Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00166
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1966
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00166
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

Full Text



Volume 49, No. 1 March, 1966

ENTOMOLOGIST ------........... ---....... ----....... ........... 1
KERR, S. H.-Biology of the Lawn Chinch Bug,
Blissus insularis .... .. .. ...... ..----------.. ............... --... 9
STEGMAIER, CARL E., JR.-A Leaf-Mining Hippelates in
South Florida (Diptera, Chloropidae) .........-- ...-- .............. 19
MUMA, MARTIN M.-Egg Deposition and Incubation for
Eremobates durangonus with Notes on the Eggs of
Other Species of Eremobatidae (Arachnida: Solpugida) 23
SIVIK, FRANK P.-Rice Weevil Population Study During
A Normal Storage Period ...--.........-...............--.....-....--.. 33
PETERSON, ALVAH-Some Eggs of Moths Among the Lipari-
dae, Lasiocampidae, and Lacosomidae (Lepidoptera).... 35
TISSOT, A. N.-Tobacco, A Natural Aphid Trap ..-......-..-......... 43
EMERSON, K. C.-A New Species of Mallophaga from
the Caracara --.....-.. --..... -.....-........ ....-............................. 49
Attractiveness of Mn ,and Women to Aedes aegypti
and Relative Protection Time Obtained with Deet ........ 53
New Genus of Mites from Florida (Acari: Oribatei,
Oppiidae) ----..---. -----------------............................. 67
Others Receives Society Award .-..-.....-..---..-----.-............. 7
Notices ----................ ------.. ---.... ... ....----- ................ 18, 48
Book R review s ...........-..............................-.......... ............. --21, 34, 70

Published by The Florida Entomological Society


President.......................-......... ...... .......................... -J. R K ing
Vice-President...................-.... -....- -.................-.....-.... J. E. Brogdon
Secretary ................------------ ...-...................... .........S. H. Kerr
Treasurer--.... -............ ........... ...........-.....-.....................-D. H Habeck
J. B. Gahan
E. D. Harris, Jr.
Other Members of Executive Committee.. ...... N. C. Hayslip
J. E. Porter
W. A. Simanton

Publications Committee
Thomas J. Walker- .--..-.---.. ....---.......-...........-Editor
Stratton H. Kerr..-................-.......Associate Editor
Dale H. Habeck......-.....-..-...........Business Manager

THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST is issued quarterly-March, June, Septem-
ber, and December. Subscription price to non-members $5.00 per year in
advance; $1.25 per copy. Entered as second class matter at the post office
at Gainesville, Florida.
Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be sent to the Editor,
Entomology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville. Subscriptions
and orders for back numbers are handled by the Business Manager, Box
12425, University Station, University of Florida, Gainesville. The Secre-
tary can be reached at the same address.
When preparing manuscripts, authors should consult Style Manual for
Biological Journals, 2nd Edition (American Institute of Biological Sciences,
Washington, D. C., 1964). For form of literature citations, see recent
issues of THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST. Further, authors are re-
ferred to "Suggestions for preparation of manuscripts for THE FLORIDA
ENTOMOLOGIST." Fla. Ent. 48 (2): 145-146. 1965.
One page of figures and/or tables is allowed free. An additional one-
fourth page of figures and/or tables is allowed free for each printed page
beyond the fourth printed page. Authors will be charged $2.50 for each
one-fourth page or less of tables and/or figures in excess of the above
allowances. An author may have his manuscript published as soon as it
has been reviewed and edited by paying the full costs of publication ($10-20
per printed page). Such manuscripts are published in addition to (rather
than instead of) those normally published. Twenty-five reprints of each
article are furnished free to authors. Additional reprints may be ordered
when the proofs are received for corrections.

Each additional
No. Pages 50 copies 100 copies 100 copies
1-4 ............................................... $ 6.80 $ 8.10 $ 1.30
5-8 .............................................. 11.40 14.00 2.70
9-16 ............................- -............. 16.90 22.20 3.90
17-20 .....................-....... ..........- 25.00 30.50 5.20
More than 20 pages, per page.... 1.30 1.15 .25
Additional for covers with title and author's name,

First 50............................$6.80

Additional, each............ $ .02


Zoology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville

Nearly 50 years ago 11 men interested in entomology met on the
campus of the University of Florida to organize the Florida Entomological
Society. Their constitution, as drawn up, set forth certain objectives which
have been followed since the founding of the Society. These were (1) to
promote the study of entomology; (2) to distribute widely knowledge per-
taining to insects; and (3) to publish an entomological journal. In addi-
tion to supporting professional entomologists, these men also wished to
encourage the development of a body of amateur entomologists who also
were dedicated to the accumulation of more information about insects.
One year after the founding of the Society at the April 1917 meeting,
Dr. E. W. Berger proposed that the Society undertake to publish a periodi-
cal to be known as The Florida Buggist; the first issue appeared on 21 June
1917. Professor J. R. Watson, University of Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station, was selected as Editor, a position in which he continued to
serve until his death in 1946.
The name of the journal, The Florida Buggist, persisted for the first
three volumes. With Vol. 4, No. 1, the name of the publication was changed
to The Florida Entomologist. I should like to quote from a sad note by
Dr. E. W. Berger in the March issue of 1920.

"In accordance with the vote of the Society at its February
meeting, The Florida Buggist will, with the new volume, become
The Florida Entomologist.
"Yes, and the Business Manager regrets that this change of
name was made without at least a month's previous notice, and
without getting the vote of the non-resident members. It is the
writer's belief that changes of name of a publication should not
be hastily made, especially when it is considered that The Buggist
has completed three years of an honorable record, being success-
ful far beyond the anticipation of its originators. A few people,
somewhere in the United States, have been critical of the name
Buggist, and so the movers for a change, Buggists who visited the
Entomological meetings at St. Louis in December, rushed home
and ology it must be with 'all other ologies whatsoever'. Verily,
like a rush to cover of chickens from a shadow.
"If those who are similarly minded will voice their sentiments
by writing at once to the secretary, there is still time for reconsid-
eration. If the name must be changed, the writer would suggest
The Florida Insectist-a name that is new and different, and not

Certainly Dr. Berger made a strong but futile request for the preser-
vation of this unique name. Most scientists are rather conventional and
entomological scientists are no less so. Therefore, rather than accept Dr.
Berger's suggestion of changing the name to The Florida Insectist, the
Society decided that the title must be The Florida Entomologist, a name
which has been consistently used since 1920.

1 Invitational paper presented at the 29th Annual Meeting of the
Georgia Entomological Society, Atlanta, 10 March 1965.

The Florida Entomologist

Article 3 of the By-laws of the Constitution provides for publications
and Section I of this article reads as follows:

"The Society may issue a publication containing the transac-
tions of the organization's meetings and such other matters as
may be of interest to entomologists. A copy of each issue (The
Florida Entomologist) shall be sent to each member of the Florida
Entomological Society. The direction of the publication of this
Society shall be entrusted to a Board of Managers consisting of
an Editor, Associate Editor, and a Business Manager, who shall
be the Treasurer of the Society. This Board shall be elected
annually unless otherwise provided for. The official publication
shall be issued at such intervals as may be determined by the
Society or by the Board of Managers."

Until 1964 it was the policy of the Society to elect the Editor and
Associate Editor of the journal each year. On my recommendation after
my years of experience in the office of Editor, I felt that it would be far
wiser for the Society to have an Editor appointed by the Executive Com-
mittee; this would assure the continuity of editorial policy and take the
hazards of election out of the position. I believe that this system of edi-
torial appointments will work far more effectively than the system under
which we operated in the past. With this recommendation made, a change
was proposed in the By-laws at the 1963 annual meeting of the Society.
In essence the Article read very much as the earlier one except for the
substitution as follows:

"The direction of the publication of the Society shall be en-
trusted to a Board of Managers. This Board shall consist of a
Business Manager, who shall be the Treasurer of the Society, and
an Editor and an Associate Editor. The Executive Committee
shall appoint the Editor and Associate Editor, each of whom shall
serve for a period of three (3) calendar years. Previous to De-
cember 1, the Editor's third year in office, the Executive Commit-
tee shall make appointments for the ensuing year term. The
official publication shall be issued at such intervals as may be
determined by the Society or the Board of Managers."

This change was adopted and the Society is now operating under the re-
vised Article, with Dr. Thomas Walker as Editor and Dr. S. H. Kerr as
Associate Editor.
During the early years of the journal's life, it was published on a touch-
and-go basis, particularly during the 1930s, when the Society was in dire
financial straits. Professor Watson, because of his sincere interest in the
continuation of the Society and its voice, The Florida Entomologist, ad-
vanced money from his personal funds to continue publication of the jour-
nal. There were other strong friends who came to the aid of The Florida
Entomologist during these trying times. Among those who were outstand-
ing in their contributions were Pepper Printing Company of Gainesville,
Florida, and the Tobacco By-Products and Chemical Corporation. Pepper
Printing Company extended credit for publication costs and was very
patient for a period of several years while the accumulated bills were
gradually paid off. At one time, during the depression years, the Society
was more than $1500.00 in debt to Pepper Printing Company. During
this whole period of difficulty in the depression years, the Tobacco By-
Products and Chemical Company carried a full page advertisement. The

Vol. 49, No. 1

Berner: Evolution of The Florida Entomologist

income from this ad made a great contribution toward continued publica-
tion. Because of the scarcity of money and sometimes because of a scarcity
of manuscripts, Professor Watson occasionally combined two numbers of
the journal into one. The continuation of the journal over these earlier
years prior to World War II was due almost entirely to the efforts of the
dedicated J. R. Watson. During the war years, publication of the journal
was hampered, not so much by a shortage of funds, as by a shortage of
manuscripts; however, Professor Watson continued to bring out an occa-
sional issue. Even though the journal was scheduled to appear quarterly,
it was often late, sometimes as much as a year. Professor Watson found
manuscripts so scarce that once, during the latter part of the war years,
he published a paper dealing with mammals and another dealing with
crawfish. As far as I am aware these are the only occasions in which the
journal digressed from its interests in insects and closely related arthro-
Following Professor Watson's death, the journal was briefly edited by
Mr. George Merrill and Dr. H. K. Wallace. In 1950, I assumed the editor-
ship which I held through 1963. Beginning with the March issue, 1964,
Dr. Thomas Walker was appointed to this task.
As I am talking about the evolution of an entomological journal, I felt
that it was necessary to give you some of the background history and
some of the charges laid down to the Editor in its publication. I must
certainly say that there has always been complete freedom from any con-
trol being exercised by the Executive Committee. I have, in all my years
of serving in this capacity, never felt hampered by any restrictions placed
upon me.
During the early years of the journal, each issue consisted of 12-16
pages. Because of practical considerations, we print in units of four
pages; therefore, the journal must consist of an even number of pages
based on a unit of four. I soon found, when I took over the editorship,
that it was necessary to increase the size of the journal and for most of
the period during which I served as Editor, I maintained the issues at an
approximate level of 48 to 52 pages.
In 1950 manuscripts were scarce and often I would have to go out
and scour the countryside for papers from people whom I thought might
have something available. I was always successful in getting enough
to fill out an issue. I always tried to publish the issue during the month
in which it was scheduled to appear, a situation which was usually not
the case in the past. After I had served as Editor for a year or two at a
time when universities were enlarging, the number of people going into
the field of entomology was increasing, and the pace of research accelerat-
ing, it became apparent that there would be no deficit of manuscripts.
This plethora has persisted and at the time that I turned the files of the
journal over to Dr. Walker in 1964, there were enough manuscripts on
hand to fill four issues of the journal.
During the early years, there was no cover on the journal. It was
the practice to begin an article on the first page of each issue. There
was a masthead and somewhere on the inside of the journal there was
another masthead which listed the Editor, Associate Editor, and Business
Manager and a minimum of information about the Society. I had always
felt that the journal was deficient in not having a cover and one of the

The Florida Entomologist

first changes that I made was to add one printed on the same weight of
paper on which the remainder of the Journal was printed. Because it was
not necessary to use special paper, the cover did not add appreciably to the
cost of the issue. Further, the first inside page of the cover was reserved
for data about the Society, suggestions for preparation of manuscripts,
and cost of reprints. As far as I am aware, the members and authors
have found the information to be a useful adjunct. I believe further that
the addition of the cover improved considerably the appearance of the
journal, making it look more professional and more acceptable to en-
tomologists in general.
In 1956, I felt it was time to give our cover and the general format of
the journal a facelifting and so I developed a new format for it. In a
conversation with the printer I discovered that we could get about a 30%
increase in material on a page for a relatively small additional cost by
reducing the size of our type. So in this same year, 1956, the size of the
type-face was changed to a smaller, but still a very readable one. This
change has also been very acceptable to the members and we have con-
tinued to use this smaller type-face since that time.
With the change in the type-face it became possible for us to increase
the content of the journal appreciably without increasing publication costs
at an equal rate. Further, in publishing items such as minutes, even more
space was saved by cutting down on the interval between lines. In spite
of this change, there have been no complaints from any of the members,
and, in fact, the general impression was that the appearance of the jour-
nal was improved.
I indicated earlier that the Tobacco By-Products and Chemical Com-
pany had subsidized the journal for many years by carrying a full-page
ad on the back cover. From the first issue there had been an advertise-
ment on the back of the journal. Further, in the first few numbers there
were also advertisements on the inside of the back cover. All of these
soon disappeared, except for the single advertisement of Tobacco By-
Products. It was not until a very active Business Manager, G. W. Dekle,
was elected in 1948, that there was an increase in the amount of adver-
tising carried in the journal. Within a few months after the election of
the new Business Manager the number of pages devoted to advertising
was raised from one to nine and has remained at that level. The income
from the increase has enabled us to continue publishing a journal of the
present size.
Several years ago it seemed that it would be necessary for us either
greatly to enlarge the journal or to make some provisions for publishing
rather large papers. With that in mind I proposed to the Society that
the Editor be permitted, at his discretion, to publish supplementary issues
provided the costs would not be borne by the Society. The first supple-
ment was issued late in 1963, and contained two papers which were paid
for entirely by the authors. Whether these supplements will continue, of
course, is a matter of no great concern since the publication of supplements
will depend on the size of manuscripts that are being submitted and on
whether the authors are willing to bear the entire costs.
So much for background: now what are some of the problems of pub-
lishing an entomological journal? First and foremost, funding is of vital
concern. I have indicated earlier some of the trials and tribulations that

Vol. 49, No. 1

Berner: Evolution of The Florida Entomologist

The Florida Entomological Society had in meeting its publication costs.
After our increase in the number of advertisers, and with an increase in
membership dues, we soon reached the point where we no longer were
operating on an issue to issue basis but we were accumulating a monetary
surplus. We were able to establish a savings account in which there are
presently several thousand dollars to serve as a cushion in the event that
we find ourselves faced with a declining income or some other situation
which requires the expenditure of large sums of money.
Secondly, what about advertisers? Do they benefit from advertising
in The Florida Entomologist? We asked these questions of ourselves and
came to the conclusion that the advertisers are really doing nothing more
than subsidizing the publication of the journal. They do gain the good
will of the members, who recognize the fact that these companies are
helping them publish their scientific results.
We are presently charging $35.00 per issue for a full page advertise-
ment and $20.00 for a half page advertisement. The cost of publishing a
single page is approximately $10.00. That means that the residue over
and above this cost is available for paying a part of the other costs of
publication. Further expenses are also involved in advertising since
many of the larger concerns handle all of their accounts through agencies.
The agencies require a commission which reduces the amount that we
actually gain from the advertising. Nevertheless, the income from this
source is still substantial and pays approximately one fifth of the cost
of publishing an issue.
Now let's consider some of the other problems associated with the
growth of The Florida Entomologist. As I indicated, during the earlier
years manuscripts were scarce. There is now a superabundance. For
most of my term of office there was no distinction made as to whether or
not an author was a member of the Society. If the paper deserved publi-
cation, it was taken care of; however, in the last few years, because of
the large number of manuscripts that were accumulating, it was decided
to give first priority on publication to- members. Whether this is a just
solution is still open to question. Another one of the major problems
that the Editor has to face is whether the paper is suitable for publication
in the journal. In order to answer this question I felt outside opinion
was necessary, so generally the paper was reviewed by at least two compe-
tent referees. The manuscript, after having been received and acknowl-
edged, was then sent to the reviewers for careful evaluation. Generally,
the author did not know the name of the reviewer unless the reviewer had
no objection to revealing his name. Provided the reviewers felt that the
manuscript was suitable, the author was so notified. If the reviewers felt
that the manuscript needed modification, the author was also so notified
with the suggestions included. If the author refused to accept the sug-
gestions, obviously the paper couldn't be published. However, I never
had that situation arise. In every case the author was grateful for sug-
gestions that were made to him and incorporated them into his manu-
Another one of the major difficulties, particularly in our early years,
was the vast amount of time required for editing, for the secretarial work
involved in answering correspondence and acknowledging receipt of papers,
and writing to reviewers. For many years I did all of this myself in my

6 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 49, No. 1

spare time. Later, as secretarial help became available through the Uni-
versity, I took advantage of that help to alleviate the situation. The
Editor does require assistance in this respect, especially as the corre-
spondence tends to build up considerably as the size of the journal in-
creases. These, then are some of the problems of publication and the ways
in which The Florida Entomologist has solved them.
There still remains one question to be answered-was it worthwhile?
I must answer with an unqualified yes. The journal provides a major in-
tegrating force in bringing the members together and in allowing them
to communicate their scientific efforts to each other and the world. It
provides a feeling of belonging, of having something of our own of which
we can all be proud. It was my goal constantly to improve the contents
of the publication as well as its appearance. I feel that I made some prog-
ress in this regard but we still have a long way to go. I am sure that
members of the Florida Entomological Society are doing their utmost
to back the present Editor in his efforts further to improve quality and
the appearance.
There are many things that still remain to be done. For example, I
think that the cover of the journal can be improved. Secondly, I think
that the financial situation of the journal needs to be put on a firm foot-
ing so that we are never faced with a situation such as that Professor
Watson met back in the 1930s. Thirdly, I think that we must continue con-
stantly to work for improvement in the quality of the manuscripts; making
certain that the authors have something solid to say, and that they say
it as concisely and as well as possible.
There are still other questions that need to be answered. Should the
journal continue to become larger and larger in size? Should it increase
its scope? Should it continue to restrict its publication entirely to that
of the members of the organization?
I hope that I have given you some clues as to the problems, the trials,
and the tribulations that are part and parcel of the development of a scien-
tific journal. I assure you the satisfaction that the Georgia Entomological
Society will feel and the spirit that will develop as a result of having your
own publication will be well worth the effort.


Anonymous. 1963. The Florida Entomological Society Constitution and
By-laws. Fla. Ent. 46(1): 45-49.
Berger, E. W. 1920. (no title). Fla. Buggist 3(4): 60.
Kerr, S. H. 1963. Minutes of the 46th annual meeting of the Florida
Entomological Society. Fla. Ent. 46(4): 311-318.
Wilson, John W. 1957. A review of the history of the Florida Entomolog-
ical Society at its fortieth anniversary. Fla. Ent. 40(2): 39-44.

The Florida Entomologist 49(1) March 1966


William W. Others (right) received the Honorary Award of the Flor-
ida Entomological Society at the Society's 48th Annual Meeting in Orlando.
The inscription on the plaque reads as follows:


For his Unselfish Devotion and Contributions in the Field of Entomology
to the Nation, his State, and The Florida Society
September 23, 1965

(H. H. True, Chairman of the Honors and Awards Committee,
presented Mr. Others the plaque.)


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Department of Entomology, University of Florida, Gainesville

In recent years, the lawn chinch bug, Blissus insularis Barber, has been
one of the four or five most economically important plant feeding arthro-
pods in Florida. Possibly it is second only to the citrus rust mite in
amount of money spent for control measures. Control studies have been
conducted regularly for the last 15 years, but these studies have not in-
cluded the biology and ecology of the lawn chinch bug. While presumably
it is quite similar to the better known Blissus leucopterus (Say), so prev-
alent to the north of Florida, some differences are obvious from cursory
examination, and a study of the biology of the lawn chinch bug has long
been needed. This paper contains results from laboratory and field studies
during 1964 and 1965, and includes some fragmentary information collected
during the last decade. This report, along with Komblas' (1962) study
made in a somewhat similar climate in Louisiana, provides basic informa-
tion for the geographical areas involved, but there is an obvious need for
further study in the sub-tropical southern tip of Florida.

The life history was studied in the laboratory. Adult chinch bugs were
collected from a Gainesville lawn and caged in petri dishes floored with
two layers of moist blotting paper. Their food was sections of St. Augus-
tinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze) runners with the
roots and all but about /2-inch of grass blades clipped off. Fresh food
was supplied about every three days. The eggs were recovered daily and
placed in individual vials. The vials were floored with moist blotting
paper and plugged with cotton. The nymphal food was also clipped sec-
tions of grass runners. Some vials were held in a rearing room at 83oF.
and some in a room at 70F. After the final molt, the reared adults were
transferred to petri dishes.
Seasonal history was studied by sampling a Gainesville lawn regularly
for a year. Beginning 25 May 1964, samples were taken weekly through
1 December 1964, biweekly through the winter and early spring, and again
weekly from 13 April 1965 through 26 May 1965. Sampling was done by
floating the chinch bugs up from the turf in a cylinder enclosing 2/3 sq. ft.
At least three locations in the lawn were sampled on each date, with an
attempt to examine 200-300 insects. In the cooler months as many as
10 or 11 places had to be examined to find 100 or even fewer insects. All
chinch bugs were classified as adults or as nymphal instar 1-5 by visual
examination as they were collected. There probably was a 5-10% error
in the classification of the middle instars.

A difficulty in "starting at the beginning" and going through a discus-
sion of what is known about lawn chinch bug biology is that taxonomists

1 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 2296.

The Florida Entomologist

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Kerr: Biology of the Lawn Chinch Bug

are not in complete agreement about the entity involved. The species com-
monly found in Florida lawns was first described as a color variation of
B. leucopterus (Barber 1918). While no paper formally elevated the variety
to species status, several hemipterists have regarded the Florida lawn
chinch bug as a distinct species. D. E. Leonard has recently studied the
genus Blissus. While he found several other Blissus species in Florida,
he states (personal communication) that the one so damaging to St. Au-
gustinegrass is a distinct species, B. insularis.

Times for egg and nymphal development at 83 and 70F are presented
in Table 1. There was almost a threefold increase in the times at the
lower temperatures, but this is not unusual. Data from the somewhat
similar Louisiana study (Komblas 1962) align with these data to make a
curve similar to that for some other insects (Fig. 1). It would be de-
sirable to get data at a wider range of temperatures to elucidate more com-
pletely the relationship between temperature and development.
The data on the egg stage are in agreement with earlier observations
that the eggs hatch within 1 weeks in summer weather but that the
process can take a month or more in cooler weather.
Newly hatched nymphs are vigorous and, unless trapped in free water,
have no trouble reaching tender portions of the grass to begin feeding
immediately. Many push in between the grass blades where the blades
come together at the nodes. The nymphs may remain out of sight in this
location up to 11/ weeks. Typically there were 5 nymphal instars, although
3 out of 35 individuals molted one or two additional times. In some pre-
vious studies, S. H. Kerr (unpublished data 1954) found some individuals
had 4 nymphal instars.
One of the large differences between the data from this and the Louisi-
ana study is length of adult life. Adults survived an average of 8-10 days,
with a maximum of 48 days in Louisiana. In the present study, the aver-
age time was 42 days for males and 70 days for females. Several lived
for 90-100 days; this has been common in other studies by the author.
A figure of some surprise was the number of eggs per female. Earlier
observations using field-collected adults indicated that not more than
about 100 eggs per female could be expected. The reared females aver-
aged 289 each. The eggs are pushed into protected places, often being
found in crevices at the grass nodes or almost out of sight between the
grass blades where they come together at their base.
Chinch bug females lay only a few eggs a day (4.5 average in this
study) but continue to oviposit for many weeks. It was observed in earlier
work that caged chinch bugs mate repeatedly. The question arose as to
necessity for repeated copulation to produce viable eggs. Accordingly, all
males were removed from some of the cages of reared adults after 12-14
days with the females. Similar data were gotten from other cages where
the last of the males died 25-55 days before the last female died. Overall,
the percentage of viable eggs declined only slightly when the males were
removed. There was one female who laid very few viable eggs in the
last 30 days after her final consort died. A check was made to find whether
virgin females could lay viable eggs: no nymphs hatched from eggs laid
by virgin females.

The Florida Entomologist

70 -nymphal
\ stage


50 -


30 -

eg g
a instar'-,


700 780 830

Fig. 1. Times for development at
78 F from Komblas (1962).

different temperatures. Data at

Vol. 49, No. 1

Kerr: Biology of the Lawn Chinch Bug

During the past decade a record has been kept of the sex ratio of oc-
casional samples of adults. In a total of 637 individuals from six scattered
locations in Florida, 52% were males.

Percentages of the total population that were adults and third instar
nymphs are presented in Fig. 2 and 3, respectively. In states farther north,
related chinch bugs overwinter as hibernating adults. Lawn chinch bugs
have been observed in a temporarily dormant condition in North Florida
(Kuitert and Nutter 1952), but more typically these insects remain active
in all stages through the winter. In the present study some individuals
from most nymphal instars could be found through the year, but adults com-
prised 80 to 90% of the population from January through mid-March. The
study in Louisiana (Komblas 1962) showed the adult population reaching
virtually the same peak in early spring, but during most of the winter the
percentage there was substantially smaller, in the range of 45-65%.
The Gainesville data show a new generation beginning in late March
or early April. Two more rather clearly evident generations follow, with
peaks in first instar nymph percentages in early July and early September
in 1964. A fourth generation evidently started but did not go through a
clearly definable cycle. The figures became erratic and, as cool weather
came on, the nymphal population shrank drastically. By autumn there
were much more nearly equal numbers in each group, and in such a mixed
population it is difficult to determine which individuals are from which
generation. The percentages of adults present showed 4 peaks, with each
peak much lower than the preceding one. This type of study should be
repeated, particularly in the sub-tropical southern tip of Florida. Possibly
it would be more difficult to sort out the generations where there are more
per year and where the nymphal population does not decline as much in
the winter, but we need to understand more about these matters in south
Florida, where the chinch bug problem .is at its worst.


A major difference between B. leucopterus in more northerly states and
B. insularis in Florida is the absence of large spring flights of insularis.
Some of the long-winged adults do take flight, but there is nothing equiva-
lent to the mass flights of B. leucopterus leaving overwintering quarters.
While only a small proportion of the insularis population appears to move
by flight, the total number is still probably great enough to constitute a
significant long range migration.
Within a neighborhood the chinch bugs move from lawn to lawn mainly
by walking. Streams of bugs can be seen moving out from heavily infested
yards. They are energetic about their walking and may cover several
hundred feet in a half-hour's time.
Within a given lawn the chinch bugs occur aggregated in scattered
patches rather than evenly distributed. These aggregations move across
the lawn rather slowly, usually completely killing the grass in the infested
patch before moving. When the first small injured spots are noticed,
there is ample time to apply controls before large areas of grass are

The Florida Entomologist

Jun.1 Aug. 1 Oct.1 Dec.1 Feb.1 Apr. 1 Jun.1

Fig. 2. Percent adults in a lawn chinch bug population from May
1964 through May 1965.

Vol. 49, No. 1

Kerr: Biology of the Lawn Chinch Bug

In a given spot in the yard chinch bugs are distributed vertically
through the turf thatch and into the upper, largely organic layer of soil.
Studies on vertical distribution and the factors affecting it have not been
conducted in the detail that is desirable. Limited studies have shown
10-12 chinch bugs per square foot in the first 11/2 inches of soil under some
heavily infested St. Augustinegrass.


Jun. 1 Aug.1 Oct.1 Dec.1 Feb.1 Apr. I Jun.1

Fig. 3. Percent third instar nymphs in a lawn chinch bug popula-
tion from May 1964 through May 1965.

Where the population has become huge and particularly on hot days,
chinch bugs will be seen running over the St. Augustinegrass blades, but
these insects do not feed or rest on the blades. This is not so with all
grasses; for example, chinch bugs have been observed resting by the
hundreds on the blades of signalgrass (Brachiaria platyphylla (Griseb.)
Nash.) next to St. Augustinegrass where the bugs were down in the turf
There is some movement of chinch bugs in sod sold for planting pur-
poses, but this is not an important means of spread. For some (as yet
unknown) reason, very few chinch bugs develop in our huge sod nurseries
operated on muckland. The few insects moved with the sod would be in-
significant compared to the "native" populations in almost any Florida

The Florida Entomologist

St. Augustinegrass is the only lawn grass in Florida which suffers
severe, widespread damage. Chinch bugs will feed on other lawn grasses
including centipedegrass (Eremochla ophiuroides (Munro) Hack), zoysia-
grass (Zoysia spp.), bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge.), and ber-
mudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.), but most of the injury to these
has occurred near St. Augustinegrass on which huge populations of chinch
bugs had developed. More than once, the author has followed the course
of infestations in mixed St. Augustinegrass and centipedegrass lawns
where the bugs killed the St. Augustinegrass but left the centipedegrass
in good growing condition. Thus, in spite of occasional reports of damage
to other lawn grasses, on a practical basis the only serious threat is to
St. Augustinegrass.
The pasture grass called torpedograss (Panicum repens L.) is evi-
dently just as susceptible to lawn chinch bugs as is St. Augustinegrass.
Torpedograss is losing what little popularity it ever had as a pasture grass.
There have been occasional reports of chinch bugs feeding on pangola-
grass (Digitaria decumbuns Stent.) but considering the large acreages of
pangolagrass in Florida it is evident B. insularis does not find it a desirable
host, or more damage would have been observed over the last decade.

Natural Enemies and Competitors:
Closely related chinch bugs in the Midwest may be severely attacked
by fungous diseases during wet times of the year, but diseases of any kind
do not appear to reduce lawn chinch bug numbers in Florida. Strains of
the fungus Beauveria bassiana and the nematode Neoaplectana glaseri
have been found to infect lawn chinch bugs in Florida (S. R. Dutky, per-
sonal communication), but studies so far have not shown either organism
to be promising as a practical control (Kerr 1962).
Animal parasites and predators do not appear to help greatly in sup-
pressing chinch bug numbers. Over the past decade the author, in various
studies, has brought in from the field and held 555 adult lawn chinch bugs
and 93 nymphs for long periods, and many more for brief periods. No
parasite has ever been found to emerge from these insects.
Ants and earwigs have been observed carrying chinch bug carcasses,
but in all of the author's field work there is only one instance-and this
of circumstantial evidence-indicating that predators had reduced the num-
bers of chinch bugs. This was in a lawn with an extremely large native
fire ant population. Most homeowners would not opt for a large popula-
tion of fire ants.
There do not even seem to be important competitors which live in the
same niche and which might crowd or seriously compete with chinch bugs
for food. Chinch bugs and lawn caterpillars may each exist in damaging
numbers in the same location, but with each feeding on different parts of
the grass, the caterpillars on the blades and the bugs at the nodes and
basal portion of the blades. The possible effect of lawn caterpillars would
be to weaken and kill the grass so the chinch bugs would have to move to
another portion of the lawn. Overall, this is no important check on chinch
bug populations.

Vol. 49, No. 1

Kerr: Biology of the Lawn Chinch Bug

Condition of the Host Plant:
It was graphically evident in a lawn fertilization test by Horn (1962)
that extremely heavy fertilizing programs using inorganic sources of ni-
trogen quickly available to the grass make the grass likely to suffer chinch
bug injury. Populations apparently develop more rapidly and cause in-
jury more quickly on such heavily fertilized grass than on the same grass
receiving more moderate amounts of nitrogen, or nitrogen more slowly
available from an organic source.
It has long been noticeable that chinch bugs develop fewer numbers
on St. Augustinegrass grown on muckland than on sandy soils. A prelim-
inary study was made to analyze the major constituents of infested and
uninfested grass growing in muckland and sandy soils, and the results
were inconclusive (S. H. Kerr, unpublished data 1961).
S. H. Kerr (unpublished data 1961) found that in 6 out of 7 trials there
was reduced egg production on an unnamed strain of St. Augustinegrass
suspected of being less attractive to lawn chinch bugs than another strain
used in some laboratory studies.
Perhaps the most promising lead in this direction is a limited amount
of field evidence that different strains of St. Augustinegrass have different
susceptibilities to chinch bugs (Kerr 1962).
There should be an expansion of these studies to determine what are
the basic reasons that some grasses or some growing conditions are more
conductive (or restrictive) for lawn chinch bug development. The several
leads mentioned above indicate there are some real differences. There are
additional possibilities such as differences in the micro-climate in turf grown
on muck versus sandy soils. An attempt should be made to understand
and exploit these factors.

Temperature and moisture have substantial effects on chinch bug pop-
ulations and their resulting injury to grass. On a practical basis, the
chinch bug problem is greatly mitigated with the first reduction in aver-
age temperatures in the autumn. In the cooler, winter temperatures the
size of chinch bug populations is drastically reduced. In the northern por-
tion of Florida the freezes severely set back the grass and kill some of it.
It is usually late in the spring before milder temperatures and new grass
growth permit development of damaging numbers of chinch bugs.
Moisture has a marked, if paradoxical, effect. Heavy irrigation or rains
make the grass lush, and one might assume it to be more attractive to
chinch bugs. But not only does the rapidly growing grass seem to with-
stand the effects of feeding better, the moisture also has an effect in sup-
pressing chinch bug numbers. In the writer's field tests, the size of chinch
bug populations has been reduced when the late spring "rainy season"
commenced. While the chinch bug "pressure" is eased somewhat in wet
weather, the insect numbers are not reduced below a damaging level.


Barber, H. G. 1918. A new species of Leptoglossus: A new Blissus and
varieties. Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 13: 35-39.

The Florida Entomologist

Horn, G. C. 1962. Chinch bugs and fertilizer, is there a relationship?
Fla. Turf-Grass Assoc. Bull. 9(4): 3, 5.
Kerr, S. H. 1962. Lawn insect studies-1962. Proc. Univ. Fla. Turf Man-
age. Conf. 10: 201-208.
Komblas, K. N. 1962. Biology and control of the lawn chinch bug, Blissus
leucopterus insularis. Barber. Ph.D. Thesis. Louisiana State Univ.,
Baton Rouge. 82 p.
Kuitert, L. C., and G. C. Nutter. 1952. Chinch bug control and subse-
quent renovation of St. Augustinegrass lawns. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Circ. S-50. 10 p.

The Florida Entomologist 49(1) March 1966



Dr. Alvah Peterson

Dr. Peterson has donated the entire remaining stock of this book
to the Florida Entomological Society. This 176 page hard-bound book
is sub-titled "An Angler's Guide to Useful and Interesting Informa-
tion about Many Common Insects and a Few Imitation Lures that
Fishermen Use for Bait." These are now available while the supply
lasts at only $2.50 each to members and $3.00 to non-members. Order
one for yourself and another to donate to your school or city library.
Address all orders to: Business Manager, Florida Entomological
Society, Box 12425, University Station, Gainesville, Florida 32601.

Vol. 49, No. 1


11335 N. W. 59th Ave., Hialeah, Florida 33012

The first confirmed rearing of a species of Hippelates mining healthy
plant tissue was at Hialeah, Florida during October 1962. Subsequent
hearings have provided further information. The larvae tunnel in the
fleshy leaves of the Florida Crinum and Hymenocallis sp., spider lily, mak-
ing linear to linear-blotch type mines; Hymenocallis may have as many as
five mines in one leaf. The larvae pupate within the leaf mine channels
under normal conditions in the field. After emergence of the adult flies,
the mined leaves break down with a brownish colored rot. Hippelates in-
festations occur throughout the year in south Florida.
The adults of the first rearing (1962) were identified by C. W. Sa-
brosky as Hippelates nobilis Lw. He asked, "Was this actually a leaf
miner? Check whether it bred in the frass of some true miner."
The author conducted more hearings from Crinum americanum L., and
found no other insect associated with the Crinum leaves; the Hippelates
infestation was found to be a primary infestation and only in healthy plant
tissue. No parasites were associated with the leaf-mining Hippelates dur-
ing the many hearings in south Florida.
A letter from Mr. Sabrosky stated, "Your conclusions stimulated me
to look up my records on H. nobilis, and I cannot find that nobilis has ever
been reared, or I should say I cannot be sure. I have an old Connecticut
record simply "Hemerocallis fulva," which might mean a rearing but might
also be merely a flower visitation. A Brownsville, Texas, interception is
labeled "Easter lilies in baggage", which suffers the same indefiniteness
as the Connecticut record. Both are suggestive, though, in the kind of
plants they are associated with.
"Next I turned to the closely related H. plebejus and H. proboscideus.
No records of the former, but the latter has been reared at least twice in
Florida from amaryllis bulbs. Our card catalog file quotes a letter from
A. N. Tissot in 1930: 'The larvae make tunnels through the bulbs'. How-
ever, he did express some doubt, 'whether the larvae enter healthy bulbs
or only after the bulbs have been attacked by some disease'."
Two more letters from Mr. Sabrosky gave additional information.
"When I mounted the Hippelates from fluid I found this specimen to be
nearly intermediate between H. nobilis and H. proboscideus. It is closer
to the latter. Under the circumstances I should be glad to have you rear
a good series, if possible." "The two Hippelates, both nice males, are the
same intermediate type as previously, an atypical proboscideus. Perhaps
we are dealing with a different species." 3

1 Contribution No. 70, Entomology Section, Div. Plant Ind., Fla. Dep.
2 Collaborator, Florida State Collection of Arthropods.
Sabrosky has recently stated that some of the specimens from spider
lily are distinctly H. proboscideus. He lists the ones from Crinum as
Hippelates sp.

The Florida Entomologist


Crinum americanum L. Hialeah, Fla., Oct. 1962, C. Stegmaier, 5 adults;
Hialeah, Fla., 6 Mar. 1965, C. Stegmaier, 2 male adults.
Eucharis sp. North Miami, Fla., 1964, F. W. Matthews and E. B. Lee,
empty pupal cases of Hippelates sp. in blotch type mine. Discarded.
Gloriosa sp. South Miami, Fla., 1964, J. E. Porter, empty pupal cases found
in blotch type mines. Discarded.
Hymenocollis sp. (spider lily) Fisher Island, Miami Beach, Fla., May 1965,
J. E. Porter, 5 adults; Fisher Island, 30 June 1965, J. E. Porter, 3 adults;
Fisher Island, 9 Nov. 1965, J. E. Porter, 5 adults; records of last adult
emergence, 12, 16, 24, 26, and 28 Nov. 1965.
All of the reared Hippelates specimens have been retained for the
National Collection.
More research on the life history and biology of the plant feeding
species is needed, especially with regard to plants cited in this paper. It
is suggested that all dipterous leaf miners and bulb feeders be reared to
adults and forwarded to Mr. Sabrosky for determination.

Figure 1. Typical leaf mines of Hippelates in Hymenocallis sp.
leaves. Photograph, courtesy of the Division of Plant Industry, Florida
Department of Agriculture, Mildred Eaddy, Photographer.


I am indebted to Mr. C. W. Sabrosky, Entomology Research Division,
U. S. Department of Agriculture, for the determination of the reared
Hippelates, for checking the card catalog file, and for the information

Vol. 49, No. 1

Stegmaier: Leaf-Mining Hippelates in Florida

contained in his letters on the plant-associated Hippelates. I wish to
thank Dr. J. E. Porter, Public Health Service, U. S. Quarantine Station,
Scientist Director at Miami Beach, Florida, for his collections of the Glori-
osa and Hymenocallis infestations; Mr. F. W. Matthews and Mr. E. B.
Lee, both of the Plant Quarantine Division, U. S. Department of Agricul-
ture, for their help in the collections of the Eucharis infestation; and Mr.
C. W. Sabrosky and Dr. J. E. Porter for reviewing the manuscript.

The Florida Entomologist 49(1) March 1966


E. Ball and Joseph N. Anderson. Catholic University of America Press,
Washington, D. C. Studies on Speciation, No. 1, Institute for the Study
of Natural Species (ISNS). 1962. 94 p. 39 fig. clothbound. $3.95.

This fine study, the first volume from the Institute for the Study of
Natural Species, is a taxonomic revision of the subgenus Pseudophonus of
the genus Harpalus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) known to occur in North Amer-
ica. Chapter headings are as follows: 1) Introduction 2) Taxonomic treat-
ment 3) Classification of the species 4) Key to the N.A. species 5)
Problems in identification 6) Descriptions of the species and 7) Zoogeog-
raphy. The approach is best illustrated by the following statements from
the Preface: "Many generalizations have been made about the species
problem; in comparison, relatively little has been said about problem spe-
cies. It is our belief that a detailed study of a difficult group will provide
the factual basis for possible future generalizations about speciation." The
authors have very admirably presented such a basis for this difficult group.
The series of monographs "Studies on speciation" is primarily designed
for the publication of research by those associated with the Institute for
the Study of Natural Species, but it is open to any student of this phase
of systematic biology. The Institute has as its threefold purpose: research,
training and publication. Facilities are maintained for field research, class-
room training, and publication in the present monograph series. These
facilities are open to graduate students as well as the "established research
biologists."-Robert E. Woodruff




For more than half a century, Cyanamid has consistently led the
chemical industry in developing new products and application
techniques that have helped immeasurably to bolster our na-
tional farm economy. 0 Topping the list of Cyanamid "firsts" is
Malathion LV* Concentrate, introduced commercially last year
for the control of boll weevils on cotton after two years of use
on more than 1 million treatment acres in cooperation with the
U.S.D.A.'s Agricultural Research Service. U Malathion LV Con-
centrate is also being used extensively to combat grasshoppers,
cereal leaf beetles, corn rootworm beetles, mosquitoes, blue-
berry maggots, flies and beet leafhoppers. z Watch for progress
reports of new tests conducted against many other pests with
both aerial and ground equipment. Data being processed daily
show clearly that Malathion LV Concentrate is fast making all
other methods of insect control obsolete! 0 Before using any
pesticide, stop and read the label. *Trademark


University of Florida, Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred

Biological studies on the arachnid order Solpugida are rare and usually
fragmentary. However, a literature search revealed several original ac-
counts of the eggs, egg deposition, and egg incubation of these little,
known arachnids.
Hutton (1843), after describing the burrowing habits of Galeodes sp.,
stated succinctly, "I now perceived that it was a female, the ova being
distinctly visible through the skin of the abdomen. The ova were deposited,
in the cave, to the number of more than fifty (50), the parent remaining
motionless admidst them. In the course of a fortnight, these, which were
of the size of a largish mustard seed, and of a whitish hue, were all
Turner (1916), Hingston (1925), Lawrence (1947 and 1949), and Jun-
qua (1962) all observed deposition, examined and studied recently laid
eggs, or noted egg incubation. All except Turner investigated or observed
African and Asian species of the families Galeodidae and Solpugidae. Their
data are compared with those obtained for the North American family
Eremobatidae at the end of this report.
Turner's (1916) observations and studies were based on a single female
from New Mexico, identified as Eremobates formicarius (Koch). This
species, if recognizable, is Mexican; it is not known at present from the
United States. Turner's specimen was, however, obviously an Eremobates,
probably either E. durangonus Roewer or E. palpisetulosus Fichter. His
egg observations were fragmentary. Unfortunately he did not observe
deposition. Of the two egg masses deposited in 14 days, one was laid in a
burrow, the other partially in a burrow and partially scattered over the
soil surface. Each egg was about 1.7 mm in diameter but no egg count
for either mass was recorded. The second egg mass reportedly turned
yellow and shriveled in a few days; the first mass was not discussed
The present report represents a two-year study and observation of
the egg laying habits and eggs of Eremohax magnus (Hancock), Eremo-
bates durangonus Roewer, Eremobates nodularis Muma, Eremobates palpi-
setulosus Fichter, and Therobates bilobatus Muma. Only E. durangonus
yielded complete or detailed information. However, the other species pro-
duced eggs and some egg-laying information.


Females were collected as adults or immatures during August 1963
and June, July and August 1964 in southeastern Arizona (while I worked

Partial report on studies supported by National Science Foundation
Grant GBS-496.
2Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 2166.

The Florida Entomologist

out of the American Museum Southwestern Research Station), in south-
western New Mexico, and western Texas.
All eggs studied were deposited under laboratory conditions. Field
collected females were maintained in terraria at 80" F and 70% relative
humidity until death. Each specimen was fed daily or whenever it left its
burrow during the feeding schedule. Specimens that remained in their
burrows for prolonged periods of time were forced out at least once every
two weeks for a feeding.
Terraria included 8" x 12" battery jars, one-pint food preserving glass
jars, and petri dishes. Sand or a clay-sand mixture from %" to 2" in
depth was provided as a substrate. Small stones, wood chips, or bovine
droppings were added to most terraria for cover. The substrate was moi-
tened with water at irregular intervals.
The staple food or prey were soldiers and workers of subterranean
termites, Reticulitermes spp. Eremohax magnus refused termites and was
fed miscellaneous insects until it was found to accept adult and larval meal-
worms, Tenebrio spp. At irregular intervals all specimens were offered
a wide variety of other arthropods as supplemental food.
Females were disturbed only during feedings, experimental matings,
or when the terraria became fouled with excrement, dead prey, or uneaten
fragments of food. The study specimens were moved to clean terraria.
Exposed eggs were placed in petri dishes for incubation. When the eggs
were laid in burrows, the females were moved to new terraria to prevent
egg destruction or consumption.


Although 67 egg masses were deposited by the five species, the complete
process of deposition was observed only twice. Regular checks of gravid
females were made during most daylight hours and many night hours.
Despite this diligence, deposition was observed only in Eremobates du-
rangonus, the most commonly collected species, which laid 56 masses.
It would seem that egg deposition is accomplished mainly at night, during
late evening or early morning hours. Also, most egg masses were de-
posited in burrows well beneath the soil surface which prevented observa-
tions. All depositions were observed under conditions of a thin substrate
and in the absence of cover. To this extent, the depositions may have been
aborted by laboratory conditions.
Three reared E. durangonus females, fertilized in the laboratory, de-
posited fertile eggs. Their preoviposition period varied from 9 to 14 days
with a mean of 11.3 days. Unfertilized reared females either died without
producing eggs or laid sterile masses after 10 to 27 days with a mean
of 19.2 days.
The time intervals between egg masses laid by the same female varied
from 4 to 18 days with a mean of 8.1, and a mode of six days. This close
agreement between mean and mode indicates a weekly deposition interval
for most females of this species.
Egg deposition of E. durangonus is preceded by a 40 to 60 minute
"labor." During this time, the female lies on her back or side with her
legs and palpi partially flexed. Actual "labor" consists of violent abdom-
inal contractions which seem to alternate from one side to the other.

Vol. 49, No. 1

Muma: Notes on the Eggs of Eremobatidae

Sometimes these contractions flow rhythmically from the end of the ab-
domen toward the opercular segment, sometimes they occur at random
with no pattern. After a series of contractions, the female's body and
legs may tremble for a few seconds or may remain still.
In two observed depositions, the females were not disturbed during
"labor" and deposition of the eggs followed immediately. In two other
cases, the females were disturbed by moving them. In one case, deposition
was not observed but occurred within 25 minutes following interruption
of "labor." When the second female was moved, the abdominal constric-
tions stopped and the female revived. This second female, although quite
gravid, died a week later without completing deposition.
Actual deposition lasted 40 to 60 minutes in the two undisturbed deposi-
tions. In the first interrupted deposition noted above, 25 eggs were de-
posited in 25 minutes. Time for deposition is probably directly related to
number of matured ova.
During deposition, the eggs may slip from the female while she is ab-
solutely quiescent or may be preceded by "labor-like" contractions and
tremors. Furthermore, the eggs may be deposited either rhythmically
one at a time or in interrupted frequency, singly at first, then later in
series of two, three, or four in rapid succession.
Following deposition, the female lies in torpid condition for a variable
length of time. In the two undisturbed ovipositions observed, the recovery
period varied from 30 to 90 minutes. It should be noted, however, that
several quiescent females lying beside recently deposited eggs recovered
immediately upon disturbance. This indicates rapid recovery with move-
ment possibly initiated by hunger or disturbance.

Deposition has been observed only with E. durangonus, but eggs of
four other species representing three genera have been deposited under
laboratory conditions. These eggs were counted, measured, studied, and
incubated. The physical data presented here are among the first for the
In general, the eggs of all species were subspherical and glistening
opalescent white when laid. Fertile eggs dried quickly to a grainy off-
white color (Fig. 1). Sterile eggs generally developed a yellow cast and
upon drying or within a day or two collapsed or shriveled. A mucous egg
coating glued them together into a loose irregular mass which, when
handled, often broke into two or more smaller masses (Fig. 1 and 2).
Cannibalism of eggs was observed for E. durangonus and T. bilobatus
and is suspected for other species.
Eremobates durangonus Roewer: Forty-seven females of this common,
late-summer species were collected and studied. Twenty-one females pro-
duced 47 masses of eggs. The masses varied in number of eggs from 20
to 164 with mean of 64. Thirteen of the 21 egg-producing females laid
two masses of eggs, eight laid three, three laid four, and two laid five.
The number of eggs per mass for all females compared favorably with
that of the females producing more than two masses. Multiple-mass-laying
females produced clutches varying in number of eggs from 28 to 164 with
mean of 68.

Fgit~; 1:':s~~l~P;S~iit~bnit.

Muma: Notes on the Eggs of Eremobatidae

Thirty eggs from two masses were measured. The largest was 1.91
and 1.77 mm in length and width diameter respectively; the smallest was
1.22 and 1.11 mm in diameter. The mean diameters were 1.65 mm length
and 1.57 mm width. Four eggs were round. These varied from 1.77 to
1.55 mm in diameter with a mean of 1.65.
Eggs of this species have the chorion ornamented with coarse, widely
spaced, truncate microscopic papillae (Fig. 4, 900X magnification).
Eremobates palpisetulosus Fichter: Twenty-two females of this rela-
tively common, early-summer species were collected for study. Only two
produced eggs, in both cases a single small mass. One mass contained 12
eggs, the other 21. Both masses were laid on the soil surface but did not
hatch though some viable eggs occurred in each. It is believed that a
typical egg mass would contain many more eggs because several females
greatly swollen with eggs were collected but accidentally killed before they
could deposit.
Measurements of 15 apparently fertile eggs from the two small masses
resulted in the following data. The length and width diameters of the
largest were 1.74 and 1.70 mm, the smallest 1.52 and 1.37 mm. Means of
1.69 mm length and 1.59 mm width diameter are obtained.
These eggs have a microscopic chorion ornamentation of moderately
spaced, rounded papillae (Fig. 5, 900X magnification).
Eremobates nodularis Muma: Three females of this uncommon, mid-
summer species were collected. Two produced eggs, one a mass of 32,
the other 82. The mean of these two masses, 57, is possibly near normal
for the species. Neither mass contained fertile eggs.
Measurements of 15 normally shaped eggs from the two masses were
made. The largest had length and width diameters of 1.59 and 1.41 mm,
the smallest 1.41 and 1.33 mm. Means of 1.48 mm length and 1.41 mm
width diameter were obtained.
The chorion of these eggs is ornamented microscopically with weak,
faint to invisible nodular papillae (Fig. 6, 900X magnification).
Eicmorhax magnus (Hancock): This is a relatively common early-
summer species, but since collections were made from June to August,
only seven females were obtained for laboratory studies. Only one laid
eggs, but she produced two masses within 16 days. One mass contained
33 eggs, the other 105. The mean of 69 is possibly near normal for the
species. Some of these eggs developed embryos but did not hatch.
Fifteen normally-shaped eggs of the species were measured. The
largest had length and width diameters of 1.78 and 1.63 mm, the smallest
1.26 and 1.18 mm. Means of 1.55 mm length and 1.44 mm width diameter
were obtained.
Eggs of this species have the chorion ornamented with a distinct
series of fine, nodular papillae (Fig. 8, 900X magnification).

Fig. 1. Egg mass of Eremobates durangonus Roewer on sand. Fig.
2. Fragment of same mass on black paper. Fig. 3. Eggs of E. durangonus
near hatch: note dark lines. Fig. 4. Chorion papillae of E. durangonus
Roewer. Fig. 5. Chorion papillae of Eremobates palpisetulosus Fichter.
Fig. 6. Chorion papillae of Eremobates nodularis Muma. ,Fig. 7. Chorion
papillae of Therobates bilobatus Muma. Fig. 8. Chorion papillae of Eremo-
rhax magnus (Hancock). (Fig. 1 through 3 at about 10X magnification.)
(Fig. 4 through 8 at 900X magnification.)

28 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 49, No. 1

Therobates bilobatus Muma: This is a common early- to mid-summer
species. The female's preferred habitat was not discovered, so only eight
females were collected. Three females laid five egg masses but four of
the five were laid on the soil surface, indicating abnormal deposition. The
masses varied in egg number from 5 to 54 with a mean of 27. Although
some of the surface deposited eggs were crushed and eaten, this mean
is probably not too unrealistic for this small species. Some of these eggs
appeared fertile but none hatched.
One female laid three masses of eggs, the second nine days after the
first and the third 14 days after the second.
Fifteen apparently fertile eggs were measured. The largest had length
and width diameters of 1.55 and 1.48 mm, the smallest 1.26 and 1.22 mm.
Means of 1.41 mm length and 1.37 mm width diameter were obtained.
These eggs have a microscopic ornamentation of coarse, widely spaced,
truncate papillae on the chorion (Fig. 7, 900X magnification).

Fertile eggs were deposited by E. magnus, E. palpisetulosus, and E.
durangonus, but complete incubation and hatching data were obtained only
for the latter. Well-developed embryos were observed in several eggs of
the first two species but a hatch never occurred.
Incubation and hatching data were obtained for 22 masses of eggs from
E. durangonus. Five masses were incubated at 900 F, eight at 800 F, five
at 700 F, and four at 600 F (Table 1). The lower temperatures lengthened
the incubation period but did not decrease hatch except at 600 F. This
temperature apparently is critical because most eggs failed to hatch in
70 to 90 days but 16.1% hatched in one to nine days after the temperature
was elevated to 900 F.

Eremobates durangonus Roewer.

Number Days for Incubation
Incubation No. of Number Days for Incubation Percent
Temperature Eggs Maximum Minimum Mean Mode Hatch

90 F 383 27 18 21.0 21 34.7
800 531 33 25 28.8 28 55.7
700 382 66 38 41.1 40 34.0
600 328 1 egg hatched in 26 days 0.3

There was an unusual relationship among mass sequence, mass size,
and percent hatch when total egg production was considered (Table 2).
First masses contained a smaller number of eggs but produced a higher
percentage of hatch than second and third masses. Fourth and fifth masses
contained the fewest eggs, all of which failed to hatch.
Ten to 14 days prior to hatching, the eggs lose their subspherical shape
and off-white color. A pair of poorly defined convergent ridges appear on
the upper or outer surface of most eggs and the eggs collapse on one side.

Muma: Notes on the Eggs of Eremobatidae 29

Beneath the convergent ridges, an indistinct to distinct series of fine brown
lines appear (Fig. 3). Two adjacent dark spots may occur on a few eggs
distal to the crossing of the convergent ridges. These latter eggs have a
narrower profile, indicating that they are standing on end. In addition to
developing the above markings, eggs near the completion of incubation
shrink and exhibit a network of narrow, sharply-defined creases and ridges.
Two or three days before hatching, the dark spots become identifiable
as the embryonic eye-spots and the fine brown lines are distinguishable as
long setae on the abdominal and peltidial segments.


Mean No.
No. No. Eggs per No. Percent
Mass Sequence Masses Eggs Mass Hatched Hatched

First 16 911 57 422 46.3
Second 12 840 70 129 15.3
Third 8 625 78 104 16.6
Fourth 3 156 52 0 0.0
Fifth 2 84 42 0 0.0

E. durangonus females have an 11.3-day predepositional period follow-
ing mating and thereafter lay eggs two to five times at weekly intervals.
Deposition is preceded by a "labor" and followed by a "recovery," with a
total time consumption of 1 5/6 to 3 1/2 hours, depending upon the num-
ber of eggs deposited and disturbance of the female. The eggs are sub-
spherical with average length and width diameters of 1.65 and 1.57 mm
and, when fertile, are a grainy off-white color with microscopic truncate
papillae on the chorion. Early egg masses average 60 to 70 eggs of which
30% hatch in 21 days at 90" F and 50% hatch in 28 days at 80 F. Em-
bryonic eye-spots and setae are visible through the wrinkled chorion just
prior to hatching.
The eggs of other species studied were similar in shape and color to
those of E. durangonus but differed in size, microscopic chorion sculptur-
ing, and number per mass. E. palpisetulosus eggs average 1.69 and 1.59
mm in length and width diameters with rounded papillae on the chorion,
but the number per mass was not obtained. E. nodularis eggs have aver-
age length and width diameters of 1.48 and 1.41 mm, weak papillae on the
chorion, and average about 57 per mass. E. magnus eggs average 1.55
and 1.44 mm in length and width diameters, have a finely papillate chorion,
and average 69 per mass. T. bilobatus eggs have average length and width
diameters of 1.41 and 1.37 mm, truncate papillae on the chorion, and aver-
age 27 per mass.
A comparison of the eggs and egg-laying habits of the North American
family Eremobatidae with that of the Asian and African families Galeodi-
dae and Solpugidae indicates some interesting differences and similarities.

30 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 49, No. 1


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Muma: Notes on the Eggs of Eremobatidae

The predepositional period of 25 to 30 days, reported for Othoes saharae
Panouse by Junqua (1962), is much longer than the 9 to 14 days required
for E. durangonus.
The female of Galeodes spp. lies quietly while the eggs slip from her
opercular opening (Hutton 1843; Hingston 1925). Dorsal rhythmical con-
tractions of the peltidial and abdominal segments occur during a 3/2- to
41/2-hour deposition by Solpuga caffra Pocock (Lawrence 1949). These ob-
servations agree in essence with those obtained for E. durangonus with
the exception that no one has reported a predepositional "labor" as ob-
served for durangonus.
Table 3 presents a comparison of solpugid eggs and egg masses. It
appears that egg coloration and egg and mass size are similar among
solpugids, with the larger species tending to produce larger eggs and mass-
es. Hingston (1925) reported minute pits on the chorion of Galeodes eggs
whereas the chorion of Eremobatid eggs is ornamented with variously
developed and spaced microscopic papillae.
The most interesting differences among solpugid eggs are exhibited by
the reported incubation periods. Hutton (1843) reported a fortnight (14
days) for Galeodes vorax but Hingston (1925) stated "only one day" for
Galeodes arabs, and Junqua (1962) recorded several hours for Othoes
'saharae eggs. All of these times are much shorter than the 21 to 28 days
recorded here for Eremobates durangonus. Also, the variation from only
one day to 14 days for two species of the genus Galeodes may be biolog-
ically significant.
The visibility of long embryonic setae through the chorion of Solpuga
hostilis White eggs (Lawrence 1947) is comparable to that observed here
for E. durangonus. Absence of these long setae on Galeodidae embryo is

Hingston, R. W. G. 1925. Nature at the desert's edge. Weatherby, Lon-
don. Chapters 11 and 12, p. 230-280.
Hutton, Thos. 1843. Captain Thos. Hutton on Galeodes (vorax?). Ann.
and Mag. Nat. Hist. London 75: 81-85.
Junqua, Claude M. 1962. Donnbes sur la reproduction d'un Solifuge:
Othoes saharae Panouse. Compt. rend. s6ances Acad. Sci. 255: 2673-
Lawrence, R. F. 1947. Some observations on the eggs and newly hatched
embryos of Solpuga hostilis White (Arachnida). Proc. Zool. Soc.
London 117(2-3): 429-434.
Lawrence, R. F. 1949. Observations on the habits of a female solifuge,
Solpuga caffra Pocock. Ann. Transvaal Mus. 21(2): 197-200.
Turner, C. H. 1916. Oviposition of a captive American false spider
J. Anim. Behav. 6: 160-168.

The Florida Entomologist 49(1) March 1966


.-'- 'il~i~A






Banvel D
Banvel M


9'? 9

Velsicol" "2-1"
Memmi .8EC


Methyl Bromide

Velsicol's continuing research and develop-
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major pesticides, generates a good deal of in-
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our technical and educational literature?
341 E. Ohio Street Chicago, Illinois 60611

'em e a Corporaion :
1. 3
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c: t


Biology Dept., Junior College of Broward County, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida

The most common insect pest of stored corn in the South is the rice
weevil, Sitophilus oryza (L). When corn is in storage, the rice weevil
population is reduced during some of the storage months. In this investi-
gation corn with shuck was stored from November 1955 to July 1956, and
the rice weevil population was determined periodically. The purpose of
storage was to simulate farm practice.
Methods and Materials. Twelve ears of corn with shuck of each of
nine short-season hybrids (Woods V-125W, Funks G512, Ky 203; DeKalb
707, US 523W, DeKalb 850, Ohio C54, Pioneer 301A, NC 46) and eight
long-season hybrids (Dixie 29, NC 2153, Dixie 55, Latham Double, NC
27, Dixie 18, NC 1006, Dixie 82) were placed in heavy cotton twill bags
and stored in the Insectary, N. C. State College Research Station, Clayton,
North Carolina, on 4 November 1955. The corn for this experiment had
been harvested in October 1955. The temperature in the insectary was
recorded continuously on a thermograph.

80 500 a

-70 400 +
4 /

S /
60 \ 300 )

s: :/ o
50 ///

60 .A 30/ .I

Figure 1. Number of living rice weevil adults in short and long sea-
son corn hybrids collected during a nine-month storage period, 1955-56.
Key to lines: broken-and-dotted line-short season hybrids; broken line-
long season hybrids; solid line-temperature.

The Florida Entomologist

Every six weeks, starting in November and ending in July, two ears of
corn of each hybrid were removed and placed in a paper container that was
then sealed to retain any rice weevils. From December through April,
these containers were kept at room temperature for about 24 hours to acti-
vate any living weevil adults. The corn was shelled, and for each hybrid
the number of weevil adults present were counted.
Results. The results are presented in Fig. 1. In the January, March,
and April samplings, no living weevils were in the corn. The June collec-
tion revealed the first living weevil adults since December. It was ob-
served that few adult weevils survived when the temperature dropped to
40 F and below. This seems to be in agreement with Back and Cotton
(1924). Between 20 April and 1 June the weekly mean temperature aver-
aged 65 F, and rice weevil eggs hatched that were probably oviposited
during the autumn or early winter. At no time was the temperature low
enough to kill the deposited weevil eggs.
At the onset of this experiment the moisture content of the corn aver-
aged 15.1% and at the conclusion, 13 July 1956, it averaged 11.2%. The
moisture content of the corn was never low enough to either delay or pre-
vent insect development.
Samplings consistently showed about twice as many living rice weevil
adults in the short season hybrids as in the long season hybrids.

Back, E. A., and R. T. Cotton. 1924. Relative resistance of the rice weevil
(Sitophilus oryzae) and the granary weevil (S. granarius) to high
and low temperature. J. Agr. Res. 28: 1043-1044.

The Florida Entomologist 49(1) March 1966


Catholic University of America Press, Washington, D. C., 1963. 40 p.
100 fig. $1.00.
This booklet is a slightly revised reprinting of the introduction to "The
Beetles of the United States" by Dr. Arnett, which was published between
1960 and 1962 and which sells for $25.00 as a complete book (see review
Fla. Ent. 45(2): 65, 95). The booklet contains chapters on external anat-
omy, classification, a list of 110 families, a key to the families of the world,
and a bibliography of general works. The low price and its concise treat-
ment highly recommend it for the student who needs an introduction to the
beetles.-Robert E. Woodruff

Vol. 49, No. 1


Ohio Historical Society Museum, Columbus, Ohio

This report describes and illustrates egg types seen among species of
three families of Macrolepidoptera-Liparidae, Lasiocampidae and Laco-
somidae. For reports on eggs of other families of the Macrolepidoptera
see the following publications by the author in The Florida Entomologist:
Geometridae (1962); Amatidae, Arctiidae, and Notodontidae (1963); Noc-
tuidae (1964); and Sphingidae, Saturniidae and Citheroniidae (1965).
The number of species among the Liparidae, Lasiocampidae, and Lacos-
omidae is moderate to small when compared with the Noctuidae and Geo-
metridae. McDunnough (1938) records 28 species for the Liparidae, 31
species for the Lasiocampidae, and 3 for the Lacosomidae. Except for the
Lacosomidae the females of most species deposit their eggs in irregular or
more or less uniform clusters. The eggs of these families were found in
the field or obtained from females captured at light traps or at light lures
and confined in paper or polyethylene bags. They were handled in the same
manner as reported in previous papers by the author in The Florida En-
The eggs came from the following states: Arizona (Fig. 18-22), Flor-
ida (Fig. 1-6,23,24), Ohio (Fig. 5,6,12-16), Oregon (Fig. 7,11), Maine (Fig.
9-10), Minnesota (Fig. 17) and New Jersey (Fig. 12-16). Common names
are from Laffoon (1960).
The family Liparidae (Lymantriidae) includes some common species,
namely tussock moths, gypsy moth, brown-tail moth, satin moth, and
others. Most species in this family (Fig. 1-10) deposit their eggs in clus-
ters that vary in size, shape and density. They may be embedded in wax-
like material (Fig. 6) or a bubble-like adhesive (Fig. 1 and 2) or coated
with hairs from the females (Fig. 8).
Fig. 1 and 2. Olene leucophaea (A. and S.) eggs from a top view are
circular, width 0.9 x height 0.7 mm, and chalk white with a large prom-
inent greenish-blue circular spot in the center which possesses a faint
nipple-like protuberance. A female in a polyethylene bag may deposit
45 to 75 or more eggs in a continuous flat mass. The eggs are held to-
gether and to the polyethylene by a clear bubble-like adhesive. Its pres-
ence about the eggs is visible in the enlarged views shown in Fig. 1 and 2.
Fig. 3 and 4. Olene manto (Stkr.) eggs resemble those of Olene leu-
cophaea. They are somewhat larger, width 1.0 x height 0.8 mm. Their
color is an off-white with a prominent greenish-blue circular area at the
top which possesses a distinct nipple-like structure in the center. A female
in a polyethylene bag deposits a horse-shoe shape flat mass with a brown

SThis investigation and cost of publication of results were supported
by a research grant from the National Science Foundation assigned to the
Ohio Historical Society Museum at Columbus, Ohio. The author is indebted
to C. P. Kimball and J. S. Buckett for the determination of all but a few
species used in this publication. He is also indebted to A. E. Brower for
specimens of Notolophus antigua L.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 49, No. 1

"- ,.




Peterson: Some Eggs of Moths

knob-like structure on the curved end and 275 or more eggs in the cluster.
The adhesive secretion is clear and bubble-like and holds the eggs together
and to the substrate. It is not as extensive or as visible as in Fig. 1 and 2.
Fig. 3. A single mass of eggs on polyethylene. Fig. 4. An enlarged view
of several eggs.
Fig. 5 and 6. Hemerocampa leucostigma (A. and S.), white-marked
tussock moth, eggs are usually deposited by the wingless female in a
thick mass on the cocoon from which she emerged or on nearby bark or
some other object. The nearly spherical eggs, measuring 0.9 x 0.9 mm,
are light yellow to dirty white and embedded in a yellowish to greyish-
white mass of wax-like strands. Each egg possesses a ring-like near-white
mark at one end. Some 50 to 150 eggs occur in each mass. Fig. 5. Wing-
less female depositing eggs on a cocoon. Fig. 6. Portion of an egg mass
showing some of the eggs embedded in the waxy matrix.
Fig. 7. Hemerocampa pseudotsugata McD., Douglas fir tussock moth,
eggs from above are circular, near white in color and usually deposited in
a single continuous layer on the somewhat irregular and curved surface of
the hairy cocoon from which the female emerged. All eggs seen of this
species differ from those of the white marked tussock moth in that they are
naked and not embedded in a waxy matrix. Most masses possess approxi-
mately 300 eggs. Each egg is approximately 0.85 in diameter and 0.7 mm
in height. The sides of the egg are a shiny white with a light brown band
near the doughnut-like top which possesses on its surface tiny glistening
particles. The center of the top is depressed and possesses a light brown
Fig. 8. Porthetria dispar (Linn.), gypsy moth, eggs are usually laid
in somewhat elongated masses, 2 to 4 cm in length or they may be de-
posited singly. Each mass is covered with light yellowish hairs which in
time fade and take on a beige or dirty white color. In nature the masses
occur most frequently on tree trunks and large branches. They also occur
in many odd situations such as on stones, dead leaves, discarded tin cans,
paper boxes, old boards, lumber, fence posts, and buildings. Each mass
may include 400 to 500 eggs. In exceptional masses 1000 eggs may be
present. Each egg is spherical from a top view, 1.2 in width and 0.7 mm
in depth, with a nearly flat bottom, and a somewhat depressed upper sur-
face. Newly deposited eggs are salmon colored. This color changes after
the dark colored larva within develops and is visible through the translu-
cent chorion. The chorion appears to be smooth yet under high magni-
fication shows fine, faint reticulations. At the top center is a micropyle
surrounded by minute and irregular radiating pie-shaped areas. Fig. 8
is a broken mass showing some of the eggs. For more details see Forebush
and Fernald (1896).
Fig. 9 and 10. Notolophus antiqua Linn., rusty tussock moth, eggs are
nearly spherical, width 1.2 and height 1.0 mm, and a shiny grey to beige
color. The doughnut or washer-like top (Fig. 10) of each egg is near-
white and coated with tiny glistening granules. Its center is depressed
and light brown in color. The female in a polyethylene bag deposits eggs
in small scattered clusters. In nature the eggs are deposited in a single
layer on the old cocoon similar to Fig. 7.
The family Lasiocampidae (Fig. 11 to 23) includes a number of common
species, such as the tent caterpillars and lappet moths. The eggs may be

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 49, No. 1


Peterson: Some Eggs of Moths

deposited in clusters which surround twigs (Fig. 11-17), in flat single lay-
ers (Fig. 19), in short rows (Fig. 18) or singly (Fig. 20) on plants and
Fig. 11. Malacosoma pluviale Dyar, western tent caterpillar, eggs for
the most part resemble those of other tent caterpillars (Fig. 12 to 17).
The two egg masses shown in Fig. 11 almost completely encircle the twig.
They are fresh masses and the froth-like covering is a shiny grey to beige
color while that of the eastern tent caterpillar is a shiny dark brown to
near black.
Fig. 12 to 16. Malacosoma americana (Fab.), eastern tent caterpillar,
eggs are laid in a compact mass of 150 to 300 or more which may encircle
a twig of wild cherry, apple, or other deciduous tree. The eggs in the
mass are perpendicular to the twig and partially or completely surround
small twigs that average 2 to 5 mm in diameter. The entire mass is coated
with a thick adhesive layer of dark brown bubble-like froth. This hardens
and has a shiny appearance, especially in newly deposited masses. Each
egg from-a top view (Fig. 14) is circular, rough, and somewhat flattened
with a diameter of 0.7 mm. From a side view each egg in the mass (Fig.
15) is cylindrical, smooth, grey in color, 1.2 mm in height and possesses a
round bottom. The portion of the egg adjacent to the twig is not very
adhesive; consequently it is usually easy to remove the mass (Fig. 15).
Fig. 12. A single mass on a wild cherry twig. Fig. 13. A cross section
through an egg mass showing the position of the eggs about the twig and
the froth-like dark covering. Fig. 14. Portion of an egg mass with the
froth-like coat removed. Fig. 15. Portion of an egg mass showing the
surface of the eggs adjacent to a twig. Fig. 16. Portion of an old hatched
egg mass showing the exit openings made by the larvae and the absence
of the froth-like coat.
Fig. 17. Malacosoma disstria (Hbn.), forest tent caterpillar, eggs are
similar to those of M. americana in that they are laid in masses of 100 to
350 eggs which as a rule completely' encircle a twig of a deciduous, forest
or shade tree. Each ring-like mass usually ends squarely at each end and
is coated with a dark-colored, froth-like substance. Most details of the
mass resemble those in Fig. 12 to 16. Fig. 17 is a photograph of a few
scattered eggs deposited by a single female kept in an empty polyethylene
bag. These eggs were 0.7 in width and 1.0 mm in height.
Fig. 18. Tolype velleda (Stoll.), eggs are deposited in short rows in a
polyethylene bag and covered with many near black and a few near white
hairs from the females. A single egg from a side view (Fig. 18) is 1.7 in
length, 1.2 in width, and 0.8 mm in height. The over-all color of the
chorion is a dark reddish brown.
Fig. 19. Gloveria arizonensis dolores N. and D. eggs are large, nearly
spherical, and deposited on polyethylene in single layered clusters of ten
or more eggs. Each egg is 2.2 in width and 2.0 mm in length. From a top
view a small dark spot occurs in the center of a near white area which
fuses with the light brown color on the sides of the egg.
Fig. 20. Quadrina diazona Grt. eggs are large and oval, length 2.2
and width 1.9 mm. Their overall color is near chalk-white with irregular
grey to light brown longitudinal blotches scattered over the entire chorion.
A female in a polyethylene bag deposits single and scattered ova that are

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 49, No. 1

Peterson: Some Eggs of Moths

lightly attached to the substrate. Fig. 20 is a photograph of loose eggs
in a glass dish.
Fig. 21 and 22. Epicnaptera americana (Harr.), lappet moth, moths in
a polyethylene bag deposit small irregular clusters of 9 to 12 eggs on en-
closed twigs or paper toweling or on the polyethylene. The eggs are ad-
hesive and cling to each other and to the substrate. They are oval with
the two ends similar. Their length approximates 1.4 and their width 1.0
mm. Their overall color is a near chalk-white with distinct and definite
bluish-black marks on the chorion as shown in Fig. 21 and 22.
Fig. 23. Artace cribraria (Ljung) eggs are nearly perfect spheres
measuring 0.85 x 0.95 mm. A female in a polyethylene bag deposits its
eggs in small clusters of 2 to 5, lightly attached to the substrate. The en-
tire chorion has tiny rounded pits all approximately the same size and
spacing. The color of the chorion is a medium brown to grey with irreg-
ular dark brown areas scattered over the entire egg. A few scattered
hair-like scales may be present on the eggs.
Fig. 24. Lacosoma chiridota Grt. eggs are rod-shaped with one end
flatter than the other, length 1.1 x width 0.3 mm. A female in a polyethyl-
ene bag deposits single eggs freely and scattered on the bag. They are laid
longitudinally and firmly on the bag. The eggs are yellow and under high
magnification from a top view possess several longitudinal stripes bearing
tiny rough structural features. The shape of this egg and its structural
features are distinctive and may be true of other species in this small

Eggs among species of the Liparidae, Lasiocampidae, and Lacosomidae
vary considerably in size, shape, color, distribution, and coverings. In size
they vary from 2.2 mm in length (Fig. 19, 20) to a minimum of 0.3 mm in
width (Fig. 24). Many from a top view are spherical (Fig. 1-8, 14, 15
and 23), others are oval (Fig. 19-22), and one is rod-shaped. (Fig. 24).
The chorion may be translucent (Fig. 8 and 24) or opaque. The overall
color of opaque eggs is usually near chalk-white (Fig. 1-4, 20-22) or red-
dish brown (Fig. 18). Among near-white opaque eggs, spots or blotches
may occur that are bluish-green (Fig. 1-4), brown (Fig. 19, 20, 23), to near
black (Fig. 21-22). Eggs are deposited singly and scattered .(Fig. 20 and
24), others occur in single layered masses (Fig. 3 and 7), while eggs of
Malacosoma species are perpendicular to the twig and the mass may com-
pletely encircle the stem of a tree (Fig. 11-16). A waxy matrix produced
by the female may completely surround the eggs (Fig. 6), or the female
may deposit on the mass a dark froth-like coating (Fig. 12-16) or an ad-
hesive secretion which may be clear and bubble-like (Fig. 1-2). Some fe-
males deposit body hairs on the eggs (Figs. 8 and 18).
Among the Liparidae and Lasiocampidae eggs of species of a given
genus resemble each other closely-nicely illustrated in the genera Olene
and Malacosoma. In this respect they resemble the similarity of species in
given genera of other families (Peterson 1962, 1963, 1964 and 1965).


Forbush, E. H., and C. H. Fernald. 1896. The Gypsy Moth, Porthetria
dispar (Linn.). Mass. Board of Agriculture. 495 p.

42 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 49, No. 1

Laffoon, I. L. 1960. Common names of insects approved by the Entomo-
logical Society of America. Bull. Ent. Soc. Amer. 6(4): 175-210.
McDunnough, J. 1938. Checklist of the Lepidoptera of Canada and the
United States of America. Part 1. Macrolepidoptera. Mem. S.
Calif. Acad. Sci. 1: 1-274.
Peterson, Alvah. 1962. Some eggs of moths among the Geometridae-
Lepidoptera. Fla. Ent. 45(3): 109-119.
Peterson, Alvah. 1963. Some eggs of moths among the Amatidae, Arctii-
dae and Notodontidae-Lepidoptera. Fla. Ent. 46(2): 169-182.
Peterson, Alvah. 1964. Egg types among moths of the Noctuidae (Lepi-
doptera). Fla. Ent. 47(2): 71-79.
Peterson, Alvah. 1965. Some eggs of moths among the Sphingidae, Sat-
urniidae, and Citheroniidae (Lepidoptera). Fla. Ent. 48(4):213-

The Florida Entomologist 49(1) March 1966




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Department Entomology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), appeared in unprece-
dented numbers in a few Florida tobacco fields in 1946. The following year
this aphid became a major pest, and it was considered a serious threat to
tobacco in all the tobacco growing sections of this country and in Canada
and Cuba. It was believed that field infestations of the insect developed
principally from aphids brought in with plants from infested seed beds.
However, there also was a possibility that new colonies were started by
winged aphids which entered the fields from outlying areas.
To obtain information on this matter, winged aphids resting on tobacco
plants in the field were collected and studied in the spring of 1949. Many
of them were the green peach aphid, but several other species were taken.
Collections were made on five different dates, and a total of 245 specimens
were taken. They included 28 different species, several of them represented
by single individuals. Eight of the species were new to Florida and four
of these were undescribed at the time of collection.
Because so many unusual aphids were taken in 1949, this method of
collecting was used in several subsequent years. All of the collections
were made in Alachua County, Fla. Except for one year, they were made
in the experimental tobacco plantings of the Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion at Gainesville. In 1962 collections were made in several commercial
tobacco fields in the Alachua and Newberry areas.
The success of this method of collecting aphids is due to a character-
istic feature of the tobacco plant. Both surfaces of the leaves are thickly
covered with sticky glandular hairs. Aphids alighting on the tobacco begin
to move about, and soon the sticky material of the leaf hairs accumulates
on their legs and they become securely trapped. As long as the trapped
aphids remain alive, they can be removed from the plants rather easily
with a camel's hair brush dipped in 70% alcohol. Dead aphids stuck to
the leaves soon become dry and brittle, and they are of little value as
specimens for identification.
The collection data for 11 years are summarized in Table 1. Because
of variations in the number of collections made in different years and in
the number and size of tobacco plants examined, the aphid catches are
not directly comparable. The species recorded are representative of the
aphids alighting on the tobacco at the collection periods as all aphids seen
on the plants were collected.
The green peach aphid was taken in each of the 11 collection years.
This species flew to the tobacco in very large numbers in 1957, 1961, and
1962, but infestations in tobacco were not severe in Florida during these
years. This does not prove that migrating aphids are not a factor in ini-
tiating field infestations, but it does show that severe outbreaks do not
necessarily follow a heavy influx of flying aphids.
Five other aphid species also were taken in all years that collections
were made. Four of these, Aphis gossypii Glover, Macrosiphum euphorbiae

1Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series, No. 2174

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 49, No. 1

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The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 49, No. 1



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Tissot: Tobacco, A Natural Aphid Trap 47


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48 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 49, No. 1

(Thomas), Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), and Schizaphis graminum
(Rondani) are pests of various cultivated plants. M. euphorbiae, the
potato aphid, infests tobacco at times, but no established colonies of it
were found on tobacco in Florida during the period 1949-1963. The fifth
species, Anuraphis middletonii (Thomas), is a root feeding aphid that
lives on weeds and other wild plants.
Reference to the table shows that a majority of the species were taken
only rarely and then in very small numbers. Thirty of the species were
taken in only one year, and most of these collections consisted of single
individuals. An additional 15 species were collected in only two years.
Thus, well over half of the species were taken only once or twice during
the entire collection period.
It is of interest that 12 of the species had not been reported from Florida
and were not known to occur in the state when they were collected on to-
bacco. Two of these, Therioaphis riekmi (BSrner) and T. trifolii (Monell)
have since been taken in Florida on their natural host plants. Ten species,
Anoecia oenotherae Wilson, A. querci (Fitch), Dactynotus chrysopsidi-
cola Olive, D. pseudambrosiae Olive, D. tuataiae Olive, Iziphya flabella
(Sanborn), Megouraparsus tephrosiae (Smith), Rhopalosiphum fitchii
(Sanderson), R. padi (Linaeus), and Tetraneura hirsuta Baker had not
been taken on a natural host in Florida, and this is the first report of their
occurrence in the state.
The 77 identified species of aphids trapped on tobacco and recorded
here compare favorably with the number of species taken by other col-
lectors elsewhere with wind traps, sticky boards, light traps, and yellow
tray Moericke traps. The list of entrapped species gives an indication of
the diversity of forms that can be taken in this way. This unusual man-
ner of taking aphids may prove useful to other workers as a supplement
to the more conventional collecting methods.

The Florida Entomologist 49(1) March 1966

The 49th annual meeting of the Florida Entomological Society will be
held at the George Washington Hotel in Jacksonville on September 28-30,
1966. James E. Brogdon, Extension Entomologist, University of Florida,
Gainesville, is Program Chairman. The Program Committee will mail out
a formal call for papers at a later date.


2704 N. Kensington St., Arlington, Virginia, 22207

In 1956, Carriker described and illustrated as Acutifrons caracarensis
(Kellogg and Mann, 1912) specimens taken off Caracara cheriway
(Jacquin). At that time, Carriker noted he had been unable to examine
the type of A. caracarensis, which was collected off Caracara lentosus
(Ridgway); but he suspected the two forms might not be conspecific. I
have examined the type material of A. caracarensis, and it is not conspe-
cific with specimens from Caracara cheriway. The new species is here-
with described.
Acutifrons mexicanus, new species
(Fig. 1)
MALE HOLOTYPE: General shape as illustrated by Carriker (1956) in
his Fig. 12. Abdominal tergites narrow but entire: chaetotaxy of each is;
II-10, III-14, IV-14, V-14, VI-14, VII-14, and VII-8. Abdominal paratergal
plates as illustrated by Carriker. Abdominal sternal plates narrow but
entire: chaetotaxy of each is; 11-6, III-8, IV-6, V-8, VI-6, VII-6, and VIII-6.
Posterior margin of genital opening with 12 long setae. Genitalia is illus-
trated in Fig. 1.
ALLOTYPE: Head and thorax as in the male. General shape of abdo-
men and chaetotaxy as illustrated by Carriker (1956) in his Fig. 13.
Measurements: (male, female) length of head 0.52 mm, 0.53 mm;
width of head 0.48, 0.51; width of prothorax 0.32, 0.34; width of pterothorax
0.42, 0.44; width of abdomen 0.62, 0.64; total length 1.54, 1.45.
Type host: Caracara cheriway (Jacquin).
Type material: Holotype, allotype, and five paratypes collected 22
Sept. 1962, by M. A. Price, Cd. Victoria, Mexico; deposited in U. S. Na-
tional Museum.
Discussion: The abdominal chaetotaxy of the male differs from that
given by Carriker. Also there are slight differences in the male geni-
talia (Carriker's Fig. 14). I have the specimens from which Carriker's
figures were drawn. It may be that these differences represent the range
in number of abdominal setae that may be expected. The differences in
size probably resulted from different mounting techniques. Since these
differences in the two series do exist, Carriker's specimens have not been
designated paratypes.
As might be expected from the relationship of the hosts, A. caracarensis
and A. mexicanus, are closely related. The greatest differences are in the
male genitalia, which are drawn to the same scale in Fig. 1 and 2.

Acutifrons caracarensis (Kellogg and Mann, 1912)
(Fig. 2)
In the original description, Kellogg and Mann stated that three males
were examined. This is in error; the series consists of one male and two
females. Dr. Roger D. Price has remounted each of these specimens on a

The Florida Entomologist

Figure 1. Acutifrons mexicanus, n. sp., male genitalia. Fig. 2.
Acutifrons caracarensis (Kellogg and Mann, 1912), male genitalia.

Vol. 49, No. 1

Emerson: A New Species of Mallophaga

separate slide, and they are presently in the Entomology Collection, Uni-
versity of California, Berkeley. The male is designated lectotype and a
label to the effect has been placed on that slide. The male genitalia of the
lectotype is illustrated in Fig. 2.
Carriker, M. A. 1956. Neotropical Mallophaga Miscellany, No. 9, A new
genus and species. Rev. Brasil. Ent. 5: 111-146.
Kellogg, V. L., and W. W. Mann. 1912. Mallophaga from islands off Low-
er California. Ent. News 13: 56-65.

The Florida Entomologist 49(1) Maich 1966


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Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA, Gainesville, Fla.

Tests were conducted with 100 men and women subjects to compare
their attractiveness to the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.), and
in addition to compare the times of protection against the mosquito when
the same group of subjects was treated with deet. In previous experi-
ments reported by Smith et al. (1963), Gouck and Bowman (1959), and
Gouck and Gilbert (1962), only three to five test subjects were used. Our
tests, however, were conducted with 50 subjects of each sex. Such factors
as sex, age, weight, skin temperature, moisture output, and color were in-
vestigated to determine their influence on both attractiveness and protec-
tion time. Statistical significance of the values obtained was determined
for the differences among individuals of the group and for the differences
between men and women. In addition 37 women with menstrual cycles
were tested before and after menses to determine the effects of physio-
logical changes on the attractiveness of the subjects to the mosquito.
All tests were made with yellow fever mosquitoes from a colony that
has been reared at our laboratory for many years. In test cages mosqui-
toes of this species maintain a uniform biting and response rate over a
longer test period than the common malaria mosquito (Anopheles quadri-
maculatus Say) and other species colonized at the laboratory. The re-
pellent applied to the arms of the test subjects was a 5% solution of deet
(N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) in ethanol.
The experiment was conducted in 25 series of tests, each consisting of
two subseries. Each series was conducted with 5 subjects-2 female test
subjects, 2 male test subjects and the standard subject, a male. Each
subseries was completed in a single day and the two subseries were spaced
one week apart. A balanced incomplete block (round robin) design was
used in the attraction tests and a complete block design in the protection
time tests.
The attraction tests were made in 10 olfactometer cages, described in
detail by Gouck and Schreck (1965). These cages are designed to evalu-
ate true attractants, i.e. factors inducing the oriented approach of insects
from a distance, as opposed to factors which may influence landing, biting,
or other aspects of behavioral patterns. The essential features of these
cages are that air streams are drawn (not pushed) by an exhaust fan
through two ports which contain the test attractants, then through a trap
at each port, then through the cage of mosquitoes and out the opposite end
of the cage.
The cages used in our tests were 14 inches wide, 21 inches high, and
38 inches long, and the attractants were the emanations from the arms of

SConducted in part with funds transferred from the Medical Research
and Development Command, Office of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army.

54 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 49, No. 1

the test subjects. Each port was equipped with a cardboard sleeve in which
an arm was inserted. A plastic screen between the subject and the sleeves
assured that only the emanations from the arms, not those from the entire
body, were drawn through the ports of the olfactometer.
About 115 female mosquitoes, 7 to 8 days old, were released into each
olfactometer cage. Each cage was tested with chloroform for 5 minutes
to assure that the mosquitoes were responding normally. (Chloroform is
an effective mosquito attractant.) After 2 hours the portholes in the cage
were opened and the subjects' arms placed into the sleeves. Air at 80 feet
per minute was drawn over the arms, through the traps and then through
the cage.
In the balanced incomplete block design each subject must be paired
once with each other subject in each subseries, making a total of 10 paired
tests with the 5 subjects. A paired test consisted of 2 subjects each expos-
ing one arm simultaneously in a single cage. In order to save time, 2
cages were set up side by side, so that three people standing in front of
them could make two paired tests simultaneously, the person in the center
exposing his left arm in one cage and his right arm in the other at the
same time. The 10 tests were thus performed in 5 testing periods as
S paired with A in cage 1 and B in cage 2.
A paired with B in cage 3 and C in cage 4.
B paired with C in cage 5 and D in cage 6.
C paired with D in cage 7 and S in cage 8.
D paired with S in cage 9 and A in cage 10.
Two subseries made up one round-robin series. Twenty-five round-robin
series were completed. Series 14 was discarded because one subject could
not complete the tests, and series 26 was substituted to complete the tests
with 100 subjects.
An adjusted average, which compensates for variations of testing con-
ditions, was computed by a statistical method suggested by J. U. McGuire,
Biometrical Services, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA, and modified from that of
Kempthorne (1952). By an analysis of variance the least significant differ-
ences at the 0.05 level between any two subjects of each series was deter-
mined. The Bartlett (Snedecor 1946) test of homogeneity of variance was
applied to data from the 25 series of the experiment. Since the variances
were homogeneous, the least significant differences at the 0.05 level be-
tween any two subjects in the entire experiment were then determined.
The protection time tests were conducted as described by Gilbert et al.
(1957). One milliliter of 5% deet in ethanol was spread evenly over each
forearm of each subject. This concentration was selected because it usually
gave protection when freshly applied but allowed bites before the end of
the time available for the test. The arm was exposed for 3 minutes, imme-
diately after treatment, in a cage of about 1,500 mosquitoes, 7 to 9 days
old. Additional 3-minute test periods were begun 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40
minutes after treatment and at 20-minute intervals thereafter. The tests
were terminated when two bites were received in any 3-minute test period.
All test cages of mosquitoes were exposed to an arm treated with 75%
deet for 3 minutes before the subjects were tested to condition the mos-
quitoes to the repellent.

Gilbert: Relative Protection Time with Deet

Complete block design was used for the analysis of variance of these
data. Bartlett's test showed that the variances of the 25 series were ho-
mogeneous. The least significant differences between any two subjects in
each series and in the whole experiment were determined.
For comparisons between subjects in different series, a ratio of the per-
centage of mosquitoes trapped by each test subject to the percentage
trapped by the standard subject was computed. Similar ratios were com-
puted for the protection times. These ratios are sometimes a more reliable
index than the actual percentages of mosquitoes trapped or protection
times, which may vary with different populations of mosquitoes.
At the beginning of the experiment the sex, age, and weight of each
subject was recorded. The hair color was also recorded, to serve as an
indication of the complexion, since skin color among Florida subjects is
more indicative of exposure to sunshine than of the natural complexion.
Ninety-six of the subjects were white and four were Negroes. Almost
all the subjects were drawn from a University or research agency environ-
At the time of each test, the skin temperature was taken on the right
wrist and the inner surface of the right forearm 2 inches below the elbow.
The arms were not washed before testing, and no record was made of the
most recent washing or bathing by the subject. The women were requested
not to use perfume, although this was probably an unnecessary precaution.
Records of the water output of the arms at the time of each test were
obtained for the subjects in series 11 through 26, by the method of Smart
and Brown (1956). The moisture was collected by placing preweighed
plastic bags on each arm, held tight with an elastic band at the elbow.
The subjects wore the bags for 1/ hour, then the bags were removed and
weighed. Carbon dioxide output was not measured. At the time of each
test a record was made of the dates of the most recent menstrual period of
the 37 female subjects with menstrual cycles (13 were past menopause or
were pregnant).
Correlations were sought between individual attractiveness and protec-
tion time, and between each of these phenomena and the sex, age, weight,
complexion, skin temperature, moisture output, and stage of the menstrual
The detailed data obtained with the 100 test subjects are too extensive
for presentation here. Summaries and graphic presentations of the ob-
served relationships between various factors and attractiveness and pro-
tection time are presented.
Sex.-The more important data from the experiment are summarized
by the sex of the subject in Table 1. The fifty women subjects were, on
the average, less attractive than the 50 men, as indicated by both the actual
percentages of mosquitoes trapped and the ratios to the standard subject.
The differences were highly significant. The overall averages for the 50
men were about the same as those for the standard subject. Individually,
many of the women were more attractive than some of the men. The num-
ber of men and women with various ratios of attraction in comparison to
the standard subject are shown in Fig. 1. Only two of the most attractive
10 subjects were women, and all the least attractive 10 were women. Based

The Florida Entomologist


Range of (0.05
individual Overall level)
Type of data recorded averages average CL*

Mosquitoes trapped (%)**
Women 6.4 -64.6 38.2t 3.57
Men 37.1 -71.5 53.3 2.60
Standard 41.6 -70.8 54.0 3.00
Mosquitoes trapped (ratio)tt
Women 0.09- 1.51 0.73t 0.078
Men .59- 1.47 1.00 .057
Protection time with 5% deet (minutes)$
Women. 5.0 -75 39.2t 6.49
Men 2.5 -90 28.5 5.36
Standard 17.5 -55 38.2 4.65
Protection time with 5% deet (ratio)tt
Women 0.22- 2.80 1.09t 0.103
Men .06- 5.14 .85 .202
Age of subjects (years)
Women 18-71 32.0
Men 18-51 25.5
Standard 40 40.0
Weight of subjects (pounds)
Women 97-217 129.6
Men 124-235 164.0
Standard 150 150.0
Skin temperature ( F.)
Women 87.0 -93.7 90.06 1.57
Men 87.5 -93.0 90.74 .23
Standard 88.5 -92.7 90.73 .32
Moisture produced from forearm in 1/2 hour
Left arm .03- .65 .21 .039
Right arm .01- .55 .21 .032
Left arm .09- .77 .32 .055
Right arm .10- 1.08 .34 .057
Left arm .11- .88 .39 .083
Right arm .12- 1.03 .50 .108

*Confidence limits-standard error times probability of 0.05 level.
**Average of 8 readings (adjusted).
tSignificantly different (0.01 level) from men.
ftRatio to standard subject determined in each of 25 series of tests.
$Average of 4 readings.

Vol. 49, No. 1

Gilbert: Relative Protection Time with Deet 57

on their individual ratios, 64% of the women were significantly less attrac-
tive than the standard subject, 32% were equal, and only 4% were signifi-
cantly more attractive, whereas among the men 24% were less attractive,
58% were equal, and 18% were more attractive than the standard subject.
The lower average attractiveness of women agrees with Rahm's findings
(Clements 1963) in tests with four men and three women, examined in

14 4r for men

I \
12 I ----Standard subject
median with
I LSD 0.05 limits

iH I

Women I

4 ;Men o
I \
i' -A / I

0.2 0.0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6
Attraction ratio Test subject/standard subject
Figure 1. Distribution of individual attraction ratios (LSD-Confi-
dence limit).

The average protection time was longer for the women than for the
men, and the difference was highly significant (0.01 level). The average
for the women was about the same as that of the standard subject, whereas
the average for the 50 men was lower (ratio of 0.85). The number of men
and women with various protection time ratios is shown in Fig. 2.
Attractiveness vs. protection time.-Smith et al. (1963) found no corre-
lation between the natural attractiveness of three men and the relative
protection they obtained with dimethyl phthalate. These authors also
found no correlation between the relative attractiveness of two women
and a man and the amount of protection received with dimethyl phthalate,
deet, and ethyl hexanediol. In our tests the results with men gave an in-
dication of an inverse relation between attractiveness and protection time,
i.e., the men attracting the higher percentages of mosquitoes had shorter
protection periods (Fig. 3). The differences were not statistically signifi-
cant, however, and there was no correlation between attractiveness and
protection time with women, or in the results obtained with the standard
subject in different series.


_; \"1 ""'n

S /\ Women

S Standard subject with
LSD (0.05) limits 1


0.5 1.0 1.5 2. 2.5 3V >50
Protection time ratio -Test subject/standard subject
Figure 2. Distribution of individual protection time ratios (LSD-Con-
fidence limit).


40 T- | u SuI*ct

I Avg. mosquitoes trapped
with LSD (0.05) limits
of protection time


10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Mosquitoes trapped (percent)

Figure 3. Attractiveness of subjects as indicated by percentage of
mosquitoes trapped and protection time obtained with 5% deet (LSD-Con-
fidence limit).

Gilbert: Relative Protection Time with Deet 59

Age.-The attractiveness of men and women in various age groups, as
indicated by the percentage of mosquitoes trapped, and their protection
times with 5% deet, are summarized in Table 2. Age had no effect on
attractiveness. Both men and women in the 40-49 age group had signifi-
cantly shorter protection periods than those in the 30-39 age group, but
data from the other age groups did not indicate that this was part of any
consistent trend.


Mosquitoes trapped (%) Protection time (min.)

Number Stand- Stand-
Age of of Range Aver- ard Aver- ard
subject subjects age error Range age error

18-19 6 28.9-54.4 39.7 3.33 32.5-75.0 53.9 7.64
20-29 18 6.4-51.3 37.9 3.05 10.0-75.0 38.3 5.59
30-39 15 16.6-56.5 36.8 3.76 5.0-70.0 40.5 5.72
40-49 8 12.9-54.1 40.3 4.52 10.0-45.0 24.7 3.88
50- 3 28.3-50.2 38.6 6.35 35.0-67.5 47.5 10.10

18-19 11 39.8-63.3 52.1 2.09 2.5-65.0 29.9 6.52
20-29 26 34.6-73.1 54.2 1.76 2.5-57.5 25.8 2.46
30-39 9 37.1-71.5 52.6 4.38 5.0-90.0 38.3 8.41
40-49 3 45.3-63.4 53.2 5.54 5.0-40.0 26.7 10.93
50- 1 49.2- 49.2 17.5- 17.5

Weight.-Fig. 4 presents regression lines of the attraction ratios of
men and women with respect to weight, and Fig. 5 of the protection time
with respect to weight. There was a slight indication of a correlation
between the weight of the women and men and the attractiveness of the
subjects, i.e., the greater the weight of the subject, the more attractive.
There was also a slight inverse correlation between the weight of the sub-
jects and the protection time. These correlations were not significant at
the 0.05 level.
Skin temperature.-Regression lines for attractiveness and protection
time in relation to skin temperature are given in Fig. 6 and 7. Women
with a skin temperature above 91.5 F were significantly more attractive
than women with a temperature below 88.6, and men with a skin tempera-
ture above 92.1 were more attractive than men with a temperature below
89.4. There was no correlation between the variations in attractiveness
and those in protection time in the 25 series of tests with the standard sub-
ject. Women having a skin temperature below 88.7 had significantly longer
protection periods than women with a skin temperature above 91.4. No


( 1.0


0 1

M 0.75






Figure 4.

t 2



B 1


^ 1

Weight lbs. of subjects

Weight of subjects and attraction ratio (LSD-Confidence

Women Standard

Men -

TAvg. weight with
LSD (0.05)limits of PTR


120 140 160
Weight (Ibs.) of subjects

180 200

Figure 5. Weight of subjects and protection time ratio (PTR) (LSD-
Confidence limit).




_-+- -Men

-- -Women

Avg. weight with LSD

0.05 limits of response ratio


__I __

Gilbert: Relative Protection Time with Deet

correlation between skin temperature and protection time could be shown
with the standard subject or the men.
Moisture.-Regression lines for attractiveness and protection time in
relation to the amount of moisture produced are given in Fig. 8 and 9.
Women producing more than 0.46 g moisture in Y hour were significantly
more attractive than women producing less than 0.03 g. With men, there
was an inverse correlation, i.e., men producing less than 0.22 g moisture
were more attractive than men producing more than 0.45 g moisture from
a forearm .in 1/2 hour. With the standard subject there was little or no
correlation between variation in moisture output and protection time from
one series of tests to another. The results with men are in line with data
obtained by Gouck and Bowman (1959). They showed that the subject,
one of three, who was most attractive evolved the least moisture, and the
subject with the lowest attractiveness evolved the most moisture. These
results concurred with data obtained by Brown (1958). It should be noted
that in the present series of tests only those women with extremely low
moisture output were less attractive than subjects with higher moisture
output, i.e., either extreme in moisture output apparently reduced attrac-
tiveness. Among the women there was a negative correlation between
moisture collected and protection time. Women producing less than 0.03
g moisture had longer protection periods than women producing more than
0.41 g of moisture. There was little or no correlation among the men or
among the different series with the standard subject. Gouck and Bowman
(1959) found no correlation between moisture evolution and protection
time with repellents among three male subjects. Slightly more moisture
was collected from the right arms of the standard subject and the men
than from the left arms. The differences were not significant, and there
was no difference between the moisture outputs of the right and left arms
of the women.
Color.-No indication was obtained of a correlation between complexion
and attractiveness or the protection period. Four of the subjects, two of
each sex, were Negroes. Their attractiveness ratios ranged from 0.83 to
1.02, and their protection periods from 0.50 to 1.10.
Complexion among the Caucasians was rated by hair color, since many
subjects were heavily tanned. The results with respect to hair color were
highly inconsistent. Women with light brown hair and men with dark
brown and blond hair were the most attractive. When data from tests
with both sexes were combined, the group with light brown hair were the
most attractive and those with dark brown and blond hair the least. Among
the women, the group with black hair had the longest protection periods
and the group with dark brown hair the shortest; but the reverse occurred
among the men, the group with black hair having the shortest protection
periods and the group with dark brown hair the longest.
Menstrual cycle.-The attraction data from the tests with the 37 women
with menstrual cycles were tabulated for 7 intervals; during the 5-day
menses, 1 to 3 days after menses, and at 4-day intervals thereafter to com-
plete the 28-day cycles. These data with computed limits of probability
for each period, are given in Table 3. Women tested 1 to 4 days before
menses were the most attractive (trapped 39% of mosquitoes) and were
about equal to the women without menstrual cycles (trapped 40.5%); the
least attractive subjects (trapped 32.1%) were those in the period 1 to 3 days

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 49, No. 1


Mosquitoes trapped (%) Confidence
Interval in Number of limits
menstrual cycle test dates Range* Average (0.05 level)

During 5-day menses 16 12.2-50.5 34.11 4.42
1 to 3 days after 7 11.7-42.2 32.14 5.67
4 to 7 days after 15 17.7-58.5 34.95 5.10
8 to 11 days after 11 6.5-59.7 37.00 6.47
9 to 12 days before 10 14.5-55.2 33.75 5.68
5 to 8 days before 10 10.0-65.2 37.37 7.36
1 to 4 days before 5 21.0-60.0 39.00 4.84
- ** 26 18.7-63.7 40.55 5.47

*Average of 4 tests.
**Cycle no longer present in women tested.




Avg. skin temp.
with LSD-0.05-
limits of response *%-


Skin temperature OF.

Figure 6. Skin temperature and percentage of mosquitoes trapped
(LSD-Confidence limit).


*H 50


Pt 30

Gilbert: Relative Protection Time with Deet 63


50 -

* 1^ Women
40 Standard subject

S30- --.... - -

STAAvg. skin temp.
20 with LSD -0.05-
limits of PT

10- --------- -1 --1- --
87 88 89 90 91 92 93
Skin temperature OF.

Figure 7. Skin temperature and protection time (LSD-Confidence

after menses. These differences in attraction were not significant at the
0.05 level.
The data are presented graphically in Fig. 10. In our experiment the
attractiveness of the subjects declined to low points in periods 1 to 3 days
and 12 to 15 days after menses. The attractiveness increased to plateaus
8 to 11 days and 20 to 23 days after menses. Roessler's (1963) data showed
that his women subjects attracted the fewest mosquitoes 1 to 3 days and
8 to 9 days after menses; their attraction was greatest 4 to 7 days and
12 to 15 days after menses. The later peak was maintained, with two small
dips, through 16 to 19 days and 20 to 23 days after menses. In our series
of tests the attractiveness of the women to mosquitoes followed the cyclic
endometrical changes described by Dukes (1955). There was a gradual
decrease in attractiveness during menses and the early part of the post-
menstrual phase (approximately 9 to 10 days). The attractiveness gradu-
ally increased until the rupture of the Graafian follicle (when the ovum
is liberated) which marks the beginning of the premenstrual phase. In
the early part of the premenstrual phase, the attractiveness of the women
decreased and then increased to a peak just before the menstrual phase.
It should be noted that the range of attractiveness of women without men-
strual cycles coincided with the upper portion of the range of women with
menstrual cycles.


The Florida Entomologist Vol. 49, No

- = IM-

.- Standard


I Avg.moisture collected
with LSD -0.05- limits
ef mosquitoes trapped

. 1

201 II
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
Grams of moisture

Figure 8. Moisture collected from subjects
quitoes trapped (LSD-Confidence limit).

and percentage of mos-

-- - ___ subject


--------- i---------
IMen ~

Avg. moisture collected
with LSD -0.05- limits of PT

101 I 1I I Il I
01 0.2 03 04 05 0.6 0.7 0.8
Grams of moisture

5% deet.

9. Moisture collected from subjects and protection time with


I 40



Gilbert: Relative Protection Time with Deet


SMale standard
P4 L

No cycle

5 30
C -(13)

SNumber of subjects in each period
16 7 55 11 |0 10 5
menses 11[ 1| 31415 161718191101111121131041151 61171181191202 23

Other Days after menses

Figure 10. Mosquitoes trapped (%) against menstrual cycle with
confidence limit (0.05 level).

The authors are indebted to Carroll N. Smith for many valuable sugges-
tions during these studies and to D. R. Godwin, Carl Schreck, and John
Taylor of this Division for assistance in conducting the experiments.

Fifty men were significantly more attractive on the average than 50
women to Aedes aegypti (L.). The average protection times of the women
treated with 5% deet were significantly longer than those of the men. The
few subjects having unusually high skin temperatures were more attrac-
tive than the few subjects with usually low temperatures. Women having
low skin temperatures had longer protection times than women with high
temperatures. Little or no correlation between skin temperature and pro-
tection time was shown among the men. The few women producing high
outputs of moisture from a forearm were more attractive than the few
women with low outputs. The reverse was shown by the men. Women
with low moisture outputs had longer protection periods than women with
high outputs but no correlation between moisture output and protection
time occurred among the men. There was little or no correlation between
color of hair of the subjects and attractiveness of the subjects or the pro-
tection time. The attractiveness of the 37 women with menstrual cycles
followed the cyclic endometrical changes, but the differences were not sig-
nificant at the 0.05 level.

66 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 49, No. 1

Brown, A. W. A. 1958. Factors which attract Aedes mosquitoes to hu-
mans. Proc. 10th Int. Congr. Ent. 3: 757-763.
Clements, A. N. 1963. The physiology of mosquitoes. MacMillan Co.,
New York. 393 p.
Dukes, H. H. 1955. The physiology of domestic animals. Comstock Pub-
lishing Co., Ithaca, N. Y. 1020 p.
Gilbert, I. H., H. K. Gouck, and C. N. Smith. 1957. New insect repellent.
Soap and Chem. Spec. 33(5): 115-117, 129-133; 33(6): 95-99, 109.
Gouck, H. K., and M. C. Bowman. 1959. Effect of repellents on the evo-
lution of carbon dioxide and moisture from human arms. J. Econ.
Ent. 52: 1157-1159.
Gouck, H. K., and I. H. Gilbert. 1962. Responses of mosquitoes and stable
flies to a man in a light-weight rubber diving suit. J. Econ. Ent.
55: 386-392.
Gouck, H. K., and C. E. Schreck. 1965. An olfactometer for use in the
study of mosquito attractants. J. Econ. Ent. 58(3): 589-590.
Kempthorne, 0. 1952. The design and analysis of experiments. John
Wiley and Sons, New York. 631 p.
Roessler, P. 1963. The attractiveness of steroids and amino acids to fe-
male Aedes aegypti. Proc. 50th Ann. Mtg. N. J. Mosq. Extermin.
Assoc.: 250-255.
Smart, M. R., and A. W. A. Brown. 1956. Studies on the responses of
the female Aedes mosquito. Part VII.-The effect of skin tempera-
ture, hue and moisture on the attractiveness of the human hand.
Bull. Ent. Res. 47: 89-100.
Smith, C. N., I. H. Gilbert, H. K. Gouck, M. C. Bowman, F. Acree, Jr., and
C. H. Schmidt. 1963. Factors affecting the protection period of
mosquito repellents. USDA Tech. Bull. 1285. 36 p.
Snedecor, G. W. 1946. Statistical 'methods. Iowa State College Press,
Ames, Iowa. 435 p.

The Florida Entomologist 49(1) March 1966



In a small sample of oribatid mites collected by Donald De Leon from
Coral Gables, Florida, was an unusual species possessing some cuticular
structures heretofore unreported in oribatids. These structural oddities,
area spinosae, are not described for any of the genera of Oppiidae listed by
Michael (1883), Hammer (1961, 1962), Sellnick (1929), or Willmann (1931).
Nor are these distinctive cuticular features reported by Balogh (1961a,
1965) in his reviews of the orbatid genera of the world. It is the presence
of these unusual organs that distinguishes the following new genus and
species from other known oribatids, especially representatives of the family
Oppiidae, where they are placed for the present.
The new genus has characteristics in common with other genera of the
family from the southern Hemisphere. It resembles superficially the South
American genera Aeroppia Hammer, 1961, and Amerioppia Hammer, 1961,
in that it lacks lamellae and has a short rounded sensillus, while the noto-
gastral hairs are nearer to Stachyoppia Balogh (1961b) from Central
Africa. The new genus differs from Amerioppia in the presence of long,
setose interlamellar hairs, and from Aeroppia in the lack of inflated pos-
terior notogastral setae. It differs from Stachyoppia in its lack of lamellae
and has a clavate, rounded, rather than a pointed, setose, sensillus.
The area spinosae have been observed since in representatives of other
families (e.g. Oribatulidae), but we believe these cuticular organs occur
only among the oribatids.

Spinoppia, new genus
Description: Body setae very large and serrate; rostral hairs located
dorsally; no lamellae; numerous small, scattered, raised area spinosae
(Fig. 4) located principally along sides of hysterosoma as well as on the
tibia and tarsus of all legs; four pairs of genital setae. The generic name
is constructed to designate the distinctive spinose areas of an oppiid type
Type-species: Spinoppia magniserrata, new species
(Fig. 1-5)
Diagnosis: Thirteen pairs of very large, serrate hysterosomal setae;
sensillus short, club-shaped; interlamellar hairs longer than other body
setae, nearly extending to rostral tip; area spinosae postero-mediad to
setae te; anal plates with two pairs of setae.

SResearch supported in part by National Science Foundation Grant
G 3872.
2 Participant in National Science Foundation Research Participation for
High School Teachers Program, Colorado State University, Summer 1965;
2965 So. 14th East, Salt Lake City, Utah.
3 Department of Zoology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo-

The Florida Entomologist



Fig. 1-5. Spinoppia magniserrata, n. gen., n. sp. Fig. 1. Dorsal aspect,
legs omitted. Fig. 2. Ventral aspect, legs omitted. Fig. 3. Notogastral
setae from various aspects to show serrations. Fig. 4. An area spinosa
such as found on notogaster and legs. Fig. 5. Leg I from the lateral aspect.

Vol. 49, No. 1

Higgins: New Genus of Mites From Florida

Description: Color brownish; propodosoma wider than long; rostrum
blunt; rostral hairs setose, located dorsally; no lamellae; lamellar hairs
setose, longer than rostral hairs but shorter than interlamellar hairs; in-
terlamellar hairs longer than any body setae, nearly twice as long as rostral
setae, setose, with large insertions; pseudostigmata cup-like; sensillus
clavate with fine setose head; exobothridial hair located antero-laterad of
sensillus, setose; dorsosejugal suture curved anteriorly.
Hysterosoma broadly oval; thirteen pairs of large, heavy, serrate setae
as shown in Fig. 1 and 3; a small, curved depression media to setae ta;
raised area spinosae as in Fig. 4 (the basis for the specific name), postero-
mediad of setae te, other area spinosae scattered along lateral margins of
hysterosoma; dorsal surface with an irregular, reticulate pattern (Fig. 1).
Camerostome oval; apodemata III extending to midline and surrounding
genital aperture; genital opening longer than broad with four pairs of setae,
two pairs nearer the anterior margin of the plate, and the other two pairs
nearer the posterior end of the plate; genital opening separated from the
anal plate by about one and one-half its length; anal aperture longer than
broad, each plate with two setae located in the median part of the plate;
aggenital setae postero-laterad of genital plate; fissure iad antero-laterad
of anal opening; three pairs of adanal setae in a diagonally straight line,
ada4 at postero-lateral margin of anal plate, and adaa located above anterior
level of anal opening; other ventral setae and area spinosae as shown in
Fig. 2.
Legs rather robust and heterotridactylous; small, distinct, areae spinosae
on the dorso-median edge of tibia and tarsus I, II, III and IV as shown
in Fig. 5.
Size: length 474A; width 270A.
Types: Holotype (female) and three paratypes (two females, one
male), Coral Gables, Fla., 13 Oct. 1955, Donald De Leon. The holotype
will be deposited in the U. S. National Museum; the authors have the para-
Discussion: Spinoppia magniserrata, n. gen., n. sp., can be separated
at once from other known oppiid oribatids by the presence of very large, ser-
rate dorsal setae, and the presence of numerous, small, peculiarly raised
area spinosae, principally along the lateral margins of the hysterosoma,
and on the dorso-medial aspects of the tibiae and tarsi of all legs. These
areae spinosae are elevated patches of integument with small, erect spines
(Fig. 4). They are delimited like area porosae, but differ in the presence
of raised spines instead of the tiny pores in the depressions of area
The function of area spinosae is unknown. We have noted, however,
that these structures are peculiarly located on the sides of the noto-
gaster and the legs. The spined surface of the area spinosae on both the
legs and notogaster is similar to a short-tined brush (Fig. 1, 4, 5). If
the legs were rubbed against the notogastral surface at the sides these
small spinose areas would come in contact. We postulate that if these
areas on the tibia and tarsi of the legs were approximated to the areas on
the notogaster a stridulation could result. We have, therefore, assumed
that these may be stridulating organs and may be used to make sounds
similar to some Orthoptera.

70 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 49, No. 1

Balogh, Janos. 1961a. Identification keys of world oribatid (Acari) fam-
ilies and genera. Acta Zool. 7(3/4): 243-344.
Balogh, Janos. 1961b. Some new Oribatidae from Central-Africa (Acari).
Annales Univ. Sci. Budapest. DeRolando Eitv6s Nominate 4: 3-7.
Balogh, Janos. 1965. A synopsis of the world oribatid (Acari) genera.
Acta Zool. 11(1-2): 5-99.
Hammer, Marie. 1961. Investigations on oribatid fauna of the Andes
Mts. II. Peru. Biol. Skrift. Dans. Vid. Selsk. 13(1): 1-157.
Hammer, Marie. 1962. Investigations of the oribatid fauna of the Andes
Mountains. III. Chile. Biol. Skrift. Dans. Vid. Selsk. 13(2): 1-96.
Michael, A. D. 1883. British Oribatidae, Volume I, Ray Society, London,
Sellnick, Max. 1929. Formenkreis: Hornmilben, Oribatei. In Die Tier-
welt Mitteleuropas. 3(4/9): 1-42.
Willmann, K. 1931. Moosmilben oder Oribatiden (Oribatei). In Tier-
welt Deutschlands 22(5): 79-200.

The Florida Entomologist 49 (1) March 1966


FLORIDA INSECTS, revised edition. Lewis S. Maxwell. Tampa, Florida,
1965. 120 p. illus. $1.55.
This picture book contains excellent photographs, good descriptions, life
history, and suggested controls for 113 insects and some of their relatives.
All of the insects shown are common to Florida, and many are common
throughout southeastern United States.
Mr. Maxwell accepted a considerable task in developing a book that
would cover such a broad subject area and yet be valuable as a reference
source to the layman. In compiling both the written descriptions and the
photographs, he has used good judgment in including what appears to be
most of the insects most frequently encountered.
The chemical recommendations in general are adequate; however, the
rapid turnover in pesticide chemicals may create need for frequent re-
This is the only recent book available dealing solely with common Florida
insects, and it makes an excellent aid in helping students, homeowners, and
similar persons learn more about some of the insects they encounter.-
J. R. Strayer.

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