pages, per page ... .98 .88 .19
Additional for covers with title and author's name,
First 50.............-- ......$5.25 Additional, each..........$ .02
FIELD STUDIES ON EGG PREDATORS OF THE
BOLLWORM, HELIOTHIS ZEA (BODDIE)'
K. 0. BELL AND W. H. WHITCOMB
University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Predaceous insects are important in the control of Heliothis zea (Bod-
die) in cotton. Lady beetles, predaceous Hemiptera, lacewings, and other
predators destroy many bollworms before they mature. The egg is an
especially vulnerable stage because of its exposed location. While the
value of predators has been recognized, there is little detailed information
on the number of eggs a given predator population will destroy. To ob-
tain information on this problem, an experiment was conducted during
the summer of 1962 in which 6,000 eggs were placed on cotton plants in
the field, and the amount of predation tabulated.
The extensive literature on predators of H. zea includes several papers
concerned with the relationship between bollworm egg's and predaceous
insects. Quaintance and Brues (1905) discussed the habits of many pre-
daceous enemies of the eggs and young bollworm larvae. A series of ob-
servations of tagged eggs on cotton plants by Fletcher and Thomas (1943)
showed a range of 15.3 to 32.9% attacked by predators. These researchers
felt that most of the collapsed eggs found in the field had been attacked
by Orius insidiosus (Say). Ewing and Ivy (1943) reported that when cal-
cium arsenate dosages were light or when applications were poorly timed,
bollworm infestations increased, possibly because predators fed on the
increased aphid population and allowed more bollworm eggs to hatch.
They also determined the consumption of bollworm eggs by 12 different
predators under laboratory conditions. Lincoln and Leigh (1957) discussed
field populations of various predators, and their evaluation of methods for
predator counts is especially valuable. Wene and Sheets (1962) found
that predators were a factor in preventing bollworm populations in cotton
from increasing to destructive levels in Arizona.
Some of the most precise observations and best techniques for studying
bollworm egg predators have been made on corn, rather than on cotton.
Winburn and Painter (1932) mentioned 18 egg predators. The fate of more
than 4,000 H. zea eggs deposited naturally on corn plants was studied by
Phillips and Barber (1933). Harrison (1960) studied predation on bollworm
eggs deposited naturally on corn silk. The life history and importance of
0. insidiosus was carefully worked out by Barber (1936). Dicke and Jarvis
(1962) studied the food habits and seasonal abundance of 0. insidiosus on
corn and reported that thrips species ranked first as prey, followed by
lepidopterous larvae and aphids.
A one-acre cotton field in the Arkansas River valley near Morrilton,
Arkansas, was chosen as the site of the experiments. The field was not
treated with insecticides, nor were insecticides applied within half a mile
of it. A small amount of 2,4-D drifted in from a nearby pasture early in
1 Published with the approval of the Director of the Arkansas Agricul-
tural Experiment Station.
172 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 47, No. 3
the season but did not seriously affect the cotton. Two to four rows of corn
were planted on all sides of the field to reduce natural egg deposition in
the cotton by bollworm moths and to provide a good source of predators.
Corn varieties of different maturity groups planted on three dates pro-
vided continuous silking throughout June, July, and August. Nearby
fields were planted to sorghum, alfalfa, or soybeans.
Predators were counted daily, beginning at 8 AM, by examining 100
randomly chosen plants. The entire plant was examined, starting at the
top and proceeding to the bottom. Lincoln (1955) found this procedure
superior to sweeping, shaking, or sampling various plant parts in survey-
ing for predators on cotton. All predators collected were preserved and
later counted in the laboratory.2
Bollworm eggs were obtained from moths collected at night from corn,
alfalfa, and Dallis grass, Paspalum dilatatum Poir. Moths taken from
Dallis grass were feeding on the exudate produced by an ergot fungus, as
pointed out by Phillips and Whitcomb (1962). Moths were held in cylindri-
cal cages, eight inches in diameter by ten inches in height, so constructed
that eggs were laid through hardware cloth onto paper towelling.' Eggs
were washed from the paper towelling, collected by filtering the wash
water, and then held on ice until used. These were attached to cotton
leaves in the field with egg albumen. A camel's-hair brush was dipped
into egg albumen and then touched to the bollworm egg. The egg stuck
to the brush and was easily positioned on the leaf. Egg albumen dried
faster than albumen fixative.. Eggs were not easily washed off by rain
after the albumen dried.
Each experimental plot consisted of 1/50 acre of cotton planted in 10
rows, 26 feet long and spaced 40 inches apart. Plants were thinned early
in the year to one to a hill, with the hills approximately 10 inches apart.
Plots were located at random. The number of plants per plot varied from
264 to 309, mostly ranging between 290 and 305. Two hundred and fifty
eggs, or 25 to a row, were used in all the standard experiments, giving a
rate of 12,500 per acre. Special experiments at the end of the season were
made at rates of 2,500 and 50,000 eggs per acre.
In the standard experiments, eggs were placed on every third cotton
plant, at the rate of 3 to 4 eggs on each, with at least one egg in the top,
middle, and bottom third of the plant. Eggs were attached near the mid-
dle veins on the upper sides of the leaves on one cotton plant and on the
lower sides on the next. The position of the egg on the plant was marked
by a small piece of masking tape.
Eggs were placed in the field beginning at 2 PM and were examined
with a hand lens after 18, 24, and 42 hours to determine the fate of each
egg. In doubtful cases, the leaf and egg remains were brought into the
laboratory for microscopic examination.
In the laboratory, eggs were offered to various predators under simu-
SThe authors wish to express their appreciation for extensive help in
species determination to the Insect Identification and Parasite Introduc-
tion Res. Branch, Ent. Res. Div., Agric. Res. Serv., U. S. Dept. Agric.;
C. W. Wingo, Univ. of Missouri; and H. Dietrich, Cornell Univ.
'Acknowledgement is made of suggestions and advice regarding cage
construction from Dr. D. F. Martin, Pink Bollworm Investigations, Ent.
Res. Div., Agric. Res. Serv., U. S. Dept. Agric.
Bell: Studies on Egg Predators of the Bollworm 173
lated field conditions. Eggs were placed on cotton leaves kept fresh by
immersing the base of each petiole in water. Then the leaves were placed
in five-inch deep plastic boxes containing moist sand, and a predator of a
given species was released in the box. After 24 hours, the eggs were ex-
amined under the microscope to determine the characteristic effects of the
feeding of each species of predator. These investigations were made re-
peatedly because of the importance of even the smallest difference in ap-
pearance of egg remains in determining which species had attacked the
Populations of most predators were quite low in early June and in-
creased gradually during the season (Table 1). The green lacewings,
Chrysopa oculata Say, C. plorabunda Fitch, and C. rufilabris Burm., did
not become numerous until 16 July, but their populations continued high
until September. From mid-June, "big-eyed bugs", Geocoris punctipes
(Say) and G. uliginosus (Say), were among the most abundant predators;
the adults continued to be abundant until September. The nabid popula-
tion, Nabis ferus (L.), N. alternatus (Parsh.), N. roseipennis Reuter, N.
capsiformis Germar, and N. deceptivus Harris, was low in June, built up to
a peak in August and dropped off rapidly. The only reduviids consistently
present, Sinea diadema (F.) and S. spinipes (Herrich-Schaeffer), were not
important egg predators, but the anthocorid, Orius insidiosus (Say), was
a very important egg predator. Populations of this insect reached two
peaks, one in July and the other in August, and dropped very sharply the
first week in September (Fig. 1). The "spotted lady beetle", Coleomegilla
Figure 1. Daily Oruis insidious population present in the experimental
plots, expressed as insects per 100 plants.
iL 0 it
o 0 L~- Ci COC
0 C CDCO
,-4 ,-4 00 00 S
0 00 00 0
o10 0n 4
4> 10 0 Ci 1>
00 NC L co
00 -4 0 -I ^
CO 0 10 C
10 r- 0: C) NM C
c-d "q C
0m 00 C 0 0IZ
C00 CD 10
r,-i 40 100
10 C1 10 00 00 00 CO CO10 00 C 1C-
0 0 o 00 C~i i-^ O O Ol -Ao v -i co
00 L7 0 CO CO CO CO c
0 001C- 0 ,-40o -= 400 00
t17 Ci 1O -: CO
0 o to o =oooco ,-4Coo
0 0 0.
0 0 0CO
0 0000 cO O
10 L: Ci Ci
ooooC. co 't C 0
0~ ~ 6cc 2
~~~~~:- *|** ^. 1.
Si- S .U
co Cc -4-|
h C 3 a S'&>> *'O MS M ^e U
OU uq uqM ^ iN^ -
CiCi O 10 N CO 0 In
t-0S O= CO 10 CO10
10 0D C CO
10 CO ( r-i
L- 00 t7
0 i- 0
Cl 0 Cl
0 CR I-N
00 C- 1
D CO (
C0 CO Cl
,- 00 0
N CO: CO
00 00 I
T- o 0
00 00 00 0
0 0 M
CO t TO CO l
0 0 CO 1
1D 0 I CM
0 0 CL-7
Cl 00 C D
0 0 0 -^0
0 0 000
'-S- '2 a
's0 ) 0
0 i+ u'
*p _ w
C 0 Ci CO
Cl Cl 0 0 *^
0 L0 C~ 0
0CN 0 00
CO 00 0
Cm 1 0C00
0-0 00 00(M&
10 (M 00 up
00 0 C 0 0
00 Cli Cl0 0'
0O0 c C0
(io o om
00 0 C0
- C 0 0 0C
0=CI0C CD to
CA C Cl
0 V2 00 Cl
The Florida Entomologist
maculata (De Geer), was the most abundant of the larger lady beetles until
the first week in August. From 6 August through September, the "nine-
spotted lady beetle", Coccinella novemnotata Herbst, was the most abun-
dant. At no time was the convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens
Guerin, the dominant species in the plots. Scymnus americanus Muls.,
Scymnus fraternus Leconte, Scymnus rubricaudus Casey, Scymnus termina-
tus Say, Scymnus hortensis Wingo, and closely related species were present
and fed on bollworm eggs. Collops quadrimaculatus Fab. and Collops bal-
teatus Leconte were present but never numerous. Several species of ants
were present; some of these may have preyed on bollworm eggs.
Contrary to the findings of Phillips and Barber (1933) and Harrison
(1960), it was impossible to determine the species of predator that had
fed on a given bollworm egg. The feeding of most sucking insects left the
eggs tepee-shaped. Most chewing insects left a crown of egg shell and
a little of the egg contents. Some predators were observed to carry the
eggs away at times. These included Coleomegilla maculata, Coccinella
novemnotata, Hippodamia convergens, and Lebia analis Dej.
The number of eggs consumed did not appear to be correlated with the
population of any individual species of predator (Table 2). Failure to dis-
tinguish between the feeding of the different species was largely responsi-
ble for this, although there were other masking factors. Between 8 Au-
gust and 15 August, the population of Orius insidiosus increased five-fold,
but the number of bollworm eggs pierced increased only two and a half
times. From 7 July to 13 July, the number of large lady beetles dropped
from 40.3 per 1/50 acre to 12.4, and the number of eggs chewed dropped
from 34 to 11. On the other hand, the number of eggs chewed more than
tripled from 27 July to 3 August, but the number of large lady beetles was
lower on 3 August than on 27 July.
During the first 24 hours, an average of 33 eggs per 1/50 acre (11.2
eggs per 100 plants) was pierced. The largest number of pierced eggs was
56 per 1/50 acre (19.2 per 100 plants) on 15 August, and the smallest num-
ber was 13 per 1/50 acre (4.3 per 100 plants) on 3 August. The most im-
portant egg-piercing predators were the insidious flower bug, "big-eyed
bugs", "damsel bugs", and larvae of green lacewings.
'Chewing insects destroyed an average of 17.4 eggs per 1/50 acre (5.9
eggs per 100 plants) in the first 24 hours. The largest number of eggs
chewed was 34 per 1/50 acre (11.8 per 100 plants) on 7 July, and the small-
est number was 6 (2.0 per 100 plants) on 27 July. The most important
chewing predators were the nine-spotted lady beetle, the "spotted lady
beetle", the convergent lady beetle, the Scymnus species, the Collops species,
and the ground beetles (Lebia species). An unidentified trombiculoid mite
destroyed many eggs, particularly under hot and dry conditions.
Since eggs were held on ice until they were placed in the field, the
numbers hatched during the first two days were low. As far as could be
determined, only 1.5% of the eggs hatched in the first 24 hours.
A number of eggs disappeared. Chewing insects were observed to
carry some of these away, but what happened to the others is not known.
In his work on hornworm eggs in tobacco, Lawson (1959) also found that
Vol. 47, No,. 3
10 0 C4 t- 00
o 10 C
0 tO =O tO
C1 0 00 It C0
C~ O CO ^0
=1 10 0
coW cooot-< o :vr. q oq
,-: N CI r-4 r-q to i-I 00
N M- w- C!ai'c o
uo6 o6 ac o6o
co (M t- 1-1 14 L-
kC00 t- 0- IC
-4 0i t.: <6 _; a; O6 O
CIO OI- 00 01 C.0 -i w
*^OCD rq to 10 mN m-^
1-4 ctz to T-i tol mO'
m- M ~ N '.0 rcq 0
Im i- w 1-t 'IV -1 to 11 1= Ico
c c co 00C c i o
co N0 1 1 oco o .4 11
^0 0 CO 00
I" = = 00
10 tO Cl -400^
00 tO 0-400O
00 1- ,4 CO
00 LO 00 CO C
L-m- O t
l O C r-i 00
iRi o cfB O ii co! 'It
0o t-Cl C -i to 0o 10
00 CO 0 O
O q 1-- OIT O=- O-^
CO 00 Go 0 C> 0 O
Oc> Coi O Tzr- c c) 6 CO
COl T-q 10
> tmO- -gM T3
4 ))0 0)
U U U tO
Cu Ut tt u3 P
0 0 0 0 3
6666 u Q.)
zz 4-1 4-1 4-4
0 ^s'f 0 0y 0ua^ 0 ^ f e
=a il L- 7 t-:
et00 toL- 1-
O 00 C 1
OS-q C r-i r-4 CO
CO Iq t0 oi C
m co c 1-1 1-1 N
CO CO CO C4 CO 00 0
TfOS 000CO0 o0
0 -OC000 0
CCO O0O O0
0 l CO 03
0 ii0Cli-CO0 CO
0c0 00Oc 00 O
i 't a; co6 Q 00
CO kq cl 1
= 0 r-i L; O
CD l CD m O>
Oi OS1 C* 1060 OSll CD
u -4 -4 )
t.. Po 0 CCO
"0 0 bo? ^s
0 O1 CO C) "*4
The Florida Entomologist
a similar percentage of naturally deposited eggs disappeared. In the
present experiments, a few may have been blown off or washed away. In
all, an average of 43.3 eggs per 1/50 acre (14.7 eggs per 100 plants) dis-
appeared during the first 24 hours.
A difference in the amount of predation was noted, depending on the
location of the eggs on the cotton plant (Table 3). There were signifi-
TABLE 3.-EFFECT OF LOCATION OF Heliothis zea (BODDIE) EGGS ON
PREDATOR FEEDING. RESULTS ARE THE AVERAGE NUMBER OF EGGS
CONSUMED IN NINE EXPERIMENTS, EACH CONSISTING OF
1/50 ACRE WITH 250 EGGS, SUMMER, 1962.
Location on plant
Terminal Middle Bottom
Eggs pierced 9.1 9.7 13.9*
Eggs chewed 4.3 5.8 7.0
Eggs pierced and chewed 13.4 15.5 20.9*
Eggs missing 11.3 13.4 18.1*
Normal eggs 58.3 55.1 44.0*
Significantly different at the 1% level.
cantly more eggs preyed upon when they were placed in the lower part
of the plant than when placed in the terminal, but this was not true of
chewed eggs. There was no significant difference between eggs placed in
the middle branches and those placed in the terminal.
The side of the leaf on which eggs were placed made little difference
in number of eggs consumed. In all trials, eggs were alternately placed
on upper and lower surfaces, but no preference by either sucking or chew-
ing predators could be detected. In the case of missing eggs, the differ-
ence was just below significance at the 5% level.
Beginning in the middle of August, the effect of number of eggs on the
level of predation was investigated. The number of eggs destroyed by pred-
ators increased as the number of eggs increased. However, the percentage
destroyed did not change consistently as the number of eggs increased and
probably is well within the range of normal variation. When 50 eggs were
distributed over 1/50 acre at 18 eggs per 100 plants, a given population of
sucking insects destroyed an average of 4.0 eggs per 100 plants, and chew-
ing predators 2.0 eggs per 100 plants. When 85 eggs per 100 plants were
placed in the field, sucking predators destroyed 11.2 eggs per 100 plants,
and chewing insects destroyed 5.9 eggs per 100 plants. When 1,000 eggs
were placed on 1/50 acre at a rate of 330 eggs per 100 plants, sucking in-
sects destroyed an average of 61 eggs per 100 plants, and chewing insects
30 eggs per 100 plants in 24 hours.
Vol. 47, No. 3
Bell: Studies on Egg Predators of the Bollworm 179
Egg piercing predators appeared to be particularly important in these
experiments. In half of the experiments, the number of pierced eggs ex-
ceeded that of chewed eggs by two to one. In only one case were there
more eggs chewed than pierced. Taking the summer as a whole, the two
predators with piercing mouth parts most consistently present were Orius
insidiosus and Geocoris punctipes. While Nabis species were less numerous
than G. punctipes, laboratory experiments showed them to be somewhat
more effective egg predators. Although Chrysopa species have mandibulate
mouth parts, the mandibles are so modified that the feeding could not be
consistently distinguished from that of sucking insects.
The only numerous chewing predators before the middle of August
were the lady beetles. These were consistently numerous, although the
dominant species varied. The three most important of the larger lady
beetles were Coccinella novemnotata, Coleomegilla maculata, and Hippo-
damia convergens. Populations of the carabid, Lebia analis, increased late
in the season as the beetles moved in from soybeans.
There was some reason to suspect that as the cotton plants grew in
size, predators became somewhat less efficient, possibly because of the
greater leaf surface to be searched. A glance at Table 2 shows that a far
greater number of predators present on 24 August failed to consume a pro-
portionately larger number of eggs than did a much smaller number of
predators on 7 July. On 24 August, the plants were more than twice as
large as on 7 July.
For many years, farmers in Arkansas and neighboring states have
noticed that the proportion of eggs found on the lower parts of the plants
may suddenly increase at mid-season. This may be partially explained
by the results of these experiments, which show that the eggs lowest on
the plants are consumed first. If a predator population, particularly of the
piercing type, were suddenly lowered by use of insecticide or from some
other cause, one would expect a much larger number of eggs to survive on
the lower portions of the plants.
The predator population in the experimental field destroyed between
26 and 71 eggs per 1/50 acre in 24 hours, or a range of 10 to 28%, when
250 eggs per 1/50 acre were placed in the field. Since bollworm eggs take
approximately three days to hatch in the summer in Arkansas, a large
percentage should be destroyed before the larvae emerge. Piercing insect
predators destroyed more eggs than chewing predators. There was more
predation in the lower portions of the plants than in the terminals.
Barber, G. W. 1936. Orius insidiosus (Say), an important natural enemy
of the corn ear worm. USDA Tech. Bull. 504: 1-24.
Dicke, F. F., and J. L. Jarvis. 1962. The habits and seasonal abundance
of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)
on corn. Jour. Kansas Ent. Soc. 35(3): 339-344.
Ewing, K. P., and E. E. Ivy. 1943. Some factors influencing bollworm
populations and damage. Jour. Econ. Ent. 36(4): 602-606.
180 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 47, No. 3
Fletcher, R. K., and F. L. Thomas. 1943. Natural control of eggs and
first instar larvae of Heliothis armigera. Jour. Econ. Ent. 36(4):
Harrison, F. P. 1960. Corn earworm oviposition and the effect of DDT
on the egg predator complex in corn silk. Jour. Econ. Ent. 53(6):
Lawson, F. R. 1959. The natural enemies of the hornworms on tobacco
(Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. America 52(6): 741-
Lincoln, C. 1955. Survey methods. Predators on cotton. Cooperative
Econ. Insect. Rept., Plant Pest Control Branch, ARS, USDA. 5(48):
Lincoln, C., and T. F. Leigh. 1957. Timing insecticide applications for
cotton insect control. Ark. Agric. Expt. Sta. Bull. 588: 1-47.
Phillips, J. R., and W. H. Whitcomb. 1962. Field behavior of the adult
bollworm, Heliothis zea (Boddie). Jour. Kansas Ent. Soc. 35(2):
Phillips, W. J., and G. W. Barber. 1933. Egg-laying habits and fate of
eggs of the corn ear worm moth and factors affecting them. Vir-
ginia Agric. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bull. 47: 1-14.
Quaintance, A. L., and C. T. Brues. 1905. The cotton bollworm. USDA
Bur. Ent. Bull. 50: 1-1,55.
Wene, G. P., and L. W. Sheets. 1962. Relationship of predatory and in-
jurious insects in cotton, fields in the Salt River Valley area of Ari-
zona. Jour. Econ. Ent. 55: 395-398.
Winburn, T. F., and R. H. Painter. 1932. Insect enemies of the corn ear-
worm. Jour. Kansas Ent. Soc. 5: 1-28.
FIVE NEW MITES OF THE SUBFAMILY EREYNETINAE
PRESTON E. HUNTER
Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Athens
The Ereynetidae, some of which are known to be important vertebrate
parasites, are small, soft bodied prostigmatic mites. The subfamilial and
generic classifications for these mites have been given by Fain (1957) and
Fain and Nadchatram (1962). Only five species of Ereynetinae have been
reported from North America (Baker 1945); however, a number of ereyne-
tine species have been reported from widely separated regions of the world
including Europe, Asia, and the Antarctic area. Undoubtedly much taxo-
nomic work remains to be done and additional species will likely be found
with more extensive collecting. -
Thor (1933) relied heavily upon the pattern of the propodosomal shield
for key characteristics of the genus Ereynetes. This pattern is often diffi-
cult to describe, but a large number of characteristics which readily lend
themselves to use in a key have not been used for this group of mites to
date. In the material available to me for study, the position of the body
setae in the anterior sensory setal area has proved a possible character
which in combination with other characters may be useful for species de-
termination. The location of the two body setae setaee cc of Grandjean)
between the sensory setae was given as a generic characteristic of Erney-
toides; I am inclined to believe that this is not a stable generic character,
but is of specific value. Further study on a wider range of species should
indicate the value of propodosomal chaetotaxy as a species characteristic.
The present paper describes five new species of Ereynetinae, four from
North America and one from China. The setal notations are those of
Ereynetoides Fain and Nadchatram, 1962.
This genus was set up to include those Ereynetes which have lenslike
eyes on the propodosoma. Although reported only from Asia, the Antarctic
area, and now from North America, the genus is probably world wide in
distribution. The United States National Museum collection contains four
specimens apparently imported from Europe, three from Denmark and one
from England, all intercepted at Boston, Mass., which belong to this genus.
Willmann (1953) in describing Ereynetes bipilosus, taken in Austria, re-
ported but did not illustrate a pair of small bubble-vesicles, resembling the
cornea of an eye anterior to the sensory setae. He pointed out that these
were different from the pigmented eyes typical of the genus Opsereynetes.
Based on the location and description of the structures, it would seem that
these were probably lenslike eyes. If so this would provide another record
for the genus from Europe.
Ereynetoides scutulis new species
This species is unusual in having a very large subcutaneous propodoso-
mal shield extending well back on the opisthosoma, setae ca and cn miss-
ing, and setae cc arising well in front of the sensory setae.
1Journal Paper No. 307 of the College Experiment Station of the Uni-
versity of Georgia College of Agriculture Experiment Station.
The Florida Entomologist
J7 ,-' jj,'\ ^n
Fig. 1. Ereynetoides scutulis, n. sp. Female: A, dorsal view;
B, ventral view; C, ereynetal organ of tibia I. Male: D, genital area.
Vol. 47, No. 3
Hunter: New Mites of the Subfamily Ereynetinae 183
FEMALE: Yellowish-white in life. Idiosoma of holotype 3201k long, 1956
at greatest width. Dorsal surface. Cuticle finely striated, striae punctated;
striations less distinct but punctations more pronounced above shield. Sub-
cutaneous shield measures 190A long, 110, wide having the general shape
of the idiosoma; heavier pattern of the shield as figured. One pair of lens-
like eyes anterolateral of shield margin. Dorsal setae barbed, of varying
lengths, setae ce 201 long; setae ca absent, small porelike structure antero-
lateral of sensilla which may be remnant of ca setal base; setae cc well in
front of sensory setae; setae en missing. Chaetotaxy of dorsum, not in-
cluding sensory setae, as follows: 4-4-2-2-2-4. Sensillae more sparsely
barbed than body setae; anterior and posterior sensillae about 80,A long.
Ventral surface. Ventral setae similar to dorsal, but shorter. Chaetotaxy
of coxae as follows: 1-3; II-1; III-3; IV-2. One pair of median setae be-
hind coxae II, one pair between coxae IV. Five pairs of setae adjacent to
genital opening, position of other ventral body setae as figured. Genital
suckers greatly reduced, if present. (The only indication of genital suckers
observed were small circles near the third and fourth pairs of genital setae.)
Legs. With some subcutaneous sclerotization; chaetotaxy of segments be-
yond coxae given in Table 1; tarsus I with sensory pitlike structure on dor-
sal surface; tibia I with ereynetal organ, bulbous portion asymmetrical in
shape (Fig. 1C); leg IV 7 segmented-genu divided-other legs 6 segmented.
Gnathosoma. 70A long, 43g at widest point behind free palpal segments;
one pair of barbed setae in position figured. Palps extend well beyond
chelicerae; palpal segments relatively slender. Chelicerae 70 long, basal
segment strongly enlarged.
MALE: Very similar to female, distinguished from female by genital
area (Fig. 1D). Idiosoma 320,u long, 190 wide, shape as in female. Pro-
podosomal shield of allotype 200A long, 115A wide, shape as in female. Dor-
sal setae as in female. Ventrum as in female except in genital area; three
pairs of very small setae similar in size arising from within genital open-
ing; anterior arms of genital structure curve laterally to form a T-shaped
structure; genital suckers more distinct than in female; genital area as
figured. Gnathosoma slightly smaller than in female. Leg chaetotaxy as
in female (Table 1.).
NYMPH: Three tritonymphs and one deutonymph were collected with
the adults. The chaetotaxy of the leg segments are given in Table 1. The
leg chaetatoxy of the tritonymph agrees with that given by Fain and Nad-
chatram (1962) for E. malayi, but I found some differences for the deuto-
nymph. Some structures were partially obscured on the deutonymph and
additional specimens would be desirable to determine if these differences
are consistent between the two species.
The type series consists of eight females and ten males. Holotype
(female) data: Athens, Georgia; 17 Jan. 1962; from tunnel of Ips calli-
graphus; P. E. Hunter. Five female paratypes with same data; two para-
types from under bark of rotten loblolly pine, Athens, Georgia, 2 June 1961,
R. Davis. Allotype data: Athens, Ga.; 11 May 1961; from Ips tunnel in
pine log; R. Davis. Male paratypes with same data or with data as for
females. All nymphs were taken from Ips beetle tunnels in conjunction
with adults. The holotype, allotype, and two paratypes of each sex will
be deposited in the U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. One para-
type of each sex will be deposited with Dr. A. Fain, Institut de M6decine
The Florida Entomologist
TABLE 1. NUMBER OF SETAE PER SEGMENT FOI
Vol. 47, No. 3
R LEG SEGMENTS
scutulis torus faini champi davisi
Leg trito- deuto-
segments female nymph nymph female female female female
7 7 6
4 4 4
3 3 3
4 4 2
Tropicale, Prince Lopold, Anvers, Belgium. The remaining paratypes will
be retained in the Department of Entomology Collection, University of
A series of eight females and three males were collected with the type
series. This second series differs from the type specimens in having dis-
tinctly longer dorsal setae (up to two times as long as those of types and
paratypes), idiosoma slightly smaller-285,t long, 170p wide-and in having
the body more pointed posteriorly. No other differences between the speci-
mens of the two series were noted. Despite the conspicuous difference in
Hunter: New Mites of the Subfamily Ereynetinae 18S
Fig. 2. Ereynetoides amplectorus, n. sp. Female: A, dorsal view;
B, ventral view; C, lenslike eye with seta ca; D, ereynetal organ of tibia I.
Male: E, genital area.
The Florida Entomologist
appearance in body shape and setal length it seemed questionable that the
second series represented a separate species.
This species was rather common in some of the older Ips beetle tunnels,
but attempts to rear the mite in the laboratory were unsuccessful. The
mites were extremely fast moving and were usually seen running among
the frass particles of the tunnels. On occasions this mite has been found
on adult Ips beetles (Hunter and Davis, 1963).
Ereynetoides amplectorus new species
This species has circular striations around the lenslike eyes, delicate
dorsal setae, and setae cc slightly in front of the anterior sensory setae. The
heavy pattern on the propodosomal shield consists of a curved posterior
portion separated from the more elaborate anterior part.
FEMALE: Idiosoma of holotype 340/ long, 200/ wide at greatest width.
Dorsal surface. Integument striated, striae punctated, more heavily punc-
tated over propodosomal shield. Lenslike eyes surrounded by circular, non-
punctated striations which in turn are surrounded by longitudinal punctated
striae; posterior to eye several rows of punctations ending at circular stri-
ations (Fig. 2C). Dorsal body setae very slender, barbed, about 151t long;
setae cc arise slightly anterior to the sensory setae; chaetotaxy, excluding
sensory setae, as follows: 2-4-4-2-2-2-4-2; sensory setae pilous, anterior and
posterior setae approximately 70/ long. Ventral surface. Ventral body
setae delicate, barbed, shorter than dorsal setae. Position of ventral setae
as figured. Five pairs of genital setae; genital setae more strongly barbed
than other ventral body setae. Coxae with setae as follows: 1-3; II-1;
III-3; IV-2; all coxal setae of about same length. Two pairs of genital
suckers. Legs. Legs II and III of about same length, shorter than I and
IV; chaetotaxy of segments beyond coxae given in Table 1; leg setae sim-
ilar to dorsal body setae, except seta on trochanter II more pointed and
tarsi of all legs have some heavy, clublike setae. Ereynetal organ of tibia
I with symmetrically shaped bulbous portion (Fig. 2D). Gnathosoma.
About as long as wide, 50t long, 501 at widest point behind free palpal
segments; two pairs of barbed setae on ventral surface. Palpal femur with
longitudinal ringlike subcutaneous markings on lateral surface similar to
that found on legs. Chelicerae 52/ long, basal segment moderately heavy.
MALE: Smaller than female, allotype 240u long, 160/ wide; chaetotaxy
of legs as in female; type and position of body setae as in female except
in genital area; genital area (Fig. 2E) with extra setae in area of genital
opening as follows: one larger anterior pair and a smaller, weakly barbed
posterior pair; two ringlike structures between these setae. (These ring-
like structures are in the normal position of the second pair of setae and
very likely are the setal bases; however, no setae were seen in the single
male specimen available.) The anterior arms of the genital structure ex-
tend at right angles to the midline to produce a T-shaped arrangement.
Two internal hornlike structures extend from the posterior part of the gen-
ital area, and an internal aedeaguslike structure was seen on one side of
the genital area. Two pairs of small genital suckers present.
This description was based on a series of 14 females and 1 male. All
specimens with the following data: on celery; American Fork, Utah; 19
Vol. 47, No. 3
Hunter: New Mites of the Subfamily Ereynetinae 181
Fig. 3. Ereynetoides facini, n. sp. Female: A, dorsal view;
B, ventral view; C, ereynetal organ of tibia I. Male: D, genital area.
The Florida Entomologist
Sept. 1949; B. F. Knowlton. Holotype (female), six paratypes, and allo-
type in the U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. Two female para-
types deposited with Dr. A. Fain, Institut de M4dicine Tropicale, Prince
L6opold, Anvers, Belgium; remaining paratypes in Department of Entomol-
ogy Collection, University of Georgia, Athens.
Ereynetoides faini new species
In this species setae cc are positioned slightly behind the sensory setae,
the dorsal setae are thickly barbed compared to other species, and the
propodosomal shield margin is indistinct anterior to setae ca. The shield
pattern is distinct for the species.
FEMALE: Idiosoma of holotype 380/ long, 230/ at greatest width. Dor-
sal surface. Integument finely striated, striae punctated; striations less
conspicuous and punctations more pronounced over shield; striations absent
around base of sensory setae. Propodosomal shield with distinct posterior
margin, anterior margin indistinct; pattern as figured. One pair of small
lenslike eyes located anterolaterally of first pair of body setae. Dorsal
body setae thickly barbed; ca short, other setae of approximately the same
length, about 25, long, cb slightly shorter; anterior sensory setae 1151L
long; posterior pair 105, long; setae cc arise slightly behind base of an
terior sensory setae; dorsal chaetotaxy, excluding sensory setae, as fol-
lows: 2-4-4-2-2-2-4-2; relative -positions of setae as figured. Ventral sur-
face. Ventral body setae similar in structure to dorsal setae, but shorter;
coxal setae slightly longer than ventral body setae except for last two pairs
of body setae; chaetotaxy of coxae as follows; 1-3; II-1; III-3; IV-2; lateral
setae of coxae III longer than other coxal setae; coxae with some internal
sclerotization as figured. One pair of body setae slightly behind and be-
tween coxae II and one pair between coxae IV; position of other ventral
setae as figured; five pairs of setae associated with genital opening, these
setae of same type but shorter than ventral body setae; two pairs of geni-
tal suckers. Legs. Legs rather heavy; legs I longest, other legs of about
same length; chaetotaxy of segments beyond coxae given in Table 1; bulbous
ereynetal organ of tibia I as figured; tube of ereynetal organ curves around
area of seta base (Fig. 3C). Gnathosoma. Measures 105p long, 65g at
widest point behind free segments of palps; two pairs of barbed setae aris-
ing from ventral surface. Chelicerae 80' long, basal segment heavy. Palps
five segmented, no special modification of palpal segments noted.
MALE: Allotype 340A long, 210A wide; body shape and setal pattern
on body and legs as in female. Genital area as figured (Fig. 3D); three
pairs of small setae in area of genital opening, anterior pair largest, pos-
terior pair smallest and with more and finer barbs; anterior arms of genital
structure point anterolaterally to form a Y-shaped structure; genital suck-
ers large and appear stalked. Gnathosoma 75, long, 60% wide behind free
palpal segments. Chelicerae 70/ long.
NYMPH: A single tritonymph was included in the material studied.
The leg chaetotaxy was the same as that found for the tritonymph of E.
scutulis. This was the only nymphal stage found.
This species was described from a series of 9 males and over 20 females
in the collection of the U. S. National Museum. All were collected by F.
Vol. 47, No. 3
Hunter: New Mites of the Subfamily Ereynetinae 189
Bonet. Holotype (female) data: Teoman, Colima, Mexico, 19 Jan. 1943.
Allotype with same data as holotype. Some paratypes with same data as
types, others with following data: leaf mold, El Vergel, Chiapas, Mexico,
5 Jan. 1940; leaf mold, Apatzungen, Michoacan, Mexico, 21 April 1943;
soil, El Vergel, Chiapas, Mexico, 13 July 1941; and leaves, Mexico, 13
The USNM collection contained one slide with three specimens taken
at Boston, Mass., collected from beet root from Denmark and a slide with
one specimen, also taken at Boston, off lily bulbs from England. These
mites appear to be E. faini and are tentatively labelled as such; however,
the specimens were not in good shape, and a series of well mounted speci-
mens may show this determination to be in error.
Ereynetoides faini is very similar to Ereynetes hydrophilus Coor., but
the lenslike eyes are missing in hydrophilus (see Fain and Nadchatram
Ereynetes Berlese, 1883.
This genus is characterized by the absence of lenslike or pigmented eyes
and by having a five segmented palps and a propodosomal shield. On the
basis of the present classification a re-examination of type material of
Ereynetes species would seem desirable as some of the mites placed in this
genus, for example E. bipilosus Willmann, may possess lenslike eyes and,
if so, would belong in Ereynetoides.
Ereynetes beauchampi new species
This unusual species, known only from the female, is distinct in having
a very simplified pattern on the propodosomal shield, dorsal setae cc in
line with ca, and in possessing only two setae on coxae I and III.
FEMALE: Idiosoma 330 long, 190 at greatest width. Dorsal surface.
Lenslike eyes absent; integument faintly striated, striae weakly punctate
over propodosomal shield, otherwise striae nonpunctate. Dorsal setae deli-
cate, barbed; setae ce 18/ long, relative lengths of other setae as figured;
setae cc in line with ca; dorsal chaetotaxy, exclusive of sensory setae, as
follows: 4-2-4-2-2-2-4-2. Anterior and posterior sensory setae approxi-
mately 80, long. Propodosomal shield outline as figured; shield 50U long;
pattern on shield consists of a median inverted Y and a bar running oblique-
ly to the stem of the Y on each side behind the sensillae. This pattern is
distinct among the species of the genus. Ventral surface. Ventral body
setae delicate, shorter than dorsal setae. Coxae with setae as follows:
1-2; II-1; III-2; IV-1. One pair median setae between anterior margins of
coxae III, one pair between coxae IV; five pairs of short, thicker setae
associated with genital opening; two pairs of small genital suckers. Legs.
Leg setae similar to dorsal body setae except on the tarsi and on trochanter
II; tarsi, especially I and II, with ventral spatulate, barbed setae; tarsus I
with long, thickened dorsal and lateral setae; trochanter II with a shorter
more pointed seta compared to other leg setae. Chaetotaxy of leg segments
beyond coxae given in Table 1. Ereynetal organ of tibia I with a distinct
funnellike structure on proximal end (Fig. 4C). Gnathosoma. 80/j long,
55u wide behind first free segment of palps; one pair of delicate, barbed
The Florida Entomologist
setae at level of anterior margin of palpal trochanter, two pairs of short
simple setae on anterior margin. Palps slender, distal end of femur extends
slightly beyond ventral end of gnathosoma; palpal segments more or less
cylindrical. Chelicerae 100 long; terminal segment long, needlelike.
This species was described from a single female in the collection of the
U. S. National Museum. Habitat data as follows: on ginger root, from
China at Boston, Massachusetts; J. T. Beauchamp; 16 June 1933. Holo-
type slide in USNM.
Fig. 4. Ereynetes beuihampi, n. sp. Female: A, dorsal view;
B, ventral view; C, ereynetal organ of tibia I.
Ereynetes davisi new species
This small Ereynetes can be recognized by the four setae arising from
above the propodosomal shield, setae cc in line with the sensory setae, and
tibia I with a duplex setae on the dorsal surface.
FEMALE: Idiosoma of holotype 230u long, 150y at greatest width. Dor-
sal surface. Integument finely striated, striae with punctations; puncta-
Vol. 47, No. 3
Hunter: New Mites of the Subfamily Ereynetinae 191
Fig. 5. Ereynetes davisi, n. sp. Female: A, dorsal view; B, ventral
view; C, tibia I showing duplex setae and erynetal organ.
tions more distinct over the posterior area of propodosomal shield. Mar-
gins of propodosomal shield distinct posterior to sensillae, indistinct an-
terior to sensillae; pattern of shield anterior to sensillae consisting of
three long, rodlike extensions, outer two curving slightly toward the mid-
dle, middle rod not as thick as outer ones and appears to be somewhat
deeper and of slightly different texture; the rods connect to the more elab-
orate pattern of the shield behind the sensory setae. Dorsal setae barbed,
rather thick, those on middle of dorsum measure 181 long, setae ca small,
short; two pairs of setae-cc and ce-arise from above the propodosomal
shield; setae cc in line with sensory setae; chaetotaxy of dorsum, not in-
cluding sensory setae, as follows: 2-4-4-2-2-2-4-2; second and third rows
with median setae forward of lateral setae so that rows arch forward,
setae cg not in a longitudinal line with setae ce and ch; anterior sensil-
lae 60 long, posterior ones 50A. Ventral surface. Ventral body setae
similar to dorsal setae, shorter; chaetotaxy of coxae as follows: 1-3; II-1;
III-3; IV-2; other ventral setae as shown; five pairs of genital setae associ-
ated with genital opening; two pairs of distinct genital suckers. Legs.
Relatively thick; setae similar to body setae except for trochanter II which
has small, slender pointed seta, and tarsi which have some heavier club-
like setae; chaetotaxy of segments beyond coxae given in Table 1; tarsi
show a reduction in the number of setae compared to other species. Tibia
I with a duplex setae arising from dorsal surface in conjunction with ereyne-
The Florida Entomologist
tal organ (Fig. 5C), both seta of duplex setae barbed, one slightly shorter
and more sparsely barbed than other. Ereynetal organ with a tubelike
part which narrows abruptly at about half its length and is enclosed within,
but does not extend beyond, the bulbous portion; tube from bulbous por-
tion curves around base of duplex setae. Gnathosoma. 52p long, 50O at
widest point behind free segments of palps; one pair of barbed setae on
ventral surface; palps extend slightly beyond chelicerae; palpal femur
enlarged; chelicerae 60g long, basal segment heavy.
Holotype with following data: Under bark, cottonwood; Gadsden, Ari-
zona; 28 March 1945; Anderson. One paratype with same data on same
slide as type (type on left, paratype designated as specimen on right side
of slide). Second paratype on separate slide with following data: with
rotted maguey flower stalk; Douglas, Arizona; 17 Nov. 1956; J. H. Russell.
All specimens in USNM, Washington, D. C.
This species is similar to E. berlesei Oudem. in having the palpal femur
enlarged and having four setae arising from above the shield. The illus-
tration of berlesei by Sig Thor (1933) shows only one pair of setae above
the shield but the text states that a second pair arises from the posterior
corners of the shield area. The species described here differs from berlesei
in being smaller, by the pattern of the propodosomal shield, and by having
setae cc arising from between the sensory setae rather than behind as in
Benoinyssus tuberculatus (Baker) new combination
Opsereyenetes tuberculatus Baker, 1945, Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 35:18.
The genus Benoinyssus was erected by Fain (1958) as the type genus
of a new subfamily of Eupodidae. Benoinyssus is distinct as a eupodid in
having posterior as well as anterior sensory setae. This genus appears
to be somewhat intermediate in many respects between the Eupodidae and
Ereynetidae, and the main eupodid and ereynetid characteristics of Benoinys-
sus were listed by Fain (1958).
Included in the ereynetid slides from the U. S. National Museum were
specimens of Opsereynetes tuberculatus. The presence of a dorsal anterior
median lobe bearing one pair of setae, the enlargement of femur IV, and
the more median position of the posterior sensory setae indicated that
tuberculatus should be placed in the genus Benoinyssus.
Baker, Edward W. 1945. Five mites of the family Ereynetidae from
Mexico. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 35: 16-19.
Berlese, A. 1883. Acari, Myriopoda et Scorpiones hucusque in Italia
reperta. Fase 5, No. 1.
Fain, A. 1957. Sur la position systbmatique de Ricardoella eweri Law-
rence 1952 et de Boydaia angelae Womersley 1953. Rev. Zool. Bot.
Afr. 55: 249-252.
Fain, A. 1958. Un nouvel Acarien Trombidiforme parasitant les fosses
nasales d'un Serpent au Ruanda-Urundi. Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr. 57:
Vol. 47, No. 3
Hunter: New Mites of the Subfamily Ereynetinae 193
Fain, A., and M. Nadchatram. 1962. Acariens nasicoles de Malaisie I.
Ereynetoides malayi n.g., n. sp., parasite d'un nectarin (Ereyneti-
dae: Trombidiformes) Z. f. Parasitenkunde 22: 68-82.
Grandjean, F. 1939. Observations sue les Acariens (50s6rie). Bull. Mus.
Nat. Hist. Nat. 11: 394-401.
Hunter, P. E., and R. Davis. Biological studies of Histiostoma gordius
(Vitz.) (Anoetidae) and other mites associated with Ips beetles.
Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 65: 287-293.
Thor, Sig. 1933. Acarina Tydeidae, Ereynetidae. Das Tierreich 60: 1-84.
Willmann, C. 1953. Neue Milben aus den Ostlichen Alpen. 6ster. Akad.
Wiss. Sitz. 162: 449-519.
Many New Uses for
SEVIN is now being used for effective,
low-cost control of many insect pests of
fruit, vegetables, field crops, forests and
many ornamentals. SEVIN insecticide has
good residual properties and relative safety
to warm-blooded animals and fish. When
label directions are followed, it can be used
close to harvest. Problems of drift to
adjacent fields are minimized and feed or
forage crops treated with SEVIN can be
fed to livestock without residue problems.
For current information on SEVIN, or on
new products under development such as
herbicides, defoliants, insecticides, acara-
cides or fungicides, write to Union Carbide
Chemicals, 270 Park Avenue, New York,
N. Y. 10017.
trols apple and pear scab,
certain summer diseases,
cherry leaf spot, brown rot
of peaches interplanted
with apples. Suppresses
red mites, reduces visible
residue at harvest time.
MYLONE Soil Fumigant
-Preplanting soil fumi-
gant to control weeds, soil
fungi, nematodes in seed
STABILENE Fly Repel-
lent- Ingredient of
sprays, including sprays
for face fly. Shown as
STABILENE, or "butox-
on the label.
SEVIN, MYLONE, and STABILENE are trade marks of Union Carbide Corporation.
SOME FACTORS AFFECTING THE COLORATION OF
JOHN D. HAYNIE AND ROWLAND B. FRENCH
Agricultural Extension Service and Agricultural Experiment Station
respectively, University of Florida, Gainesville
Beekeepers who produce citrus honey find that the color of the honey
varies from year to year. Several factors apparently are involved as
causes of the change in degree of coloration (Phillips 1939). This contri-
bution discusses influence of environmental conditions on coloration and
presents experimental evidence about effect of processing on depth of color
Citrus honey samples were collected for 10 years, 1953-1962, from
Florida producers in 10-12 locations ranging from Seville to Sebring. The
samples were taken at the extractor before any processing took place.
Coloration was determined in each sample by measuring percent of light
transmitted through 1.3 cm. of honey using a Lumetron colorimeter fitted
with a broad band filter having maximum transmission at 420 millimicrons.
Effect of two processing factors, namely filtration and heat, was de-
termined on each of the samples collected in 1953. Honey processing was
simulated in the laboratory by filtering through Whatman #41, a coarse
grained filter paper, and by heating for 30 minutes in five-inch pyrex test
tubes kept in a boiling water bath. The honey samples were kept in stop-
pered test tubes and color changes were observed for four months while
in storage on an open shelf in the laboratory.
Data listed in Table 1 show the degree of annual variation in color-
ation of citrus honeys. Color range and average values are given for each
of the 10 years of observation. The lightest honey gave a 49% T (trans-
mission) of the incident light while the darkest sample permitted only a
2% T. This range (49-2% T) would fit in the U.S.D.A. color standards
for honey from Extra White to Light Amber, from 8 to 68 on the Pfund
Scale and from 0.95 to 0.9 on the optical density scale (Fig. 1).
The honeys averaged a 25% T (White) over a 10 year period. Data
given later (Table 2) will indicate that filtration might lighten the honey
color by an increase of 3.5% T.
Attempts to correlate weather bureau reports on temperature and rain-
fall with color variations over a period of years were unsuccessful. Signifi-
cant correlation might be shown were detailed local meteorological data
Ten honeys collected in 1953 are arranged in order of darkness in
Table 2. The lightest colored honey read 41% T and the darkest only
22% T. The honeys averaged lighter in color (33% T) than that of the
average color for the 10 year period (25% T).
Heating the honey caused little color change (-0.1% T) while filtra-
tion which removed particles like pollen or wax, permitted more light
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 47, No. 3
E-COLOR RANGE PFUND SCALE
' I i6o
EXTRA LIGHT AMBER
C-USDA COLOR STANDARDS
Ms- --------------------------- - --
49 --------------------- 0
WATER WHITE .08
Figure 1. Comparison of honey color by U. S. standards, Pfund values
and absorbance readings with green and blue filters. A. Absorbance at 560
m. micron for 31.5 mm thickness of caramel-glycerine solution against
glycerine = 100% transmittance. B. Transmission at B420 m. micron for
honey in a 5 inch test tube (i.d. 13 mm). against water = 100% transmit-
tance. C. U. S. Standards for grades of extracted honey (1951). D. Opti-
cal Density greater than 3.0 = Dark Amber. E. Numbers at circles on
absorbance line give Pfund values at grade changes.
Haynie: Factors Affecting Coloration of Honey
transmission (+3.5% T). Heating, after filtration, caused an immediate
slight darkening (-1.4% T).
Darkening of honey after four months ageing occurred to about the
same degree in the untreated samples (-3.5% T) as in samples processed
by each of the three methods (-3.3%, -3.3%, -3.7% T). Filtration
gave the greatest benefit of any treatment. Filtration processing cleared
the honey (+3.5% T) so that the darkening effects caused by ageing
(-3.5% T) were neutralized.
TABLE 1.-COLORATION OF CITRUS HONEYS COLLECTED PRIOR TO PROCESSING
FROM TWELVE FLORIDA PRODUCING AREAS, 1953-1962.
% Light Transmitted *
Year Average Range of Values
1953 32.7 41-22
1954 13.9 33-2
1955 19.8 44-5
1956 22.6 30-14
1957 15.2 27-3
1958 28.1 37-6
1959 20.5 32-8
1960 31.8 43-18
1961 42.1 49-28
1962 23.0 38-2
10 year average 25.0 42-14
Percent blue light transmitted (B420 m. micron filter) through 1.3 cm. honey.
Some differences in the coloration may be due to the presence of differ-
ent varieties of citrus grown in some areas. Area #10 was a grapefruit
block and its citrus honey was the lightest of all the 1953 honeys. In area
#5, 50% or more of the citrus plantings were tangerine, and the honey
was the darkest of all samples.
A heavy citrus bloom over a short period usually produces crops of honey
light in color and heavy in body (low moisture). A bloom period of a single
source of nectar over a long period of time may produce a dark colored
honey that may be light in body. Bees usually gather nectar with highest
sugar content first and may work back and forth on different type plants
as the nectar changes in sugar concentration. In Florida, a brief heavy
nectar flow is usually considered normal.
Methods of production of citrus honey can affect its color. Producers
usually remove all surplus honey from the colonies before citrus flow starts
and as soon as the citrus bloom is over. In this way the producer separates
the citrus honey from any plant source that might be secreting nectar be-
fore or after the bloom. Weather conditions may affect the length of flow,
198 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 47, No. 3
SI 1 1 I I I I I
SP j.0 0 0 i 0 l0 1l l0 10 1
I I I I I I I I I
60 61 1i 1 10 16 I
4 0 0- 0 0 0 Oo C1 1o 0o
o 0 0O t 1 0 10 c6
r,..1 I I I I I I
Z w a) 0 00 0
F4 U -4 o o LOO o o Co
< (,_l c4 4 r4 4 c; u4 a O
z Z L O LO
z L6 c6 6(1 a j d r -i 4 4 T -i L6 o co*
0 0 10 O 0 0 1 1 CO
K eio co6 C e i L- 6 i i c i CIS
10 0 1 0 0I 10 0 0 0 10 IC
LC D 10 LO C ) 10
10 CO cO CO > 0 10 z> CO CO6
Haynie: Factors Affecting Coloration of Honey
allowing it to be either long or of short duration. Irrigated groves during
some years bloom earlier than non-irrigated groves, thus accounting in
one way, for a long citrus blooming season.
The crop of honey may be very light in color when first extracted, but
in some years may darken quickly. Some years a dark reddish color lowers
the grade of citrus honey so much it cannot be marketed as citrus honey.
The June bloom of citrus, usually not a heavy one, rarely ever produces a
surplus nectar flow. A beekeeper (Harold Struthers) near Lake Wales,
reported that in June 1934 groves in the Bok Tower area received a good
rain, when other sections adjoining received no rain. The groves receiving
rain put out a heavy June bloom and bees were moved into the groves.
The colonies stored more than a 100-pound average. The color was light
amber when first extracted but turned dark red shortly after extracting.
Possibly the unusual color came from a change in nectar composition re-
sulting from the much higher environmental temperature of June as com-
pared with that of six months earlier.
From what has been said, it is clear that many factors may affect col-
oration in citrus honey and perhaps local environmental conditions may be
of more importance than expected. The local conditions might include vari-
able factors that could be critical in affecting nectar flow such as small
temperature changes and effects of elevation, wind direction, and velocity,
variation in cloud cover, local rain, etc. From this point of view, signifi-
cant correlation of coloration with general meteorological conditions would
The influence of environmental conditions and of the processing factors
of filtration and heat on coloration in citrus honey is discussed. Color
variation between honeys collected from 10-12 locations and for the years
1953-1962 is large, with colors ranging from an extra white to a light
amber classification. A chart comparing several ways of expressing honey
color densities is given. A discussion of the causes of color variation in-
dicates that weather bureau reports on general meteorological conditions
show no significant correlation with yearly color variation.
Honeys stored after processing by heat, filtration, or both showed about
the same degree of darkening during a four-month ageing period as un-
treated honey. However, the honey processed by simple filtration produced
the lightest aged honey, since the clarification of the honey in the initial
filtration was just neutralized by the darkening due to the ageing process.
Phillips, E. F. 1939. The effect of heating buckwheat honey. Gleanings
in Bee Cult. 67: 614-616.
HAS AN IDEAL PESTICIDE
FOR EVERY PURPOSE
broad-spectrum control, with
exceptionally low mammalian
toxicity. Available in all popular
formulations for application in
any type of equipment.
THIMET phorate-provides sys-
temic control of many pests at-
tacking corn, peanuts, potatoes,
sugar beets, wheat, alfalfa, orna-
mentals and other crops.
CYGON* dimethoate controls
house flies up to 8 weeks or
longer. Also used to control
many pests attacking fruit, veg-
etables and ornamentals.
THIOPHOS parathion-one of
the first, and still highly effective
and widely-used organic phos-
AERO liquid HCN-controls all
common insects infesting stored
CYANOGAS calcium cyanide-
controls rodents (A-Dust) and
stored grain pests (G-Fumigant).
combats a wide number of dis-
eases attacking fruit, nuts and
VATSOL useful in reducing
the surface tension of water in
order to increase the effective-
ness of insecticide and fungicide
sprays and dusts. Available in
powder, pellet, paste and liquid
forms. A70% liquid formulation
is marketed under the trade-
name of SUR-TEN*.
outstanding control of Canada
Thistle and other weeds.
CYTROL-a liquid form of
AMINO TRIAZOLE which is also
highly effective against quack-
grass and other weeds.
AERO CYANATE-provides out-
standing weed control in onions.
CYCOCEL- produces more
compact red poinsettias with
brighter colored bracts and
deeper green foliage. Also useful
on lilies, geraniums, chrysanthe-
mums, camellias and carnations.
Before using any pesticide, stop and read the label.
AMERICAN CYANAMID COMPANY
PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY
NEW CHIRONOMIDAE FROM FLORIDA (DIPTERA)1
WILLIAM M. BECK, JR., AND ELISABETH C. BECK
Florida State Board of Health, Jacksonville
In the course of rearing chironomids for a study of these midges in
Florida, three new species have been found and are herein described. De-
scriptions are also included of the larva and pupa of three species previ-
ously known only from the adult stage.
Disposition of types is indicated in parenthesis after data: United States
National Museum (USNM), Washington, D. C., and Florida State Collection
of Arthropods (FSCA), Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of
Agriculture, Gainesville; all other types, as well as specimens from which
larvae and pupae of known species are described, are in the collection of
the Florida State Board of Health (FSBH). All figures of new species are
made from the holotypes.
The following abbreviations are used: LR for leg ratio (length of fore
basitarsus divided by length of fore tibia); AR for antennal ratio (length
of last segment of male antenna divided by combined length of remaining
flagellar segments; WL for wing length, measured from humeral crossvein
Chironomus (Cryptochironomus) parafulvus, new species
MALE HOLOTYPE: Reared from larva collected 19 Mar. 1963, Waddell's
Mill Creek, Jackson County, Fla. (USNM). This is a small, calcareous
stream. The adult emerged 23 Mar. 1963.
WL 1.8 mm; AR 2.75; LR 1.8. Frontal tubercules small, about as
long as basal diameter. Thorax and scutellum yellowish-brown; vittae,
sternum and postnotum ochraceous; antennae and forelegs beyond femora
brown; mid and hind legs pale brown; wings and wing veins brown tinged.
Genitalia (Fig. 1A) similar to fulvus, except style is shorter and stouter,
its inner margin straighter.
DIAGNOSIS: This species is very close to Chironomus fulvus Johannsen,
but is much smaller (fulvus: WL 3.0 mm; AR 3.0; LR 1.5).
LARVA: (Fig. 1B, IC, 1D) AR 23:14:12:3, sensory pit at .75 from base.
Labial plate similar to fulvus, outer tooth with three square-tipped blades;
paralabials to lateral margins of head and folded back to form a triangular
projection toward medio-apical margin of head; anal papillae with seven
long, pale yellow bristles; claws of posterior prolegs and supra-anal bristles
also pale yellow.
PUPA: Skin 5.3 mm long, light brown; cephalic tubercules simple, about
two times as long as basal width. Thorax densely nodulate. Abdominal
segments 1-5 densely spiculate; segment 6 with anterior spiculate area and
clear reticulate area on apical one-third medially; segment 7 like 6 except
that apical three-fourths is reticulate medially; segment 8 has antero-lat-
I This investigation was supported in part by Public Health Service
Grant Al 04098-03 from the Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 47, No. 3
16 IC 1D
Beck: New Chironomidae from Florida (Diptera) 203
eral and apicolateral spicular patches. All intersegmental areas are spic-
ulate. Segment 1 with two circular anterior lateral patches of pale spines
on each side, and a narrow, subapical row of wide spines; segment 2 with
apical row of pale recurved spines interrupted medially, and with a broad
preapical band which has longer spines medially. Segments 3-7 with double
apical spine row; spines are longer and sharper on each segment prog-
ressively toward posterior end of pupa; segment 8 with a single apical
spine row. The swim fin is spiculate, and each lobe has 45-50 lateral fila-
ments; lobe has mucronate tip. There is a pair of median posterior coni-
cal projections about two and one-half times as long as the basal width,
with blunt tips.
In Roback (1957) the larva will key to "nr. fulvus," but AR is different;
the pupa will not key, though it most closely resembles arqus Roback,
except in the size of frontal tubercules. The male genitalia of arqus and
parafulvus are very different.
Chironomus (Cryptochironomus) hirtalatus, new species
MALE HOLOTYPE: Reared from larva collected in a small stream drain-
ing a subdivision, Duval County, Fla., 2 Feb. 1963 (USNM). This stream,
acid in nature, has been converted into a constantly flowing canal for gen-
WL 1.6 mm; AR 2.0; LR 1.8. Mesonotum light yellowish-green with
darker yellow vittae, abdomen pale green; sternum, postnotum, and medical
ochraceous; antennae, forelegs from base of tibia, and all apical tarsal
segments brown; macrotrichia present in apex of cell Rs, and a few at
apex of M; squama fringed; prealar bristles 4, Dorsolaterals about 12 in
single row. Two approximately equal spines on tibial combs. Genitalia
(Fig. 5A) similar to directs (Dendy and Sublette) except the dististyle is
gently curved and stem of superior appendage is sinuous.
ALLOTYPE: Duval County, Fla., 12 Mar. 1964 (FSBH). Coloration as
in male; last antennal segment brown. WL 1.4 mm.
PARATYPES: 1 male (No. 3) Duval County, Fla., 11 Jan. 1963 (FSBH).
1 male (No. 33) Duval County, Fla., 12 Jan. 1964 (FSCA).
DIAGNOSIS: The presence of macrotrichia on the wing will distinguish
this species from all described nearctic C. (Cryptochironomus) except chae-
toala (Sublette). C. hirtalatus differs from chaetoala in being paler, slightly
Figure 1. Chironomus (Cryptochironomus) parafulvus, new species.
A. Male genitalia, B. larval antenna; C. mandible, D. labial plate. Figure
2. Polypedilum (Polypedilum) parascalaenum Beck. A. larval antenna, B.
mandible, C. labial plate. Figure 3. Polypedilum (Polypedilum) trigonus
Townes. A. larval antenna, B. mandible, C. labial plate, D. lateral comb of
8th pupal segment. Figure 4. Chironomus (Cryptochironomus) directs
(Dendy and Sublette). A. larval antenna, B. mandible, C. labial plate.
Figure 5. Chironomus (Cryptochironomus) hirtalatus, new species. A.
male genitalia, B. larval antenna, C. mandible, D. labial plate. Figure 6.
Trichocladius robacki, new species. A. male genitalia, B. larval antenna,
C. mandible, D. labial plate.
204 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 47, No. 3
smaller, and in having a greater leg ratio (chaetoala LR 1.52); the male
genitalia differs chiefly in the slender, more sinuous superior appendage.
LARVA: (Fig. 5B, 5C, 5D). AR 25:5:2:4:1, blade to middle of segment
4, sensory pit about .4 from base, segments 2 and 3 slightly darker. Man-
dible with dark apical and two dark pointed lateral teeth, a third smaller
lateral tooth is paler; pale accessory tooth; preapical comb of two curved
filaments. Mandibular brush with two fringed branches. Labial plate
with 15 teeth, median wider and slightly longer than first laterals, pentulti-
mate projecting. Paralabials about one and one-half times as long as wide,
striae recurving, anterior margin undulate; premandibles with two broad
PUPA: Skin 4.4 mm long. Thorax densely nodulate near base of
respiratory organ; a pair of curved, brown, horn-like processes posterior
to base of respiratory organs. Segment 1 appears to have a pair of densely
spiculate lobes with larger spines apically; segment 2 has usual apical row
of recurved dark spines. Segments 3-6 with apical triangular spiculate
area medially. Segment 6 has, in addition, approximately 12 larger, an-
teriorly directed spines on apical margin. Segment 7 finely spiculate on
anterior edge and medially, Segment 8 with anterior band. Segments 5-7
with four lateral filaments, segment 8 with five, no comb. Swim fin with
85 lateral filaments plus one on disc near outer margin about % from base.
Neither larva nor pupa will key beyond the first two couplets in Roback
Trichocladius robacki, new species
MALE HOLOTYPE: Reared from larvae collected in Peter's Creek, Clay
County, Fla., 23 May 1963 (USNM). Peter's Creek is a sand bottom stream,
quite acid, and weed-choked.
WL 0.95; AR 1.3; LR 0.59. Dorso laterals dark, erect, set in light sock-
ets, about twelve. Head, thorax, and abdomen with basic opaque yellow-
brown color, but occiput, pedicel, antennae, palpi, thoracic vittae, sternum,
large areas of pleurae, scutellum, postnotum and coxae are black; legs and
abdominal tergites blackish brown. The thoracic vittae are shiny black
and may reflect blue-black. Wings brownish, humeral crossvein blackened,
other veins pale brown. Costa not produced beyond R ,+ 5; fCu directly
under r-m. Fore-tibia with 1 spur, middle tibia with 2 short spurs, hind
tibia with 1 spur and a comb; pulvilli distinct and broad, claws pointed;
4th tarsal segment on middle leg is distinctly shorter than 5th segment.
Genitalia (Fig. 6A) dark; anal point hairy at base; lobe of basi-style broad,
with small thumb-like projection at apex; dististyle with a dark spine at
apex and a subapical flap-like projection.
ALLOTYPE: Paratype (No. 6) Clay County, Fla., 23 May 1963 (FSBH).
Coloration as in male. R1 + B ends beyond apex of Cui; apex M slightly be-
low wing tip; Cu2 almost straight except for indistinct bend just at apex;
a row of dark setae along Ri. Antennae consists of pedicel and 5 flagellar
segments, last segment as long as preceding two and one-half segments.
PARATYPES: 1 male, Clay County, Fla., 18 Feb. 1963 (FSCA); 1 male
(No. 139) Clay County, Fla., 7 Mar. 1963 (FSBH); 1 female (No. 55) Clay
County, Fla., 23 May 1963 (FSBH).
Beck: New Chironomidae from Florida (Diptera) 205
DIAGNOSIS: This species can be separated from described nearctic spe-
cies of Trichocladius as follows: senex (Johannsen) and helis Roback lack
an anal point; distinctus Malloch has pale halteres and legs; in extatus Ro-
back, septris Roback, striatus Malloch, and lacteipennis, Johannsen the costa
is produced; in nitidellus Malloch the AR is 2, legs are tawny yellow, fCu is
appreciably beyond r-m.
LARVA: (Fig. 6B, 6C, 6D). AR 40:14:4:4:3. Labial plate with 14 dark
teeth, median longest. Labrum with a pair of bifid bristles; anal papillae
two times as long as wide, with three pale bristles.
PUPA: Skin 2.65 mm long; respiratory organ 0.13 mm long, strongly
spined, rounded apically. Abdominal segments 2-8 with several apical rows
of heavy spines, the row narrow on segment 2, smaller on 7, and minute
on 8; anteriorly directed spines on intersegmental membrane 3-4, 4-5, 5-6.
Segments 2-6 with two anterior and one posterior lateral bristles on each
side; segment 7 with four lateral filaments, segment 8 with five. Genital
sac only about one-half as long as fins; fins with 18-20 lateral filaments and
3 long apical bristles.
Roback (1957) described the larva as Trichocladius sp. 3.
Chironomus (Cryptochironomus) directs (Dendy and Sublette)
Tendipes (Cryptochironomus) directs Dendy and Sublette, 1959. Ann.
Ent. Soc. Amer. 52: 514; type locality, Auburn, Alabama.
LARVA: (Fig. 4A, 4B, 4C). AR 25:4:3:3:2, blade to middle of segment
4, sensory pit .33 from base of segment 1. (In one specimen segments 2
and 3 appear to be dark brown.) Mandible with dark apical and two dark
pointed lateral teeth, and a pale accessory tooth; preapical comb of two
curved filaments; brush with two or three branches, apparently not fringed.
Premandible dark with two broad blades. Labial plate of 15 dark teeth,
median tooth about two times as wide and definitely longer than first lat-
erals; pentultimate projecting very slightly. Maxillary palpus two times
as long as basal width. Paralabials short, almost two times as long as wide,
the anterior margin coarsely serrate, the striae recurved. Anal papillae
with eight dark grey bristles.
PUPA: Skin 3.8 mm. Cephalic tubercles much wider than high, with
pale apical bristle. Segment 2 with usual row of recurved spines; segment
3 spiculate apically in middle of segment; segments 4-6 with median patch
of spicules, somewhat interrupted at center, the spicules larger at apex of
each successive segment. Segment 7 with small median patch of very
fine spicules; segment 8 has spicules in small lateral patches on each side
of midline, near anterior margin; no spur or comb on segment 8. Segments
5-7 with four lateral filaments; segment 8 with five, two close together near
apical margin of each segment. Genital sac slightly shorter than swim fin.
Fins with 65 lateral filaments and one filament about % from base, close
to outer margin.
DIAGNOSIS: Larva will key to abortive in Roback (1957), from which
it appears to differ only in minor characters; the pupa will not key beyond
the second couplet.
The Florida Entomologist
Polypedilum trigonus Townes
Polypedilum (Polypedilum) trigonus Townes, 1945. Amer. Mid. Nat.
34:45; type locality, Hudson, New York.
LARVA: (Fig. 3A, 3B, 3C). AR 20:6:4:4:1.5, blade beyond apex of an-
tenna. Labial plate blackish-brown; medians as long as second laterals,
first laterals short, fifth laterals longer than fourth or sixth. There are 16
teeth, but outermost is very tiny. Paralabials 2.5 times as long as wide.
Premandibles pale with three broad blades. Mandible with four dark teeth,
subapical longest, a dark shoulder, and pale accessory tooth, pointed apical-
ly; inner margin of mandible with three spines; anal papillae short, pale,
with eight apical bristles. Posterior margin of head capsule narrowly
PUPA: Skin 4.1 mm long; segments 2-8 with sub-basal band, this band
interrupted medially on 7 and 8 to form lateral patches. Segment 2 with
usual apical row of recurved spines; 2 and 3 with scattered spinules medial-
ly. Segments 4-6 with a fenestrated pattern of spinules which is broader
apically. Segments 5 and 6 with three lateral filaments, segments 7-8
with four. Lateral margins of segment 8 brown, comb (Fig. 3D) consist-
ing of one long apical spur and 10-14 small spines; swim fin with 28 lat-
DIAGNOSIS: In Roback (1957) larva will not key beyond couplet 9.
Pupa keys to "Polypedilum fal7ax group sp." but does not fit the descrip-
Polypedilum parascalaenum Beck
Polypedilum (Polypedilum) parascalaenum Beck, 1962. Fla. Ent. 45:
91; type locality, Woodruff Dam, Jackson County, Florida.
This species differs from scalaenum (Schrank) in being slightly smaller
(WL 1.3 mm as compared to 1.6 mm in scalaenum.), the presence of a dark
spot in the base and at apex of cell M, the more rounded inferior appendage
of the male genitalia, and the absence of teeth at the base of the anal
point. Wing markings are much more distinct in females; wing spots in
base and apex of cell M may be very faint in some males, but the smaller
size and differences of genitalia will serve to separate them.
LARVA: (Fig. 2A, 2B, 2C) AR 15:8:1:2, blade far beyond apex of an-
tennal segments; sensory pit near basal one-third of first segment. Labial
plate brown, 16 teeth, outermost very tiny; medians and second laterals
longest, first laterals short. Paralabials 2.5 times as long as wide. Man-
dibles with four dark teeth, subapical longest, a dark shoulder, a long pale
pointed accessory tooth; inner martin with two spines. Posterior margin
of head narrowly black, gula darkened. Anal papillae short, pale, with
eight long pale bristles.
PUPA: Skin 2.8 mm long. Anterior spine band and fenestrated pattern
on segments 2-6, spiculate area somewhat reduced on segment 6. Segment
2 with usual apical row of recurved spines. Segments 7 and 8 with a few
fine spinules in lateral patches. Fine spinules between segments 3-4 and
4-5. Three lateral filaments on segments 5 and 6; four on 7 and 8. Comb
Vol. 47, No. 3
Beck: New Chironomidae from Florida (Diptera) 207
of segment 8 with one long and two shorter light brown spines at apex and
two or three smaller spines anteriorly. Swim fins with 16-19 lateral fila-
DIAGNOSIS: The larva and pupa appear to be identical (except in
length of pupal cast and number of lateral filaments of swim fin of pupa,
which may vary in any case) to larva and pupa described by Roback (1957)
under Polypedilum (Tripodura) scalaenum (Schrank), with a note that this
larva differed from usual P. scalaenum larva in having four-segmented lar-
val antenna. He says that this "may be .. a subspecies not yet recog-
nized in the adult stage." In Roback (1953) the figures for P. scalaenum
from the Savannah River show five-segmented larval antennae, with blade
not reaching apex of antenna, and sensory pit about .7 from base, and also
the mandible does not appear to have spines on the inner margin.
The following three new species are described as adult, larva, and
pupa: Chironomus (Cryptochironomus) parafulvus, Chironomus (Crypto-
chironomus) hirtalatus, and Trichocladius robacki. The larva and pupa of
three species previously known only from the adult stage are described:
Chironomus (Cryptochironomus) directs (Dendy and Sublette), Poly-
pedilum (Polypedilum) trigonus Townes, and Polypedilum (Polypedilum)
Roback, S. S. 1953. Savannah River tendipedid larvae Diptera: (=Chiron-
omidae). Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 105: 91-132.
Roback, S. S. 1957. The immature tendipedids of the Philadelphia area.
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Monogr. No. 9. 152 p. 28 plates.
"...only once in 5000"
These are Hercules research people in their daily task of screening, evaluating and
developing compounds for our growing line of agricultural chemicals. So insistent
t; I; S
are they that Hercules products be the very best in the field... in effectiveness
and safety...that only one compound out of 5000 tested is ever marketed.
"Mad Scientists"?.. .No, but patient and devoted, and we're proud of them.
AVOCADO WHITEFLY CONTROL1
D. 0. WOLFENBARGER
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station, Homestead, Florida
Infestations of the avocado whitefly, Trialeurodes floridensis (Quaint.),
result in uneven, distorted leaves and premature leaf-fall, leaving sparsely
foliated avocado trees of low vitality. Black, sooty mold develops on fruit
and leaves of infested trees, making the fruit unsightly, requiring cleaning
before it is marketed. This insect is an economic pest affecting avocado
production on the muck soil near Lake Okeechobee and is present in un-
economic infestations in other avocado producing areas.
Whitefly control has presented challenging problems to entomologists
over the years. Greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (West-
wood), control was earlier achieved . with some degree of suc-
cess . previous to the advent of DDT (Ebling 1959). Of the newer
insecticides, effective control was obtained with DDT plus oil and with
parathion according to Ebling (1959).
Emulsive oil, 11/2 gallons per 100 gallons of water, or 1 gallon of emul-
sive oil combined, with 1 pound of 15W parathion per 100 gallons of water
were recommended for avocado whitefly control by Wolfenbarger (1963).
In tests (unpublished results 1950, 1952, 1954) to determine the effec-
tiveness of the newest insecticides for whitefly control, TEPP gave some
reduction of Tetraleurodes ursorum (Ckll.) on the native pond apple Annona
glabra L. Parathion was ntore effective than TEPP + DDT or emulsive
oil + rotenone in the reduction of Cardins whitefly, Metaleurodieus cardini
Back, on guavas. In further unpublished work, papaya whitefly, Trialeu-
rodes variabilis (Quaint.), control was achieved with sulfur alone but was
enhanced by the addition of DDT. Endosulfan, Kepone, and certain com-
binations of materials were tested with indifferent results. Sevin was the
most effective in this work. Preliminary tests suggested that the Bayer
37344 was also effective in whitefly control.
METHODS AND MATERIALS
Trees of single varieties, ranging in height from about 4 to 12 feet
were used in the tests. Single tree plots were employed in which there
were 4, 5, or 6 replications, with each treatment randomized in blocks.
A crank-type hand duster was used in the 1957 test, and a power duster
and power sprayer were used in the other tests. Materials were applied
to cover the foliage. Dust mixtures are listed as percentage of active in-
gredient. Spray mixtures refer to pounds or pints of formulation per 100
gallons of water.
Fifty leaves were usually taken from the perimeters of treated trees to
heights of about 6 feet, although 25 leaves were sampled in some tests.
These samples were taken at intervals such as 2, 7 and 14 days after treat-
Analyses of variance and Duncan multiple range tests at the 5 per cent
level were made to determine significant differences between treatment
means. Insignificant differences are indicated by "Ins." for the column.
1 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 1798.
The Florida Entomologist
Means followed by different letters are significantly different; means fol-
lowed by the same letters are not significantly different.
SEPTEMBER 1957 TEST: Three phosphatic insecticidal dust formulations
were applied on 18 September 1957, with results summarized in Table 1.
These data lack statistical significance but suggest that some whitefly
control was obtained.
SEPTEMBER 1962 TEST: Two carbamate materials in dust and spray
formulations were applied on 24 September 1962, with results summarized
in Table 2.
Both insecticides gave significant control whether they were applied
in dust or spray form. Spray applications tended to reduce the whitefly
populations more than dust applications did.
APRIL 1963 TEST: Several materials were applied on 8 April 1963 to
determine relative effectiveness of different treatments, with the results
summarized in Table 3.
TABLE 1.-AVERAGE NUMBERS OF WHITEFLIES PER LEAF
5 DAYS AFTER APPLICATION.
Designation Concentration Average No. Adults
Diazinon 2% 0.8 Ins.
Phosdrin 11/ % 0.9
Parathion 2% 1.0
TABLE 2.-AVERAGE NUMBERS OF WHITEFLIES PER LEAF
2 AND 4 DAYS AFTER APPLICATION.
Material Adults, days days after
after treatment Treatment
Designation Concentration after treatment Treatment
or amount 2 4 4
Bayer 37344, 50W 2 lbs. 0.8a 9.5a 3,5.4ab
Sevin, 50W 2 lbs. 1.0a 22.3ab 20.2a
Bayer 37344, dust 5% 2.1a 31.2b 31.4ab
Sevin, dust 5% 33.8b 38.3b 44.8ab
Check 34.2b 58.4b 58.2c
Vol. 47, No. 3
Wolfenbarger: Avocado Whitefly Control
TABLE 3.-AVERAGE NUMBERS OF ADULT WHITEFLIES PER LEAF,
3, 8, AND 11 DAYS AFTER APPLICATION.
Days after application
Designation Concentration Days after application
or Amount 3 8 11
Bayer 37344, 50W 2 lbs. 0.7a 10.0a 13.1a
Oil, mayonnaise type 1 gal. 1.5a 13.3a 1.4a
Bayer 37344 5% 1.2a 10.8a 2.3a
Sevin, 50W 2 lbs. 1.7a 39.0a 4.5a
Sevin, dust 5% 1.5a 36.3a 10.1a
Guthion, dust 2% 7.9a 79.3bc 9.3a
Phosdrin, 2E 1 pt. 5.9a 130.8d 33.8b
Check 21.2b 109.3cd 14.4a
Bayer 37344 and Sevin compared favorably with emulsive oil, especially
three days after the application. Guthion dust and phosdrin spray were
less effective than other treatments. All spray applications, except phos-
drin, provided significant reductions of the avocado whitefly three and
eight days after the application.
JULY 1963 TEST: A repetition of the carbamate material test was con-
ducted on 23 July 1963, with results summarized in Table 4.
TABLE 4.-AVERAGE NUMBERS OF ADULT AVOCADO WHITEFLIES PER LEAF
2, 7, AND 14 DAYS AFTER TREATMENT.
-- Days after application
Designation Concentration Days after application
or Amount 2 7 14
Bayer 37344, 50W 2 lbs. 1.2a 8.5a 30.7 Ins.
Bayer 37344, dust 5% 2.1a 12.8a 37.1
Sevin, 50W 2 lbs. 10.3a 17.8a 37.4
Sevin, dust 5% 9.7a 53.2a 43.6
Bayer 37344, 50W + 2 lbs. +
wettable sulfur 6 lbs. 2.2a 15.2a 40.7
Sevin, 50W + 2 lbs. +
wettable sulfur 6 lbs. 4.0a 34.0a 57.3
Check -- 89.7b 127.5b 48.6
The Florida Entomologist
All materials significantly reduced the whitefly populations for a week.
On the 14-day count the data were homogenous as to treatment effects.
The Bayer 37344 again was slightly more effective in avocado whitefly con-
trol than Sevin. Wettable sulfur added to the Bayer 37344 and Sevin
tended to reduce the control.
Emulsive oil was useful for years for control of whiteflies and remains
useful today although it occasionally injures plants and its application to
tall trees is laborious. DDT, diazinon, Phosdrin and Guthion gave meas-
ures of control but were not wholly satisfactory for whitefly control. Bayer
37344 and Sevin were the most effective of the newest insecticides. These
materials appeared effective for control of adult but not for control of
nymphs. Two pounds of the 50% wettable powder formulations per 100
gallons of water were usually more effective than 5% dust mixtures. Dust
mixtures, however, were more readily, quickly, and easily applied to tall
trees. Reinfestations occurred on the single tree plots and were attributed
principally to maturity of flies on the given trees, although dispersion of
flies from nearby trees was probably a minor factor in reinfestations. Re-
peated applications are doubtless needed to give suitable control.
Ebling, Walter. 1959. Subtropical fruit pests. Univ. Calif. Div. Agri.
Sci. 436 p.
Wolfenbarger, D. 0. 1963. Insect pests of the avocado and their control.
Fla. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bul. 605A: 1-52.
NOTICE TO MEMBERS
Short articles are needed for THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST. Ar-
ticles which require three or less printed pages can sometimes be published
as soon as they are reviewed and edited. Such short articles are often
needed to avoid having to pay for publishing one or more blank pages in
an issue.-The Editor.
Vol. 47, No. 3
FOUR NEW AMEROSEIUS BERLESE 1903 FROM THE
UNITED STATES (ACARINA: AMEROSEIIDAE)
DONALD DE LEON
There appears to be no record of mites of this genus occurring in the
United States although two of the species are fairly common in the moun-
tains of east Tennessee. The mites inhabit the bark of dead trees and soil
litter; they probably feed on fungus hyphae.
All measurements are in microns. Leg measurements are from base of
coxa to end of pretarsal claws. All drawings are of females unless other-
Ameroseius coronarius, new species
Ameroseius coronarius is distinctive in having the combination of un-
usually short setae on the dorsal shield and a ring of small teeth round the
FEMALE: Dorsal shield 461 long, 281 wide, strongly sclerotized, with
broad ridges as shown in Figure 1, left; "anterior dorsal shield" with 20,
"posterior dorsal shield" with 9 pairs of setae; vertical seta 29, Z5 57 long.
The shields of ventral surface are shown in Figure 1, right; anal shield 100
long, 140 wide; striae of posterolateral interscutal area strongly lobed.
Tectum not produced anteriorly, but with a row of small denticles along
anterior margin (Fig. 2). Rostrum (Fig. 3) with seta C1 19 long, coarser
than the other rostral setae. Chelicerae (Fig. 4) with fixed digit 23 long.
Legs stout; leg I 358, II 287, III 284, IV 377 long; tarsus I 108 (including
pretarsus 130), II 90 (including pretarsus 119), III 86 (including pretarsus
115), IV 112 (including pretarsus 144) long. Chaetotaxy of femora I and
IV and tarsus IV is shown in Figure 6.
MALE: Resembles female, except it bears a ventrianal shield. Dorsal
shield 374 long, 266 wide; ventrianal shield 119 long, 119 wide, with an-
terior margin straight and with 3 pairs of preanals; the spermatodactyl is
shown in Figure 5.
IMMATURE STAGES: The chaetotaxy of the dorsum of the larva, pro-
tonymph, and deutonymph is shown in Fig. 7, 8, and 9 respectively. The
setae indicated by an asterisk in the drawing of the deutonymph are not
present on some specimens.
Holotype: Female, Erwin, Tennessee, 18 Sept. 1962 (D. De Leon), on
bark of dead oak limb; paratypes: 2 females, 1 male, 4 nymphs, 4 larvae
collected with holotype; 2 females 10 Sept. 1962 on bark of Liriodendron
Ameroseius peniphorae, new species
Ameroseius peniophorae is readily distinguished from other species with
long setae on the dorsal shield by its having a coarse spine-like seta on the
ventral surface of femur I. The male and immature stages are unknown.
The Florida Entomologist
, AAA-i4144, A
Vol. 47, No. 3
De Leon: Ameroseius Berlese from United States 215
FEMALE: Dorsal shield 479 long, 308 wide, strongly scleortized and
with broad ridges as shown in Fig. 10, left; "anterior dorsal shield" with
18, "posterior dorsal shield" with 9 pairs of setae; vertical seta 36, L 137,
Z5 104 long. The principal shields of ventral surface are shown in Fig.
10, right; anal shield 108 long, 148 wide. Chelicerae not observable. Seta
C1 21 long and not noticeably coarser than the other rostral setae. Leg I
380, II 305, III 286, IV 379 long; tarsus I 117 (including pretarsus 144),
II 90 (including pretarsus 121), III 90 (including pretarsus 119), IV 126
(including pretarsus 162) long. Chaetotaxy of femora I and IV and tarsus
IV is shown in Fig. 11.
Holotype: Female, Erwin, Tenn., 19 Sept. 1962 (D. De Leon), on hyphae
of Peniophora gigantea on bark of log of Pinus strobus.
Ameroseius mariehigginsae, new species
Ameroseius mariehigginsae is distinctive in being a very large mite
with moderately long setae on the dorsal shield and with an unusually large
pore on the "posterior dorsal shield". The male and immature stages are
FEMALE: Dorsal shield 570 long, 365 wide, strongly sclerotized, with
broad flat ridges as shown in Fig. 12, left; "anterior dorsal shield" with
20, "posterior dorsal shield" with 9 pairs of setae; vertical seta 52, Z5 98
long. The shields of the ventral surface are shown in Fig. 12, right; anal
shield 135 long, 179 wide. Chelicerae and rostrum not observable. Leg
I 503, II 402, III 420, IV .525 long; tarsus I 156 (including pretarsus 182),
II 126 (including pretarsus 159), III 130 (including pretarsus 161), IV 171
(including pretarsus 212) long; chaetotaxy of femora I and IV and tarsus
IV is shown in Fig. 13.
Holotype: Female, White Pass, Lewis County, Washington, 19 June
1956 (M. Higgins), from duff. The mite is named for the collector, Mrs.
Harold G. Higgins of Salt Lake City, Utah.
Ameroseius macropilis, new species
Ameroseius macropilis resembles A. peniophorae in the coarseness of the
setae of the dorsal shield, but the "anterior dorsal shield" has 20 pairs of
setae and femur I lacks the coarse ventral spine-like seta. The immature
stages are unknown.
FEMALE: Dorsal shield 430-491 long, 295-362 wide, very heavily sclero-
tized and with broad ridges as shown in Fig. 14, left; "posterior dorsal
Figure 1-9. Ameroseius coronarius, n. sp. 1, dorsum (left) and venter
(right); 2, anterior margin of tectum; 3, rostrum; 4, chelicerae; 5, sperma-
todactyl; 6, femora I and IV and tarsus IV; 7, dorsum of larva; 8, dorsum
of protonymph; 9, dorsum of deutonymph.
Figure 10-11. Ameroseius peniophorae, n. sp. 10, dorsum (left) and
venter (right); 11, femora I and IV and tarsus IV.
216 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 47, No. 3
The Kilgore Seed Company, manufacturers and formulators of
Insecticides and Fungicides, offers a complete advisory service to
Florida Farmers through the facilities of its 14 Stores, Laboratory
and technically trained Field Staff.
THE KILGORE SEED COMPANY
DIVISION OF ASGROW SEED COMPANY
GENERAL OFFICES AND LABORATORY
PLANT CITY, FLORIDA
Stores located at
ALACHUA, BELLE GLADE, BOYNTON BEACH, FT. MYERS,
GAINESVILLE, HASTINGS, HOMESTEAD, IMMOKA-
LEE, MIAMI, OCALA, PAHOKEE, PALMETTO,
PLANT CITY, POMPANO, SANFORD, VERO
BEACH, WAUCHULA, WEST PALM BEACH