Title: Florida Entomologist
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Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1965
Copyright Date: 1917
 Subjects
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
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Volume ID: VID00168
Source Institution: University of Florida
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The

FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

Volume 48, No. 3 September, 1965


CONTENTS
Page
HARRIS, EMMETT D., JR.-Adjuvants in Sprays for Insect
Control on Sweet Corn ---....................- ............- ...... ......... 147
CAPPS, HAHN W.,-A New Undulambia Species on Leather-
leaf Fern in Florida, and Note on a Closely Related
Central American Species (Lepidoptera: Pyraustidae,
Nymphulinae) ...----..--........--.---------...........----- 155
BULLOCK, ROBERT C.-Effectiveness of Foliar Sprays for
Control of Fuller Rose Beetle on Florida Citrus -- 159
WHITCOMB, W. H., AND R. EASON-The Mating Behavior of
Peucetia viridans (Araneida: Oxyopidae) ---------..-- 163
EXLINE, HARRIET, AND W. H. WHITCOMB-Clarification of
the Mating Procedure of Peucetia viridans (Araneida:
Oxyopidae) by a Microscopic Examination of the Epi-
gynal Plug-..-...... ---....- .........---. .-- .---------- 169
WOLFENBARGER, DAN A., M. F. SCHUSTER, AND L. W. GETZIN-
Soil-Applied Systemic Insecticides in Relation to Insect
and Mite Control on Various Vegetable Crops................ 173
NATION, J. L., AND K. K. THOMAS-A Comparison of Meth-
ods for Quantitative Estimation of Hypoxanthine, Xan-
thine, and Uric Acid in Insect Material ---..----_.- 183
HABECK, DALE H.-Laboratory Culture and Development
in Elaphria nuciolora (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)........ 187
HAYNIE, JOHN D.-A Comparison of Tupelo Honey Yields
from Four Sizes of Hive over a Three-Year Period........ 189
WOLFENBARGER, DAN A.-Insecticides and Combinations of
Insecticides with Oils and Surfactants for Insect Con-
trol on Various Vegetable Crops------..... .-------------------- 193
DAVIS, ROBERT-An Eriophyid Mite, Aceria spicata, N. Sp.,
from Mountain Maple, Acer spicatum--.....---.-.....- ...... 205
HARRIS, EMMETT D., JR.--Wireworm Control on Sweet Corn
in Organic Soils...........-.............. ......... ...... -----------------207



Published by The Florida Entomological Society











THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY

OFFICERS FOR 1964-65
President -------- ---------------------........................................... N. C. Hayslip
Vice-President-.------------......................................................J. R. King
Secretary -........--.............---------... ....................... ....... S. H. Kerr
Treasurer.------...-...-...............-.....................--................. D. H. Habeck
A. K. Burditt, Jr.
G. W. Dekle
Other Members of Executive Committee ....... E. D. Harris, Jr.
J. E. Porter
W. A. Simanton

Board of Managers
Thomas J. Walker --........-...... ---.---..------- Editor
Stratton H. Kerr -..------------...... Associate Editor
Dale H. Habeck-.. ---.------ .....-...Business Manager

THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST is issued quarterly-March, June, Septem-
ber, and December. Subscription price to non-members $5.00 per year in
advance; $1.25 per copy. Entered as second class matter at the post office
at Gainesville, Florida.
Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be sent to the Editor,
Entomology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville. Subscriptions
and orders for back numbers are handled by the Business Manager, Box
12425, University Station, University of Florida, Gainesville. The Secre-
tary can be reached at the same address.
When preparing manuscripts, authors should consult Style Manual for
Biological Journals, 2nd Edition (American Institute of Biological Sciences,
Washington, D. C., 1964). For form of literature citations, see recent
issues of THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST. Further, authors are re-
ferred to "Suggestions for preparation of manuscripts for THE FLORIDA
ENTOMOLOGIST." Fla. Ent. 48 (2): 145-146. 1965.
One page of figures and/or tables is allowed free. An additional one-
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ADJUVANTS IN SPRAYS FOR INSECT CONTROL
ON SWEET CORN1

EMMETT D. HARRIS, JR.
Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade

Everglades sweet corn must be sprayed at regular intervals to control
the corn stem weevil (Hyperodes humilis (Gyllenhal)), budworms, and
earworms. From eggs embedded in the leaf sheaths or hypocotyl of the
young corn plant, corn stem weevil grubs hatch to mine through the stem.
Beginning within a day of seedling emergence, about six sprays must be
applied twice weekly or every four days to control this pest. The fall
armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and the corn earworm,
Heliothis zea (Boddie), feed within the whorls of the growing plants as
budworms and also upon the ears as earworms. Budworm control sprays
must be applied once or twice weekly between cessation of corn stem weevil
sprays and initiation of earworm control sprays. From the day after the
first silks appear until shortly before harvest, earworm control sprays must
be applied daily or every other day depending upon population density and
weather conditions.
DDT emulsions are more effective than DDT wettable powder sprays for
sweet corn insect control (Harris 1961, 1961a). However, emulsions fre-
quently damage plants, especially at the high concentrations needed for
corn stem weevil control when the plants are young and tender. DDT wet-
table powder sprays are less likely to damage plants or be incompatible
with the fungicide wettable powders that are frequently added to the spray.
Therefore, it is desirable that the efficacy of DDT wettable powder sprays
be made more nearly equal to that of emulsions by the use of adjuvants or
by some other measure. Triton X-100 (a wetting agent made by Rohm
and Haas Company) was evaluated as an adjuvant in DDT wettable powder
sprays.
Under heavy population pressures, even the most effective of recom-
mended practices may not adequately control sweet corn insects. At one
time, 2.5 gallons of white mineral oil was recommended as an additive to
1 gallon of 25% DDT emulsifiable concentrate in 50 gallons of emulsion
per acre (Anonymous 1956) to control earworms in Florida. The DDT
emulsifiable concentrate was supposed to supply enough emulsifier to emul-
sify the mineral oil. Frequently poor yields and off-color husks resulted.
The recommended amount of white mineral oil was first reduced to 1.75
gallons (Brogdon and Marvel 1959) but later completely withdrawn from
recommendations (Brogdon, Marvel, and Mullins 1963).
A miscible spray oil2 was substituted for the white mineral oil and
evaluated at several dosages to seek a level less likely to affect sweet corn
yield or quality adversely and yet increase the efficacy of DDT emulsion
against earworms. The miscible spray oil was also evaluated at a single
dosage in toxaphene and DDT emulsions for budworm control.

SFlorida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 2015.
2 Sun Superior Spray Oil 7-N (70 SUS at 1000 F, 94% unsulfonatable
residue) plus emulsifier added by the supplier, Sun Oil Company.












The Florida Entomologist


MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plots were four rows wide and 25 or 35 feet long. They were separated
by two unplanted rows at the sides and by 20-foot alleys at the ends. Sweet
corn rows were 36 inches apart.
Untreated plots were not randomized within any experiment but either
bordered the experiment or separated groups of plots within the experi-
ment.
DDT was used as a 50% wettable powder and as a 25% emulsifiable
concentrate. The toxaphene formulation was an 8-pound per gallon emulsi-
fiable concentrate.
Corn stem weevil control sprays were applied at 50 gallons per acre
with two nozzles over each row, or at 100 gallons per acre with an addi-
tional nozzle on each side of the row. Budworm control sprays were applied
at 100 gallons per acre with two nozzles over the row and a nozzle on each
side of the row. For earworm control, DDT emulsions were applied at 50
gallons per acre through a single nozzle on each side of the row aimed
directly at the silks; with each emulsion 2 pounds per acre of actual DDT
were applied.

TRITON X-100 WITH WETTABLE POWDER SPRAYS
FOR CORN STEM WEEVIL CONTROL
TEST 1: DDT wettable powder was used at 2 and at 4 pounds of actual
DDT per 100 gallons with and without 8 ounces of Triton X-100. DDT
emulsifiable concentrate was used at 2 pounds of actual DDT per 100 gal-
lons without Triton X-100. The five treatments were replicated five times
in each of two Latin Squares.
Golden Security sweet corn was planted 24 October 1960; seedlings
emerged on 27 October. Sprays were applied at 50 gallons per acre every
four days from 28 October through 21 November.
On 30 November, nine days after the final corn stem weevil spray, 10
plants from each row were examined to find the number mined by corn
stem weevil grubs. A stand count was taken in each row on 12 December.
The percent plants mined by corn stem weevil grubs and the calculated
number of plants per acre are shown for each treatment in Table 1. Treat-
ments did not satisfactorily reduce the incidence of corn stem weevil attack,
probably because a nozzle was not added to each side of the row for better
coverage as the plants grew larger. Treatments did not differ significantly
in effect on incidence of corn stem weevil attack. However, Triton X-100
when added to DDT wettable powder sprays seemed to result in a lower
percentage of mined plants. Only the DDT wettable powder spray that
contained 4 pounds of DDT and 8 ounces of Triton X-100 seemed equal to
the emulsion in reducing the percent mined plants.
DDT wettable powder spray resulted in a significantly greater stand
at 4 than at 2 pounds of DDT per 100 gallons.
TEST 2: DDT wettable powder was used at 4 pounds of DDT per 100
gallons with and without 8 ounces of Triton X-100. DDT emulsifiable con-
centrate was used at 2 pounds of DDT per 100 gallons with no Triton X-100.
Treatments were replicated three times in a Randomized Complete Block
design.


Vol. 48, No. 3


148












Harris: Sprays for Insect Control


Florigold 106 sweet corn was planted 18 August 1961. Four sprays of
100 gallons per acre were applied at 4-day intervals from 22 August, the
day seedlings emerged. Weeds were controlled by pre-emergence herbicide
applications and cultivation was delayed until after the final spray to obtain
better corn stem weevil control with each treatment (Harris and Orsenigo
1961).
The mined plants among 25 plants from each of the two middle plot
rows were counted 3 September 1961. The addition of Triton X-100 to
DDT wettable powder sprays resulted in a lower incidence of mined plants.
A stand count in the two middle rows of each plot on 14 September showed
no significant differences among treatments. Results are shown in Table 1.

TABLE 1. EFFECT OF TRITON X-100 AND DDT CONCENTRATIONS ON CORN
STEM WEEVIL CONTROL WITH DDT WETTABLE POWDER SPRAYS.

Pounds
of Triton Per cent
actual X-100 damaged Plants per
DDT DDT per oz. per plants acre (1000's)
formulation 100 gal. 100 gal. Test 1 Test 2 Test 1 Test 2

DDT 50% WP 2 0 75 20.7 -
DDT 50% WP 2 8 71 20.9 -
DDT 50% WP 4 0 72 37 21.5 23.9
DDT 50% WP 4 8 63 28 22.1 23.6
DDT 25% EC 2 0 64 20 21.7 23.2
Untreated 96 63 14.5 21.0


TRITON X-100 WITH DDT WETTABLE POWDER SPRAYS
FOR BUDWORM CONTROL.
TEST 1: The budworm damaged plants among 25 plants in each row
of Test 1 of the preceding section were counted 28 November 1960. Results
are shown as percent budworm damaged plants in Table 2. DDT wettable
powder was highly significantly more effective at 4 pounds than at 2 pounds
per 100 gallons. The addition of Triton X-100 to wettable powder sprays re-
sulted in highly significantly fewer budworm damaged plants. DDT emulsion
resulted in significantly fewer budworm damaged plants than the average
of the wettable powder sprays. However, the wettable powder spray which
contained 4 pounds of DDT and 8 ounces of Triton X-100 per 100 gallons
resulted in slightly fewer budworm damaged plants than the DDT emul-
sion.
TEST 2: On 13 September 1961, the budworm damaged plants among
50 plants per plot of Test 2 for corn stem weevil control were counted and
treatment results are shown as percent budworm damaged plants in
Table 2. Triton X-100 seemed to increase the effectiveness of DDT wet-
table powder.
TEST 3: This experiment was conducted on the same sweet corn plant-
ing as Test 1 of the corn stem weevil control study. Each budworm treat-


149











The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 48, No. 3


ment followed each corn stem weevil treatment once and only once in each
of the two Latin Squares. Thus, the experimental design consisted of two
Greco-Latin Squares.

TABLE 2.-EFFECT OF TRITON X-100 AND DDT CONCENTRATIONS ON
BUDWORM CONTROL WITH WETTABLE POWDER SPRAYS.

Pounds of Triton
actual X-100 Per cent budworm
atl 11damaged plants
DDT DDT per oz. per damaged plants
formulation 100 gal. 100 gal. Test 1 Test 2 Test 3

DDT 50% WP 1 0 11
DDT 50% WP 1 8 7
DDT 50% WP 2 0 14 15
DDT 50% WP 2 8 8 8
DDT 50% WP 4 0 8 11 -
DDT 50% WP 4 8 3 5 -
DDT 25% EC 1 0 4
DDT 25% EC 2 0 5 1 -
Untreated 52 56 76


Wettable powder sprays contained 1 and 2 pounds of DDT with and
without 8 ounces of Triton X-100 per 100 gallons. An emulsion contained
1 pound of DDT per 100 gallons. Sprays were applied 29 November and
6 December 1961. The budworm damaged plants among 25 plants in each
row were counted 12 December; treatment results are shown as percent
budworm damaged plants in Table 2.
The addition of Triton X-100 to DDT wettable powder sprays resulted
in significantly fewer budworm damaged plants. The two concentrations
of DDT wettable powder did not differ significantly. DDT emulsion re-
sulted in significantly fewer budworm damaged plants than the average
of the wettable powder sprays.

SPRAY OIL WITH DDT AND TOXAPHENE EMULSIONS
FOR BUDWORM CONTROL.

Toxaphene and DDT were used at 1.5 and 1 pound, respectively, per
100 gallons of emulsion. Each was used with and without 10 pints of
miscible spray oil per 100 gallons. Treatments were replicated four times
in each of two Latin Squares.
Florigold 107 sweet corn was planted 11 March 1964, and seedlings
appeared 15 March. Sprays were applied 23, 26, and 30 March and 2, 6,
and 20 April. On 6 April, the plants that received spray oil had become
yellowed.
The budworm damaged plants among 50 plants per plot were counted
on 14 April. Results are shown as percent budworm damaged plants in
Table 3. There were highly significantly fewer damaged plants in DDT
than in toxaphene treated plots. Miscible spray oil significantly reduced
the incidence of damaged plants.












Harris: Sprays for Insect Control


TABLE 3.-EFFECT OF SPRAY OIL ON BUDWORM CONTROL WITH DDT AND
TOXAPHENE EMULSIONS.

Per cent budworm damaged
Active plants
ingredient Without 10 pts. spray oil
per spray per 100
Insecticide formulation 100 gal. oil gal.

DDT 2 lb/gal EC 1.0 1.3 0.5
Toxaphene 8 lb/gal EC 1.5 11.0 2.8
Untreated 15.2 -


SPRAY OIL WITH DDT EMULSIONS FOR EARWORM CONTROL

TEST 1: Spray oil was added at 20, 5, and 1.25 pints per 50 gallons
of DDT emulsion. DDT emulsion was also used without spray oil. Treat-
ments were replicated among four randomized complete blocks. Florigold
107 sweet corn that silked 9 April 1964, was sprayed every other day from
9 April through 25 April.
The ears of U. S. Fancy conformation and size, disregarding earworm
damage, in the two middle rows of each plot were counted on 28 April.
The earworm damaged ears among 50 of these ears in each plot were
counted. Nearly all of the earworms that occurred in this experiment were
corn earworms.
Treatment results are shown as percent worm-free ears and crates per
acre of U. S. Fancy ears, ignoring earworm damage, in Table 4. Spray oil
highly significantly increased the percentage of worm-free ears obtained
with DDT emulsion. The dosages of spray oil did not differ significantly
in earworm control. The highest spray oil dosage reduced yield and
caused the plants to yellow. Even with the highest spray oil dosage, ear
husks were not off-color.


TABLE 4.-EFFECT OF SPRAY OIL CONCENTRATIONS
WITH DDT EMULSIONS.


ON EARWORM CONTROL


Crates per acre of
Pts. spray U. S. Fancy ears
oil in 50 Per cent including earworm
gal. per worm-free ears damaged ears
acre Test 1 Test 2 Test 1 Test 2

20 92 219 -
10 60 -216
7.5 55 186
5.0 96 54 329 202
2.5 53 238
1.25 92 275 -
0 78 32 298 190
Untreated 33 0 293 171


151












152 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 48, No. 3

TEST 2: Spray oil was used at 10, 7.5, 5, and 2.5 pints per 50 gallons
of DDT emulsion. DDT emulsion was also used without spray oil. Flori-
gold 107 sweet corn that silked 30 April 1964, was sprayed every other
day from 1 May through 17 May 1964. Each treatment was replicated
five times in a Latin Square.
On 21 May, all ears of U. S. Fancy size and conformation, disregarding
earworm damage, in the two middle rows of each plot were counted and
examined for earworm damage. Treatment results are shown in Table 4
as percent worm-free ears and crates per acre of U. S. Fancy ears including
earworm damaged ears. Nearly all earworms observed were corn ear-
worms rather than fall armyworms.
Spray oil dosages did not differ significantly in effect on percent worm-
free ears, but spray oil significantly increased the percent worm-free ears
obtained with DDT emulsion. The level of control was far below commer-
cial standards, probably because emulsions were not applied daily as rec-
ommended for sweet corn silking in May.
Treatments did not differ significantly in effect on yield of ears of
U. S. Fancy size and shape. Plants that had received 10 pints of spray
oil per 50 gallons of emulsion were slightly yellowed but the ears seemed
to be unaffected.
CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION
The results with adjuvants in insecticide sprays on sweet corn are
encouraging. Triton X-100 seemed to improve corn stem weevil control
and definitely improved budworm control when added to DDT wettable
powder sprays. Types and dosages of wetting agents should be evaluated
in future experiments.
Spray oil increased the effectiveness of DDT and toxaphene emulsions
against budworms but caused the foliage to become yellowed at the con-
centration used. Miscible spray oil at a concentration much lower than
that formerly recommended for white mineral oil greatly increased the
effectiveness of DDT emulsion in earworm control. At concentrations of
7.5 pints and less per 50 gallons there was no evident adverse effect on the
plants. For both budworm and earworm control, miscible spray oils of
differing viscosities should be evaluated at several concentrations. Also,
the interaction between spray oil concentrations and application frequency
should be evaluated.
Adjuvants should be of great importance in improving the effective-
ness of insecticide sprays on sweet corn but we need to know much more
about their proper utilization.

LITERATURE CITED
Anonymous. 1956. Commercial vegetable pest control guide. Fla. Agr.
Ext. Circ. 152: 1-42.
Brogdon, J. E., and M. E. Marvel. 1959. Commercial vegetable insect and
disease control guide. Fla. Agr. Ext. Circ. 193: 1-42.
Brogdon, J. E., M. E. Marvel, and R. S. Mullin. 1963. Commercial veg-
etable insect and disease control guide. Fla. Agr. Ext. Circ. 193:
1-47.
Harris, Emmett D., Jr. 1961. DDT spray formulations and dosages for
control of corn stem weevil, Hyperodes humilis, and fall army worm,
Laphygma frugiperda, on sweet corn. J. Econ. Ent. 54: 546-549.









Harris: Sprays for Insect Control 153
Harris, Emmett D., Jr. 1961a. DDT and Sevin for earworm control on
sweet corn in the Everglades. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 74: 169-
171.
Harris, Emmett D., Jr., and J. R. Orsenigo. 1961. A relationship of chem-
ical weed control to corn stem weevil control on sweet corn. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 74: 166-168.











The Florida Entomologist 48(3) 1965






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A NEW UNDULAMBIA SPECIES ON LEATHER-LEAF
FERN IN FLORIDA, AND NOTE ON A CLOSELY
RELATED CENTRAL AMERICAN SPECIES
(LEPIDOPTERA: PYRAUSTIDAE, NYMPHULINAE)

HAHN W. CAPPS
Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Serv., U. S. Dept. Agr.,
Washington, D. C.

The purpose of this paper is to provide a name for an undescribed
species which is of concern as a pest to the growers of leather-leaf fern in
Florida, and to clarify the status of a Central American species closely
related to it.
Undulambia polystichalis, new species
(Fig. 1-4)
MALE (Fig. 1): Alar expanse, 12-14 mm. Maculation as illustrated.
Head: Frons brownish, margined with white. Labial palpus long, slender,
upturned, sicklelike, extending above vertex; brownish dorsally and later-
ally, white below; second and third segments of about equal length. Scape
of antenna white, remainder pale buff; weakly pubescent. Thorax brown-
ish; patagia white. Abdomen: First segment white, remainder brownish
with a few small irregular whitish patches. Wings: Upper surface ground
color ochreous brown and occasionally with some fuscous; markings white.
Forewing with fovea. Genitalia (Fig. 4): Gnathos well developed, weakly
denticulate at apex. Aedeagus (Fig. 4a): A conspicuous dorsal, elongate,
ringlike sclerotization present, with apex simple, rather sharply pointed,
and basal termination of the ringlike structure distinctly anterior to base
of aedeagus. Cornuti absent.
FEMALE (Fig. 2): Alar expanse, 12-15 mm. Head: Frons blackish,
weakly margined with white; antenna simple, scape blackish above, whitish
below; remainder brownish fuscous. Labial palpus long, slender, upturned,
sicklelike, extending above the vertex; fuscous dorsally and laterally, brown-
ish below; second and third segments of about equal length. Thorax,
patagia, and abdomen fuscous or blackish above, paler below. Wings:
Upper surface blackish or fuscous with markings white or ochreous white,
somewhat variable in size. Genitalia (Fig. 3): Ductus bursae membranous
at ostium; origin of ductus seminalis about midway between ostium and
termination of the bursa copulatrix; bursa copulatrix densely and finely
spinulate, without signum.
TYPE: Male, in collection of the U. S. National Museum. USNM Type
No. 67633. Zellwood, Fla., 30 Mar. 1962, Dekle and Kuitert. Genitalia
slide HWC 17070.
PARATYPES: Florida: Zellwood, 1 2 9. Gainesville, 5 2 9. Par-
atypes in collection of the U. S. National Museum and in Florida State
Collection of Arthropods, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville.
FOOD PLANT: Polystichum adiantiforme J. Smith, in stems.
REMARKS: U. polystichalis resembles the species described by Dyar
as Ambia fovecosta which occurs in Panama, Guatemala, and Costa Rica.
Differences in coloration and genitalia, however, distinguish the two spe-









The Florida Entomologist


4a


Explanation of Illustrations
Fig. 1-4. Undulambia polystichalis, new species. 1. Male paratype.
2. Female paratype. 3. Female genitalia. 4. Male genitalia (one harpe
omitted and aedeagus removed). 4a. Aedeagus. Delineations of the geni-
talia were prepared by A. D. Cushman, scientific illustrator, U. S. Dept.
Agr. The genitalia are in ventral view and not drawn to scale. Photos of
the adults, about twice natural size, are by J. Scott, staff photographer,
Smithsonian Institution.


Vol. 48, No. 3


% 41 $1


liDp~u$r












Capps: A New Undulambia Species 157

cies. The males of fovecosta are paler and more ochreous than those of
polystichalis, and the ringlike structure of the aedeagus of fovecosta is
trifid at the apex, with the basal termination of the ring at or near the
base of the aedeagus. The white markings of the females are stronger in
fovecosta than in polystichalis, and the bursa copulatrix of fovecosta is
more oval-shaped, with the spinulation weaker and sparser than in poly-
stichalis.
The larval and pupal stages and biology of polystichalis have been
adequately treated in an earlier paper by G. W. Dekle and L. C. Kuitert,
Florida Department of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry, and Uni-
versity of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station, respectively. I am
indebted to them for their cooperation in supplying the reared adults on
which ,the description of the species is based.

Undulambia fovecosta (Dyar), new combination
Ambia fovecosta Dyar, 1914, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 47: 293.
Ambia fulvalis. Dyar, 1914, 1. c., p. 293. New synonomy.
Ambia fuscalis Dyar, 1914, 1. c., p. 293. New synonomy.
TYPES. In collection of the U. S. National Museum: No. 16198, male,
fovecosta; No. 16199, male, fulvalis; No. 16200, female, fuscalis.
TYPE LOCALITIES: Panama: Porto Bello, fovecosta and fuscalis; Trini-
dad River, fulvalis.
FOOD PLANTS: Unknown.
IMMATURE STAGES: Unknown.
REMARKS: U. fulvalis is known only from the type which is slightly
larger in expanse than fovecosta, but the markings and genitalia are like
those of fovecosta and are definitely conspecific with it.

LITERATURE CITED
Dekle, G. W., and L. C. Kuitert. 1962. Mysterious invader. Sunshine
State Agr. Res. Rep., Agr. Exp; Sta., Univ. of Florida, 7(3): 10-12.


The Florida Entomologist 48(3) 1965











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THE MATING BEHAVIOR OF PEUCETIA VIRIDANS
(ARANEIDA: OXYOPIDAE)1, 2

W. H. WHITOOMB AND R. EASON 3
Department of Entomology, Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Ark.

No life history of a spider is complete without a description of its mating
habits. Since this phase of the life history of the green lynx spider, Peu-
cetia viridans (Hentz), has not been previously reported, we studied its
mating behavior in detail.
Very few data have been published about mating behavior in American
lynx spiders. Kaston (1948) states that Oxyopes salticus Hentz "assumes
position II", by which he means that the male covers the female cephalo-
thorax with his own, with the spiders facing in opposite directions. This
is not true in Peucetia viridans. Brady (1964) infers certain limitations
to the mating of P. viridans based on preserved specimens. These are not
borne out by the activities of the living spiders.
Mating of the European Oxyopes heterophthalmus (Latr.) was reported
by Gerhardt (1933), who observed that this species mates in the air, with
both male and female suspended on threads and facing in the same direc-
tion. Our observations on the American Peucetia viridans show that its
mating habits are quite similar to those of this European Oxyopes.
Most of our observations were made in the laboratory on spiders that
had matured in captivity. A freshly-cut cotton plant with its base in a
small jar of water was placed on a table near the edge. Mature male and
female green lynx spiders were released on the plant. They made no
attempt to escape. With the view unobstructed by a cage, they were easily
observed from all angles. While not under observation, males and females
were kept in individual pint ice cream containers covered with plastic
petri dishes. The complete mating procedure was recorded on 16 mm.
motion-picture film exposed at a rate of 64 feet per minute. The mating
of 40 pairs in the laboratory and of two pairs in the field was observed.
Mating behavior in the field was similar to that observed in the laboratory.
In a typical mating sequence, the male and female, when placed on the
cotton plant, ran lightly across the tops of the leaves, pausing frequently.
The male's recognition of the presence of a female was almost immediate,
apparently by sight, and often at a distance of 12 to 14 cm. He demon-
strated his awareness by vibrating his abdomen for periods of 8 to 10
seconds at two or three vibrations per second. While still vibrating his
abdomen, he alternately moved his first and second pairs of legs up and
down and concurrently drummed his palpi. Meanwhile, he gradually ap-
proached the female until he touched her forelegs with his first and second
pairs of legs. In both cases, his tarsi touched the upper part of the fe-
male's legs, sometimes the femora, sometimes the patellae, and sometimes
the tibiae.
If the female was not receptive, she rushed at the male, and he hastily

1 Partially supported by N.S.F. G-17564.
2 Published with the approval of the Director of the Arkansas Agricul-
tural Experiment Station.
3 Entomologist and Technical Assistant respectively.












The Florida Entomologist


retreated. If she was receptive, she responded by raising her forelegs
in a bent position and holding them thus, until she and the male began
touching each other's legs, with the tarsi touching the patellar regions.
This was a back-and-forth exchange; for example, the male's right tarsus
touched the female's left patella, followed by the female's left tarsus touch-
ing the male's right patella. They touched each other rapidly and repeti-
tiously. After about 30 seconds, they moved apart briefly. The female
turned, facing away from the male, and the male approached her from
behind. This time, he stroked the dorsal and posterior surfaces of the
caudal end of her abdomen and the upper parts of her third and fourth
pairs of legs with the tarsi of his first and second pairs of legs. The female
then ran for a short distance and dropped headfirst on a thread off the
edge of a leaf. Sometimes, however, she ran about the plant for three or
four minutes with the male following her, before she dropped from a leaf.
Once she descended, she hung in a vertical position, head downwards,
at least an inch below the leaf. Immediately after the female dropped, the
male touched the thread supporting her and twirled her with his first two
pairs of legs until her venter faced him. Sometimes, he twirled her two
or three times until this was accomplished. Often, he twirled her by only
touching the thread, but at other times, he touched thread, legs, and body.
To complete this maneuver, he frequently had to reach far out from the
leaf. If the female's venter still did not face him, he twirled her again.
When the female was in position, the male dropped headfirst on a thread
with his venter facing hers. As he reached a point slightly above the fe-
male, he began to drum on the tip of her abdomen with his palpi and the
tarsi of his forelegs, his body often trembling concurrently. The female
then bent into a shallow "U-shaped" position with the epigynum at the


Fig. 1. Male (right) of Peucetia viridans moving toward epigynum
of female (left) during mating.


1.64


Vol. 48, No. 3













Whitcomb: Mating Behavior of Peucetia viridans 165

base of the curve. With lightning speed, the male thrust his whole body
forward and jabbed at the female's epigynum with his palpi, first one and
then the other (Fig. 1). The left palpus of the male appeared to be ap-
plied to the right atrium, and the right palpus, to the left atrium of the
epigynum. The action was so fast, and the palpi were alternated so quick-
ly, however, that possibly the left palpus crossed over to the left atrium of
the female, and the right palpus, to the right atrium. In fact, the action
was so rapid that, during the first year of investigation, it was impossible
for the eye to see the palpus approaching the genital opening. Pictures
taken at high speed with a motion-picture camera caught the action during
the second year of study. It was then found that the movements could be
seen from below with the naked eye. From the beginning of the lunge
forward until the palpi were withdrawn was timed at slightly less than
1/10th second by counting the required number of frames of motion-picture
film when exposed at a rate of 64 feet per minute.
After copulation, the male sometimes drew back, turned, and climbed
to the leaf. The female then paused for a few seconds and also mounted
the leaf. While waiting for the female to return to the leaf, the male
sometimes passed his palpi through his chelicerae. After a minute or two,
the male tapped on the caudal part of the female's abdomen with the tarsi
of his first two pairs of legs. She immediately dropped on a thread; the
male twirled her into position and also dropped on a thread, and they copu-
lated again. Frequently, the spiders copulated four or five times before re-
turning to the leaf, and they usually dropped from the leaf five or six times
before mating terminated (Table 1).

TABLE 1.-TYPICAL MATING RECORDS OF Peucetia viridans.

Number of Time in seconds from beginning of drop Number of
descent of female to retreat of male Copulations*

Pair No. 1, 23 Oct. 1964
1 3
2 5
3 132 7
4 25 2
5 2
6 40 2
7 10 1
8 10 1

Pair No. 2, 5 Nov. 1964
1 112 5
2 196 6
3 61 3
4 113 2
5 142 2
6 23 1
7 67 4

Each copulation consisted of an application of each palp to the epigynum.













The Florida Entomologist


Courtship, as defined by Meisenheimer (1921) and by Kaston (1936),
consists of the preliminaries before the act of mating. In a typical mating
sequence of the green lynx spider, courtship lasted 11 minutes. Mating
took 10 minutes, consisting of several copulations measured from the first
approach of a male palpus to the female's epigynum until the final separa-
tion. The female dropped six times, with the male applying his palpi from
5 to 6 times per descent, but with only one copulation on the last descent.
After mating, the male retreated and remained under a leaf near the
female for some time.
According to Gertsch (1949), in all higher spiders, the male's right
palpus is applied to the right orifice of the female, and the left palpus is
applied to the left orifice. Since the palpi of Peucetia viridans appeared
to be thrust straight forward, the right palpus appeared to be applied to
the left orifice. However, further investigation with more refined equip-
ment may show that the right palpus crosses over to the right orifice.
Males mated freely on successive days. One male mated on three con-
secutive days, each time with a different female. However, after mating,
the males did not mate again until they had recharged their palpi, usually
12 to 16 hours after mating. Brady's observations (1964) on epigyna
and palpi of mated individuals of Peucetia viridans are not yet explained,
considering the repeated copulation of one male and female and the mating
of males on successive days with different females. Brady showed that,
on microscopic examination of preserved specimens, each of the two open-
ings of a mated female's epigynum is usually plugged with a hard, black
material with the two-pronged portion of the male's palpal paracymbium
imbedded in it. We found that this black, "resinous" material sometimes
covered the entire epigynum. Plugging of the epigynum should make
repeated copulation impossible for the female. The loss of the distal part
of the male's paracymbium would be expected to prevent his repeated
copulation with one female and repeated matings with other females, since
without the aid of this portion of the paracymbium, the embolus possibly
could not be oriented for entrance into the orifice.
Attempts to mate a female on successive days were unsuccessful; the
female invariably rejected the male by vigorously rushing towards him.
In one case, a large, shiny drop of fluid was observed on the female's
epigynum shortly before she remounted the leaf after the last mating;
it disappeared as she ascended to the leaf. Whether this accounts for the
plug in the epigynum of mated females is not known. In our observations,
the plug was not found in virgin females, but it was found in all mated
females examined.
In general, the courtship of Peucetia viridans is similar to that of wolf
spiders, as described by Montgomery (1903) and by Kaston (1936). In
the initial stage, however, it appears that less reliance is placed on the
tactile senses, and more reliance, on sight. Mating of the green lynx
differs from that of wolf spiders in several respects: the male does not
mount the female but meets her venter to venter while each spider is sus-
pended in the air on a silken line; copulation takes place with great rapidity;
and the male and female face in the same direction during copulation, not
in opposite directions. Although it appears that the right palpus ap-
proaches the- left atrium of the female, and the left palpus, the right
atrium, Exline and Whitcomb (1965) showed otherwise:


166


Vol. 48, No. 3












Whitcomb: Mating Behavior of Peucetia viridans 167

LITERATURE CITED
Brady, A. R. 1964. The lynx spiders of North America, north of Mexico
(Araneae: Oxyopidae). Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 131 (13): 429-518.
Exline, H., and W. H. Whitcomb. 1965. Clarification of the mating pro-
cedure of Peucetia viridans (Araneida, Oxyopidae) by a microscopic
examination of the epigynal plug. Fla. Ent. 48(3):169-171.
Gerhardt, U. 1933. Neue Untersuchungen zur Sexualbiologie der Spinnen,
insbesondere an Arten der Mittelmeerlaender und der Tropen. Z.
Morphol. Oekol. Tiere 27(1): 1-75.
Gertsch, W. J. 1949. American spiders. D. Van Nostrand Co., New York.
285 p.
Kaston, B. J. 1936. The senses involved in the courtship of some vaga-
bond spiders. Ent. Amer. 16(2): 97-167.
Kaston, B. J. 1948. Spiders of Connecticut. Conn. State Geol. Natur.
Hist. Surv. 70: 1-874.
Meisenheimer, J. 1921. Geschlecht und Geschlechter im Tierreiche. Bd.
1, Jena.
Montgomery, T. H., Jr. 1903. Studies on the habits of spiders, particu-
larly those of the mating period. Proc. Acad. Natur. Sci. Philadel-
phia 55: 59-149.


The Florida Entomologist 48(3) 1965





































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CLARIFICATION OF THE MATING PROCEDURE OF
PEUCETIA VIRIDANS (ARANEIDA: OXYOPIDAE)
BY A MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF THE
EPIGYNAL PLUG1 2

HARRIET EXLINE' AND W. H. WHITCOMB4

In a study of the mating behavior of Peucetia viridans (Hentz), Whit-
comb and Eason (1965) stated that the right palpus appeared to insem-
inate the left side of the epigynum, and the left palpus the right side. As
their observations were inconclusive, and since the philosophical implica-
tions of such a possibility are important, we have investigated morpholog-
ical evidence from which we conclude that the right palpus is used for the
right side and vice versa.
The male and female meet venter to venter, facing in the same direction
(Whitcomb and Eason 1965), so that the left palpus is in line with the right
side of the epigynum. No crossing over of the palpi was observed. Copu-
lation is so rapid in this species and the palpi are alternated so quickly,
however, that Whitcomb and Eason could not be certain that the palpi did
not cross over. Observations of former workers, summarized by Gertsch
(1949, p. 93), indicate that in all more advanced spiders the right palpus
is applied to the right female orifice, and the left palpus to the left orifice.
In Peucetia viridans, the paracymbium of the male palpus has a func-
tion in copulation that is quite unusual among spiders." The distal half
of the paracymbium is two-pronged, the longer ventral process curving
downward and forward from the outer side of the straight dorsal prong
(Fig. 1). During copulation, the dorsal prong, probably acting as a guide,
is inserted through the opening into the external tube of the female epigy-
num along with the embolus (which contains the seminal duct). The ven-
tral prong fits over the outside of the epigynum, and the hook at its tip is
received by a depression on the outer anterior part of the epigynum. This
locks the paracymbium in place and limits the distance it can be inserted.
The paracymbium is often broken off just proximal to its branching when
the male withdraws the embolus.
The epigynum probably is always covered with a "resinous" material
after copulation, its origin yet unknown. Not all mated females exhibit
this covering, which is easily removed and probably is sometimes lost
during egg-laying. However, the epigyna of most mated females have

1 Partially supported by N.S.F. G.-17564.
2 Published with the approval of the Director of the Arkansas Agricul-
tural Experiment Station.
SMrs. D. L. Frizzell, Rolla, Missouri.
SEntomologist, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Ark.
No other record of such a function is known to us. Most spiders of
the Lycosoidea lack a paracymbium, including Oxyopes. None of the spiders
which commonly do possess such a sclerite, mostly encountered in the
Epeiroidea, are known to use it as a guide for the embolus, and in most
cases its shape precludes such a possibility. Closely related species of
Peucetia, however, may be expected to use the paracymbium as does P. viri-
dans, although nothing is known of their mating habits.











The Florida Entomologist


the resinous covering intact if the specimens have not been "cleaned" by
former handling. It plugs the openings and tubes which lead to the sem-
inal receptacles and covers the entire epigynal plate. Embedded in it
are often the distal parts of one or both male paracymbia, with the dorsal
prong within the female tube, the ventral prong hooked over the outside
(Fig. 2).




























3


Fig. 1-3. Peucetia viridans. Fig. 1. Right male palpus, dorsolateral
view, showing cymbium and paracymbium (parts of the bulb not included).
Fig. 2. Epigynum of mated female, plugged with "resinous" material and
part of a right paracymbium of a male. Left paracymbium has been re-
moved. (p, terminal part of male paracymbium, dotted part seen through
resinous covering, solid part uncovered; i, indentation in resinous covering
made by hook of removed paracymbium; r, resinous covering, cut away
below; o, atriobursal opening into epigynum; f, edge of genital fold.)
Fig. 3. Left and right sides of left paracymbium, removed from epigynum
shown in Fig. 2. The long prong is ventral, the short prong is dorsal.

If the distal part of a paracymbium embedded in the resinous material
of the epigynum is removed and cleaned, it can be identified as right or
left, because the outer face differs from the inner face (Fig. 3).
Paracymbia were removed from the epigyna of 10 mated females.
Twice as many epigna were examined, but in about half the specimens
the resinous plug was missing or contained neither paracymbium. The


170


Vol. 48, No. 3










Exline: Mating Procedure of Peucetia viridans


plug was removed from the left side of the epigynum in all nine females
having a paracymbium embedded in that side. In all cases, the paracym-
bium was part of the left palpus. In one specimen, only the right side of
the epigynum contained the male structure, a portion of a right palpus.
We conclude, therefore, that the right palpus must cross over in mating to
inseminate the right side of the epigynum, the left one the left side, as
is true of other "higher" spiders.
LITERATURE CITED
Gertsch, W. J. 1949. American spiders. D. Van Nostrand Co., New York.
285 p.
Whitcomb, W. H., and R. Eason. 1965. The mating behavior of Peucetia
viridans (Araneida: Oxyopidae). Florida Ent. 48: 163-167.

The Florida Entomologist 48(3) 1965


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SOIL-APPLIED SYSTEMIC INSECTICIDES IN
RELATION TO INSECT AND MITE CONTROL
ON VARIOUS VEGETABLE CROPS1

DAN A. WOLFENBARGER,2 M. F. SCHUSTER, AND L. W. GETZIN 3
Texas A & M University

A leaf miner, Liriomyza munda Frick, the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne
brassicae (L.), the poplar petiole gall aphid, Pemphigus populitransversus
Riley, a mite, Tetranychus marianae (McG.), and the potato aphid, Macro-
siphum euphorbiae (Thomas), are frequent pests of pepper, cantaloupes,
cabbage, lettuce, and tomatoes in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas.
Previous information has shown that soil applied systemic insecticides con-
trol some of these pests. Systemic insecticides, applied in the soil with the
seed, have been of limited use because of phytotoxicity. Experiments were
therefore conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of various systemic insecti-
cides against insects and mites when applied to the soils in furrow irrigated
areas of south Texas, and show the relationship of granule placement to
insect control and phytotoxicity. The data reported herein are the results
of field experiments conducted in the Lower Rio Grande Valley during the
1959 and 1961-63 seasons.
No control measure has been found to date which will reduce or elim-
inate infestations of the poplar petiole gall aphid, locally called the cab-
bage root aphid. Wene and White (1952) concluded that no control was
obtained with evaluated insecticides. Systemic insecticides have shown
promise in south Texas for controlling mites on tomatoes and eggplant
(Wolfenbarger and Getzin 1964), turnip aphid on turnips, potato aphid on
potatoes, and cabbage aphid on cabbage (Harding 1959, 1962, Harding and
Wolfenbarger 1964), and leaf miners on various crops (Harding and
Wolfenbarger 1963). The use of systemic insecticides has previously
shown promise for green peach aphid control on peppers (Shorey 1963).

METHODS AND MATERIALS

The dates of sampling are shown in the tables because not all treat-
ments were applied at the same time in all experiments. For discussion
purposes the days after application are used as this figure indicates the
period of time the materials remained effective.
All experiments were arranged in a randomized complete block design.
All treatments were replicated four times except in the poplar petiole gall
aphid control experiment. In this experiment, each of the two randomized
complete blocks contained two check plots. The data are presented as per-
cent increase in control over the untreated check in all experiments except

1 Technical Contribution Number 4921, Texas Agricultural Experiment
Station, Lower Rio Grande Valley Research and Extension Center, Weslaco.
2 Present address: USDA, ARS, Entomology Research Division, Browns-
ville, Texas.
Present address: Western Washington Experiment Station, Puyallup,
Washington.












174 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 48, No. 3

those presented in Table 4 and Fig. 1. The data in Table 4 are presented
as mean aphids per plant and that in Fig. 1 as percent aphid free plants.
All plots were furrow irrigated within 24 to 72 hours after the treatments
were applied.
The chemical designations of the proprietary insecticides used in these
evaluations are these:
American Cyanamid 43064 2- (diethoxyphosphinothioylimino) -1,3-dithi-
olane
American Cyanamid 47031-2-(diethoxyphosphinylimino)-1,3 dithiolane
Bayer 25141-0,0-diethyl 0-p-(methylsulfinyl) phenyl phosphorothioate
Di-Syston 0,0-diethyl S-2- (ethylthio) ethyl phosphorodithioate
Niagara 9205 N-methyl-5-(diethoxyphosphinothiothiol)-3-thiapentana-
mide
Union Carbide 8305 P-chloro-2,3-dioxa-5-methyl P-thiono-3-phosphabi-
cyclo (4.4.0) decane.
The crops used in these evaluations are planted by the following meth-
ods. Lettuce, peppers, and cabbage are commonly planted in two rows 18
inches apart on a raised bed. Tomatoes, peppers, cabbage, and curcubits
are commonly planted in rows 38 inches apart on a raised bed. The furrow
irrigated tomato, cabbage, and pepper transplants are usually planted
not on top of the bed itself but on the sloping side away from the sun.
Two to four weeks after planting, the bed is widened by throwing soil to
the seedling side of it by opening a furrow 19-20 inches from the bed.

RESULTS
Two separate experiments were conducted with phorate, Di-Syston,
and dimethoate as soil treatments on Rio Gold cantaloupes. In the first
experiment, the seed was planted and the granulated insecticides were
applied by hand to the seed furrow and covered. In the second experiment,
phorate was compared at two rates in seed furrow and sidedress treatments
at planting time on plots 2 rows wide and 50 feet in length. The sidedress
treatment was located 3-4 inches from the seed and level with the seed.
All insecticides included in both experiments (Table 1) provided 67-97%
control of leaf miners compared to the untreated check 90 days after treat-
ment. In experiment 1, the data show that phorate and Di-Syston reduced
seeding emergence when applied in the seed furrow. Phorate, experiment 2
(Table 1), applied in the seed furrow reduced seedling emergence. Dimeth-
oate reduced cantaloupe seedling emergence 3 and 7%. When phorate was
applied as a sidedress, phytoxicity was reduced by 56%.
Plots 2 rows wide and 25 feet in length served to evaluate phorate,
Di-Syston, and dimethoate as seed furrow treatments on Yolo Wonder
pepper. The plots were planted and the insecticides applied by hand in
the seed furrow on the same date. Final emergence counts were made
33 days after planting and leaf miner counts were taken 33 and 57 days
after planting.
All insecticides provided good leaf miner control on peppers until 50
days after planting (Table 2). Counts taken 64 days after seeding showed
that phorate was the most effective insecticide, averaging 94% control for
both rates. Di-Syston and dimethoate averaged 77 and 88% control.












Wolfenbarger: Insect and Mite Control


TABLE 1.-PLANT EMERGENCE AND INSECT CONTROL ON CANTALOUPES
OBTAINED WITH GRANULATED SYSTEMIC INSECTICIDES, WESLACO, 1959.

Percent Percent leaf miner
Lb/A seedling control**
Treatment actual Application reduction 2 April 16 April

Experiment 1
Phorate 3.0 Furrow 58 17 97
Phorate 1.5 Furrow 37 94 91
Di-Syston 3.0 Furrow 70 79 92
Di-Syston 1.5 Furrow 40 86 67
Dimethoate 3.0 Furrow 7 91 93
Dimethoate 1.5 Furrow 3 55 71
Check 52** 52f

Experiment 2
Phorate 1.5 Furrow 70 96 95
Phorate 3.0 Furrow 69 89 96
Phorate 1.5 Banded 14 99 79
Phorate 3.0 Banded 13 98 93
Check 48** 65t

Based on total plants in check plot.
** Number of mined cotyledons per 50 plants.
t Number of mined true leaves per 100 ft. of row.

Phorate, dimethoate, and Di-Syston reduced the pepper plant population
24, 11, and 5%, respectively. Thus, there was less phytotoxicity to pep-
pers than to cantaloupes.
Granulated systemic insecticides were applied by hand to Valverde let-
tuce plots in a 3-4 inch deep furrow in the center of the bed (9 inches from
either row) at the time of first thinning. The granules were then covered
by hand. Green peach aphid infestations on 10 plants were recorded 118
days after application.
Data in Table 3 show American Cyanamid 43064 and Di-Syston (4.0
lb/A) eliminated green peach aphid populations for 84 days after applica-
tion on lettuce. The maximum control attained by any rate of material
was 60%.
Di-Syston and phorate were applied to plots 4 rows wide and 1980
feet in length for poplar petiole gall aphid control on globe cabbage. The
granules were applied by a tractor mounted applicator in a band on each
side of the row when the plants were in the 4-5 leaf stage. Rows were
38 inches apart. The band was 5-6 inches from the plant and 4 inches
deep. Plots were evaluated by sampling 50 plants per plot. Each plant
was examined to determine if the plant was infested with 1 or more
aphids and the data are presented as percent infested plants.
Data in Fig. 1 show phorate and Di-Syston effectively controlled pop-
lar petiole gall aphid infestations on cabbage 35 and 51 days after appli-
cation. Sixty-four days after application, only the Di-Syston treated plots
remained free of root aphid infested plants while the phorate plots showed


175













The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 48, No. 3


TABLE 2.-PLANT EMERGENCE AND LEAF MINER CONTROL ON PEPPERS
ORTAINED WITH GRANULATED SYSTEMIC INSECTICIDES APPLIED AS
FURROW TREATMENTS, WESLACO, 1959.

Percent Percent leaf
Lb/A seedling* miner control
Treatment actual reduction 19 March 2 April
Phorate 3.0 22 100 92
Phorate 1.5 26 100 95
Di-Syston 3.0 10 81 71
Di-Syston 1.5 0 100 86
Dimethoate 3.0 21 96 93
Dimethoate 1.5 0 94 83
Check 53** 266**

Based on plants in check plot.
** Number of mined leaves per 100 feet of row.

TABLE 3.-SYSTEMIC INSECTICIDES FOR CONTROL OF THE GREEN PEACH
APHID ON LETTUCE, PROGRESS, 1963.

Percent aphid
Actual control
Material* (lb/A) 28 February

Phorate 1.0 19
Phorate 2.0 60
Phorate 4.0 19
Di-Syston 1.0 0
Di-Syston 2.0 0
Di-Syston 4.0 100
AC 43064 1.0 100
AC 43064 2.0 100
AC 43064 4.0 100
AC 47031 1.0 19
AC 47031 2.0 60
AC 47031 4.0 60
Bayer 25141 1.0 19
Bayer 25141 2.0 0
Bayer 25141 4.0 19
UC 8305 2.0 0
UC 8305 4.0 60
Dimethoate 1.0 0
Dimethoate 2.0 60
Dimethoate 4.0 0
NIA 9205 1.0 0
NIA 9205 2.0 42
NIA 9205 4.0 0
Check 11.3**

Applied 4 December.
** Mean aphids per 10 plants examined.


176











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Fig. 1. Percent cabbage root aphid infested cabbage plants after one
application of Di-Syston and phorate, Hidalgo, 1963.













178 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 48, No. 3

28% infested plants and the check 94%. Di-Syston, 77 days after the
single application, gave 50% aphid free plants and remained the best
treatment.
Several granulated systemic insecticides were applied to the soil for
cabbage aphid control as a side dress application when the Marion Market
cabbage plants were in the 2 and 3 leaf stage. Plots were single row, 25
feet in length. The granules were placed in a furrow 3-4 inches from
the seed and 2-3 inches deep on one side of the row and were covered by
hand. Four plants per plot were examined for aphids on the first sam-
pling date and all plants in each plot were examined at the second sampling.
Data in Table 4 show that all insecticides significantly reduced mean cab-
bage aphid populations compared to the untreated check 130 days after ap-
plication. All treatments except Bayer 25141 were significantly better
than the untreated check 144 days after application.

TABLE 4.-GRANULATED SYSTEMIC INSECTICIDES FOR CABBAGE APHID
CONTROL ON CABBAGE, PROGRESS, 1963.

Actual Mean aphids per 10 plants
Material* (lb/A) 26 February 12 March

AC 43064 2.0 44.2 a** 168.6 a**
AC 43064 4.0 5.4 a 190.4 ab
Di-Syston 2.0 5.3 a 249.9 abc
Bayer 25141 2.0 62.0 a 701.1 c-g
Dimethoate 2.0 17.2 a 398.4 a-e
Dimethoate 4.0 9.9 a 483.6 a-e
Phorate 2.0 13.7 a 643.4 a-g
Phorate 4.0 9.6 a 504.1 a-e
Check 175.0 b 1161.6 gh

Applied 16 October.
** Means not followed by the same letter are significantly different at the 5% level by
Duncan's New Multiple Range Test.

Data in Table 5 summarize results from Chico tomato plots where sev-
eral granulated insecticides were used six different ways in a raised bed
for mite, leaf miner, and potato aphid control. The seed was planted on
February 19 in a single row at the middle on top of the bed on plots 1
row wide and 25 feet in length. All granule treatments were applied by
hand and the furrows were made with a hoe.
The materials were most effective initially when applied 1-6 inches
deep at seeding and 39 days after application (Table 5). Granules on
the soil surface at seeding time provided aphid control but did not give
effective mite and leaf miner control.
Di-Syston provided the best mite control although variations were noted
between granule placement. Granules placed 1-2 inches below and 3-4
inches to the side of the seed provided the best control 91 days after
application and seeding. Di-Syston applied 3-4 or 5-6 inches deep and
3-4 inches to the side of the seed provided the best control 100 days after
application and seeding. These data show that the deeper the granules

















Wolfenbarger: Insect and Mite Control


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The Florida Entomologist


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Wolfenbarger: Insect and Mite Control


are placed in the soil, the longer control is obtained. Di-Syston applied
39 days after seeding failed to provide increased mite control compared to
the other treatments. These data indicate that perhaps the stage of plant
maturity plays a role in uptake and movement of the toxicant to tomato
foliage. Di-Syston granules placed at a 5-6 inch depth gave the best
mean control on both dates. American Cyanamid 43064, phorate, and
American Cyanamid 47031 followed in order of over-all effectiveness for
mite control.
American Cyanamid 43064 applied at a depth of 3-4 inches and Di-
Syston applied at a depth of 5-6 inches had consistently lower leaf miner
populations than the untreated check and other materials and treatments
63 days after application. Fifty-two days after the post-emergence appli-
cation and 92 days after the seeding time application, all systemics had
lower leaf miner populations than dimethoate and untreated check. Ameri-
can Cyanamid 43064 applied 1-2 inches below the soil surface reduced
potato aphid populations compared to the other treatments. American
Cyanamid 43064 and Di-Syston gave the best control of all treatments.
No treatment was injurious to tomato seedlings but phorate and Di-Syston
placed beneath the seed caused a whitening of the margins of cotyledon
leaves.
DISCUSSION

Baranowski (1962) concluded that granulated systemic insecticides
placed with tomato seed at rates over 1 pound actual toxicant per acre
caused a reduction in germination. This was also the case on cantaloupes
and peppers (Tables 1 and 2). At the rates used in the other experiments,
no insecticide caused a reduction in stand when the insecticides were placed
to the side of the seed.
Soil types have been shown to influence the movement of phorate in the
soil (Getzin and Chapman 1959, 1960). Soils of high clay or high organic
matter content reduced or prevented insecticide movement in the soil and
insecticide uptake in the plant. The soil applied granulated insecticides
were applied to Hidalgo Fine Sandy Loam and Harlingen Clay soil types.
The data indicated that insect control was generally similar on the two
soil types when applied at equal rates. These soil types predominate in
the Lower Rio Grande Valley. Thus, soil type appears not to play a sig-
nficant role in the use of these materials in the Lower Rio Grande Valley.
Getzin and Chapman (1959) showed that only a small amount of the
insecticide added to an agricultural soil was absorbed by the plant. They
also pointed out that longer residual effects can be obtained with phorate
if correct application procedures are used because the soil acts as a pro-
tective mechanism by reducing hydrolysis and volatilization. This was
substantiated when the materials applied 3-6 inches below the soil level
offered the best residual control for both soil types.
Time of application also appeared to play a role in insect control on
cabbage and tomatoes. The granules were applied at the 4-5 leaf stage
(Fig. 1) and effective control was obtained. In the results of an unpub-
lished experiment, Di-Syston and phorate (1.0 Ib/A) were applied to ma-
ture cabbage plants and compared for poplar petiole gall aphid control. The
plots were furrow irrigated 24 hours later and the roots were examined
after 10 days. No reduction in aphid control was noted. Thus, again, it












182 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 48, No. 3

appears that plant maturity plays a role in insect and mite control on
cabbage and tobatoes.
LITERATURE CITED
Baranowski, R. M. 1962. Effectiveness of various methods of applying
systemic insecticides to tomatoes. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 75:
176-180.
Getzin, L. W., and R. K. Chapman. 1959. Effect of soils upon the uptake
of systemic insecticides by plants. J. Econ. Ent. 52: 1160-1165.
'Getzin, L. W., and R. K. Chapman. 1960. Fate of phorate in soils. J.
Econ. Ent. 53: 47-51.
Harding, James A. 1959. The control of turnip aphids and flea beetles
with Di-Syston and thimet. J. Rio Grande Valley Hort. Soc. 13:
159-160.
Harding, James A. 1962. Tests with systemic insecticides for control of
insects and certain diseases on potatoes. J. Econ. Ent. 53: 62-5.
Harding, James A., and Dan A. Wolfenbarger. 1963. Granulated systemic
insecticides for vegetable insect control in South Texas. J. Econ.
Ent. 56: 687-689.
Harding, James A., and Dan A. Wolfenbarger. 1964. Field evaluation of
granular systemic insecticides applied at planting to spinach, turnips
and cabbage for insect control and the effect on plant size during the
1962-1963 growing season. Fla. Ent. 47: 97-102.
Shorey, H. H. 1963. Soil applications of systemic insecticides for control
of systemic green peach aphid on peppers. J. Econ. Ent. 56: 340-1.
Wene, George P., and A. N. White. 1952. The cabbage root aphid. Ohio
J. Sci. 53: 332.
Wolfenbarger, Dan A., and L. W. Getzin. 1964. Insecticide and surfactant-
insecticide combinations for control of the mite, Tetranychus mar-
ianae McG. on tomatoes and eggplant. Fla. Ent. 47: 123-128.


The Florida Entomologist 48(3) 1965















A COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR QUANTITATIVE
ESTIMATION OF HYPOXANTHINE, XANTHINE,
AND URIC ACID IN INSECT MATERIAL1

J. L. NATION AND K. K. THOMAS
Zoology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville

The purine uric acid is the usual nitrogenous metabolite of protein
catabolism in insects. Hypoxanthine and xanthine are purines which are
normally converted into uric acid and therefore do not appear in insect
excreta; however, since the discovery of all three of these purines in ex-
creta of the sheep ked, Melophagus ovinus Meig., (Nelson 1958) various
workers have found them in excreta of three additional species. There is
no quantitative information available at present on excretion of hypoxan-
thine and xanthine in any species.
Excretory hypoxanthine and xanthine may be detrimental to insects
by interfering with the normal water reabsorption process occurring in
the rectum. The possibility of some adverse effect has been suggested by
Mitchell et. al. (1959), who showed that there is about fifty per cent failure
to successfully emerge from the pupal stage at 25C by a Drosophila mel-
anogaster Meig. mutant, rosy,2 which excretes hypoxanthine instead of
uric acid. Both hypoxanthine and xanthine are approximately 25 times as
soluble as uric acid (Dawson et. al. 1959), which means that more water
must be available for excretion, or that more energy must be expended in
reabsorbing needed water against an increased osmotic gradient when
these two purines make up a significant amount of the nitrogen excreted.
The larvae of the wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), excrete hypoxan-
thine and xanthine, although uric acid is the major nitrogenous metabolite
(Nation and Patton 1961, Nation 1963). Quantitative information concern-
ing these three purines in Galleria would clearly be of value in assessing
the possible effects on water conservation, and also might be expected to
yield fundamental information concerning the physiology of nitrogen me-
tabolism.
There are several methods for purine analysis available, but a careful
study of their suitability for use on crude preparations of insect tissue is
needed. A method should be specific and accurate at the microgram level,
for volumes of haemolymph or excretory material available from many in-
sects are exceedingly small.
The quantitative methods reported upon in this paper are well known
methods which have been used successfully to estimate purines in a variety
of biological material. The purpose of the present study has been to de-
termine which, if any, of these methods are suitable to estimate purines in
insect tissues and excreta.
The colony of Galleria was started from field collections of larvae
near Gainesville, Florida, and maintained in the laboratory on Haydak's
diet (1936). Hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid were purchased from
Nutritional Biochemicals Corporation. Folin phenol reagent was purchased
from Curtin and Company.

1 This research was supported in part by NSF grant GB-1088.












The Florida Entomologist


Extracts of excretory material were made by grinding the large pellets
from Galleria larvae in the last or next to last instar with 3 ml portions of
0.01 M lithium carbonate in a mortar. The solution of the purines was
removed from an insoluble residue by centrifugation. Repeating the ex-
traction and centrifugation procedure on the residue three additional times
extracted all detectable purines in up to 100 mg of excretory material.
The supernatants from each extraction were combined and diluted with
distilled water as dictated by the sensitivity of the method being used.
The differential spectrophotometric method following separation of pu-
rines by chromatography and electrophoresis was tested for hypoxanthine
estimation (Vischer and Chargaff 1948). Xanthine was determined with
the Folin phenol reagent on crude, unpurified extracts using the proce-
dure of Litwack, et. al. (1953) and also following a purification step accord-
ing to Williams (1950). Uric acid was estimated colorimetrically with
the arsenophosphotungstic acid reagent prepared according to Benedict
(1922). Kalckar's method (1947) was used to estimate all three of the
purines concerned in this study in crude, unpurified extracts of excreta.
Xanthine oxidase for this method was prepared from fresh milk by the
method of Horecker and Heppel (1949). Purification of the xanthine oxi-
dase was stopped after the second ammonium sulfate fractionation. Thus
prepared the enzyme had an activity of 1000 units/ml enzyme solution in
the assay of Plesner and Kalckar (1956). The enzyme was stored at
-18oC until needed. Commercial uricase powder (Nutritional Biochemi-
cals Corporation) was suspended in distilled water to produce an activity
of 100 units/ml and stored at --18C (Plesner and Kalckar 1956).
A Beckman DU spectrophotometer with an ultraviolet light source was
used in the methods requiring measurements in the ultraviolet region of
the spectrum, and a B & L Spectronic 20 instrument served for the colori-
metric determinations.

TABLE 1.-COMPARISON OF QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR DETERMINATION
OF PURINES IN CRUDE EXTRACTS OF Galleria LARVAL EXCRETA.

Compound mg/g Excreta Method

Hypoxanthine 8.46 2.65* Vischer and Chargaff (1948)
2.91 0.52 Kalckar (1947)
Xanthine** 17.57 Litwack et al. (1953)
8.68 Williams (1950)
6.38 Kalckar (1947)
Uric Acidt 51.50 Benedict Reagent (1922)
36.81 Kalckar (1947)

Standard deviation of mean; at least six determinations made, but the same excretory
samples were not used in each method.
** Portions of the same sample of excreta used in each method.
t Mean of nine samples determined by both methods.

We were aware that many substances in a crude extract might in-
terfere in the direct spectrophotometric and colorimetric methods being
used, and, as Table 1 shows, different methods used on the same sample


184


Vol. 48, No. 3












Nation: Uric Acid in Insect Material


produced widely divergent values. By means of paper chromatography
and paper electrophoresis we were able to separate from the crude extract
at least four substances, some of which, when eluted from the paper and
added to standard solutions of the purines, interfered in one or another
of the direct methods. No completely successful scheme for separation
of the purines from all interfering substances in the crude extract was
perfected. Careful experimentation with these same substances failed to
show any interference in the method of Kalckar (1947). All the methods
except those of Kalckar and Vischer and Chargaff suffer from the further
drawback that they are not applicable to all three purines which we wished
to determine.
Table 2 shows that Kalckar's method is sensitive enough to determine
purines at levels to be expected in insect tissues and excreta, and the
accuracy even at the lower limit of the method, which is about 0.3 pg/ml
(Kalckar 1947), is within an acceptable range.

TABLE 2.-EXPERIMENTS ON PER CENT RECOVERY AFTER ADDITION OF
PURINES TO AN EXTRACT OF Galleria LARVAL EXCRETA. PURINES
DETERMINED BY THE METHOD OF KALCKAR (1947). PER CENT
RECOVERY CALCULATED AS (FOUND)/(PRESENT + ADDED).

Present in
extract Added Total found Recovery
Exp. no. Purine gg/1.2 ml* Ag gg %

1 Hypoxanthine 2.20 1.50 3.50 94.6
Xanthine 5.79 2.50 8.44 101.8
2 Hypoxanthine 1.85 1.50 3.55 105.9
Xanthine 6.37 2.50 7.80 87.9
3 Uric Acid 2.73 5.00 6.96 89.9

Final volume of reaction mixture was 3.0 ml.

We have used Kalckar's method to determine purines in Galleria hae-
molymph, uric acid in haemolymph of Periplaneta americana L., and
purines in excreta of several other insects without experiencing any diffi-
culties or inadequacies of the method.

SUMMARY

We have made comparative studies on several potentially suitable meth-
ods for quantitative estimation of purines in insect tissues and excreta.
The results show substances in excreta of the wax moth, Galleria, which
interfere in some of the methods; however, no interference is indicated when
the method of Kalckar (1947) is used. Further advantages of Kalckar's
method are speed, accuracy, and sensitivity compatible with quantities of
purines to be expected in insect tissues and excreta.

LITERATURE CITED
.Benedict, S. R. 1922. The determination of uric acid in blood. J. Biol.
Chem. 51: 187-207.


185












186 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 48, No. 3

Dawson, R. M. C., D. C. Elliott, W. H. Elliott, and K. M. Jones. 19,59.
Data for biochemical research. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, Eng-
S land. 299 p.
Haydak, M. H. 1936. Is wax a necessary constituent of the diet of wax
moth larvae? Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 29: 581-588.
Horecker, B. L., and L. A. Heppel. 1949. The reduction of cytochrome c
by xanthine oxidase. J. Biol. Chem. 178: 683-690.
Kalckar, H. M. 1947. Differential spectrophotometry of purine compounds
by means of specific enzymes-I. Determination of hydroxypurine
compounds. J. Biol. Chem. 167: 429-443.
Litwack, G., J. W. Bothwell, J. N. Williams, Jr. and C. A. Elvehjem. 1953.
A colorimetric assay for xanthine oxidase in rat liver homogenates.
J. Biol. Chem. 200: 303-310.
Mitchell, H. K., E. Glassman, and E. Hadorn. 1959. Hypoxanthine in
rosy2 and maroon-like mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. Science
129: 268-269.
Nation, J. L. 1963. Identification of xanthine in excreta of the greater
wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.). J. Insect Physiol. 9: 195-200.
Nation, J. L., and R. L. Patton. 1961. A study of nitrogen excretion in
insects. J. Insect Physiol. 6: 299-308.
Nelson, W. A. 1958. Purine excretion by the sheep ked, Melophagus
ovinus (L.). Nature, London. 182: 115.
Plesner, P., and H. M. Kalckar. 1956. Enzymatic microdeterminations of
uric acid, hypoxanthine, xanthine, adenine, and xanthopterine by
ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Methods in Biochemical Analysis 3:
97-110.
Vischer, E., and E. Chargaff. 1948. The separation and quantitative esti-
mation of purines and pyrimidines in minute amounts. J. Biol.
Chem. 176: 703-714.
Williams, J. N., Jr. 1950. A micromethod for the determination of xan-
thine and guanine in urine. J. Biol. Chem. 184: 627-632.


The Florida Entomologist 48(3) 1965














LABORATORY CULTURE AND DEVELOPMENT IN
ELAPHRIA NUCICOLORA (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE)'

DALE H. HABECK
Department of Entomology, University of Florida, Gainesville

Elaphria nucicolora (Guen6e) is a common moth in Florida occurring
throughout the year (Kimball 1965). Little is known concerning the bi-
ology of this species. Ingrain et al. (1939) reported it as assuming cut-
worm habits in sugarcane in Florida, and Swezey (1951) reared it from
watermelon in Hawaii and reported feeding on four other plant species.
In Gainesville, larvae are commonly found during the winter on the avil
surface under mustard leaves along with larvae of Elaphria chalcedonia
(Hiibner), Feltia subterranea (Fabricius), and Agrotis ypsilon (Rotten-
berg).
The life history was determined by rearing larvae individually in homeo-
pathic vials stoppered with cotton. Strips of rape leaves were provided
for food as needed. Newly hatched larvae were placed in the vials and
observed daily. Head capsule exuviae were removed after each ecdysis
and measured. Oviposition was studied by confining newly emerged pairs
in one-pint ice cream cartons with petri-dish bottoms for covers. A 5-10%
honey solution was supplied for food and a strip of cellucotton was hung
in each carton for oviposition. Eggs were counted and removed daily until
each female died. Eggs were retained at least three days to determine
whether they were viable. Viable eggs were characterized by the presence
of a reddish-brown ring within 72 hours after oviposition. All studies were
made at 70 2F and 18 hour daylength (beginning at 6 AM).
Detailed records were kept for 22 individuals reared to maturity. All
larvae pupated after the sixth instar, except one which had seven instars.
Larval development required 20-35 days, averaging 25.7 days. The dura-
tion of the first larval stadium averaged 3.4 days. The second stadium
averaged 3.1 days, the third 3.2 days, the fourth 4.1 days, the fifth 3.8 days,
the sixth 8.0 days, and the seventh for the one individual was 5 days. The
last stadium included 2.6 days (average) prior to pupation when the larvae
did not feed.
Larvae usually consumed the exuviae following each ecdysis leaving
only the head capsule. Occasionally all or part of the head capsule was
eaten. Ecdysis to the pupal stage split the head capsules making them
unsuitable for measurement; therefore, sixth instar measurements were
made on preserved mature larvae. Average head capsule measurements
in millimeters for instars one through six were 0.278, 0.410, 0.620, 0.872,
1.174, and 1.683.
A flimsy cocoon utilizing the leaf or cotton plug for one side was spun
by most of the larvae before pupating. The duration of the pupal stage
averaged 13.4 days. Adult emergence occurred in two stages. The pupal
case split along the suture separating the legs and wings. The moth freed
its head and legs and then became inactive. The inactivity was broken by
the moth quickly crawling free of the skin and climbing the side of the
container. Emergence required an average of 1.52 minutes (four individ-

1Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series Number 2185.












188 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 48, No. 3

uals). Almost all of this time was passed in the period of inactivity.
About 15-20 minutes after emergence the wings were fully expanded and
held vertically over the back. Altogether 30-40 minutes were required
from emergence until the wings were in normal position.
Only 2 of the 20 newly-emerged pairs placed together in the pint car-
tons mated, and these mated only once. The two mated females oviposited
for 8 and 9 days, laying 923 and 917 eggs, respectively. Fertile eggs were
oviposited 3 and 4 days after emergence. The maximum number of eggs
laid in one day was 244. All of the 18 unmated females laid eggs which
were not viable. From 23 to 654 eggs (average 313) over a period of 3 to
16 days (average 11.1) were laid by unmated females. Some laid eggs
the first day, while others did not begin until the seventh day.
The average longevity for unmated males and females was 16.9 and
15.9 days, respectively. Mated males lived 16 days and mated females
12 days.
Adults were obtained from larvae reared on Bidens pilosa L., chickweed
(Stellaria sp.), rape, mustard, turnip, lupine, white clover, and rye. Fresh
green leaves were not necessary for development as larvae also grew nor-
mally on old dead mustard leaves and stems as long as sufficient moisture
was present. Larvae were reared successfully on an artificial diet. The
ingredients and amount (in grams unless otherwise indicated) sufficient to
make 1000 grams of medium are: wheat germ-30, soybean protein-35,
sucrose-25, fructose-10, Wesson's salts-25, choline chloride-i, cholesterol,
glycine, and cystine-.5 each, vitamin diet fortification mixture (in dex-
trose)-10, Brewer's yeast-20, agar-25, streptomycin sulfate-.1, methyl para-
hydroxybenzoate-2.2, sorbic acid-2.6, and water 850 ml.

LITERATURE CITED

Ingram, J. W., H. A. Jaymes, and R. N. Lobdell. 1939. Sugarcane pests in
Florida. Proc. Int. Soc. Sugar Cane Tech. 6: 89-98.
Kimball, C. P. 1965. Arthropods of Florida and neighboring land areas.
Vol. I. Lepidoptera of Florida. Fla. Dep. Agr. 363 p.
Swezey, O. H. 1951. Elaphria nucicolora (Guenee). Proc. Hawaiian Ent.
Soc. 14: 217.


The Florida Entomologist 48(3) 1965















A COMPARISON OF TUPELO HONEY YIELDS FROM
FOUR SIZES OF HIVE OVER A THREE-YEAR PERIOD

JOHN D. HAYNIE
Department of Entomology, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Fla.

Migratory beekeeping is carried on extensively in Florida to produce
the maximum yields of honey. Some beekeepers move their colonies two
and three times during the year to take advantage of the successive nectar
flows and to provide good reserves of honey and pollen for winter stores.
Three sizes of bee hives are used under Florida conditions: the 11-frame
modified Dadant, which is a large hive and difficult to move; the standard
10-frame Langstroth; and the 8-frame Langstroth. The smaller 8-frame
Langstroth hive is used by many of Florida's migratory beekeepers because
it is lighter, easier to load, and appears to have sufficient size to produce
a colony of bees capable of gathering a surplus of honey. However, the
8-frame Langstroth hive does not have sufficient storage space for winter
stores of honey and pollen without the addition of a super.
The author developed an 8-frame "jumbo" hive with modified Dadant
frames which has the same brood area as the 10-frame Langstroth hive,
but has the movability of the 8-frame hive. This jumbo hive has suffi-
cient size to be operated as a one-story brood body throughout the year
with ample brood area for efficient honey production. It has enough stor-
age area for honey and pollen for the colony to survive the winter.
To compare the efficiency of this new hive with the three standard hives
used in Florida, a series of tests were begun under the actual beekeeping
practices of the tupelo area of Florida to evaluate the honey producing
capabilities of colonies housed in the four hives. The results of these tests
are given in this paper.
METHODS
In May 1951, colonies were collected from apiaries at Lake Placid,
Gainesville, and Graceville. Four groups of experimental colonies were
moved to the platform apiary of Edgar Lanier on the Apalachicola River
near Wewahitchka, Florida, April 1952. These colonies were placed on
one end of the platform and made a total of 240 colonies in the apiary.
The test colonies were given equal treatment in requeening. There was
no supplementary feeding, and during the entire production season the
brood was limited to one hive body by queen excluders. Carbolic acid
boards were used in removing supers of honey from the colonies. Supers
of honey removed from test colonies were weighed with 100-pound-capacity
spring cotton scales. The weight of the empty super of combs was de-
ducted from each full super. The empty supers of combs were returned
to the colonies after being extracted.
The test colonies were moved from the river platform after the tupelo
flow to a farming section near Graceville as single-story colonies. During
the summer the colonies reared brood and stored surplus honey for the
winter.
If the queen failed in any test colony, the colony was given another
queen as soon as possible. Such queen failures are indicated in the data













The Florida Entomologist


TABLE 1.-HONEY YIELDS IN POUNDS BY TEST COLONIES FOR
FOUR HONEY CROPS, 1952 TO 1954.

m
CO g( W ^ 2^ S
o l, 0
ko *Oka In IM a11 .
Hive 0 r- rq 0 r r" 0 ^
q- 0 > a
00 0 P,
0 0o
ri z E-(E ~r


11-frame
modified Dadant






Av. per Col.


8-frame jumbo
1
2
3
4
5
Av. per Col.

10-frame
Langstroth
1
2
3
4
5
Av. per Col.

8-frame Langstroth
1
2
3
4
5
Av. per Col.


55
"f
t
1.
f

55.0



48
52
53
50
48
50.0


62
60
64
55
60
60.2


39
43
42
38
41
40.6


42
35
44
38
41
40.0



36
42
47
38
42
41.0


41
39
40
37
42
39.8


*
46
104
107
155
103.0


119
50
128
74
10
76.2



124
59
136
61
81
92.2


49
125
55
49
106
76.8


125
113
125
**
**
121.0


69
134
46
81
81
82.2


1177 69.2


1047 65.4


61
86
105
13
12
55.4


109
85
95

*
96.3


1194 59.7


1173 65.2


Queenless.
** Dead.
t Colony suffocated during moving.
the queen.


Restocked with 5-pound packages of bees including


190


Vol. 48, No. 3












Haynie: Comparison of Tupelo Honey Yields 191

by total loss of the honey crop for that particular nectar flow or an un-
usually low yield. The colonies were inspected before and after the honey
flow for brood rearing activities and to determine if colonies had sufficient
stores in the first story or the brood body.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Honey yields by the test colonies are given in Table 1. Analysis of
variance showed no significant difference in the yields of the four types of
hives over the three year period. A more extended test might have re-
vealed significant differences, but under the conditions of this test all pro-
duced similar amounts of honey during the three-year period. Therefore,
the selection of one of the four hives should be determined by other factors.
Either 8-frame hive is easier to transport than the larger hives. The
standard 8-frame Langstroth is the smaller, but requires more personal
attention in the spring because of its limited storage space for honey.
Bees when enlarging the brood nest appear to extend it up and downward
rather than expand it in width. The narrow 8-frame "jumbo" hive may
be more efficient in brood-rearing than the other three hives tested because
of its narrow compact brood nest supported by adequate storage of honey
in one brood body. This hive has the same brood area of the 10-frame
Langstroth hive and the ease of movement of the smaller 8-frame Lang-
stroth. Further tests should be conducted to determine if other factors
should be considered in selecting a better hive for Florida migratory bee-
keeping.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am indebted to Dr. Milledge Murphey for helpful criticism of this
manuscript.


The Florida Entomologist 48(3) 1965















PESTICIDES

FOR


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Insecticides and Fungicides, offers a complete advisory service to
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INSECTICIDES AND COMBINATIONS OF INSECTICIDES
WITH OILS AND SURFACTANTS FOR INSECT CONTROL
ON VARIOUS VEGETABLE CROPS1

DAN A. WOLFENBARGER 2
Texas A & M University

The cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), turnip aphid, Rhopalosi-
phum pseudobrassicae (Davis), green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sul-
zer), potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), poplar petiole gall
aphid, Pemphigus populitransversus (Riley), known locally as the cabbage
root aphid, cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hubn.), and the leaf miner,
Liriomyza munda Frick, are pests of cabbages, tomatoes, and turnips in the
Lower Rio Grande Valley. Insecticides and combinations of insecticides
with oils and surfactants were evaluated as foliar and soil applications on
these crops for control of these insects during the 1962-1964 seasons. The
objectives were to (1) determine if oils and surfactants increase control
when added to chemical and biological insecticides and (2) evaluate various
systemic and nonsystemic phosphate and chlorinated hydrocarbon insecti-
cides for control of the above insect pest species.
Littleford and Ditman (1963) found Bayer 44646 to be an effective ma-
terial for cabbage looper control. Shorey (1963) found Bayer 44646, Mon-
santo 40294, and Zectran to be effective against the cabbage looper. Shorey
and Hall (1963) found DDT to be ineffective for leaf miner and potato aphid
control. Shorey (1963) found parathion and mevinphos to be effective for
cabbage aphid control on cabbage. He also found that Bayer 44646 was
not effective for cabbage aphid control.
Various phosphate insecticides were shown to be effective for leaf miner
control (Wolfenbarger and Getzin 1963b). These included dimethoate,
Bayer 25141, Bidrin, GC 4072, and Delnav. Carbaryl effectively controlled
corn earworm populations on lettuce (Wolfenbarger and Getzin 1962).
Endrin, toxaphene, mevinphos, naled, parathion, a toxaphene + parathion
combination, and Kepone effectively controlled the cabbage looper (Wolfen-
barger and Getzin 1962). Dimethoate, demeton, mevinphos, endrin, Tel-
odrin, and mevinphos-oil combinations were shown to be effective for green
peach and cabbage aphid control on peppers and cabbage (Wolfenbarger
and Getzin 1963).
METHODS AND MATERIALS

Combinations of oil and surfactants with a cabbage looper virus and
various Bacillus thuringiensis formulations were evaluated for cabbage
looper and cabbage aphid control on cabbage (Tables 2 and 3). Plots 1
row wide and 25 feet long were sprayed at 30 gallons per acre with a car-
bon dioxide powered sprayer using three nozzles per row.

1 Technical contribution number 4799, Texas Agricultural Experiment
Station, Lower Rio Grande Valley Experiment Station and Extension Serv-
ice Center, Weslaco. The studies were supported, in part, by a grant from
Humble Oil & Refining, Research & Development, Baytown, Texas.
a Present address: USDA, ARS, Entomology Research Division, Browns-
ville, Texas.













The Florida Entomologist


Cabbage looper populations were evaluated by counting healthy looper
larvae on four plants per plot. The looper counts were separated into
small loopers (those up to one-half inch in length) or large loopers (those
over one-half inch in length). Cabbage aphid populations in this and all
subsequent cabbage plots were evaluated by counting all forms on a desig-
nated number of plants per plot. The data are presented as aphids per
plant after counting the aphids on four plants per plot.
The data in Table 4 summarize results comparing insecticides on tur-
nips for turnip aphid control. Plots were 1 row wide and 25 feet in length
and were sprayed with a hand operated carbon dioxide powered sprayer
at the rate of 30 gallons per acre, using three nozzles per row. The con-
trol in this and the subsequent experiment was evaluated by counting
number of aphids per 13 leaves. The data are presented on a per leaf
basis.
Table 5 summarizes results with various insecticides and mevinphos-oil
combinations for control of the cabbage aphid on cabbage. Tables 6 and 7
summarize results of various combinations of oil plus DDT or parathion
or a Heliothis virus for leaf miner and potato aphid control on tomatoes.
Plots were 1 row wide, 25 feet in length, and were sprayed with a hand
operated carbon-dioxide powered sprayer at 40 gallons per acre, using
three nozzles per row and 40 psi. The leaf miner populations were evalu-
ated by counting the mines on each leaflet of 13 leaves and expressing the
data on a per leaf basis. The potato aphid populations were determined
by counting the aphids on each leaf and the data were placed on a per leaf
basis.
During the winter of 1963-1964, various insecticides and oil-insecticide
combinations were evaluated on turnip (Table 8) and cabbage (Table 9)
plots for turnip and green peach aphid control. The turnip and cabbage
plots were sprayed with a Chesterford logarithmic dilution sprayer at 60
gallons per acre and 40 psi on plots 4 rows wide. Plots were 11.2 feet
apart and 7 rates were evaluated .with each application. The data did
not exhibit linear relationship in respect to rate; thus the data are pre-
sented as a mean for the range of rates evaluated. The data presented
are the mean of 52 leaves per plot on the turnip plots and 91 leaves per
plot on the cabbage plots.
Various systemic phosphate insecticides (Table 10) were evaluated on
cabbage for cabbage root aphid, green peach aphid, and cabbage looper
control. These insecticides were applied at 2.0 lb. active ingredient per
acre as a drench and granules to cabbage plants in the 2 leaf stage and
furrow irrigated within 24 hours. The granules were applied by hand
to a furrow 3-4 inches and 2-4 inches in depth beside the young cabbage
plants and covered with a hoe. The drenches were applied to the plants
and soil in a band 6-10 inches wide, using 2 gallons of water per 25 feet
of row. On a broadcast basis, 1089 gallons of total solution per acre were
applied. Plots were 1 row wide and 25 feet in length. Populations were
evaluated by counting green peach aphids on 13 leaves per plot, cabbage
root aphids on 13 plants per plot, and looper larvae on 4 plants per plot
as described previously. The data were then placed on a per leaf or per
plant basis.
All plots were arranged in a randomized complete block design repli-
cated four times except for the logarithmic sprayer treated plots which


194


Vol. 48, No. 3












Wolfenbarger: Insecticides and Combinations


were replicated twice. The looper and Heliothis polyhedral viruses were
obtained from Carlos M. Ignoffo, USDA-ARS, Entomology Research Di-
vision, Pink Bollworm Laboratory, Brownsville, Texas. The cabbage looper
virus was standardized at 5.0 x 10' polyhedra per milliliter (Tables 2 and
3) and the Heliothis virus was standardized at 6.99 x 10' polyhedra per
milliliter (Tables 6 and 7). The chemical formula for the surfactants used
in these evaluations are as follows: B1956 (modified phthalic glycerol
alkyl); PlyacE (the principal functioning agents are emulsifiable A-CR
Polyethylene 629 and emulsifying and dispersing agents); NS139 (ethylene
oxylated mercaptan); 50 (fatty acid mixture and ethylene oxylated dinonyl
phenol); L775 is the same as 50, except it has a sticking agent added.
The chemical designations of the proprietary insecticides evaluated are
as follows:
American Cyanamid 43064 2-(diethoxyphosphinothioylimino)-1,3-di-
thiolane
American Cyanamid 47031-2- (diethoxyphosphinylimino) -1,3-dithiolane
American Cyanamid 47921 -0,0-diethyl S-2-methyl-1,3-dithiolan-2-yl
methyl phosphorodithioate
Bidrin 3- (dimethoxyphosphinyloxy) -N,N-dimethyl-cis-crotonamide
Di-Syston@-0,0-diethyl S-2-(ethylthio)ethyl phosphorodithioate
Guthion-O0,0-dimethyl S-(4-oxo-1,2,3-benzotriazin-3-(4-H)-ylmethyl)
phosphorodithioate
Monsanto 40273-0-(p-nitrophenyl)-0-propyl methylphosphonothioate
Monsanto 40294 0-(p-nitrophenyl) -0-phenyl methylphosphonothioate
Niagara 9203-0,0-dimethyl S-((benzoxazolin-2-on-3yl) methyl) phos-
phorothiolate
Shell Development 8448--Phosphoric acid 2-chloro-1-(2,4,5-trichloro-
phenyl).
The specifications of the oils used in these evaluations are shown in
Table 1.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The Thuricide Bacillus thuringiensis-oil and Thuricide-surfactant
sprays were, in general, superior to the Bacthane Bacillus thuringiensis-
oil, virus-oil, and virus-surfactant combinations for control of looper lar-
vae one-half inch or smaller (Tables 2 and 3). The surfactants NS139
and L775 and the high molecular special paraffinic and paraffinic oils when
combined with Backthane effectively controlled looper larvae populations
larger than one-half inch. Combinations of virus with L775, B1956, iso-
paraffinic oil, and, in general, the lower two molecular weight paraffinic,
special paraffinic, and naphthenic oils did not effectively control cabbage
looper larvae.
The virus-oil and Bacillus-oil combinations were generally superior in
effectiveness regardless of oil fraction and looper size. Cabbage looper
larvae one-half inch in length or smaller were, in general, reduced in num-
bers by the higher molecular weight oil fractions. No trend was noted
relative to molecular weight when loopers were larger than one-half inch.
The high molecular weight special paraffinic (SP-3) and paraffinic (P-3)
oils, when combined with the polyhedral virus, were the most effective virus-
oil combinations. The Backthane-isoparaffinic (IP-2), -special paraffinic


195













The Florida Entomologist


TABLE 1.-OILS EVALUATED DURING THE 1963-1964 SEASON ON VARIOUS
VEGETABLE CROPS, WESLACO AND PROGRESS, TEXAS.

Unsulfo-
nated
Viscosity Average residue
Gravity SSU @ molecular volume
Spray oil fractions OAPI 100F weight %

Paraffinic (P)
1 38.3 48.2 280 96.0
2 35.1 70.5 322 90.4
3 34.0 101.5 368 94.2
Special Paraffinic (SP)
1 35.9 51.8 280 92.0
2 35.8 66.9 318 91.0
3 33.6 104.9 370 94.0
Isoparaffinic (IP)
1 49.5 34.2 203* 99.0
2 42.3 50.8 268* 90.0

Naphthenic (N)
1 31.1 56.1 275 93.0
2 35.8 83.4 318 94.2
3 29.9 127.4 362 93.8

Obtained from correlations (Mills et al. 1946).

(SP-3), and -paraffinic (P-3) oil combinations were superior to the other
Backthane-oil fraction combinations- and the Thuricide-oil fraction combina-
tions.
The data show that the Bacillus-paraffinic, naphthenic, and special par-
affinic oil combinations and the surfactant NS139 had generally smaller
cabbage aphid populations than the virus-oil combinations. The isopar-
affinic oil-Bacillus treated plots had the greatest aphid populations of those
evaluated. The data also show that, in general, the lower or the lowest
2 of 3 molecular weight oil fractions were superior to the higher molecular
weight fractions.
The data (Table 4) show that all rates of Monsanto 40294 and Mon-
santo 40273 significantly reduced turnip aphid populations 19 and 26 Feb-
ruary compared to the untreated check. Shell Development 8448 was not
an effective toxicant for turnip aphid control.
All insecticides and mevinphos-oil combinations significantly reduced
cabbage aphid populations in comparison to the untreated check (Table 5).
The most effective toxicants were Niagara 9203, mevinphos-IP-2 oil com-
bination, Guthion-oil combination, Monsanto 40273, and endrin. With oil-
mevinphos combinations, aphid populations are reduced as molecular weight
of the oil increases.
The data in Tables 6 and 7 show that the number of leaf miner mines
were reduced with the 15 gallon per acre rate of oil when combined with


Vol. 48, No. 3















Wolfenbarger: Insecticides and Combinations


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198 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 48, No. 3





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Wolfenbarger: Insecticides and Combinations


TABLE 3.-SUMMARY OF RESULTS WITH FOUR TYPES OF OIL COMBINED
WITH VIRUS OR BACILLUS. (FROM TABLE 2).

Mean per plant
Cabbage looper Cabbage aphid
Virus-oil Bacillus-oil Virus- Bacil-
Oil small large small large oil lus-oil

Naphthenic (N) 1.3 0.6 1.0 0.4 27.0 5.4
Paraffinic (P) 1.2 0.5 1.2 0.4 14.0 3.4
Special paraffinic (SP) 1.1 0.5 0.9 0.3 13.3 7.8
Isoparaffinic (IP) 1.7 0.5 1.1 0.6 17.9 43.1



TABLE 4.-INSECTICIDES FOR TURNIP APHID CONTROL ON TURNIPS,
PROGRESS, 1963.

Aphids per leaf** on dates indicated

Actual February
Material* (lb./acre) 7 19 26

Monsanto 40294 0.25 3.4 a 6.6 a 31.8 ab
Monsanto 40294 0.5 4.6 a 9.9 a 23.7 a
Monsanto 40294 1.0 4.4 a 8.1 a 20.9 a
Monsanto 40273 0.25 6.0 a 9.4 a 18.2 a
Monsanto 40273 0.5 9.0 a 9.2 a 29.9 a
Parathion 0.25 1.6 a 44.2 ab 31.4 ab
SD 8448 0.25 11.9 a 31.3 ab 91.5 ab
Check 30.1 ab 70.3 abc 139.0 bc

Applied 15 Jan., 5 Feb.
** See footnote 4, Table 2.

DDT and the Heliothis virus. The oils did not increase leaf miner con-
trol when added to parathion. The isoparaffinic oils were superior to the
paraffinic and naphthenic stocks, and generally the higher isoparaffinic oil
rates were superior to the low rates for leaf miner control. As the DDT
rate increased, leaf miner control increased.
The smaller two rates of DDT (0.25 and 0.5 lb. per acre) in the DDT-
oil combinations had smaller potato aphid populations than the greatest
DDT (1.0 lb. per acre) rate. No effects of molecular weights of oils were
noted relative to aphid control. The isoparaffinic oil-DDT and -virus com-
binations had smaller aphid populations than did other oil fractions and
DDT alone. The oil-parathion combinations were not superior to para-
thion alone. The parathion and greater DDT rates were equal in effec-
tiveness for aphid control.
Turnip aphid populations were more effectively reduced by applications
of Monsanto 40273 than by the other materials or combinations of other


199












The Florida Entomologist


materials evaluated (Table 8). Phosphamidon, naled, Monsanto 40294,
and a phosphamidon-naled combination were superior to parathion. Para-
thion was ineffective. The parathion-naphthenic and -paraffinic oil com-
binations significantly increased control compared to parathion alone at
equal rates.
Green peach aphid populations were reduced by applications of Mon-
santo 40294, and phosphamidon-naphthenic and -paraffinic oil combinations
(Table 9). Both the naphthenic and paraffinic oil-parathion combinations
increased control when compared to parathion alone. The naphthenic and
paraffinic oils, when combined with phosphamidon, increased cabbage aphid
control. Monsanto 40273, naled, parathion, and phosphamidon were in-
effective for green peach aphid control.
Cabbage loopers longer than one-half inch were reduced in numbers
for 30 days after application by drench applications of American Cyanamid
47031 and American Cyanamid 43064 (Table 10). Drench applications of
American Cyanamid 47031 and American Cyanamid 43064 and granule
applications of American Cyanamid 43064 gave the best control of green
peach aphid populations. All materials except phosphamidon had signifi-
cantly fewer aphids than the untreated check. Drench applications of
American Cyanamid 43064 gave 66% control of cabbage root aphid popu-


TABLE 5.-INSECTICIDES AND INSECTICIDE-OIL COMBINATIONS FOR
CABBAGE APHID CONTROL ON CABBAGE, 1963.


Actual
Matrial* (lb. + gal/A)


Shell Development 8448
Monsanto 40273
Guthion + IP-1
Methyl parathion
Methyl parathion + endrin
Endrin
Niagara 9203
Monsanto 40294
Monsanto 40294
Parathion
Mevinphos + IP-1
Mevinphos + IP-2
Mevinphos + SPB-1
Mevinphos + SPB-3
Mevinphos + PB-1
Mevinphos PB-3
Mevinphos + NB-1
Mevinphos + NB-3
Check


0.5
1.0
0.5 + 1.5
0.5
0.25 + 0.25
0.5
2.0
0.5
1.0
1.0
0.25 + 1.5
0.25 + 1.5
0.25 + 1.5
0.25 + 1.5
0.25 + 1.5
0.25 + 1.5
0.25 + 1.5
0.25 + 1.5


Mean percent
control
12 March

72
77
79
74
76
78
80
76
46
41
68
81
42
72
49
53
65
72
1161.6.**


* Applied 20 Dec., 11 Jan., 24 Feb., 26 Feb., 6 Mar., 11 Mar.
** Mean apphids per plant.


200


Vol. 48, No. 3












Wolfenbarger: Insecticides and Combinations


TABLE 6.-INSECTICIDES AND OIL-INSECTICIDE COMBINATIONS FOR LEAF
MINER AND POTATO APHID CONTROL ON TOMATOES, WESLAOO, SPRING, 1964.

Mean percent control on
dates indicated
Leaf Potato
Actual miner aphids
Materials* (lb. + gal/A) 6 June 28 May

IP-2 + DDT 7.5 + 0.25 0 96
IP-2 + DDT 15.0 + 0.25 56 94
N-2 + DDT 7.5 + 0.25 29 90
N-2 + DDT 15.0 + 0.25 57 94
P-2 + DDT 7.5 + 0.25 40 76
P-2 + DDT 15.0 + 0.25 70 54
IP-2 + DDT 7.5 + 0.5 21 94
IP-2 + DDT 15.0 + 0.5 40 96
P-2 + DDT 7.5 + 0.5 36 70
P-2 + DDT 15.0 + 0.5 28 100
N-2 + DDT 7.5 + 0.5 15 90
N-2 + DDT 15.0 + 0.5 39 82
IP-2 + DDT 7.5 + 1.0 17 82
IP-2 + DDT 15.0 + 1.0 50 94
P-2 + DDT 7.5 + 1.0 34 84
P-2 + DDT 15.0 + 1.0 64 49
N-2 + DDT 7.5 + 1.0 11 90
N-2 + DDT 15.0 + 1.0 30 88
IP-2 + Heliothis virus 7.5 +. 83** 0 84
IP-2 + Heliothis virus 15.0 + 83** 50 96
P-2 + Heliothis virus 7.5 + 83** 0 64
P-2 + Heliothis virus 15.0 + 83** 24 48
N-2 + Heliothis virus 7.5 + 83** 19 4
N-2 + Heliothis virus 15.0 + 83** 59 10
IP-2 + parathion 7.5 + 0.5 18 0
IP-2 + parathion 15.0 + 0.5 2 84
DDT 0 + 0.5 0 30
DDT 0 + 1.0 4 72
Parathion 0 + 0.5 16 66
Check 4.2t 8.3 tt

Applied 2 May, 9 May, 24 May, 28 May, 3 June.
** Milliliters per acre.
t Leaf miner mines per leaf.
ft Potato aphids per leaf.











The Florida Entomologist


TABLE 7.-SUMMARY OF RESULTS WITH THREE TYPES OF OIL
COMBINED WITH DDT OR VIRUS (FROM TABLE 6).

Mean percent control
Leafminer Potato aphid
Oil DDT-oil Virus-oil DDT-oil Virus-oil

Naphthenic (N) 31 39 89 7
Paraffinic (P) 45 12 71 56
Isoparaffinic (IP) 31 25 93 90


TABLE 8.-INSECTICIDES AND INSECTICIDE-OIL COMBINATIONS FOR TURNIP
APHID CONTROL ON TURNIPS, PROGRESS, 1963.

Mean turnip aphids per
leaf on dates
indicated**

Actual January
Material* (lb. + gal/A) 8 20

Parathion 0.25-0.02 102.6 b 127.5 b
Parathion + N-2 0.25-0.03 + 7.5-0.9 17.6 ab 56.9 ab
Parathion + P-2 0.25-0.03 + 7.5-0.9 17.1 ab 48.9 ab
Parathion + IP-2 0.25-0.03 + 7.5-0.9 48.5 b 83.3 b
Monsanto 40294 1.0 -0.13 45.2 b 71.8 b
Monsanto 40273 1.0 -0.13 10.4 a 8.1 a
Naled + Phosphamidon 1.0 -0.13 + 0.5-0.6 29.4 ab 76.6 b
Phosphamidon 1.0 -0.13 54.7 b 61.2 ab
Phosphamidon + N-2 0.5 -0.06 + 7.5-0.9 55.2 b 61.5 ab
Phosphamidon + P-2 0.5 -0.06 + 7.5-0.9 36.0 b 67.9 b
Phosphamidon + IP-2 0.5 -0.06 + 7.5-0.9 63.5 b 93.2 b
Naled 2.0 -0.25 38.5 b 43.3 ab
Naled + N-2 1.0 -0.13 + 7.5-0.9 29.7 ab 44.4 ab
Naled + P-2 1.0 -0.13 + 7.5-0.9 .50.0 b 81.5 b
Naled + IP-2 1.0 -0.13 + 7.5-0.9 37.6 b 67.7 b


* Applied 6 Dec., 11 Dec..
** See footnote 4, Table 2.


3 Jan., 10 Jan.


202


Vol. 48, No. 3












Wolfenbarger: Insecticides and Combinations


TABLE 9.-INSECTICIDE AND INSECTICIDE-OIL COMBINATIONS FOR
GREEN PEACH APHID CONTROL ON CABBAGE, PROGRESS, 1964.

Mean green peach
Actual aphids per leaf
Materials* (lb. + gal/A) on 3 March**

Parathion 0.25-0.03 4.0 b
Parathion + N-2 0.25-0.03 + 7.5-0.9 1.6 ab
Parathion + P-2 0.25-0.03 + 7.5-0.9 0.9 ab
Parathion + IP-2 0.25-0.03 + 7.5-0.9 2.1 b
Phosphamidon + Naled 1.0 -0.13 + 1.0-0.13 1.2 ab
Monsanto 40294 1.5 -0.19 0.5 a
Monsanto 40273 1.5 -0.19 1.9 ab
Naled 2.0 -0.25 1.4 ab
Naled + N-2 1.0 -0.13 + 7.5-0.9 1.3 ab
Naled + P-2 1.0 -0.13 + 7.5-0.9 1.9 b
Naled + IP-2 1.0 -0.13 + 7.5-0.9 3.1 b
Phosphamidon 0.5 -0.06 1.7 ab
Phosphamidon + N-2 0.5 -0.06 + 7.5-0.9 0.5 a
Phosphamidon + P-2 0.5 -0.06 + 7.5-0.9 0.5 a
Phosphamidon + IP-2 0.5 -0.06 + 7.5-0.9 2.1 ab
N-2 7.5 -0.9 0.7 ab
P-2 7.5 -0.9 1.6 ab

Applied 5 Dec., 2 Jan., 20 Jan.
** See footnote 4, Table 2.

lations on the first sampling date, and 74% control on the second sampling
date (115 days after application). Granule applications of American Cy-
anamid 43064 gave 75 and 72% control 100 and 115 days after application,
respectively. Di-Syston gave 57% control 100 days after application, and
50% control after 115 days. Drench application of American Cyanamid
47031 gave 89 and 24% control 100 and 115 days after application. Granule
application gave no control. Phosphamidon, at both rates, phorate, and
schradan were ineffective for green peach aphid control.
Drench applications of American Cyanamid 47031, American Cyanamid
43064, and American Cyanamid 47921, at equal rates, were generally su-
perior or equal to granule applications of these same materials for cab-
bage looper, green peach aphid, and the poplar petiole gall aphid.

LITERATURE CITED

Littleford, Michael F., and L. P. Ditman. 1963. An evaluation of several
insecticides against pests of broccoli. J. Econ. Ent. 56: 766-770.

Mills, I. W., A. E. Hirschler, and S. S. Kuntz, Jr. 1946. Molecular weight-
physical property correlation for petroleum fraction. Ind. and Eng.
Chem. 38: 442-450.

Shorey, H. H. 1963. Differential toxicity of insecticides to the cabbage
aphid and two associated entomophogous insect species. J. Econ.
Ent. 56: 844-847.


203













The Florida Entomologist


TABLE 10.-SYSTEMIC INSECTICIDES (2.0 LB. PER ACRE) APPLIED AS A
DRENCH AND GRANULES TO THE SOIL FOR APHID AND CABBAGE
LOOPER CONTROL, PROGRESS, 1963-1964.

Mean percent control on dates indicated
Green Poplar
Cabbage looper peach petiole
Formu- 10 December aphid gall aphid
Materials* nation Small Large 6 Jan. 28 Feb. 13 Mar.

AC 43064 Granules 59 0 79 75 72
Di-Syston Granules 12 56 58 57 60
AC 47921 Granules 71 74 48 0 47
AC 47031 Granules 29 37 55 0 0
Phorate Granules 12 44 58 62 0
Bidrin Liquid 0 74 60 0 35
Phosphamidon Liquid 12 19 39 0 9
Phosphamidon** Liquid 29 63 52 0 0
AC 43064 Liquid 29 93 78 66 74
AC 47031 Liquid 59 100 80 89 24
AC 47921 Liquid 12 37 62 80 0
Schradan Liquid 41 56 67 0 0
Check 0.3t 0.5t 22.5. 20.0t 142.0t

Applied 8 Nov. 1963.
** Applied at 4.0 lb. per acre.
f Mean per plant.
$ Mean per leaf.

Shorey, H. H. 1963. Field experiments on insecticidal control of lepidop-
terous larvae on cabbage and cauliflower. J. Econ. Ent. 56: 877-880.
Shorey, H. H., and I. M. Hall. 1963. Toxicity of chemical and microbial
insecticides to pest and beneficial insects on poled tomatoes. J. Econ.
Ent. 56: 813-817.
Wolfenbarger, Dan A., and L. W. Getzin. 1962. Chemical and biological
insecticides for cabbage looper and corn earworm control. Texas
Agr. Exp. Sta. Progress Rep. 2255.
Wolfenbarger, Dan A., and L. W. Getzin. 1963. Insecticides, insecticide-
oil and surfactant combinations for cabbage and green peach aphid
control. Texas Agr. Exp. Sta. Progress Rep. 2270.
Wolfenbarger, Dan A., and L. W. Getzin. 1963b. Selective toxicants and
toxicant-surfactant combinations for leafminer, Liriomyza munda
Frick, control and parasite survival. Fla. Ent. 47: 251-265.


The Florida Entomologist 48(3) 1965


204


Vol. 48, No. 3















AN ERIOPHYID MITE, ACERIA SPICATA, N. SP.,
FROM MOUNTAIN MAPLE, ACER SPICATUM

ROBERT DAVIS 1

Thirty-four eriophyid species are recorded as occurring on maples in
the United States. Many of these mites were described prior to 1931
(Hodgkiss 1913, 1930) and are inadequately described by today's stand-
ards. Unfortunately, type materials for redescriptions are not available
today since eriophyids dissolve and lose their identity in many mounting
medias. Collections of eriophyids from the type localities would prove
valuable in clearing up some of the taxonomic problems regarding this
mite family on maples. It is the purpose of this paper to describe a new
species of eriophyid mite.

Aceria spicata, new species
(Fig. 1)
Female 160 u long, 45 g thick, light yellow to whitish, wormlike. Ros-
trum 15 g long, projecting diagonally downward. Shield 20 p long, 37 p
wide, smooth subtriangular, rounded in front, not projecting over rostrum.
Dorsal tubercles 15 p apart, on rear margin, arising from invagination
in shield; setae 23 p long, projecting backward. Forelegs 27 p long, tibia
4 p long, with a minute seta on inner proximal side; tarsus 8 p long, claw
8 p. long, featherclaw 4-rayed. Hindleg 22 p long, tibia 4 p long, tarsus
7 A long, claw 10 p. long. Forecoxae connate, seta I 3 A long, seta II 16
. long; hind coxal seta 20 p long; design absent. Abdomen with tergites
and sternites about 50 in number. Microtubercles on sternites and an-
terior half of tergites. Lateral seta 10 A long, on about sternite 6; first
ventral 27 u long, on about sternite 18; second ventral 7 p long, on sternite
32; third ventral 15 p long, on sternite 5 from rear; accessory seta present.
Female genitalia 17 p wide, 12 p long, coverflap with 8 or 9 longitudinal
furrows; seta 5 p long.
Male: Not seen.
This species is very similar and fits very closely the descriptions for
Aceria calaceris Keifer (1952) and A. parallelus (Hodgkiss 1913) which
are recorded from Acer glabrum Torr., and A. spicatum Lamb., respec-
tively. A. spicata differs from A. calaceris in possessing fewer tergites
and sternites. It also has microtubercles on the anterior tergites and lacks
all signs of a shield design. A. spicata differs from A. parallelus in the
absence of the shield design and the entire dorsum of the abdomen is not
microtuberculate.
All specimens were collected by the author on 14 August 1962 from
mountain maple, Acer spicatum Lamb., on Clingman's Dome in the Great
Smoky Mountain National Park. The mite causes an erineum of yellowish
or whitish hairs on the underside of the leaf in the axils of the major ribs
and veins. The type material includes the holotype and 8 paratypes in the
author's collection. Three paratypes will be deposited in the California
Department of Agriculture collection, Sacramento, California.

1 Present address: Southern Grain Insects Research Laboratory, USDA,
ARS, Tifton, Georgia.











The Florida Entomologist


FG C


F


Fig. 1. Aceria spicata, n. sp. S, side view;
and coxal area; D, dorsal view.


F, featherclaw; GC, genital


LITERATURE CITED
Hodgkiss, H. E. 1913 New species of maple mites. J. Econ. Ent. 6:
420-24.
Hodgkiss, H. E. 1930. The Eriophyids of New York. II. The Maple
Mites. New York State Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. No. 163. 45 p.
Keifer, H. H. 1952. Eriophyid studies XVIII. Bull. Calif. Dep. Agr.
61(1): 33.


The Florida Entomologist 48(3) 1965


206


Vol. 48, No. 3














WIREWORM CONTROL ON SWEET CORN
IN ORGANIC SOILS

EMMETT D. HARRIS, JR.
Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, Florida

The southern potato wireworm, Conoderus falli Lane, and the corn wire-
worm, Melanotus communis (Gyllenhal), are important vegetable crop pests
in organic soils of the Everglades. Sweet corn is one of the crops most
susceptible to damage by either of these wireworms. The southern potato
wireworm has developed resistance to chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides
in Florida (Workman 1963) and in South Carolina (Reid and Cuthbert
1956). However, it is usually adequately controlled by any one of several
phosphatic insecticides. The corn wireworm has been the more difficult
species to control in the organic soils of the Everglades. Soil insect con-
trol is usually more difficult in organic soils than in mineral soils.
Wireworm control research in the Everglades was intensified in 1961
after many growers reported inadequate control with recommended prac-
tices. Several insecticides were compared. Insecticide baits were evalu-
ated in applications made before planting sweet corn and in applications
made after corn plants had emerged from the soil.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
All insecticide materials were broadcast on the soil surface. Those
applied before planting were disked-in to a depth of about 6 inches imme-
diately after application. Materials applied after seeding emergence were
immediately scratched-in to a depth of 2 or 3 inches.
Treatments were evaluated for effect on wireworm populations by
taking 2.75 inch diameter soil cores to a depth of 4 to 6 inches. Each
core was taken so as to contain the crown of a single corn plant. In Test
1, wireworms were separated from the soil cores with Berlese funnels. It
was later found that wireworms could be detected more effectively by
spreading the soil sample thinly on a flat surface. Treatments were also
evaluated by counts of stand and dead or wilted plants.

PRE-PLANTING BROADCAST APPLICATIONS

TEST 1: Aldrin 25% granules and 5% Kepone (decachlorooctahydro-1,
3,4-metheno-2H-cyclobuta (cd) pentalene-2-one) cornmeal bait were applied
at 5 pounds of actual toxicant per acre. Aldrin at 4 pounds and chlordane
at 6.5 pounds were applied in 80 gallons of emulsion per acre. All insecti-
cides were broadcast on 25 October 1961 to 50 by 15 foot plots. On 8 No-
vember 1961, each plot was planted to four 40-foot rows of Florigold sweet
corn leaving a five-foot buffer at the ends and a three-foot buffer at the
sides of the plots. There were six randomized complete blocks.
On 14 and 24 November, 5, 12, 18, and 29 December 1961, and 11, 19,
and 26 January 1962, two soil cores were taken from each of the two
middle rows of each plot. The number of southern potato wireworms
per 100 plants and the average stand for each treatment on 5 December

SFlorida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 2016.












The Florida Entomologist


1961, are shown in Table 1. Corn wireworms were too scarce to make
comparisons.

TABLE 1.-EFFECTS OF PRE-PLANTING BROADCAST INSECTICIDE SOIL
TREATMENTS ON WIREWORM POPULATIONS AND CORN STANDS.


Wireworms per 100 plants
Stand
Southern Corn (thousands of
Lb. actual potato wire- plants per
Insecticide toxicant wireworms worms acre)
Treatment per acre Test 1 Test 2 Test 2 Test 1 Test 2

Diazinon Bait 5 0.8 4.2 28.0
Kepone Bait 5 1.4 0 7.5 31.0 28.2
Diazinon Spray 4 0 10.0 28.1
Kepone Spray 4 0 16.7 27.9
Diazinon Granules 5 0 8.3 27.6
Aldrin Spray 4 4.2 5.0 10.0 27.4 27.6
Aldrin Granules 5 4.2 25.5 -
Diazinon-Aldrin Spray 2 0 14.2 26.4
Chlordane Spray 6.5 15.1 25.2 -
Untreated 8.3 1.7 20.0 24.6 27.0

Each.

Significantly fewer southern potato wireworms were present in treated
than in untreated plots. Chlordane plots contained more southern potato
wireworms than the untreated plots and highly significantly more than
plots treated with other insecticides. There were significantly fewer south-
ern potato wireworms in 5% Kepone cornmeal bait plots than in plots
treated with aldrin. Although Kepone bait plots contained considerably
more plants than the other plots, treatments did not differ significantly in
respect to stand. During most of the season the plants in Kepone bait
plots were taller and more uniform in size than those in plots treated
otherwise.
TEST 2: Kepone 4% cornmeal bait, 5% diazinon corn grits bait, and
5% diazinon walnut shell granules were broadcast at 5 pounds of actual
toxicant per acre. Applications of 80 gallons per acre were made of emul-
sions of Kepone, diazinon, and aldrin at 4 pounds of actual toxicant per
acre and a mixture of 2 pounds each of aldrin and diazinon per acre. In-
secticides were applied broadcast and disked-in on 4 October 1963, one week
before planting. The field was then rolled.
Treatments and the untreated check were replicated four times in a
Randomized Complete Block design. Each 12 by 30 foot plot was planted
to four 20-foot rows of Florigold 107 sweet corn 11 October 1963.
Ten soil cores from each plot were examined for wireworms on 23
October 1963; 20 soil cores per plot were examined 20 November 1963. The
numbers of wireworms per 100 plants for each treatment are shown in
Table 1. Although only a very few southern potato wireworms were col-


208


Vol. 48, No. 3












Harris: Wireworm Control on Sweet Corn


elected, it could be seen that aldrin was ineffective against this species.
There were significantly fewer corn wireworms in treated plots than in un-
treated plots. The solid formulations resulted in significantly fewer corn
wireworms than the emulsions. The two baits seemed to be more effective
than the other treatments.
On 11 October 1963, stand counts showed no significant differences
among treatments (Table 1). U. S. Fancy sweet corn yields did not differ
significantly among the treatments on 13 January 1964.

PRE-PLANTING AND POST--MERGENCE BROADCAST APPLICATIONS
Diazinon 5% corn grits bait, 4% Kepone cornmeal bait, 5% diazinon
walnut shell granules, and 10% parathion clay granules were compared.
Pre-planting, post-emergence, and pre-planting plus post-emergence appli-
cations were compared for the two baits. Granules were applied only be-
fore planting. At each application 5 pounds of actual toxicant per acre
were applied. Thus, plots that received both pre-planting and post-emer-
gence applications were treated with a total of 10 pounds of actual toxi-
cant per acre.
Pre-planting applications were made on 16 January 1964, to plots that
were 30 feet long and 12 feet wide. Each plot was planted to four 20-
foot rows of Florigold 107 sweet corn 30 January 1964. Post-emergence
applications were made 19 February 1964. Dead and wilted plants indi-
cated that wireworms were active at this time.
Plots were sampled for wireworms by taking 10 soil cores per plot on
each observation date. Observations before the post-emergence applica-
tions were made 10, 13, and 17 February. Those taken after post-emergence
applications were on 20 and 25 February, 6 March, and 3 April. As very
few southern potato wireworms were taken, only corn wireworms per 100
plants are shown in Table 2. Stand counts were made 12 February and
20 March and are shown in Table 2. Stands on 12 February were adjusted
for the number of plants removed for Wireworm counts from 13 February
through 12 March.
Before post-emergence applications no significant differences among
insecticide treatments resulted from wireworm counts; treated plots con-
tained significantly fewer wireworms than untreated plots. Observations
made after post-emergence applications indicated that the baits were sig-
nificantly more effective than the granules in reducing corn wireworm popu-
lations. An analysis covering wireworm counts made both before and
after post-emergence applications indicated that there were significantly
fewer corn wireworms in treated plots than in untreated ones, highly sig-
nificantly fewer wireworms in baited plots than in granule-treated plots, and
significantly fewer corn wireworms in plots than had been baited before
planting than in those plots that were baited only after seeding emergence.
Wireworm counts indicated no advantage in following a pre-planting bait
application with a post-emergence application. In the period following
their application, post-emergence baits resulted in significantly fewer corn
wireworms than the untreated check.
On both 12 February and 20 March, treated plots contained significantly
more plants than untreated plots. However, any conclusion is dampened
by the observation that post-emergence bait plots, as yet untreated on


209














The Florida Entomologist


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Harris: Wireworm Control on Sweet Corn


12 February, were more nearly equal to previously treated plots than to
the plots that remained untreated during the experiment. A much better
test was a Chi-Square analysis for percent stand loss between 12 February
and 20 March. The percent loss was highly significantly less in treated
than in untreated plots, in plots baited before planting than in plots baited
only after seedling emergence, and in diazinon-baited plots than in Kepone-
baited plots. Parathion granules resulted in significantly less stand re-
duction than diazinon granules.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

Insecticide baits are promising for wireworm control. Inadequate chem-
ical control of soil insects is possibly often caused by the insect's failing to
contact the insecticide at the full applied dosage. With well distributed
broadcast applications the soil insects may remain below the treated strata
of soil until the insecticide has partially or completely lost its effectiveness.
Insects are even more likely to escape insecticides that are applied in the
seed furrow or unevenly distributed in broadcast applications. The proper
bait should actually lure the insect to the treated area to be destroyed upon
contact or by ingesting the insecticide.
Post-emergence bait applications were of some value in controlling wire-
worms although they were not as effective as pre-planting bait applica-
tions. However, a post-emergence bait may help if a grower has failed to
get adequate control with another control measure or has not used one.
Also, the results with post-emergence bait strongly suggest that soil in-
sects may be controlled on perennial crops with baits after the residual
effects of a pre-planting application have deteriorated.
Additional research is needed. More attractive baits must be sought.
Insecticides must be evaluated for suitability for use in baits. It must be
determined if baits are more effective in broadcast or in band applications.
The insecticide bait should be a valuable tool in soil insect control, but we
must learn how best to use this tool..

LITERATURE CITED
Reid, W. J., Jr., and F. P. Cuthbert, Jr. 1956. Resistance of the southern
potato wireworm to insecticides. J. Econ. Ent. 49: 879-880.
Workman, R. B. 1963. Insecticide resistance tests for the southern potato
wireworms. J. Econ. Ent. 56: 419.


The Florida Entomologist 48(3) 1965




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