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Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1967
Copyright Date: 1917
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Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
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The


FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

Volume 50, No. 3 September, 1967




CONTENTS
Page
MERKLE, E. P.-Life History of the Slash Pine Seedworm, Laspeyresia
anaranjada M iller (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) ........................................ 141
KHALAF, K. T.-The Seasonal Fluctuation of the Inland Culicoides of
Southern Louisiana (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) ................... 151
STEGMAIER, C. E., JR.-Notes on a Seed-Feeding Tephritidae, Paracantha
forficula, (D iptera) in F lorida ................................ .... ................................ 157
BAILEY, D. L., G. C. LABREQUE AND P. M. BISHOP-Residual Sprays for the
Control of House Flies, Musca domestic, in Dairy Barns ..................... 161
SAKIMURA, K.-A Preliminary Note on a Review of the Genus Chaeti-
sothrips Priesner (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) ...................................... 165
DENMARK, H. A., AND M. H. MUMA-Six New Phytoseiidae from Florida
(A ca rin a : P h y to seiid a e ) ....................................................................................... 169
PETERSON, ALVAH-Eggs of Moths Among the Ethmiidae, Acrolophidae,
and H epialidae- M icrolepidoptera ........................................ ....................... 181
WILKINSON, R. C., W. T. MCCLELLAND, R. M. MURILLO, AND E. O. OSTMARK
-Stridulation and Behavior in Two Southeastern Ips Bark Beetles
(Coleoptera: Scolytidae) .............................. .... .................................. 185
STEGMAIER, C. E., JR.-New Host Plant Records of Haplomyza togata from
F lorida (D iptera: A grom yzidae) ....................................................................... 197
MUMA, M. H., L. J. METZ, AND M. H. FARRIER-New Species and Records
of Phytoseiidae (Acarina: Mesostigmata) from North Carolina Forest
Litter .......................................................... 199
WIRTH, W. W., AND F. S. BLANTON-The North American Culicoides of
the Guttipennis Group (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) ........................... 207
STEGMAIER, C. E., JR.-A New Host Plant Record of Hippelates nobilis
in Florida (D iptera: C hloropidae) .................................... .............................. 233
Notice ................ ...... ........................... ... ................ .......... 196


Published by The Florida Entomological Society










THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY

OFFICERS FOR 1966-67
President.--...............---------.----------------------.. J. E. Brogdon
Vice-President.--.............-------- ---------------------- L. A. Hetrick
Secretary ---......-..........---------..... --------------H. A. Denmark
Treasurer.........................--------------------- ----------D. H. Habeck
J. B. Gahan
W. G. Genung
Other Members of Executive Committee ...... J. R. King
J. E. Porter
W. A. Simanton

Publications Committee
Stratton H. Kerr--....---.......................------ ----Editor
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issues of THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST. Further, authors are re-
ferred to "Suggestions for preparation of manuscripts for THE FLORIDA
ENTOMOLOGIST." Fla. Ent. 48 (2): 145-146. 1965.
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LIFE HISTORY OF THE SLASH PINE SEEDWORM,
LASPEYRESIA ANARANJADA MILLER
(LEPIDOPTERA: OLETHREUTIDAE)

EDWARD P. MERKEL
Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Southeastern Forest Experi-
ment Station, Olustee, Florida

INTRODUCTION

The initiation of forest tree improvement programs in the South has led
to the establishment of numerous intensively managed pine seed orchards
since the early 1950's. These orchards, composed of genetically superior trees,
will some day provide most or all of the seed needed for reforestation.
Coincident with the new tree improvement programs have been intensified
studies of insects which directly and indirectly affect the seeds of southern
pines. Because of the high cost of silviculture and protection required in pine
seed orchards, many insects that were formerly considered as mere nuisances
in natural forested areas have now become recognized as economic pests. Such
an insect is the slash pine seedworm, Laspeyresia anaranjada Miller. It is
estimated that seed losses caused by this insect on open-grown slash pines in
northeast Florida vary from 2 to 10% annually.
Slash pine seedworm appears to be an appropriate common name for L.
anaranjada because extensive hearings from cones of major southern pines
showed that it occurs principally on slash pine, Pinus elliottii Engelm.;
occasionally on longleaf pine, P. palustris Mill.; and rarely on loblolly pine,
P. taeda L. Merkel (1963) found that L. anaranjada occurs in the southern
United States throughout the natural range of both typical slash pine and the
South Florida variety, P. elliottii var. densa Little & Dorman.

DESCRIPTION OF STAGES
EGG.-Eggs are flattened dorso-ventrally and ovate in shape, averaging
0.78 mm in length and 0.52 mm in width. The surface of the egg has very fine,
shallow, irregular, surface sculpturing. Eight eggs, held in an incubator at
21 C and 70 to 85% relative humidity, hatched 7 days after deposition. These
eggs turned from a creamy white to a bright pink color on the third day after
deposition. By the fourth day, the dark larval head capsule was discernible
through the chorion.
LARVA.-Larvae are cylindrical-elongate in shape. The mature larva, in
particular, resembles a cerambycid wood borer larva because of the large
fleshy prothorax, which nearly conceals the head (Fig. 1A). The last instar
larva has a yellowish-brown head with brown to black coloration of mouth
parts and adfrontal region. The dorsum of the prothorax is often colored
with irregularly shaped patches of very pale yellow or brown. The meso-
thorax, metathorax and abdomen are white. Except for almost colorless setae
on the head and last abdominal segment, setae are sparse on the mature larva.
The head capsule width of 11 first instar larvae averaged 0.162 mm
( 0.004 mm), whereas similar measurements of 26 last instar larvae averaged
1.321 mm ( 0.064 mm). The total number of larval instars was not
determined for this insect.









The Florida Entomologist


L- 11.0-13.5 MM.


L 8.5-10.5 MM.


Fig. 1.-Laspeyresia anaranjada Miller: (A) mature larva; (B) pupa-
dorsal view; (C) pupa-ventral view.


142


Vol. 50, No. 3









Merkel: Life History of the Slash Pine Seedworm 143

PUPA.-The pupa (Fig. 1B, 1C) is slender, pale amber, 8.5 to 10.5 mm long,
with rows of posteriorly directed spines on the dorsal surface of the abdomen.
The row of spines along the posterior edge of the dorsum of each abdominal
segment is more or less uniordinal, whereas the row of spines near the
anterior dorsum of each segment is multiordinal. There are long, hooked
setae on the terminal abdominal segment.
ADULT.-The adult of L. anaranjada (Fig. 2), described by Miller (1959),
has a wing expanse of 14 to 16 mm, and the fore wings are yellowish orange to
rusty orange. This wing color is unique among known North American
species of the genus.

LIFE HISTORY AND HABITS

L. anaranjada requires 1 full year to complete its life cycle (Fig. 3).
Larval diapause for 1 or more years has been reported for L. youngana
(Kft.) (Tripp 1954), L. toreuta (Grt.) (Lyons 1957), and L. ingens (Hein.)
(J. F. Coyne, Personal communication).
















.' -.





* 1t


Fig. 2.-Laspeyresia anaranjada Miller adult.










144 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 3

The time and duration of moth emergence was determined by collecting
mature slash pine cones of the previous year's crop in March and placing
them in screened cages on the ground under trees where they would lie
normally. Emergence data were obtained for consecutive years, 1959-1962,
in Baker County in northeast Florida. The dates of earliest moth emergence
did not vary by more than 5 days during the 4 observation years; the earliest
date being 27 April and the latest 1 May. In 1959 and 1962, moth emergence
was completed in 21 days; in 1960 and 1961, emergence was completed in 26
days. In 1959, peak moth emergence occurred 10 days later from cones held
in an insectary than from cones in field rearing cages.


PRECEDING-YEAR CONES E N
LEGEND
L IN CONE AXIS A-ADULTS
E-EGGS
L -LARVAE
P -PUPAE
MATURING CURRENT-YEAR CONES
L IN SEEDS L IN CONE AXIS

JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC.
Fig. 3.-Life cycle of Laspeyresia anaranjada Miller on second-year slash
pine cones in North Florida.

In the field, moths emerged between 10:00 AM and sunset. Males and
females emerged in almost equal numbers throughout the emergence period.
In 1961, the first eggs were found 4 days after the start of moth emergence,
and moths in the insectary rarely lived longer than 4 days. Mating was not
observed in the field or laboratory. Based on the above observations, how-
ever, it was hypothesized that mating and oviposition occur within a day or
two after moths emerged. At the height of moth emergence, adults were
observed resting during the day on pine needles and the sides of field rearing
cages.
In field rearing cages that received 4 hours or less of direct sunlight per
day, moth emergence occurred later in the day (late afternoon), was of longer
duration, and resulted in fewer moths than the total emergence found in
cages that were exposed to more than 4 hours of direct sunlight. The
differences in moth emergence between exposed and shaded cages were
probably caused largely by excessive moisture in the shaded cages. The
scales of slash pine cones on the ground close almost completely each night
because of high humidity. Cone scales are completely opened by 10:00 AM
when cones receive direct morning sunlight, thus permitting the newly
emerging moths to escape between the opened scales. The scales of shaded
cones, however, will remain closed after a heavy rain for as long as 2 or 3
days. Thus high humidity and direct wetting of cones not only delays moth
emergence during the day but also extends the overall emergence period.
Eggs are usually laid singly on second-year cones, but when clusters of
three or four eggs are laid, they overlap like roof shingles. Most eggs are









Merkel: Life History of the Slash Pine Seedworm


145


found in the middle third of the cone. Specifically, eggs are deposited in
the shallow groove near the blunt spine on the cone scale between the umbo
and apophysis, or at the point where scales commence growth during the sec-
ond year of development (Fig. 4).


J 0* -A



A V


Fig. 4.-Single egg (at arrow) of the slash pine
spine on surface of cone scale.


seedworm laid near apical


After eclosion, first instar larvae wander over the surface of the cone.
The duration of the wandering period has not been determined precisely, but
it is probably less than 24 hours. It is during this relatively short time on
the cone surface that the insect is most vulnerable to parasites, predators, and
insecticides.
The first instar larva bores into the cone, either in the crevice between
two adjacent cone scales, or through the green portion of the scale apophysis.
Larvae make a zigzag gallery along the upper or lower scale surfaces and enter
the seed. The seeds have a leathery but still succulent seed coat in mid-May
when the first seed is entered. After the endosperm of the first seed is
completely consumed and filled with frass, the larva bores laterally into an










The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 50, No. 3


adjacent seed. Sometimes larvae bore from one seed to another seed, above
or below the last one fed upon, rather than from one adjacent seed to another.
The tunnels between seeds are lined with tightly woven silken threads.
Each larva consumes from five to seven seeds during its development.
Hollowed-out seeds are usually attached firmly to the cone axis by tough,
silk-lined larval tunnels. These damaged seeds can be seen between the
opened cone scales (Fig. 5) from the time normal seeds fall until the cones
deteriorate, sometimes up to 2 or 3 years later. This is the only visual,
external evidence that a cone is, or has been, infested.
Soon after slash pine cones have ripened and released their seeds in
mid-September, the mature larvae bore directly from the last seed eaten
into the woody cone axis (Fig. 6). The larva remains inactive in this gallery
until early April of the following year.
In early April, larvae prepare for pupation. The mature larva first re-
moves the frass from the seed from which the axis (overwintering) gallery


Fig. 5.-Slash pine cone photographed in late May of the year after it
matured. Note the two damaged seed adhering to the cone axis-seed on
left has pupal exit hole.


146









Merkel: Life History of the Slash Pine Seedworm


147


originated. The frass is transferred to the distal end of the axis gallery.
Then a circular exit hole is cut through the seed coat, but the hole is kept
closed with the circular section of the seed coat. This circular cap is held
firmly in place by silk threads from within, and it is difficult to locate on the
external surface of the seed, even with the aid of a microscope.
Just prior to moth emergence, the pupa forces its way up the axis gallery,
a process which is facilitated by the numerous, dorsal, caudally directed,
abdominal spines. The pointed head of the pupa pushes aside the circular
cap in the seed, and about two-thirds of the pupa's length projects out of the
exit hole in the seed. After splitting the pupal exuvia along the mid-dorsal
line of the head and thorax, the moth emerges between the open cone scales.

NATURAL ENEMIES

No intensive studies were made of the effects of insect predators and
parasites on populations of L. anaranjada. Microscopic examination of 174


Fig. 6.-Mature slash pine cone bisected longitudinally to show overwinter-
ing galleries of mature larvae in cone rachis. Note that gallery originates at
last seed (A) hollowed out by larva-the exit hole for the pupa is also made
in this same seed by the mature larva in early April.














The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 50, No. 3


eggs during the 1962 oviposition period, however, showed that 15% had been
parasitized by an unidentified chalcidoid wasp.
The parasite encountered most frequently was the braconid, Phanerotoma
fasciata Prov. It has not been determined whether the host egg or larva is
parasitized, but P. fasciata pupates immediately prior to pupation of the
host. Fig. 7 shows how precisely the emergence of P. fasciata adults is
timed with host moth emergence. Even though this parasite undoubtedly
exerts some influence in regulating seedworm populations, it does not prevent
seedworm larvae from destroying seed.


TOTAL NUMBER ADULJ



N
C" I


CA

CPI
No

wljS~~
0 ^..^.. r


TS


0
~c1


(N

0






ci,




ml -
(N


TOTAL NUMBER ADULTS
_.C5 C1


TOTAL NUMBER ADULTS









I Z0
^.^\\.^^\3M
-C>


Is

-c
0





0
N
CI"






ro



--g


CA
z
cv'








5
u


TOTAL NUMBER ADULTS
N,


Fig. 7.-Daily adult emergence of Laspeyresia anaranjada and its larval
parasite, Phanerotoma fasciata, from infested slash pine cones at Olustee,
Florida, 1959-1960.


148


N
U S


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r^
0



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-w
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Merkel: Life History of the Slash Pine Seedworm 149

LITERATURE CITED
Lyons, L. A. 1957. Insects affecting seed production in red pine. III
Eucosma monitorana Heinrich, Laspeyresia toreuta (Grote) (Lepidop-
tera: Olethreutidae), Rubsaamenia sp. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), and
other insects. Can. Entomol. 89: 150-164.
Merkel, E. P. 1963. Distribution of the pine seedworm, Laspeyresia anaran-
jada, with notes on the occurrence of Laspeyresia ingens. Ann.
Entomol. Soc. Amer. 56: 667-669.
Miller, W. E. 1959. A unique new North American species of pine-cone-
feeding Laspeyresia related to L. ingens Heinrich (Lepidoptera: Ole-
threutidae). Fla. Entomol. 42: 131-134.
Tripp, H. A. 1954. Description and habits of the spruce seedworm, Las-
peyresia youngana (Kft.) (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae). Can. En-
tomol. 86: 385-402.

The Florida Entomologist 50 (3) 1967













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CITRUS MITES HAVE A HEALTHY APPETITE, as
evidenced by the foliage on the left. Damaged foliage results
in substandard yield. KELTHANE MF kills most citrus-
attacking mites, nymphs and adults alike. Mite-free foliage
on the right, sprayed for full coverage with KELTHANE MF
foretells a bumper crop of oranges. Apply KELTHANE to
citrus trees as soon as mites appear and repeat as required.
It is harmless to mite predators, bees and other pollinating
insects when used as directed. For full information see your
dealer or write Rohm and Haas, Philadelphia, Pa. 19105.


ROHM
H RILADELPHIA.PENNSYLVANIA19105
PHILADELPHIA. PENNSYLVANIA 19105












THE SEASONAL FLUCTUATION OF THE INLAND
CULICOIDES OF SOUTHERN LOUISIANA
(DIPTERA: CERATOPOGONIDAE)1

KAMEL T. KHALAF
Department of Biological Sciences, Loyola University
New Orleans, Louisiana 70118

Since the publication of the seasonal incidence of the biting gnats of
Louisiana (Khalaf 1966), additional light traps were operated in Baton Rouge
(Woodlawn) and Welsh. The traps started to operate in the last week of
March 1966, and continued for one year, yielding tremendous amounts of
Culicoides. The new data made it possible to work out in more detail the
seasonal fluctuation of several inland species. New collections were also re-
ceived from Estelle and Covington. In addition, light traps were operated
before, intermittently, in numerous stations in the general area. These are
listed in Table 2.
The Inland Culicoides

Tables 1 and 2 represent the species encountered in the various locations
together with their population densities. A preliminary seasonal incidence
account for the species in southern Louisiana was given by Khalaf (1966).

TABLE 1.-POPULATION DENSITY OF Culicoides IN INLAND LOCALITIES
OF SOUTHERN LOUISIANA
Additional rare species present in all three locations were C. nanus, C.
haematopotus, C. variipennis, C. arboricola, C. villosipennis, and C. gutti-
pennis.

Species Location
Welsh Baton Rouge Covington

C. biguttatus ** *** **
C. crepuscularis **** ** *
C. travisi *** *
C. spinosus *** *
C. stellifer ** ** **
C. ousairani ** *
C. venustus ** *
C. paraensis **
C. debilipalpis ** *
C. bickleyi **
C. hinmani *
C. oklahomensis *
C. niger *
C. baueri *
C. chiopterus *
C. hollensis *
C. furens *

(rare): Only a few specimens were collected throughout the year.
** (common) : Daily average per week attains 10's
***(abundant) : Daily average per week attains 100's
**** (very abundant): Daily average per week attains 1000's

1 This investigation was supported by Public Health Service Research
Grant GM12896-03, from the National Institutes of Health.










The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 50, No. 3


TABLE 2.-Culicoides IN INLAND LOCATIONS OF SOUTHERN LOUISIANA.

Species Locations



E
C. biguttatus *
C. arboricola ** *
C. f s * *E

C. biguttatusis *
C. crepuscularis ** *
C. haematopotusellifer * *
C. arboricolani *
C. afurenss
C. villosipennis
C. bermudensis
C. variipennis ** *
C. hollensis
C. stei *
C. hinmani *
C. ousairanio
C. paraensis
C. travisi *
C. bickleyi *
C. spinosus ** *
C. niger *

*Present.
**Higher numbers encountered.
For this reason, the seasonal fluctuation of the species will be discussed in
comparison to the previous findings, thus bringing forth only additional
information. Fortunately, the new data made it possible to lay down the
individual curve for four of the species involved.
C. arboricola Root and Hoffman: This species was collected from the second
week of March to the last week of November, including the summer.
Large numbers were encountered in Baton Rouge in May.

C. baueri Hoffman: Few specimens were collected between April and the
last week of November.
C. bermudensis Williams: The incidence continued from the second week of
March through November. One specimen was collected on December 20.

C. bickleyi Wirth and Hubert: This species occurred from the second week of
March to the end of April, with high incidence in the third week of March.
Very few specimens were collected in May.

C. biguttatus (Coquillett) (Fig. 1): This species appeared after the middle of
March and disappeared before the middle of June. The high incidence
extended from the beginning of April to the last week of May.

C. chiopterus (Meigen): A few specimens were collected in October and
November.


152










Khalaf: Seasonal Fluctuation of Culicoides


153


C. crepuscularis Malloch (Fig. 2): The high incidence occurred from the
beginning of March to the last week of November, therefore including
spring, summer, and fall. A few specimens may be encountered at any
other time.


TTATUS


JAN


IUNE'JULY 'AUG 'SEPT'OCT 'NOV 'DEC


Fig. 1.-Seasonal incidence of Culicoides biguttatus (solid line) and C.
travisi (dotted line) in southern Louisiana.

C. dibilipalpis Lutz: This species appeared from the last week of April, is
best represented in the first half of May, rare in the summer, and present
in September and October.
Upon examining specimens of this species, and comparing its descriptions
in the literature with those of C. paraensis, one cannot help but think that
these two forms are conspecific. Their independent identities apparently
rest only on the superficial difference in wing maculation. C. paraensis has
apical spots in cells R5 and M,, which are absent in C. debilipalpis. These
same spots, in C. stellifer, are sometimes absent; and in C. venustus the spot
at tip of cell M1 is not infrequently absent.

C. guttipennis (Coquillett): A few specimens were recovered from the last
week of March to November.

C. haematopotus Malloch: This species mainly occurred from the beginning
of March to the middle of November.










The Florida Entomologist


C. CREPUSCULARIS


JAN 'FEB 'MAR' APR 'MAY 'JUNE'JULY'AUG 'SEPT'OCT NOV 'DEC I
Fig. 2.-Seasonal incidence of Culicoides crepuscularis in southern Lou-
isiana.


SPINOSUS


.1 'I .1-


JAN 'FEB MAR 'APR 'MAY 'JUNE'JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC
Fig. 3.-Seasonal incidence of Culicoides spinosus in southern Louisiana.


Vol. 50, No. 3


154










Khalaf : Seasonal Fluctuation of Culicoides 155

C. hinmani Khalaf: This species continued to be present to the last week of
November.

C. nanus Root and Hoffman: The species continued to be present until the
second week of October.

C. ousairani Khalaf: The high incidence was encountered in May (second
week) and, to a much less extent, around the middle of June.

C. paraensis (Goeldi): This species was collected between the middle of
April and the middle of November, but was most conspicuous in the fall.

C. spinosus Root and Hoffman (Fig. 3): This species appeared in the second
week of March, attained its peak in the first half of April, and almost
disappeared at the end of May. It is rare in the summer and the fall.

C. stellifer (Coquillett): The species was rare both in March and between
the middle of October and the end of November. Appreciable numbers
were collected around the middle of May, in the second week of June, and
in September.

C. travisi Vargas (Fig. 1): The incidence occupied the two months of April
and May. The species almost disappeared after the third week of the
latter month.

C. variipennis (Coquillett): This species was encountered around the year,
but mainly in the spring and summer.

C. venustus Hoffman: This species appeared in the first week of March.
The high incidence occurred in the last week of March, the first half of
April, and the second week of May. It almost disappeared after the third
week of May. The fall incidence started after the middle of August. A few
specimens were collected in December, February, and near the middle of
July.

C. villosipennis Root and Hoffman: The species occurred from the second
week of April to the middle of November.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Acknowledgment is due to Miss Kathleen M. Triche and Mr. Marvin
Leroux, former students of Loyola University, for supervising the light trap
operation in Baton Rouge and Welsh, respectively.

LITERATURE CITED
Khalaf, K. T. 1966. The seasonal incidence of Culicoides in southern
Louisiana (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 59:
881-883.


The Florida Entomologist 50 (3) 1967














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NOTES ON A SEED-FEEDING TEPHRITIDAE, PARACANTHA
FORFICULA, (DIPTERA) IN FLORIDA'

CARL E. STEGMAIER, JR.2
11335 N.W. 59th Avenue, Hialeah, Florida

The only published information concerning the life history, ecology, and
descriptions of Paracantha forficula Benjamin in Florida was cited by
Benjamin (1934), who reported the distribution of P. forficula from the
following Florida localities: Cocoa Beach, Merritt Island, Key Largo, Naples,
Boca Ciega, and Miami Beach.
Essentially, the life history of forficula is associated in the larval and
pupal stages with the seedhead of Borrichia frutescens (L.) DC., a Com-
positae. This plant is sometimes called the sea ox-eye. Benjamin reported
that D. J. Nicholson had reared numerous adults from larval and pupal
stages in infested seedheads of B. frutescens, and that emergence dates of
P. forficula adults were from 2 May through 30 June 1930. A single excep-
tion occurred on 21 October 1930 when a solitary adult emerged from a
flowering seedhead. The terms seedhead and flowerhead are considered
synonymous by the author for use in an ecological paper such as this, and the
terms are used interchangeably. It was further established that infestations of
P. forficula consisted of one larva to a single flowerhead, but occasionally
two or three larvae were observed to infest a single Borrichia seedhead
(Benjamin, 1934).
The host plant, Borrichia frutescens, is a composite, indigenous to the
shores, sand dunes, prairies, and salt marshes of the coastal plain from
Texas to southern Virginia. It is also found in Mexico and the West Indies.
The flowerhead of Borrichia resembles those of Tithonia and Helianthus
(Small 1933).
Paracantha forficula was first found by the author on the western shore
of Dodge Island, Miami, Florida, on 18 April 1966. Examination of a single
infested Borrichia seedhead disclosed a rather large blackish colored pupari-
um deep within the seedhead and within a fibrous pupal cell (Fig. Ic).
The infestation is characterized by a dark reddish brown coloration
approximately 1/ inch in diameter, usually on an immature seedhead. An
occasional infestation was found in mature seedheads of Borrichia; however,
on older seedheads the infestation is much more difficult to locate because of
similarities in the coloration of seedheads and infestation.
Fig. lb shows a typical puparium removed and cleaned from the seedhead
cell. The reddish brown coloration of the flowerhead results from the feeding
of the larva (Fig. la) on many seeds. Dead seeds have a color different
from that of the viable seeds. All of the Paracantha infestations were
observed to be centrally located on the seedheads.
Thirty-eight specimens, mostly pupae, were found at Dodge Island from
18 April to 17 May with not more than one larva to a single seedhead.
Frequent sweepings of the flowering plants did not produce a single specimen
of Paracantha. The first empty pupal case was found 21 April which suggests

1 Contribution No. 81, Entomology Section, Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture, Gainesville.
2 Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Division of
Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture.










The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 50, No. 3


that the initial infestation began about 1 April or about two weeks before
that cited by Benjamin (1934). On 21 April a single creamy white larva
just beginning to pupate was found at 8:30 AM and by 1:45 PM that after-
noon the larva had transformed into a black puparium. A single adult
emerged from a puparium on 4 May in a glass container which contained only
pupae and no plant material and the fly lived in this environment until 14
May with no food or water. The container was covered with a fine mesh
cloth and secured with a rubber band.


Fig. la.-A larva of Paracantha forficula removed from the seedhead of
Borrichia frutescens. Fragments of plant fibers still adhere to the posterior
portion of the larva's body.
Fig. lb.-Puparium of P. forficula.
Fig. lc.-Puparium of P. forficula within the pupal cell which was
removed from a seedhead of Borrichia frutescens.

Forty-seven adults of P. forficula were reared by the author from
infestations found at Dodge Island and Virginia Key, Miami, Florida. Emer-
gence of reared adults began on 28 April 1966 and continued until 2 July.
Thirty-three adults were reared from a single collection on 10 June 1966
at Virginia Key, Miami, Florida. The Borrichia seedheads infested at
Virginia Key were 10 feet from the water's edge of Biscayne Bay.
Lateral and dorsal aspects of male and female adults are illustrated in
Fig. 2a, b and 2c, d, respectively.


158










Stegmaier: Notes on Paracantha forficula


Specimens of Paracantha forficula in the larva, pupal, and adult stages
were deposited in the U.S. National Collection, and adults were deposited
in the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture, Gainesville.


ZP^'
M^'"


-^'"


Fig. 2a.-Lateral aspect of male, P. forficula.
Fig. 2b.-Dorsal aspect of male.
Fig. 2c.-Lateral aspect of female.
Fig. 2d.-Dorsal aspect of female.
Photographs courtesy of the Division of Plant Industry,
ment of Agriculture. Mildred Eaddy, Photographer.


Florida Depart-


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The author is indebted to Dr. Richard H. Foote, Entomology Research
Division, ARS, USDA, for determinations of Paracantha forficula, for infor-


159











160 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 3

mation provided in personal communication, and for reviewing this paper on
P. forficula; to Dr. Kenneth R. Langdon, Nematologist and Botanist, Florida
Department of Agriculture, for the determination of Borrichia frutescens;
and to Harold A. Denmark, Chief, Entomology Section, Division of Plant
Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture, for making possible all photo-
graphs used in this paper.
LITERATURE CITED
Benjamin, F. H. 1934. Descriptions of some native trypetid flies with notes
on their habits. USDA, Tech. Bull. No. 401 96p.
Small, J. K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. Chapel Hill Univ.
N. C. Press. 1554p.

The Florida Entomologist 50 (3) 1967









a b






C






























A I





4 -'













b













RESIDUAL SPRAYS FOR THE CONTROL OF HOUSE FLIES,
MUSCA DOMESTIC, IN DAIRY BARNS

DONALD L. BAILEY, G. C. LABRECQUE, AND P. M. BISHOP
Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA, Gainesville, Fla.

Control of the house fly, Musca domestic L., in dairy barns has become
an increasingly important problem in recent years because of rigid restrictions
on pesticide residues in milk and the ever-increasing list of insecticides to
which house flies have developed resistance. The first problem can be some-
what alleviated by using organophosphate and carbamate insecticides that are
more biodegradable than the chlorinated hydrocarbons; however, we must
apparently live with resistance until new means of control are developed.
For the present, the continuing evaluation of new insecticides is necessary.
The present paper reports evaluations of 9 insecticides made in field tests
during the summer of 1966.

METHODS AND MATERIALS

Six dairies within a 25-mile radius of Gainesville, Florida were used for
the residual tests against house flies with the following insecticides: emul-
sions of dimethoate, fenthion, Mobil MC-A-600 (Mobam; benzo [b] thien-
4-yl methylcarbamate), Schering 34615 (m-cym-5-yl methylcarbamate), Shell
SD-7438 (S-benzylidene O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate), and Spencer
S-6900 (O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate S-ester with (N-formyl-2-mer-
capto-N-methylacetamide), and with wettable powders of Banol (6-chloro-
3,4-xylyl methylcarbamate), dimethoate, Mobil MC-A-600, Shell SD-8447 (2-
chloro-l- (2,4,5-trichlorophenyl) vinyl dimethyl phosphate), and Shell SD-
8530 (3,4,5-trimethylphenyl methylcarbamate). The approximate acute oral
LD.o's of the compounds for rats or mice (mg/kg), as obtained from the
manufacturers' data or other sources, were as follows: dimethoate, 245, rats;
fenthion, 215, rats; Mobil MC-A-600, 178, rats; Schering 34615, 139, rats;
Shell SD-7438, 176, mice; Spencer S-6900, 330, rats; Banol, 300, mice; Shell
SD-8447, >5000, mice; and Shell SD-8530, 101, mice.
In previous laboratory tests with nonresistant house flies, residual deposits
of dimethoate, Mobil MC-A-600, and Shell SD-8447 on plywood at 1 g/m2
were effective (caused at least 90% kill within 24 hr after a 1-hr exposure)
for at least 24 weeks (LaBrecque et al. 1965; Wilson et al. 1967). Although
the other insecticides were not effective for 24 weeks in the laboratory tests,
they were used in these field tests because they had comparatively low
mammalian toxicities and were readily available.
All insecticides were applied at the rate of 2 g/m2 to the interior surfaces
of barns, excluding the floors and feeding troughs. A power sprayer equipped
with a Tee-Jet 80-02 nozzle was operated at a pressure of 7000 g/cm2
(about 100 psi) to apply 1 liter of spray/24.5 m2.
Two barns were treated (on different dates) with each formulation. The
fly counts made immediately before each treatment were based on the aver-
age number of flies resting on a 46 x 46 cm grid (made of 2.54 cm wooden
strips) when it was exposed for 1 min at 10 different locations in the areas
of greatest fly densities in the feed room and/or milking parlor. The











The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 50, No. 3


population was considered adequate for treatment if the average count was
10 flies/grid or more. Counts made at each barn 1, 3-5, 7, 9-11, 14, and 21
days after treatment were compared with the pretreatment counts to deter-
mine the percent control. When the control dropped below 50%, the treat-
ment was considered ineffective, and the population was allowed to increase
until it was again sufficiently high for another treatment.

RESULTS

Emulsions of dimethoate gave at least 50% control for 9-11 to 14 days
and wettable powders for 3-5 to 9-11 days (Table 1). Emulsions of Spencer
S-6900 were effective 9-11 days. Wettable powders of Mobil MC-A-600 were
effective 7 to 9-11 days. The other treatments were effective 7 days or less.
In a group of similar tests, Brady et al. (1966) obtained the best control
with dimethoate, which was effective about 2 weeks.

TABLE 1.-CONTROL OF HOUSE FLIES IN DAIRY BARNS TREATED WITH
INSECTICIDES AT 2 g/m2.


Insecticide Formulation


Banol

Dimethoate



Fenthion


W.P.

E.C.

W.P.

E.C.


Mobil MC-A-600 E.C.

W.P.

Schering 34615 E.C.

Shell SD-7438 E.C.


Shell SD-8447

Shell SD-8530

Spencer S-6900


W.P.

W.P.

E.C.


Percent reduction at indicated
Pretreatment days after treatment
count 1 3-5 7 9-11 14


11.1
11.4
10.6
18.5
14.1
12.8
15.0
12.0
12.8
12.2
17.3
11.0
18.6
16.3
19.4
14.2
16.8
14.3
13.4
14.7
10.8
23.2


49



21


74 41
80 27


SUMMARY


Formulations of emulsions and/or wettable powders of nine insecticides
were tested as residues at 2 g/m2 against house flies in Florida dairy barns.
The best results were obtained with an emulsion of dimethoate that was
effective 9-11 to 14 days. An emulsion of Spencer S-6900 (O,O-dimethyl
phosphorodithioate S-ester with (N-formyl-2-mercapto-N-methylaceta-
mide) was effective 9-11 days, and a wettable powder of Mobil MC-A-600


162








Bailey: Sprays for House Flies in Dairy Barns


(benzo[b]thien-4-yl methylcarbamate) for 7 to 9-11 days. Other treat-
ments were effective 7 days or less.
LITERATURE CITED
Brady, U. E., Jr., D. W. Meifert, and G. C. LaBrecque. 1966. Residual sprays
for the control of house flies in field tests. J. Econ. Entomol. 59: 1522-3.
LaBrecque, G. C., H. G. Wilson, and J. B. Gahan. 1965. Residual effectiveness
of some insecticides against adult house flies. USDA ARS 33-103, 11 p.
Wilson, H. G., J. B. Gahan, and G. C. LaBrecque. 1967. New insecticides that
show residual toxicity to adult house flies (Musca domestic L.).
USDA ARS 33-124.
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A PRELIMINARY NOTE ON A REVIEW OF THE GENUS
CHAETISOTHRIPS PRIESNER
(THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE)t

K. SAKIMURA
Pineapple Research Institute of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii

The genus Chaetisothrips Priesner 1957 was erected to receive four
American species which had been previously placed in Isochaetothrips
Moulton 1928. In a brief statement on genric characters (Priesner 1957),
the former was differentiated by having meso and meta-spinulae and dense
striations on head and prothorax. All the American species of Isochaeto-
thrips, except those from South America, were reviewed earlier (Crawford
1945). The present study of the type materials of all the American species
revealed three valid species, one synonymy, and three misplaced species.
In addition, three other undescribed species of Chaetisothrips were found
in various collections. Presently, all the known species of Chaetisothrips
are localized in the Caribbean and Central America, and no species of
Isochaetothrips has been so far found in the America. Many collections of
various species of Chaetisothrips were recorded from flowers. A question
as to whether or not they are basically leaf-feeders (Priesner 1957), however,
is yet to be determined through field observations.
Foreseeing a further delay in completing a review of the genus, this
preliminary note is devised to avoid such delay in communication, particu-
larly of the amended genus concept and the new changes in nomenclature.

Genus Chaetisothrips Priesner
Chaetisothrips Priesner, 1957, Zool. Anz. 159: 161

Type by original designation: Isochaetothrips striatus Hood 1935.
Belongs to Scirtothripina, but with strong affinity to Thiripina. Head,
pro, meso, and meta-nota covered with fine and dense ridge-type transverse
striations. Head shape normal for Thripina. Eight-segmented antenna slen-
der and long, III and IV elongated vase-form; 3-segmented maxillary palpi.
Cheek swells below eye; front concave below anterior ocellus and with a
short median carina; occiput swells dorsally and covered with wrinkle-type
striations. Moderate inter, later, and post-ocellar setae; both tiny ante-
ocellar setae stand on a median line. Setae on prothorax moderately long;
two at posterior angle, but outer decidedly shorter than inner and sometimes
undeveloped. Spinula on both meso and meta-sterna. Forelegs unarmed.
Forewing with regularly spaced seta rows on both veins. Full microtrichia
on surface and hind margin of epipleura, but practically absent on terga,
except on hind margin at sides; striations on terga well developed at sides;
median setae on terga tiny and far apart. Combs on tergum VIII fine, long,
and dense. Abdominal VIII-X slenderized; chaetotaxy normal for Thripina.

SPublished with the approval of the Director, of the Pineapple Research
Institute of Hawaii, as Technical Paper No. 321. Supported by NSF Grant
GB-3145. Grateful acknowledgments for their cooperation and courtesy are
made to the curators of various collections which were visited. Dedicated
to Prof. Dr. H. Priesner, an eminent thysanopterist, in commemoration of
his 75th birthday.











166 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 3

Male without any peculiarity; three pairs of prominent setae on dorsum of
tergum IX (B1, accessory marginal and dorsal setae).
The generic characters are a mixture of the Scirtothrips and Taeniothrips
types, but are well differentiated from Isochaetothrips. Priesner stated, as
early as 1938, that dampfi and striatus do not belong to Isochaetothrips
which was considered a subgenus of Taeniothrips (Priesner 1938).
Several genera assigned in Scirtothripina show strong affinity to Thripini in
various features. Among them, Enneothrips Hood and Scirtidothrips Hood
may be nearest to Chaetisothrips, which is, however, readily separable from
them by, among others, regularly spaced seta rows on both veins of forewing.
The basic generic character is the fine and dense ridge-type striations
on head and thorax. These fine broken-line striations are narrow ridges
arising from the integument surface, and different from the anastomosing
coarser wrinkle-type striations, which are also limitedly present on occiput
and anterior portion of pronotum. Density of the former type and extent of
the latter type vary by the different species. Pattern of striations on
metanotum hardly varies by the different species, but those on metepimeron
are instead reticulated on one species. On some species, the side areas of
terga are covered by the ridge type striations on terga I, II, and partly III,
but by the wrinkle type on the other terga; whereas on other species, the
side areas of all the terga are covered uniformly by the wrinkle type.
So the differences in striation types between terga II and IV are useful for
separating the species. For example, there are on tergum II about 29 lines
on striatus (ridge type), or about 16 lines on reticulatus (wrinkle type);
whereas on IV, about 16 lines on both species (wrinkle type).
The following key may be useful for separating the species:

1(2) Head as long as broad, 2 brown cross bands on wings, outer posterior-
angle seta of prothorax short but well developed, striations on tergum
II denser than IV, wrinkle type striations on occiput extensive, reticu-
lated metepimeron.
............... a species. (Mexico)
2(1) Head decidedly broader than long, wings without brown cross band
(clear basal band is present on some species).
3(6) Outer posterior-angle seta of prothorax undeveloped (only one major
seta at the angle), striations on tergum II decidedly denser than IV.
4(5) Greyish brown sp., wings brown with clear basal 14, complete coverage
of dense striations on pronotum and mesonotum.
............... striatus (Hood). (Panama, Honduras)
5(4) Greyish yellow sp., wings uniformly brown, coarser striations on pro-
notum and mesonotum, smooth at the anterior 1/5 area of mesonotum.
...............a species. (Puerto Rico)
6(3) Outer posterior-angle seta of prothorax well developed, although short-
er than the inner one.
7(10) Striations of tergum II decidedly denser than IV.
8(9) Greyish brown sp., wings brown with clear basal 1/4, complete coverage
of dense striations on pronotum and mesonotum.
............... a species. (Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Mexico, Honduras)
9(8) Greyish yellow sp., wings uniformly brown, coarser striations on pro-
notum and mesonotum, smooth at the anterior 1/5 area of mesonotum.
................a species. (same as couplet 5)










Sakimura: Note on Review of Genus Chaetisothrips 167

10(7) Striations on tergum II as coarse as on IV, or practically indiscernible.
11(12) Yellow sp., with median grey blotchings from head to abdominal X,
wings brown with basal 1/ partly clear, scale brown distal half, 5 to 6
setae on vein of scale.
............... gardeniae (J. C. Crawford). (Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras)
12(11) Brown sp., wings brown with basal '/a wholly clear, scale uniformly
clear, 7 setae on vein of scale.
............ reticulatus (D. L. Crawford) (=-dampfi Pr.). (Mexico)

Chaetisothrips reticulatus (D. L. Crawford)

Dictyothrips reticulata D. L. Crawford, 1910, Pomona Coll. J. Entomol.
2: 155. Figs.
Ctenothrips reticulatus: Karny, 1911, Entomol. Rundschau 29: 179.
Isochaetothrips dampfi Priesner, 1933, Wiener Entomol. Zeit. 50: 51.
(New synonymy).
Ctenothrips reticulatus: Bailey, 1944, PanP. Entomol. 20: 86 Figs.
Isochaetothrips reticulatus: J. C. Crawford, 1945, Proc. Entomol. Soc.
Wash. 47: 180.
Isochaetothrips dampfi: J. C. Crawford, 1945, Proc. Entomol. Soc.
Wash. 47: 180.
Chaetisothrips reticulatus: Priesner, 1957, Zool. Anz. 159: 161.
Chaetisothrips dampfi: Priesner, 1957, Zool. Anz. 159: 161.
Holotype female of reticulatus from Mexico in the Canadian National
collection, and a number of females from Mexico in the United States National
Museum collection and Illinois Natural History Survey collection were
examined. Holotype female of dampfi also from Mexico in the Priesner
collection was found to be identical with reticulatus. This synonymy was
suspected earlier by J. C. Crawford (1945). A remarkable species.

Chaetisothrips striatus (Hood)

Isochaetothrips striatus Hood, 1935, J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 43: 166 Figs.
Isochaetothrips striatus: J. C. Crawford, 1945, Proc. Entomol. Soc.
Wash. 47: 179.
Chaetisothrips striatus: Priesner, 1957, Zool. Anz. 159: 161.
Holotype and paratype females from Panama in the USNM collection and
four females from Honduras in the INHS collection were examined. The
outer posterior-angle seta of prothorax is undeveloped on every specimen
examined. A species from the Caribbean region (couplet 8 in the key) is
a closely related species, and the only differences are full developed outer
seta which persists on every specimen and minor color difference on antenna.
A subspecies relationship is suspected between them.

Chaetisothrips gardeniae (J. C. Crawford)

Isochaetothrips gardeniae J. C. Crawford, 1945, Proc. Entomol. Soc.
Wash. 47: 180.
Chaetisothrips gardeniae: Priesner, 1957, Zool. Anz. 159: 161.
Holotype and numerous paratypes of both sexes from Mexico in the











168 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 3

USNM collection and one female from Honduras in the INHS collection were
examined.
In addition, 3 other species were found in the USNM, INHS, and Puerto
Rico Agricultural Experiment Station collections, and my own.
The following three American Isochaetothrips were found, after examining
the holotypes in the California Academy of Sciences collection, to be of the
minute group of Frankliniella.
Frankliniella verbesinae Nom. n. (=1sochaetothrips varicornis
Moulton, nec Frankliniella varicornis Bagnall 1919), Comb. n.
Isochaetothrips varicornis Moulton, 1933, Rev. Entomol. (Rio de Janei-
ro). 3: 127.
This transfer creates a homonymy and a new name is proposed.

Franklininella oxyura Bagnall (=Isochaetothrips unicolor
Moulton), Syn. n.
Frankliniella oxyura Bagnall, 1919, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (9)4: 267.
Frankliniella minute var. paraguayensis Priesner, 1921, Deut. Entomol.
Z. 1921: 189.
Isochaetothrips unicolor Moulton, 1933, Rev. Entomol. (Rio de Janeiro).
3: 128. (New synonymy).
A paratype of oxyura present in the CAS collection was available for a
comparison.

Frankliniella davidsoni (Moulton), Comb. n.

Isochaetothrips davidsoni Moulton, 1936, Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc.
31: 64.
Isochaetothrips davidsoni: J. C. Crawford, 1945, Proc. Entomol. Soc.
Wash. 47: 180.
Frankliniella watsoni Moulton, 1948, Rev. Entomol. (Rio de Janeiro).
19: 93. (New synonymy).
This combination was suspected earlier by J. C. Crawford (1945). Holo-
type of watsoni present in the CAS collection was available for a comparison.

LITERATURE CITED
Crawford, J. C. 1945. The North American species of the genus Isochaeto-
thrips Moulton (Thysanoptera, Thripidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash.
47: 179-182.
Priesner, H. 1938. Thysanopteren aus dem Belgischen Congo. Rev. Zool.
Bot. Afr. 30: 343-355.
Priesner, H. 1957. Zur vergleichenden Morphologie des Endothorax der
Thysanopteren. Zool. Anz. 159: 159-167.


The Florida Entomologist 50 (3) 1967













SIX NEW PHYTOSEIIDAE FROM FLORIDA
(ACARINA: PHYTOSEIIDAE)1

H. A. DENMARK AND MARTIN H. MUMA
Chief, Entomology Section, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of
Agriculture, Gainesville, Florida 32601, and Entomologist, University of Florida,
Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, Florida 33850, respectively.

The number of known phytoseiid species has increased greatly in the past
ten years. Recent collections, especially in the southeastern United States
and the Caribbean area, have added many new species and distribution
records in this family of mites. These mites are usually considered pre-
daceous. However, like so many previously described species of phytoseiids,
nothing is known about the food habits of the six species described in this
paper.
General nomenclature and terminology used here are those of Muma (1961)
and as modified by Muma (1964). Peritremal terminology is that of De Leon
(1966). Spermathecal terminology is that of Schuster and Smith (1960).
Spermatodactyl terminology is that of De Leon (1961).
Illustrations were made with the aid of a phase-contrast microscope at
500 magnifications. The peritremal plates and genitalia were illustrated at
600 or 800 magnifications to better delineate morphological details. All
measurements are in microns.
Mesostigmatid mites of the monogynaspid family Phytoseiidae are charac-
terized by a two-tined palpal apotele, chelate chelicerae, undifferentiated
hypostomal setae, a smooth or indistinctly serrate tectum, a quadrate sternum
with two to five pairs of lateral setae, an entire or transversely divided dorsal
scutum provided with less than 22 pairs of setae, one or two pairs of sub-
lateral setae, peritremes extending anteriorly from the meso-lateral stigmate, a
ventral anus, and cursorial type legs provided with pretarsi and ambulacra.
Females have the genital pore protected by an anterior membrane of the
genital scutum, the genital scutum with one pair of lateral setae and more or
less truncate posteriorly, a pair of spermathecae that open between the coxae
of legs III and IV, a ventrianal scutum provided with one to five pairs of
preanal setae in addition to the paraanals, and two to six pairs of ventro-
lateral setae. Males have cheliceral spermatodactyls, the genital pore pro-
tected by the anterior margin of the sternal scutum, a shield-shaped ventri-
anal scutum provided with three to five pairs of preanal setae and one pair
of ventro-lateral setae.

Amblyseiulus Muma, 1961

Amblyseiulus Muma. (1961: 278); Muma (1964:9)
Amblyseiulus, De Leon. (1962:17); De Leon (1966:83)
Amblyseius, Chant. (1965:371) in part.

Amblyseiulus Muma (1961) was erected for those species of Amblyseiines
in which females have three pairs of dorsal setae, three pairs of median
setae, eight pairs of lateral setae, one pair each of clunals and verticals

1 Contribution No. 98, Entomology Section, Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture.










The Florida Entomologist


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170


Vol. 50, No. 3












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Denmark: Six New Phytoseiidae from Florida 171

on the dorsal scutum. A pair of anterior sublaterals and a pair of posterior
sublaterals are located on the interscutal membrane. There are three pairs of
setae on the sternal scutum, and three pairs of preanal, ventrianal setae.
Leg IV has three macrosetae. The leg formula (longest to shortest) is 1, 4,
2, 3 in all known species except A. dorsatus Muma, A. mexicanus (Garman),
A. elongatus (Garman) and A. solens De Leon. Most species also have a
variously modified ectal strip of the peritremal scutum that extends pos-
teriorly to coxa IV exopodal scutum. Except for the distinctive A. iphiformis
Muma all species have six or more denticules on the fixed cheliceral finger.
Muma (1961) designated Typhlodromus okanagensis Chant as the type of
the genus.

Amblyseiulus temperellus Denmark and Muma new species
(Fig. 1)

Diagnosis: Amblyseiulus temperellus is closely related to the Ambly-
seiulus lepidus (Chant) species complex. It is distinguished from lepidus
by the lack of dorsal scutal reticulation, different proportions of leg IV
macrosetae, and a wider ectal strip of the peritremal scutum. It has shorter
dorsal scutal setae and differently placed preanal pores than A. mexicanus
(Garman) and A. tropicanus (Garman).
Female holotype: Length 259,; width at L4 226y. Dorsal shield smooth with
nine small pores, and 16 pairs of setae: eight pairs of lateral setae, three pairs
of median setae, four pairs of dorsal setae, and one pair each of clunals and
verticals. Setae L1, L., L4, Ls, Ms, and verticals long and smooth; all other
setae short and smooth. Measurements of setae are: verticals 28g; D1 5g, D, 51,
De 5y; clunals 9,; M1 5A, M2 6M, Ms 85g; L1 31i, L2 14,, La 7,, L, 631, Ls 11~, Ls
13/, L7 16g, L8 91p. Anterior sublaterals 14,; and posterior sublaterals 13L.
Leg formula: 1, 4, 2, 3. Macrosetae on leg IV as follows: genu 57A, tibio 301,
and basitarsus 41l. Peritremes extend to the verticals. Stigmatal scutum with
elliptical pore approximately half way between peritreme opening and coxa IV
exopodal scutum. Sternal scutum wider than long, smooth, and with three
pairs of setae. Fourth pair of sternal setae on small sclerotized metasternal
scuta. Genital scutum longer than wide, smooth, with one pair of setae, and
truncate. Ventrianal scutum approximately as wide as long, reticulated, a pair
of small pores, and three pairs of preanal, ventrianal setae. Four pairs of
setae on the posteroventral integument beside the ventrianal scutum; ventri-
caudal pair of setae 52L long and smooth. Two pairs of elongate metapodal
scuta. Spermatheca small and cup-shaped with short atrium.
Fig. 1 is of the holotype which bears the following data: Vineland, Orange
County, Florida, 16 January 1965 (M. H. Muma and H. L. Greene), on sand
pine, Pinus clausa.
Male: Unknown.
Locality and Type Material: This species is known only from the holotype.

Typhlodromips De Leon, 1965

Typhlodromips De Leon. (1965:23); Muma (1966:245).
Typhlodromopsis De Leon. (1959:113) in part.
Amblyseius, Athias-Henriot. (1958:27) in part; Chant (1965:371) in part.

Typhlodromips De Leon (1965) was proposed for that group of mites










172 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 3

other than the cucumeris group which was formerly placed in the genus
Typhlodromopsis De Leon (1959). Typhlodromopsis simplicissimus (De Le-
on) was designated as the type of the genus by De Leon (1965).
These mites are typical Amblyseiines in which females have four pairs
of dorsal setae, three pairs median setae, eight pairs lateral setae (four pairs
anterior to D3), verticals, clunals on the dorsal scutum. Anterior and
posterior sublateral setae are located on interscutal membrane. There are
three pairs of setae on the sternal scutum and three pairs of preanal, ventri-
anal setae and a pair of preanal pores. Leg IV has three macrosetae, leg
III one to three, leg II one or two, and leg I one. The leg formula (longest to
shortest) varies from 1, 4, 2, 3 through 1, 4, 3, 2 to 4, 1, 2, 3.
Dorsal scutal setae Ms and Ls are usually slightly longer and thicker
than others and are frequently serrate. Posterior sternal margin is either
straight or concave. Fixed finger of chelicerae with six to eight denticules.
Peritremal scutum without ectal strip.

Typhlodromips arenillus Denmark and Muma new species
(Fig. 2)
Diagnosis: Typhlodromips arenillus seems to be most closely related to
Typhlodromips dentilis (De Leon) from which it is distinguished by propor-
tional lengths of dorsal scutal setae, larger pores on the ventrianal scutum, a
shorter, wider spermatheca and a larger spermatodactyl with a bent toe.
Female holotype: Length 290A; width at La 177u. Dorsal shield sclerotized,
reticulated, and with 17 pairs of setae: eight pairs of lateral setae, four pairs
of dorsal setae, three pairs of median setae and one pair each of verticals and
clunals. Setae Ms and Ls are serrate; all other setae smooth. Measurements of
setae are: verticals 17; D1 12L, D2 10, Da 13,, DI 18,; clunals 7u; MI 11 M,
18g, Ms 19; Li 20u, L. 12g, L, 16g, L4 20g, L5 20g, Le 19, L, 16u, L4 63g; an-
terior sublaterals 16,;and posterior sublaterals 14A. Leg formula: 1, 4, 2, 3.
Macrosetae on leg IV as follows: genu 6g, tibia 4A, and basitarsus 20g. Peri-
tremes extend to the verticals. The stigmatal scutum has a small round pore
about half way between stigmata and coxa IV exopodal scutum. Sternal
scutum slightly longer than wide, smooth, with three pairs of setae. Fourth
pair of sternal setae on lightly sclerotized metasternal scuta. Genital scutum
broad, truncate, and with one pair of setae. Ventrianal scutum longer than
wide, smooth, with a pair of small pores, and three pairs of preanal, ventrianal
setae. Four pairs of setae on the posteroventral integument beside the ventri-
anal scutum. Ventrocaudal pair smooth and 18T long. Two pairs of elongate
metapodal scuta. Spermatheca with cervix tubular, slightly enlarged atrium.
Fig. 2 is of the holotype which bears the following data: Lake Placid,
Florida, 23 August 1965 (M. H. Muma and H. L. Greene), on pea vine in sand
dune.
Male: The dorsal shield is 251 long and 157l wide at L4. The sperma-
todactyl has a long shank which is about twice the length of the foot.
Locality and Type Material: Paratypes: Two females, one male, and
four nymphs collected with the holotype. One female, Frostproof, Florida,
3 March 1966 (M. H. Muma), on Serenoa repens Small; one male, Vineland,
Orange County, Florida, 25 August 1965 (H. L. Greene), on Quercus sp. in
sand dune; one male, Lake Placid, Florida, 25 August 1965 (M. H. Muma), on
Carya sp.; and one male, two nymphs, and one larva, Frostproof, Florida,
23 August 1965 (H. L. Greene), unknown plant in sand dune.










Denmark: Six New Phytoseiidae from Florida


173


t











t y..A; \ Ap N














A, Dorsal scutum; B, Sternal scutum; C, Genital scutum; D, Ventrianal
scutum; E, Peritremal scutum; F, Spermatheca; G, Male ventrianal scutum;
H, three views of spermatodactyl.

Typhlodromips hellougreus Denmark and Muma new species
(Fig. 3)
Diagnosis: Typhlodromips hellougreus is closely related in some respects
to T. simplicissimus (De Leon) and in others to T. auratus De Leon. It is
distinguished from the former by shorter dorsal scutal setae and differently
positioned preanal pores; from the latter by having M3 much shorter than
L., and a much narrower spermatheca.
Female holotype: Length 345A; width at LI 219g. Dorsal shield sclero-
tized reticulated, and with 17 pairs of setae: eight pairs of lateral setae, four
pairs of dorsal setae, three pairs of median setae, two pairs of sublateral setae
on interscutal membrane, and one pair each of verticals and clunals. Setae M3
and Ls are serrate; all other setae smooth. Measurements of all setae are:
verticals 19/; Di 9A, D, 9', D. 10, D 13,; clunals 10; M1 10, M2 14/, M3 28A;
L, 15t, L2 12, La 144u, LL 18,, L, 18p, L6 17, L- 17g, Ls 571A; anterior sublater-
als 13/; and posterior sublaterals 14,. Leg formula: 1, 4, 2, 3. Macroseta on










The Florida Entomologist


basitarsus of leg IV 41g. Sternal plate approximately as long as wide, smooth,
with three pairs of setae, four pair of sternal setae on weakly sclerotized
metasternal scuta. Genital scutum over twice as long as broad and truncate.
Ventrianal scutum longer than wide, smooth, a pair of pores, and three pairs
of preanal, ventrianal setae. Four pairs of setae on the posteroventral integu-
ment beside the ventrianal plate; ventricaudal pair of setae 36/L long and
smooth. Spermatheca elongate with enlarged atrium and flared cervix. Peri-
tremes extend to the verticals. The stigmatal scutum has an oval pore about
two-thirds the distance from the stigmata to coxa IV exopodal scutum. Two
pairs of elongate metapodal scuta.
Fig. 3 is of the holotype which bears the following data: Sebastian,
Florida, 25 February 1966 (M. H. Muma), on sand pine, Pinus clausa.






/ H


I' tp -s


Fig. 3. Female Typhlodromips hellougreus Denmark and Muma new
species: A, Dorsal scutum; B, Sternal scutum; C, Genital scutum; D, Ventri-
anal scutum; E, Peritremal scutum; F, Spermatheca.


174


Vol. 50, No. 3









Denmark: Six New Phytoseiidae from Florida


175


Male: The dorsal shield is 234g long and 180/ wide at L4. The spermato-
dactyl with very small foot, about half the length of the shank.
Locality and Type Material: Paratypes: Four females were collected
with the holotype; one male, Sebastian, Florida, 25 February 1966 (M. H.
Muma), on sand pine, Pinus clausa.
Typhlodromips mastus Denmark and Muma new species
(Fig. 4)
Diagnosis: Typhlodromips mastus is closely related to T. sanblasensis
(De Leon) from which it is distinguished by shorter dorsal scutal setae, a
shorter, narrower spermatheca and a pentagonal ventrianal scutum.
Female holotype: Length 314,u; width at L. 165A. Dorsal shield sclerotized,
smooth, eight small pores scattered over the entire length of the dorsal shield
and 17 pairs of setae: eight pairs of lateral setae, three pairs of median setae,
four pairs of dorsal setae, and one pair each of clunals and verticals. Setae M3
and Ls serrate; all other setae smooth. Measurements of setae are: verticals
19A; D1 9u, D, 81, D3 6g, D4 10lO; clunals 11,; MI 6g, MM 17g, Ms 62u; L, 28/, L2








5/ F





I ^ ^ C-

j----9-P---- \\S^ S. (~














Fig. 4. Female Typhlodromips mastus Denmark and Muma new species:
A, Dorsal scutum; B, Sternal scutum; C, Genital scutum; D, Ventrianal
scutum; E, Peritremal scutum; F, Spermatheca.











176 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 3

25,, L. 28A, L, 49g, L5 421A, La 144, L, 14/, La 621; anterior sublaterals 19m; and
posterior sublaterals 17g. Leg formula: 1, 4, 2, 3. Macrosetae on leg IV as fol-
lows: genu 33t, tibia 14j, and basitarsus 33A. Peritremes extend to the verti-
cals. The stigmatal scutum has a small oval pore near coxa IV exopodal scu-
tum. The sternal scutum approximately as long as wide, smooth, with three
pairs of setae. Fourth pair of sternal setae on small sclerotized metasternal
scuta. Genital scutum over twice as long as wide, one pair of setae, and trun-
cate. Ventrianal scutum longer than wide, reticulated, a pair of large crescent-
shaped pores, and three pairs of preanal, ventrianal setae. Four pairs of setae
on the posteroventral integument beside the ventrianal scutum; ventricaudal
pair of setae 48g long and smooth. The spermatheca is short, with a slightly
enlarged atrium, and with flared cervix. Two pairs of elongate metapodal
scuta.
Fig. 4 is of the holotype which bears the following data: Alva, Florida,
10 December 1965 (W. T. Walsh), on goldenrod, Salidago sp.
Male: Unknown.
Locality and Type Material: Three female paratypes were taken with the
holotype.
Typhlodromina Muma 1961

Typhlodromina Muma. (1961:292); Muma (1964:32)
Typhloseiopsis, Schuster and Pritchard. (1963:205) in part.
Typhlodromus, Chant. (1965:368) in part.
Typhlodromina Muma (1961) was erected for those Phytoseiine species
with four pairs of dorsal setae, two median setae, eight pairs of lateral setae,
one pair each of clunals and verticals, anterior and posterior sublaterals on
interscutal membrane, and leg IV with no or one macroseta; the leg formula
(longest to shortest) is 4, 1, 2, 3; two pairs of sternal setae, and four pairs of
preanal, ventrianal setae. The type of the genus was designated by Muma
(1961) as Iphidulus conspicuous Garman, 1948.

Typhlodromina greeneae new species
(Fig. 5)
Diagnosis: Typhlodromina greeneae is related to T. pini (Chant) and
T. arborea (Chant) in the form of the spermatheca, and to T. conspicua
(Garman) and T. tropica (Chant) in the lengths of the dorsal scutal setae.
It is distinguished from all species by comparative lengths of dorsal scutal
setae, extreme length of S2, shortness of the spermatheca, and position of the
preanal, ventrianal pores.
Female holotype: Length 330u; width at L5 196/. Dorsal shield smooth with
three pairs of small pores, and 16 pairs of setae: eight pairs of lateral setae, two
pairs of median setae, eight pairs of lateral setae, and one pair each of clunals
and verticals. Setae Ms and Ls long and serrate; all other setae long and
smooth. Measurements of setae are: verticals 25g; D1 29g, D2 28/, Da 44g, D4
52/; clunals 10; M, 37g, M, 69u; L1 381, L, 35g, LS 45g, L4 44,, L, 58/, L6 63A,
L7 39g, Lg 63A; anterior sublaterals 36A; posterior sublaterals 69g. Macrosetae
on basitarsus of leg IV 59/. Peritremes extend to the verticals. The indis-
tinguishably fused peritremal and stigmatal scuta have an oval pore approxi-
mately half way between the peritreme opening and coxa IV exopodal scutum.
Sternal scutum about as long as wide, reticulated, and with two pairs of setae.
The third and fourth pair of setae located between sternal scutum and genital










Denmark: Six New Phytoseiidae from Florida


177


scutum. Genital scutum longer than wide, with one pair of setae, and truncate.
Ventrianal scutum longer than wide, reticulated, with two small pores, and
four pairs of preanal, ventrianal setae. Three pairs of setae on the postero-
ventral integument beside the ventrianal scutum; ventricaudal pair of setae
63u long and smooth. Two pairs of elongate metapodal scuta. Spermatheca
small, slightly flared at the base and with knobbed atrium.


Fig. 5. Female Typhlodromina greeneae Denmark and Muma new species:
A, Dorsal scutum; B, Sternal scutum; C, Genital scutum; D, Ventrianal
scutum; E, Peritremal scutum; F, Spermatheca.

Fig. 5 is of the holotype which bears the following data: Highlands
Hammock State Park, Highlands County, Florida, 3 March 1966 (H. L. Greene),
on palmetto, Serenoa repens Small.
Male: Unknown.
Locality and Type Material: Three female paratypes collected with the
holotype.
This mite is named in honor of Mrs. H. L. Greene who collected this
and other species of mites new to science. She is presently employed as
Dr. Muma's technician.











The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 50, No. 3


Galendromus Muma, 1961

Galendromus Muma. (1961:298); Muma (1963:16)
Typhlodromus, Chant. (1959:48) in part.
Metaseiulus, Schuster and Pritchard. (1963:214) in part.
The genus Galendromus Muma (1961) was erected for those Phytoseiines
in which females have four pairs of dorsal setae, two median setae, nine pairs
of lateral setae (five anterior to D3), one pair of anterior sublateral setae on
the interscutal membrane, four pairs of preanal, ventrianal setae and leg IV
with no or only one macroseta on the fourth basitarsus. Leg formula: 4, 1, 2, 3.
Muma (1961) designated Typhlodromus floridanus Muma as the type of
the genus.
Muma (1963) recognized 16 species in his review of Galendromus.

Galendromus loculus Denmark and Muma new species
(Fig. 6)

Diagnosis: Galendromus loculus is closely related to G. mcgregori
(Chant) but loculus has La longer, a shorter ventrianal scutum, a shorter
spermatheca, and a greater distance between D3 and D4.
Female holotype: Length 327t; width at L4 152A. Dorsal shield reticulated,
with three pairs of small pores and 17 pairs of setae: nine pairs of lateral setae,
four pairs of dorsal setae, two pairs of median setae, one pair each of clunals
and verticals. Setae I, Ls, L3, L4, L.5, La, L,, Ls, verticals, clunals, D1, D2, D2, D4,
and anterior sublaterals smooth, L, and M2 serrate. Measurements of setae
are: verticals 22,; D1 13A, D 12, D 16g, D4 24A; M, 15g, M2 41; clunals 8g; L1
22g, L2 22A, La 24A, L, 27,, L5 331, L6 35,, L, 43A, L, 28g, L, 38A; anterior sublat-
erals 28u; macroseta on basitarsus of leg IV 27A. Sternal scutum smooth, ap-
proximately as long as wide and with two pairs of setae. The third and fourth
pairs of setae may or may not be on very faint metasternal scuta. There is
one pair of elongated, slender metapodal scuta. Genital scutum long, slender
and truncate, with one pair of setae. Ventrianal scutum longer than wide,
smooth, and with four pairs of preanal, ventrianal setae. Two pairs of setae
on the posteroventral integument beside the ventrianal scutum; ventricaudal
pair 27/ long and smooth. Spermatheca tubular with flared cervix. Peri-
tremes extend to the verticals. Stigmatal and peritremal scuta indistinguish-
ably fused and with an elliptical pore half way between stigmata and leg IV
exopodal scutum. Comparative details shown in Fig. 6.
Male: Length 234p; width at L4 127u. Setae of the male are the same as
in the female, but somewhat shorter. Ventrianal scutum smooth with four
pairs of preanal, ventrianal setae. Spermatodactyl with foot about half as long
as shank.
Locality and Type Material: Female holotype collected in Clay County,
Florida, 6 September 1966 (E. M. Collins), from Pinus sp. Paratypes: five
females, two males, and one nymph were collected with the holotype. All
mites were associated with a gall formation on the tree branches.

LITERATURE CITED
Athias-Henriot, C. 1958. Phytoseiidae et Aceosejidae (Acarina, Gamasina)
d'Algerie. Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique Nord. 49(1-2): 23-43.
Chant, D. A. 1959. Phytoseiid mites (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Canad. En-
tomol. 91 (Suppl. 12): 166 p.


178










Denmark: Six New Phytoseiidae from Florida 179






F B[i



























Fig. 6. Female Galendromus loculus Denmark and Muma new species:
A, Dorsal scutum; B, Sternal scutum; C, Genital scutum; D, Ventrianal
scutum; E, Peritremal scutum; F, Spermatheca; G, Male ventrianal scutum;
H, Spermatodactyl.

Chant, D. A. 1965. Generic concepts of the family Phytoseiidae (Acarina:
Mesostigmata). Canad. Entomol. 97(4) :351-374.
De Leon, D. 1959. Seven new Typhlodromus from Mexico with collection

notes on three of the species (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Fla. Entomol.
42: 113-129.
De Leon, D. 1961. Eight new Amblyseius from Mexico with collection notes
on two other species (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Fla. Entomol. 44:85-91.
DeLeon, D. 1962. Twenty-three new Phytoseiidae, mostly from southeastern

United States (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Fla. Entomol. 45:11-27.
De Leon, D. 1965. A note on Neoseiulus Hughes, 1948 and new synonymy.
Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 67(1):23.

De Leon, D. 1966. Phytoseiidae of British Guyana (Acarina: Mesostig-
mata)Fig. 6. Female Galendromus loculus Denmark and other Guyanas. 8:81-










102.
A, Dorsal scutum; B, Sternal scutum; C, Genital scutum; D, Ventrianal
scutum; E, Peritremal scutum; F, Spermatheca; G, Male ventrianal scutum;
H, Spermatodactyl.

Chant, D. A. 1965. Generic concepts of the family Phytoseiidae (Acarina:
Mesostigmata). Canad. Entomol. 97(4): 351-374.
De Leon, D. 1959. Seven new Typhlodromus from Mexico with collection
notes on three of the species (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Fla. Entomol.
42: 113-129.
De Leon, D. 1961. Eight new Amblyseius from Mexico with collection notes
on two other species (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Fla. Entomol. 44:85-91.
DeLeon, D. 1962. Twenty-three new Phytoseiidae, mostly from southeastern
United States (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Fla. Entomol. 45:11-27.
De Leon, D. 1965. A note on Neoseiulus Hughes, 1948 and new synonymy.
Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 67(1): 23.
De Leon, D. 1966. Phytoseiidae of British Guyana (Acarina: Mesostig-
mata). Studies on the Fauna of Suriname and other Guyanas. 8:81-
102.











180 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 3

Hughes, A. M. 1961. The mites of stored food. Min. Agr. and Fish. London.
Tech. Bull. No. 9:222.
Muma, M. H. 1961. Subfamilies, genera, and species of Phytoseiidae (Acar-
ina: Mesostigmata). Bull. Fla. State Mus. 5(7):267-302.
Muma, M. H. 1963. The genus Galendromus Muma, 1961 (Acarina: Phyto-
seiidae). Fla. Entomol. Suppl. No. 1:15-41.
Muma, M. H. 1964. Annotated list and keys to Phytoseiidae (Acarina:
Mesostigmata) associated with Florida citrus. Univ. of Fla., Agr. Exp.
Sta. Tech. Bull. 685:1-42.
Muma, M. H. 1966. Eight new Phytoseiidae (Acarina: Mesostigmata) from
Florida. Fla. Entomol. 48:245-254.
Schuster, R. 0., and L. M. Smith. 1960. The spermathecae as taxonomic
features of phytoseiid mites of western North America. Proc. Entomol.
Soc. Wash. 62(3):181-188.
Schuster, R. 0., and A. E. Pritchard. 1963. Phytoseiid mites of California.
Hilgardia 34(7): 191-285.

The Florida Entomologist 50(3) 1967












EGGS OF MOTHS AMONG THE ETHMIIDAE,
ACROLOPHIDAE AND HEPIALIDAE-
MICROLEPIDOPTERA1

ALVAH PETERSON
Ohio Historical Society Museum, Columbus, Ohio

This publication describes, discusses, and illustrates eggs of moths that
belong to the Ethmiidae, Acrolophidae, and Hepialidae. It is a continuation
of studies made on eggs from 15 families of the microlepidoptera published
in The Florida Entomologist during 1963 (B), 1965, and 1967.
The techniques employed to locate, collect or produce eggs, to record all
pertinent factors, and prepare photographs are similar to those used and
discussed in the numerous papers the author has published on eggs of insects,
especially eggs of moths, which have appeared in The Florida Entomologist
from 1960 to 1967.
The 30 or more species of moths that belong to the Ethmiidae in the
United States and Canada are represented here by two species of Ethmia
captured at black light lures located near Portal, Arizona.
The females deposited their eggs on the interior of polyethylene bags. The
eggs of the two species seen, except for a small difference in size and color,
resemble each other closely especially in their manner of deposition and
structural details.
The family Acrolophidae in Canada and the United States according to
McDunnough possesses 45 species and all belong to one genus, Acrolophus.
Eggs of eight or more species have been seen and all resemble each other
closely. All are under 0.5 mm in length, nearly spherical, non adhesive, and
roll about freely, when deposited in a vial or polyethylene bag. All are near
white when deposited. Most species within 6 to 48 hours after deposition
change to a dark color which may be dark grey, brown, or near black. The
light colored phase in each species may be a trifle larger (0.05-0.1 mm) than
the dark form. The chorion of all species seen possesses 20 to 24 narrow
elevated lines which extend lengthwise between the two somewhat smooth
ends of the egg. The females seen to date, that produced eggs, were collected
in numbers in Arizona, Florida, North Carolina, Ohio, and Michigan at
black-light lures or traps. For Hepialidae see Fig. 8.

SUMMARY

Species among given genera in these families, especially species of Acrolo-
phus, resemble each other closely. In this respect they agree with the
similarity that exists among species in given genera in many families of the
Lepidoptera. See papers cited and others published by the author in The
Florida Entomologist from 1960 to 1967.

1 This investigation and cost of publication of results were supported by a
research grant from the National Science Foundation assigned to The Ohio
Historical Society Museum at Columbus, Ohio.
The author is indebted to several entomologists, namely C. P. Kimball,
R. W. Hodges, and D. R. Davis, for help in the determination of species
cited in this publication. He is also indebted to A. E. Brower and G. B.
Fairchild for eggs of the Hepialidae.










182 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 3


Fig. 1. Ethmia discostrigella (Cham.) Egg size 1.0 x 0.6 x 0.4 mm. Females
of this ethmiid moth deposited 25 or more oval, somewhat flattened ova on
the interior of a polyethylene bag. They were scattered, single or in short
chains of 3 to 6 ova. A day or two after deposition they became pink in color.
The entire visible portion of the chorion above the substrate on which they
rested possessed numerous, tiny, bright projections which glistened when
located in a beam of light.
Fig. 2. Ethmia semitenebrella Dyar. Egg size 1.1 x 0.6 x 0.4 mm. This
ethmiid moth within a polyethylene bag deposited several somewhat flattened
oval-like ova in short chains on the interior of the bag. Their color was a










Peterson: Some Eggs of Microlepidoptera 183

LITERATURE CITED
McDunnough, J. 1939. Checklist of the Lepidoptera of Canada and the
United States. Part II Microlepidoptera. Mem. S. Calif. Acad. Sci.
2 (1):1-171.
Peterson, Alvah. 1961. Some types of eggs deposited by moths. Heterocera-
Lepidoptera. Fla. Entomol. 44:107-112.
Peterson, Alvah. 1963b. Egg types among moths of the Pyralidae and
Phycitidae-Lepidoptera. Fla. Entomol. Supplement No. 1:1-14.
Peterson, Alvah. 1965. Some eggs of Moths among the Olethreutidae and
Tortricidae (Lepidoptera). Fla. Entomol. 48: p.1-8.
Peterson, Alvah. 1967. Eggs of moths from several families of the Mico-
lepidoptera. Fla. Entomol. 50:125-132.

The Florida Entomologist 50(3) 1967










faint greenish white and the surface of the chorion possessed numerous very
tiny bright and glistening projections.
Fig. 3. Acrolophus crescentellus Kft. Egg size 0.4 x 0.25 mm. This
acrolophid female within a vial deposited 150 plus, near white, non-adhesive
eggs. Each egg possessed 21 to 24 tiny, narrow, light colored ridges which
extended the length of the eggs from the two somewhat smooth poles at each
end. Within 12 to 24 hours after deposition the overall near white color of
each egg changed to grayish brown or near black.
Fig. 4. Acrolophus plumifrontellus (Clem.) Egg size, 0.35 x 0.3 mm. This
acrolophid female within a vial deposited 200 to 400 plus near white, non-
adhesive, nearly spherical ova. The chorion of each egg possessed 20 to 22
tiny narrow ridges which extended lengthwise on the surface. The near
white newly deposited eggs changed to a deep shiny brown or near black
color within 6 to 24 hours after deposition.
Fig. 5 and 6. Acrolophus arcanellus (Clem.) Egg size 0.4 x 0.3 mm.
This female deposited 250 plus, near white, non-adhesive, nearly spherical
ova when enclosed in a vial or polyethylene bag. Each egg possessed 22 to
24 faint narrow ridges that extended lengthwise on the egg. The near white
newly deposited ova changed to a deep brown or black within 12 to 24 hours
after deposition. Fig. 5. Newly deposited white ova. Fig. 6. Near white and
nearly black eggs a few hours after deposition.
Fig. 7. Acrolophus filicicornis (Wlsm.) Egg size, 0.4 x 0.3 mm. This
female in a glass vial deposited more than 200, non-adhesive, near white
eggs. The light color changed to a dark grey 24 to 48 hours after deposition.
The smooth chorion possessed 20 plus longitudinal lines which ran lengthwise
on the surface. Each line possessed white tiny puff-like projections visible
only under high (25X) magnification.
Fig. 8. Sthenopis quadriguttatus Grt. Egg size, 0.7 x 0.6 mm. The eggs of
this hepialid were sent to me from Maine, from A. E. Brower. When the
dead eggs arrived they were shiny black, non-adhesive, and reflected light from
their smooth surface. Eggs of another hepialid sent to me from Panama were
also nearly spherical, pitch black, shiny, and non adhesive. So far as known
these eggs when deposited were light in color. Specimens from G. B. Fairchild.
























































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STRIDULATION AND BEHAVIOR IN TWO SOUTHEASTERN
IPS BARK BEETLES (COLEOPTERA: SCOLYTIDAE)

R. C. WILKINSON2, W. T. MCCLELLAND2, RUTH M. MURILLO3,
AND E. O. OSTMARK4

Acoustical communication in arthropods has been reviewed by Alexander
(1967), who stated that clear demonstrations of response to air-transmitted
sounds had been restricted to a few insect species in the orders Orthoptera,
Homoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, and Coleoptera. The single example cited in
terrestrial Coleoptera was that of Mampe and Neunzig (1966) who found that
plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), adults of either sex could
attract the opposite sex by stridulating, but that the sound produced by
either sex had little apparent effect on members of the same sex. Copulation
often took place without being preceded by stridulation, and occasionally
males continued stridulating during copulation.
Van Tassell (1965) found an association between sound production and
mating in aquatic hydrophilid beetles. Both sexes in 12 species of Berosus
produced short sounds (chirps) under handling stress. A longer, pre-mating
sound (tremolo) was produced by females of four of the species, and this
sound did not continue during or after successful mating and egg laying.
The author hypothesized that the species-specific, pre-mating sounds served
as an isolating mechanism in three of the species which occurred together
in the same streams.
Among New World Ips (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), stridulating organs on
the head and pronotum were found by Wood (1961) in females of Ips
confusus (Leconte), I. ponderosae Swaine, and I. oregonis (Eichhoff).
Wilkinson (1962) reported similar organs in female I. calligraphus (Germar),
I. grandicollis (Eichhoff), and I. avulsus (Eichhoff) from Florida. Ostmark
(1966) also found such organs in female I. lecontei Swaine. Barbara A. Barr
(personal communication) found females of 13 of the 30 described North
American species of Ips possessed stridulating organs, also that stridulation
by female I. confusus aided in gaining admittance to nuptial chambers
initiated by males in the inner bark of pine.
Wilkinson (1962) demonstrated that I. calligraphus females produced ser-
ies of short (squeaking) sounds with frequencies ranging from 2-16 kc/sec
under handling stress. Females stridulated by short head movements, which
rubbed a file-like organ (pars stridens) located on top of the head against
a striated plate (plectrum) located directly above on the underside of the
pronotum (Fig. 1). Similar sounds were induced by moving the female's
head capsule with a dissecting pin, but no audible sound was produced by
males.
Present studies were conducted at the University of Florida during 1962,

1 Fla. Agric. Expt. Sta. Journal Series No. 2672. This study was partially
supported by U. S. Forest Service Grant No. 3, USDA, Washington, D.C.
2 Univ. Fla. Dept. Entomol., Gainesville.
3 Ministerio De Agricultura y Ganaderia, San Jose, Costa Rica, C. A.
4United Fruit Co., La Lima, Honduras, C. A.
5 Sonitrol Detector, Sonitrol Corp., Anderson, Ind.
6 Sona-Graph, Kay Electric Co., Pine Brook, N. J.
SUltra-Sonic Translator, Alton Electronics Co., Gainesville, Fla.










The Florida Entomologist


1963, and 1966. Possible effects of female stridulation on admittance to male
nuptial chambers, mating, oviposition, or gallery system development were
investigated in I. grandicollis and I. calligraphus.


0.1 mm


Post. --- Ant.


I b
0.1 mm







C
0.1 mm
Fig. 1. Side view of female I. calligraphus mid-line section showing
relation and structure of sound organs. a-pars stridens (PS) located on the
dorsal head surface rubs against the plectrum (P1) located on the underside
of the pronotum. The plectrum is associated with a cavity shown within the
pronotum. b--enlarged view of the plectrum showing large, anteriorly
canted teeth, c-enlarged view of a portion of the dorsal surface of the
pars stridens showing fine teeth.

METHODS AND MATERIAL
I. grandicollis
A single test was conducted to detect possible differences in gallery sys-
tems established by normal females vs. females that had been silenced. Three
groups of females were treated and designated as follows: (1) destridulated-
that portion of the pronotum bearing the plectrum was removed with jewel-
er's forceps from the anterior dorsal mid-line, hence silencing the female;
(2) operative-control-an anterior portion of the pronotum, [equal in size


186


Vol. 50, No. 3










Wilkinson: Stridulation Behavior in Two Ips


187


to (1)] was similarly removed from the side of the pronotum, leaving the
sound organs intact; (3) normal-no surgery was performed, leaving the sound
organs intact.
All test beetles were collected as callow adults from or near their pupal
cells in inner pine bark, and it was assumed that they had not mated prior
to the experiment. Females in all three treatment groups were placed with
an equal number of males on typical slash pine, Pinus elliottii Engelm.
var. elliottii, log bolts, which were held in 5-gal rearing cans for two weeks at
75 F, avg. room temp. Each of nine cans held a single log bolt colonized
by 50 (25 9, 25 S) beetles; three bolts were colonized with destridulated
females, three with operative-control females, and three with normal females.
The number of male nuptial chambers, and number and length of female
egg galleries per bolt were recorded after examining bark peeled from the
bolts. The form of gallery systems (male nuptial chamber plus radiating
egg galleries) also was noted.

RESULTS

No consistent effect of female treatment on gallery form was detected.
In one bolt colonized by destridulated females, an egg gallery extended into
the nuptial chamber of another gallery system and two galleries curved out
from a nuptial chamber in a pincer-like pattern. This pattern contrasted
with the typical form of gallery systems made by I. grandicollis (or I.
calligraphus) females, in which two to four egg galleries arise from a
common nuptial chamber and run parallel to the wood grain of log bolts.
No atypical gallery forms were found in any of the other log bolts.

TABLE 1.-DEVELOPMENT OF I. grandicollis GALLERY SYSTEMS, INVOLVING
DESTRIDULATED, NORMAL, AND OPERATIVE-CONTROL FEMALES.*

Operative-
Destridulated Y Normal 2 control 9
Log bolt no.** Log bolt no.** Log bolt no.**
Measurement 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

No. of male 15 12 5 17 12 4 15 8 3
nuptial chambers avg 10.7 avg 11.0 avg 8.7
No. of egg 5 13 5 20 22 6 10 6 5
galleries avg 7.7 avg 16.0 avg 7.0
Inches of 19 38 11 80 74 30 23 18 12
egg gallery avg 22.7 avg 61.3 avg 17.7

*Destridulated-sound organ removed by surgery; normal-no surgery performed; oper-
ative-control-surgery performed without removing sound organ.
**25 females and 25 males were placed on each log bolt.

Gallery system development data are given in Table 1. There was no
significant (P=.05) difference between treatments in the number of nuptial
chambers or egg galleries constructed, but normal females produced a sig-
nificantly greater length of egg gallery than did either destridulated or
operative-control females. Surgery on the female pronotum appeared to
have hampered gallery construction, but females in all three treatment classes










188 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 3

were able to construct galleries and lay eggs. Results of this test did not
suggest that female stridulation was necessarily involved in reproduction or
gallery system construction by I. grandicollis.

METHODS AND MATERIALS

I. calligraphus

I. calligraphus was used in further tests because of its greater size and
ease of treatment. Females were destridulated as described above, but micro-
scalpels were very carefully used to minimize possible adverse effects of
surgery.
Slash pine bolts 12 in. long x 4-6 in. diam were cured in a dehumidified
room for 4-5 days, after which the ends of the bolts were dipped in molten
paraffin to maintain the moisture level. The beetles were introduced in 000
gelatin capsules fastened over starter-holes drilled just deep enough to contact
the inner bark of the bolts, as described in detail by Wilkinson (1964). Males
were placed in the capsules for 12-24 hr to allow construction of nuptial
chambers in the inner bark. The capsules were examined for extrusion of
fresh inner bark, and those males that did not become established by con-
structing nuptial chambers were replaced by other male beetles, as required.
Only one male was established per given starter hole in all tests. Females
were serially introduced with established males (to avoid fighting between
females) and were replaced if they did not successfully enter a nuptial
chamber.
Virgin females were collected as pupae from their chambers in the inner
bark, reared individually to adults, and kept in isolation until needed.
Known-mated females were obtained by tightly sealing a piece of cellulose
acetate sheeting over a small patch of bared inner bark on a log bolt; a
male was introduced through a center hole in the cellulose acetate and
allowed to establish a nuptial chamber for 24 hr; a virgin female was intro-
duced with the established male until mating was observed, after which the
known-mated female was removed and stored in isolation until tested. Callow
adults were light brown in color and were taken from or near their pupal
chambers, while mature adults were dark brown to nearly black in color
and were collected from logs in which they were establishing gallery systems.
The mating status of adults was unknown, unless specified.
Stridulation was listened for by inserting the probe of a Sonitrol Detector5
(electronic sound-detecting device) into inner bark near the nuptial cham-
bers. Unless specified otherwise, colonized bolts were held 12-16 days at
80 F, avg. room temp., before paring off the outer bark to reveal galleries
constructed in the inner bark. Tracings of the gallery systems were made
on cellulose acetate sheets to compare development of these systems.

TESTS AND RESULTS

1. Gallery development by mature, destridulated females vs. mature, nor-
mal females. -Each of six bolts was infested with two males in holes started
on opposite sides of the bolt, and four females were introduced with each
established male. Only destridulated females were introduced in three bolts
and only normal females in the other three bolts.
Both destridulated and normal females laid eggs and no sign of atypical










Wilkinson: Stridulation Behavior in Two Ips 189

gallery pattern was observed at this population density. This test indicated
that these particular mature females could establish brood whether they
were able to stridulate or not.
2. Gallery development by mature, destridulated females vs. mature, nor-
mal females introduced in a 3 x 3 in. grid pattern. -Each of eight bolts
was infested with 15 males in holes started 3 x 3 in. apart in a rectangular
grid pattern over the bolt surface, and two females were introduced with
each established male. Only destridulated females were introduced in four
bolts and only normal females were introduced in the other four bolts.
Both destridulated and normal females laid eggs and no difference be-
tween treatments was apparent in gallery form. All galleries were irregular
and branched, and some galleries joined or crossed at this population density.
The test indicated that these particular mature females could establish brood
whether they were able to stridulate or not, and suggested that high popu-
lation density might have been a factor in the atypical form of the galleries.
3. Gallery development by callow, destridulated females vs. callow, normal
females. -Each of 24 bolts was infested with one male in a starter-hole.
Introductions per established male included one, two, three, or four destridu-
lated females, or one, two, three, or four normal females, with three replica-
tions of each treatment. Females were serially introduced at 8-hr intervals
until all of the required infestations/nuptial chamber were completed. Only
destridulated females were introduced in 12 bolts and only normal females
in the other 12 bolts.
No eggs were laid in any bolt infested by destridulated females, while
eggs were laid in all bolts infested with normal females. The atypical
galleries of destridulated females were winding, more branched, and closer
together than the typical, straighter galleries of comparable normal females,
especially where three or four females were introduced with a given male.
A direct relation between reproduction and stridulating ability of callow
females was indicated by observations that males did not readily accept fe-
males that were not able to stridulate. Normal females entered nuptial
chambers almost as soon as they were introduced, while destridulated females
were denied entry into nuptial chambers for periods extending to several
hours. Males often repelled destridulated females by actively blocking the
entry tunnel into the nuptial chamber, and some males also attacked de-
stridulated females and gnawed at their bodies. Many destridulated females
had to be replaced several times because they were killed by males or
because they died without gaining admittance into the nuptial chamber entry-
way. The test indicated that brood production by callow females was directly
associated with stridulating ability, while gallery form appeared to be at
least partially related to stridulating ability and/or population density.
4. Behavior of mature, normal females at the nuptial chamber entryway.
-Each of 15 bolts was infested with two males in holes started on opposite
sides of the bolt. Three females were serially introduced with each established
male at 30-min intervals on the following day, and stridulation was listened
for as each female was introduced.
Females became visibly excited immediately upon contacting frass freshly
extruded from the nuptial chamber, and burrowed into this frass until they
were at the entrance to the tunnel leading into the nuptial chamber. No
stridulation occurred until females had started into the nuptial chamber entry










190 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 3

tunnel and females admitted into the tunnels stridulated almost continuously,
or intermittently, for periods ranging from 10-50 sec.
Each of 25 males quickly admitted three successive females after these
females began to stridulate. Each of the remaining five males quickly ad-
mitted only the first two introduced females after they began to stridulate.
The third-introduced females did not stridulate while trying to force their
way into the entry tunnels and were denied entrance by the five males for
as long as several hours. These females were removed and stored in isolation
for 24 hr, then reintroduced with the same respective males. The females
stridulated and this time were readily admitted into the nuptial chamber
entryways. The test established that stridulation by these mature females
was constantly associated with successful entry into the nuptial chamber, and
suggested that males controlled the number of females admitted into a given
nuptial chamber within a given period of time.
5. Mating and oviposition in relation to stridulation by callow, known-
mated females vs. callow, virgin females. -All females were individually
reared from the F1 pupae of test 4. Stridulation was noted when ten such
females were accepted, and subsequently were observed to mate with males
established under cellulose acetate sheeting. Each of ten bolts was infested
with one of these known-mated females, and each of another ten bolts was
infested with two virgin females introduced in holes started on opposite sides
of the bolt. No males were present in any of the 20 bolts. Sound production
was listened for during female entry into starter-holes and for a short period
afterwards, during which inner bark was extruded as the females initiated
their egg galleries. Sound production also was listened for periodically
during the next three-day period and gallery form was compared at the end
of this time.
The males established under cellulose acetate sheeting blocked the entry
to the nuptial chamber by backing into the entry and bringing the scooped-
out posterior elytral declivity even with the entrance. Similar behavior has
been observed by Barr (personal communication) in I. confusus males and
by Clemens (1916) in Ips pini (Say) males. The I. calligraphus females
pushed vigorously against the male declivity when attempting to enter the
nuptial chamber and stridulated only when contacting the male. The male
turned to face the female and stridulation ceased. The male periodically
faced away from the female and the pushing-stridulating behavior of the
female was repeated, until the pair reached the nuptial chamber.
The ten females accepted by males established under cellulose acetate
sheeting stridulated only while gaining entry to the nuptial chambers. Stridu-
lation ceased as soon as copulation was initiated and did not occur during
the copulatory period. Both virgin and known-mated females subsequently
constructed galleries when introduced alone in pine bolts in the absence of
males or nuptial chambers. These virgin and known-mated females did not
stridulate upon entering starter-holes, and stridulation was not detected at
any time during the next three days (Table 2). None of the 17 surviving
virgin females laid eggs, while eight of the nine surviving known-mated
females laid eggs. Virgin females generally constructed short, winding gal-
leries that did not follow the wood grain while known-mated females gen-
erally constructed longer, straight egg galleries that followed the wood grain.
The test indicated that stridulation in callow, virgin females was a pre-










Wilkinson: Stridulation Behavior in Two Ips


condition for mating, and that mating was a precondition for oviposition.
Female tunneling did not depend on the presence of males or nuptial
chambers, but gallery form generally reflected the mating status of these
young females.

TABLE 2.-STRIDULATION, OVIPOSITION, AND TUNNELING OF VIRGIN
AND KNOWN-MATED I. calligraphus FEMALES INTRODUCED IN PINE
LOG BOLTS IN THE ABSENCE OF MALES.

Bolt no. 9 no.* Stridulation Oviposition Tunnel form**

(Virgin)
1 1 0 0 A,B2C2
2 0 died died
2 3 0 0 A2B1C1
4 0 0 A2B2C2
3 5 0 0 A2B2C1
6 0 0 AB2C2
4 7 0 0 AB. C2
8 0 0 A,B2Cs
5 9 0 died died
10 0 0 ABC2
6 11 0 0 AB1C2
12 0 0 A2BXC,
7 13 0 0 A2B2C,
14 0 0 A.,BC,
8 15 0 died died
16 0 0 A2B2C2
9 17 0 0 A2B.C,
18 0 0 A.,BC2
10 19 0 0 ABC_
20 0 0 A,2B2C
(Known-mated)
11 21 0 + A2B1,C
12 22 0 + ABC,
13 23 0 + A1B1Ci
14 24 0 + A1,BC
15 25 0 + A.B1C1
16 26 0 + A2,B1C
17 27 0 0 ABiC,
18 28 0 + A1B2C2
19 29 0 died died
20 30 0 + A1BiC

*One Y was introduced per starter-hole.
**Ai- tunnels over 6 in. long after 3 days, Bi-with wood grain, C1- straight or
nearly so.
A2- tunnels less than 6 in. long after 3 days, B2- did not follow wood grain, C2-
curved or winding.

6. Stress and premating sounds of mature, normal females. -Both stress
and premating sounds at 751 2 F were compared by tape-recording
amplified signals of the Sonitrol Detector and analyzing the sounds with a
Kay Sona-Graph6 audiospectrograph. Stress sounds were induced by pressing
and gently rolling each of eight females against a wood surface with taped
forceps, with the Sonitrol Detector probe inserted into the surface near the
point of treatment. The stressed female then was introduced with one of















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4





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Wilkinson: Stridulation Behavior in Two Ips


193


eight males established in log bolts, and premating sounds were noted with
the Sonitrol Detector probe inserted near the nuptial chamber. Sound above
20 kc/sec was detected with an Ultra-Sonic Translator7, but was not investi-
gated further.
No consistent differences were detected between stress and premating
sound patterns under test conditions, however stress sounds generally were
short (0.5 4 sec.) and varied with the stress applied, while premating
sounds generally were repeated over longer periods (8 45 sec.). Premating
sound consisted of sequences of 5-18 units, each unit composed of two por-
tions believed to be associated with a single cycle of posterior-anterior
head movement (Fig. 2).
7. Sound organ morphology and production of sound by callow, normal
females. -A composite, camera lucida drawing was made from two slide-
mounted, whole-body sections, and a freshly killed female was dissected to
allow examination of the plectrum and its associated cavity. Sound was in-
duced in each of four females by holding them between the thumb and
forefinger under a dissecting microscope, and either moving the head with a
probe or probing different body areas. Sound was transmitted to a head-
phone set via a dynamic microphone, high-pass filter, and amplifier.
The details of morphology are shown in side view (Fig. 1). The pars
stridens (a,c) is a heavily-sclerotized structure arising from the dorsal head
surface, with fine, symmetrically equilateral ridges spaced at approximately
1.14g intervals. The plectrum is a relatively flexible thin plate suspended
under a cavity within the pronotum (a,b). The coarser ridges of the plectrum
are non-symmetrical, canted anteriorly, and spaced at approximately 4,u
intervals.
Sound was induced by moving the head posteriorly, but no sound was
detected when the head was moved anteriorly. No sound was induced by
probing various parts of the female body with the point of a very fine probe,
but stridulation was consistently and repeatedly induced by pressing the flat
side of a probe or forceps against the dorsal area of the pronotum lying
over the plectrum-associated cavity. This cavity was dorsally visible in cal-
low females and appeared to change shape or shift in position whenever
pressure was applied to the pronotum or when the head was forcibly moved
to induce stridulation. Examination of a freshly-killed female did not reveal
the presence of fluid in the plectrum-associated cavity within the pronotum
and it appeared to be empty, probably serving as a resonating chamber.

DISCUSSION
The situations in which sound is produced by I. calligraphus females
appear to be similar to those found in certain Berosus sp. females by Van
Tassel (1965). Sounds produced under handling or other stress are common
in almost every order of insect, according to Alexander (1967), and such
sounds are sometimes referred to as "disturbance signals" although their
function has never been demonstrated. It should be noted that I. calli-
graphus females also produce short squeaking sounds audible to the unaided
ear whenever large numbers of females are accumulated in petri dishes filled
with strips of inner bark, while males produce faint clicking sounds when
similarly stored in dishes. Van Tassel found that certain Berosus sp.
females or males produced audible chirps when disturbed, when they en-
countered other individuals, or while feeding.










194 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 3

The longer, premating tremolos of four Berosus sp. females were associ-
ated with, but not proved necessary for mating. Alexander (1967) defined
courtship signals as those occurring after pair formation and culminating in
copulation and insemination when the courted individual is sexually respon-
sive. He stated that such courtship signals had not been demonstrated for
the female of any arthropod.
I. calligraphus pairs are formed when females are attracted to males
established in pine logs suitable for brood production (test 4, also Wilkinson
1964). Females may be accepted by established males on the basis of female
ability to stridulate (test 3) or female production of long series of sounds
(test 4). Virgin females stridulate prior to mating but not during copulation
(test 5). Isolated, virgin and known-mated females initiate galleries without
stridulating; only known-mated females laid eggs. These findings indicate
that the long series of pre-mating sounds produced by I. calligraphus females
are courtship signals, as defined. This paper is believed to be the first
record of a courtship signal in a female arthropod. The admittance function
of these signals in I. calligraphus is the same as observed in I. confusus
by Barr (personal communication).
Courtship signals are believed to be produced as follows (Fig. 1, 2): (1)
sound is produced principally during posterior head movement as the pars
stridens rubs against the anteriorly canted teeth of the plectrum; sound in-
tensity often is low during the middle portion of posterior head movement
when the two sound organs are most fully engaged, and head movement
slows; (2) the cycle of head movement is quickly completed as the pars
stridens moves anteriorly and encounters few teeth and little resistance.
This cyclic sound pattern also was apparent when tape recordings were
played at 1/ of recording speed. Spangler (1967) found that sound was most
intense on the upstroke of the stridulating organ of the western harvester
ant, Pogonomyrmex occidentalis (Cresson).
The authors do not exclude the possibility that female stridulation has
multiple functions; further knowledge of an apparent interaction between
female stridulation, population density, and gallery system form would be
useful in interpreting development of Ips bark beetle populations.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors are indebted to Dr. T. J. Walker and Mr. D. L. Mays, Univ.
Fla. Dept. Entomol., for advice and for technical assistance in recording and
analyzing sounds, and to Mr. W. J. Coleman for assistance throughout the
studies. Permission to use information communicated by Miss Barbara A.
Barr, Univ. Calif. Dept. Entomol., Berkeley, is gratefully acknowledged.

LITERATURE CITED

Alexander, R. D. 1967. Acoustical communication in arthropods. Ann. Rev.
Entomol. 12:495-520. Ann. Rev. Inc., Palo Alto, Calif.

Clemens, W. A. 1916. The pine bark beetle. Cornell Univ. Agric. Expt.
Sta. Bull. 383: 287-298.

Mampe, C. D. and H. H. Neunzig. 1966. Function of the stridulating organs
of Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Ann. Entomol.
Soc. Amer. 59:614-15.










Wilkinson: Stridulation Behavior in Two Ips 195

Ostmark, E. 0. 1966. The life history, habits, and control of the Arizona
Five-spined ips, Ips lecontei Swaine (Coleoptera:Scolytidae). Univ.
Fla. Ph.D. dissertation, p. 1-78.
Spangler, H. D. 1967. Ant stridulations and their synchronization with ab-
dominal movement. Science 155:1687-9.
Van Tassell, Eileen R. 1965. An audiospectrographic study of stridulation
as an isolating mechanism in the genus Berosus (Coleoptera: Hydro-
philidae) Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 58:407-13.
Wilkinson, R. C. 1962. Stridulating organs in three southeastern Ips bark
beetles. Fla. Entomol. 45:43-4.
Wilkinson, R. C. 1964. Attraction and development of Ips bark beetle
populations in artificially infested pine bolts exposed on fire towers and
turntables in Florida. Fla. Entomol. 47:57-64.
Wood, D. L. 1961. Stridulation in the genus Ips De Geer (Coleoptera:
Scolytidae). Pan-Pacif. Entomol. 37:187-8.

The Florida Entomologist 50(3) 1967














NEW HOST PLANT RECORDS OF HAPLOMYZA TOGATA
FROM FLORIDA (DIPTERA: AGROMYZIDAE)1

CARL E. STEGMAIER, JR.2
11335 N.W. 59th Avenue, Hialeah, Florida 33012

Melander (1913) described Haplomyza togata as Antineura togata. Frost
(1924) described the species (in part) as Phytomyza minute, while Frick
(1953) synonymized P. minute as Haplomyza togata (Melander 1913, p. 73).
The true H. minute (Frost) is a distinct species recorded from Washington
and North Dakota. Larvae form serpentine-blotch mines on leaves of
Chenopodium album L. Frick (1952) placed Haplomyza togata in its present
position.
Frick (1953) reported the host plants of the species as Amaranthus
hybridus L. and A. retroflexus L. The larvae of togata form serpentine-
blotch mines on the leaves of their host plants (Frick 1959). Frick (1965)
reported togata from Washington; California to Texas, North Dakota, and
Kansas.
REARING RECORDS

Amaranthus gracilis Desf.: Miami, 18 Sep. 1963 (C.E.S.). This specimen
was determined as H. togata by Mr. Kenneth A. Spencer, London,
England.
Amaranthus spinosus L.: Hialeah, 8 Aug. 1962 (C.E.S.). This specimen
was determined by Dr. Kenneth E. Frick.
Haplomyza togata (Melander) has not been reported previously from
either Amaranthus spinosus or A. gracilis. The rearing of Haplomyza
togata appears to be a new locality record for the species in Florida. Since
the species is thus far restricted to the genus Amaranthus, it is reasonable
to assume further that other species of pigweeds are potential host plants.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The author thanks Dr. Kenneth E. Frick, Biological Control of Weeds
Investigations, Entomology Research Division, USDA, and Mr. Kenneth A.
Spencer of London, England, for their identifications of H. togata; the late
Professor Erdman West, Botanist and Mycologist, University of Florida, for
plant identifications; Mr. George C. Steyskal, Entomology Research Division,
ARS, USDA, and Dr. Howard V. Weems, Jr., Div. of Plant Industry for their
critical review of this paper.

LITERATURE CITED
Frick, K. E. 1952. A generic revision of the family Agromyzidae (Diptera)
with a catalogue of New World species. Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol.
8 (8): 339-452.
Frick, K. E. 1953. Some additions and corrections to the species list of
North American Agromyzidae (Diptera). Can. Entomol. 85: 68-76.

1 Contribution No. 107, Entomology Section, Div. of Plant Industry, Florida
Department of Agriculture, Gainesville.
2 Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Div. of Plant
Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture.











198 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 3

Frick, K. E. 1959. Synopsis of the species of agromyzid leaf miners de-
scribed from North America (Diptera). U. S. Nat. Mus. Proc. 108:347-
465.
Frick, K. E. 1965. Family Agromyzidae. p. 794-805. In A. Stone, C. W.
Sabrosky, W. W. Wirth, R. H. Foote, and J. R. Coulson. A catalog
of the Diptera of America north of Mexico. USDA Handbook 276,
1696 p.
Frost, S. W. 1924. A study of the leaf mining Diptera of North America.
N. Y. (Cornell) Agric. Expt. Sta. Mem. 78:1-228.
Melander, A. L. 1913. A synopsis of the dipterous groups Agromyzinae,
Milichinae, Ochthiphilinae, and Geomyzinae. New York Entomol. Soc.
J. 21 (3): 219-273.

The Florida Entomologist 50 (3) 1967











NEW SPECIES AND RECORDS OF PHYTOSEIIDAE
(ACARINA: MESOSTIGMATA) FROM NORTH CAROLINA
FOREST LITTER'

MARTIN H. MUMA, LOUIS J. METZ, AND MAURICE H. FARRIER
Entomologist, University of Florida, Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred,
Florida; Soil Scientist, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest
Service, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina; and Associate Professor,
Departments of Entomology and Forest Management, North Carolina State
University, Raleigh, North Carolina, respectively

During an intensive study of mite populations in the forest leaf litter at
Umstead State Park, Wake County, North Carolina, 1,800 specimens of
Phytoseiidae were collected. The collections contained 15 unrecorded spe-
cies, and three undescribed. The new species are described and illustrated
so that the names will be available for future publications on the Umstead
State Park project. Diagnoses and illustrations of the 12 previously described
but unrecorded species are included for completeness and future reference.
Mites were collected, slide-mounted in a modified Hoyer's medium, and
routinely identified by the junior authors. Reference and problem specimens
were identified by the senior author. New species should be attributed only
to the senior author.
The systematics and terminology utilized is that proposed by Muma (1961)
and modified by Muma (1964). The genus Iphiseiodes De Leon (in press)
is recognized. Complete synonymies are not given; only the original de-
scription, new synonymies, and the first present generic references are cited.
Types are deposited in the United States National Museum at Washington,
D. C.; paratypes are in the authors' collections, and the North Carolina State
University collection.

Amblyseiulus carolinianus new species
Fig. 1-4
DIAGNOSIS: Distinguished by a combination of widely spaced ventrianal
pores, comparatively longer L,, Ms, and LR, the presence of one macroseta
on legs II and III, two on leg I, and the tiny cup-shaped spermatheca.
It is not closely related to any known species.
FEMALE HOLOTYPE: Dorsal scutum 315 long and 210 wide. Dorsal scutum
well sclerotized and with indistinct less-sclerotized areas. Fixed finger of
chelicerae with 10-12 teeth; dentition of movable finger obscured. Creasing
and reticulation of ventrianal scutum weak, that on sternum more distinct.
2 2
Ectal strip of peritremal scutum wide. Chaetotaxy of genu II 2 -, 1 that of
22 10
genu III 1-, 1. Other morphological details as shown in Figs. 1-4.
1 0
MALE: Not known.
RECORDS: Female holotype, loblolly pine litter, Umstead State Park, on
3 January 1963, RT-S-1, 32, by Metz and Farrier. Female paratype from
oak litter 15 September 1963, The Great Smoky Mountains National Park,
North Carolina by P. Hunter.

1 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 2653, and
North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Paper No. 2372 of the Jour-
nal Series.









'0
t 3
2


56

y7


109
9


N ~

Y! 1


20


144

13 1 2 Ti
11
S -,


18"



S21 3





23


15



12










Muma: New Phytoseiidae from Forest Litter 201

NOTES: This apparently is an uncommon, though widely distributed
species in North Carolina.

Amblyseiulus clausae Muma
Fig. 5, 6
Amblyseiulus clause Muma, 1962, 1, Fig. 2A-I.
DIAGNOSIS: Readily distinguished from related species, A. lepidus (Chant),
A. asetus (Chant), A. putnami (Chant), etc., by its small size, smooth
dorsal scutum, position of the tiny ventrianal pores, cup-shaped spermatheca,
and large pores located beside L. M:,, and Li. Spermatheca and spermato-
dactyl as in Fig. 5 and 6.
RECORDS: Female, loblolly pine litter, Umstead State Park, May 1962, by
Metz and Farrier. Males, loblolly pine and hardwood litter, Umstead State
Park, May and July 1962, July and November 1963 by Metz and Farrier.
NOTES: This is the most common phytoseiid in sand pine litter in Florida.
It is an uncommon species in forest litter in the Piedmont of North Carolina.

Amblyseiulus detritus Muma
Fig. 7, 8
Amblyseiulus detritus Muma, 1961, 280, Fig. 33-36.
DIAGNOSIS: Distinguished from related species such as A. citri Muma by
the imbricate dorsal scutum, tiny variable-positioned ventrianal pores,
peanut-shaped spermathecal atrium, and 4 preanal setae on male ventrianal
scutum. Spermatheca and spermatodactyl as in Fig. 7 and 8.
RECORDS: Males and females, loblolly pine and mixed hardwood litter,
Umstead State Park, all seasons of the year, 1962-1964, by Metz and Farrier.
NOTES: This species was originally described from pine-hardwood litter
but seems to be a sand pine litter species in Florida. It was the dominant
phytoseiid collected in both pine and mixed hardwood litter in Umstead
State Park.
Amblyseiulus macrosetae Muma
Fig. 9, 10
Amblyseiulus macrosetae Muma, 1962, 3, Fig. 5A-F.
DIAGNOSIS: Not closely related to any known species. Readily distinguish-
ed by 8 macrosetae on leg I, large vase-shaped spermatheca, and spatulate
tip of spermatodactyl. Spermatheca and spermatodactyl as in Fig. 9 and 10.
RECORDS: Females, loblolly pine litter, Umstead State Park, September
and November 1963 and February 1964 by Metz and Farrier.
NOTES: Although this species was originally described from Florida citrus
litter, it has also been collected from sand pine litter and hardwood litter in


Amblyseiulus carolinianus n. sp. Fig. 1-dorsal view of female. 2-ven-
tral scuta of female. 3-posterior portion of peritremal and stigmatal scuta.
4-spermatheca. 5-18, spermathecae and spermatodactyls: 5-6, Amblyseiulus
clausae; 7-8, Amblyseiulus detritus; 9-10, Amblyseiulus macrosetae; 11-
12, Amblyseiulus tubulus; 13-14, Amblyseiulus mexicanus; 15-16, Ambly-
seius curious; 17-18, Amblyseius floridanus. Amblyseius punctatus n.
sp. Fig. 19-dorsal view of female. 20-ventral scuta of female. 21-sperma-
theca. 22-spermatodactyl. 23-posterior portion of peritremal and stigmatal
scuta.










202 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 3

Florida. This was an uncommon species in Umstead State Park and was not
recovered from mixed hardwood litter.

Amblyseiulus tubulus Muma
Fig. 11, 12
Amblyseiulus tubulus Muma, 1965, 247, Fig. 9-15.
DIAGNOSIS: Distinguished from the closely related A. clausae by its
larger size, and narrower, longer spermatheca; from other species by having
L, much larger than L3 and widely spaced tiny ventrianal pores. Spermatheca
and spermatodactyl as in Fig. 11 and 12.
RECORDS: Female, loblolly pine litter, Umstead State Park, February 1964,
RTS-1, 17; female, mixed hardwood litter, Umstead State Park, May 1965,
RTS-1, 171. All collected by Metz and Farrier.
NOTES: This species has been previously recorded from sand pine litter
in Florida.
Amblyseiulus mexicanus (Garman)
Fig. 13, 14
Amblyseiopsis mexicanus Garman, 1958, 75, Fig. 5.
Amblyseiulus mexicanus, Muma, 1961, 278.
Amblyseiulus lepidus, Muma, 1964, 15, Fig. 1 and 5. (Misidentification)
DIAGNOSIS: Closely related to A. asetus (Chant), A. putnami (Chant),
and A. lepidus (Chant) but distinguished by a different combination of
much longer L1, M,, and Ls, approximate elliptical ventrianal pores, smooth
dorsal scutum, and ovate metapodal scuta. Spermatheca and spermatodactyl
as in Fig. 13 and 14.
RECORDS: Females, loblolly pine and mixed hardwood litter, Umstead
State Park, all seasons of the year, 1962-1964. Males, loblolly pine and
mixed hardwood litter, Umstead State Park, July and November 1962, May
1963. All collected by Metz and Farrier.
NOTES: Garman described the species from zinnia from Mexico. It has
also been recorded from citrus litter, hardwood litter, and sand pine litter
in Florida. Although females were common in both loblolly pine and mixed
hardwood litter in Umstead State Park, males were seldom collected.

Amblyseius curious (Chant and Baker), new combination
Fig. 15, 16
Iphiseius curious Chant and Baker, 1965, 11, Fig. 56-59.
Amblyseius arenus Muma, 1965, 250, Fig. 22-25. (New Synonymy)
DIAGNOSIS: Distinguished from related species by extreme length of Ls,
vase-shaped spermatheca, and wide separation of elliptical ventrianal pores.
Spermatheca and spermatodactyl as in Fig. 15 and 16
RECORDS: Females, mixed hardwood litter, Umstead State Park, July and
November 1962, January, September, and November 1963 and February 1964.
Males, mixed hardwood litter, Umstead State Park, November 1962, November
1963. All collected by Metz and Farrier.
NOTES: Although this species was described from shrub leaves in Costa
Rica, it is also common in both hard and softwood litter in Florida. It was
uncommon in Umstead State Park and was collected only in mixed hardwood
litter.










Muma: New Phytoseiidae from Forest Litter


203


Amblyseius floridanus (Muma)
Fig. 17, 18
Amblyseiopsis floridanus Muma, 1955, 264, Fig. 4-6.
Amblyseius floridanus, Athias-Henriot, 1958, 33, Fig. 14, 15C-D.
DIAGNOSIS: Readily recognized by very large sparsely dentate chelicerae,
tubular spermathecae and tiny widely separated ventrianal pores. Sperma-
theca and spermatodactyl as in Fig. 17 and 18.
RECORDS: Females, loblolly pine and mixed hardwood litter, Umstead
State Park, all seasons of the year, 1962-1964, by Metz and Farrier.
NOTES: This cosmopolitan species has been previously recorded from the
litter of many plants. It was the second most abundant phytoseiid collected
in Umstead State Park. No males were taken.

Amblyseius punctatus new species
Fig. 19-23
DIAGNOSIS: Tiny widely spaced ventrianal pores, cup-shaped spermatheca,
and extremely small L2 and La are distinctive. It is not closely related to
any known species.
FEMALE HOLOTYPE: Dorsal scutum 335A long and 190/ wide. Dorsal scutum
lightly but distinctly sclerotized and with indistinct more or less circular less-
sclerotized areas. Fixed finger of chelicerae with 9-10 teeth; movable finger
apparently with no teeth. Ventrianal scutum weakly creased and reticulate,
sternal scutum not reticulate. Ms and Ls weakly serrate. Chaetotaxy of genu
2 2 2 2
II-,- 1, that of genu III 1--,-1. Other morphological details as shown in
0 0 1 0
Figs. 19 to 23.
MALE: Spermatodactyl with short foot and large spur, Fig. 22. Ventrianals
scutum with 3 pairs of preanal setae.
RECORDS: Female holotype, mixed hardwood litter, Umstead State Park, on
3 January 1963, RTS-1, 202. Two female paratypes, mixed hardwood litter,
Umstead State Park, on 7 September 1962, RTS-1, 236; two female paratypes,
mixed hardwood litter, Umstead State Park, on 7 September 1962, RTS-1,
196. Females, mixed hardwood litter, Umstead State Park, all seasons of the
year, 1962-1964. Males, mixed hardwood litter, Umstead State Park, July,
September, and November, 1962, and May, 1964. All collected by Metz and
Farrier.
NOTES: This is the smallest known species of the genus. Although fairly
common in Umstead State Park, it was not collected from pine litter.

Iphiseiodes arenicolus (Muma), new combination
Fig. 24, 25
Iphiseius arenicolus Muma, 1965, 247, Fig. 30-34.
DIAGNOSIS: Distinguished by the short slender setae, triangular metapodal
scuta, narrow ectal strip of the peritremal scutum, and distinctive sperma-
theca and spermatodactyl. It is not closely related to any known species.
Spermatheca and spermatodactyl as in Fig. 24 and 25.
RECORDS: Females, loblolly pine litter, Umstead State Park, July and
September 1962, January and March 1963, and February 1964, by Metz and
Farrier.









204 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 3

NOTES: Although originally described in Iphiseius Berlese, the species
has more affinities with Iphiseiodes De Leon. This is the first record of
the species outside of Florida and sand pine litter. It was an uncommon
species in Umstead State Park. Only females were collected only in lob-
lolly pine litter.
Iphiseiodes hystrix (Muma), new combination
Fig. 26, 27
Amblyseius hystrix Muma, 1962, 6, Fig. 7A-H.
DIAGNOSIS: Closely related to I. arenicolus and I. quadripilis (Banks) but
distinguished by much larger ventrianal scutum, round metapodal scuta,
wider ectal strip of the peritremal scutum, and distinctive spermatheca and
spermatodactyl as in Fig. 26 and 27.
RECORDS: Females, mixed hardwood litter, Umstead State Park, April
1962 and May 1963 by Metz and Farrier.



2 5 26
24 2











233 1 28









Fig. 24-27, spermathecae and spermatodactyls: 24-25, Iphiseiodes arenicol-
us; 26-27, Iphiseiodes hystrix. Typhlodromips umsteadi n. sp. Fig. 28-
dorsal view of female. 29-ventral scuta of female. 30-posterior portion of
peritremal and stigmata scuta. 31-spermatheca. 32-spermatodactyl. Ty-
phlodromips vicinus. Fig. 33-spermatheca. 34-spermatodactyl. Phytoseius
macropilis. 35-spermatheca. Galendromus mcgregori. Fig. 36-spermatheca.










Muma: New Phytoseiidae from Forest Litter


205


NOTES: This species has been previously collected from saw palmetto and
forest litter in Florida. It was an uncommon species in Umstead State Park
found only in mixed hardwood litter. No males were collected.

Typhlodromips umsteadi new species
Fig. 28-32
DIAGNOSIS: Distinguished by mesally rugose dorsal scutum, small slender
spermatheca, and comparative lengths of dorsal scutal setae. It is not closely
related to any known species, although it seems to belong to the T. dillus
(De Leon) species group.
FEMALE HOLOTYPE: Dorsal scutum 300A long and 175g wide. Dorsal scutum
slightly but distinctly sclerotized with the margins weakly ridged and the dorsal
and median setal area rugose. Fixed finger of chelicerae with 3 or 4 ill-defined
teeth, movable finger with no teeth. Ventrianal and sternal scuta both weakly
2 2
creased. Ms and Ls distinctly serrate. Chaetotaxy of genu II 2- -, 1, that of
22 00
genu III 1- -,- 1. Other morphological details as shown in Figs. 28-31.
1 0
MALE: Spermatodactyl with foot bent forward, Fig. 32. Ventrianal scutum
with 3 pairs of preanal setae.
RECORDS: Female holotype, mixed hardwood litter, Umstead State Park,
on 1, November 1963, RTS-1, 194. Female paratype with same date as
holotype. Two female paratypes, mixed hardwood litter, Umstead State Park,
on 1 February 1964, RTS-1, bearing numbers 217 and 230. Female paratype,
mixed hardwood litter, Umstead State Park, on 7 September 1962, RTS-1,
196. Females and males, loblolly pine and mixed hardwood litter, Umstead
State Park, all seasons of the year, 1963-1964, by Metz and Farrier.
NOTES: This tiny species was quite common in both loblolly pine and
mixed hardwood litter in Umstead State Park.

Typhlodromips vicinus Muma
Fig. 33, 34
Typhlodromips vicinus Muma, 1965, 250, Fig. 26-29.
DIAGNOSIS: Distinguished by its small size, large chelicerae, tubular
spermatheca, and large terminal lobe on foot of spermatodactyl. It is not
closely related to any known species. Spermatheca and spermatodactyl as in
Fig. 33 and 34.
RECORDS: Females and males, loblolly pine and mixed hardwood litter,
Umstead State Park, all seasons of the year, 1963-1964, by Metz and Farrier.
NOTES: This species superficially resembles A. floridanus. Only ten
percent of the specimens collected in Umstead State Park were males.

Phytoseius macropilis (Banks)
Fig. 35
Sejus macropilis Banks, 1909, 135, Fig. 16.
Phytoseius macropilis, Chant and Athias-Henriot, 1960, 219, Fig. 4-6, 20.
DIAGNOSIS: Distinguished from the closely related P. chanti Denmark and
P. betulae Denmark by proportional differences in dorsal scutal setae,
macrosetae of leg IV, and spermatheca. Spermatheca as in Fig. 35.










The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 50, No. 3


RECORDS: Female, mixed hardwood litter, Umstead State Park, March 1963,
by Metz and Farrier.
NOTES: Only one specimen was collected in Umstead State Park. This
species normally inhabits plants; its occurrence in the litter must be con-
sidered accidental.
Galendromus mcgregori (Chant)
Fig. 36
Typhlodromus mcgregori Chant, 1960, 57, Fig. 54-55.
Galendromus mcgregori, Muma, 1963, 33, Fig. 51, 54, 63, 72, 78.
DIAGNOSIS: Distinguished from the closely related G. flumenis (Chant)
by proportionately longer dorsal setae and larger spermatheca. Spermatheca
as in Fig. 36.
RECORDS: Female, loblolly pine litter, Umstead State Park, February 1962,
by Metz and Farrier.
NOTES: Only one specimen was collected in Umstead State Park. This
species normally inhabits plants; its occurrence in the litter must be con-
sidered accidental.
LITERATURE CITED
Athias-Henriot, C. 1958. Phytoseiidae et Aceosejidae (Acarina:Gamasina)
d'Alg6rie. II Phytoseiidae: cl6 des genres Amblyseius Berlese (suite)
et Seiulus Berlese. Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. l'Afrique du Nord 49:23-43.
Banks, N. 1909. New Canadian mites. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Washington
11:133-143.
Chant, D. A. 1960. Phytoseiid mites (Acarina:Phytoseiidae). Part I. Bio-
nomics of seven species in southeastern England. Part II. A taxono-
mic review of the family Phytoseiidae, with descriptions of 38 new
species. Can. Entomol. 91. Suppl. 12:1-166.
Chant, D. A. and C. Athias-Henriot. 1960. The genus Phytoseius Ribaga,
1902 (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Entomophaga 5(3): 213-228.
Chant, D. A. and E. W. Baker. 1965. Phytoseiidae (Acarina) of Central
America. Memoirs Entomol. Soc. Can. 41:1-56.
Garman, P. 1958. New species belonging to the general Amblyseius and
Amblyseiopsis with Keys to Amblyseius, Amblyseiopsis and Phytoseiul-
us. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 51 1:69-79.
Muma, M. H. 1955. Phytoseiidae (Acarina) associated with citrus in Florida.
Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 48 4:262-272.
Muma, M. H. 1961. Subfamilies, genera and species of Phytoseiidae (Acar-
ina: Mesostigmata) Bull. Fla. State Mus. 5(7): 267-302.
Muma, M. H. 1962. New Phytoseiidae (Acarina: Mesotigmata) from Florida.
Fla. Entomol. 45 1:1-10.
Muma, M. H. 1963. The genus Galendromus Muma, 1961 (Acarina:Phyto-
seiidae). Fla. Entomol. Suppl. 1:15-41.
Muma, M. H. 1964. Annotated list and keys to Phytoseiidae (Acarina:
Mesostigmata) associated with Florida Citrus. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Tech. Bull. 685:1-42.
Muma, M. H. 1965. Eight new Phytoseiidae (Acarina: Mesostigmata) from
Florida. Fla. Entomol. 48 4:245-254.


The Florida Entomologist 50(3) 1967


206













THE NORTH AMERICAN CULICOIDES OF THE GUTTIPENNIS
GROUP (DIPTERA: CERATOPOGONIDAE)1

WILLIS W. WIRTH AND FRANKLIN S. BLANTON
Entomology Research Division, ARS, USDA, Washington, D. C., and
Department of Entomology, University of Florida, Gainesville

The North American species of Culicoides related to guttipennis (Coquil-
lett) comprise a very distinctive natural group with good adult characters
in common, and with distinctive larval habitat. A critical review of the
group is desirable at this time because recent work by Hair and Turner
(1966) indicates that the commonest species, guttipennis, can be reared
easily in laboratory colony. It is thus available for large scale experimental
studies on biology and disease transmission, heretofore possible for very
few species of blood sucking Ceratopogonidae. In this paper we will sum-
marize the diagnostic characters for the group, offer a key to species, sum-
marize the available distribution records, and briefly describe, and illustrate
the ten known species, of which three are here described as new.
Because of its abundance and annoyance to humans in the eastern United
States, guttipennis was one of the first Nearctic Culicoides species to be
collected and described. It is the only species of the group known to bite
man, and has been taken many times while sucking human blood. Malloch
(1915) recorded it feeding on a horse in Illinois. Although it has not been
recorded as feeding on birds, it has been taken by Messersmith (1965)
in large numbers in light traps operated in poultry houses in Virginia.
Only 11% of 308 guttipennis trapped in poultry houses were engorged, while
at the same time 53% of 342 arboricola Root and Hoffman females con-
tained blood. Records of Robinson (in litt.) from Minnesota, and Snow,
Pickard, and Moore (1957) in Tennessee also indicate that arboricola is a bird
feeder. Feeding habits of other members of this group are still unknown.
Jamnback (1965) has postulated that ornithophilic feeding habits are largely
correlated with abundance of antennal sensory pits. Members of the Gutti-
pennis group could all thus be expected to feed on birds except flukei Jones,
whose mouthparts are reduced and therefore probably does not suck blood.
Vargas (1960) placed the species of this group in his subgenus Glaphi-
romyia, whose type-species is scopus Root and Hoffman. In our opinion
the similarity in wing pattern and male genitalia structure between scopus
and the Guttipennis group is not nearly sufficient to group them together
subgenerically. The hairy tips and Oecacta-like basal knobs of the male
parameres, the presence of only 4 tibial spines, the sensorial pattern 3, 8,
10-15, and the dark apices of veins M1, M2, M3+4, and Cul, are all
important characters clearly separating scopus subgenerically from the Gutti-
pennis group.
Fox (1955) placed the species of the Guttipennis group in the subgenus
Beltranmia, but this position is less tenable than in Glaphiromia. Beltran-
mia, as presently restricted, contains only species with one functional
spermatheca, wing never with pale spots straddling veins M1 and M2, and
male parameres with distinct anterior process on the basal knob.

1 This investigation was supported in part by U. S. Army Contract No.
DA-49-193-MD-2177.










208 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 3

Wirth (1965) assigned the known species of the Guttipennis group to the
subgenus Oecacta Poey without group distinction. Atchley (1967) gave a
short diagnosis of the Guttipennis group for the New Mexico species, and
also placed them in the subgenus Oecacta.
We now prefer to follow the lead of Jamnback (1965), who first named
and diagnosed the Guttipennis group in all stages. Jamnback left a number
of groups unclassified as to subgeneric position, a conservative approach
which has much to commend it. Formal subgeneric assignments should be
made only when enough is known about the limits and diagnostic charac-
ters of the group concerned and those closely related to make a definitive
classification.
The larval habitat is known for all species of this group except pecosensis
Wirth. Seven species have been reared from wet or moist tree or stump
holes, while the eighth, cochisensis n. sp., was reared from water in a
pocket of a "Saguaro" cactus. In addition, there is one rearing of flukei
Jones from a Sarracenia pitcher plant (Jamnback 1965). Hair, Turner,
and Messersmith (1966) discussed and figured breeding habitats of arboricola
Root and Hoffman, guttipennis (Coquillett) and villosipennis Root and
Hoffman, all from tree and stump holes except one instance in which
guttipennis was found in an accumulation of wet leaves at the margin of a
small pond.
The following special terms are used in our descriptions of the female
and in our summary of quantitative characters in Table 1. Proboscis/Head
Ratio (P/H Ratio) is the length of the proboscis measured from the distal
end of the labrum-epipharynx to the anterior margin of the tormae, divided
by the length measured from the anterior margin of the tormae to the median
hair socket between the inner eye margins. Palpal Ratio (PR) is the length
of the third palpal segment divided by its greatest breadth. Antennal Ratio
is the combined length of the five elongated distal antennomeres (for con-
venience hereafter in this paper referred to as "segments".) divided by the
combined length of the eight shorter proceeding "segments". Wing length is
measured from the basal arculus to the wing tip; the Costal Ratio is the
wing length divided by the length of the costa measured from the basal
arculus to the tip of the second radial cell.
Measurements were made on specimens cleared in phenol and mounted on
slides in phenol-balsam; when possible they were made on series and are
given as mean (minimum-maximum value, n = number of measurements).
Diagnosis.-Wing with very distinctive pattern of markings: second radial
cell dark to apex; pale spots present straddling mid-portions of veins M1
and M2; apices of veins M1, M2, M3+4 and sometimes Cul pale margined;
cell R5 with double, transverse pale spot at midlength; anal cell usually with
three separate pale spots arranged in a triangle distad of the proximal pale
area (flukei is an exception to this wing pattern). Costa short to moder-
ately long, extending from 0.52 to 0.61 of distance to wing tip; surface of
wing with abundant, long macrotrichia, extending to base of wing in cell M2
and anal cell. Legs usually dark brown with blackish knee spots, narrow
pale bands subapically on femora and subbasally on tibiae, sometimes faint
or absent on hind femur; hind tibia with broad apex pale, tibial comb with
5 spines (6 in californiensis). Fourth tarsomere not cordiform or bilobed.
Thorax usually with distinct pattern of large pruinose gray patches on










Wirth: Culicoides of the Guttipennis Group


209


scutum, in two species with pruinose pattern absent except in prescutellar
area. Female with eyes narrowly to broadly separated, without interfacetal
hairs; antenna with distal five segments rather elongated, antennal ratio
1.00-1.64, antennal sensoria always present on segments 3, 11-15, variably
present on 4-10, often forming pattern of 3, 5, 7, 9, 11-15; third palpal segment
usually moderately swollen, with definite pit, variously deep to shallow,
narrow to broad; proboscis length and number of mandibular teeth variable.
Female with two large functional spermathecae, a rudimentary one and a
sclerotized ring present, the large spermathecae ovoid with short, slender
necks. Male genitalia with well-developed apicolateral processes on ninth
tergum; ninth sternum narrow with shallow caudomedian excavation, the ven-
tral membrane usually without fine spicules; basistyles with dorsal and
ventral roots simple, usually short to moderately long and slender with
pointed tips; dististyles slender and tapering to bent distal point except in
guttipennis which has a sharp bend in mid portion and straight blunt-
tipped, slender distal portion; aedeagus with basal arch usually extending to
half of total length, basal arms usually slender and curved, distal portion
variously modified, with blunt or sharp pointed tip and subapical hyaline
filaments present in two species; parameres very distinctive, with short,
rather broad basal knob, a sharp basal constriction on stem, the latter
usually sinuate, swollen in proximal portion and tapering to simple distal
point bent or curved ventrad, the tip without fringing spines or hairs and the
main body without ventral lobe.
Pupa (after Jamnback 1965) with operculum densely covered with short
stout spines; anterodorsal setae very unequal; all abdominal segments densely
covered with scale-like confluent spines, giving a unique reticulated appear-
ance; respiratory organ with surface at least in part with appressed broad
scaly spines.
Larva (after Jamnback 1965) with head long and narrow; thorax un-
pigmented dorsally, with faint lateral pigmented spots on meso and metathorax
present or absent; last abdominal segment with unique (for Culicoides) long
setae, longer than maximum width of segment.

KEY TO SPECIES OF THE GUTTIPENNIS GROUP

1. Wing with distal pale spot in cell R5 elongate, filling distal portion of
cell, apices of veins Ml, M2, and M3+4 dark; proboscis very short,
P/H ratio only 0.42; mandible with 6-7 teeth ....................flukei Jones
- Wing with distal pale spot in cell R5 double, transverse, lying well
proximad of cell apex; apices of veins M1, M2, and M3+4 pale mar-
gined; proboscis moderately long, P/H ratio 0.77-1.00; mandible with
11 -2 1 tee th ........................................... .................. ........... .... 2
2. W ing with apex of vein Cul pale at wing margin .......................... .............. 3
- W ing w ith apex of vein Cul dark .......................... ......................... .............. 4
3. Hind femur with prominent subapical pale band; palpal pit moderately
broad; 14-18 mandibular teeth; male aedeagus without apical filaments
(e USA) ...................................................arboricola Root and Hoffman
- Hind femur dark to tip; palpal pit very broad; 11-16 mandibular teeth;
male aedeagus with 2 subapical filaments (sw USA) ................................
............... ...... ............................... ... ......... ................oklahom ensis K half











210 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 3

4. Pale spot over r-m crossvein larger, extending caudad well past base of
m e d ia ................................... ...... .......... .................................... 5
- Pale spot over r-m crossvein smaller, not extending caudad past base
o f m e d ia ............. ................................................ ............... 6
5. Third palpal segment slender (PR 2.9) with shallow pit; spermathecae
large, pyriform; male genitalia massive, dististyles bent (e USA).
...................................................................................... gu ttip en n is (C oqu illett)
- Third palpal segment moderately swollen (PR 2.0) with moderately deep
pit; spermathecae smaller, ovoid, with short slender neck; male genitalia
normal, dististyles not bent (Texas) ........................... pecosensis Wirth
6. Distal antennal segments each at least 2.5 times as long as poximal ones;
palpal pit shallow; scutum with pruinose gray pattern (e USA)
..................................... .............................. villosipennis R oot and H offm an
- Distal antennal segments less than twice as long as proximal ones;
palpal pit very deep to moderately deep; scutum with or without
pruinose gray pattern .... ........................................................... .. ....... ..... 7
7. Halter knob dark (scutum with gray pruinose pattern, sensoria present
on segments 3-15, one per segment on 4-8, eyes narrowly separated,
palpal pit shallow ) ........... ....... ....................................... beckae n. sp.
- H alter k n ob p ale ....................................... ......... ...... ......... .......................... 8
8. Legs dark, hind femur dark to tip; scutum black without pale pruinose
p a tte r n .......... ......... .. ..................................................................... ........ 9
- Legs pale, hind femur with broad distal pale band; scutum brownish with
pale pruinose pattern (sensoria present on segments 3-9, 11-15; male
apicolateral processes slender) (Calif.) .............. californiensis n. sp.
9. Sensoria present on antennal segments 3-15, several per segment on 4-9;
eyes broadly separated; palpal pit very deep; opening by a smaller
pore; male apicolateral processes slender (e USA) ...... ousairani Khalaf
- Sensoria present on antennal segments 3-9, 11-15, one per segment on
4-9; eyes narrowly separated; palpal pit moderately deep; male api-
colateral processes stouter (sw USA) ...................... cochisensis n. sp.

Culicoides arboricola Root & Hoffman
(Fig. 1-8)
Culicoides arboricola Root & Hoffman, 1937, Amer. J. Hyg. 25: 166 (male,
female; Baltimore, Md.; Fig. wing, male genitalia).-Fox, 1942, Puerto
Rico J. Pub. Hlth. & Trop. Med. 17: 416 (pupa; Md.).-Beck, 1952, Fla. Ento-
mol. 35: 103 (Fla.).-Khalaf, 1952, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 45: 349
(Okla.).-Foote & Pratt, Pub. Hlth. Monogr. 18: 15 Male, female; Fla.,
Ga., Ill., La., Va.; Fig., habits).-Williams, 1955, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer.
48: 31 (Ga.).-Pickard & Snow, 1955, J. Tenn. Acad. Sci. 30: 17 (Tenn.).-
Wirth & Bottimer, 1956, Mosquito News 16: 261 (habits; Tex., in part, most
records in error for oklahomensis Khalaf).-Lewis, 1956, Can. Entomol.
88: 550 tibiall spines).- Jones, 1956, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 58: 26
(Wis.).-Murray, 1957, Mosquito News 17:77 (Va.).-Snow, Pickard, &
Moore, 1957, J. Tenn. Acad. Sci. 32: 22 (Ala., Tenn.; habits).-Snow &
Pickard, J. Tenn. Acad. Sci. 33: 3 (Ala.; habits).-Jones & Wirth, 1958, J.
Kan. Entomol. Soc. 31: 83 (Tex.; notes).-Beck, 1958, Mosquito News










Wirth: Culicoides of the Guttipennis Group 211








3
I..

















Fig. 1-8, codes arboricoa: 1, female antenna; 2, female wing; 3,



Fig. 1-8, Culicoides arboricola: 1, female antenna; 2, female wing; 3,

female palpus; 4, female eye separation; 5, female hind leg; 6, female sperm-
athecae; 7, male parameres; 8, male genitalia, parameres removed.

18: 8 (Fla.; notes).-Lewis, 1959, Canad. Entomol. 91: 16 (Conn.).-Jones,
1961, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 54: 702 (Tex., Wis.; larval habitat).-
Messersmith, 1965, Mosquito News 25: 322 (Va.; poultry houses).-Das Gup-
ta & Hansens, 1965, J. N.Y. Entomol. Soc. 73: 156 (N.J.; Fig. scutellar setae).
-Jamnback, 1965, N.Y. St. Mus. Bull. 399: 40 (N.Y.; male, female, imm. st.;
Fig.; biol.).-Khalaf, 1966, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 59: 881 (La.).-Mes-
sersmith, 1966, Virginia J. Sci. 17: 93 (Va.).--Hair, Turner, and Messersmith,
1966, Mosquito News 26: 195 (larval habitat, Va.).
Culicoides (Oecacta) arboricola Root & Hoffman; Khalaf, 1954, Ann.
Entomol. Soc. Amer. 47: 37 (subg. pos.).-Khalaf, 1957, Amer. Midl. Nat.
58: 212 (Okla., notes).-Wirth, 1965, In Stone, et al, Cat. Dipt. N. Amer.
p. 129 (Wis. to Md., s to Tex. & Fla.
Culicoides (Beltranmyia) arboricola Root & Hoffman; Fox, 1955, J. Agr.
Univ. Puerto Rico 39: 223 (subg. pos.).
Female.-Length of wing 1.19 (1.02-1.40, n = 9) mm.
Head: Eyes (Fig. 4) bare; narrowly separated. Antenna (Fig. 1) with
lengths of flagellar segments in proportion of 22-17-17-17-18-18-18-18-
39-39-39-41-57, antenna ratio 1.48 (1.38-1.64, n = 9); distal sensory tufts
present on segments 3, 5, 7, 9, 11-15. Palpal segments (Fig. 3) with
lengths in proportion of 12-41-39-13-11; palpal ratio 2.84(2.5-3.2, n = 1),











The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 50, No. 3


third segment moderately swollen, with a broad shallow sensory pit.
Proboscis moderately long, P/H ratio 1.00; mandible with 15(14-17, n
=10) teeth.
Thorax: Dark brown; scutum with pattern of pruinose gray patches.
Legs (Fig. 5) brown, knee spots blackish; all femora with subapical and
all tibiae with subbasal, prominent pale rings, hind tibia with distal fourth
pale; hind tibial comb with 5 spines, the two nearest the spur longer,
subequal.
Wing (Fig. 2): Pattern as usual in the group, pale spots extensive;
distal portions of veins M1, M2, M3+4 and Cul pale to wing margin; pale
spot over r-m crossvein extending broadly into cell M2. Macrotrichia long
and numerous; costal ratio 0.60 (0.58-0.62, n = 10). Halter pale.
Abodmen: Dark brown. Spermathecae (Fig. 6) slightly unequal, meas-
uring 0.052 mm by 0.045 mm and 0.048 mm by 0.040 mm; slightly ovoid
with short slender necks.
Male.-Genitalia as in Fig. 7-8. Ninth tergum with moderately long,
angular apicolateral processes; ninth sternum with very shallow caudo-
median excavation, the ventral membrane not spiculate. Basistyle mod-
erately long and slender, dorsal and ventral roots simple, subequal in
length; dististyle nearly straight, tapering distally to slender, slightly hook-
ed distal point. Aedeagus with basal arch high, extending to slightly
more than half of total length, the basal arms very slender; distal portion
tapering to very slender, pointed tip. Parameres (Fig. 7) each with large
basal knob, base of stem constricted, straight mid portion somewhat swollen
proximad, tapering distally to slender, pointed tip abruptly bent antero-
ventrally.
Distribution.-Eastern United States from Minnesota and Texas to
Connecticut and Florida.
Type.-Holotype male, Gwynns Falls Park, Baltimore, Maryland, July
1931, tree hole, Root and Hoffman (Type no. 53305, USNM; pinned, wing
and genitalia on slides).
Specimens Examined.-300 slides, 181 pinned.
ALABAMA: Atmore (Blanton); Florence (Snow); Wilson Dam (Snow).
CONNECTICUT: Storrs (Lewis).
FLORIDA: Lee Woodlot, Alachua Co., Smith, reared tree hole); Island Grove,
Alachua Co. (St. Bd. Health); Gainesville, Alachua Co., (Blanton, Walk-
er); Punta Gorda, Charlotte Co. (St. Bd. Health); Princeton, Dade Co.
(St. Bd. Health); Cross City, Dixie Co. (St. Bd. Health); Steinhatchee,
Dixie Co. (St. Bd. Health); Innerarity Point, Escambia Co. (Bett); Bratt,
Escambia Co. (Blanton, Broce); N. Flagler Beach, Flagler Co. (St. Bd.
Health); Appalachicola, Franklin Co. (St. Bd. Health); Chattahoochee,
Gadsden Co. (St. Bd. Health); Suwanee River, Gilchrist Co. (Hicks); We-
wahitchka, Gulf Co. (St. Bd. Health); Jasper, Hamilton Co. (St. Bd.
Health); Plant City, Hillsborough Co. (St. Bd. Health); Bonifay, Holmes
Co. (St. Bd. Health); Monticello, Jefferson Co. (St. Bd. Health); Mayo,
Lafayette Co. (St. Bd. Health); Tallahassee, Leon Co. (Kohn); Cedar Key,
Levy Co. (St. Bd. Health); Telogia, Liberty Co. (St. Bd. Health); Salerno,
Martin Co. (St. Bd. Health); Rock Harbor, Monroe Co. (St. Bd. Health);
Lake Worth, Palm Beach Co. (Wirth); Port Richey, Pasco Co. (St. Bd.
Health); Myakka St. Park, Sarasota Co. (St. Bd. Health); N. Ponte Vedra,


212










Wirth: Culicoides of the Guttipennis Group


213


St. Johns Co. (St. Bd. Health); Branford, Suwanee Co. (Hicks); Ormond
Beach, Volusia Co. (St. Bd. Health); Wachulla, Volusia Co. (Jernigan);
Santa Rosa, Walton Co. (St. Bd. Health); Greenhead, Washington Co. (St.
Bd. Health).
GEORGIA: DeKalb Co. (Donaldson); Savannah, Isle of Hope.
ILLINOIS: Grafton (Snow).
KANSAS: Lawrence (Barr); Manhattan (Young).
LOUISIANA: Arabi (Khalaf): Carlisle (Khalaf); Covington Khalaf; Kilbourne
(Wirth); Lafitte (Khalaf); New Orleans (Eads, Hinman); Weeks Island
(Khalaf).
MARYLAND: Fairland (Hubert); Snow Hill (Anderson).
MINNESOTA: Burnside (Robinson), biting birds 21 ft high in cottonwood
tree.
MISSISSIPPI: Greenwood (Komp); Washington Co. (Roberts).
NEBRASKA: Dunbar, Otoe Co. (Wirth).
OKLAHOMA: McIntosh Co. (Khalaf); Stillwater (Rozeboom), reared, tree hole;
Westville (Kaiser and Nailon); Wichita Nat. Forest (Khalaf).
PENNSYLVANIA: York (Spangler).
TENNESSEE: Chestuee Creek (Snow).
TEXAS: Aransas Refuge, Aransas Co. (Wirth and Jones).
VIRGINIA: Alexandria (Wirth), reared, tree hole; Blacksburg (Messersmith);
Elkton (Messersmith, Raffensperger); Falls Church (Wirth), reared, tree
hole; Mt. Crawford (Messersmith), reared, stump hole; Newport (Hair),
reared, tree hole; Poplar Camp (Messersmith); Vesuvius (Messersmith);
Vienna (Bridwell).
WISCONSIN: Dane Co. (Jones), reared, tree hole.

Culicoides beckae Wirth and Blanton, new species
(Fig. 9-16)
Female.-Length of wing 1.15 mm.
Head: Eyes (Fig. 12) bare; narrowly separated. Antenna (Fig. 9)
with lengths of flagellar segments in proportion of 36-30-30-30-30-30-33-
36-69-75-75-75-96, antennal ratio 1.53; distal sensory tufts present on seg-
ments 3-15, one per segment on 4-10. Palpal segments (Fig. 11) with lengths
in proportion of 5-20-25-10-7; palpal ratio 2.5, third segment moderately
swollen on mid portion, with a broad, shallow sensory pit. Proboscis
moderately short, P/H ratio 0.83; mandible with 15 teeth.
Thorax: Dark brown, scutum with pattern of large pruinose gray
patches. Legs (Fig. 13) dark brown, knee spots blackish; all femora with
subapical and tibiae with sub-basal, narrow pale rings; hind tibia with
broad apical pale band; hind tibial comb with 5 spines, the two nearest the
spur longer, subequal.
Wing (Fig. 10): Pattern as usual in the group; pale spots very much
restricted, the one over r-m crossvein not extending into costal cell or cell
M2; apex of vein Cul not pale at wing margin. Macrotrichia numerous and
coarse; costal ratio 0.61. Halter knob dark.
Abdomen: Dark brown. Spermathecae (Fig. 14) subequal, each measur-
ing 0.051 mm by 0.035 mm; ovoid with very short necks.
Male.-Genitalia as in Fig. 15-16. Ninth tergum moderately elongate
with stout, angular apicolateral processes; ninth sternum with shallow, broad,










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Vol. 50, No. 3


9







10


















14





Fig. 9-16, Culicoides beckae: 9, female antenna; 10, female wing; 11,
female palpus; 12, female eye separation; 13, female hind leg; 14, female
spermathecae; 15, male parameres; 16, male genitalia, parameres removed.

caudomedian excavation, the ventral membrane not spiculate. Basistyle
slender, dorsal and ventral roots slender, subequal; dististyle nearly straight,
tapering to slender, pointed, slightly bent tip. Aedeagus with basal arch
extending to about half of total length, the basal arms moderately stout,
curved; distal portion very slender, with sharp pointed tip. Parameres
(Fig. 15) each with small basal knob, base of stem constricted a short
distance; main portion moderately swollen proximally, very slender distally,
tapering to very slender distal filament.
Distribution.-Alabama; Florida, Virginia.
Types.-Holotype female, Gainesville, Alachua Co., 23 July 1963, F. S.
Blanton, light trap (Type no. 69495, USNM). Allotype male, Ferrum, Vir-
ginia, 31 July 1959, D. H. Messersmith. Paratypes, 11 females, all taken in
light traps.
ALABAMA: Atmore, June 1963, F. S. Blanton, light trap, 1 female.


214










Wirth: Culicoides of the Guttipennis Group


215


FLORIDA: Appalachicola, Franklin Co., July 1961, St. Bd. Health, 1 female.
Bonifay, Holmes Co., 17 Aug., 2 Sept. 1961, St. Bd. Health, 2 females.
Telogia, Liberty Co., 7 June 1961, St. Bd. Health, 3 females.
Torreya State Park, Liberty Co., 4 July 1965, H. V. Weems, Jr., light
trap, 1 female.
VIRGINIA: Ferrum, 23 July, 13-20 Aug. 1959, D. H. Messersmith, 3 females.
Discussion.-This species resembles villosipennis Root and Hoffman and
ousairani Khalaf in its restricted pale wing spots, but differs from both in
its dark halteres and pale banded hind femora, differs from villosipennis
moreover in its shorter distal antennal segments and sensorial pattern, and
from ousairani in its scutal pattern and shallow palpal pit. The male
genitalia of beckae are most similar to those of arboricola Root and Hoffman,
but the parameres are much more slender distally.
We are very pleased to dedicate this species to Mrs. Elisabeth C. Beck of
the Florida State Board of Health in recognition of her long interest and
important contributions to our knowledge of Florida biting midges.

Culicoides californiensis Wirth & Blanton, new species
(Fig. 17-25)
Female.-Length of wing 1.28 (1.13 1.50, n = 14) mm.
Head: Eyes (Fig. 21) separated by a distance equal to diameter of
1.5 facets, bare. Antenna (Fig. 18) with lengths of flagellar segments in
proportion of 50-40-40-40-41-41-41-41-57-62-72-82-100, antennal ratio 1.12
(1.02-1.20, n = 13); distal sensory tufts present on segments 3-9, 11-15.
Palpal segments (Fig. 19) with lengths in proportion of 35-77-102-36-39;
palpal ratio 2.60 (2.4-2.9, n = 10), third segment moderately swollen,
with a moderately large, deep, sensory pit. Proboscis moderately long, P/H
ratio 1.00; mandible with 13 (12-14, n = 14) teeth.
Thorax: Coppery brown, scutum with pattern of pruinose patches. Legs
(Fig. 23) pale brown, knee spots dark; all femora with subapical and all
tibiae with subbasal, narrow pale rings; hind tibia broadly pale at base and
at apex; hind tibial comb with 6 spines, the one nearest the spur longest.
Wing (Fig. 17): With pattern typical of the group, pale spot lacking on
distal portion of vein Cul; pale spots moderately large and distinct. Macro-
trichia long and numerous; costa quite short, costal ratio 0.52 (0.51-0.59,
n = 13). Halter pale.
Abdomen: Dark brown. Spermathecae (Fig. 22) slightly unequal,
measuring 0.055 mm by 0.044 mm and 0.052 mm by 0.044 mm, slightly ovoid
with short slender necks.
Male.-Genitalia as in Fig. 24-25. Ninth tergum long with long slender,
pointed apicolateral processes; ninth sternum with very low caudomedian
excavation, the ventral membrane not spiculate. Basistyle slender, dorsal and
ventral roots slender; dististyle very slightly curved, tapering to pointed,
slightly bent tip. Aedeagus with basal arch extending to half of total length,
basal arms slender, slightly curved; distal portion gradually tapering to very
slender, attenuated tip. Parameres each with short basal knob, constricted
base of stem, moderately stout, sinuate mid portion gradually tapering to
rather stout, curved, pointed tip.
Pupa.-Thoracic respiratory horn as in Fig. 20.
Distribution.-California.










216 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 3






...18

17



19



20















23
22 24 25








Fig. 17-25, Culicoides californiensis: 17, female wing; 18, female antenna;
19, female palpus; 20, pupal respiratory organ; 21, female eye separation; 22,
female spermathecae; 23, female hind leg; 24, male parameres; 25, male
genitalia, parameres removed.

Type.-Holotype female, allotype male, Bakersfield, Kern Co., California,
2 May 1954, W. A. McDonald, reared from cottonwood tree hole (Type no.
69492 USNM). Paratypes: CALIFORNIA: same data as types, 20 males, 80
females, 10 larvae, 10 pupae. Kern County Park, June 1946, B. Brookman,
light trap, 1 female. Victorville, San Bernardino Co., 4 Feb. 1955, W. A.
McDonald, reared from cottonwood tree hole, 1 male, 1 female.
Discussion.-This species resembles ousairani in the lack of scutal pat-
tern, but differs in the presence of subapical pale band on the hind femur,
and the scutum is much paler brownish.

Culicoides cochisensis Wirth and Blanton, new species
(Fig. 26-33)

Female.-Length of wing 1.14 (1.04-1.26, n = 13) mm.
Head: Eyes (Fig. 28) narrowly separated, bare. Antenna (Fig. 26)
with lengths of flagellar segments in proportion of 43-34-35-36-36-36-36-36-










Wirth: Culicoides of the Guttipennis Group


217


56-59-65-65-83, antennal ration 1.13 (1.05 1.19, n= 12); distal sensory
tufts present on segments 3-9, 11-15, one per segment on 4-9. Palpal
segments (Fig. 31) with lengths in proportion of 22-60-90-27-25; palpal ratio
2.47 (2.29 2.62, n = 13), third segment moderately swollen on mid portion,
with a broad, deep sensory pit. Proboscis moderately short, P/H ratio
0.86; mandible with 12 (11 13, n = 13) teeth.
Thorax: Dark chocolate brown, scutum without pattern of gray pruinose
patches. Legs (Fig. 30) dark brown; knee spots blackish; fore and mid femora
with subapical and fore and mid tibiae with subbasal, narrow pale rings; hind
femur dark to tip, hind tibia with broad basal and apical pale bands; hind
tibial comb with 5 spines, the two nearest the spur longer, subequal.
Wing (Fig. 27): Pattern as usual in the group; pale spots not ex-
tensive, the one over r-m crossvien not meeting costal margin nor passing
into cell M2; apex of vein Cul not pale at wing margin. Macrotrichia num-
erous and coarse; costa short, costal ratio 0.52 (0.51 0.54, n = 13). Halter
pale.
Abdomen: Dark brown. Spermathecae (Fig. 29) unequal, measuring
0.051 mm by 0.039 mm and 0.046 mm by 0.033 mm; ovoid with short, rather
stout necks.
Male.-Genitalia as in Fig. 32-33. Ninth tergum fairly broad distally
with moderately long, rather stout, pointed apicolateral processes; ninth
sternum with shallow, broad, caudomedian excavation, the ventral membrane
not spiculate. Basistyle slender, dorsal and ventral roots slender, subequal;
dististyle nearly straight, tapering to slender, pointed, slightly curved tip.
Aedeagus with basal arch extending to about half of total length, the basal
arms moderately stout, curved; distal portion very slender, with sharp pointed
tip. Parameres (Fig. 32) each with small basal knob, base of stem con-
stricted a considerable distance; main portion moderately stout, sinuate,
tapering gradually to rather stout distal point.
Distribution.-Arizona; Mexico, Utah.
Types.-Holotype female, allotype male, Sycamore Canyon, Ruby, Santa
Cruz Co., Arizona, 22 May 1954, G. D. Butler, light trap (Type no. 69493,
USNM). Paratypes, 34 males, 27 females.
ARIZONA: Brown Canyon, Baboquivari Mts., 8 Aug. 1953, G. D. Butler,
light trap, 2 females; Cave Creek Canyon, Maricopa Co., June 1952,
H. G. Gloyd, light, 1 male; Oak Creek Canyon, Coconino Co., 22 July
1959, C. W. O'Brien, light trap, 1 male, 1 female; 29 June 1953, W. W.
Wirth, 4 males; Portal, Southwest Res. Sta., June 1955, M. A. Cazier,
2 females; 9 Sept. 1959, P. H. Arnaud, 1 female; Portal, Paradise Ranger
Sta., 26 June 1953, W. W. Wirth, light trap, 2 males; Ramsey Canyon,
Huachuca Mts., July 1957, W. Brown, light trap, 1 male; Sabino Canyon,
Pima Co., 9 Aug. 1953, G. D. Butler, light trap, 2 males, 3 females;
Sycamore Canyon, same data as types, 13 males, 12 females; Tucson, 10
Apr. 1966, O. Soule, from larva in water in pocket of Saguaro cactus,
2 males; Wickenburg, Maricopa Co., Aug. 1950, H. K. Gloyd, 2 males;
Cochise Stronghold, Cochise Co., Dragoon Mts., 13 Aug. 1958, C. W. O'Brien,
light trap, 2 males, 5 females.
MEXICO: 10 mi s Canipole, Baja Calif., 28 Aug. 1959, Radford and Werner,
light trap, 2 males.
UTAH: Salt Lake City, 14 Sept. 1952, H. Bullock, ex window, 1 female.










218 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 3

Discussion.-This species resembles ousairani Khalaf in its lack of prui-
nose scutal pattern, dark hind femora and reduced wing spots, but ousairani
differs in its antenna sensorial pattern, deep palpal pit opening by a small
pore, and by the slender apicolateral processes, stouter tip of the aedeagus,
and more slender tips of parameres in the male genitalia.



26



*r .--


27






28



c1 .32 33





30
29 31

Fig. 26-33, Culicoides cochisensis: 26, female antenna; 27, female wing;
28, female eye separation; 29, female spermathecae; 30, female hind leg;
31, female palpus; 32, male parameres; 33, male genitalia, parameres removed.

Culicoides flukei Jones
(Fig. 34-42)
Culicoides flukei Jones, 1956, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 58: 30 (male, female;
Wis.; Fig. wing, palpus, spermathecae, male genitalia).-Jamnback, 1965,
N. Y. St. Mus. Bull. 399: 61 (redescribed, Fig.; larva and pupa; N.Y.).
Female.-Length of wing 0.99 (0.81 1.10, n = 5) mm.
Head: Eyes (Fig. 34) bare; contiguous or narrowly separated. Antenna
(Fig. 35) with lengths of flagellar segments in proportion of 26-20-20-20-
22-20-20-22-28-28-28-38-48, antennal ratio 1.02 (1.02 1.03, n = 3); distal
sensory tufts present on segments 3, 11-15. Palpal segments (Fig. 36) with
lengths in proportion of 12-20-32-14-15; palpal ratio 1.53; third segment very
short, slightly swollen, with a small, shallow sensory pit. Proboscis very
short, P/H ratio 0.42; mandible with 7 teeth.









Wirth: Culicoides of the Guttipennis Group


219


35







S37
41



42





S38 40
39

Fig. 34-42, Culicoides flukei: 34, female eye separation; 35, female an-
tenna; 36, female palpus; 37, female wing; 38, female spermathecae; 39, female
hind leg; 40, pupal respiratory organ; 41, male parameres; 42, male genitalia,
parameres removed.

Thorax: Brown; scutum with extensive pattern of pruinose gray patches.
Legs (Fig. 39) brown, knee spots blackish; all femora with subapical and
all tibiae with subbasal, narrow pale rings, hind tibia with apex broadly pale;
hind tibial comb with 5 spines, the two nearest the spur longer, subequal.
Wing (Fig. 37): Pattern not typical of the Guttipennis group in that
distal pale spot in cell R5 is elongate longitudinally, practically filling
distal third of cell; apices of veins M1, M2, M3+4 and Cul not pale margined,
and anal cell with only one pale spot in distal portion; pale spot present
straddling mid portion of vein M2, but pale spot on mid portion of vein M1
lying mostly on anterior side of vein. Macrotrichia sparser than usual in the
group, forming longitudinal rows on mid portion of wing, becoming very
sparse at base of anal cell and extending to base of cell M2 in only a double
row; costal ratio 0.57. Halter pale.
Abdomen: Dark brown. Spermathecae (Fig 38) subequal, each measur-
ing 0.037 mm by 0.033 mm; slightly ovoid with nearly imperceptible necks.
Male.-Genitalia as in Fig. 41-42. Ninth tergum rather short and broad,
apicolateral processes very short and blunt; ninth sternum with very shallow
caudomedian excavation, the ventral membrane not spiculate. Basistyle
short, ventral root not developed, dorsal root slender; dististyle slender, curv-










220 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 3

ing distally, with bent pointed tip. Aedeagus with basal arch broad,
extending to 0.6 of total length, basal arms slender, curving; distal portion
short and broad, tapering to very blunt tip. Parameres (Fig. 41) each with
rather small basal knob, deep constriction at base of stem, main portion
markedly sinuate, swollen proximad, tapering distally to very slender point
bent ventrocephalad.
Pupa.-Respiratory organ as in Fig. 40.
Distribution.-Wisconsin; New York, Virginia.
Types.-Holotype female, pinned with pupal skin, Dane Co., Wisconsin,
30 May 1954, R. H. Jones, reared from sugar maple tree hole (Type no.
69494, USNM). Paratypes: 19 males and 24 females, some with larval and
pupal skins.
Specimens Examined.-9 males, 7 females.
NEW YORK: Freeville, 29 June 1935, reared from pitcher plant, 1 male and
pupa; Newcomb, Essex Co., 10 July 1954, H. A. Jamnback, reared from
tree hole, 2 males, 2 females, pupae.
VIRGINIA: Mount Solon, 16-20 Aug. 1951, W. S. Murray, reared from tree
hole, 1 male.
WISCONsIN: Dane Co., 30 May 1954, R. H. Jones, reared from tree hole,
5 males, 5 females, pupae, larvae (type series).

Culicoides guttipennis (Coquillett)
(Fig. 43-51)

Ceratopogon guttipennis Coquillett, 1901, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 23: 603
(female; Medina, Ohio).-Pratt, 1907, USDA Bur. Entomol. Bull. 64:23
(female, larva, pupa; habits; Ariz. (sic), Md., Ohio, Tex., Va.).
Culicoides guttipennis (Coquillett); Kieffer, 1906, Genera Insectorum, Fasc.
42, p. 54 (comb.).-Malloch, 1915, Bull. Ill. St. Lab. Nat. Hist. 10:299
(female; Ill.; Fig.).-Hoffman, 1925, Amer. J. Hyg. 5: 296 (female; Ariz.
(sic), Md., Tex., Va.).-Hinman, 1932, Amer. J. Hyg. 15: 774 (La.; habits).
-Baker, 1935, Can. Entomol. 67: 150 (N.Y.; larva).-Root and Hoffman,
1937, Amer. J. Hyg. 25: 160 (male, female; Conn., La., Md.; Fig. wing,
spermathecae, male genitalia).--Fox, 1942, Puerto Rico J. Pub. Hlth. and
Trop. Med. 17: 415 (Md.; pupa).-Fenton, 1944, Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci.
24: 5 (Okla.).-Wirth, 1951, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 53: 318 (Va.).-
Khalaf, 1952, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 45: 349 (Okla.).-Foote and Pratt,
1954, Pub. Hlth. Monogr. 18: 22 (male, female; Fla., Ga., Md., Mo., Ohio,
Okla., Tex., Va., Vt.; habits, figs.).-Snow and Pickard, 1954, J. Tenn. Acad.
Sci. 29: 18 (Tenn.; biting habits).-Snow, 1955, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer.
48: 517 (Tenn.; biting habits).-Pickard and Snow, 1955, J. Tenn. Acad. Sci.
30: 17 (Tenn.).-Williams, 1955, Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 50: 115
(Mich.).-Williams, 1955, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 48: 31 (Ga.).-Coher,
Wirth, and Knutson, 1955, Mosquito News 15: 154 (Conn., Mass., Vt.; hab-
its).-Lewis, 1956, Can. Entomol. 88: 550 tibiall spines).-Jones, 1956, Proc.
Entomol. Soc. Washington, 58: 27 (Wis.).-Snow, Pickard, and Moore, 1957,
J. Tenn. Acad. Sci. 32: 25 (Tenn. Ala.; habits).- Murray, 1957, Mosquito
News 17: 77 (Va.; tree hole habitat).- Jones and Wirth, 1958, J. Kan. Ento-
tomol. Soc. 31: 84 (notes).- Snow and Pickard, 1958, J. Tenn. Acad. Sci.
33: 4 (Ala.; habits).-Lewis, 1959, Can. Entomol. 91: 16 (Conn.).-Jones,










Wirth: Culicoides of the Guttipennis Group


44
43
















47






49
50 51

Fig. 43-51, Culicoides guttipennis: 43, female eye separation; 44, female
antenna; 45, female palpus; 46, female wing; 47, female spermathecae; 48,
female hind leg; 49, pupal respiratory organ; 50, male parameres; 51, male
genitalia, parameres removed.

1961, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 54: 703 (Wis.; habitat) .-Messersmith,
1965, Mosquito News 25: 322 (Va.; poultry houses).-Das Gupta and Han-
sens, 1965, J. N.Y. Entomol. Soc. 73: 156 (N.J.).-Jamnback, 1965, N.Y. St.
Mus. Bull. 399: 67 (N.Y.; redescr., biol., imm. st., figs.).-Khalaf, 1966, Ann.
Entomol. Soc. Amer. 59: 881 (La.).- Messersmith, 1966, Va. J. Sci.
17: 94 (Va.).-Hair, Turner, and Messersmith, 1966, Mosquito News 26:
197 (larval habitat; Va.)
Culicoides (Oecacta) guttipennis (Coquillett); Khalaf, 1954, Ann. Entomol.
Soc. Amer. 47: 38 (subg. pos.).-Khalaf, 1957, Amer. Midl. Nat. 58:207
(Okla; notes).-Wirth, 1965, In Stone, et al., Cat. Dipt. N. Amer. p. 129
(Minn. to Mass., s to Okla. and Ga.).
Culicoides (Beltranmyia) guttipennis (Coquillett); Fox, 1955, J. Agr.
Puerto Rico 39: 223 (subg. pos.).
Culicoides (Glaphiromyia) guttipennis (Coquillett); Vargas, 1960, Rev.
Biol. Trop. 8: 41 (subg. pos.).
Female.-Length of wing 1.32 (1.18 1.50, n = 13) mm.










222 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 3

Head: Eyes narrowly separated (Fig. 43), bare. Antenna (Fig. 44)
with lengths of flagellar segments in proportion of 23-16-17-18-18-18-18-
18-37-36-41-45-57, antennal ratio 1.54 (1.45 1.73, n = 13); distal sensory
tufts present on segments, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11-15. Palpal segments (Fig. 45) with
lengths in proportion of 8-31-36-13-15; palpal ratio 2.95 (2.70 3.50, n = 13);
third segment slightly swollen, with a moderately small, shallow, sensory pit.
Proboscis moderately long, P/H ratio 0.98; mandible with 21 (20 21, n
13) teeth.
Thorax: Dark brown; scutum with pattern of pruinose gray patches.
Legs (Fig. 48) brown, knee spots blackish; all femora with subapical and
all tibiae with subbasal, narrow pale rings, hind tibia with broad apex pale;
hind tibial comb with 5 spines, the two nearest the spur longer, subequal.
Wing (Fig. 46): Pattern as usual in the group, pale spots moderately
extensive, pale spot over r-m crossvein broadly meeting costal margin and
extending posteriorly well into cell M2; vein Cul not pale on distal portion.
Macrotrichia moderately long and numerous; costa moderately long, costal
ratio 0.60 (0.58 0.63, n = 13). Halter pale.
Abdomen: Dark brown. Spermathecae (Fig. 47) slightly unequal,
measuring 0.054 mm by 0.048 mm and 0.049 mm by 0.045 mm; distinctly
pyriform, tapering gradually to the slender neck.
Male.-Genitalia as in Fig. 50-51. Ninth tergum with very prominent,
broad, apicolateral processes with acute-angled tips; ninth sternum with deep,
broad, caudomedian excavation, the ventral membrane spiculate. Basistyle
very stout, with broad basal swelling on mesal side, ventral root stout, dorsal
root slender; dististyle nearly straight near base, abruptly bent at midlength,
gradually tapered to slender, blunt, straight apex. Aedeagus with basal arch
extending to half of total length, basal arms slender and curved; distal
portion stout and parallel-sided, tapering very little to the truncated tip.
Parameres (Fig. 50) massive; each with very large basal knob, short con-
striction at base of stem; the latter straight, distinctly swollen on basal por-
tion, tapering distally; distal portion abruptly bent and curved ventrolaterad
and then mesad, with rather stout distal point.
Pupa.-Respiratory organ as in Fig. 49.
Distribution.-Eastern United States from Minnesota to New York and
Oklahoma to Florida.

TABLE 1.-COMPARISON OF MEAN VALUES OF CERTAIN STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS OF
SPECIES OF THE GUTTIPENNIS GROUP.

Man-
Wing Anten- dibu- Antennal Tibial
Length Costal nal Palpal lar Segments Comb P/H
mm Ratio Ratio Ratio Teeth Sensoria Spines Ratio

arboricola 1.19 0.60 1.48 2.84 15 3,5,7,9,11-15 5 1.00
beckae 1.15 0.61 1.53 2.50 15 3-15 5 0.83
californiensis 1.28 0.52 1.12 2.60 13 3-9,11-15 6 1.00
cochisensis 1.14 0.52 1.13 2.47 12 3-9,11-15 5 0.86
flukei 0.99 0.57 1.02 1.53 7 3,11-15 5 0.42
guttipennis 1.32 0.60 1.54 2.95 21 3,5,7,9,11-15 5 0.98
oklahomensis 1.06 0.55 1.35 2.54 12 3,5,7,9,11-15 5 0.77
ousairani 1.21 0.57 1.00 2.48 14 3-15 5 0.86
pecosensis 1.20 0.57 1.15 2.36 15 3-5,7-9,11-15 5 0.98
villosipennis 1.62 0.61 1.64 2.38 12 3,5,7,9,11-15 5 0.82










Wirth: Culicoides of the Guttipennis Group


223


Types.-Six female syntypes, pinned, Medina, Ohio, 5 Aug. 1897, J. S. Hine
(Type no 5460, USNM). The female bearing Coquillett's label is hereby
selected as lectotype.
Specimens examined.-120 slides, 192 pinned.
ALABAMA: Greenbrier (Snow), biting man in tree.
CONNECTICUT: Stoors (Lewis)
FLORIDA: Citra, Marion Co. (St. Bd. Health).
GEORGIA: Fort Mountain (Fattig); Savannah (Hall), reared, tree hole.
ILLINOIS: Grafton (Snow); White Heath (Malloch).
IOWA: Ames (Knight), reared, tree hole; (Laffoon, Millspaugh).
KANSAS: Lawrence (Barr); Riley Co. (Marston); Sunflower Tract, Johnson
Co. (Atchley), reared, tree hole.
KENTUCKY: Golden Pond (T.V.A.)
LOUISIANA: Arabi (Khalaf); Baton Rouge (Wirth); Covington (Khalaf);
Kilbourne (Wirth); Weeks Island (Khalaf).
MARYLAND: College Park (Bishop); Fairland (Hubert); Forest Glen (Heide-
mann, Wirth); Green Spring Valley (Foote); Patuxent Wildlife Refuge
(Scanlon); Plummers Island (Barber, Schwarz, Malloch, Shannon); Roland
Park (Root), reared, tree hole.
MASSACHUSETTS: Boxford (Aitken), reared, tree hole.
MICHIGAN: Detroit (Steyskal); Douglas Lake (Williams).
MINNESOTA: Nine Mile Creek, Hennepin Co. (Denning), reared, tree hole.
MISSISSIPPI: Pickwick Res. (Snow).
MISSOURI: Independence (Swain); Webster Grove (Swain).
NEBRASKA: Dunbar, Otoe Co. (Wirth); Norfolk (Reeves and Galindo).
NEW YORK: Allegany St. Park (Wirth), reared, tree hole; Cranberry Lake,
St. Lawrence Co. (Wirth).
OHIO: Clear Park, Ashland Co. (Thomas); Medina (Hine), type series.
OKLAHOMA: Page (Standish, Kaiser); Summerfield (Standish, Kaiser); West-
ville (Kaiser, Nailon); Wichita Nat. Forest (Khalaf).
PENNSYLVANIA: York (Hubert).
TENNESSEE: Reelfoot Lake (Snow).
VIRGINIA: Alexandria (Wirth), reared, tree hole; Blacksburg (Messersmith);
Broad Run; Dead Run (Shannon); Elkton (Raffensperger); Falls Church
(Wirth), reared, tree hole; Ferrum (Messersmith); Harrisonburg, Camp
Todd (Allard), biting man at dusk; Mount Solon (Wirth, Murray); Mount
Vernon (Wirth), biting man at dusk; Ottobine (Messersmith), reared,
stump hole; Paris (Bartsch); Peaks of Otter (Messersmith); Poplar Camp
(Messersmith); Skyland (Dyar), biting man; Vesuvius (Messersmith); Vi-
enna (Bridwell); Warrenton (Grace).
WISCONSIN: Washburn Co. (Jones), reared, tree hole.

Culicoides oklahomensis Khalaf
(Fig. 52-59)
Culicoides villosipennis oklahomensis Khalaf, 1952, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer.
45: 335 (male; Okla.).-
Culicoides okalahomensis Khalaf; Vargas, 1958, Rev. Inst. Salub. Enf. Trop.
18: 77 (Mexico).-Jones and Wirth, 1958, J. Kan. Entomol. Soc. 31: 82
(Tex.; notes).-Jones, 1961, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 54: 703 (Tex.;










The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 50, No. 3


52







53


54





57 58





56 59

Fig. 52-59, Culicoides oklahomensis: 52, female antenna; 53, female wing;
54, female palpus; 55, female hind leg; 56, female eye separation; 57, male
parameres; 58, male genitalia, parameres removed; 59, female spermathecae.

larval habitat).-Khalaf, 1966, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 59: 881 (La.).-
Atchley, 1967, Univ. Kan. Sci. Bull. 46: 1006 (N. Mex.; redescr.; Fig.).
Culicoides (Oecacta) villosipennis var. oklahomensis Khalaf; Khalaf, 1954,
Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 47: 37 (subg. pos., status).-
Culicoides (Oecacta) villosipennis oklahomensis Khalaf; Khalaf, 1957,
Amer. Midl. Nat. 58: 212 (Okla.; notes).
Culicoides (Oecacta) oklahomensis Khalaf; Wirth, 1965, In Stone, et al.,
Cat. N. Amer. Dip. p. 129 (Pos.; Ariz., Mexico, Okla., Tex.).
Culicoides (Beltranmyia) villosipennis var. oklahomensis Khalaf; Fox,
1955, J. Agr. Univ. Puerto Rico 55: 223 (subg. pos.).
Culicoides arboricola Root & Hoffman (misident.); Wirth & Bottimer, 1956,
Mosquito News 16: 263 (Tex.; habits.).
Female.-Length of wing 1.06 (1.02 1.18, n = 9) mm.
Head: Eyes (Fig. 56) bare; moderately separated, by a distance equal
to 1.5 times the diameter of an eye facet. Antenna (Fig. 52) with lengths of
flagellar segments in proportion of 40-28-30-30-30-30-30-30-55-55-62-66-86,
antennal ratio 1.35 (1.31 1.36, n = 7); distal sensory tufts present on seg-
ments 3, 5, 7, 9, 11-15. Palpal segments (Fig. 54) with lengths in proportion
of 22-65-65-24-24; palpal ratio 2.54 (2.33 2.83, n = 8); third segment slightly
swollen, with a broad, very shallow, sensory pit. Proboscis short, P/H ratio
0.77; mandible with 12 (11-14, n = 9) teeth.


224










Wirth: Culicoides of the Guttipennis Group


225


Thorax: Dark brown; scutum with pattern of pruinose gray patches.
Legs (Fig. 55) brown, knee spots blackish; fore and mid femora with subapical
and fore and mid tibiae with subbasal, narrow pale rings; hind femur dark
to tip, hind tibia with broad subbasal and apical pale bands; hind tibial comb
with 5 spines, the one nearest the spur longest.
Wing (Fig. 53): Pattern as usual in the group, pale spots extensive;
distal portions of veins M1, M2, M3+4, and Cul pale margined; pale spot
over r-m crossvein extending from costal margin broadly into cell M2.
Macrotrichia coarse and numerous; costa short, costal ratio 0.55 (0.53 0.64,
n = 9). Halter pale.
Abdomen: Dark brown. Spermathecae (Fig. 59) subequal, each meas-
uring 0.049 mm by 0.036 mm; ovoid in shape with short slender necks.
Male.-Genitalia as in Fig. 57-58. Ninth tergum tapering distad to
moderately long, acutely angular, slightly flaring apicolateral processes; ninth
sternum with very shallow caudomedian excavation, the ventral membrane
not spiculate. Basistyle slender, slightly tapering distad, ventral and dorsal
roots slender, the dorsal root much longer; dististyle slightly curving, taper-
ing gradually to slender, slightly bent distal point. Aedeagus with basal arch
extending to slightly over half of total length, basal arms slender, curved;
distal portion slender, tapering to sharp distal point, a pair of pointed slender
hyaline filaments arising laterally near tip. Parameres (Fig. 57) slender;
basal knob small with anterior corner slightly prolonged; stem constricted
at base, slightly swollen on basal portion, slightly sinuate and gradually
tapering to simple distal point.
Distribution.-Oklahoma; Arizona, Louisiana, Mexico, New Mexico, Texas.
Types.-Holotype male, Wichita Refuge, Oklahoma, 4 June 1947, deposited
in University of Oklahoma Museum; 10 male paratypes.
Specimens Examined.-
ARIZONA: Brown Canyon, Baboquivari Mts., 4 Aug. 1961, F. Werner, light
trap, 3 males, 6 females; Cochise Stronghold, Cochise Co., Dragoon Mts.,
13 Aug. 1958, C. W. O'Brien, light trap, 1 male, 1 female; Pena Blanca,
10 mi w Nogales, 1 Aug. 1961, Werner, Nutting, and Johnson, light trap,
2 males, 1 female; Sabino Canyon, Pima Co., 9 Aug., 1953, G. D. Butler,
light trap, 2 males, 11 females; Sycamore Canyon, Ruby, Santa Cruz Co.,
22 May 1954, G. D. Butler, light trap, 1 male; Wickenburg, Maricopa Co.,
Aug. 1950, H. K. Gloyd, light trap, 1 male, 1 female.
LOUISIANA: Covington, 23 July 1965, K. T. Khalaf, light trap, 1 male.
MEXICO: Baja California, 25 mi nw Penjamo, 29 Aug. 1959, Radford and
Werner, light trap, 2 females; Sonora, Agua Caliente, 25 Aug. 1954,
Ryckman, Spencer, and Christianson, light trap, 5 males, 18 females.
NEW MEXICO: Glenwood Fish Hatchery, Catron Co., 2 Aug. 1965, W. R.
Atchley, 1 male, 2 females; Mayhill, 22 June 1953, W. W. Wirth, 3 females.
TEXAS: del Rio, 24 Sept. 1963, R. B. Eads, light trap, 1 female; Kerrville,
1 Apr., 1955, W. W. Wirth, light trap, 1 male.

Culicoides ousairani Khalaf
(Fig. 60-67)
Culicoides ousairani Khalaf, 1952, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 45: 354 (male,
female; Wichita Refuge, Okla.; Fig. antenna, palpus, male genitalia).-
Wirth & Bottimer, 1956, Mosquito News 16: 263 (Tex.; habits).-Beck, 1956,











226 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 3

Fla. Entomol. 39: 134 (Fla.).--Snow, Pickard, & Moore, 1957, J. Tenn.
Acad. Sci. 32: 27 (Tenn., Ala.).-Jones & Wirth, 1958; J. Kan. Entomol.
Soc. 31: 83 (Tex.; notes).-Beck, 1958, Mosquito News 18: 8 (Fla.; notes).
-Jones, 1961, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 54: 703 (Okla., Tex.; larval
habitat).-Messersmith, 1965, Mosquito News 25:322 (Va.; poultry houses).
-Messersmith, 1966, Va. J. Sci. 17: 95 (Va.).-Khalaf, 1966, Ann. Entomol.
Soc. Amer. 59: 881 (La.).
Culicoides (Oecacta) ousairani Khalaf; Khalaf, 1954, Ann. Entomol. Soc.
Amer. 47: 37 (subg. pos.).-Khalaf, 1957, Amer. Midi. Nat. 58: 210 (Okla.;
notes).-Wirth, 1965, In Stone et al., Cat. Dipt. N. Amer. p. 129 (Tex.
Okla. to Va. & Ala.).
Culicoides (Beltranmyia) ousairani Khalaf; Fox, 1955, J. Agr. Univ. Puerto
Rico 55: 223 (subg. pos.).
Female.-Length of wing 1.21 (1.04 1.54, n = 15) mm.
Head: Eyes (Fig. 63) bare; broadly separated, the separation equal to
the diameter of 2 eye facets. Antenna (Fig. 60) with lengths of flagellar
segments in proportion of 50-45-45-45-45-45-45-46-60-69-75-75-82, antenna
ratio 1.00 (0.92 1.08, n = 15); distal sensory tufts present on segments
3-15, usually 3 tufts each on 4-6, 2 each on 7-9. Palpal segments (Fig. 61)



60



61





V'rt

""t- 62




6 65










_667

Fig. 60-67, Culicoides ousairani: 60, female antenna; 61, female palpus;
62, female wing; 63, female eye separation; 64, male parameres; 65, male
genitalia, parameres removed; 66, female spermathecae; 67, female hind leg.










Wirth: Culicoides of the Guttipennis Group


227


with lengths in proportion of 30-75-112-45-35; palpal ratio 2.48 (2.37 2.64,
n = 15); third segment moderately swollen, with a deep sensory pit open-
ing by a much smaller pore. Proboscis moderately long, P/H ratio 0.86;
mandible with 14(12 16, n = 15) teeth.
Thorax: Dark brown; scutum without pattern of pruinose gray patches.
Legs (Fig. 67) brown; hind leg stouter than usual; knee spots blackish; fore
and mid femora with subapical and fore and mid tibiae with subbasal, narrow
pale rings; hind femur dark to tip, hind tibia with subbasal and apical broad
pale bands; hind tibial comb with 5 spines, the two nearest the spur longer,
subequal.
Wing (Fig. 62): Pattern as usual in the group, pale spots much reduced,
pale spot over r-m crossvein not attaining costal cell or cell M2; vein Cul
dark along distal portion. Macrotrichia very coarse and numerous; costa
moderately long, extending to 0.57 (0.49 0.60, n = 14) of distance to wing
tip. Halter pale.
Abdomen: Dark brown. Spermathecae (Fig. 66) slightly unequal, meas-
uring 0.051 mm by 0.042 mm and 0.046 mm by 0.036 mm; slightly ovoid
with very short slender necks.
Male.-Genitalia as in Fig. 64-65. Ninth tergum short and broad, apico-
lateral processes long and slender, slightly flaring; ninth sternum with very
shallow caudomedian excavation, the ventral membrane not spiculate. Basis-
tyle moderately stout, not tapering, dorsal and ventral roots slender, sub-
equal; dististyle nearly straight, very slender on distal half, with slightly bent,
pointed tip. Aedeagus with basal arch extending to slightly more than half of
total length; basal arms moderately stout, curving; caudomedian stem stout
proximad, tapering on distal half to blunt distal point. Parameres (Fig. 64)
each with large basal knob; stem greatly constricted at base, considerably
swollen at base of midportion, sinuate, tapering gradually distad to slender
point abruptly bent ventrad.
Distribution.-Southeastern United States from Oklahoma and Texas to
Pennsylvania and Florida, Mexico (Nuevo Leon).
Types.-Holotype male, Wichita Refuge, Oklahoma, 4 June 1947, K.
Khalaf, deposited in the University of Oklahoma Museum. Paratypes, 10
males (7 in USNM).
Specimens examined.-170 slides, 188 pinned.
ALABAMA: Atmore (Blanton); Florence (Snow).
FLORIDA: Cory Village, Alachua Co. (Smith); Edgewater, Volusia Co., (St.
Bd. Health); Gainesville, Alachua Co. (Hicks); Innerarity Point, Escambia
Co. (St. Bd. Health); Jasper, Hamilton Co. (St. Bd. Health); Newnans
Lake, Alachua Co. (Blanton); Torreya State Park, Liberty Co., (Blanton
& Weems).
LOUISIANA: Baton Rouge (Wirth); Laitte (Khalaf); Lake Charles (Khalaf);
Vern River (Khalaf).
MARYLAND: Fairland Hubert).
OKLAHOMA: Cleveland (Howell); Wichita Nat. Forest (Khalaf), type series.
PENNSYLVANIA: York (Spangler).
TEXAS: Brownsville (Joyce, Ross), reared, tree hole; Cameron Co. (Eads),
reared from shrub tree hole; Del Rio (Brundrett, Eads); Fort Davis
(Dollahite); Dryden (Schomberg); Hunt, Kerr Co. (Eads); Kerrville
(Bottimer, Wirth); Sheffield (Schomberg); Sonora (Price).










228 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 3

VIRGINIA: Elkton, Rockingham Co. (Messersmith, Raffensperger); Falls
Church (Wirth); Ferrum (Messersmith).
MEXICO: Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Blanton)

Culicoides pecosensis Wirth
(Fig. 68-75)

Culicoides pecosensis Wirth, 1955, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 45: 358 (male, female;
Tex.; Fig. wing, scutum, palpus, male genitalia).-Wirth & Bottimer,
Mosquito News 16: 263 (Tex.).-Jones & Wirth, 1958, J. Kan. Entomol.
Soc. 31: 84 (notes.-Atchley, 1967, Univ. Kan. Sci. Bull. 46: 1004 (N. Mex.;
redescr.; figs.).
Culicoides (Glaphiromyia) pecosensis Wirth; Vargas, 1960, Rev. Biol. Trop.
8: 41 (subg. pos.).
Culicoides (Oecacta) pecosensis Wirth; Wirth, 1965, In Stone et al., Cat.
Dipt. N. Amer. p. 130 (subg. pos.).
Female.-Length of wing 1.20 (1.12 1.42, n = 7) mm.
Head: Eyes (Fig. 71) bare, moderately separated (by distance equal to
diameter of 1.5 eye facets). Antenna (Fig. 68) with lengths of flagellar
segments in proportion of 42-32-32-32-32-32-32-32-58-58-60-60-75; antennal
ratio 1.15 (1.04 1.21, n = 5); distal sensory tufts present on segments 3, 5,
7, 9, 11-15. Palpal segments (Fig. 70) with lengths in proportion of 20-70-
75-23-25; palpal ratio 2.36 (2.03 2.88, n = 5); third segment moderately
swollen, with a broad shallow sensory pit. Proboscis moderately long, P/H
ratio 0.98; mandible with 15 (14 18, n = 7) teeth.
Thorax: Dark brown; scutum with pattern of pruinose gray patches.
legs (Fig. 75) brown, knee spots blackish; all femora with subapical and all
tibiae with subbasal, narrow pale rings, hind tibia with broad apical pale
band; hind tibial comb with 5 spines, the one nearest the spur longest.
Wing (Fig. 69): Pattern as usual in the group, pale spots extensive,
pale spot over r-m crossvein extending broadly from costa into cell M2;
distal portion of vein Cul dark. Macrotrichia moderately long and numer-
ous; costal ratio 0.57 (0.55 0.60, n = 7). Halter pale.
Abdomen: Dark brown. Spermathecae (Fig. 72) unequal, measuring
0.059 mm by 0.044 mm and 0.049 mm by 0.039 mm; slightly ovoid, with very
short, slender necks.
Male.-Genitalia as in Fig. 73-74. Ninth tergum moderately long, taper-
ing distally, apicolateral processes long and slender, pointed, slightly flaring;
ninth sternum with very shallow caudomedian excavation, the ventral mem-
brane not spiculate. Basistyle moderately stout, dorsal and ventral roots
short, moderately slender; dististyle slightly curved, gradually tapering to
slender, slightly bent tip. Aedeagus with basal arch short, extending to only
0.4 of total length, basal arms stout and slightly curved; distal stem parallel
sided, moderately stout, with truncate tip. Parameres each with small basal
knob, stem with basal constriction, moderately swollen at base of mid portion,
distally sinuate and tapering to sharp, ventrally twisted point.
Distribution.-Texas; New Mexico.
Types.-Holotype female (Type no 62365, USNM), Sanderson, Terrell Co.,
Texas, 29 Aug. 1953, H. Brundrett, light trap; 4 male and 20 female paratypes,
same data.
Specimens examined.-81 pinned, 50 slides.









Wirth: Culicoides of the Guttipennis Group


229


68


-. ..- .. 6 9
":" 69


70


l t '


75


Fig. 68-75, Culicoides pecosensis: 68, female antenna; 69, female wing;
70, female palpus; 71, female eye separation; 72, female spermathecae; 73,
male parameres; 74, male genitalia, parameres removed; 75, female hind leg.

NEW MEXICO: Glenwood Fish Hatchery, Catron Co., 2 Aug. 1965, W. R.
Atchley, light, 11 females.
TEXAS: Sanderson, Terrell Co., 28 Apr. 1954, 0. Schomberg, light trap, 2
males, 104 females. Pumpville, Apr.-May 1954, 0. Schomberg, light trap,
12 females. Del Rio, May 1954, 0. Schomberg, light trap, 1 female.

Culicoides villosipennis Root and Hoffman
(Fig. 76-82)
Culcoides villosipennis Root & Hoffman, 1937, Amer. J. Hyg. 25: 165 (male,
female; Md.; Fig. wing, male genitalia).-Fox, 1942, Puerto Rico J. Pub.
Hlth. & Trop. Med. 17: 416 (pupa; Md.; Fig.).- Wirth, 1951, Proc. Entomol.
Soc. Wash. 53: 318 (Va.).-Beck, 1952, Fla. Entomol. 35: 103 (Fla.).-
Foote & Pratt, 1954, Publ. Hlth. Monogr. 18: 36 (male, female; Ga., La.,
Okla., Tex., Va.; Fig.).-Jones, 1956, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 38: 27
(Wis.).-Lewis, 1956, Can. Entomol. 88: 550 tibiall comb).-Murray, 1957,


(D


I
~"'









The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 50, No. 3


76

77


-C;


00


08


Fig. 76-82, Culicoides villosipennis: 76, female palpus; 77, female antenna;
78, female wing; 79, female eye separation; 80, female spermathecae; 81,
male parameres; 82, male genitalia, parameres removed.

Mosquito News 17: 77 (Va.).-Beck, 1958, Mosquito News 18:8 (Fla.; notes).
-Williams, 1955, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 48: 31 (Ga.).-Pickard &
Snow, 1955, J. Tenn. Acad. Sci. 30: 17 (Tenn.).-Snow, Pickard, & Moore,
1957, J. Tenn. Acad. Sci. 32: 31 (Ala., Tenn.; habits).-Lewis, 1959, Can.
Entomol. 91: 16 (Conn.).-Coher, Wirth, & Knutson, 1955, Mosquito News
15: 155 (Maine, Mass.; habits).-Jones, 1961, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer.
54: 703 (Wis.; habitat).-Jones & Wirth, 1958, J. Kan. Entomol. Soc. 31:
84 (notes) .-Messersmith, 1965, Mosquito News 25: 322 (Va.; poultry
houses).-Das Gupta & Hansens, 1965, J. N.Y. Entomol. Soc. 73: 156
(N.J.).-Jamnback, 1965, N.Y. St. Mus. Bull. 399: 116 (N.Y.; male, female,
imm. st.; biol.; Fig.).-Khalaf, 1966, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 88: 881
(La.).-Mcssersmith, 1966, Va. J. Sci. 17: 98 (Va.)
Culicoides (Oecacta) villosipennis Root & Hoffman; Khalaf, 1954, Ann. En-
tomol. Soc. Amer. 47: 37 (subg. pos.).-Wirth, 1965, In Stone et al., Cat.
Dipt. N. Amer. p. 130 (Wis. to Maine, s to Okla. & Ala.).
Culicoides (Beltranmyia) villosipennis Root & Hoffman; Fox, 1955 J. Agr.
Univ. Puerto Rico 55: 223 (subg. pos.)
Culicoides (Glaphiromyia) villosipennis Root & Hoffman; Vargas, 1960,
Rev. Biol. Trop. 8: 41 (Subg. pos.).


230










Wirth: Culicoides of the Guttipennis Group


231


Female.-Length of wing 1.62 (1.30 1.72, n = 12) mm.
Head: Eyes (Fig. 79) bare; moderately separated, by a distance equal to
the diameter of 1.5 eye facets. Antenna (Fig. 77) with lengths of flagellar
segments in proportion of 50-39-42-42-42-42-42-42-112-112-115-115-140, an-
tennal ratio 1.64 (1.51 1.85, n = 5), distal segments remarkably elongated;
distal sensory tufts present on 3, 5, 7, 9, 11-15. Palpal segments (Fig. 76)
with lengths in proportion of 34-80-85-27-25; palpal ratio 2.38 (2.17 2.65,
n = 10); third segment moderately swollen, with a broad shallow sensory
pit. Proboscis short, P/H ratio 0.82; mandible with 12 (11-14, n = 12) teeth.
Thorax: Dark brown; scutum with pattern of pruinose gray patches.
Legs dark brown, knee spots blackish; fore and mid femora with subapical
and fore and mid tibiae with subbasal, narrow pale rings; hind femur dark
to tip, hind tibia with broad subbasal and apical pale bands; hind tibia with
5 spines, the two nearest the spur longer, subequal.
Wing (Fig. 78): Pattern as usual in the group, pale spots much reduced,
pale spot over r-m cross vein not extending into cell M2; vein Cul dark on
distal portion. Macrotrichia very strong and numerous; costa long, costal
ratio 0.61 (0.60 0.64, n = 12). Halter pale.
Abdomen: Dark brown. Spermathecae (Fig. 80) subequal, each meas-
uring 0.058 mm by 0.043 mm; ovoid, with short slender necks.
Male.-Genitalia as in Fig. 81-82. Ninth tergum tapering, with short,
angularly pointed apicolateral processes; ninth sternum with shallow caudo-
median excavation, the ventral membrane not spiculate. Basistyle moder-
ately stout, dorsal and ventral roots slender, the former longer; dististyle
nearly straight proximally, tapering to slender, pointed bent tip. Aedeagus
with basal arch extending to half of total length, basal arms moderately
stout, curving; distal stem tapering to moderately slender tip with two pairs
of short lateral hyaline processes subapically. Parameres (Fig. 81) slender,
each with small basal knob and extensive basal constriction of stem, main
portion slightly sinuate, slightly swollen proximally, distally tapering to sharp,
ventrally bent point.
Distribution.-Eastern North America from Wisconsin and Oklahoma to
Maine and Florida.
Types.-Holotype male, Sparrows Point, Baltimore, Maryland, 24 July
1931, Root and Hoffman, reared from tree hole (Type no. 53304, USNM). Allo-
type and 5 paratypes, same data.
Specimens examined.-101 slides, 77 pinned.
ALABAMA: Greenbrier (Snow), biting man, 20 ft. in tree.
CONNECTICUT: Storrs (Lewis).
FLORIDA: Alachua Co. (Lee, Smith), Gainesville (Blanton); Bratt, Escambia
Co. (Blanton and Broce); Chattahoochee, Gadsden Co., (St. Bd. Health);
Tallahassee, Leon Co., (Kohn).
GEORGIA: DeKalb Co. (Donaldson)
IOWA: Ames (Laffoon).
KANSAS: Lawrence (Barr).
KENTUCKY: Golden Pond (T.V.A.).
LOUISIANA: Covington (Khalaf); Kilbourne (Wirth); Lake Charles (Khalaf);
Verm River (Khalaf); Weeks Island (Khalaf).
MAINE: Sebago Lake St. Park (Kuschke).
MARYLAND: Fairland (Hubert); Forest Glen (Wirth); Green Spring Valley,
Baltimore Co. (Foote); Patuxent Refuge (Scanlon); Plummers Island










232 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 3

(Shannon); Sparrows Point (Root and Hoffman), type series.
MASSACHUSETTS: Centerville (Wall).
MICHIGAN: Douglas Lake (Williams).
NEW JERSEY: Pittsdown (Burbutis).
OKLAHOMA: Westville (Kaiser, Nailon).
ONTARIO: Mazinaw Lake, Frontenac Co. (Wood, Can. Nat. Coll.).
PENNSYLVANIA: York (Hubert, Spangler).
TENNESSEE: Chestuee Creek, Athens (Snow); Dover (Pickard).
VIRGINIA: Alexandria (Wirth), reared, tree hole; Blacksburg (Messersmith);
Falls Church (Wirth); Ferrum (Messersmith); Mount Solon (Murray,
Wirth); Poplar Camp (Messersmith); Vesuvius (Messersmith).
WISCONSIN: Washburn Co. (Jones), reared, tree hole.

LITERATURE CITED
Atchley, W. R. 1967. The Culicoides of New Mexico (Diptera: Ceratopo-
gonidae). Univ. Kan. Sci. Bull. 46: 937-1022.
Fox, I. 1955. A catalogue of the bloodsucking midges of the Americas
(Culicoides, Leptoconops, and Lasiohelea) with keys to the subgenera
and Nearctic species, a geographic index, and bibliography. Puerto
Rico Univ. J. Agr. 39: 214-285.
Hair, J. A., and E. C. Turner, Jr. 1966. Laboratory colonization and mass-
production procedures for Culicoides guttipennis. Mosquito News 26:
429-433.
Hair, J. A., E. C. Turner, Jr., and D. H. Messersmith. 1966. Larval habitats
of some Virginia Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Mosquito
News 26: 195-204.
Jamnback, H. 1965. The Culicoides of New York State (Diptera: Cerato-
pogonidae). N.Y. St. Mus. Sci. Serv. Bull. 399: 1-154.
Jones, R. H., and W. W. Wirth. 1958. New records, synonymy, and species
of Texas Culicoides (Diptera, Heleidae). J. Kan. Entomol. Soc. 31:
81-91.
Malloch, J. R. 1915. The Chironomidae, or midges, of Illinois, with particular
reference to the species occurring in the Illinois River. Ill. St. Lab.
Nat. Hist. Bull. 10: 275-543, 24 pl.
Messersmith, D. H. 1965. Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) associated
with poultry in Virginia. Mosquito News 25: 321-324.
Snow, W. E., E. Pickard, and J. B. Moore. 1957. The Heleidae of the
Tennessee River Basin. J. Tenn. Acad. Sci. 32: 18-36.
Vargas, L. 1960. The subgenera of Culicoides of the Americas (Diptera,
Ceratopogonidae). Rev. Biol. Trop. 8: 35-47.
Wirth, W. W. 1965. Family Ceratopogonidae. p. 121-142. In A Stone, et al.
A catalog of the Diptera of America North of Mexico. USDA Hand-
book no. 276, 1696 p.


The Florida Entomologist 50 (3) 1967




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