Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00162
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1967
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00162
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

Full Text



Volume 50, No. 1 March, 1967

TISSOT, A. N., AND J. O. PEPPER-Two new species of Cinara (Homop-
tera:Aphididae) Associated with Pine Rust Lesions ..---...-..........---. 1
STEGMAIER, C. E. JR.-Notes on the Biology and Distribution of Florida
Leaf-Mining Flies of the Genus, Phytobia Lioy, Subgenus Caly-
comyza Hendel (Diptera:Agromyzidae) ........................... ................ 13
WOLFENBARGER, D. A., AND C. E. HOELSCHER-Contact and fumigant
Toxicity of Oils, Surfactants, and Insecticides to Two Aphid and
Three Beetle Species .............................. .....-- ............... 27
KNUTSON, L. V.-Euplectrus plathypenae (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae)
Reared from Anicla infecta (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae), a New Host
R record .................... .......................................................... 37
EYER, J. R.-A New Species of Opostegidae from Florida .-............... 39
YEARIAN, W. C., AND R. C. WILKINSON-Development of Three Ips Bark
Beetles on a Phloem-Based Rearing Medium .............-----... .......--.-.. 43
DONNELLY, T. W.-The Discovery of Chrysobasis in Central America
with the Description of a New Species (Odonata:Coenagrionidae) 47
STEGMAIER, C. E., JR.-Pluchea odorata, a New Host Record for Acinia
picturata (Diptera:Tephritidae) ----...---..~...~...-.......... ................. 53
MUESEBECK, C. F. W.-Three New Southeastern Parasitic Hymenoptera 57
YOUNG, F. N.-The Hydroporus blanchardi-tigrinus Complex (Coleop-
tera :Dytiscidae) .. -...............-........ .......... ............... ............. 63
ANDERSON, N. H., AND J. E. BREMER-An Efficient Laboratory Technique
for Obtaining Pine Bark Beetle Eggs and Young Larvae ................ 71
MATTA, J. F.-A New Species of Culicoides (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae)
from H onduras ............................. ......................................................... 75
C. P. Kimball Receives Society Award --..........-... ~~...............-.. ............. 11
Obituary: Stanley V. Fuller ...............................-- ................. ....... 62
Florida Entomological Society Membership Data ......--.......~.~..................... 70
Notices ..-.... -..-... ..-..- ------------.................... ..-...-----------.. 52, 61

Published by The Florida Entomological Society


President --.........-..-......................................--- ..----.....J. E. Brogdon
Vice-President~ --- -....-....--.....-...........................- --L. A. Hetrick
Secretary-...-....-...- ..... ..--------------------.....H. A. Denmark
Treasurer....--......................-- ..-..--...--... --------...... D. H. Habeck
J. B. Gahan
W. G. Genung
Other Members of Executive Committee -....- J. R. King
J. E. Porter
W. A. Simanton

Publications Committee
Stratton H. Kerr........-----..... -----............. Editor
James L. Nation ---- ---------. Associate Editor
Dale H. Habeck -._.---- -... -----... Business Manager
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST is issued quarterly-March, June, Septem-
ber, and December. Subscription price to non-members $5.00 per year in
advance; $1.25 per copy. Entered as second class matter at the post office
at Gainesville, Florida.
Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be sent to the Editor,
Entomology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville. Subscriptions
and orders for back numbers are handled by the Business Manager, Box
12425, University Station, Gainesville, Florida 32601. The Secretary can
be reached at the same address.
When preparing manuscripts, authors should consult Style Manual for
Biological Journals, 2nd Edition (American Institute of Biological Sciences,
Washington, D. C., 1964). For form of literature citations, see recent
issues of THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST. Further, authors are re-
ferred to "Suggestions for preparation of manuscripts for THE FLORIDA
ENTOMOLOGIST." Fla. Ent. 48 (2): 145-146. 1965.
The page charge is $5.00, partial pages proportionally. One page
of figures and/or tables is allowed free. An additional one-fourth page
of figures and/or tables is allowed free for each printed page beyond
the fourth printed page. Authors will be charged $2.50 for each one-
fourth page or less of tables and/or figures in excess of the above allow-
ances. An author may have his manuscript published as soon as it has
been reviewed and edited by paying the full costs of publication ($15-25
per printed page). Such manuscripts are published in addition to (rather
than instead of) those normally published. Twenty-five reprints of each
article are furnished free to authors. Additional reprints may be ordered
when the proofs are received for corrections.

Each additional
No. Pages 50 copies 100 copies 100 copies
1-4 ............................................... $ 6.80 $ 8.10 $ 1.30
5-8 .................. ....................... 11.40 14.00 2.70
9-16 ................................................ 16.90 22.20 3.90
17-20 .................. ..... .........-- --- ....--- 25.00 30.50 5.20
More than 20 pages, per page.... 1.30 1.15 .25
Additional for covers with title and author's name,
First 50..................-.........$6.80 Additional, each............$ .02


Entomologist Emeritus, Department of Entomology, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida and
Professor Emeritus, Department of Entomology,
Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania

Certain pine-feeding species of Cinara Curtis some times are found in
both active and dormant lesions or cankers of the rust, Cronartium fusi-
forme Hedge. and Hunt, on trunks or branches of pine trees. These lesions
apparently provide the normal feeding sites of one of the species described
here. Conditions under which it was collected, indicate a probable associ-
ation between the second species described and the rust lesions.

DIAGNOSIS: Structurally and biologically this species resembles Cinara
newelli Tissot and C. westi n. sp. described below. In these species ros-
tral segment IV is long and narrow, and all three have numerous setae
on the dorsum of the abdomen and on the cornicle bases (Fig. 4, 11).
Though lesions of the pine rust appear to be their normal habitat, these
aphids may be taken in other situations. The Florida carpenter ant,
Camponotus abdominalis floridanus (Buckley), usually attends colonies or
groups of these species.
In life, both alates and apterae of C. cronartii are dark brown with
generally dark appendages. C. newelli alates vary from light yellowish-
brown to dark brown and the apterae may be yellowish, light brown, or
even orange, with a light pruinose coating over the body. In cleared speci-
mens both alates and apterae of cronartii have numerous pigmented areas
around some of the abdominal setae, and the apterae especially have a
mottled appearance. C. newelli lacks these pigmentations. C. cronartii
has longer appendages than newelli: for example antennal III is 0.36-
0.532 instead of 0.24-0.31; the hind femur is 0.93-1.38 instead of 0.78-0.95;
and the hind tibia is 1.59-2.34 instead of 1.20-1.60. C. cronartii has more
sensoria on antennal segment III of the alate than newelli, 3-7 instead of
1-2; and fewer setae on the base of antennal VI, 11-5 instead of 16-23.
C. cronartii is a larger aphid with correspondingly larger body struc-
tures than C. westi. The following features serve to separate these two
species: body length 2.59-4.18 instead of 2.00-2.74; length of rostrum (Fig.
15), 1.68-2.22 instead of 1.30-1.53; antennal III, 0.36-0.53 instead of 0.29-
0.32; hind femur, 0.93-1.38 instead of 0.69-0.81; hind tibia, 1.59-2.34 in-
stead of 1.09-1.31. The most striking difference is in the genital plate,
cronartii having about 30 setae on it and westi only 2-6 setae.

SFlorida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series, No. 2417.
2 All measurements in this paper are millimeters. The first two num-
bers show the range in size and the numbers in parentheses are averages
of the specimens measured.








Tissot: Two New Species of Cinara

Color: General body color dark brown. Head and eyes black. First
two antennal segments concolorous with the head; segments III to V light
basally and shading to dark brown at apices; VI dark brown. Prothorax
dark brown on dorsum with anterior and posterior margins lighter. Dor-
sal lobes of meso- and metathorax very dark brown to black. Wings dusky
with the costal border and stigma of the fore wing black. Abdomen
brown, lighter than the thorax. Cornicles, cauda, and anal plate black.
White pulverulence between the lobes of the thorax, in segmentally ar-
ranged spots on the dorsum of the abdomen, on the sides of the abdomen,
and on a large area behind each cornicle. Ventral surface of all body
regions with a light pruinose covering.
Cleared specimens: Head medium brown with darker shading on the
front margin and around the eyes. First two antennal segments concolor-
ous with head; segments III to V pale brown at bases and shading to
medium or dark brown apices; VI medium to dark brown. First rostral
segment and base of second pale, apical one-fifth of second and all remain-
ing segments medium to dark brown. Much of the second segment marked
by large brown spots. Thorax generally about same color as head but dor-
sal lobes and lateral margins of mesothorax sometimes darker. Wings
hyaline with costal borders of both pairs and the stigma of fore wing
medium to dark brown. Fore legs medium to dark brown, usually with a
short, slightly lighter area on basal part of tibia. Middle and hind legs
similar to fore legs, except the light areas on tibia longer and more dis-
tinct. Extreme base of femora of all legs usually pale. Abdomen light
tan or cream, with light to medium brown markings. Muscle attachment
plates on the dorsum, stigmal plates, and sclerotized spots around some
abdominal setae light brown; these spots especially prominent on the sev-
enth segment. Cornicles, sclerotized areas on the eighth tergite, and geni-
tal plate darker brown. Margins of the cauda and anal plate nearly as
dark as the head:
Measurements: (20 specimens) Body length 2.59-3.80 (3.02). Head
width across the eyes 0.62-0.75 (0.69). Rostral length (Fig. 15) 1.68-2.14
(1.88); rostral segments: IV, 0.21-0.30 (0.24); V, 0.09-0.12 (0.10). An-
tennal segments: III, 0.36-0.53 (0.43); IV, 0.12-0.22 (0.17); V, 0.18-0.29
(0.23); VI, 0.13-0.18 (0.15); unguis, 0.027-0.050 (0.035). Hind femur 0.93-
1.38 (1.11). Hind tibia 1.59-2.34 (1.90). Hind tarsal segments: I, 0.09-
0.12 (0.10); II, 0.20-0.26 (0.23). Width of cornicle base 0.31-0.41 (0.36).
Length of setae: on head, 0.055-0.081 (0.069); on antennal III, 0.065-0.119
(0.086); on hind tibia, 0.098-0.140 (0.120); on dorsum of abdomen, 0.054-
0.120 (0.086); on cauda, 0.100-0.162 (0.133).
Other morphological features: Head well rounded above with a prom-

Fig. 1-7. Cinara cronartii: 1-antenna, 7-middle portion of hind
tibia, alate viviparous female; 2-antenna, 3-rostral segments III-V, 4,
5-cornicle, 6-genital plate, apterous viviparous female.
Fig. 8-15. Cinara westi: 8-antenna, 4--middle portion of hind tibia,
alate viviparous female; 9-antenna, 10-rostral segments III-V, 11, 12-
cornicle, 13-genital plate, 15-rostrum, apterous viviparous female. Draw-
ings by J, O. P.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 50, No. 1

inent median suture. Eyes with well developed ocular tubercles; ocelli
large and strongly tuberculate. Setae on head fine and rather numerous,
spaced less than their length apart. Antennae short, reaching nearly to
base of the abdomen. Setae numerous on the two basal antennal segments
(Fig. 1). Segments III to V uneven in profile with the sensoria irregularly
spaced and rather strongly tuberculate. Segment III with 3-7 sensoria,
IV with 1 or 2, V with 1 secondary sensorium in addition to the primary
one. Base of VI with 11-15 setae; unguis short, conical, and rugose. Ros-
tral segments IV and V long and slender. Rostral segment IV with 10-14
setae on each side of the groove in addition to the 6 apical ones; these setae
scattered and extending around toward the ventral surface of the segment.
Wings normal for the genus with the median vein faint and twice branched.
Legs rather slender, the hind ones longer than the body; their setae
slender and fine pointed. Setae on the outer side of the hind tibia longer
than the diameter of the segment (Fig. 7). First segment of all tarsi
bearing one sensory peg. Muscle attachment plates on dorsum of abdomen
rather small and varying in shape from circular, to oval, to comma-shaped.
Setae on abdomen shorter and finer than in the aptera. Shape of the
cornicle and number and arrangement of the setae as in the aptera
(Fig. 4, 5). A faint reticulated pattern on the abdomen scarcely visible
except around the cornicles. Sclerotized portion of eighth abdominal ter-
gite sometimes in a continuous band but usually in two separate but nar-
rowly connected areas. These sclerotized areas faintly and finely spiculose,
the cauda and anal plate strongly so.
Color: General body color dark brown. Head brownish-black, eyes
black. Thorax and abdomen somewhat lighter than head; mesothorax with
darker mottling on the dorsum; metathorax and first abdominal segment
each with two large dark pigmented areas on the dorsum. Legs dark brown
to black, tibiae with somewhat lighter areas near their bases. Cornicle
bases black, with uneven margins.
Cleared specimens: Head, pro- and mesothorax brown, with darker
shading on the front margin of the head, around the eyes, and on the sides
of the mesothorax; the last also with distinct mottling dorsally. Meta-
thorax and abdomen with light tan or cream background ornamented with
dark pigmentation. Metathorax and first abdominal segment each with a
pair of large pigmented areas on the dorsum; these areas always with
very irregular margins and sometimes showing a broken mottled pattern
similar to that on the mesothorax. Abdominal segments two to six usually
with transverse groups of pigmented spots around some dorsal setae.
Similar but more prominent markings on the seventh segment sometimes
fused into two large patches with irregular margins. Muscle attachment
plates, spiracular plates, cornicles, a transverse band on eighth segment,
and genital plate medium brown; cauda and anal plate darker brown.
First antennal segment concolorous with the head, second somewhat lighter.
Segments III to V light yellowish-brown with medium brown apices; VI
medium brown. Rostrum with segment I and base of II yellowish; apical
part of II and remaining segments medium brown. Segment II with large
pigmented spots along much of its length. Fore legs medium to dark
brown with a slightly lighter area near base of tibia; middle and hind legs

Tissot: Two New Species of Cinara

similar to fore legs but with larger and more pronounced light area on
tibiae and at bases of the femora.
Measurements: (20 specimens) Body length 2.96-4.18 (3.51). Head
width across the eyes 0.67-0.79 (0.73). Rostral length 1.68-2.22 (1.94).
Rostral segments: IV, 0.24-0.29 (0.26); V, 0.08-0.11 (0.10). Antennal seg-
ments: III, 0.38-0.51 (0.44); IV, 0.12-0.21 (0.16); V, 0.18-0.27 (0.22); VI,
0.13-0.17 (0.15); unguis, 0.030-0.040 (0.034). Hind femur 0.91-1.30 (1.09).
Hind tibia 1.53-2.11 (1.81). Hind tarsal segments: I, 0.08-0.13 (0.11);
II, 0.21-0.24 (0.22). Width of cornicle base 0.36-0.51 (0.43). Length of
setae: on head, 0.065-0.109 (0.088); on antennal III, 0.060-0.113 (0.085);
on hind tibia, 0.080-0.120 (0.104); on dorsum of abdomen, 0.065-0.110
(0.085); on cauda 0.120-0.162 (0.144).
Other morphological features: Antennal sensoria few in number. Seg-
ment III always with one sensorium near the apex, its diameter one-third
to one-half that of the segment; some individuals with another smaller
sensorium near the apical one. Segment IV with a single sensorium near
its apex. Primary sensorium on segment V at the very apex, the single
secondary sensorium about its own diameter from the primary one. Pri-
mary sensoria on V and VI of about equal size; the 5-6 secondary sensoria
on VI in an irregular row. Base of VI with 12-15 setae; unguis conical
with its basal diameter almost equal to its length. Rostral segment IV
with 9-12 setae on each side in addition to the six apical ones (Fig. 3);
about half of the setae in rows on each side of the groove, the rest scat-
tered over the sides of the segment. Mesosternal tubercle large and mod-
erately convex, with fine longitudinal rugae and 6-12 rather long setae.
Surface of thorax and abdomen showing a fine reticulate pattern in well
cleared individuals. Sclerotized portion of eighth abdominal tergite some-
times a continuous band but usually in two separate areas connected by
narrow strips. The 18-24 setae on the sclerotized area arranged in an ir-
regular row along the posterior margin. Genital plate (Fig. 6) with about
30 setae, located mostly on the lateral areas. Cornicle (Fig. 5) rather low
with gently sloping unevenly margined base and a narrow rim around the
opening. Setae shorter, finer, and more numerous on the upper portion
of the basal cone than around the margin. A single sensory peg on the
first segment of all tarsi.
NOTES: From December 1962 until early 1966 it was believed that
Cinara cronartii occurred only in or near lesions of the fusiform rust on
trunks and branches of pine trees. In 1962, Edward P. Merkel of the Naval
Stores and Timber Products Laboratory at Olustee, Florida sent specimens
of this aphid to A. N. Tissot. The aphids were found in cages containing
fungus galls being used in the study of other insects. Acting on this clue,
Tissot found the aphid in fungus galls on pines at Gainesville. Later,
R. C. Wilkinson, W. J. Coleman, and the authors made additional collec-
tions of it at several other locations in Florida.
In March 1966, while preparing to describe some new species of Cinara,
the authors studied specimens of an aphid taken near Ocala, Florida,
6 Aug. 1955, in large exposed colonies on branches of Pinus clausa
(Chapm.) Vasey. At the time of collection this aphid was believed to
be different from any known species of Cinara but it was not described
then. Surprisingly, it was found that mounted specimens of the Ocala
aphid were very similar to those of C. cronartii. Furthermore, color

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 50, No. 1

notes of the two forms made from living specimens were almost identical.
Careful measurements of several alates and apterae showed that the
average size of the Ocala aphid was appreciably smaller than the one
found in rust lesions though there was some overlap in the size of many
body structures. In view of the totally different feeding sites it seemed
possible that two distinct aphid species were involved in spite of their
similarity. It was decided that transfer tests could be helpful. On 18
March 1966, a few dozen aphids of various sizes were collected from old
canker areas on the lower trunks of Pinus taeda L. near Gainesville. These
aphids were separated into three lots of comparable size. Two of the lots
were caged in muslin sleeves on 1-inch diameter branches of P. clause
and the third was caged on a similar branch of P. serotina Mich. A few
days later an examination of the cages showed that many aphids of the
three groups were feeding normally and it seemed probable that the trans-
fers would be successful. On 21 April the two caged colonies on P. clausa
still were thriving and in addition there was a well established colony on
the branch a short distance from one of the cages. This colony undoubt-
edly developed from a few aphids known to have escaped from the cage
during a previous inspection. These findings give sufficient proof that
the aphid found on P. clausa at Ocala is identical with the one that lives
in rust lesions on other species of pine. Though these lesions provide
the normal feeding sites for the species it obviously can live fully exposed
in some cases.
Nearly always the aphid groups or colonies are associated with ants,
usually Camponotus abdominalis floridanus (Buckley). Often the ants
have their nest underground at the base of the tree on which the aphids
are found. This ant is a nocturnal species and presumably actively at-
tends the aphids only at night unless the aphids chance to be located
below ground or are protected by accumulations of pine needles or other
Debris. Other ants associated with C. cronartii include Crematogaster
sp. and Aphenogaster sp. The aphid is relatively free from attack by
the usual aphid predators but it often is heavily parasitized in spite of
the secluded habitat. The braconid Aphidius (Protoaphidius) bicolor Ash-
mead has been reared from it.
The aphids remain in the rust lesions throughout the year. They feed
principally on the newer callus tissue of the gall but seem able to obtain
nourishment from relatively hard wood or bark. In spring when the rust
is sporulating, the aphids may be found among the loose spores beneath
the crusty surface of the galls. The colonies seldom are exposed to view
and one must remove flakes of bark or other covering before they can
be seen. Because of the hidden situations in which this aphid generally
lives, a special technique is required for collecting it. The uninitiated col-
lector is not likely to find it at all.
TYPES: Holotype and morphotype (each with a paratype on the slide),
collection F-62-58, and other paratypes, in U. S. National Museum; para-
types in the collections of'the University of Florida Entomology Depart-
ment, of the Florida Arthropod Collection, of Pennsylvania State Univer-
sity, of the authors, and in various other public and private aphid collec-
TYPE LOCALITY: Columbia County, Florida.
COLLECTIONS: In or near lesions of the rust, Cronartium fusiforme

Tissot: Two New Species of Cinara

Hedge. and Hunt, on trunks or branches of pines: On slash pine, Pinus
elliottii Englem. Columbia County, Fla. Dec. 1962 (F-62-58* 3 Paul Mikell),
51 slides, holotype, morphotype and paratypes. Gainesville, Fla. 2-26-1964
(F-64-8 ANT), 4 slides. Taylor, Fla. 3-13-1964 (F-64-14*:, F-64-15* ANT),
27 slides; 6-17-1964 (F-64-53 R. C. Wilkinson and W. J. Coleman), 3 slides.
On loblolly pine, P. taeda L.-Gainesville, Agr. Exp. Sta. Farm 4-3-1963
(F-63-32* ANT), 8 slides, 4-5-1963 (F-63-34* ANT), 28 slides, 4-10-1963
(F-63-40 ANT), 5 slides, 11-21-1963 (F-63-76* ANT), 2 slides, 3-9-1964
(F-64-11 ANT), 1 slide; Horticulture Research Unit, 4-5-1963 (F-63-33*
ANT), 10 slides, 3-24-1964 (JOP & ANT), 4 slides; N. W. 15th Ave.,
3-11-1964 (F-64-13* ANT), 6 slides; S. E. 16th Ave., 3-23-1965 (F-65-5*
JOP & ANT), 4 slides, 3-29-1965 (F-65-527*, F-65-528* ANT & JOP), 15
slides, 3-29-1965 (F-65-13*, F-65-14*, F-65-15* JOP & ANT), 17 slides,
3-15-1966 (F-66-2*, F-66-502*, JOP & ANT), 26 slides; N. W. 39th Ave.,
3-25-1966 (F-66-3*, F-66-507a JOP & ANT), 17 slides; near the Munic-
ipal Airport, 4-1-1966 (F-66-513 ANT & JOP), 3 slides. Lee, Fla., 4-6-
1966 (F-66-515 RCW), 4 slides. On branches of sand pine, P. clausa
(Chapm.) Vasey-St. Augustine, Fla. 4-11-1945 (F-2458-45 ANT), 1 slide
(one specimen in a collection of C. carolina Tis.). Ocala, Fla. 8-6-1955
(F-3765-55* ANT), 68 slides. Gainesville, Fla. 3-29-1966 (F-66-512 ANT &
JOP), 2 slides. Beating P. clausa-Salt Springs, Ocala National Forest,
Fla. 3-26-1965 (F-65-523c ANT & JOP), 1 slide. The known range of
this aphid was extended greatly when G. F. Fedde made two collections
of it in South Carolina. Collection data are: Clemson, S. C., Ginning
Mill Plantation, 5-23-1966 (S C-66-3), in old rust lesions on Pinus taeda,
6 slides with mature apterae and late instar nymphs; Fox Plantation,
6-14-1966 (GFF 82-66), in old lesions of Cronartium fusiforme on 3-foot-
high tree of P. taeda, 5 slides with alate and apterous viviparae and
alatoid nymphs. A slide in the U. S. National Museum bears the follow-
ing data: "University, Va. Let. Feb. 11, 1932, on pine needles, by R. S.
Maddox". We have not been able to determine whether this locality is
CINARA WESTI new species

DIAGNOSIS: C. westi resembles C. cronartii n. sp., C. newelli Tissot,
and C. taedae Tissot in some respects but it can readily be separated from
each of them. The most conspicuous difference is in the setae of the
genital plate. C. westi has only 2-6 setae on this structure, while the other
species have 28-50. The setae on segment IV of the rostrum also help to
separate the species, as C. westi has 4-7 setae on each side of the groove,
C. cronartii 9-15, C. newelli, 12-17, and C. taedae, 2-3. Finally, C. westi
has two sensory pegs on the first segment of all tarsi while the other
species have only one peg. C. westi appears to be similar to C. rigidae
Hottes but limited material of the latter and the condition of the speci-
mens make a dependable comparison impossible. The single individuals
of alate and apterous viviparous females of rigidae each have three sen-
sory pegs on the first segment of the tarsi and C. westi always has two
pegs. More extensive collecting may prove that the two aphids are identi-
cal but the available evidence indicates that they are different species.

3 Paratype specimens were selected from the collections indicated by an
asterisk (*).

8 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 1

Color: Detailed color notes of living aphids are not available but
the general color is brown.
Cleared specimens: Head dark brown with still darker shading around
the ocelli; the median suture black. First two antennal segments some-
what lighter than head. Segments III-VI pale at base and shading to
medium brown on their apical portions. Rostral segment I pale; segment
II pale at base and light brown on apical one-third, a few brown spots
in the middle region. Segments III-V progressively darker than the apex
of II. Thorax dark brown, the dorsal lobes concolorous with the head.
Wings dusky, their costal margins and the stigma light brown. All femora
medium to dark brown, the hind pair pale at extreme base. Bases and
apices of tibiae nearly as dark as the femora, with slightly lighter areas
on their basal halves. These light areas longer and more pronounced on
middle and hind pairs than on the fore tibiae. All tarsi medium brown.
Abdomen light tan with darker markings. Stigmal plates, cornicles, and
genital plate light brown; cauda and anal plate medium brown.
Measurements: (10 specimens) Body length 2.00-2.37 (2.20). Head
width across the eyes 0.56-0.62 (0.59). Rostral length (Fig. 15) 1.30-1.48
(1.40). Rostral segments: IV, 0.19-0.22 (0.20); V, 0.090-0.114 (0.099).
Antennal segments: III, 0.28-0.32 (0.30); IV, 0.12-0.15 (0.14); V, 0.19-
0.22 (0.21); VI, 0.16-0.19 (0.17); unguis, 0.032-0.055 (0.047). Hind femur
0.69-0.78 (0.72). Hind tibia 1.17-1.31 (1.21). Hind tarsal segments: I,
0.080-0.100 (0.093); II, 0.19-0.22 (0.20). Width of cornicle base 0.19-0.24
(0.21). Length of setae: on head, 0.055-0.70 (0.062); on antennal III,
0.060-0.081 (0.070); on hind tibia, 0.070-0.110 (0.088); on dorsum of ab-
domen, 0.060-0.076 (0.068); on the cauda, 0.090-0.140 (0.123).
Other morphological features: Head rounded above, the front margin
curved, but sometimes when viewed from above, the front appears angular
with nearly straight sides; median suture narrow but distinct. Eyes large
with well developed ocular tubercles, ocelli strongly tuberculate. Setae on
the head fine and fairly numerous, their lengths about equal to distances
between their bases. Antennae shorter than head and thorax combined.
The 3-6 sensoria on segment III variable in size, unevenly spaced in an
irregular row generally extending over the apical two-thirds of the seg-
ment. Segment IV with 1-2 sensoria on its apical half, V with 1 second-
ary sensorium in addition to the apical primary one. Primary sensoria on
segments V and VI with definite rims. Antennal segments I and II with
numerous fine setae (Fig. 8). Setae on segment III more numerous on
anterior side than on posterior, the longest setae about 11/ times as
long as diameter of the segment. Base of segment VI with 10-13 setae,
the unguis with 3-4 subapical setae and 3 terminal ones; unguis about
twice as long as its basal width. Rostral segments IV and V (Fig. 10)
long and narrow. Segment IV with 4-7 setae each side of the groove in
addition to the 6 apical ones. Wings normal for the genus, the median
vein once branched. Legs slender; in most individuals the hind tibiae
strongly curved. Setae on hind tibia more erect on outer side than on
inner, the longest setae about 1% times the width of the tibia (Fig. 14).
Two large sensory pegs near apex of lower surface of first segment of all
tarsi. Setae on dorsal and ventral surfaces of abdomen about the same

Tissot: Two New Species of Cinara

length, slender and fine pointed. Cornicles rather small, with generally
even margins. Setae on cornicles about the same length as those on ab-
domen, arranged more or less in circles over entire cornicle base. Two
sclerotized patches on eighth abdominal tergite. The 14-22 setae on this
tergite arranged in irregular rows, usually along posterior margins of
sclerotized areas, a few setae sometimes outside these areas. Genital plate
(Fig. 13) with only 2-6 setae, generally located near the anterior margin
of the plate. Surfaces of cauda, anal plate, and genital plate faintly and
finely spiculose.
APTEROUS VIVIPAROUS FEMALE (Fig. 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15)
Color: The general color of living aphids is brown.
Cleared specimens: Head medium to dark brown, with darker shading
on front margin and in region of the eyes. First two antennal segments
medium brown, lighter than the head. Segments III-V pale at the base,
shading to medium brown apically; extreme apex of III sometimes pale.
Segment VI medium brown. Rostral segment I and basal half of II pale;
apical one-fourth of II medium brown its midregion mottled with brown.
Segment III medium brown, IV and V dark brown. Thorax and abdomen
light tan with brown markings. Pro- and mesothorax with light brown
shading on parts of the dorsum and on their sides. Femora of all legs
medium to dark brown, except their extreme bases which are pale. Bases
of tibia and their apical halves concolorous with the femora, with lighter
areas on their basal halves. These light areas longer and more pro-
nounced on middle and hind pairs than on fore legs. Muscle attachment
plates, stigmal plates, cornicles, and genital plate vary from light to
medium brown in different individuals. Cauda, anal plate, and sclerotized
areas on eighth tergite generally darker brown than the above structures.
Measurements: (10 specimens) Body length 2.15-2.74 (2.49). Head
width across the eyes 0.61-0.66 (0.64). Rostral length (Fig. 15) 1.41-1.53
(1.46). Rostral segments: IV, 0.21-0.23 (0.22); V, 0.092-0.103 (0.098).
Antennal segments: III, 0.27-0.32 (0.30); IV, 0.13-0.16 (0.14); V, 0.19-
0.23 (0.21); VI, 0.17-0.19 (0.18); unguis, 0.043-0.050 (0.046). Hind femur
0.69-0.81 (0.74). Hind tibia 1.09-1.27 (1.18). Hind tarsal segments: I,
0.098-0.108 (0.102); II, 0.19-0.23 (0.21). Width of cornicle base 0.24-0.28
(0.26). Length of setae: on head, 0.060-0.103 (0.078); on antennal III,
0.076-0.092 (0.081); on hind tibia, 0.070-0.100 (0.087); on dorsum of ab-
domen, 0.060-0.091 (0.078); on cauda, 0.080-0.140 (0.120).
Other morphological features: Antennal sensoria unusually few in
this form. In 10 specimens studied, segment III always devoid of sensoria;
only a single individual with a small sensorium on IV of one antenna.
Primary sensorium of V at very apex of the segment, the single secondary
sensorium about twice its diameter from the primary one. Primary sen-
soria on V and VI are of the rimmed type. The 4-6 secondary sensoria
on VI irregularly placed, variable in size. Base of VI with 8-12 setae;
unguis with 4 subapical setae and 3 terminal ones, its length about twice
its basal diameter. Rostral segment IV (Fig. 10) with 4-7 setae in an
irregular row on each side of the groove on basal three-fourths of the
segment. Mesosternum flat with no sign of a tubercle. Two well devel-
oped sensory pegs near apex of the first segment of all tarsi. Eighth
abdominal tergite with two irregular-margined, widely separated, sclero-

The Florida Entomologist

tized areas. The 14-22 setae on this tergite mostly on posterior portions
of the sclerotized areas, though a few often are outside these areas.
Cornicles and their setae (Fig. 11, 12) similar to those of the alate but
the basal margin more irregular. Genital plate (Fig. 13) with only 2-6
setae, as in the alate.
NOTES: Cinara westi has been taken in three somewhat different sit-
uations. In one case a large colony was found in southeast Gainesville
beneath ant sheds on small branches of a tree, near the ground. Canker
lesions of the rust, Cronartium fusiforme, were noted on larger branches
elsewhere on the tree. On a nearby tree, another smaller colony was
found under an ant shed on an active (sporulating) rust canker on a
1-inch diameter branch. Both ant sheds were constructed by a species of
Crematogaster. Two individuals of this aphid were taken beneath the
bark at the edge of a rust canker on a tree in the Forestry area of the
Horticulture Research Unit of the University of Florida, about 12 miles
northwest of the other location. All collections were from loblolly pine.
This species is named in honor of the late Erdman West who for many
years was Botanist and Mycologist of the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station of the University of Florida. During that time Mr. West identi-
fied a great many aphid host plants for the authors.
TYPES: Holotype, morphotype (with an alate paratype on the slide),
and paratypes, collection F-65-518, in U. S. National Museum. Paratypes
in the collections of the University of Florida Entomology Department,
of Florida Arthropod Collection, of Pennsylvania State University, and of
the authors.
TYPE LOCALITY: Gainesville, Florida.
COLLECTIONS: Gainesville, Florida, S. E. 16th Avenue, 3-23-1965, be-
neath ant sheds on small branches near the ground (F-65-518*' ANT &
JOP), 48 slides, holotype, morphotype and paratypes; Mar. 23, 1965 (F-
65-9* JOP & ANT), 24 slides. Under ant shed on rust lesion, 3-23-1965,
(F-65-516* ANT & JOP), 8 slides; Mar. 23, 196,5* (JOP & ANT), 8 slides.
Forest Area, Horticulture Research Unit, University of Florida, under
bark at edge of rust canker, Mar. 24, 1965 (JOP & ANT), 1 slide.

We are grateful t Edward P. Merkle f the Naval Stores and Timber
Products Laboratory at 0lustee, Forida, who sent us specimens of Cinara
cronartii and thus provided the first clue to the association of this aphid
with pine rust lesions. Thanks are due to G. F. Fedde, graduate student,
Department of Entomology and Zoology, Clemson University, who made
a diligent search of pine rust lesions and succeeded in taking two col-
lections of the aphid at Clemson, S. C. We are especially indebted to Miss
Louise M. Russell, Entomology Research Division, Agricultural Research
Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., for her very
thorough, critical review of- our manuscript. Her helpful suggestions have
improved the paper greatly.

Paratype specimens were selected from the collections indicated by an
asterisk (*).

'The Florida Entomologist 50(1) 1967

Vol. 50, No. I




T'*2~~ ~~
io..~ "
: ~


Mr. C. p. Kimball, author of "Lepidoptera of Florida", was honored at
the 1966 annual meeting of the Florida Entomological Society. The award
was made for his many contributions to the state collection as well as for
his work on "Lepidoptera of Florida". He began his compilation of the
book in 1953. It was published in 1965 by the Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture.

Photo by E. M. Collins, Jr., Div. Plant Ind., Fla. Dept. Agr.

The Florida Entomologist 50(1) 1967

;1 I

~ln Ic ~)




*r Si

, F
: AM. d


L~U~~- '


~~L~L~7~n v ;C1:


For more than half a century, Cyanamid has consistently led the
chemical industry in developing new products and application
techniques that have helped immeasurably to bolster our na-
tional farm economy. E Topping the list of Cyanamid "firsts" is
Malathion LV* Concentrate, introduced commercially last year
for the control of boll weevils on cotton after two years of use
on more than 1 million treatment acres in cooperation with the
U.S.D.A.'s Agricultural Research Service. 0 Malathion LV Con-
centrate is also being used extensively to combat grasshoppers,
cereal leaf beetles, corn rootworm beetles, mosquitoes, blue-
berry maggots, flies and beet leafhoppers. E Watch for progress
reports of new tests conducted against many other pests with
both aerial and ground equipment. Data being processed daily
show clearly that Malathion LV Concentrate is fast making all
other methods of insect control obsolete! 0 Before using any
pesticide, stop and read the label. *Trademark


11335 N.W. 59th Avenue, Hialeah, Florida 33012

Little published information is available concerning the subgenus
Calycomyza of the genus Phytobia in Florida; moreover, the subgenus is
virtually unknown in the neotropical area of South Florida. The author
and other Florida entomologists collected certain ecological data regard-
ing the larval host plants, parasites, and other aspects of the life history
of the subgenus Calycomyza. The Florida research yielded several new
species of Calycomyza currently being described by Kenneth A. Spencer
of London, England.
The larvae of certain Calycomyza species are known from the litera-
ture to produce distinct leaf mine forms on the leaves of their respective
host plants. Frick (1956) reported numerous leaf mine forms concerning
the Calycomyza species. Certain Calycomyza species may be recognized
in the field, occurring as immature stages within the leaves of their host
plants, by various types of leaf-mine forms. This information provides
a means of correct identifications of the immature stage of the leaf miner
species without rearing the adults in the majority of cases.
The subgenus Calycomyza is found throughout the world in Europe,
Asia, Africa, North, Central, and South America, the Caribbean Islands,
and Mexico. The subgenus is especially well represented in North and
South America. More research and data are especially needed from the
neotropical region; many new species remain undiscovered. The host
plants of many described Calycomyza species remain to be reported.
Parasites and other biological data concerning the Calycomyza are incom-
plete in this neotropical area.
Frick (1956) stated that 21 species are described and mentioned that
the adults of all but 4 species have been reared from larvae mining in
leaves of specific host plants. Frick also provided keys to 14 species of
the subgenus Calycomyza. Spencer (1963) added to the information on
the subgenus from the Caribbean Islands and South America. He de-
scribed 8 new species of Calycomyza and discussed an additional 19
Frick (1956) reported that known larvae of Calycomyza species pro-
duce mines in the form of a blotch, linear blotch, or an extremely twisted
linear mine that becomes a blotch. The author illustrates as an exception
a mine of Calycomyza malvae (Burgess) (Fig. 2, A and B) that resem-
bles a linear mine of a Liriomyza species. When C. malvae mines smaller
leaves of a malvaceous host, it produces a linear-blotch mine. Frick also
reported that some of the Calycomyza species pupate within their leaf

1 Contribution No. 93, Entomology Section, Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture, Gainesville.
2 Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Division of
Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 50, No. 1

mines while others leave the mine channels to pupate. He stated that
larvae which pupate in the leaf mines attach the puparium to the lower
epidermis with a mass of frass. Frick observed that before pupating, the
larva cuts a curved slit in the upper epidermis through which the adult
can escape. The frass may be deposited in various patterns, but usually
was found to be concentrated about the pupation site or exit.

Phytobia (Calycomyza) ambrosiae Frick

Frick (1956) described the species; the holotype was reared by G. G.
Ainslie from Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. in Tennessee. The species was
also collected from A. artemisiifolia by J. M. Aldrich in Indiana. L. D.
Beamer collected P. ambrosiae from Ambrosia trifida L., Royal Palm,
Florida, while S. D. Frost reared the species from both species of ragweed
in Pennsylvania. Frick reported that the species forms large blotch mines
in the leaves of ragweed and larvae leave the mine before pupating.
I have observed large oval or irregular blotch mines of larvae in leaves
of ragweed in south Florida. Fig. 1A, illustrates mature and immature
mines of P. ambrosiae in artemisiifolia. Irregular blotch mines are pro-
duced by larval feeding in all directions with one larva per mine on the
upper surface of the leaves. I have never observed mines on the lower
leaf surfaces in south Florida. Many mines may occur on a single rag-
weed leaf when a severe infestation is present as shown in Fig. 1A. Fre-
quent and severe infestations on ragweed have been observed throughout
the growing season in south Florida.
Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Hialeah, 7 Mar. 1963 (C.E.S.).

Phytobia (Calycomyza) jucunda (Wulp)

The species was first described as Agromyza jucunda by van der Wulp
(1867). Blanchard (1938) changed the generic designation to Dizygomyza.
Frick (1952) stated, "Dr. Hering, in correspondence, has confirmed that
this species does not occur in Europe. It is very closely related to P.
humeralis, but the larvae make distinctive blotch mines in the leaves of
numerous plants. Hendel believed that A. platyptera is a synonym of
P. jucunda." Frick (1952), in his generic revision of the Agromyzidae,
placed the species as P. (C.) jucunda. Frick (1956) listed the following
as synonyms of jucunda: Agromyza jucunda Wulp, Dizygomyza (Caly-
comyza) jucunda (Wulp), Agromyza platyptera Thomson, Agromyza cor-
onata Loew, and Phytobia (Calycomyza) coronata (Loew). Blanchard
(1954) stated that his 1938 citation concerning the species in Argentina
was an error, and he subsequently included it as a new species, Dizygo-
myza jucundacea. Spencer (1963) commented on jucundacea (Blanchard),
"It has not been possible to examine this species nor to include it in my
key." Spencer suggested that jucundacea may be identical to malvae

Fig. 1A. Mature and immature mines of Calycomyza ambrosiae on
leaves of Ambrosia artemisiifolia.
Fig. lB. A single blotch mine of Calycomyza jucunda on leaf of
Bidens pilosa, spanish needle.


The Florida Entomologist

(a specimen bred from Gossypium at Tucuman, Panama) and indicated
that its true status can be clarified only by examination of male genitalia
of further specimens bred from Papaver.
Frick (1956) reported P. jucunda as a Nearctic species recorded from
many states in the United States, Hawaii, and Canada. He cited host
plants of jucunda as: Ambrosia trifida L., Arctium sp., Artemisia doug-
lasiana Bess., A. vulgaris L., globe artichoke, Baccharis viminea DC.
Erigeron canadensis L. Erigeron sp., Grinidella squarrosa (Pursh.) Heli-
anthus annuus L., Heterotheca i. t..l:rl., Nutt., Solidago sp., Xanthinum
sp., and Zinnia sp.
Frick reported the mines of jucunda as large white blotches turning
brown with age. The larva pupates in the leaf mine channel and frass
is deposited in a mass of small pellets around the pupation site. Frick
noted a short linear portion at the beginning of the mine which developed
into a blotch; the blotch usually obliterated the short linear mine. C.
jucunda may have up to six mines centrally located on the midribs of
1 leaf of Helianthus according to Frick.
C. jucunda is quite common in south Florida infesting many plants in
the family Compositae. A preferred host seems to be the wild spanish
needle, Bidens pilosa L. Infestations on the leaves of spanish needle have
been observed to occur throughout most of the year in south Florida. The
leaves usually assume a distorted or wrinkled appearance largely as a
result of the mines placed on the midrib or lateral leaf veins. The mature
mine of jucunda (Fig. 1B), on the lateral edge of a Bidens leaf has
necrotic or brown tissue surrounded by white on the outside of the mine.
The short linear mine of which Frick speaks is also well defined and in
this case is not obliterated by the blotch. The short linear mine leads
into the blotch mine sometimes called a phyllonome.
The color of many previously observed immature mines on such plants
.as Aster sp., and Solidago sp. (cited in the rearing records) are light
green. The larvae sometimes produce a central blotch mine with many
characteristic finger-like processes which resemble a green star on thicker
leaves of some composites. Hering (1951) (a noted authority on all orders
of leaf miners in Germany) described this particular type of mine when
he stated, "Finally, there are a whole series of mines in which the larva,
setting out from a central patch, drives short tracks or galleries into
the leaf in all directions, forming in this way a star-shaped pattern.
These are therefore known as digitate or star mines or asteronomes."
Hering observed that this peculiar type mine construction seemed to be
associated with avoidance of strong leaf veins by the larva while feeding.
I have not investigated the host range within the family Compositae
for jucunda in south Florida, but September through March seem to be
ideal months for the study'of host plant ranges of the species as severe
infestations of jucunda are common.

Fig. 2 (A and B). Linear leaf mines of Calycomyza malvae on leaves
of Sida species.
Fig. 2 (C and D). Blotch mines of Calycomyza lantanae on leaves of
Lantana camera.

Vol. 50, No. 1

M u.

The Florida Entomologist

Aster simmondsii Small: Hialeah, 24 and 29 Jan. 1966 (leaf mines only)
Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.: Sanford, 21 Jan. 1964 (G. W. Desin) ; Quincy,
13 May 1964 (D. H. Habeck).
Bidens pilosa L.: Hialeah, 16 Apr. 1963 (C. E. S.); Hialeah, 4 July 1966
(leaf mines only) (C.E.S.).
Gnaphalium spathalium Lam.: Hialeah, 22 Apr. 1964 (first emergence
of adults, 2 May 1964) (C.E.S.).
Helianthus annuus L.: Hialeah, 7 Mar. 1963 (C.E.S.); Hialeah 4 Apr.
1963 (first emergence of adults, 16 Apr. 1963) (C.E.S.).
Solidago caesia L.: Hialeah, 6 June 1966 (leaf mines only) (C.E.S.).
Solidago tortifolia Ell.: Hialeah, 17 Oct. 1965 (leaf mines only) (C.E.S.).
Solidago spp.: Hialeah, 10 Nov., 6, 12, and 17 Dec. 1965, 24 and 29 Jan.
1966 (leaf mines only) (C.E.S.).
Xanthium sp.: Quincy, 13 May 1964 (first emergence of adults, 18 May
1964) (D. H. Habeck).
Zinnia sp. cult.: Miami Beach, 10 Apr. 1964 (leaf mines only) (C.E.S.).

Phytobia (Calycomyza) lwntanae Frick
Frick (1956) described and discussed this neotropical species and stated
that larvae mine the leaves of the following host plants: Lantana camera
L., Lantana species, and Lippia helleri Britt., recorded from Texas, Mexico,
Puerto Rico, and Trinidad. Frick reported that Williston's syntype series
of allecta in the British Museum belongs to this species and indicates col-
lections of C. lantanae were reared by N. L. H. Krauss from blotch mines
of Lantana camera in Trinidad. Krauss also collected C. lantanae from
L. camera in Grenada, West Indies. Spencer (1963) cited personal col-
lections of C. lantanae from blotch mines on Verbena litoralis H. B. and
K. and Lantana from Caracas, Venezuela.
I have observed C. lantanae severely mining leaves of Lantana camera
throughout the year in south Florida. Fig. 2, C and D, shows two leaves
of Lantana camera with a single blotch mine or stigmatonome on each of
two leaves. The blotch mine of lantanae contains a well defined dark area
which is a characteristic accumulation of excretory deposits contained in
a central mass. The dipterous leaf miners on Lantana camera found in
south Florida to date are C. lantanae and Ophiomyia camarae Spencer.
Mines of O. camarae follow the midrib and lateral veins only; therefore,
the blotch mines of C. lantanae should not be confused with those of any
other leaf miner on L. camera in Florida.
Lantana camera L.: Hialeah, 18 Apr. 1963 (C.E.S.); Miami Beach, 6 May
1964 (leaf mines only) (C.E.S.); South Miami, Sep. 1965 (C.E.S.).

Phytobia (Calycomyza) malvae (Burgess)
Burgess (1880) described this Nearctic species as Oscinis malvae mining
the leaves of Malva ... m/iif.Jrr L. Frick (1956) placed the species in

Vol. 50, No. 1

Stegmaier: Flies of the Subgenus Calycomyza

its present generic position and cited the following host plants: Abutilon
theophrasti Medic., Althea sp., Malvastrum coromandelianum L., and
Sida spinosa L. He cited the distribution of the species from the follow-
ing areas: Arizona, California, New Mexico, New York, Florida, Wash-
ington, D. C., Indiana, Pennsylvania, and the Panama Canal Zone. Spen-
cer (1963) reported C. malvae from Sida sp. from Brazil; however, per-
sonal correspondence from Spencer has disclosed that the Florida species
and the Brazilian species may be distinct species. He illustrated a leaf
mine of C. malvae which had been sent to him from my personal collection
of Sida rhombifolia mined leaves. The leaf mine illustrated by Spencer
(1963) appears as a blotch mine.
Spencer quoted a description of a leaf mine described by Burgess as
follows: "an irregular linear mine, first above the under-, afterwards be-
neath the upper surface." Frost (1964) reported rearing Phytobia (aly-
comyza) malvae from linear mines of Urena lobata Vell. at the Archbold
Biological Station at Lake Placid, Florida. He also recorded light trap
collections of the species from the same locality.
C. malvae has also been reared from several malvaceous host plants by
the author in south Florida since 1962. Numerous leaf mines, especially
on Sida spp., have been noted continuously throughout the year in south
Florida. Fig. 2A and B, illustrate typical linear mines on leaves of Sida
spp. Fig. 2A illustrates a single linear mine of malvae. Although the
mine is distinct and clear, the excretory trail is irregular and rather dif-
fuse. The excretory pellets and trail show an alteration first on one side
and then on another, after which the excretory trail seems to be centered
in the mine channel. Fig. 2B illustrates a leaf containing multiple mines
of malvae. The species does not cross the midrib of Sida in its larval
stage except near the outer edge of the leaf; the species seems to prefer
the lateral edges of the leaves. A possible explanation for this aspect
of mining by the larvae may be the lack of strong mouthparts and the
inability to feed on the strong vascular bundles of the larger leaf veins.
Spencer's (1963) illustration of the mines of malvae show most of the
blotch type mines between two leaf veins of Sida rhombifolia L.

Abutilon sp.: Hialeah, 21 Aug. 1962 (C.E.S.).
Althea rose Cav.: Gainesville, 22 Apr. 1964 (first emergence of adults,
3 May 1964) (D. H. Habeck).
Malvastrum corchorifolium (Desr.) Britton: Hialeah, 15 Sep. 1963 (first
emergence of adults, 23 Sept. 1963) (C.E.S.).
Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Gareke: Hialeah, Sep. 1964 (leaf
mines only) (C.E.S.).
Sida acuta Burm.: Hialeah, 18 Aug. 1962 (C.E.S.).
Sida cordifolia L.:. Hialeah, 3 Aug. 1963 (C.E.S.).
Sida rhombifolia L.: Hialeah, 4 Feb. 1963 (C.E.S.).
Sida spp.: Hialeah, 22 Sep. 1963 (C.E.S.). Many unidentified species of
Sida have been observed to be mined by C. malvae in various areas
of Florida, and mines have been seen by the author throughout the sea-

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 50, No. 1

sons in south Florida. Sida seems to be a preferred host plant as it
is severely infested during the cooler months in Neotropical Florida.

Phytobia (Calycomyza) verbenae (Hering)

Hering (1951) described the species as Dizygomyza (Calycomyza) ver-
benae, and Frick (1953) placed the species in its present generic position.
Frick stated that the larvae form blotch mines in the leaves of cultivated
varieties of Verbena hybrida Voss. Frick commented that type specimens
were reared by J. R. Eyer, at Las Cruces, New Mexico. Frick (1956)
recorded the following distribution of C. verbenae: Arizona, New Mexico,
Texas, Missouri, Illinois, Ohio, Indiana, New York, Pennsylvania, New
Jersey, Washington, D. C., Maryland, Georgia, Florida, and Mississippi.
Frick (1956) cited the host plants of verbenae as: Verbena neomexicana
(Grey) Small, V. wrightii Grey, and V. hybrid Voss, cultivated varieties.
Frost (1964) cited collections of C. verbena from light traps stationed
at the Archbold Biological Station at Lake Placid, Florida. Spencer (1963)
stated that C. verbena is not a true neotropical species since it occurs so
far north; however, he suggested that the species may be found in the
West Indies or Central America. No one knows the southern limit of its
distribution at the present date.
I have not yet recorded the species from south Florida.

Phytobia (Calycomyza) ipomaeae (Frost)

Frost (1931) described the species as Agromyza ipomaeae, a leaf miner
on sweet potato leaves in Puerto Rico. Frick (1952) placed Phytobia
(Calycomyza) ipomaeae (Frost) in its present generic position. Frick
(1957) emended the name ipomaeae, the specific name assigned by Frost
in his original description, to ipomoeae; Spencer (1963) stated that Frick's
reason for the emendation was to bring the specific name of the fly in line
with the current botanical spelling of the host plant, "Ipomoea". Spencer
reported that the specific name assigned by Frost was correct as the
original spelling used by Linnaeus was Ipomaea and he did not accept
Frick's emendation. Spencer also reported the distribution of P. ipomaeae
as Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republica, and Brazil.


Calonyction aculeatium (L.) House: Hialeah, 29 Aug. 1962 (C.E.S.);
Clewiston, just south of route No. 27, 21 Jan. 1966 (D. H. Habeck).
Infestations on this host plant are severe from November through
March in south Florida.
Ipomoea batatas Poir.: Hialeah, 18 Sep. 1963 (first emergence of adults,
26 Sep. 1963) (C.E.S.). Extremely severe infestations on sweet po-
tatoes were noted by the author during December 1966 in Hialeah,

Fig. 3 (A, B, and C). Mines of Calycomyza ipomaeae on leaves of a
moonflower, Calonyction aculeatum.
Fig. 3 (D, E, and F). Mines of Calycomyza ipomaeae on leaves of a
morning glory, Ipomoea tiliacea.

Stegmaier: Flies of the Subgenus Calycomyza


The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 50, No. 1

Ipomoea sp. (unidentified morning glory): Miami, 12 June 1963 (first
emergence of adults, 28 June 1963) (C.E.S.).
Ipomoea tiliacea (Willd.) Choisy: Hialeah, 8 June 1963 (first emergence
of adults, 19 June 1963) (C.E.S.); Hialeah, 4 July 1966 (leaf mines
only) (C.E.S.). The July 1966 infestation was noted to be a severe
infestation on the leaves of the morning glory.

Ecological studies on the leaf mine forms of C. ipomaeae were observed
by the author on the cited host plants. First, Spencer's (1963) notations
on the leaf mine forms should be discussed. He found mines on Ipomoea
sp. leaves in Jamaica to be as follows: "There is initially a very narrow,
rather long linear mine and finally a large primary blotch with fine, scat-
tered frass. Mines on Ipomoea sp. at Santos, Brazil, 18 viii. 1957 (K.A.S.),
closely resemble those from Jamaica. However, the initial mine is not so
narrow and later gradually widens to form a secondary blotch, but it re-
mains essentially linear; frass is in a diffused greenish line ... ".
Fig. 3 (A, B, and C) illustrates leaf mines of ipomaeae on leaves of
moonflower, Calonyction aculeatum (L.) House; the mines in Fig. 3A and
3B on the moon flower leaves are essentially linear in form. The moon-
flower leaf with multiple blotch mines, Fig. 3 C, illustrates many digitate
processes or short linear mines radiating from many blotch mines of
C. ipomaeae. The larvae do not cross the midrib of the leaf as shown in
Fig. 3 C. Fig. 3 (D, E, and F) shows three leaves of a morning glory,
Ipomoea tiliacea (Willd.) Choisy, and each leaf contains a blotch mine of
C. ipomaeae. (Fig. 3 E and F contain two mines in each leaf). The digi-
tate processes also radiate from the large blotch mines on the morning
glory leaves, and the mines are formed along the outer edges of the leaves.
The digitate processes are directed inward between the lateral leaf veins.
Fig. 4 illustrates numerous variations in leaf mines on Ipomoea ba-
tatas, sweet potato, produced by the larvae of C. ipomaeae. Fig. 4 (A, B,
C, D, E, and F) illustrates the typical mine form of ipomaeae, while Fig.
4 (G, N, and 0) depicts the leaf miner forming linear-blotch type mines.
Fig. 4 (F, H, K, M, and Q) illustrates a single mine of ipomaeae as a
double blotch. Fig. 4 (J) is essentially a linear mine with short digitate
processes. Fig. 4 (L, M, and P) shows ipomaeae mines as a serpentine-
blotch form. The illustrations definitely show that mine variations exist
within the same host plant species.

Hering (1951) discussed the leaf mine habits of several orders of leaf-
mining insects and their biology in Europe. He stated that a leaf miner
avoids certain plant tissue, such as the midrib and strong lateral veins in
the leaves of some plants, as they contain a tough, cellulose material.
This fact, combined with the rather weak mouthparts of the larvae, may
be a partial explanation as to why the midribs are not consumed.

Fig. 4A through 4Q. Leaf mine variations of Calycomyza ipomaeae
on sweet potato leaves, Ipomoea batatas. The various types of leaf-mine
forms are discussed in the text.






~ ;~,p:

ii:.j(i~ ,

B Cj:I


The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 50, No. 1

Hering speculated that an endophagous habitat of the leaf miners rep-
resents a specialization in the type of food consumed by the immature
stages. The larval ability to digest cellulose in certain leaf miners is
lacking. He stated that many leaf miners avoid the vascular bundles in
the leaves as they contain cells of a woody nature and lack much needed
food value. Hering stated, . most species of leaf miners have a
tendency to avoid leaf veins when constructing their mine. In many cases
this results in the characteristic shape of the mine channel, which avoids
crossing leaf veins where they are strongly developed and, instead, runs
along beside them; only when the vascular bundle has branched many
times and is consequently not so strong, is it crossed."
The tough fibers composing the midrib and strong lateral veins in the
sweet potato leaves thus confine the larvae in their feeding areas to
spaces between the stronger leaf veins which produce the many types of
leaf mine forms illustrated in Fig. 4.

Musebeck, Krombein, and Townes (1951) reported Diaulinopsis calli-
chroma Cwfd., from the following insect hosts: Agromyza scutellata
Fallen (present generic position is Chlorops scutellata Panzer, Chloro-
pidae, Diptera), Calycomyza artemisiae (Kalt.), Cerodontha dorsalis Loew,
and Liriomyza pusilla Meig., a synonym of Liriomyza munda Frick. Dis-
tributions of D. callichroma were cited by Musebeck and others (1951) as:
Indiana, Florida, Mississippi, and Arizona. I have reared D. callichroma
from Calycomyza malvae and from Calycomyza ipomaeae in south Florida.
Closterocerus cinctipennis Ashm. has been recorded by Muesebeck,
Krombein, and Townes (1951) from the following insect hosts: Brachys-
aerosus Melsh., B. obovatus Web., Cameraria hamadryadella (Clem.), C.
umella (Chamb.), Bucculatrix canadensisella Chamb., Nepticula gossypii
F. and L., Caliroa cerasi (L.), Neodiprion rugifrons Midd., and N. swainei
Midd. C. cinctipennis is reported from Canada, Connecticut, New Jersey,
Washington, D. C., Florida, and Iowa. Harding (1965) reported cinctipen-
nis from Texas as a major parasite of Liriomyza munda. I have also
reared the species from Calycomyza ipomaeae and from CL malvae in
south Florida.
Chrysocharis spp. have been recorded as parasites of Lepidoptera and
Diptera by Muesebeck, Krombein, and Townes (1951). Most of their rear-
ing records were from leaf miners of both orders. I have reared Chryso-
charis species parasitizing a new species of Ophiomyia (a seed-feeding
agromyzid on Lippia nodiflora Michx). Chrysocharis species (possibly
undescribed) has been reared from the following agromyzids: L. munda,
L. trifolii (Burgess), L. brassicae (Riley), L. sorosis (Williston), Phy-
tobia (Amauromyza) maculosa (Malloch), Calycomyza malvae, and Caly-
comyza ipomaeae. All hearings of the cited Chrysocharis spp. were from
agromyzid host insects- collected for rearing purposes in south Florida.
Derostenus spp. has been reared by the author from L. trifolii, L. mun-
da, Phytobia (Amauromyza) maculosa, Calycomyza jucunda, and Calyco-
myza ambrosiae. These records concern the south Florida agromyzids;
however, other species of Derostenus might well be expected to occur in

Stegmacier: Flies of the Subgenus Calycomyza

the central and northern limits of Florida as parasites of dipterous and
lepidopterous leaf miners.
One Zagrammosoma species has been reared by the author in south
Florida as a hymenopterous parasite of the sweet potato leafminer, Caly-
comyza ipomaeae. This eulophid parasite is possibly new and has been
recorded from Hialeah, Florida.


The author is indebted to the following persons for their help and con-
tributions: Kenneth A. Spencer of London, England, for his suggestions,
and determinations of the cited leaf miners; the late Professor Erdman
West, Mycologist and Botanist, University of Florida, and Dr. Kenneth R.
Langdon, Nematologist and Botanist, Division of Plant Industry, Florida
Department of Agriculture, for their numerous determinations of host
plant material; Harold A. Denmark, Chief, Entomology Section, Division
of Plant Industry and Dr. Howard V. Weems, Jr., Curator, Florida State
Collection of Arthropods, D.P.I., Florida Department of Agriculture, for
their joint efforts in furthering the knowledge of the Agromyzidae in
Florida. The author is especially indebted to Dr. Dale H. Habeck, Entomol-
ogist, Department of Entomology, University of Florida, for his numerous
agromyzid collections and suggestions concerning this project; George W.
Desin, Plant Pest Control Division, ARS, USDA; Dr. B. D. Burks and
C. F. W. Muesebeck, Entomology Research Division, ARS, USDA, for their
determinations of hymenopterous parasites; and to the following for their
critical comments on the manuscript: George C. Steyskal, Entomology
Research Division, ARS, USDA, Harold A. Denmark, Chief, Entomology
Section, D.P.I., F.D.A., and Dr. James Nation, Associate Editor, Zoology
Department, University of Florida.
All photographs are courtesy of the Division of Plant Industry, Florida
Department of Agriculture, Mildred Eaddy, photographer.

Blanchard, E. E. 1938. Descriptiones y anotaciones de Dipteros argen-
tinos. Anales Sociedad Cientifica Argentina 126: 345-386.
Blanchard, E. E. 1954. Sinopsis de los agromyzidos Argentinos. Minist.
Agr. y Ganaderia, Ser. A. 10(56): 1-48.
Burgess, E. 1880. The mallow oscinis (Oscinis malvae, Burgess n. sp.)
In Ann. Rep. USDA, for 1879: 200-201.
Frick, K. E. 1952. A generic revision of the family Agromyzidae (Dip-
tera) with a catalog of New World species. Univ. Calif. Pub.
Entomol. 8(8): 339-452.
Frick, K. E. 1953. Some additions and corrections to the species list
of North American Agromyzidae (Diptera). Canad. Entomol. 85:
Frick, K. E. 1956. Revision of the North American Calycomyza species
North of Mexico Phytobia: (Agromyzidae Diptera). Ann. Entomol.
Soc. Amer. 49: 284-300.
Frick, K. E. 1957. Nomenclatural changes and type designations of some
New World Agromyzidae (Diptera). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 50:

26 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 1

Frost, S. W. 1931. New species of West Indian Agromyzidae. Entomol.
News. 42: 72-76.
Frost, S. W. 1964. Insects taken in light traps at the Archbold Biologi-
cal Station, Highlands County Florida. Fla. Entomol. 47: 129-161.
Harding, J. A. 1965. Parasitism of the leaf miner Liriomyza munda in
the Winter Garden Area of Texas. J. Econ. Entomol. 58: 442-443.
Hering, E. M. 1951. Biology of the leaf miners. N. V. Drukkerij Hooi-
berg, Epe. 1-420.
Hering, E. M. 1951. Neue palaarktische und nearktische Agromyziden.
Not. Entomol. 31: 31-45.
Muesebeck, C. F. W., K. V. Krombein, and H. F. Townes. 1951. Hy-
menoptera of America North of Mexico. Synoptic Catalog. USDA,
Agricultural Monogr. No. 2. U. S. Gov. Printing Office. 1420 p.
Spencer, K. A. 1963. A synopsis of the Neotropical Agromyzidae (Dip-
tera). Trans. Roy. Entomol. Soc. London. 115(12): 291-389.
Wulp, F. M. van der. 1867. Eenige Noord-Americaansche Diptera. Tijd-
schrift voor Entomologie. 10: 125-164.
The Florida Entomologist 50(1) 1967


Complete Line of Insecticides, Fungicides and
Weed Killers
Ortho Division

Located at Fairvilla on Route 441 North
P. O. Box 7067 ORLANDO Phone 295-0451









Texas A&M University

Surfactants and oils are organic compounds possessing manifold prop-
erties and are added to insecticides to aid emulsification, dispersion, or
solubility. The surfactants and oils include those compounds often desig-
nated as emulsifiers, solvents, co-solvents, carriers, stickers, spreaders, and
other terms. Although surfactants and oils possess 1 or more of these
properties, additional information is needed on their insecticidal proper-
ties. A comparative investigation of various surfactants, oils, and insecti-
cides was initiated to (1) determine the insecticidal properties of various
surfactants and oils against cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.),
green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), a weevil, Sitophilus zea-mais
(Motschulsky), red flour beetle, Tribolium castaeum (Herbst), and cowpea
curculio, Chalcodermus aeneus Boheman under laboratory conditions; (2)
show the effect of the volatile phase of petroleum oils on green peach
aphid mortality; and (3) show the effect of various insecticides against
cowpea curculio and cabbage aphids under laboratory conditions.
Corey and Langford (1935), Dills and Menusan (1935), Dozier (1937),
and Turner et al. (1951) evaluated various surfactants for insect mortality
under laboratory conditions. Reihl et al. (1965) indicated significant kill
of citrus red mite eggs from surfactants in various citrus spray oils.


All experiments were conducted in the laboratory. The aphid adults
and cowpea curculio larvae were field collected from cabbage leaves and
Southernpea peas. The weevil and beetle adults were reared in the lab-
oratory in gallon cylindrical cardboard containers containing untreated
grain sorghum seed.
The experiments were conducted in a laboratory maintained at 27 4
C. The insecticides were prepared in parts per million concentrations in
acetone. The surfactants and oils were prepared in solutions of 10 dif-
ferent percentages at 10% intervals beginning at 100%. Whatman No. 1
filter paper (9 cm) was dipped into the various oils (emulsified by a 1%
concentration of Triton B-1956), surfactants, and insecticide concentra-
tions, removed and blotted. After blotting, the saturated papers were

1 Technical article 5428, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Lower
Rio Grande Valley Research and Extension Center, Weslaco.
2 Present address: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Entomology Re-
search Division, Brownsville, Texas.
SPresent address: Dept. Entomology, Mississippi State University,
State College, Mississippi.
4 The authors wish to acknowledge the Humble Oil and Refining Com-
pany, Baytown, Texas, for supplying oils, except Volck, used in these

28 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 1


0 0o
4- -:v- -j L c) c) cz M O Ca rl cD I
a 0
I- CH I " I -:: a* ; t? C ;; -^-"

M l 0 0-


o i t- cco o o cQ 30 o t (

O Ia

,-~ ,-,,-

*0 0

0 cd~d

>l~, 7: '
a~~ ~ ~ a ft^ -]^
5^n u

0 00
E -

4 cO d

o IM I- >1
B RR a g

0 0

ad L C 0 0
S a_ ca >

zo P. g .,P- .,z P P, a
I- C. u5 Q Q C
-^ m m 0 "

.0 .0 .0 0
*E x --b I 0x

eI cJ 2."IUS l d

0f 0

-- a 0 o s
|a o ^^ co

N N 0-1 00

F- 0
ej FO U O O O "
ftC O O O ( O O ^
^ "J P I ^ *s 0

a 0000 00 r

Wolfenbarger: Toxicity of Oils and Surfactants

placed in petri dishes (1 paper in each of 4 dishes), and 100 to 400 of the
insects (10/dish with 4 replicates/dose) were added. Except as indi-
cated for the green peach aphid experiment presented in Table 4, the petri
dish cover was placed over the petri dish bottom. In that experiment the
aphids were placed in both enclosed and open petri dishes. The enclosure
of the petri dishes was assumed to prevent vapors from escaping. The
open dishes had fine mesh plastic screen placed over the lower dish to pre-
vent the aphids from escaping. Percentage mortality was corrected by
Abbott's formula. The checks consisted of 4 replications of water-treated
filter paper and were employed for each material evaluated.
The data are presented as percent surfactant or ppm of insecticide re-
quired to kill 50% or 50 and 90% of the test insects (LCso or LC50 and
LC90) from eye fitted lines. Some chemical and physical properties and
naming system of the oils used in these evaluations are summarized by
Wolfenbarger (1964a, 1964b). The surfactants are identified by type,
name, and chemical name by McCrutecheon (1965).


Isoparaffinic (IP) oils gave the greatest, and the special paraffinic (SP)
oils the lowest cabbage aphid mortality (Table 1). The lower molecular


Insecticide LC50 (ppm)

Cowpea curculio
Toxaphene 0.02
Dieldrin 36
Parathion >100
DDT >100
Cabbage aphid
TDE < 0.001
Methyl parathion 1.5
Parathion 1.6
Perthane* 1.6
Dieldrin 8
Zectran* 10
Endrin 20
Malathion 50
Mevinphos 59
Telodrin* 66
Bidrin* >100

* Trademarked and carrying chemical definition:
Perthane (a mixture of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-ethylphenyl) ethane (95%) and related
products (5%).
Zectran (4-dimethylamino-3,5-xylyl methvlcarbamate).
Telodrin (1,3,4,5,6,7,8,8 octachloro 3a,4,7a-tetrahydro-4,7-methanoisobenzofuran).
Bidrin (3-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyl cis-Croton-amide dimethyl phosphate).

30 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 1


u 0-a T-jifl r-l -I r-I N C C N 0

) oQ


g S


C)) w C, 4
a 0 4--

^ ~~~ !5 S

o -L
0 >,

^3 a^ a ^^ ^ iS 0
oN 4 .0 0
4- cX 4- 4-a)O

a- ) ;-'t40
0 0 0 0 0 0

g~~~~ I4- -g^^^^~-
a) cz40a h )O

I 0-r^^j ^ 2
*i u I ^3l~|
~~9 ~ a) cF1F

<; ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ -- 0 i'o- iio-- i'P ^O '! B
? ~ ~ a MH~Mh F~H~O a, a
cd oz' ttZ a)' a)O~ d

S a oC at a)W

OiQ g o-^ y , cu Pg3 ~l
a o--~4 ^' gg-' oX 0

Ti S h ai aS' fci EdSS'uK
a, ~ mEmu

F E iCi Ciic !i CRi1 Fc< rt

S, ~ a *2 'S' p' 3' 3 *43 '5'3"5
: a o! ~ o 5o oo a)

o '- Z; ^ a u^ u
0, ~ ~ hE OX4-'o 0.2'E
I: got 004 -'riN "
L~ WOX~e~.0

a, o OOcao ooOOcaOOOO

Wolfenbarger: Toxicity of Oils and Surf actants 31


: o
(U "* ,; Oa~ ^ -^ O r-I OS CI CO a *&
So u c( F M tr3 eo ';l "^l *^< LD



cc cH~
o o &

; I a

ca s *G <
^ ~ a "

0 p > "-r
3 ^ F r

S -M-

> UuXU
C~ E '4 Cd

0 ce
>1 cd P,
o -

z 0 40

0 Cq m32

0 0
C '| ^ ^:^a ^

3d u, A~s'^+s^ ft'^

| 0 I g 0 l

M, o '-< 0 C -

*I( (l;(p4;K p M C -

o R

^ ^0
0 1-
0d t

E .,., *i .^i. aI*a I
i- f f o Qo S oo -.
< >- C r d O cj O O O -
E-i ^ <;^^u uaa


H .I~r.~'" ZQZOZZZZZ c

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 50, No. 1

weight SP oil gave the greatest cowpea curculio larval mortality. AF 100
gave the greatest cabbage aphid mortality. In general, the surfactants
gave greater mortality than oils against cabbage aphid adults and cowpea
curculio larvae.
Toxaphene was the most effective insecticide against the cowpea cur-
culio (Table 2). More than 100 ppm were required to give 50% larval
mortality with DDT and parathion. TDE, parathion, Perthane, and
methyl parathion gave the greatest cabbage aphid mortality.
Triton GR-7, Pronon 505, Catanac SN, and Retzanol M-139 gave the
greatest green peach aphid mortality (Table 3).
The data (Table 3) indicate that nonionic surfactants gave from 100
to 15% mortality to aphids at concentrations of 50 to 100% showing
extremes in toxicity that may occur within the nonionic surfactants.
A comparison of AF 100 and B 1956 for cabbage aphid (Table 1) and
green peach aphid (Table 3) mortality showed that greater mortality of
cabbage aphid occurred than with green peach aphid suggesting selective
toxicity between these surfactants.
At 21% concentration the paraffinic (P) and naphthenic (N) oils in
the enclosed petri dish gave 50% mortality of green peach aphids while
50% mortality was not obtained for aphids in open dishes at concentra-
tions of 100% oil (Table 4), indicating that the oil fractions evaluated
cause most of their mortality by fumigant action and not by contact with
the oils.


Percent for
Oil LCs5

IP-2 20
P-5 21
N-4 21
IP-2 37

* Less than 50% mortality at 100% concentration.

Retzamine RAD 0500, Retzamine RAD 1100, and Retzaquat 47 were
the most effective against, both species listed (Table 5). Nine other sur-
factants and 1 oil and 2 other surfactants gave 90 to 100% mortality to
weevil adults and red flour beetles, respectively. The data also show se-
lective mortality as Retzloff DTG 62 gave 22 times greater mortality to
the weevil than to the red flour beetle. One oil fraction (N-l) gave 182
times greater mortality to weevil adults than red flour beetles.

Wolfenbarger: Toxicity of Oils and Surfactants

I I | t III I

00 t- 4o - - 0
L-- LC- 00 -1-- -1--

4 .

a -3
^ Cd









t.-. .


0t ft0
.0. C CS Cs
0404000 < <


-t C)
Cd 'C A

S a C

o -' 0

'7; m ai


02 d A
a ~ 4 C

r9 u0 g
-C C
cC N


Cd 0 + 4

'4.. -4 -W

0C cg t 1 C2

S .3 g g
CR C O 5
- 02 cC^ C

0 s

4 d -
0 -0

00 t


Cd W U
o 0

P4 10W
so ai S ,3

Cdi c3 C

+-4. 4.) S *

.N .N 5 5 0 02'
40 p 02-- p (

cC 5
o 0 0 *- C= -d0
>4>4> S >4t "

0 0
o o

us2 1-1

C m Ni
.S .S ^
C cC 04 c- C
gi| C
W rr P^M


.3 .3.'3.'

I I l

00 --



0 m

SN N l4- N
a) o3 Cd N T-' Cd 3
PF Q g Q a z








t S t








Ul 0 >
0 4.)
CR1 cC

2 m


' s

0 2
S. P

- pI



The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 50, No. 1

c 0 co L- 0LO to w i 3
|f ;*C O;(0 *) C1 II

* * * tLO 0 0 00 COZ 00 *
- o oo u t- t- 4-




-C t
= 'S

0 )

=Id" I l- CI

"s % P!
m *2 o
4.) 3d
C) '| C

o -
o 4 cc

$. S ^l
C)^. ^a
^ao C

s U
C) -

0 W P, O

4.) 0 C W wbj r

Q) cc
rC -

o 4- -P C

0> 0 0C)) I
-8 ~ 5 511I 0 4 0P

c + x 00- C)3
Cd 5 cd P,
C)0 0-

P.3, I M i0
m s a, g, m sk( a -3'

crC~w ~ k ) C) -!! C) C S L

o >) S
C)X0 -^-C '0o ^ I a

Ei- ai ~ .S oJ -S h6 g bfT- c o 3iu

go Sh - '' i-

c8e 1C f< ? 3o oI 'r' a3 c^ B .

buM" 9 ~~ *
C3^ '^ 'i C, 3 I-t S^ ^' p-
n F ICcX Cgooc ^

LOc 00

w w 0 c d ce 0.0 Zo

+ C )TC ) )4 j 4 4CC
a)9 Q> a E-
QipirMWt ~t Wtf~tM^MW

C.) d .
C, cec%

00 0 00
z x Z zz




Wolfenbarger: Toxicity of Oils and Surfactants



o a m c cq- I* O o c- *
-^ 1 1 10 r -l CM -




ii '-- *^ ^
"! 1 )
hX ^5S
a *a -s
+- 4 > f



o"h 0


l j |
'3 'a '3 "
00 00
'2 z~zz



U'" *
uf -








o 3 0
a g u i .$


0 -4=g
.- -

*= ^*I-

36 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 1

Corey, E. N., and G. S. Langford. 1935. Sulfated alcohols in insecticides.
J. Econ. Entomol. 28: 257-260.
Dills, L. E., and H. Menusan, Jr. 1935. A study of some fatty acids and
their soaps as contact insecticides. Boyce Thompson Inst. Contrib.
7: 63-82.
Dozier, H. L. 1937. Sodium lauryl sulfate as a contact spray. J. Econ.
Entomol. 30: 968.
McCruteheon, John W. 1965. Detergents and Emulsifiers Annual. John
W. McCruteheon, Inc., 236 Mt. Kimble Ave., Morristown, New Jersey.
215 p.
Reihl, L. A., J. P. LaDue, and J. L. Rodriquez. 1965. Efficiency of a re-
formed oil against citrus red mite eggs and California red scale.
J. Econ. Entomol. 58: 907-9.
Turner, Neely, D. H. Saunders, and J. J. Williams. 1951. The effect of
some polyethylene glycol derivatives on the toxicity to aphids. Conn.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 543.
Wolfenbarger, Dan A. 1964a. Oils and surfactants alone, and insecticide-
oil combinations for aphid control on turnips and cabbage. J. Econ.
Entomol. 57: 571-4.
Wolfenbarger, Dan A. 1964b. Paraffinic and naphthenic oil fractions in
combination with DDT and a Heliothis virus for corn earworm con-
trol. J. Econ. Entomol. 57: 732-5.

The Florida Entomologist 50(1) 1967


Department of Entomology and Limnology, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.

Euplectrus plathypenae Howard, a gregarious external parasitoid, is
recorded here as the third known hymenopterous enemy of the green cut-
worm, Anicla infect Ochsenheimer (= Lycophotia incivis Guen6e).
Thompson (1944) listed Rogas politiceps Gahan (Braconidae) and Tele-
nomus minutissimus Ashmead (Scelionidae) as parasitoids of A. infect in
the United States and British Guiana, respectively. Wilson (1933) pre-
sented a detailed study of the biology of E. plathypenae. Muesebeck et al.
(1951) recorded 12 species of the following genera of Lepidoptera as hosts
of E. plathypenae: Cirphis, Diatraea, Heliothis, Laphygma, Leucania, Peri-
droma, Plathypena, Prodenia, and Protoparce.
A living larva of A. infecta was found clinging to a blade of a tall grass
in the Bonnet Carr6 Spillway crossing U.S. Route 61, west of New Or-
leans, Louisiana on 3 December 1965. A group of 23 light-greenish larvae
of E. plathypenae was situated in a mass on a posterolateral surface of
the noctuid larva. The larva of A. infect appeared to be of normal color,
but it was almost immobile. It was placed in a vial and taken to Ithaca,
New York, where it was kept at 20 to 230 C. On 4 December the noctuid
larva was still light green but somewhat flaccid, and the eulophid larvae
were no longer grouped in one place but had dispersed over the surface
of the host. One of the 23 larvae was preserved. On 5 December the
noctuid larva was brownish in color and obviously dead. The hymenop-
terous larvae had spun open networks of threads about themselves, and
they had attached the moth larva to the piece of grass by spinning threads
between the venter of the larva and the edge of the grass. The larvae did
not pupate until 7 December. Twenty-one wasps (2 males and 19 females)
emerged on 13 December. One pupa failed to produce an adult.
The wasps and noctuid larva were kindly determined by B. D. Burks
and J. G. Franclemont, respectively.


Muesebeck, C. F. W., K. V. Krombein, and H. K. Townes, (ed.). 1951.
Hymenoptera of America north of Mexico. Synoptic Catalog.
USDA Agr. Monogr. No. 2.
Thompson, W. R. 1944. A catalogue of the parasites and predators of
insect pests. Sec. 1, Pt. 5. Commonwealth Bur. Biol. Control,
Wilson, J. W. 1933. The biology of parasites and predators of Laphygma
exigua Huebner reared during the season of 1932. Fla. Entomol.
17: 1-15.

The Florida Entomologist 50(1) 1967



How can they serve you?

SHELL Chemical Company, in coopera-
tion with federal, state and local agri-
cultural specialists, is continually striving
to help farmers reach higher agricultural
goals. Products such as aldrin, dieldrin,
endrin, methyl parathion, Phosdrin and
Vapona Insecticides have been of major
assistance to the farmer, homeowner and
industry. So have D-D and Nemagon
Soil Fumigants and Aqualin herbicide,
slimicide, biocide.
These products have proved their effec-
tiveness and versatility by solving many
of the economic pest problems confront-
ing the farmer. Shell insecticides are prov-

ing equally useful in a growing number
of non-agricultural applications in indus-
try and the home.
The never-ending search for additional
uses of established Shell pesticides and for
new, improved products to help you, is a
welcome assignment at Shell Chemical
Company chemical partner of agricul-
ture and industry.
Get full details about the Shell pesti-
cide that fits your needs'at your nearest
Shell Chemical Co. District Office, or
write: Shell Chemical Co., Agricultural
Chemicals Division, 110 West 51st Street,
New York 20, N. Y.

*Thma g re more than 130 species (if neiavi-
toe* Lnow,, to atliack plarits. Nemagon and
D-1) Soil Funigarits contrul niost of these.

Agricultural Chemicals Division


Division of Plant Industry, New Mexico State University,
University Park

The following is a description of the characteristics of male and female
specimens of a new species of Opostega collected in 1964 and 1965 by Mrs.
Spencer Kemp on Key Largo, Florida. The series, consisting of 9 males
and 4 females, was referred to the author by Mr. Charles P. Kimball of
West Barnstable, Massachusetts and Sarasota, Florida.

Opostega kempella new species
(Fig. 1, 2, and 3)
DESCRIPTION: Alar expanse: male: 4-5 mm, female: 5-5.5 mm. Head:
snow white; mouth-parts, light fawn; Antenna: eye-cap, glistening white
with seven transverse rows of imbricated scales; flagellum, white to golden
yellow beneath, approximately % length of front wing; Eye: semiglobose,
black; vertical diameter about % length of eye-cap; Thorax: white, under
parts and legs slightly more yellow with spines and spurs darker; Fore
wing: snow white with an eliptical brownish black dorsal spot on hind
margin approximately % from base. A few rows of white scales sepa-
rate this spot from the margin, especially in the female, (Fig. 1). The
apical fasciae consist of two broad strigils extending from the costal mar-
gin, converging at the apex and continuing diagonally and mesad across
the tornus as a single band. This does not quite reach the hind margin.
Apical dot sub-triangular, purplish black, iridescent. Apical fringe ap-
proximately 1/12 length of wing and composed of white and tawny cilia.
The venation of the forewing is more reduced than any other species I
have examined. Vein R (Forbes 1923 = II of Spuler 1913) is completely
atrophied and veins Cu and 1st A. are vestigial and almost hidden by the
cubitoanal fold. Hind wing: light fawn, cilia greyish. Abdomen: white
above, fawn beneath.
Male genitalia: (Fig. 5) Harpe: Costa with a large dorsal oval plate,
(the "pectinifer" of Janse 1945) which bears 38 recurved pointed teeth
along the outer margin. The inner distal surface of the base bears three
transverse rows of setiferous punctures. The pectinifer is attached to
the base of the cucullus by a membranous pedecil. Cucullus with a re-
curved terminal tooth and constricted at its point of union with the sac-
culus, the two forming a columbiform shaped harpe which possess a slender
inwardly-curved basal process which is weakly attached to the vinculum
by the extensor muscle, (Forbes 1939). Central, expanded portion of the
sacculus with five transverse rows of setiferous punctures and a smaller
group situated mesally caudad of the slender basal process. Four prom-
inent tubercles bearing recurved setae adorn the mesodistal angle of the
sacculus adjoining the base of the cucullus. Vinculum with a broad U-
shaped saccus. Gnathos and anellus combined to form a cone shaped cen-
tral plate bearing a median finger like process. The distal portion of the
median plate adorned with three transverse rows of short recurved teeth.

1 Journal series 254, New Mexico State University, Agricultural Experi-
ment Station, University Park, New Mexico.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 50, No. 1


L "' S

Fig. 1-5. 1. Fore Wing of female paratype. 2. Female paratype. 3.
Female genitalia, ventral view. 4. Male paratype. 5. Male genitalia, ven-
tral view.

.t.i '1J ~
U'a~i .

~:: "


Eyer: A New Species of Opostegidae

The extensive chitinization and armature of this plate and its articulation
to the inner basal margins of the tegumen suggests that this structure is
a combination of the anellus and gnathos. The aedoeagus is membranous
and scarcely visible even when stained. Tegumen transverse, short and
bears a pair of short, broadly rounded socii each armed with a subterminal
row of three prominent setae and several terminal rows of shorter, more
slender setae.
Female genitalia: (Fig. 3) monotrysian type; somite 7 weakly chit-
inized, spiracles clearly visible. Anterior apophysis slender, well chitinized;
posterior apophysis weakly chitinized and curves mesally at its base to
fuse with the lateral margin of the ostial plate or 9th sternite. (These
latter features suggest a similar arrangement of parts as shown by Braun
1963 for Bucculatrix gossypiella.) Ostium without lateral pads but bears
a posterio-median row of 6 setiferous tubercles; 9th tergite consists of two
acuminate lobes, heavily armed with setae on the lateral and terminal
margins, meson with a distinct U-shaped indentation. Internal genitalia
largely membranous and stain very weakly; bursa an elongate sac without
signum; ductus seminalis long, convoluted, lightly chitinized and enters the
ductus bursae near its anterior enlargement.
TYPE: 3, Key Largo, Monroe Co., Fla., 10-X-1964 (Mrs. Spencer
Kemp) (U. S. N. M., Type No. 69077).
PARATYPES: 8 S, 4 9, same locality as type, & : 8-X-1964; 11-X-1964;
17-X-1964; 1-X-1964; 4-X-1964, 7-XI-1964; 2ex., 8-XI-1964 9: 2-X-1964;
26-X-1964; 4-XI-1964.
HABITAT: Key Largo, Monroe County, Florida. The characteristics of
this locale are described by Kimball (1964).
REMARKS: In coloration and wing markings, 0. kempella Eyer re-
sembles 0. cretea Meyrick more closely than any other nearctic species
I have seen. However its much smaller size, the bifed nature of the costal
portion of the apical fascia and the shape of the dorsal spot are quite
distinctive. Its size compares closely with 0. trinidadensis Busck (1910).
The pectinifer and combined gnathos and anellus of the male genitalia is
somewhat similar to 0. cretea Meyr. and also to 0. spatulella MS., of
Europe but both of these lack the transverse rows of spines. The female
genitalia resemble those of 0. scioterma Meyr., in the rounded ostial plate
and absence of lateral lobes. It is interesting to note that both male and
female genitalia posses certain characters in common with the thurberiella
group as figured and described by Braun in her monograph of the genus
Bucculatrix (1963).

Braun, Annette F. 1963. The genus Bucculatrix in America north of
Mexico. Amer. Entomol. Soc. Mem. 18.
Busck, August. 1910. A list of Trinidad microlepidoptera with descrip-
tions of new forms. Dept. of Agr. Trinidad. Bul. 9: 66, 241-245.
Forbes, Wm. T. M. 1928. The Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring
states. Cornell Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta. Mem. 68.
Forbes, Wm. T. M. 1939. The muscles of the lepidopterous male genitalia.
Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 32: 1-10.

-42 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 1
Janse, A. J. T. 1945. The moths of South Africa. Vol. 4, Part 2, Adeli-
dae. p. 79-148.
Janse, A. J. T. 1948. The moths of South Africa. Vol. 4, Part 3, Nepti-
culidae. p. 149-185. Pretoria.
Kimball, C. P. 1965. Arthropods of Florida and neighboring land areas.
Vol. I. Lepidoptera. Div. Plant Ind., Fla. Dep. Agr., Gainesville.
363 p.
Pierce, F. M., and J. W. Metcalfe. 1935. The genitalia of the Tineina.
T. Chell & Son, Liverpool. 116 p.
The Florida Entomologist 50(1) 1967




Carefully Executed

Delivered on Time






Respectively, Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station,
Fayetteville, Arkansas,
and Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, Florida

A phloem-based, semi-artificial rearing medium for three southeastern
Ips bark beetles, Ips avulsus (Eichh.), Ips calligraphus (Germ.), and Ips
grandicollis (Eichh.), was reported by Yearian and Wilkinson (1965). This
paper presents larval and pupal developmental rates for the three bark
beetles on the medium.
The medium was prepared as described by Yearian and Wilkinson (op.
cit.) and dispensed into 20 x 90 mm petri dishes at approximately 30 ml
per dish. A disc of blotting paper the same diameter as the dish was
pressed to the surface of the hot medium.
Eggs of the three Ips species were obtained from naturally infested
host material. The eggs were teased from their oviposition niches with a
flattened dissecting needle and surface-sterilized for 5 minutes in the steril-
izing solution used by Yearian and Wilkinson (1963). After a 3-minute
rinse in sterile water, the eggs were transferred to a petri dish lined with
moist filter paper and incubated at 30C.
Five newly-hatched larvae were implanted per rearing dish. A small
slit was cut in the paper covering the medium, and a hole was punched
through the medium to the bottom of the dish with a dissecting needle.
Each larva was placed at the bottom of the hole with the head oriented
downward. The hole and slit were carefully filled and sealed with medium
so that larvae contacted the medium on all sides. The dishes were held at
30'C and 40-50% relative humidity.
The larvae were observed daily through the bottom of the rearing dish
and the stage of development recorded. When a larva was not visible
through the bottom of the dish, it was dissected from the medium, ex-
amined, and transferred to a new dish. Head capsule width was used as
the criterion for differentiating the larval instars (Wilkinson 1963). Pupal
weight and survival were also recorded.
Ips avulsus, Ips calligraphus, and Ips grandicollis larval and pupal de-
velopmental rates on the phloem-based rearing medium were similar at
30'C (Table 1). The mean length of the larval period was 8.4 days for
Ips avulsus, 8.9 days for Ips calligraphus, and 9.2 days for Ips grandicollis.
Larval stadia within a given Ips species were not entirely comparable,
since only the third stadium included a non-feeding (prepupal) time of
approximately 1 day. The duration of the pupal period for Ips avulsus,
Ips calligraphus, and Ips grandicollis averaged 2.8, 3.3, and 3.0 days, re-
Observations on newly, deposited surface-sterilized eggs showed the

1Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 2429.
2 This research was supported in part by the Southern Forest Disease
and Insect Research Council, Atlanta, Ga. The assistance of W. J. Cole-
man and C. C. Russell is gratefully acknowledged.

+1 +1 +1










CO 0
8 0

~ a


rs S

& <;
8 a


a o







Vol. 50, No. 1






The Florida Entomologist










0 V

Va -
* *U

- CO C0 CA 0

+1 +1 +1 +1 +1
o) t- o> co

00 (N CO CO CO

+1 +1 +1 +1 +1
c1 c c

4 .s *4 4,

o a

Yearian: Ips Development on Rearing Medium

incubation period to average 2.3, 2.7, and 2.8 days for Ips avulsus, Ips
calligraphus, and Ips grandicollis, respectively. With the mean incuba-
tion period added to the mean larval and pupal developmental times, the
average time required from egg to callow adult was 13.5 days for Ips
avulsus, 14.9 days for Ips calligraphus, and 15.0 days for Ips grandicollis.
After 7 days, adults reared on the medium were capable of infesting pine
bolts and establishing broods. Thus, allowing a day for attack, mating,
and initiation of oviposition, a complete life cycle, from egg to egg, would
average 21.5, 22.9, and 23.0 days for Ips avulsus, Ips calligraphus, and
Ips grandicollis, respectively. These rates are comparable to generalized
life cycles for the three species given by Thatcher (1960).
Larval mortality on the medium was high. In a group of 100 newly
hatched larvae of each species only 13 Ips avulsus, 50 Ips calligraphus,
and 49 Ips grandicollis larvae reached the pupal stage. Much of the mor-
tality was attributed to handling as it was necessary to remove many of
the larvae from the medium daily to determine the stage of development.
Additional observations on several hundred larvae, handled only when
initially implanted in the medium, showed larval survival to be 56.7% for
Ips avulsus, 80.6% for Ips calligraphus, and 68.3% for Ips grandicollis.
Based on pupal weight, the medium was most satisfactory for rearing
Ips calligraphus and Ips grandicollis. Ips calligraphus and Ips grandicollis
pupae reared on the medium averaged 10.77 and i5.17 mg and were signifi-
cantly heavier (p = .05) than wild pupae. The increased weight of medium-
reared Ips calligraphus and Ips grandicollis pupae was attributed in part
to reduced pressure from parasites. The pupae were reared from surface-
sterilized eggs, and the larvae were apparently free of internal parasites
found in wild populations, particularly nematodes. Ips avulsus pupae
reared on the medium weighed significantly less (p = .05) than wild pilpae:
1.66 and 2.20 mg respectively. Possible reasons for this difference will be
discussed by the authors in a separate paper.
The medium proved unsatisfactory as an oviposition site for the adult
beetles. Although pairs of adults and mated females were maintained on
the medium for extended periods, no egg deposition occurred. Ips species
similarly did not oviposit on an artificial medium developed by Clark
Clark, E. W. 1965. An artificial diet for the southern pine beetle and
other bark beetles. U. S. Forest Serv. Res. Note SE-45: 3 p.
Thatcher, R. C. 1960. Bark beetles affecting southern pines: A review
of current knowledge. U. S. Forest Serv. Occas. Paper 180:25 p.
Wilkinson, R. C. 1963. Larval instars and head capsule morphology in
three southeastern Ips bark beetles. Fla. Entomol. 46: 19-22.
Yearian, W. C., and R. C. Wilkinson. 1963. An artificial rearing medium
for Ips calligraphus Germ. Fla. Entomol. 46: 319-20.
Yearian, W. C., and R. C. Wilkinson. 1965. Two larval rearing media
for Ips bark beetles. Fla. Entomol. 48: 25-7.

The Florida Entomologist 50(1) 1967

evidenced by the foliage on the left. Damaged foliage results
in substandard yield. KELTHANE' MF kills most citrus-
attacking mites, nymphs and adults alike. Mite-free foliage
on the right, sprayed for full coverage with KELTHANE MF
foretells a bumper crop of oranges. Apply KELTHANE to
citrus trees as soon as mites appear and repeat as required.
It is harmless to mite predators, bees and other pollinating
insects when used as directed. For full information see your
dealer or write Rohm and Haas, Philadelphia, Pa. 19105.



Department of Geology, State University of New York,
Binghamton, New York

A significant addition to the Odonata fauna of Central America is a
new species of the South American coenagrionine genus Chrysobasis, which
was described recently by Racenis (1959) from half a dozen specimens
from the Llanos region of north-central Venezuela. A hitherto unreported
Colombian specimen collected by the Williamsons during their famous col-
lecting trip half a century ago extends the range of the genus consider-
ably. In September 1964, and again in August 1965, I collected specimens
of a second species at two widely separated localities in Guatemala, repre-
senting a further extension of the range of the genus by more than 1100
Chrysobasis lucifer new species
(Fig. 1-8)
HOLOTYPE MALE: Head with labrum, ante- and postclypeus, and genae
obscure grayish-brown, with frons and vertex black, except for pale spots
at base of antennae. Postocular spots and isolated, elongate, central spot
at rear of head gray-green. Rear of head pale.
Prothorax (Fig. 8) black, pale as follows: anterior lobe of pronotum
pale blue-green; middle lobe with four small mesal greenish spots and
larger lateral, rounded green spots; propleura pale yellowish-green; hind
lobe with narrow yellow rim. Posterior margin of hind lobe bearing a
prominent forked process consisting of two tapering, flattened spines with
rounded tips, separated by a deep, rounded incision.
Pterothorax black dorsally with an antehumeral green stripe and a
humeral black stripe, the latter twice as broad as the pale antehumeral
stripe and covering the dorsal half of the mesepimeron. Sides of thorax
pale green fading into a more obscure green ventrally, except for short,
dark dashes at bases of first and second lateral sutures. Mesostigmal
laminae subrectangular with rounded, anteriorly elevated tips.
Wings with dark brown venation and stigma. Venation discussed
Legs pale with obscure darker markings at distal ends of femora, ob-
scure dark dashes on femora and tibiae, and dark spines and tarsal claws.
Abdomen black on dorsum posterior to basal half of segment 7, with
dark color encircling the distal eighth of 3-6 and most of 7. Pale lateral
color of 1 and 2 green, of 3-6 obscure yellowish, becoming more pale dis-
tally. Posterior half of 7 and 8-10 pale yellow, the pale color of 7 grading

1Contribution No. 94, Entomology Section, Div. Plant Ind., Fla. Dep.
Agr., Gainesville.
Research Associate, Fla. State Collection of Arthropods, Div. Plant
Ind., Fla. Dep. Agr.
3 lucifer (Latin): carrying a light, in allusion to the pale tip of the

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 50, No. 1

into the dark color. Appendages yellow, the dorsal elongate, straight,
tapering, with medial-anterior portion flattened dorsally into a subtriangu-
lar, rounded projection with a central depressed area (Fig. 3). Inferior
appendage short, with pointed tip curved mesally (Fig. 4). Raised, shal-
lowly forked process at apex of dorsum of 10.
Penis (Fig. 5) with terminal segment ending in rounded tip and carry-
ing internal, lateral, conspicuously sclerotized, decurved spines directed
anteriorly. Second segment with low internal fold.
ALLOTYPE FEMALE: Generally similar to male, except that the pale
color of the head, thorax, and abdominal tip is pale bluish. Labrum and
anteclypeus greenish-gray. Pale lateral spots of middle lobe of pronotum
more extensive than in male and coalescing posteriorly with pale color of
propleura. Small paired spots on anterior of pterothoracic dorsum.
Posterior margin of prothorax (Fig. 7) raised into an angularly
emarginate, broad central process. Mesostigmal laminae as in male, except
anterior corner of tips more angular.
Abdominal segments 8-10 pale with paired, triangular dark spots on
dorsum of 9. Ovipositor (Fig. 6) extending beyond 10 the length of that
segment. No spine on venter of 8.
six males and three females of the type series are remarkably uniform in
their venation. The holotype male has 71/2 postnodal cross veins in the
fore wings and 61/2 in the hind wings. M2 arises 4% cells from the nodus
in the fore wings and 3% cells in the hind wings. Cu2 extends to level
of first postnodal cross vein in both wings (slightly beyond in one wing).
The allotype female has 8 and 81/ postnodal cross veins in the fore wings,
and 7 and 71/ in the hind wings. M2 arises 4% and 3% cells from the
nodus in the fore and hind wings, respectively. Vein Cu2 extends to the
level of the second posnodal in both wings.
The paratype males are identical except that one fore wing (of five
specimens) has 8 postnodal cross veins and several specimens have 6 or 7
cross veins in the hind wings. The origin of M, varies from 4 to 4%

Fig. 1 and 2: Chrysobasis lucifer, n. sp.; Fig. 1: color pattern and
venation of male; Fig. 2: color pattern of female.

Donnelly: Chrysobasis in Central America

cells beyond the nodus in the fore wings and 31/ to 3% cells in the hind
wings. Of ten paratype fore wings, vein Cu2 extends to the level of the
second postnodal cell in two wings and halfway to the second cross vein
in five wings. In the hind wing it extends to the second postnodal in three
wings and halfway between the first and second crossveins in three wings.
Paratype females vary from 8 to 81/2 postnodal crossveins in fore
wings and 6 to 71/2 in hind wings. Vein M2 originates 4% cells beyond
the nodus in all fore wings and from 3% to 4 cells in hind wings. Vein



, -

Fig. 3-8: Chrysobasis lucifer, n. sp.; Fig. 3 and 4: lateral and dorsal
views of male appendages; Fig. 5: penis; Fig. 6: terminal segments of
female abdomen; Fig. 7: dorsal view of hind lobe of prothorax and mesos-
tigmal laminae of female; Fig. 8: inclined view of prothorax and adjoin-
ing portion of pterothorax of male.


The Florida Entomologist

Cu2 extends to the second postnodal crossvein in all wings except one,
in which it extends only 1 cell.
Abdomen of holotype male 27 mm (26.5-27.5 mm in paratypes); hind
wing 15.5 mm (14-16 mm). Abdomen of allotype female 26 mm (26 mm
in paratypes); hind wing 17.5 mm (17-18 mm).
Except for dimensional and minor venational differences cited above,
no noteworthy variations were found in the type series of either sex.
MATERIAL EXAMINED: Chrysobasis lucifer n. sp.: Holotype and allo-
type: Tenedores, 25 km east of Morales, along Atlantic highway at km 268,
Dept. Izabal, Guatemala, 16 Aug. 1965, Coll. T. Donnelly. Paratypes: 2
males and 2 females, same locality and date as holotype; 1 male, same
locality, 18 Aug. 1965, Coll. O. Flint; 2 males, Aguada Naranjal, Tikal,
Dept. El Petbn, Guatemala, Coll. T. and A. Donnelly. An additional male
in alcohol from Tikal was not included in the type series.
The holotype and allotype are deposited in the Florida State Collection
of Arthropods. One paratype is in the collection of the United States
National Museum.
Chrysobasis buchholzi Racenis: 1 male (paratype), Carmen de Cura,
Aragua, Venezuela, 29 Sept. 1957, Coll. J. Racenis; 1 male, Puerto Colom-
bia, 11 Dec. 1916, Coll. E. B. and J. H. Williamson.
The male of lucifer differs from buchholzi in having all but the terminal
segments of the abdomen dark dorsally (the entire abdomen of buchholzi
is bright yellow, with only minor, obscure terminal markings on the indi-
vidual segments.), by the prominent, forked process on the hind lobe of
the prothorax (the hind lobe of buchholzi is raised slightly, with only
a hint of emargination.), by the relatively small size of the dorsal-
apical process on the 10th segment of the male (compare the present
Fig. 4 with Racenis' Fig. 1 b.), and by the longer male superior append-
ages. The female differs from buchholzi (based solely on Racenis' descrip-
tion) in possessing a forked process on the hind lobe of the prothorax, and,
apparently, a more slender ovipositor.
In his original description Racenis expressed some hesitancy in erect-
ing a new genus for his new species (and for another in the same paper),
stating, . bin ich mir bewusst, dass diese Gattungen vielleicht spiter
als Untergattungen oder sogar Synonyma ihren richtigen Platz finden
werden." The discovery of the new species, however, reinforces his
judgement of the validity of the genus Chrysobasis. The new species
lucifer, although distinct from buchholzi in several important character-
istics, shares closely with that species the three characteristics which Ra-
cenis considered worthy of generic recognition: the forked, dorsal-apical
process on the 10th segment of the male, the straight superior appendage
of the male (which lacks a ventral branch), and the shortness of vein Cu2
(called by Racenis A1). Any doubts about the validity of Racenis' new
genus must be dispelled now by the discovery of the new species lucifer.
Relationships among the genera of the family Coneagrionidae are not
well understood. Phylogenetic considerations based on wing venation are
now accorded little weight, though there is little general agreement as to
which characteristics might best indicate meaningful relationships. In
terms of general appearance, lack of a spine on the venter of the 8th seg-
ment of the female, and ornamentation of the hind lobe of the prothorax,
the genus would appear to be closely related to Leptobasis, and perhaps

Vol. 50, No. 1

Donnelly: Chrysobasis in Central America

Anisagrion sensu lato and Telebasis, among other Neotropical genera. The
penis possesses one character which probably indicates a relatively close
relationship with a few other genera: the conspicuous, more sclerotized
internal spines of the terminal segment of the penis. Leptobasis vacillans
Selys possesses nearly identical spines (though the remainder of the ter-
minal segment differs in other ways), and Anisagrion lais Selys, Hesper-
agrion heterodoxum (Selys), and Teleagrion raineyi Williamson possess
similar spines. Telebasis dominicana (Selys), Metaleptobasis mauritia
Williamson, Amphiagrion saucium (Burmeister), C,," ..'.I. ,',IIiconditum
(Hagen), Neoerythromma cultellatum (Hagen), and Aeolagrion dorsale
(Burmeister) were all found to lack the spines, though this does not nec-
essarily imply lack of a phylogenetic relationship for any of these genera.
The habitat of Chrysobasis lucifer is small ponds in wooded or par-
tially wooded areas. The Aguada Naranjal at Tikal is a temporary forest
aguada which is probably filled with water no more than half the year.
When my wife Ailsa and I visited the aguada in 1964 we found 20 species
of Odonata, including Coryphaeschna secret Calvert, Gynacantha helenga
Williamson and Williamson, Libellula gaigei Gloyd, Lestes tikalus Kor-
mondy, Telebasis griffin (Martin), and Pseudostigma accedens Selys. Of
these, only the Gynacantha was found elsewhere in Guatemala during
four months of collecting. This same aguada was totally dry in Septem-
ber 1965, with only Gynacantha helenga abundant.
The Tenedores locality is a presumably temporary pond created by the
construction of the Atlantic highway. The country is more open here
than at Tikal though the pond borders a steep and heavily vegetated
karst hill on one side. Paul Spangler, Oliver Flint, and I collected here
briefly during .a short trip down the Motagua River Valley during Au-
gust 1965. Only a dozen Odonata species were taken at this locality, none
of them especially noteworthy. At both localities the fauna included
1[;,I', itlria, Anatya, Lestes, and Leptobasis-a typical Odonata associa-
tion of wooded tropical ponds. The Chrysobasis, occurred in the more
shaded parts of the ponds and might have been overlooked entirely were
it not for the bright yellow tip of its abdomen, which is the only conspicu-
ous marking on this otherwise dark, umbricolous insect. The appearance
of the yellow spot, which often appeared at first glance to be a detached
spot of light moving slowly about in the shadows, suggests the specific
name of the new species.
The discovery in Guatemala of a genus previously considered to be re-
stricted to the South American continent is noteworthy but by no means
unique in recent years. In 1964 F. G. Thompson found Perissolestes mag-
dalenae (Williamson) near Puerto Barrios (collected also by O. Flint and
myself in 1965), and in 1965 0. Flint collected Oligoclada umbricola Borror
at a locality only 14 km east of Tenedores-both records being impressive
northern extensions of the ranges of these genera. The humid Atlantic
lowlands of Guatemala may be found after more collecting to have closer
affinities with northwestern South America than is presently recognized.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: In addition to collecting companions cited above,
I am very grateful to Prof. Minter Westfall for the loan of specimens of
C. buchholzi and to Dr. Oliver Flint for the loan of his specimen of C. luci-
fer from the National Museum collection.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 50, No. 1

Racenis, J. 1959. Zwei neue Gattungen und Arten Familie Coenagrioni-
dae (Odonata) aus Venezuela. Senck. Biol. 40: 55-61.

The Florida Entomologist 50(1) 1967

The Florida Entomological Society will hold its 50th Annual (Golden
Anniversary) Meeting at the Ramada Inn in Gainesville on Wednesday-
Friday, October 11-13, 1967. Special recognition and entertainment have
been planned for the meeting. A special publication and special Society
activities and goals are planned for the year. Members with historical
information, historical anecdotes, or special talents and ideas to lend are
urged to contact the 50th Anniversary Committee Chairman Norman Hay-
slip, Indian River Field Laboratory, Box 248, Ft. Pierce, Florida (ph. 305,


11335 N. W. 59th Avenue, Hialeah, Florida 33012

Benjamin (1934) reported that Acinia picturata (Snow) (= Acinia fu-
cata (Fabricus) of Benjamin) feed as larvae within the seedheads of Pluchea
species. Further information by Foote (1964) is as follows: "Acinia pictu-
rata (Snow) (= Acinia fucata (F.) of North American authors) is found
from New Jersey south to Florida and in all of the southern States west
to and including California. It is also known to occur in Baja California,
in Mexico at least as far south as the State of Veracruz, and in Jamaica,
Puerto Rico, and on the island of Antigua. A. picturata has been reared
from inflorescences of Pluchea foetida, P. imbricata, P. purpurascens, and
P. sericec, and the larvae of fucata have been found in the stems of Tes-
saria absinthoides and T. integrifolia, lending further credence to the dis-
tinction between the two species." Dr. Foote (personal communication)
acknowledged the rearing of A. picturata from Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass.
as a new host plant record for the species.
I found an extremely heavy infestation of A. picturata in the in-
florescences of Pluchea odorata on 22 March 1966 at Dodge Island, Miami,
Florida, by the shores of Biscayne Bay. The plant had just begun to
produce clusters of flowering heads. Five plants were found on the west
side of the island.
Examination of numerous seedheads established that no more than a
single larva of A. picturata infested an individual flower of P. odorata.
Larvae occurred within the immature flowers or buds more frequently
than in the older or mature seedheads. The mature seedheads, in most
cases, were observed to contain pupae (Fig. Ic); however, few seedheads
examined on 23 March 1966 contained empty pupal cases. The larvae
(Fig. Ib) fed on many seeds within a single seedhead, made a hollowed-
out cell within the fleshy portion of the flowering head, and then con-
structed an envelope of dead seeds around its body. A single puparium
was thus found within the constructed cell of a seedhead (Fig. la).
Emergence of numerous picturata adults (Fig. Id, e) followed soon after
I confined quantities of Pluchea odorata inflorescences in rearing contain-
Sweepings of P. odorata resulted in the capture of many picturata
adults, both general and mature, after 23 March and during April 1966.
Seedhead examinations of Pluchea odorata on 7 May 1966 revealed many
larvae and pupae that were parasitized by hymenopterous parasites. Vari-
ations in the sizes of pupae were noted, and the frequency of seedhead
infestations on a percentage basis diminished during May 1966.

SContribution No. 82, Entomology Section, Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture, Gainesville.
Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Division of
Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture.

The Florida Entomologist




Fig. 1, a. Infested seedhead
um of Acinia victurata.
b. Larva of Acinia picturata.
c. Puparium of Acinia picturata.

of Pluchea odorata containing a pupari-

d. Dorsal aspect of adult female.
e. Lateral aspect of adult female.

Photographs courtesy of the Division of Plant Industry, Florida De-
partment of Agriculture, Mildred Eaddy, Photographer.

Vol. 50, No. 1

Stegmaier: New Host Record for Acinia picturata


The author is indebted to Dr. Richard H. Foote, Entomology Research
Division, ARS, USDA, for the determinations of Acinia picturata, for in-
formation received in personal communication, and for reviewing this
paper; to Dr. Kenneth R. Langdon, Nematologist and Botanist, Division
of Plant Industry; and to Harold A. Denmark, Chief, Entomology Section,
Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture, for making
possible the photographs.

Benjamin, F. H. 1934. Descriptions of some native trypetid flies with
notes on their habits. USDA, Tech. Bull. No. 401. 96 p.
Foote, R. H. 1964. Acinia picturata (Snow), a resurrected synonym.
(Diptera: Tephritidae). Entomol. Soc. Wash. 66(2): 84.
Small, J. K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. Chapel Hill Univ.
of N. C. Press. 1,554 p.

The Florida Entomologist 50(1) 1967



*1 t'~*






The Kilgore Seed Company, manufacturers and formulators of
Insecticides and Fungicides, offers a complete advisory service to
Florida Farmers through the facilities of its 14 Stores, Laboratory
and technically trained Field Staff.



Stores located at



Ir --


U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C.

Three new species of parasitic Hymenoptera for which names are needed
are described in this paper. One is a braconid of the genus Macrocentrus
which apparently occurs widely through the southeastern states as a para-
site of certain lepidopterous larvae in pine cones. The others are Procto-
trupoidea of the diapriid genus Trichopria; both have been reared from
pupae of Syrphidae. The holotypes of all three species are in the National
Museum; paratypes are in the Florida State collection of Arthropods at
Trichopria myoleptae, new species
(Fig. 1, A and B)

This differs from all other North American species of Trichopria known
to me in combining non-clavate female antennae and a scutellar disc that
is broadly truncate at apex and bears a weak but distinct median longi-
tudinal keel. Superficially it rather resembles Diapria but it lacks the
V-shaped incision at the base of the gaster that is characteristic of that
Female.-Length about 2.2 mm. Head globular, in dorsal view barely
wider than long, not wider than thorax, smooth and polished; temple re-
ceding strongly, about as wide as eye; ratio of length of malar space to
eye height, 3:7; face a little wider than eye height; median ocellus slightly
larger than lateral ocelli; distance between median and lateral ocelli just
about equal to the diameter of the median ocellus; ocellocular line about
twice as long as the longest diameter of a lateral ocellus; antenna without
a distinct club, the flagellum being gradually and only slightly thickened
toward apex; scape a little longer than width of face and about as long
as pedicel and the first two flagellar segments combined; pedicel and first
two flagellar segments subequal in length, more than twice as long as broad,
the following segments successively a little shorter and thicker; lower occi-
put with about 18-20 long erect setae arranged in two or three irregular
Mesonotum smooth and polished; prescutellar furrow very large and
divided into several pits by low longitudinal ridges; disc of scutellum
broadly truncate behind and weakly longitudinally carinate down the mid-
dle; propodeum coarsely rugose reticulate and with a very prominent me-
dian, longitudinal, tubercle-like keel; mesopleuron polished; metapleuron
rugulose and thickly hairy. Hind wing relatively broad, fully twice as
broad as the length of the longest marginal cilia.
Petiole of abdomen coarsely longitudinally rugose and thickly covered
with long hair, nearly twice as long as broad; gaster smooth and polished,
a little wider than thorax, widest at the middle and gradually narrowing
toward base and apex, acute at apex.
Black; antennae dark brown; legs yellowish brown; wings subhyaline.
Male.-Essentially like the female except for the very different anten-
nae (Fig. 1, A).

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 50, No. 1

Muesebeck: New Southeastern Parasitic Hymenoptera 59

Described from 11 females, one the holotype, and 4 males, one the
allotype, reared by W. W. Smith at Gainesville, Florida in April, 1965,
from pupae of the flower fly Myolepta varipes Loew.

Trichopria dentata, new species
(Fig. 1, C and D)
Although also reared from the pupa of a flower fly (Syrphidae) this
species differs strikingly from the foregoing species in having the female
antennae distinctly clubbed, the non-carinate disc of scutellum, the much
narrower hind wings and the quite different male antennae in which the
second flagellar segment is sharply dentate. Superficially it is more sim-
ilar to T. tabanivora Fouts, but the male antennae are very different and
the female abdomen is acute at the apex whereas it is subtruncate in
Female.-Length barely 2 mm. Head globular, smooth and polished, in
dorsal view wider than long in the ratio of 7:6; temple receding, about
as wide as eye; malar space very nearly or quite as long as the eye height;
ratio of width of face to eye height, 8:5; distance between ocelli one and
one-half times as long as diameter of an ocellus; antenna with a distinct
5-segmented club, scape considerably longer than width of face and as
long as pedicel and first and second flagellar segments combined, first and
second flagellar segments about qual in length and nearly three times as
long as their apical width, third and fourth segments slightly shorter than
first and second, fifth about as long as third and fourth but a little thicker,
remaining segments comprising the club, in which the two segments before
the last are about as wide as long; a single row of 8 long erect setae
arising from lower margin of occiput.
Mesonotum smooth and polished; prescutellar fovea large, smooth and
polished and without distinct longitudinal ridges; disc of scutellum sub-
quadrate, broadly truncate at apex, and nearly flat without any suggestion
of a median longitudinal carina; propodeum rugulose, with a high, laterally
compressed tubercle-like median prominence basally; mesopleuron smooth
and polished; metapleuron rugulose and thickly covered with long whitish
hairs. Hind wing very narrow, its maximum width hardly equal to the
length of the cilia on the posterior margin.
Petiole of abdomen less than twice as long as wide, longitudinally ru-
gose, hairy; gaster polished and with only a few scattered hairs basally and
apically, widest beyond the middle, narrowing abruptly on apical fourth,
acute at apex.
Black; antenna basad of club yellowish brown, club blackish; legs brown-
ish; wings hyaline.
Male.-Except for the antennae (Fig. 1, C) essentially like the female.
The most characteristic feature of the antenna is the acute, tooth-like
angulation of the second flagellar segment.

Fig. 1. Details of new parasites: A-Antenna of male of Trichopria
myoleptae; B-Antenna of female of T. myoleptae; C-Antenna of male of
T. dentata; D-Antenna of female of T. dentata; E-Fore wing of Macro-
centrus dioryctriae; F-Front view of head of M. dioryctriae; G-Dorsal
and lateral views of first abdominal tergite of M. dioryctriae. Drawn by
Arthur D. Cushman, U. S. Department of Agriculture.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 50, No. 1

Described from 3 females, one the holotype, and 9 males, one the allo-
type, reared from the pupa of an unidentified species of Syrphidae taken
at Town Creek, Alabama, 19 September, 1955, by W. Snow.

Macrocentrus dioryctriae, new species
(Fig. 1, E, F, and G)

This species appears to be most closely related to delicatus Cresson,
but it is larger and it differs constantly in various details, particularly in
having the lower part of the mesopleuron and the metapleuron strongly
Female.-Length usually around 8 mm. Head much wider than thorax
and in dorsal view two and one-half times as wide as long; face flat, not
quite as wide as eye height, slightly roughened; malar space shorter than
maximum diameter of a lateral ocellus; the lateral ocelli one and one-half
times as large as the median ocellus, maximum diameter of a lateral ocel-
lus three-fourths as long as the ocellocular line and distinctly longer than
postocellar line; antennae very long and slender, 57- to 62-segmented in
the specimens examined.
Thorax about two and one-half times as long as wide; notauli sharply
impressed and finely foveolate; middle lobe of mesoscutum prominent;
prescutellar furrow divided into 8 or 10 shallow longitudinal foveae by
longitudinal ridges; disc of scutellum nearly flat, twice as long as median
length of metanotum; propodeum nearly horizontal, rugulose but more
weakly so toward base; side of pronotum rugulose in the longitudinal im-
pression; mesopleuron closely rugulose or rugulose punctate on lower half;
metapleuron usually entirely rather coarsely rugulose; legs very slender;
inner calcarium of hind tibia a little less than half as long as metatarsus.
Fore wing with radius arising from considerably beyond middle of stigma,
the section of the posterior margin basad of origin of radius being twice
as long as the section beyond radius; second cubital cell normally 0.85-
0.90 as long as first discoidal cell; second abscissa of cubitus more, usually
much more, than half as long as recurrent vein; nervulus postfurcal by
less than its length; internal vein strongly developed and complete; hind
wing with nervellus perpendicular to anterior wing margin and nearly as
long as lower abscissa of basella.
Abdomen a little narrower than thorax; first tergite about twice as
long as wide at apex, not impressed at base, very closely and finely
aciculate, the spiracles farther from each other than from base of tergite;
second tergite a little shorter than its maximum width and closely finely
aciculate like the first; third tergite a little shorter than the second and
weakly aciculate on basal half; remainder of abdomen smooth and shining;
ovipositor sheath about 1.3 times as long as head, thorax and abdomen
Yellowish brown; lower part of mesopleuron and more or less of meta-
pleuron and propodeum usually noticeably darkened; legs yellow; wings
hyaline, the veins mostly darkened but the stigma yellow and the costal
thickening, except for a short distance before stigma, and the metacarpus,
Male.-Like the female in essential particulars. Normally the males

Muesebeck: New Southeastern Parasitic Hymenoptera 61

are somewhat smaller and in the male specimens examined the antennae
are 55- to 57-segmented.
Described from 37 specimens. The female holotype was reared from
Dioryctria clarioralis (Walker) on Pinus palustris in Baker County, Flor-
ida, 4 May 1959, by B. H. Ebel; and the allotype is labeled "Ex Dioryctria
in pine cone, Quantico, Maryland, 1964, C. W. McComb." Fifteen of the
paratypes are from various localities in Florida, some of them field-col-
lected specimens, others recorded as having been reared from Dioryctria
clarioralis, D. amatella (Hulst), D. abietella (Denis and Schiffermiiller)
and D. sp.; 2 are from Gulfport, Mississippi, reared from Dioryctria sp.
on Pinus palustris, October 1958; 1 is from Edgefield, South Carolina and
is labeled as having been reared from Eucosma sp. in July 1965; 1 was ob-
tained from a cone of P. palustris in Washington, D. C., July 1916, and
1 from a cone of loblolly pine at Gasburg, Virginia in October 1961; and
15 were reared from pine cones in Cleveland County, Arkansas in 1960.

The Florida Entomologist 50(1) 1967

In order to meet recently increased costs of publishing, page charges
must now be made for papers appearing in The Florida Entomologist. Be-
ginning with volume 50 number 2 (June 1967), the charge is $5.00 per page,
partial pages proportionally. Earlier policies regarding charges for excess
illustrative material and paid papers remain in effect.
The $5.00 charge is approximately 1/3 the actual cost per page to publish
The Florida Entomologist.

Mr. Stanley V. Fuller died 30 November 1966 at Malone, Florida. He
was born 4 April 1884 in Eastborne, Sussex, England. Mr. Fuller attended
Kenelms College in Lewes, Sussex, and studied horticulture in England,
Africa, and Australia for 22 years, and later in the United States.
A part time Division of Plant Industry member, and assistant curator
of the Lepidoptera Section of the Florida State Collecdon of Arthropods,
Mr. Fuller made hundreds of contributions to the collection. His major
contribution came at the time of his death when he willed his personal col-
lection to the state. Some 10,000 pinned, labeled, and identified specimens
were donated.



I. I


Department of Zoology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401

Hydroporus blanchardi Sherman, H. tigrinus Fall, and the new species
described in the present paper form a complex of small hydroporids char-
acteristic of the wooded regions of the Eastern United States. These spe-
cies form a distinct ecological group and are seldom found except in such
habitats as the rootmats and marginal debris of small streams associated
with the trickling water and puddles in seepage springs. They swim
and "burrow" in the matted vegetation or bottom silt and individuals are
only rarely encountered in open water. Shading by heavy vegetation or
by overhanging banks is usually a characteristic of all situations in which
members of this complex are found.
Morphologically all of the forms are very similar to one another, but
local populations show consistent differences in size, punctation, and col-
oration. The uniformity of local populations may be correlated with the
apparent failure to fly. All forms key to Hydroporus blanchardi-tigrinus
in Fall's key (1923) to the Pulcher-Undulatus group of Hydroporus (=
subgenus Sternoporus Falkenstrdm). The secondary sexual modifications
of the males are minor, and the male genitalia are simple and fairly uni-
form. The differences in size and punctation, however, indicate distinct
differences. Our knowledge of the distribution and variation of these small
beetles is still very incomplete, but it seems worthwhile to call attention
to the group by describing some of the discrete populations. Further study
will doubtless indicate the occurrence of still other geographically and
ecologically isolated species.

Hydroporus blanchardi Sherman (1913)

Described from Marion, Massachusetts, and Ash Grove, Virginia. A
new name for H. vitiosus Sharp (1882) not LeConte.
This species is described by Sharp (1882) as H. vitiosus LeConte, and
is redescribed by Fall (1923). Briefly, the species is small (3 to 3.5 mm
in length), finely punctate, and usually appears smooth and polished. The
elytra usually show distinct markings composed of subbasal and post-
median transverse fascia of small, separate lighter spots on a brown or
dark brown background (Fig. 1). An irregular apical light spot is also
evident in most specimens. The body form is moderately convex, elongate,
and narrowed behind but the insect is less than twice as long as broad
except in some exceptional males. The male claws and antennae are al-
most unmodified. The prosternal protuberance, anterior file, and widened
pronotal border are characteristic of the Pulcher-Undulatus group.
Blanchardi does not vary greatly over its large range except in color-
ation and the extent of the light markings. The latter differ considerably

1 Contribution No. 785 from the Zoological Laboratories of Indiana
University aided by grants from the U. S. Public Health Service and
National Science Foundation.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 50, No. 1

with the age of the specimen as well as with locality. As in other hydro-
porids the light pattern actually represents the portions of the elytra
which are not tanned and darkened by the deposition of melanins. Thus
in general or callow individuals the spots may be large and in part con-
fluent. Various degrees of the hardening and darkening process can be
seen in most series.
Males and females are not positively separable on external characters.
The anterior and middle tarsi are equipped with adhesive pads but are
slender in both sexes. The anterior claw of the male protarsus is just
perceptibly modified and subequal to the posterior claw. The antennae of
the males are, or seem to be, a trifle longer than in females, but this differ-
ence is difficult to assay. The male genitalia are simple and do not offer
many diagnostic features (Fig. 1).
The range as now recorded is from New Hampshire to' northern Florida,
southern Georgia, and Alabama west to Arkansas and Oklahoma. Speci-
mens from Indiana average smaller than those from the northeast and
south, but they are very similar in punctation and other characters. The
range of this species probably corresponds to the extent of the eastern
deciduous woodland with extensions along stream valleys to the west.
Fall (1923) records blanchardi from New Hampshire, Massachusetts,
Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Alabama.
I have also seen material from the following localities: ALABAMA: Noc-
calula, vi .18.1931, H. P. L6ding; Cherokee Co., near Pleasant Gap, ix.5.1949.
ARKANSAS: Jefferson Co., west of Pine Bluff, iii.27.1959. GEORGIA: De-
catur Co., near Chattahoochee, viii.1953, vi.1954; Decatur Co., Spring
Creek, vi.1954; Hart Co., near Nuberg, ix.1.1949, viii.29.1961; Floyd Co.,
Cave Spring, ix.4.1949. FLORIDA: Gadsden Co., Glen Julia Spring, vi.13.
1954; Holmes Co., Sandy Creek near Ponce de Leon, x.18.1941. OKLA-
HOMA: Pittsburg Co., near McAlester, vi.14.1956. INDIANA: Monroe Co.,
Baxter's Bog near Handy, v.2.1953, iv.13.1954. WEST VIRGINIA: Mercer
Co., near Princeton, vii.22.1959.
Nearly all specimens collected by me were taken in shaded situations
in small to medium sized streams with sand bottoms or areas of sand
along their courses. H. blanchardi was most abundant in marginal situa-
tions such as small pools under heavy shade or adjacent or partly under
undercut banks. Situations in or adjacent to marginal seepages were more
productive than the stream margins themselves, and the species may actu-
ally breed in marginal seepage springs. The Indiana specimens were
taken from tiny trickling springs along the wooded edges of a sphagnum
bog in southern Monroe County, but were not found in the bog proper
where Hydroporus (s. str.) brevicornis Fall was the only Hydroporus
taken. The habitats in which blanchardi was found at Glen Julia Springs,
Florida, and Spring Creek, Georgia, were previously described (Young
1955a, 1955b).
Sherman (1913) refers to H. blanchardi as a typical brook species, but
in my experience it is seldom found in typical small stream situations. In
the Piedmont of Georgia, for example, it has not been taken in the small
streams with their characteristic micaceous sand margins. However, it
was found abundantly in Hart County in a spring head seepage area shaded
by alders and willows. Here again, H. blanchardi was commonest in or
near the seepage areas along the edges of the flowing stream. In the root

Young: The Hydroporus blanchardi-tigrinus Complex 65

mats and marginal gravel of the stream itself H. carolinus Fall was the
dominant species.
The only open, unshaded situation in which I have found blanchardi
was in rocky pools in a small intermittent stream in Cherokee County,
Alabama. Here, however, the beetles had apparently been washed down
from the wooded headwaters by floodwater and concentrated in the rocky
pools as they dried up.

Hydroporus tigrinus Fall (1923)
Described from Ash Grove, Virginia, associated with H. blanchardi and
H. striatopunctatus Melsheimer.
This species was described from material collected by J. D. Sherman,
Jr., and I have seen only females from the original series. According to
Fall's description, the species is distinguished from blanchardi by the fol-
lowing combination of characters.
Size small (2.95 to 3.1 mm in length). Body form more oval, less
attenuate behind, and more convex than in blanchardi. Pronotal punctures
finer medially than at the sides. Elytral punctures diminishing in size
toward the apices so that the latter appear almost impunctate. Metaster-
nal and coxal plates conspicuously more strongly punctate that in blanch-
The color and color pattern do not seem to differ significantly from
that of blanchardi. Specimens I have seen are dark reddish brown with
lighter spots small and distinct, but as mentioned in regard to blanchardi,
the degree of darkening of the background and the intensity of the spot-
ting varies with the age of the individual.
The characters on which this species is based are admittedly rather
feeble, but they seem to be consistent in the original series. I suspect
that tigrinus may be found to have slightly different ecological preferences
from blanchardi.
Hydroporus rheocrinus sp. nov.
This interesting little insect has been in my collection for nearly 30
years under the name H. blanchardi as determined by H. C. Fall in 1938.
It differs from that species, however, in several respects which I believe
are important.
DIAGNOSIS: Similar to blanchardi but smaller in average size, more
convex, less regularly acuminate behind, and conspicuously more coarsely,
densely, and deeply punctate on the pronotum and elytra (Fig. 2). Size
and shape similar to tigrinus, but dorsal punctation much coarser and
denser and metasternal and coxal punctation finer and less conspicuous
(although more so than in typical blanchardi). Elytra in fully hardened
specimens piceous brown with lighter markings reduced but sharply de-
limited and distinct. Size range: Length 2.9 to 3.2 mm; greatest width at
base of elytra 1.5 to 1.6 mm.
HOLOTYPE MALE: Ovate, acuminate behind, widest just behind bases
of elytra. Length, 3.1 mm; greatest width, 1.6 mm; width of pronotum at
apex, 0.93 mm; width of pronotum at base, 1.48 mm; length of pronotum
at midline, 0.58 mm; width between eyes, 0.6 mm.
HEAD: Similar to blanchardi with clypeal margin thickened but with-
out definite margin. Surface microreticulate and rather coarsely punctate,

66 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 1

the punctures coarser and denser than in blanchardi particularly on the
vertex; much more coarsely punctate than in tigrinus. Color nearly uni-
formly brownish yellow, the antennae and mouthparts slightly darker.
Pronotum: Shaped and margined much as in blanchardi and tigrinus.
Surface microreticulate with punctation very coarse in comparison to
either blanchardi or tigrinus. Punctures on disk just perceptibly smaller
than those at the margins. Anterior and posterior marginal punctures
large, setigerous. Color brownish yellow with a vague infuscation on disk.
Elytra: Widest just behind base of pronotum, narrowing posteriorly so
that the conjoined elytra are moderately acuminate much as in blanchardi,
but sides less regularly narrowed so that outline is more regularly ovate.
Surface microreticulate and rather coarsely and densely punctate, the
setigerous punctures along suture and on disk especially large and serially
arranged. Punctures becoming smaller toward lateral margins and apices
of elytra but still conspicuously large in comparison to blanchardi or
tigrinus. Setae (hairs) moderately conspicuous, somewhat less so than in
blanchardi. Color piceous brown with reduced but distinct subbasal and
post-median fascia and apical spots. Venter: Much as in blanchardi, but
metasternal and coxal punctures more conspicuous. Color yellowish brown,
the legs darker. Secondary sexual characters not detectably different from
female and much as in blanchardi. Genitalia: Fig. 2. Adeagus nar-
rowed at base and with tip somewhat blunter than in blanchardi, but the
simplicity of the structure of the aedeagus and parameres makes it diffi-
cult to assess the slight differences detectable.
ALLOTYPE FEMALE: Very similar to male except in minor features of
color pattern and punctation.
TYPE MATERIAL: Holotype, allotype, and 61 paratypes from: FLORIDA:
Alachua Co., San Felasco Hammock west of Gainesville, viii.26.1961, F. N.
Young (in University of Michigan Museum of Zoology). Other paratypes
from the same locality were collected on vii.9.19.59 (1) and viii.1.1959 (27).
A single specimen collected v.2.1937, was collected in a small stream in
San Felasco Hammock near the type locality.
HABITAT: H. rheocrinus has been found only in small streams in San
Felasco Hammock west of Gainesville, Florida. The principal series is
from about 10 miles west of Gainesville on state road, Fla. 232. The sur-
rounding area is heavily wooded with nearly virgin mesic hammock char-
acteristic of the middle Florida hammock belt of the Peninsular Uplands
(Young 1954). The small streams in this area run through shallow ravines
densely shaded by magnolia, evergreen oaks, sweetgum, holly, and other
forest trees and shrubs many of which are evergreen. The banks are steep
and in places covered with dense mats of mosses and liverworts.
The specimens of rheocrinus were taken from mats of mosses and roots
along the margin of the stream in areas where water trickled into the
stream course from small springs or seepages. Most were collected by
depressing the matted vegetation and watching for the beetles to come to
the surface. Some were taken from small backwaters with the bottom cov-
ered with black organic muck under the edges of undercut banks. Cymbi-
odyta blanchardi Horn was the only other beetle taken frequently in the
same situation. A few Copelatus punctulatus Aub6 (Young 1963) were
taken in the larger pools together with an unidentified Agabus similar to
obtusatus (Say).

Young: The Hydroporus blanchardi-tigrinus Complex




Fig. 1. Hydroporus blanchardi Sherman, semidiagrammatic outline of
body and color pattern; tip and lateral view of aedeagus, and left para-
Fig. 2. Hydroporua rheocrinus, sp. nov., same as for blanchardi.
Fig. 3. Hydroporus helocrinus sp. nov., same as for blanchardi.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 50, No. 1

When removed from the water the small hydroporids go into a death
feint which lasts from 1/ to 2 minutes. They may then scramble about
rapidly for some time until they regain the water or are disturbed again.
None were observed to spread the elytra or attempt to fly even when placed
in direct sunlight. In direct sunlight they died within 10 minutes, but none
attempted to fly. In contrast, Cymbiodyta from the same habitat flew
readily even when in moist situations, and always spread the wings and
attempted flight when placed in direct sunlight. The hind wings of H.
rheocrinus seem to be normally developed, but it seems doubtful that the
species flies.
Hydroporus helocrinus sp. nov.

DIAGNOSIS: Similar to rheocrinus but smaller in average size, much
less convex, more regularly attenuate behind, and with dorsal punctation
finer (Fig. 3). Smaller in average size than blanchardi and probably than
tigrinus, and much more coarsely punctate on the dorsum than either.
Discal punctures of pronotum smaller than marginal punctures as in
tigrinus, but relatively coarser and elytral punctures much coarser and
not strikingly decreasing in size apically. Metasternal and coxal punc-
tures relatively coarse, about as in rheocrinus. Size range: Length 2.9 to
3.0 mm; greatest width of elytra, 1.4 to 1.6 mm. This may prove to be a
local population representing the extreme of rheocrinus but the differences
seem to be consistent.
HOLOTYPE MALES: Ovate, acuminate behind but less regularly ovate than
rheocrinus, widest just behind base of pronotum. Length, 3.0 mm; greatest
width, 1.6 mm; width of pronotum at apex, 0.9 mm; width of pronotum
at base, 1.43 mm; length of pronotum at midline, 0.58 mm; width between
eyes, 0.6 mm.
Head: Similar to rheocrinus. Surface microreticulate and punctate
much as in rheocrinus, more finely punctate than in blanchardi or tigrinus.
Color nearly uniformly brownish yellow, antennae and mouthparts slightly
darker. Pronotum: Lateral margin narrower than in rheocrinus. Sur-
face microreticulate and irregularly punctate. Discal punctures percept-
ibly smaller than those along base and apex, distinctly smaller than in
rheocrinus but larger than in blanchardi or tigrinus. Marginal punc-
tures coarse, but finer than in rheocrinus. Color brownish yellow with
only a vague infuscation on disk. Elytra: Widest just behind pronotum
and acuminate toward the tip, somewhat more regularly acuminate than
in rheocrinus so that general body outline is less regularly ovate and
more as in typical blanchardi. Surface microreticulate and rather coarse-
ly punctate. Punctures finer than in rheocrinus but distinctly coarser than
in either blanchardi or tigrinus. Discal punctures the largest, the punc-
tures decreasing in size laterally and toward the apices of the elytra, but
apical punctures not conspicuously smaller than discal. Color dark red-
dish brown with lighter spots brownish yellow arranged much as in rhe-
ocrinus but not clearly delimited and rather indistinct. Setae (hairs)
moderately conspicuous about as in rheocrinus. Venter: Much as in
rheocrinus in color and sculpture but appearing flatter and thus giving
insect a less convex lateral outline. Elytral epipleurae less visible from
side than in rheocrinus. Secondary sexual characters not developed; tarsi
and claws much as in female. Genitalia: Fig. 3. Aedeagus narrower

Young: The Hydroporus blanchardi-tigrinus Complex 69

and more regularly pointed at tip than in rheocrinus. Base much as in
blanchardi. Parameres apparently identical with those of rheocrinus and
ALLOTYPE FEMALE: Similar to male but slightly larger and differing
in minor color and punctation characters.
TYPE MATERIAL: Holotype, allotype, and 3 paratypes from: FLORIDA:
Alachua Co., Gainesville, ii.19.1949. Paratypes from same locality xii.31.
1947. (13) and ii.1.1948 (1). All specimens were collected from seepage
areas near Rattlesnake Branch by F. N. Young and Irving J. Cantrall.
HABITAT: The habitat of this species is the helocrene springs or seep-
ages bordering sand-bottomed streams. We did not find helocrinus in the
stream itself in situations such as those in which rheocrinus was abun-
dant. Most speciments were collected by depressing the mat of moss well
back in the seepage area and watching for the beetles to surface. The
seepage area was shaded by evergreen oaks and other trees and the sur-
face matted with mosses and liverworts. This is a typical situation along
streams in many parts of the middle Florida hammock belt so that helocri-
nus should be expected in several north Florida counties.
So far, H. blanchardi has not been found in Florida except in the Ap-
palachicola River area. H. rheocrinus and helocrinus seem to be deriva-
tives of blanchardi isolated in the northern peninsular region.


Fall, H. C. 1923. A revision of the North American species of Hydropo-
rus and Agaporus. Mt. Vernon, New York (John D. Sherman, Jr.).
129 p.
Sharp, D. 1882. On aquatic carnivorous Coleoptera or Dytiscidae. Sci.
Trans. Royal Dublin Soc. (Ser. 2), 2: 179-1003, 12 pl.
Sherman, J. D., Jr. 1913. Some habits of the Dytiscidae. J. New York
Entomol. Soc. 21: 43-54.
Young, F. N. 1954. The water beetles of Florida. Univ. Fla. Studies,
Biol. Sci. Ser., 5 (1):ix + 238, 31 Fig.
Young, F. N. 1955a. A preliminary survey of the water beetles of Glen
Julia Spring, Florida. Quart. J. Fla. Acad. Sci., 18 (1): 59-66.
Young, F. N. 1955b. The type locality and habitat of Hydroporus dixz-
anus Fall (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). Coleopterist's Bull., 9 (1): 7-9.

The Florida Entomologist 50(1) 1967



2 -
4 -


00a 4
ba n b ob

noo* o n


olm-~ 5N


Assistant Professor of Forest Entomology and Graduate Research Assistant,
respectively, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas

An efficient method for collecting bark beetle eggs and young larvae
has been developed at the Forest Insect Laboratory of Texas A&M Uni-
versity. Formerly, collection of eggs involved the dissection of host ma-
terial. Clark (1965) described a method of egg and larval procurement
which, although resulting in adequate production, is very laborious and
time-consuming. Due to collection injuries, a large percentage of the
eggs and larvae were rendered useless for laboratory rearing studies. The
technique herein described eliminates host material dissection during col-
lection and minimizes injuries and destruction of eggs and larvae. Its es-
sential feature lies in the pre-infestation treatment of the host material,
which allows the bark to be removed intact at the time of egg collection.

1) Obtain logs of host material, 3 to 5 inches in diameter, and remove the
loose and flaky outer bark, reducing the remaining outer bark to a thick-
ness of approximately 1/ inch. Do not expose the inner bark. If host
material is selected from the crown portions of trees, the outer bark will
be thin and very little bark removal will be necessary.
2) Saw a number of 8 to 10 inch bolts from straight, knot-free sections of
the logs.
3) Treat each bolt as follows: clamp it by the cut ends so that it will
be steady. A very large C-clamp attached to a work table serves this pur-
pose. Better still is an apparatus such as the one shown in Fig. 1, which
supplies the clamp, adequate light, a continuous outward flow of filtered
air, and a transparent shield to keep out airborne contaminants. With a
linoleum knife, make a cut through the bark, the complete length of the
bolt. Next, insert the blade of an appropriately curved putty knife (Fig.
1) into the cut and peel the inner bark from the wood in one piece, leaving
the bark attached to the wood on one side of the longitudinal cut for at
least 1 inch. Replace the loosened bark and bind it in its original posi-
tion on the bolt with several spiral turns of nylon filament tape.
4) Infest the bolts with bark beetles for egg production. This may be
done by caging the insects on the bolts over starter holes drilled in the
outer bark or by placing the bolts into containers with emerging beetles.
5) After the egg production period (we found that a period of 5 to 8
days at 70 to 800 F suffices), remove the tape from the bolt. With the aid
of the curved putty knife, carefully peel the bark away from the wood until
all the egg galleries are exposed; then, sever the bark from the wood.

1 This technique resulted from preliminary investigations on the de-
velopment of diets and rearing methods for the southern pine beetle-
McIntire-Stennis Project 1525.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 50, No. 1

6) Place the bark under a stereomicroscope, inner bark up. First, look
for larvae and collect them with a moistened camel's hair or sable brush,
placing them on moist filter paper in a Petri dish. Then with a suitable
probe, tease the eggs from their niches and deposit them, also, on moist
filter paper. Eggs and larvae should not be stored very long after their
removal from the inner bark. Eggs may be stored for several days at
500F, however, if moisture conditions are maintained properly.

Fig. 1. Work chamber used for preparing bolts of host material under
sanitary conditions.

With practice, one can easily collect 100 undamaged eggs per hour with
this technique. It also lends itself to the study of single broods of bark
beetles, greatly simplifying brood examinations. Because bark beetle
life cycles are relatively long, organisms such as fungi, if present, will
seriously compete with the bark beetle broods for the available food.
Stringent precautions, therefore, must be taken during the bolt prepara-
tion to prevent contamination of the inner bark and wood.
The apparatus pictured in Fig. 1 has been used successfully in this
laboratory in conjunction with bolt preparation for single brood studies on
the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm. Of course, other
procedures common to sterile techniques were also employed. For ex-
ample, the cut surfaces of the bolts were flamed and sealed with melted
paraffin after the peeling and taping operation. In using this technique
for egg production, however, extreme precautions are not mandatory,
since the eggs may be surface-sterilized before use.

Anderson: Obtaining Bark Beetle Eggs and Larvae 73

Clark, Edgar W. 1965. A simple rearing technique for obtaining eggs or
young larvae of the southern pine beetle. U. S. Forest Service Res.
Note SE-44, Southeastern Forest Exp. Sta., Asheville, N. C.

The Florida Entomologist 50(1) 1967

. ,9

Every product
bearing the Blue Bullseye
has been proved
and proved again
before it is offered to you.

You can count on it.
At Chemagro, test tube to test plot to market
is a never ending process. As makers of chemicals
for agriculture, we are acutely aware of the
responsibilities and opportunities we face. So we
keep scientists very busy in the laboratories, testing,
testing. And our field testing and demonstration
forces prove the dependability and effectiveness of
every product time and again before we release
it for general use. This takes years . not just a
little time. Years that pay off in a better product for
you, a proud reputation for us. We work at
making the Blue Bullseye a meaningful trademark.
Look for it when you need an insecticide, miticide,
fungicide or herbicide. ita


Department of Entomology, University of Florida, Gainesville

During the summer of 1966 extensive light trap collections were ob-
tained from Honduras. In preparation for the writing of a monograph of
the Culicoides of that country the following new species is described.

Culicoides (Culicoides) hayesi n. sp.
FEMALE:-Head: Eyes narrowly separated, bare. Antennae (Fig. 7)
with flagellar segments in proportion of 20:15:15:15:15:1,5:15:16:33:33:36:
36:48. Antennal ratio 1.48 (1.44-1.53, n=4); distal sensorial pits in seg-
ments III-XV. The first eight flagellar segments yellowish, the last five
brown. Palpal segments (Fig. 5) in proportion of 15:31:45:12:12; the
third segment swollen, 2.48 (2.44-2.53, n=4) times as long as the greatest
width; with a large deep sensory pit with a circular opening. The pro-
boscis shorter than the head; the mandible with 15 (14-18, n=4) well
developed teeth.
Thorax: On slide mounted specimens the thorax appears to be uni-
formly yellowish brown; however, no pinned material was available for
comparison. The legs are light brown; the femora with a subapical, and
the tibia with a subbasal pale ring; all knees black. Hind tibial comb
with four spines, (Fig. 6) the one nearest the spur the longest.
Wing: Length of wing 1.36 (1.34-1.42, n=4) mm; the costa extend-
ing 0.58 (0.57-0.60, n=4) of the wing length. Wing pattern (Fig. 8) with
markings distinct; the pale markings well separated. The second radial
cell in a light spot, the distal pale spot broadly reaching the wing margin
and nearly filling the apical portion of cell R5. A large round pale spot
on vein M2; the distal pale spots in cells M, and M2 broadly reaching the
wing margin. The anal cell with one distal pale spot which fills the entire
distal portion of the cell. Few macrotrichia present, these distributed
evenly over the surface of the wing. The halter entirely clear.
Abdomen: Two spherical spermathecae present; the ducts sclerotized
for only a very short distance. The larger 0.079 (0.067-0.098, n=2) mm
by 0.058 (0.055-0.060, n=2) mm; the smaller 0.065 (0.060-0.072, n=3)
mm by 0.053 (0.048-0.055, n=3) mm.
MALE:-Genitalia: The ninth sternite shallowly excavated; ninth ter-
gite with apicolateral processes well developed, slightly divergent and with
blunt ends; the caudal margin strongly indented and with a deep trough-
shaped notch. Basistyle with dorsal root well developed, blunt ended; the
ventral root longer and tapering to a weakly curved point. Dististyle with
the base swollen; nearly straight, with a slender, blunt, slightly curved tip.
Aedeagus strongly arched; with ends of arms bent; tapering to a blunt
tip. Parameres (Fig. 2) separate, with abruptly bent, knobbed bases and
a sensible swelling medially, tapering to fine sharply bent simple tips.

1This investigation was supported in part by U. S. Army Contract
No. DA-49-193-MD-2177.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 50, No. 1

FOURTH INSTAR LARVA:-1 specimen examined. Dorsal head length
0.192 mm, comb with seven unequal teeth on each half; total comb width
0.029 mm; head capsule pale yellow. Dorsum of all thoracic and abdom-
inal segments lighter than the head capsule; yellowish-white.
PUPA:-Respiratory horn brown, slightly darker than rest of pelt;
with 7-9 apical and 3 lateral spiracular openings; % of the median surface
with scattered spicules. The horn long and slender, cylindrical in shape;




'I ~ **I .I .

Fig. 1-8. Culicoides haysei n. sp.; Fig. 1. male genitalia, parameres re-
moved. Fig. 2. parameres. Fig. 3. spermatothecae. Fig. 4. head. Fig. 5.
palp. Fig. 6. tibial comb Fig 7. antennal flagellar segments. Fig. 8. wing.

Matta: A New Species of Culicoides

L/W ratio 8.5-9.0. Operculum with am seta long and thin, ad setae long
and thin and located on a tubercle. The d tubercles with 1,2, and 3 al-
most in line, 4 and 5 form a line parallel to 1,2, and 3; seta 3 very long.
Abdomen: With 4 lateral spines per segment, each located on a sep-
arate and distinct tubercle, the penultimate segment with the tubercles
located in a line on the posterior margin. The last segment with caudal
apicolateral processes long and slender, forming an angle of about 450
to the longitudinal axis of the body; small spines cover the entire sur-
face of the last segment.
TYPES:-Holotype female, (Type No. 69360, U.S.N.M.), allotype, La
Tigra, Districo Central, Honduras, 10 June 1966, J. F. Matta (light trap).
Paratypes: Honduras-3 females, 1 male, same data as types. 2
females, 1 male, 1 larva, 1 pupal case, Mexico, Tamaulipas, Ciudad Vic-
toria, Rancho del Cielo 4 April 1963, (H. A. Trevino, raised from bromeli-
ad) courtesy of Dr. Richard B. Eads and Dr. W. W. Wirth. 1 female
Mexice, Veracruz, Fortin, 22 May 1964 F. S. Blanton. All types and para-
types are deposited in the U. S. National Museum.
DISCUSSION:-The type locality, La Tigra, is a mountain about 10 miles
outside of Tegucigalpa, Honduras. The collection area (at an altitude of
6000 ft) is a subtemperate cloud forest with a heavy overgrowth of moss,
lichens, and orchids.
This species is closely related to C. leutealaris W.&B. in wing pattern
and in the dark bases of the femora. It is also closely related to C. nigri-
genus W.&B.; having bicolored antennae, each segment with a sensory
tuft, the conspicuous black knees, and a marked similarity in the male
structures. It may be distinguished by the wing pattern, smaller antennal
ratio, and greater palpal ratio; and in the male by the comparatively
greater development of the ventral root, the shape of the tip of the aedea-
gus, and the stouter apicolateral processes.
This species is named after Dr. Richard 0. Hayes of the U. S. Public
Health Service. I wish to thank Dr. W. W. Wirth for his kindness in re-
viewing material and offering suggestions.


Fig. 9-10. Culicoides hayesi n. sp.; Fig. 9. larval comb.
Fig. 10. pupal horn.
The Florida Entomologist 50(1) 1967

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs