Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00159
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1967
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00159
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

Full Text


Volume 50, No. 4 December, 1967

RUSSELL, LOUISE M.-Venezaleurodes pisoniae, a New Genus
and Species of Whitefly from Venezuela (Homoptera:
A leyrodidae) .. .----------............................ ....-..... 235

BROGDON, J. E.-Extension Entomology, Past, Present, and
F uture -----------------------------------............... ....... .. ... 243

MUMA, M. H., AND H. A. DENMARK-Biological Studies on
Macroseius biscutatus (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) .------.. 249

STEGMAIER, C. E., JR.-Host Plants of Liriomyza brassicae,
with Records of Their Parasites from South Florida
(Diptera: Agromyzidae) -.----------------.-----.................. 257

associates of the Pales Weevil, Hylobius pales, (Coleop-
tera: Curculionidae) ----------..............................-....... 263

MUMA, M. H.-New Phytoseiidae (Acarina: Mesostigmata)
from Southern Asia .-----.--.. .. ...... ....................... 267

FROST, S. W.-Mayflies Taken at the Archbold Biological
Station, Highlands County, Florida .._. ...-------- ---------...... 281

MUMA, M. H.-Biological Notes on Coniopteryx vicina (Neu-
roptera: Coniopterygidae) ._....----------_....---.-.. --.------.... 285

Index to Volum e 50, 1967 ----. ...... ....... ................. 294

Published by The Florida Entomological Society


President -...--................................................................. L. A H trick
Vice-President .....- -..................- ....................................... J. B. O'Neil
Secretary..-.................................................................. H A. Denm ark
Treasurer -.......-...............-.............................-.......... R. S. Patterson
W. G. Genung
J. E. Porter
Other Members of Executive Committee.... W. A. Simanton
J. E. Brogdon
W. B. Gresham, Jr.

Publications Committee
Stratton H. Kerr..--------.....-....--...---.....-- ........Editor
James L. Nation-.--.. --.-------....... Associate Editor
Robert S. Patterson -----........---...Business Manager

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ferred to "Suggestions for preparation of manuscripts for THE FLORIDA
ENTOMOLOGIST." Fla. Ent. 48 (2): 145-146. 1965.
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Entomology Research Division, ARS, USDA, Washington, D.C. 20250

The following description provides a name for an injurious whitefly.
F. A. Lee, University of Florida, Gainesville, asked that the species be
described, and I am happy to comply with his request.
Regarding the insect, Mr. Lee (personal communication) stated, "The
aleyrodid is of considerable economic importance in Venezuela. It is a
vector of the leaf curl virus of tobacco."
In spite of its reported involvement with tobacco, only adults of the
species have been seen on this plant. Mr. Lee stated further, "I have
examined many fields of leaf curl diseased tobacco and have never found
the immature forms of this aleyrodid present and rarely the adult. . .
Indications are that whitefles are forced to tobacco [from their normal
host] but remain on the plant only long enough to feed briefly." Ac-
cording to Mr. Lee, the aleyrodid's true host, Pisonia, is cut periodically
in the tobacco growing area of Venezuela, and at such times the adults
fly to other nearby plants.
To date, the insect is known to develop only on Pisonia macranthocarpa
Donn. Sm. (Nyctaginaceae) in Venezuela. Since this plant occurs in
Colombia, Ecuador, Central America, and Mexico, the insect may have a
wider distribution and a greater potential as a vector of leaf curl virus of
tobacco than present records indicate.
Most of the terminology used here is explained in my former treatment
of the genus Trialeurodes Cockerell (Russell 1948) and the tribe Trial-
eurodini (Russell 1947).
Venezaleurodes, new genus
Type-species, Venezaleurodes pisoniae, new species.
Venezaleurodes belongs in the Trialeurodini, and appears to be most
closely related to Trialeurodes. Pupae of the new genus differ from those
of Trialeurodes as defined by Russell (1948) as follows: Mature pupa
with the ventral surface not swollen and not encircled by a band of
wax, and the dorsum not elevated from the leaf surface; submarginal
setal bases very indistinct but in 6 pairs when visible; with short, cylin-
drical tubular pores without associated porettes; and with cylindrical
setae having rounded apices. Mature pupa of Trialeurodes with the ventral
surface of the body swollen and encircled by a band of thin, translucent
wax, and the dorsum of the body thus raised from the surface of the
leaf; submarginal setae or setal bases readily visible and in 13 or 15
pairs; without cylindrical tubular pores; and without cylindrical setae.
The larvae of Venezaleurodes also differ from those of Trialeurodes
in having only 6 pairs of submarginal setae, and the third-stage larva has
short, cylindrical tubular pores and cylindrical setae. The tubular pores
resemble somewhat the disk pores of Aleurotithius Quaintance and Baker,
which also rise above the derm but which are rounded apically and have
associated porettes.

236 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 4

The cylindrical setae are more slender than the tubular pores and
appear to be hollow with thin walls. The tubular pores and cylindrical
setae are distinctive, and separate this genus from all other genera of the
Aleyrodinae that I know.


HABIT:-Living on the lower surface of leaves.
PUPA:-With a waxy secretion on dorsum. Body flat, its ventral sur-
face not swollen and not encircled by a band of wax.
Margin and submargin: Margin smooth or crenulate. Anterior and
posterior marginal setae present. Submargin not separated from dorsal
disk by a ridge or furrow. Submarginal setal bases poorly defined, in
6 pairs. Submarginal ridges defined. Tracheal pores absent. Submarginal
papillae, disk pores and porettes present.
Dorsal disk: Short, cylindrical tubular pores with dark rims and with-
out associated porettes arising from the derm. Disk pores and porettes
present. Papillae present or absent. Cylindrical, atypical setae present;
typical setae in a cephalic, first and eighth abdominal, and caudal, pair.
Transverse molting suture just anterior to thoracoabdominal one; inter-
segmental sutures well defined in median and submedian areas; submedian
depressions present in sutures; pockets present in posterior suture. Median
length of abdominal segment 7 no more than 1/3 that of segment 6.
Vasiform orifice and operculum cordate or subcordate; lingula elongate
and lobed, contained in the orifice, with a pair of elongate setae arising
ventrally at base of terminal lobe. Caudal furrow present.
Ventral surface: Antenna short, reaching to anterior thoracic spiracle;
apparently 2-segmented, abruptly tapered distally, the end finger-like and
covered with minute spines, a minute seta just before base of tapered area.
Thoracic and abdominal tracheal folds evident. Thoracic and posterior
abdominal spiracles small, subequal in size; anterior abdominal pair much
smaller than others or not apparent. Beak blunt, apparently 2-segmented,
with minute setae at base, and at apex of distal segment. Legs short and
stout, 3 segments suggested, with setae on basal area and with minute
setae or setal bases near disk of each leg. A pair of inconspicuous
adhesive sacs on mesothorax. Ventral abdominal setae present. Male
organ not observed.
THIRD-STAGE LARVA:-Shape, margin, and submargin much as in pupa
but without submarginal papillae. Dorsum much as in pupa but with all
types of pores and cylindrical setae much less numerous. Vasiform
orifice shorter in comparison with its length than in pupa. Antenna
SECOND-STAGE LARVA:-Similar to third-stage larva but without tubular
pores and cylindrical setae, and with fewer disk pores and porettes.
FIRST-STAGE LARVA:-Margin smooth. Submarginal setae of later
instars located on margin, elongate and slender, 4 pairs on cephalic
segment, 1 pair on prothorax, and 1 pair on abdominal segment 8. Eye-
spots apparent. Tubular pores absent. Disk pores and porettes sparse.
Cylindrical setae absent. Vasiform orifice near posterior end of body;
operculum transverse; lingula not lobed, caudal furrow absent. Legs and
antennae elongate and slender, distinctly segmented.

Russell: New Genus and Species of Whitefly 237

ADULT:-Parts of compound eye joined by a few facets. Antenna
7-segmented; segments I and II with numerous scattered spines and with
minute slender setae; segments distad of II with bands of minute spines
alternating with smooth bands; some segments beyond II with sensory
setae and circular sensoria; each of the latter with fringed margin and a
short sensory seta; distal end of VII tapered, with a terminal seta.
Each wing with an elongate vein that approaches the distal margin;
forewing with a claval suture. Male claspers curved inward on ventral
margin near posterior end, apices acute. Aedeagus slender, distal end
curved upward.

Venezaleurodes pisoniae, new species
(Fig. 1)

PUPA:-Mature pupa with a copious amount of a white, matted, felt-
like secretion on the dorsum in available dead specimens; appearance
unknown in living insects. Wax not observed on ventral surface.
Flat dorsally and ventrally. Colorless or pale yellow, membranous.
Broadly elliptical, widest across midlength, 0.75-1.00 mm long and 0.50-
0.70 wide.
Margin and submargin: Margin smooth or with weak crenulations,
22-30 in 100 p. Anterior marginal setae 15 u long, posterior marginal
28. Submargin not deflexed. Submarginal setal bases almost or quite
obscure; 5 pairs on cephalothorax and 1 pair on abdominal segment 8
when visible, located slightly mesad of row of submarginal papillae.
Submarginal ridges moderately defined, same width as crenulations at
margin, extending to or slightly proximad of submarginal papillae. Thor-
acic tracheal pore areas not apparent, or indicated by the prominence
of 1-3 marginal crenulations or submarginal ridges; the abdominal one
indicated by the presence of 2-5 rounded designs on the submarginal
ridges. Papillae arranged in an irregular single row at inner edge of
submargin, the majority 2-3 times the diameter of a papilla from the body
margin; 13-17 on cephalothorax and 15-21 on abdomen, on each half of
body; papillae usually directed vertically; their bases circular and 8-10l
in diameter, broadly and bluntly conical and rising only slightly above
the body surface; the margin of the base and the apex of the cone
usually fairly distinct, but the remainder of the papilla indistinct; disk pore
associated with each papilla located adjacent to, or as much as the
diameter of the base from, the papilla; a minute, indistinct porette in
each papilla; rarely a few papillae modified into rounded, granular tuber-
clelike structures quite different in appearance from the conical papillae.
Dorsal disk: Tubular pores approximately 4g long and 4/ in diameter
arising from body surface; numerous, distributed over most of dorsum
and into the submargin between, and a row distad of, submarginal
papillae; absent from median area of abdominal segment 7, entirely or
almost entirely absent from abdominal segment 8 except in outer sub-
dorsum and submargin; absent between and distad of submarginal papillae
when numerous tuberclelike papillae are present on dorsum. Disk pores
about 2 u in diameter and very minute porettes present; usually at least
2 submedian and 2 or 3 subdorsal pairs on each body segment but number

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Fig. 1 a-g, Venezaleurodes pisoniae. Pupa: 1 a-f. 1, dorsal half of
body; a, portion of margin and submargin; b, portion of submargin show-
ing lateral view of submarginal papilla, disk pore, and tubular pore;
c, portion of derm showing lateral and dorsal view of tubular pores; d,
cylindrical seta; e, dorsal tuberclelike papilla with disk pore and porette; f,
vasiform orifice. Adult: g, forewing. (Drawings by Arthur D. Cushman.)


Russell: New Genus and Species of Whitefly 239

varying, very rarely much more numerous and apparently replacing some
tubular pores. A papilla usually associated with at least 1 subdorsal
disk pore and porette on each half of body but sometimes developed with
most disk pores; the papillae usually weakly developed, coarsely granu-
lar, membranous, and inconspicous, but rarely strongly developed, tubercle-
like and as much as 18 u in diameter; disk pores adjacent to, and
porettes in, the papillae. Cylindrical setae 4-7 u long and 2 / in diameter,
located in submedian and subdorsal area of abdominal segment 7 near
posterior suture and on segment 8 anterior and laterad of vasiform
orifice, present posteriorly to tubular pores; sparse and smaller than
normal when numerous tuberclelike papillae are present on dorsum.
Cephalic setae 25-45 A long, first abdominal 25-40; eighth abdominal 25-40,
located opposite, or slightly posterior to, anterior margin of vasiform
orifice, slightly more than diameter of its base from orifice; caudal setae
45-60 p long, their bases in submargin about in line with outermost tubular
pores. Transverse molting suture curved posteriorly from its midpoint,
then recurved and terminating in subdorsum opposite its midpoint.
Intersegmental sutures terminating in inner subdorsum except for penulti-
mate and posterior ones that usually extend to submargin. Pockets less
than the width of one part. Median length of abdominal segment 7
approximately 1/5-1/4 that of segment 6. Vasiform orifice elongate
cordate, 56-72 u long and 48-60 wide, located its width from posterior
abdominal suture and about twice that distance from posterior body
margin; its bottom extending just over 1/2 length of orifice, just anterior
to posterior margin of operculum; its rim thin, rising above derm, with a
median rounded tooth at end; its inner sides lightly ridged; its bottom
smooth anteriorly, with curved dentate markings directed caudad, pos-
teriorly. Operculum subcordate, 36-44 p long and 44-52 wide. Lingula
with 3 pairs of lateral lobes and a terminal lobe, reaching end of orifice;
48-60 M long, and 24-28 wide across anterior lobes, its setae 24-28 p long.
A narrow, shallow furrow each side of orifice, opening into the caudal
furrow at end of orifice. Caudal furrow well-defined, fairly broad at
base, then narrowed and terminating at the tracheal pore area. Caudal
ridges defined, lightly sculptured by diagonal or transverse depressed lines
for entire length or only on posterior portion.
Ventral surface: Thoracic tracheal folds without characteristic mark-
ings; abdominal one with a few minute spines anteriorly. Each leg
apparently with 4-6 minute setae located at intervals around basal margin;
with 1 short seta on inner basal area of anterior, and 1 longer seta
on each middle and posterior leg; 2 minute setae or setal bases near disk
on each leg. Beak with a pair of minute setae at base of proximal
segment, and 3 pairs at apex of distal segment. A median pair of minute
setae or setal bases just anterior to mouth parts, and a submedian minute
pair mesad of disk of posterior leg. Ventral abdominal setae 20-32 p
long, not reaching posterior abdominal spiracles.
THIRD-STAGE LARVA:-A small amount of white powdery wax on dorsum.
Derm colorless. Submarginal ridges weak, the majority slightly longer
than wide. Submarginal setal bases indistinct. Submarginal papillae, disk
pores and porettes absent. Tubular pores scattered on dorsum except in
median area of abdomen and close to body margin. A subdorsal pair of

240 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 4

disk pores and porettes on most segments and a submedian pair on
abdominal segment 1. A papilla appearing as a differentiated granular
area associated with most disk pores. A pair of subcircular or oblong,
usually 8-shaped pores opposite widest part of vasiform orifice, on
abdominal segment 7 on one half of body and on segment 8 on the
other half, in available specimens. Cylindrical setae totaling 2-4 on
abdominal segment 8. Vasiform orifice practically as wide as long and
nearly equidistant from posterior suture and posterior body margin; its
bottom extending just anterior to posterior edge of operculum, lightly
ridged, not sculptured as in pupa; rim with a rounded, median posterior
tooth. Operculum broadly curved posteriorly, slightly wider than long.
Lingula with 2 pairs of lateral lobes. Caudal setae arising from body
margin. Anterior abdominal spiracles not observed.
SECOND-STAGE LARVA:-No waxy secretion noted. Similar to third-stage
larva except dorsal papillae poorly defined and much less numerous, tu-
bular pores absent except for 2 on abdominal segment 8, vasiform orifice
closer to posterior body margin, caudal furrow barely or not evident.
FIRST-STAGE LARVA:-Eyespots circular. A pair of disk pores and por-
ettes on abdominal segment 3. Papillae absent. Subcircular, 8-shaped
pores on abdominal segments 7 and 8 as in later instar larvae. Eighth
abdominal setae cephalolaterad of vasiform orifice. Vasiform orifice
reaching submargin, operculum transversely rectangular. Antennal seg-
ments I and II short, with a short seta near base, III elongate, with a
short seta at distal third and at apex. Legs with an elongate seta on
inner margin of coxa and on outer margin of tibia, a very short seta on
inner margin of tibia; tarsal digitule elongate, slender throughout. A pair
of elongate setae just anterior to mouth parts, and a pair of minute setae
at apex of beak.
ADULT:-Parts of compound eye joined by 4 facets. Antennal seg-
ment III as long as combined length of IV-VII; IV, VI, and VII subequal
in length and somewhat shorter than V; segment III with a poorly
defined sensorium at basal fourth, a sensory seta near distal end, and 2
sensoria at distal end; IV with a sensory seta at distal third; V and VI
each with a sensorium at apex and VI also with an elongate sensory
seta slightly before the sensorium; VII with 2 elongate sensory setae at
mid-length, and a sensorium at distal fourth; seta at apex of VII as long
as greatest diameter of segment. Forewing (in specimens not treated
with caustic) with 3 dark spots as shown in Fig. 1 g.
MATERIAL STUDIED:--Holotype, mounted pupa from Pisonia macrantho-
carpa Donn. Sm. (Nyctaginaceae), Ipare, near Altagracia de Orituco,
State of Guarico, Venezuela, November 1966, received from Frank A. Lee,
in USNM. Paratypes, numerous unmounted and 83 mounted specimens
of all stages from P. macranthocarpa, Altagracia de Orituco, 1 March
1961, and Guatopo, Ipare, and Lezama, near Altagracia de Orituco,
November 1966; all received from Frank A. Lee. Most paratypes are in
the collection of the U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. Others
are in the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville, Fla., and in
the British Museum (Natural History), London, England.
Insects were abundant, but they did not entirely cover the lower
surface of the leaves. There was no evidence of parasitism in the material.

Russell: New Genus and Species of Whitefly 241

Only one of 42 mounted pupae had numerous, well-developed tubercle-
like papillae on the dorsal surface. Because of their unusual size and
number, this specimen appeared superficially to be very different from
the other pupae.

Russell, Louise M. 1947. A classification of the whiteflies of the new
tribe Trialeurodini (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Rev. de Ent. 18
(Fasc. 1/2) :3.
Russell, Louise M. 1948. The North American species of whiteflies of the
genus Trialeurodes. USDA Misc. Pub. 635:6-7, 9-10.

The Florida Entomologist 50(4) 1967


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Department of Entomology, University of Florida, Gainesville

Never before has any people had so much food of such high quality at
such reasonable prices as the American public today. This has been possible
in large measure by the work of all facets of entomology; and I like to
think a significant part has been played by Extension Entomology. This
brings me to the title of my Presidential Address-Extension Entomology:
Past, Present and Future.
According to Dr. T. H. Parks, "Extension Entomology can be said to
have been born on a farm near Terrell, Texas, in 1903. It was in that year
that the cotton boll weevil and inflexible practices followed by a group of
Texas farmers inspired Seaman A. Knapp to demonstrate a new and im-
proved method of cotton culture. This brought about recognition of im-
proved practices in pest control and pointed the way to cooperative exten-
sion work as we now know it. Seaman A. Knapp was not an entomologist.
He had been a farmer, a teacher in college, and later a special agent of the
United States Department of Agriculture. He became convinced that farm-
ers were not interested in increased yields secured by scientific men on gov-
ernment owned land, but were interest in what they could do on their own
farms to combat the boll weevil and increase the yield of cotton. The first
cooperative work was a convincing demonstration on the farm of Walter A.
Porter, who followed the program outlined by Mr. Knapp. The results were
so pronounced that the next year the Federal Congress appropriated $250,-
000 to combat the boll weevil and enable Seaman Knapp to demonstrate on
a larger scale how to produce cotton under boll weevil conditions."
It was not until 1913 that the first Extension Entomologist was em-
ployed. The State of Idaho appropriated a small sum of money and Dr. T.
H. Parks was employed as a Field Entomologist to acquaint Idaho farmers
with the alfalfa weevil and recommend practices to keep it under control.
Other important pests included mormon crickets, clover aphids, San Jose
scale and codling moth.
Dr. Parks' appointment was about one year ahead of the Smith-Lever
Act, which was passed by the Federal Congress in May 1914. This law
created the Federal-State Cooperative Extension Service to-"aid in dif-
fusing among the people of the United States useful and practical informa-
tion on subjects relating to agriculture and home economics, and to en-
courage the application of the same . .through field demonstrations, pub-
lications and otherwise."
The number of Extension Entomologists increased gradually between
1913 and 1922, and by 1952, 65 were employed in 42 states. In 1953, Flor-
ida became the 43rd state to employ an Extension Entomologist as such,
leaving only the five states of Kentucky, Nevada, Maine, New Hampshire
and Vermont without one. Mr. John D. Haynie had been appointed Exten-
sion Apiculturist in Florida back in 1947, limiting his work to bees, and two

1 Presidential address presented at the 50th Anniversary Meeting of The
Florida Entomological Society.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 50, No. 4

members of the old State Plant Board worked for a short time in Extension
Entomology back in the 1920's.
When I began work in 1953, it was necessary to start from scratch and
develop an Extension Entomology Program. Needless to say, this required
the cooperation of many individuals, agencies and organizations. The re-
sponse was excellent. It seems a bit absurd to go into details since most
of you have assisted in one way or another during all or part of the time
I have been here. One of the important things we have tried to do was to
keep you informed as well as seek your help.
At the beginning, I spent considerable time in the Counties counseling
with agents, participating in grower meetings and doing some "trouble
shooting." It soon became obvious that with only one Extension Entomolo-
gist, it would be necessary to travel less and spend more time preparing
teaching materials that could be used by County Extension Workers in their
educational programs. It also became obvious that pest control has so
many aspects that extension specialists and county workers cannot do the
job just by direct contact with farmers. More and more work was needed
with insecticide and equipment manufacturers, distributors, retailers, com-
modity associations, processors of crops and livestock, farm organizations,
agricultural consultants and similar groups. In Florida, this resulted in a
concentrated effort toward keeping this clientele informed through Plant
Protection Pointers, initiated in 1958, and other publications.
In December 1959, the Florida Conference Group, which is made up of
the agricultural organizations in the state, met at the Citrus Experiment
Station, Lake Alfred and recommended that some individual or individuals
be charged with the responsibility of obtaining and disseminating informa-
tion pertaining to pesticides and other related chemicals used by the agricul-
tural industries. They specified the Federal Food and Drug Administration,
but it was intended to cover developments by other agencies. The Agricultur-
al Extension Service was designated and accepted the responsibility. This
resulted in the Extension Agricultural Chemicals Information Center at the
University of Florida. In January 1960, a committee of Extension Spec-
ialists was designated by the Director of the Agricultural Extension Serv-
ice with the Extension Entomologist as Chairman and an Assistant Direc-
tor as Administrative Coordinator.
This added assignment was accepted by the Extension Entomologist
without any additional help. It was not until January 1965, that an As-
sistant Extension Entomologist, John R. Strayer, was employed with funds
appropriated by Congress in 1964. He has done an outstanding job and
relieved me of many responsibilities.
In looking back at Extension Entomology, I could not resist contacting
some of the older Extension Entomologists from a few other states to ask
about one or more of their challenging and satisfying experiences. W. A.
Ruffin, retired Extension Entomologist, Alabama said, "I was the first Ex-
tension Entomologist in Alabama and one of the first in the Southeast. I
started work September 1, 1924 and retired on January 15, 1961 . .With-
out any doubt, the most effective and satisfying pieces of work I did were
with radio, TV and newspaper articles. The reason I feel that this was
effective is because through one media or another we were reaching all of
the people, rural and urban. Without going into details, I prepared a three-


Brogdon: Extension Entomology


hundred word article about insects and their control every week for 12
years. I never missed a week and no two articles were alike."
Dr. T. H. Parks, first Extension Entomologist, now retired, stated, "the
most satisfying experience I had was probably the acceptance by Ohio
farmers of safe wheat sowing dates to avoid damage by the Hessian fly.
This almost eliminated the heavy losses caused by this insect to winter
wheat. I had the greater part of this work to do in determining the safe-
sowing dates in each locality and in getting them accepted and used by
Dr. J. 0. Pepper, retired Extension Entomologist, Pennsylvania, said,
"I believe the most challenging part of Extension Entomology is trying to
work out teaching techniques that will put your program across to your
public and getting them to accept and adopt it. Then the great satisfac-
tions come back when these people tell you later that they tried your sug-
gestions (program) and they worked profitably for them."
It has been difficult to evaluate the success of our Extension Entomology
Program in Florida, but at times we get reports of successful efforts. I
remember an experience that serves as an example. During October 1960,
a poultryman in Southwest Florida was served a notice to appear in Cir-
cuit Court for Contempt of Court because he had not satisfactorily con-
trolled house flies in his caged poultry operation near a trailer park. The
poultryman had been supplied the Extension Service recommendations by
the county agent, but was not using them properly. We put out a demon-
stration on how to measure and mix the insecticide. Then we demonstrat-
ed, by spraying one of the poultry houses, how to properly apply the spray
to get the required amount of insecticide uniformly distributed over the
problem area. Later we visited the poultry farm and again found that the
situation was improved, but satisfactory control had not been obtained. It
was learned that the poultryman still was not using as much insecticide
as was recommended and had not been getting adequate coverage due to
the way he operated the sprayer. The proper way to apply the insecticide
was again demonstrated and the importance of using the recommended
amounts was emphasized. On November 10, the poultryman appeared in
Circuit Court, and because of the progress that had been made, was given
additional time to correct the situation. On December 1, the owner of the
trailer park, who was the other party in the suit, called the county agent
to report that they had a picnic on their grounds Thanksgiving day without
any trouble from house flies and that flies were still hard to find. Later
that day, the county agent went out to the poultry farm and checked all
three of the poultry houses for house fly larvae. He reported that none
could be found. This emphasizes the importance and effectiveness of
demonstrations which make up an essential part of Extension work.
Another effort that has resulted in more favorable comments from in-
dustry than any other since I have been Extension Entomologist is the
preparation and distribution of our "Florida Insect Control Guide." It is
a total effort of all entomologists of the Institute of Food and Agricultural
Extension Entomology is now active in all 50 states and Puerto Rico.
There are approximately 112 full-time Extension Entomologists with an-
other 60 people devoting part of their time to Extension Entomology. It

246 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 4

ranges from a part-time Extension Entomologist in Maine to 9 full-time
Extension Entomologists in Texas. There are 7 in Pennsylvania and 6 in
Georgia. Even with these numbers of workers, all states continue to face
the problem of getting the public to utilize the best available information
on pest control, and safety in handling and storing agricultural chemicals.

What is the Future of Extension Entomology?

It is extremely bright and will challenge qualified Entomologists to ded-
icate themselves to the acceptance of the many opportunities and responsi-
bilities. They will need to be better trained in the biological, physical and
social sciences.
The population is changing from rural to urban. By 1980, it is esti-
mated that 183 million or 75 percent of the U. S. Population will reside in
urban areas. This will require more publications on household and garden
pests, more radio and TV programs and more newspaper articles. The
number of publications needed on cockroaches and chinch bugs will be many
times the numbers needed for cabbage and sweet corn insects. It will put
insecticides into the hands of more people who know little about them and
require a more concentrated program on safe handling, application and
storage. It will require closer work with dealers selling pesticides, and
pest control operators who apply them.
This increase in urban population will also provide the 4-H Entomology
Program with many boys and girls who cannot participate in projects that
require animals and land, but can collect insects and meet other require-
ments of the project.
Advances in biological control, such as eradication programs, will re-
quire Extension Entomology work in keeping all people informed. The ben-
eficial aspects of such programs must be emphasized.
Integrated control is a relatively new term for an approach to pest
control based on applied ecology. In this approach, all available techniques
such as chemicals, biological, cultural, physical or regulatory control are
consolidated into one program so that pest populations can be managed.
This will bring about the use of computerized programs and will open a
new area of specialization.
There will be opportunities in helping to determine Population Dynam-
ics of a species of insect to bring about greater reduction of pest insects
and possible eradication.
Extension Entomologists will need to do more applied research leaving
more time for basic investigations by the Experiment Station Entomologists.
He may hold a joint appointment conducting research and extension, and
possibly teaching to become highly specialized to supply the demand for
more highly technical information by commercial agriculture.
Agricultural associations and organizations that serve commercial grow-
ers will continue to grow and more insecticides will be applied by them
on a custom basis. Extension Entomologists will need to work more closely
with them, especially in problem diagnosis, residue tolerance information,
and pesticide safety.
Area Extension Entomologists will be needed so they can be close to

Brogdon: Extension Entomology 247

the people and the problems. This can involve county workers working
across county lines or area specialists responsible for a few counties.


Helpful information was received from Dr. Milledge Murphey, Jr., De-
partment of Entomology, University of Florida and the following Extension
Entomologists: Dr. T. H. Parks (retired), Ohio; Dr. J. O. Pepper (retired),
Pennsylvania; Mr. W. A. Ruffin (retired), Alabama; Dr. Harold Gunderson,
Iowa; Dr. E. H. Wheeler, Massachusetts; Dr. J. 0. Rowell, Virginia; Dr.
P. H. Wooley, Michigan; Mr. A. G. Bennett, Mississippi; Dr. E. H. Fisher,
Wisconsin; Dr. G. E. Lehker, Indiana and Mr. P. W. Bergman, Federal
Extension Service. Considerable information was taken from materials
prepared by the late M. P. Jones when he was Federal Extension Service



How can they serve you?

SHELL Chemical Company, in coopera-
tion with federal, state and local agri-
cultural specialists, is continually striving
to help farmers reach higher agricultural
goals. Products such as aldrin, dieldrin,
endrin, methyl parathion, Phosdrin and
Vapona Insecticides have been of major
assistance to the farmer, homeowner and
industry. So have D-D and Nemagon
Soil Fumigants and Aqualin herbicide,
slimicide, biocide.
These products have proved their effec-
tiveness and versatility by solving many
of the economic pest problems confront-
ing the farmer. Shell insecticides are prov-

ing equally useful in a growing number
of non-agricultural applications in indus-
try and the home.
The never-ending search for additional
uses of established Shell pesticides and for
new, improved products to help you, is a
welcome assignment at Shell Chemical
Company -chemical partner of agricul-
ture and industry.
Get full details about the Shell pesti-
cide that fits your needs'at your nearest
Shell Chemical Co. District Office, or
write: Shell Chemical Co., Agricultural
Chemicals Division, 110 West 51st Street,
New York 20, N. Y.

Product No. Agricultural No. Non-Agricultural No. Pests
oduct Crop Uses Uses Controlled

Dieldrih 153
Aldrin 159
Endrin 37
Insecticide 51
Methyl Parathion 23
Nemagon Soil 49
D-D Soil 50

Agricultural Chemicals Division


*Th*: alre more than 130 species of nerm;.
todie known to tttrack plants. Nicmagon and
)-D Soil Fumnigants control most oE these.


Entomologist, University of Florida Citrus Experiment Station, Lake
Alfred, Florida, and Chief, Entomology Section, Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture, Gainesville, Florida, respectively.

Macroseius biscutatus Chant, Denmark, and Baker (1959) was described
from males, females, and immatures taken from pitcher plant leaf cups,
Sarracenia sp., in Alachua County by R. E. Woodruff and H. A. Denmark.
A new subfamily and genus were erected for the species because of its
large size, divided dorsal scutum, and five pairs of dorsal setae (excluding
the vertical and clunal setae). The unique characteristics of this mite
have been recognized by Chant (1959), Muma (1961, 1963), Wainstein
(1962), Pritchard and Baker (1962), and Schuster and Pritchard (1963)
in maintaining for it a separate subfamily or tribe. Chant (1965), how-
ever, expanded and reevaluated the family and synonymized the subfamily
and tribe within the Phytoseiinae.
Since all workers prior to Chant (1965) considered the species to be
morphologically distinctive, the present authors initiated biological stud-
ies in late 1961 to determine whether the species was biologically distinct.
Special attention was directed toward determination of its ecological re-
quirements, life cycle, and food habits.

Since M. biscutatus lives inside of the leaf cups of Sarracenia minor
Walt. (Fig. 1) where it cannot be observed, most of the studies were
conducted in the laboratory. Leaf cups (Fig. 2) were collected at several
locations, placed in paper or plastic sacks, and maintained in an upright
position during transportation and storage. The leaf cups were cut open
after refrigeration for varying lengths of time, and the number, location,
and activity of the mites recorded. The mites were then removed and
isolated singly or in groups in shell vials, test tubes, stender dishes,
syracuse dishes, petri dishes, glass tubings plugged with cotton and
plaster of paris, or glass reconstructions of leaf cups. Substrates included
leaf pieces, insect fragments collected from leaf cups, frass of the pitcher
plant infesting noctuid, Exyra semicrocea (Gn.), white plaster of paris,
plaster of paris mixed with charcoal, agar, blotting paper, and filter paper.
Offered foods included clean leaf cup pieces, untreated and autoclaved
insect fragments and noctuid frass, miscellaneous living, injured, or dead
collembola from leaf cups, agar reared collembola, collembola and mush-
rooms, Anoetus hughesi Hunter and Hunter from leaf cups, undetermined
Acaridae, Panagrolaimus sp. from leaf cups, Panagrellus redivivus (Linn6),
rotting potatoes, undetermined fungus cultures on agar, and clean agar.

IFlorida Agriculture Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 2684.
2Contribution No. 100, Entomology Section, Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture.

The Florida Entomologist

All laboratory observations, tests, and hearings were conducted at room
temperatures that ranged from 750 F to 85 F. Humidities during feeding
and life cycle studies were maintained at near saturation levels by regular
addition of water to the isolation cages. In a few instances, cages were
allowed to dry out in order to test survival of mites under low humidities.



Vol. 50, No. 4

3 2

Fig. 1. Large plant of Sarracenia minor Walt. Fig. 2. Leaf cups of
S. minor, one-half life size. Fig. 3. Cluster of Macroseius biscutatus
Chant, Denmark, and Baker on inside surface of leaf cup, 24X. Fig. 4.
Female M. biscutatus and Panagrellus redivivus (L.), 54X.



Muma: Biology of Macroseius biscutatus


M. biscutatus has been collected from Florida, Georgia, and North
Carolina. In Florida, it has been recorded from Alachua, Baker, Osceola,
Polk, and Putnam Counties. Its distribution probably coincides with that
of Sarracenia minor Walt. No Sarracenia purpurescens Linn6 or Sar-
racenia flava Linn6 were examined during the study.
With the exception of a single male found on asparagus fern, Aspara-
gus plumosus Baker, by C. R. Roberts, 14 February 1966 at Fern Park,
Florida, all specimens have been taken from the inside of pitcher plant
leaf cups. Several samples of ground litter around and between pitcher
plants have produced no specimens. Beating of grasses and bushes in
pitcher plant localities has also failed to produce specimens. Hibernation
and mite migration were not observed during this study, but mites
obviously must survive winter conditions when plant foliage is killed.
The mites probably move from plant-to-plant during the spring and
summer, perhaps by some form of phoresy.
The mites on which the original description was based were collected
from leaf cups infested with E. semicrocea larvae and seemed to be
associated with the larval frass. In recent collections populations varied
from 1 to 20 individuals per leaf cup. Although mites were found in
clean cups, insect-filled cups, noctuid-injured cups, and anoetid-infested
cups, large clusters (Fig. 3) were found primarily in insect-filled cups.
No mites were found in dead cups or in living cups from which the hood
had been removed by insect injury, livestock grazing, or mowing.
The mites apparently remain active during all seasons of the year in
Florida. Collections have been made in every month except August, and
this lack is one of omission rather than failure to collect. Abundance
of the mites at any given location apparently is governed more by leaf
cup condition than by season as is shown in Table 1.


The life cycle of M. biscutatus was obtained by using the nematodes,
Panagrolaimus sp. and Panagrellus redivivus (Linn6), as food. Mites
did not complete a life cycle on any of the other offered foods except
the scavenger mite, Anoetus hughesi Hunter and Hunter. When nema-
todes were used as food, mite reproduction, development, and population
increases were obtained in test tubes, stender dishes, and petri dishes.
Table 2 represents a summary of data with three series of mites.
Eggs were of the typical obovate phytoseiid form. In the laboratory,
they were most frequently laid on the sides of the tubes or dishes. They
were found on the sides of the leaf cups under natural conditions. Eggs
usually hatched in 2 to 6 days.
Larvae for the most part did not feed, but an occasional specimen was
observed feeding on immature nematodes. Larvae usually completed
development in less than one day.
Pronymphs and deutonymphs moved around and fed in the same
deliberate manner as adults. Nymphs usually completed development in
6 to 12 days.
Adults walked slowly and deliberately over the various substrates,

252 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 4


Locality Date No. cups No. mites Condition of leaf cups

Polk City

11 miles north
of Polk City

Orange Heights,
Alachua County











10 0 Most young and clean
10 25 All insect-filled
10 46 All insect-filled
10 7 5 damaged, 5 insect-
10 5 5 damaged, 5 young
10 58 Most insect-filled
10 9 Most damaged or dead
10 31 Most insect-filled
10 0 All damaged
10 30 Most insect-filled
10 42 Most insect-filled
10 0 All young and clean
10 27 All damaged-partially
insect filled
10 32 All damaged-partially
insect filled
10 41 7 damaged, 3 young and
clean, 2 damaged, in-
10 68 8 young and partially
10 100+ All almost mature, in-
10 100+ All mature, insect-filled
10 100+ All mature, insect-filled
10 100+ All mature, insect-filled,
3 damaged
10 62 All damaged, insect-
10 46 All damaged, insect-
10 34 All damaged, partially

picked up nematodes in their chelicerae, and fed readily (Fig. 4). When
two or more adults were isolated together, they usually remained in a
group except when feeding. Adults and nymphs also clustered together,
but cannibalism of nymphs was occasionally observed. Adults were not


Muma: Biology of Macroseius biscutatus 253

observed cannibalizing each other. Mating was accomplished in the usual
phytoseiid manner with the male clinging to the venter of the female and
with both oriented in the same direction. Females produced eggs 10 to 14
days after mating and survived from 14 to 126 days with a mean of 93
days. Unmated females produced no eggs, but unmated males and females
survived from 72 to 93 days with a mean of 81 days.


Since Chant (1959), Chant and Fleschner (1960), McMurtry (1963),
and others have demonstrated that some phytoseiid species can survive


Food Number No. days to complete development
Stage mites Minimum Maximum Mean Mode

Panagrellus redivius 24
Egg 4.00 10 6.00 6.00
Larva 0.75 1 0.86 0.75
Pronymph 4.00 7 5.10 5.00
Deutonymph 5.00 8 6.10 6.00

Totals 13.75 26 18.06 17.75
Panagrolaimus sp. 25
Egg 2.00 3 2.40 2.00
Larva 0.75 1 0.86 0.75
Pronymph 3.00 5 4.00 4.00
Deutonymph 3.00 6 4.40 4.00

Totals 8.75 15 11.66 10.75
Panagrolaimus sp. 27
Egg 2 6 4.3 4
Larva 1 6 1.7 1
Pronymph 3 5 3.5 3
Deutonymph 3 4 3.3 3

Totals 9 21 12.8 11

and reproduce on more than one kind of food, M. biscutatus was offered
a wide variety of food materials that existed in its environmental niche
and some that did not. Results of these feeding tests were evaluated
using survival, reproduction, and development as criteria for food suit-
ability. The results are presented in Table 3.
M. biscutatus apparently can survive for varying lengths of time up to
3 months on water and offered dead animal materials. However, among

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 50, No. 4


No. Days Repro-
Offered food* mites survival duction Development

Leaf cups
Noctuid frass-in
leaf cup
Noctuid frass-in
test tube
Noctuid frass boiled
-in test tube
Insect fragments

Insect fragments
Insect fragments
Insect fragments
Citrus litter


Injured Collembola 17
Collembola and insect
fragments 10

Collembola and
mushrooms 24
Agar reared
Collembola 16
Unidentified acarids 10
Unidentified acarids 5

Anoetus hughesi
H. & H. 20
Anoetids and
Panagrolaimus 18
redivivus (L.) 48
Panagrolaimus sp. 40?

Panagrolaimus sp. 10


24 112

15 13-90

15 13-90
10 12-37

15 13-90

15 30-90

10 10-40
6 30-31

10 119-126











None after
3rd day
None after
3rd day

None after
3rd day




None after
3rd day








None beyond
None beyond

None beyond
None beyond
None beyond
None beyond
None beyond

None beyond
A few adults
Many adults
Many adults
Many adults
Many adults

*When an offered food appears twice in the table, both authors tested it.


Muma: Biology of Macroseius biscutatus 255

all the food materials offered, it can reproduce only on collembola,
anoetids, or nematodes, and it can complete development only on anoetids
or nematodes. Present data indicate that of these two, nematodes are
probably preferred.

Biological data accumulated to date indicate that M. biscutatus is
largely restricted to an ecological niche encompassed by the leaf cups of
S. minor. Its abundance within the niche is limited by leaf cup condition,
its life cycle is longer than that reported for other phytoseiids, and its pre-
ferred food is nematodes. Such is not the case, however, with most
phytoseiids which are ubiquitous, limited in abundance by temperature
and available food, have a short life cycle, and feed primarily on mites,
pollen and honeydew.
Since M. biscutatus seems to be as distinctive biologically as it is
morphologically, it would seem that its retention in the montotypic
sub-family Macroseiinae Chant, Denmark, and Baker is justified.

Chant, D. A. 1959. Phytoseiid mites (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Part I.
Bionomics of seven species in southeastern England. Part II. A
taxonomic review of the family Phytoseiidae, with descriptions of
38 new species. Can. Entomol. 91, Suppl. 12, 166 p.
Chant, D. A. 1965. Generic concepts in the family Phytoseiidae (Acarina:
Mesostigmata). Can. Entomol. 97: 351-374.
Chant, D. A. and C. A. Fleschner. 1960. Some observations on the
ecology of phytoseiid mites (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) in California.
Entomophaga 5(2): 131-139.
Chant, D. A., H. A. Denmark, and E. W. Baker. 1959. A new subfamily,
Macroseiinae Nov., of the family Phytoseiidae (Acarina: Gamasina).
Can. Entomol. 91: 808-811.
McMurtry, J. A. 1963. Diaspidine scale insects as prey for certain phyto-
seiid mites. Advances in Acarology 1: 151-154.
Muma, M. H. 1961. Subfamilies, genera, and species of Phytoseiidae
(Acarina: Mesostigmata). Fla. State Mus. Bull. Biol. Sci. 5: 267-302
Muma, M. H. 1963. Generic synonymy in the Phytoseiidae (Acarina:
Mesostigmata). Fla. Entomol. 46: 11-16.
Pritchard, A. E. and E. W. Baker. 1962. Mites of the family Phytoseiidae
from Central Africa, with remarks on the genera of the world.
Hilgardia 33: 205-309.
Schuster, R. and A. E. Pritchard. 1963. Phytoseiidae of California.
Hilgardia 34: 191-285.
Wainstein, B. 1962. Revision du genre Typhlodromus Scheuten, 1857
et syst6matique de la familee des Phytoseiidae (Berlese, 1916).
(Acarina: Parasitiformes). Acarologia 4: 5-30.

The Florida Entomologist 50(4) 1967

3 2

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The cosmopolitan cruciferous leaf miner, Liriomyza brassicae (Riley),
was first described as Oscinis brassicae by Riley (1884). Frick (1952b)
revised the species as Liriomyza brassicae (Riley).

Frick (1957) stated, "In North America, brassicae is the only known
miner of nasturtium and various species in the family Cruciferae. I have
reared it from several species of mustard including tumbling mustard
(Sisymbrium altissimum L.), wild radish, Chinese winter radish, cauli-
flower, and turnip in California and Washington. .. ." Nowakowski
(1962) remarked that L. brassicae seems to occur in central Europe only
on weeds and cultivated plants of the following families: Cruciferae,
Resedaceae, Capparidaceae, and Tropaeolaceae. Nowakowski stated that
brassicae avoids the autochthonic cruciferous plants, as for example, the
genera Cardamine L., Dentaria L., Rorippa Scop., Turritis L., Arabis L.,
Alyssum L., Lunaria L., and others.

Spencer (1964) reported L. brassicae as a cosmopolitan, oligophagous
leaf miner occurring on many genera of Cruciferae and also infesting a
closely related family, Capparidaceae. He stated that in 1962 a species
was reported from Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia infesting cabbage and
Pisum. Subsequent determinations by Spencer proved this species to be
without doubt L. brassicae.

Frick (1952a) described L. hawaiiensis as a leaf miner in Hawaii and
Frick (1953) reported the host plants of hawaiiensis as follows: Gynan-
dropsis pentaphylla D. C., Cleome, cauliflower, cabbage, Chinese cabbage,
and Nasturtium sp. Spencer (1963) synonymized L. hawaiiensis Frick as
L. brassicae. Spencer stated that he had seen paratypes of L. hawaiiensis
bred from cabbage, nasturtium, and daikon. Frick (1965) listed Phyto-
myza mitis Curran as another synonym of L. brassicae.

L. brassicae is not the only leaf miner infesting cruciferous plants in
the United States. Oatman (1959) reported L. munda Frick, misidentified
as L. pictella (Thomson), reared from cruciferous plants in California.
Stegmaier (1966) cited hearings of L. munda from several cruciferous
plants in Florida.

1Contribution No. 113, Entomology Section, Div. of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture, Gainesville.
2Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Div. of
Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 50, No. 4


Cleome graveolens Rafin., spiderflower, ............ Singapore; Philippine
Islands; Ceylon. (Spencer 1961a).
Cleome sp. ............ Hawaii (Frick 1952a, as L. hawaiiensis).
Gyandropsis pentaphylla D. C. ............ Hawaii (Frick 1952a, as L.
Gynandropsis speciosa D. C., spiderflowers .................... Colombo, Ceylon
(Spencer 1961a).

Brassica arvensis (L.) B.S.P. ............ United States (Frick 1959). The
plant is known as white mustard and the specific name is a synonym
of Brassica kaber (D.C.) L. C. Wheeler. Another common name
for the plant is charlock.
Brassica campestris L., bird rape............. United States (Frick 1959).
Brassica inconspicuum (S. Wats.), wormseed-mustard or wild wallflower.
............ United States (Frick 1959).
Brassica napus L., rape. ....------ United States (Frick 1959).
Brassica nigra (L.) Koch., black mustard. ............ United States (Frick
Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis L., cauliflower or broccoli. .........
United States (Frick 1959).
Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L., cabbage, ............ Japan, (Sasa-
kawa 1961).
Brassica rapa L., turnip. ............ United States (Frick 1959); Africa
(Spencer 1961a, 1961b).
Brassica sp. .......... French West Africa (Spencer 1959).
Crucifera sp. ............ Bambey, Senegal (Spencer 1959).

Radicula palustris (L.) Moench., yellow water-cress or marsh-cress.
......... United States (Frick 1959).
Raphanus sativus L., garden radish ............ United States (Frick 1959).
Raphanus sativus L. acanthiormis Makino. ............ Japan (Sasakawa
Sisymbrium altissimum L., hedgemustard ............ United States (Frick

Pisum sp., garden peas. ............ Southern Rhodesia (Spencer 1964).

Tropaeolum majus L., garden nasturtium. ............ Pretoria, South Africa
(Spencer 1959).


Stegmaier: Hosts of Liriomyza brassicae


Tropaeolum sp., garden nasturtium. ............ Manitoba, Canada; United
States (Frick 1959); Africa (Spencer 1961b). Nowakowski (1962)
established the following data: ". . Tropaeolum L. which attracts
miners of the Cruciferae, e.g. Liriomyza brassicae (Ril.), contains
myrosins and mustard oil glucosides so characteristic for cruciferous
plants (cf. Buhr, 1937)."

Cabbage. ............ Hawaii (Frick 1952a, as L. hawaiiensis); Salisbury,
Southern Rhodesia (Spencer 1964).
Cauliflower. ........... New Delhi, India (Spencer 1961a); United States
(Frick 1957).
Chinese cabbage. ............ Hawaii (Frick 1952a, as L. hawaiiensis). Two
species of Chinese cabbage are known by specific names. Brassica
chinensis L., pak-choi. Brassica pekinensis (Lour.) Rupr, petsai.
Chinese winter radish. ............ United States (Frick 1957).
Common mustard cabbage. ........... Hawaii (Frick 1953).

Daikon. ............ Hawaii (Frick 1952a, as L. hawaiiensis).
Mustard. ............ British Guiana (Spencer 1963). He stated, "I have now
seen paratypes of hawaiiensis bred from cabbage, nasturtium and
"daikon" and have been able to confirm that the genitalia of males
from the first two hosts are identical in all respects with the genitalia
of males of brassicae I have examined from Abyssinia (Spencer, 1961b:
fig. 16), West Africa, Rhodesia, Fiji, and Micronesia. I therefore
synonymise hawaiiensis Frick with brassicae (Riley) herewith."
Host unknown, caught specimens. ....-..... Teneriff, Cape Verde Islands
(Spencer 1959).
Nasturtium (?watercress, genus Nasturtium sp. or garden nasturtium,
genus Tropaelum sp.) ........... Hawaii (Frick 1952a, as L. hawaiiensis);
Mauritius, Africa (Spencer 1959). Watercress is listed as Nasturtium
officinale R. Br. (Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Schinz and Thell.).
Tumbling mustard. ........... United States (Frick 1957).
Turnip ........... United States (Frick 1957).
White mustard cabbage. ............ Hawaii. (Frick 1957).
Wild radish ........... United States (Frick 1957).

Frick (1952b stated, "As a result of these studies, L. brassicae is
considered a valid species. I have reared it from serpentine mines in the
leaves of Tropaeolum sp. (Nasturtium), Brassica oleracea var. botrytis,
B. arvensis (L.), B. nigra Koch, Raphanus sativus L., R. sativus var.
longipinnatus. Central Europe, Canary Islands, North America."
Spencer (1959) cited L. brassicae as occurring widely in the Palaearctic
and Nearctic Regions. Frick (1965) stated the distribution of brassicae
is widespread throughout the United States and from Manitoba, Canada.
Spencer (1961) said that L. brassicae is widespread on indigenous plants
in Asia.

260 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 4


Brassica campestris L.: Hialeah, 12 Mar. 1963 (C.E.S.).
Brassica napus L.: Gainesville, 8 Apr. 1964 (D. H. Habeck).
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.: North Miami, 6 Feb. 1963 (E. B. Lee).
Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.: North Miami, 11 Feb. 1963 (E. B. Lee).
Brassica rapa L.: Hialeah, 17, 19 Mar. 1963 (C.E.S.).
Cleome sp.: Hialeah, 13 Mar. 1963 (C.E.S.).
Lepidium virginicum L., Field cress; poor-mans pepper; yellow seed;
peppergrass.: Miami, 20 Jan. 1963 (C.E.S.); Miami, 22 Feb. 1963
(C.E.S.). A search of the literature indicates that Lepidium virgini-
cum is a new host record for Liriomyza brassicae.
Tropaeolum sp., garden nasturtium: Hialeah, 5 Mar. 1963 (C.E.S.).

REARED PARASITES OF Liriomyza brassicae
The following hymenopterous parasites from the family Eulophidae
were reared from plant infestations of Liriomyza brassicae during 1963.
Chrysocharis spp., three males; Diaulinopsis callichroma Cwfd., a male
and a female; and Pnigalio sp., two females from cruciferous plant
infestations of only one insect, Liriomyza brassicae. Parasite determina-
tions were by Dr. B. D. Burks, Entomology Research Division, ARS,
The author is pleased to express his indebtedness to the following
individuals for their help in making this paper possible: Mr. Kenneth A.
Spencer, for his collaboration on the study of the Agromyzidae of
Florida, for his numerous identifications of the leaf-mining flies, and for his
suggestions concerning the research; the late Professor Erdman West,
Botanist and Mycologist, Plant Pathology Department, University of
Florida, for his many plant identifications of infested host plant material;
Ernest B. Lee, Plant Quarantine Division, Miami, ARS, USDA, for his
generous collections of agromyzid-infested truck crops; Dr. Dale H. Ha-
beck, Department of Entomology, University of Florida, for his collection
of cited host-plant infestations; Dr. B. D. Burks, Entomology Research
Division, ARS, USDA, for the Eulophidae parasite identifications; Dr.
Howard V. Weems, Jr., Curator, Florida State Collection of Arthropods,
Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture, for equip-
ment and for his numerous suggestions relative to the study of the Florida
Agromyzidae; and finally, I would like especially to thank Mr. George
C. Steyskal, Entomology Research Division, ARS, USDA, for his critical
evaluation of this paper, and for his suggestions concerning style im-
provement of this manuscript.

Buhr, H. 1937. Parasitenbefall und Pflanzenverwandtschaft. Botan.
Jahrb., 68 (2-3): 142-198.
Frick, K. E. 1952a. Four new Hawaiian Liriomyza species and notes
on other Hawaiian Agromyzidae. Proc. Hawaii Entomol. Soc. 14
(3) : 509-518.

Stegmaier: Hosts of Liriomyza brassicae


Frick, K. E. 1952b. A generic revision of the family Agromyzidae
(Diptera) with a card catalog of New World Species. Univ. Calif.
Pub. Entomol. 8: 339-452.
Frick, K. E. 1953. Further studies on Hawaiian Agromyzidae (Diptera)
with descriptions of four new species, Proc. Hawaii Entomol. Soc.
25 (1): 207-215.
Frick, K. E. 1957. Nearctic species in the Liriomyza pusilla complex,
No. 2, L. munda and two other species attacking crops in California
(Diptera: Agronmyzidae). Pan-Pac. Entomol. 33 (2) : 59-70.
Frick, K. E. 1959. A synopsis of agromyzid leaf miners described from
North America (Diptera). Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 108: 347-465.
Frick, K. E. 1965. Family Agromyzidae. In Stone, A., et al. A catalog
of the Diptera of North America north of Mexico. ARS, USDA,
Agr. Handbook 276, 1696 p. Reference on p. 794-805.
Nowakowski, J. T. 1962. Introduction to a systematic revision of the
family Agromyzidae (Diptera) with some remarks on host plant
selection by these flies. Ann. Zoo., Polska. Akad. Nauk. 20 (8):
Oatman, E. R. 1959. Host range of the melon leaf miner Liriomyza
pictella (Thomson) (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc.
Amer. 52:739-741.
Riley, C. V. 1885. Report of the entomologist. Rep. of the Commissioner
of Agr. 1884: 285-418.
Sasakawa, M. 1961. A study of the Japanese Agromyzidae (Diptera).
Part III. Sci. Rep. Kyoto Pref. Univ. Agric. 13: 60-67.
Spencer, K. A. 1959. A synopsis of the Ethiopian Agromyzidae (Diptera)
Trans. Roy. Entomol. Soc. London. 111 (10) :237-329.
Spencer, K. A. 1961a. A synopsis of the Oriental Agromyzidae (Diptera).
Trans. Roy. Entomol. Soc. London. 113 (4) : 55-100.
Spencer, K. A. 1961b. Notes on the African Agromyzidae-2. Dtsch.
Entomol. Z. (N. F.). 8: 415-430.
Spencer, K. A. 1963. A synopsis of the Neotropical Agromyzidae
(Diptera). Trans. Roy. Entomol. Soc. London. 115 (12) : 291-389.
Spencer, K. A. 1964. The species-host relationship in the Agromyzidae
(Diptera) as an aid to taxonomy. Proc. XIIth Int. Congr. Entomol.
London. p. 101-102.
Stegmaier, C. E., Jr. 1966. Host plants and parasites of Liriomyza
munda in Florida (Diptera, Agromyzidae). Fla. Entomol. 49: 81-86.

The Florida Entomologist 50(4) 1967




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Predaceous mites are not uncommon in bark beetle infestations (Stark
and Borden 1965, Lindquist and Bedard 1961). The somewhat similar
habitat of Hylobius pales (Hbst.) suggests the possibility that predaceous
mites could also occur with this insect. One mite species, Histiogaster
anops Griffiths, is known to associate with the pales weevil, but it is not
predaceous (Davis 1961, Davis and Hunter 1963). In exploratory studies,
we found additional mite species occurring with the pales weevil that
possibly could be predaceous; therefore, an attempt was made to gather
more information about these mites and their relationship to the weevil.

A total of 581 weevils was collected as follows: 450 from Bolton, N.C.,
in January, April, and May 1965; 50 from Olustee, Fla., in February 1966;
31 from Wake County, N.C., in May 1966; and 50 from Asheville, N.C., in
July 1966. These areas were selected because the weevils were abundant
and cooperators were available. Weevils were collected as they aggrega-
ted beneath split pine bolts placed on the ground as bait. After the
weevils were identified as H. pales, they were sexed on the basis of the
apical spine of the hind tibia (Manwan 1958). Several dozen larvae and
pupae were also collected at the Wake County site.
The mites were readily found by means of a stereoscopic microscope
and removed from the integument of immature forms of the host. On
adult weevils, the elytra and hind wings were removed for complete
examination. The number of mites per insect were counted, or estimated
if large, and these enumerations were averaged and summarized as shown
in Table 1.

The principal mites infesting the weevils were Histiogaster anops,
Digamasellus sp., and Histiostoma sp. The trombidiform mite (Poda-
polipodidae) was limited to the weevils from Florida and from the Coastal
Plain of North Carolina. When present, the podapolipodid mites occurred
in large numbers. Weevils collected in Florida usually were infested with
the greatest number of mites.
Out of a total of 581 weevils examined, 135 were found to be infested
with mites. The mites found on the weevils were immature and chiefly
hypopi. The only adult mites obtained (Digamasellus sp.) were not
collected directly from the weevils but rather from debris found with the
insects under the split bolts.

1U. S. Forest Service, Forestry Sciences Laboratory, Research Tri-
angle Park, North Carolina
2North Carolina State University, Departments of Forest Management
and Entomology, Raleigh, North Carolina

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 50, No. 4







S x



M w


co o
I I oo

++ +

4 +

+ +

eto eo 00

+ h+

0 00

^ d
7- F
3 <
j S
^ 3

Thomas: Acarine Associates of Pales Weevil 265

Although the sex ratio of the weevils remained about 1:1 in the
collections from eastern North Carolina, nearly twice as many males as
females were mite-infested by the end of the collecting period. This
difference may be due to the mites leaving the female weevil when she
Mites were occasionally numerous on weevil larvae. When numerous,
the mites were concentrated in large masses on the dorsal surface of
the posterior abdominal segments. Occasionally, mites were concentrated
in the cervical fold of the larvae. While examining and counting the
mites, some heavily infested larvae were checked for possible mite-caused
injury. The area of the integument where mites had been scraped away
was examined at 50X, but the cleared surface showed no visible difference
compared to uninfested areas of the integument. Of 37 larvae collected,
35 were infested with mites, mainly Histiostoma sp. and a few Histiogaster
anops. Of eight pupae collected, all were lightly infested, again mainly
by Histiostoma sp. and a few by Histiogaster anops.
The mite belonging to the family Podapolipodidae is of particular
interest because the members of this group are insect parasites (Baker
and Wharton 1952). Since this mite was found on only eight adult
weevils out of 600 examined, an evaluation of its role as a parasite of
the pales weevil will depend on more extensive collecting and study.
The significance of the association of a species of Digamasellus with
the pales weevil remains to be elucidated. At least one member of the
genus apparently preys upon bark beetle eggs (Dale, personal communica-
tion), and another member of the genus has been implicated where a mite
complex effected control on immature stages of the Douglas-fir beetle,
Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopk. (Walters and Campbell 1955).
Atkins (1961) found the flight activity of the Douglas-fir beetle was
not reduced by attached mites, and studies on the flight of the pales
weevil show that they apparently are not inhibited by large numbers of
adhering mites (H. A. Thomas, unpublished data).


Together with the mite Histiogaster anops, previously found associated
with H. pales, three additional species of mites, Histiostoma sp., Digama-
sellus sp., and a member of the family Podapolipodidae were recovered
from the weevil. Species of Digamasellus have been implicated as pre-
dators of bark beetles, and podapolipodids are known insect parasites.
The results reported here suggest that the biological relationships of these
mites to the pales weevil need to be determined.


The assistance of H. F. Layman and others of the Riegel Paper
Company, H. J. Green of the N.C. State Forest Service, and E. P. Merkel
and C. F. Speers of the U. S. Forest Service, Southeastern Forest
Experiment Station, in supplying weevils is appreciated. Grateful ac-
knowledgment is also made to Dr. E. W. Baker, U. S. National Museum,
and to Dr. R. D. Hughes, Medical College of Virginia, for determination

266 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 4

of Histiostoma sp., and to Dr. J. C. Moser, Southern Forest Experiment
Station, for assistance in determination of the Podapolipodidae.
Co-author P. H. Darst served as undergraduate research participant
under National Science Foundation Grant GE 6320. The paper is pub-
lished with the approval of the Director of Research, North Carolina State
Agricultural Experiment Station, Raleigh, N. C.

Atkins, M. D. 1961. A study of the flight of the Douglas-fir beetle
Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopk. III. Flight capacity. Can.
Entomol. 93:467-474.
Baker, E. W. and G. W. Wharton. 1952. An Introduction to Acarology.
MacMillan Co., N. Y. 465 p.
Davis, R. 1961. Some biological studies of two pine reproduction
weevils Pachylobius picivorus and Hylobius pales. MS Thesis, Univ.
of Georgia, Athens.
Davis, R. and P. E. Hunter. 1963. Biological studies of a Histiogaster
mite associated with pine r production weevils. Ann. Entomol.
Soc. Amer., 56:682-687.
Lindquist, E. E. and W. D. Bedard. 1961. Biology and taxonomy of
mites of the genus Tarsonemoides (Acarina: Tarsonemidae) para-
sitizing eggs of bark beetles of the genus Ips. Can. Entomol.
Manwan, I. 1958. The biology of the pales weevil, Hylobius pales
(Herbst) in Arkansas. MS Thesis, Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville.
Stark, R. W. and J. H. Borden. 1965. Observations on mortality factors
of the engraver beetle. J. Econ. Entomol. 58:1162-1163.
Walters, J. and R. Campbell. 1955. Mites as agents of natural control
of the Douglas-fir beetle in British Columbia. Bi-Monthly Prog.
Rep. Can. Dept. of Forestry, 11:3.

The Florida Entomologist 50(4) 1967


University of Florida, Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred

Although several workers are presently collecting, studying, and iden-
tifying Asian phytoseiids, our knowledge of the oriental fauna of this
potentially important family of predatory mites is limited. During the
past 5 years, routine identification of phytoseiids from southern Asia
has resulted in the discovery of eight previously undescribed species.
These species are described here. One new genus is represented.
Seven previously described species were also identified during the study.
These are listed below with a citation of the localities, mainly in Pakistan,
at which they were collected.
1. Amblyseius ipomeae Ghai-Bombay, India.
2. Euseius delhiensis (Narayanan and Kaur)-Karachi, Tando Jam,
Sialkot Hyderabad, Rahimyar Khan, Multan, Murree, and Quetta,
3. Cydnodromus longispinosus (Evans)-Johore, Malaya.
4. Phytoseius corniger Wainstein-Sialkot, Pakistan.
5. Phytoseius intermedius Evans and McFarlane-Karachi, Pakistan.
6. Phytoseius rugosus Denmark-Sialkot and Tando Jam, Pakistan.
7. Amblydromella hadii (Chaudri)--Murree, Pakistan.
The nomenclature, terminology, and generic citations used here are the
same as those utilized by Muma (1965) and De Leon (1966). Types and
paratypes are deposited in the United States National Museum in Wash-
ington, D. C. Paratypes are also in the author's collection.
All drawings were made with the aid of a phase contrast microscope
at 500 to 900 X magnification. Measurements are in microns.
The new species were made available for description through the
courtesy of Dr. M. A. Ghani, Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control,
Pakistan Station, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, and Dr. J. A. McMurtry, University
of California at Riverside, Riverside, California.

Genus Amblyseius Berlese
Amblyseius Berlese. 1914. Redia. 10(1) :143.
Amblyseius, Garman. 1948. Conn. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 520:16. (in part).
Amblyseius, Athias-Henriot. 1958. Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique Nord.
49:27 (in part).
Amblyseius (Amblyseius), Muma. 1961. Bull. Fla. State Mus. Biol. Sci.
5(7) :287.
Amblyseius, Chant. 1965. Canad. Entomol. 97:371 (in part).

IFlorida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 2661.

268 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 4

Amblyseius, De Leon. 1966. Studies on the Fauna of Suriname and
other Guyanas. 8:88.
DIAGNOSIS: Females of this genus, as restricted by De Leon (1966) and
here, are distinguished by four pairs of dorsal setae, three pairs of median
setae of which Ms is elongate, whip-like, and indistinctly plumose, eight
pairs of lateral setae of which L4 and L8 are elongate, whip-like, and
indistinctly plumose, two pairs of sublateral setae on the interscutal mem-
brane, three pairs of sternal setae, three pairs of preanal setae, and three
macrosetae on leg IV with that on the genu longest. Fixed finger of
chelicerae with eight or more denticules and with several proximal to
pilus dentilis. Sternum with straight or concave posterior margin. Peri-
tremal scutum without distinguishable ectal strip extending to coxa IV
exopodal scutum. Ventrianal scutum vase-shaped to pentagonal. Addi-
tional macrosetae are usually present on genu and tibia leg III, genu leg
II, and genu and tarsus leg I.
DISCUSSION: At least 57 known species can be assigned to this genus.
Most are pale, weakly-sclerotized species that are found on the foliage of
various plants. A few are red or brown, heavily-sclerotized species that
are found in ground-surface leaf-litter.
A. floridanus (Muma) possesses massive chelicerae with two to four
rather large distal denticules on the fixed finger and a basal pilus dentilis
but otherwise seems to be a typical Ambylseius.

Amblyseius adhatodae new species
Fig. 1-5

DIAGNOSIS: This species is distinguished from the closely related Ambly-
seius largoensis (Muma) by having M3 distinctly longer than L4 and more
than half as long as Ls, La, and L3 twice as long as D1, and Dz, and a very
slender elongate cervix of the spermatheca. It differs from A. neolargoen-
sis van der Merwe in the form of the spermatheca and a shorter, broader
ventrianal scutum.
FEMALE HOLOTYPE: Dorsal scutum 375 / long and 275 A wide. Dorsal
scutum lightly sclerotized and smooth but with indistinct, dark, roughly
circular less-sclerotized areas. Fixed fingers of chelicerae with 10 or 11
tiny denticules; movable finger with one indistinct denticule. Sternal and
ventrianal scuta with several indistinct creases. Only Ms weakly serrate.
Peritremal scutum with a thin ectal strip that extends behind the stigmata
about two-thirds the distance to coxa IV exopodal scutum. Chaetotaxy
2 2 2 2
of genu II 2, -, -, 1, that of genu III 1, -, -, 1. Other morphological
0 0 1 0
details as shown in Fig. 1-4.
MALE: Spermatodactyl with short shank, short foot, and anteriorly bent
toe, Fig. 5. Ventrianal scutum with three pairs of preanal setae and a
pair of elliptical pores.

Fig. 1-5. Amblyseius adhatodae new species. 1. dorsal view. 2. ventral
scuta. 3. posterior end of peritreme. 4. spermatheca. 5. spermatodactyl.
Fig. 6-9. Amblyseius mcmurtryi new species. 6. dorsal view. 7. ventral
scuta. 8. posterior end of peritreme. 9. spermatheca.



`9 I

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\\, Ii'





The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 50, No. 4

RECORDS: Female holotype, male and larva from Adhatoda vasica, 4
September 1964, Karachi, Pakistan by M. A. Ghani. Female paratype from
Ipomoea sp., 6 May 1965, Bombay, India by S. Ghai.

Amblyseius mcmurtryi new species
Fig. 6-9
DIAGNOSIS: This species seems to be most closely related to Amblyseius
andersoni Chant and A. tenneseensis De Leon in having L2 and L:a minute
and leg IV tibial macroseta shorter than leg IV tarsal macroseta. It is
distinguished by the tiny rod-like spermatheca.
FEMALE HOLOTYPE: Dorsal scutum 320 1 long and 200 g wide. Dorsal
scutum lightly sclerotized and smooth but with very faint, sub-circular,
darker apparently less-sclerotized areas. Fixed finger of chelicerae with
eight or nine denticules; movable finger with three denticules. Sternal
and ventrianal scuta with a few faint creases. Peritremal scutum seem-
ingly without ectal strip and overlapped posteriorly by leg IV exopodal
2 2 2,2
scutum. Chaetotaxy of genu II 2, -, -, 1, that of Genu III 1, 1.
00 1
Other morphological details as shown in Fig. 6-9. Both ventro-caudal
setae are broken; the lengths of those on the paratype are indicated in
Fig. 7.
MALE: Unknown.
RECORDS: Female holotype and female paratype from citrus 5 November
1962, Assam, India by T. Manjernath.

Amblyseius paraaerialis new species
Fig. 10-13
DIAGNOSIS: This species is distinguished from the closely related Am-
blyseius aerialis (Muma) by the shorter spermatheca, wider, more dis-
tinct, major spermathecal duct, and by having leg IV tibial macroseta
slightly shorter than leg IV tarsal macroseta.
FEMALE HOLOTYPE: Dorsal scutum 320A long and 210/ wide. Dorsal
scutum lightly sclerotized and smooth but with very faint, sub-circular,
light and dark, apparently less-sclerotized areas. Chelicerae slightly larger
than usual for the genus; fixed finger with 9 or 10 denticules; movable
finger with 3 denticules. Peritremal scutum seemingly lacking lateral
strip and overlapped posteriorly by leg IV exopodal scutum. Chaetotaxy
2 2 2,2
of genu II 2, -, -, 1, that of genu III 1, 1. Other morphological
00 1
details as shown in Fig. 10-13.
MALE: Unknown.
RECORDS: Female holotype and female paratype from citrus, 12 Decem-
ber 1962, Palghat (Kerala), India by V. P. Rao. Three female paratypes,
progeny of 9 s from citrus, 26 August 1961, Burnihat, India.

Fig. 10-13. Amblyseius paraaerialis new species. 10. dorsal view.
11. ventral scuta. 12. posterior end of peritreme. 13. spermatheca.
Fig. 14-17. Typhlodromips johoreae new species. 14. dorsal view. 15.
ventral scuta. 16. posterior end of peritreme. 17. spermatheca.







`\ -es~g L

272 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 4

Genus Typhlodromips De Leon
Typhlodromips De Leon. 1964. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 67(1) :23.
Typhlodromips, Muma. 1965. Fla. Entomol. 48:45.
Typhlodromips De Leon. 1966. Studies on the Fauna of Suriname and
other Guyanas. 8(33) :93.
DIAGNOSIS: Females of this genus are characterized by four pairs of
dorsal setae, three pairs of median setae of which Ms is stout and serrate
or plumose, eight pairs of lateral setae of which La is stout and serrate
or plumose, two pairs of sublateral setae on the interscutal membrane,
three pairs of sternal setae, three pairs of preanal setae, and three
macrosetae on leg IV with that on basitaraus usually longest. Fixed
finger of chelicerae with eight or more denticules, several of which lie
proximal to the pilus dentilis. Sternum as wide or wider than long and
with straight or concave posterior margin. Peritremal scutum reduced and
indistinguishable fused to short stigmatal scutum. Ventrianal scutum
pentagonal to shield-shaped. Additional macrosetae are usually present
on the genu and occasionally on the tibia of legs I, II, and III.
DISCUSSION: Typhlodromips may be closely related to Neoseiulus Hughes
as indicated by De Leon (1965) but Neoseiulus reportedly has less than six
denticules on the short fixed cheliceral finger, and no macrosetae on legs
I, II, and III.
T. vicinus Muma has large chelicerae with only three or four denticules
on the fixed finger but otherwise seems to be a typical Typhlodromips.
At least 50 known species can be assigned to this genus.
Most species of the genus are found on low growing herbs, vines, and
bushes, but a few have been taken from trees or ground-surface leaf
Typhlodromips johoreae new species
Fig. 14-17
DIAGNOSIS: This species has affinities with T. japonicus (Ehara), T.
oguroi (Ehara), T. asiaticus (Evans), T. scleroticus De Leon, T. auratus
De Leon, and T. carribeanus (De Leon) but is more closely related to the
latter. It is distinguished by the shape of the ventrianal scutum, the size
of the ventrianal pores, the number and lengths of leg macrosetae, and
comparative lengths of setae on the dorsal scutum.
FEMALE HOLOTYPE: Dorsal scutum 320 I long and 200 A wide. Dorsal
scutum lightly sclerotized but imbricate on the anterior four-fifths, less
distinctly so in the area encompassed by the dorsal setae. Fixed finger
of chelicerae with seven to nine denticules, movable finger with two or
three denticules. Sternal and ventrianal scutum smooth except for a few
faint creases. M3 and L, stout and serrate. Spermatheca obscured but
cervix apparently a short tube with a small, distinct, tapered atrium.
2 2 2 2
Chaetotaxy of genu II 2, -, -, 1, that of genu III 1, -, -, 1. Other
0 0 0 0
morphological details as shown in Fig. 14-17.
MALE: Unknown.
RECORDS: Female holotype feeding on red spider, Tetranychus cofeae
(Nietner) on oil palms, December 1962, Johore, Malaya by B. Juloos.

Muma: New Phytoseiidae from Southern Asia


Cydnodromus Muma.

Cydnodromus Muma. 1961. Bull. Fla. State Mus. Biol. Sci. 5(7) :290.
Cydnodromus, De Leon. 1962. Fla. Entomol. 45:15.
Amblyseius, Chant. 1965. Canad. Entomol. 97:371 (in part).
Neoseiulus, Muma. 1965. Fla. Entomol. 48:254.

DIAGNOSIS: Females of this genus are characterized by four pairs of
dorsal setae, three pairs of median setae, eight pairs of lateral setae that
are subequal in length or slightly longer posteriorly, two pairs of sub-
lateral setae on interscutal membrane, three pairs of sternal setae, three
pairs of preanal setae, and no or only one macroseta on the basitarsus
of leg IV. Fixed finger of chelicerae with six or less denticules. Sternum
as long as or longer than wide. Peritremal scutum missing or reduced
in size and indistinguishable fused to stigmatal scutum. Ventrianal
scutum shield-shaped or pentagonal. There are no macrosetae on legs
I, II, and III.

DISCUSSION: Species of Cydnodromus are small, slender mites, usually
with short, stocky legs. Most species are found in ground-surface leaf-
litter or on low growing grasses, vines, or herbs, a few are collected
from the leaves of shrubs and trees, and one, C. gracilis Muma, has been
collected from Olla v-nigrum var. plagiata Casey. Males have the dorsal
scutal pore behind L4 enlarged. Many species of Cydnodromus have all
of the setae on the dorsal scutum simple and setiform, a few have Ls or
M. and Ls weakly to distinctly plumose and one, C. comitatus De Leon,
has Ma, L,, and L, weakly plumose. One species, C. interfolius De Leon,
also has three stout setae on the tarsus in addition to the macroseta on
the basitarsus. C. longispinosus (Evans) has the dorsal scutal pore behind
L4 greatly enlarged.

More than 30 species can be assigned to this genus.

The systematic status of Cydnodromus, Neoseiulus Hughes, and Cyd-
noseius new genus is uncertain. Hughes' (1948) original description and
figures of Neoseiulus and the type species N. barkeri Hughes indicated
eight lateral setae (nine of other authors) with four anterio-laterals.
Athias-Henriot (1959) synonymized Neoseiulus with Amblyseius Berlese
sensu lat. and placed A. barkeri (Hughes) and A. aurescens Athias-
Henriot in the cucumeris group of the genus. De Leon (1965) followed
these workers and synonymized his Typhlodromopsis with Neoseiulus.
On the other hand, Nesbitt (1951) stated that N. barkeri possessed 10
lateral setae with 5 anterio-laterals and recognized Neoseiulus as a sub-
genus of Typhlodromus Scheuten. Chant (1959) also described the species
as Typhlodromus barkeri (Hughes) and described and figured 10 laterals
and 5 anterio-laterals. If Hughes, Athias-Henriot, and De Leon were
correct in their evaluation, either Cydnodromus or Cydnoseius may have
to be synonymized with Neoseiulus. If Nesbitt and Chant were correct,
Neoseiulus, Cydnodromus, and Cydnoseius are distinct, easily separated
genera. They may be considered as such prior to a reexamination and
redescription of N. barkeri.

274 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 4

Cydnodromus ghanii new species
Fig. 18-21
DIAGNOSIS: This species is closely related to C. mckenziei (Schuster
and Pritchard). It is distinguished by shorter dorsal scutal setae, the
relative lengths of dorsal scutal setae and a different spermathecal
FEMALE HOLOTYPE: Dorsal scutum 330 / long and 180 p wide. Dorsal
scutum lightly sclerotized and smooth except for pale indistinct, sub-
circular apparently less-sclerotized areas. Cheliceral dentition obscured
but fixed finger seemingly with no more than four denticules. Sternal
scutum smooth except for a few indistinct creases, ventrianal scutum dis-
2 2
tinctly creased. Ls weakly serrate. Chaetotaxy of genu II 2, -, -, 1, that
2 2 0 0
of genu III 1, -, -, 1. Other morphological details as shown in Fig.
0 1
MALES: Unknown.
RECORDS: Female holotype from Gossypium sp., 24 October 1964, Hyder-
abad, Pakistan by M. A. Ghani.

Cydnoseius new genus
DIAGNOSIS: Females of this genus are readily distinguished from other
amblyseiine genera by having nine pairs of lateral setae, and the stigmatal
scutum extending undivided posteriorly to a position behind coxa IV.
DESCRIPTION: Female amblyseiine mites with four pairs of dorsal setae,
three pairs of median setae, nine pairs of short, subequal, setiform
lateral setae, two pairs of sublateral setae on interscutal membrane, three
pairs of sternal setae, three pairs of preanal ventrianal setae, and four
pairs of ventro-lateral setae, and a single macroseta on the basitarsus of
leg IV.
The pair of median setae usually distinguishable on amblyseiines
between De and D, apparently has moved laterally to a position which
makes it almost indistinguishable from a lateral seta. An additional
lateral seta also occurs in this area. The two setae increase the number
of lateral setae from the usual 8 to 10, or 9 if M is recognized.
The peritremes extend from the vertical setae to the area of coxae
III-IV. The peritremal scutum is narrow and apparently incomplete, and
the stigmatal scutum extends parallel to the narrow exopodal scutum of
coxa IV to a position behind the coxa.
Males have the median setae between Dl and D4 readily distinguishable,
S1 and S, on the dorsal scutum and three pairs of preanal ventrianal
setae. Spermatodactyl with typical short shank, heel, toe, and lateral pro-
cess, De Leon (1961).
TYPE SPECIES: Cydnoscius cordiae new species.

Fig. 18-21. Cydnodronmus ghanii new species. 18. dorsal view. 19.
ventral scuta. 20. posterior end of peritreme. 21. spermatheca. Fig.
22-26. Cydnoseius cordiae new genus, new species. 22. dorsal view.
23. ventral scuta. 24. posterior end of peritreme. 25. spermatheca. 26.



- 25


276 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 4

DISCUSSION: Although this genus as characterized is distinct from all
presently recognized genera of Phytoseiidae, it is possible that it will
prove to be a synonym of Neoseiulus Hughes. If Neoseiulus has 4 pairs
of anterio-lateral setae as claimed by Hughes (1948) and De Leon (1965)
but 10 pairs of lateral setae as stated by Nesbitt (1951) and Chant
(1959), then the two genera could be synonymous.

Cydnoseius cordiae new species
Fig. 22-26
DIAGNOSIS: This is the only known species of the genus. It is readily
distinguished by the generic characters.
FEMALE HOLOTYPE: Dorsal scutum 370 A long and 190 A wide. Dorsal
scutum moderately sclerotized and imbricate over its entire surface. Fixed
finger of chelicerae with four denticules, movable finger with one denticule.
Ls distinctly serrate, Ms smooth (some paratypes have Ms with one or two
2 2
weak apical serrations). Chaetotaxy of genu II, 2, -, -, 1, that of genu
2 2 0 0
III 1, -, -, 1. Other morphological details as shown in Fig. 22-25.
0 1
MALES: Spermatodactyl with short shank, very short foot, an indistinct
lateral process, and a truncate toe, Fig. 26. Ventrianal scutum with three
pairs of preanal setae. The pore located midway between L, and L5 is
enlarged but only one-fourth as much as in Cydnodromus longispinosus
RECORDS: Female holotype from Cordia obliqua, 7 October 1964,
Karachi, Pakistan by M. A. Ghani. Five female paratypes from Cordia
obliqua, 29 August 1964, Hyderabad, Pakistan by M. A. Ghani. Three male
and ten female paratypes from Mangifera indica, 11 November 1965, Multan,
Pakistan by M. A. Ghani. Two male, one female, and one nymph para-
types from Pongamia glabra, 15 February 1966, Tando Jam, Pakistan by
M. A. Ghani. This species also has been found in Egypt.

Amblydromella Muma
Amblydromella Muma. 1961. Bull. Fla. State Mus. Biol. Sci. 5(7):294.
Typhlodromella Muma. 1961. Bull. Fla. State Mus. Biol. Sci. 5(7):299.
(New Synonymy)
DIAGNOSIS: Since Amblydromella fleschneri (Chant) and Typhlodromella
rhenana (Oudemans), the types of the two respective genera, are more
closely related than originally thought, the above synonymy is indicated.
As presently recognized, females of the genus are distinguished by having
four pairs of dorsal setae, two pairs of median setae, ten pairs of lateral
setae which, except for Ls and LI, are graduated in size from L1 to L10, Lio
usually knobbed, two pairs of sublateral setae on the interscutal mem-
brane, three pairs of setae on the sternal scutum which is indistinctly
lobate posteriorly, four pairs of preanal ventrianal setae, one or two

Fig. 27-31. Amblydromella loralaiana new species. 27. dorsal view.
28. ventral scuta. 29. posterior end of peritreme. 30. spermatheca. 31.
spermatodactyl. Fig. 32-36. Amblydromella ghanii new species. 32.
dorsal view. 33. ventral scuta. 34. posterior end of peritreme. 35.
spermatheca. 36. spermatodactyl.

1 ,a

yJ J




r r


278 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 4

usually knobbed macrosetae on leg IV, and a stigmatal scutum that
extends posteriorly behind coxa IV. The chelicerae are small and pro-
vided with two to six denticules. Spermathecae are either rod-shaped or
bell-shaped and spermatodactyls have an elongate shank with a notched
or lobate tip.
DISCUSSION: The rhenana species group includes A. bakeri (Garman),
A. rhenanoides, (Athias-Henriot), A. ndibu Pritchard and Baker, the two
new species described here, and two undescribed species from the United
States; the nodosa species group includes A. caudiglans (Schuster), and
two undescribed species from the United States; no group assignment can
presently be made for A. fleschneri (Chant), A. recki (Wainstein), A.
georgicus (Wainstein), A. kazachstanicus (Wainstein), A. vulgaris
(Ehara) or A. zafari (Chaudri).
Amblydromella rickeri (Chant) and the closely related A. hadii Chaudri
seem to be congeneric with the above cited species except in the compara-
tive lengths of the lateral setae and the number of macrosetae on leg IV.
For the present, they are retained here.
Typhlodromus juniperus Chant was included in the genus by Muma
(1961), but Chant's (1959) figures indicate it is not congeneric with the
species discussed above. Its generic affinities are presently obscure.

Amblydromella loralaiana new species
Fig. 27-31

DIAGNOSIS: This species has affinities with Amblydromella rhenana
(Oudemans) and A. rhenanoides (Athias-Henriot). It is distinguished
from these by longer dorsal and lateral setae on the dorsal scutum, Lo not
knobbed, and the macroseta on basitarsus IV not knobbed.
FEMALE HOLOTYPE: Dorsal scutum 330 A long and 200 A wide. Dorsal
scutum weakly creased to smooth behind D, and on lateral margins; area
between dorsal and lateral setae distinctly imbricate; area between dorsal
setae indistinctly imbricate. Chelicerae small and apparently edentate
except for an indistinct sub-apical denticule on the fixed finger. Sternal
scutum smooth and indistinct posteriorly. Ventrianal scutum smooth. M2
2 2
and L,0 distinctly serrate. Chaetotaxy of genu II 2,-, -, 1, that of genu
22 01
III 1, -, -, 1. Other morphological details as shown in Fig. 27-30.
0 1
Two ventro-lateral setae are missing; paratypes have four pairs.
MALES: Spermatodactyl with shank nearly twice as long as cheliceral
fingers and slightly bifurcate at tip, but with no foot, toe, or lateral
process, Fig. 31. Ventrianal scutum with four pairs of preanal setae,
and a pair of tiny pores. Dorsal scutum imbricate over entire surface.
Chelicerae edentate.
RECORDS: Female holotype, male and female paratypes, three nymphs,
and one larva from Punica granatum, 27 September 1964, Loralai, Pakistan
by M. A. Ghani. Two female paratypes from Zizyphus sp. 11 February
1964, Sialkot, Pakistan by M. A. Ghani. Male paratype from Pongamia
glabra, 15 February 1966, Tando Jam, Pakistan by M. A. Ghani.

Muma: New Phytoseiidae from Southern Asia


Amblydromella ghanii new species
Fig. 32-36

DIAGNOSIS: This species is also closely related to A. rhenana and A.
rhenanoides. It is distinguished by the short distinctly knobbed L1o and
the short knobbed macroseta on basitarsus IV.
It is possible that this is the species identified as Typhlodromus bakeri
(Garman) by Narayanan et al (1960).
FEMALE HOLOTYPE: Dorsal scutum 330 g long and 190 A wide. Dorsal
scutum imbricate over entire surface but indistinctly so behind D,. Cheli-
cerae small but with two apical denticules on fixed finger. Sternal scutum
smooth and indistinctly lobate posteriorly. Ventrianal scutum smooth.
M. and Lio serrate with L1, knobbed. Spermatheca obscured but apparently
2 2
sac-like as in A. loralaiana n. sp. Chaetotaxy of genu II 2, -, -, 1,
22 00
that of genu III 1, -, -, 1. Other morphological details as in Fig. 32-35.
0 1
MALES: Spermatodactyl twice as long as fingers of chelicerae and with
a curiously bilobed tip as shown in Fig. 36, but with no foot, toe, or
lateral process. Ventrianal scutum with four pairs of preanal setae and
a pair of preanal pores.
RECORDS: Female holotype and male and female paratypes from Punica
granatum, 1 November 1965, Multan, Pakistan by M. A. Ghani. Male
paratype from Zizyphus sp., 12 August 1964, Sialkot, Pakistan by M. A.


Athias-Henriot, C. 1961. M6sostigmates (Urop. excl.) 6daphiques M6di-
terran6ens (Acaromorpha, Anactinotrichida). Acarologia. 3(4):
Chant, D. A. 1959. Phytoseiid mites (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) Part I.
Bionomics of seven species in southeastern England. Part II.
Taxonomic review of the family Phytoseiidae with descriptions of
38 new species. Canad. Entomol. 9 (Suppl. 12) :1-166.
De Leon, D. 1961. Eight new Amblyseius from Mexico. Fla. Entomol.
De Leon, D. 1965. A note on Neoseiulus Hughes 1948 and new synonymy.
Proc. Entomol. Soc. Washington. 67(1) :23.
De Leon, D. 1966. Phytoseiidae of British Guyana with keys to species
(Acarina: Mesostigmata). Studies on the Fauna of Suriname and
other Guyanas. 8(33) :81-102.
Hughes, A. M. 1948. The mites associated with stored food products.
Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. London, H. M. Stationery
Office. 168 p.
Muma, Martin H. 1961. Subfamilies, genera and species of Phytoseiidae
(Acarina: Mesostigmata) Bull. Fla. State Mus. Biol. Sci. 5(7):
Muma, Martin H. 1965. Eight new Phytoseiidae (Acarina: Mesostig-
mata) from Florida. Fla. Entomol. 48:245-254.

The Florida Entomologist

Narayanan, E. S., R. B. Kaur, and Swaraj Ghai. 1960. Importance of
some taxonomic characters in the family Phytoseiidae Berl., 1916,
(predatory mites) with new records and descriptions of species.
Proc. Nat. Inst. Sci. India 26(6) :384-389.
Nesbitt, H. H. J. 1951. A taxonomic study of the Phytoseiinae (Family
Laelaptidae) predaceous upon Tetranychidae of economic impor-
tance. Zoologische Verhandelingen (12) :1-64.
The Florida Entomologist 50(4) 1967


Complete Line of Insecticides, Fungicides and
Weed Killers
Ortho Division


P. O. Box 7067

ted at Fairvilla on Route 441 North

Phone 295-0451


Vol. 50, No. 4



The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, Pennsylvania

Florida is relatively poor in species of mayflies. Approximately 500
are known from North America, but according to Berner (1950), only 41
have been taken in Florida. They are even less abundant in the southern
areas of the state. Five species have been taken in light traps operated
at the Archbold Biological Station. Caenis diminuta Walker and Calli-
baetis pretiosus Banks were frequent visitors to the light traps. Stenonema
interpunctatum (Say), Callibaetis floridanus Banks, and Centroptilum
viridocularis Berner were rare catches. Hexagenia munda orlando Traver
may occur in this area but has never been taken in light traps. It is a
more seasonal species and emerges during June, July, and August, a period
when the light traps were not operated. The distribution and habits of the
Florida mayflies were summarized by Berner (1950).
All the material in this discussion was taken in light traps from the
first of November to the end of April in the years 1958 through 1967.
There was some lack of uniformity in making collections caused by the
absence of the observer during short periods. On the whole, however,
the traps were operated quite regularly. The common species were
identified by Isaac Aurelio, a student working with the Ephemeroptera at
the Pennsylvania State University. All rarer species have been identified
by Lewis Berner.
Caenis diminuta Walker is the most widely distributed species of
mayfly in Florida. Adults emerge during all months of the year but are
generally more abundant during the summer months. The nymphs live in
ditches and small ponds which abound in the area where the light traps
were operated. An interesting habit of this species may have a bearing
on the light trap catches. According to Berner they are one of the
shortest-lived of all mayflies. Laboratory reared adults remained active
for about 4 hours. The catches during various periods of operation of the
traps must therefore have coincided more or less with emergence. Emer-
gence is reported to occur late in the afternoon or at night. This is well
illustrated by the fact that most of the adults were taken between the
hours of 6 and 8 PM, depending upon the time of sunset. Details of the
collections of this species have been described by Frost (1963). They
occurred in noticeable numbers during the winter of 1958-59, and in
phenomenal numbers during the winter of 1959-60. In subsequent winters
this species has been barely noticeable.
This is a small species with a single pair of wings. When large
numbers are present in the killing jar they cling to one another in great
masses making it difficult to separate and identify other small insects.

'Authorized for publication June 19, 1967, as paper No. 3270 in the
journal series of the Pennsylvania Agricultural Experiment Station.

282 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 4

Callibaetis pretiosus Banks was the only other species that was taken
in sufficient numbers to allow definite conclusions. It is a medium-sized
species. The males have clear wings, while the females have dark markings
along the anterior margins of the front wings, making it easy to separate
the sexes. This species emerges throughout the year in Florida, although
the season is somewhat shortened in the more northern environs. The
nymphs inhabit ponds and ditches and the subimagos emerge in the late
afternoon. The males die within 2 hours after emergence, which may
account for the smaller numbers taken in light traps. The females are
reported to live for 9 or 10 days. Notes have been taken on yearly
abundance, monthly occurrence, and nightly catches, and some informa-
tion has been obtained concerning the relative abundance of the sexes.
Table 1 clearly indicates that this species is somewhat abundant during
November, that the numbers fall off considerably during January, and
become more abundant again as the season progresses.


Operated Year Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. March April Total

138 1958-59 81 50 124 233 423 911

148 1959-60 318 120 88 98 217 841

41 1961 18 326 475 819

116 1966 82 158 299 518 1057

120 1967 78 59 304 73 514

563 399 170 390 874 1718 591 4142

*Blanks indicate that no records were made during these periods. Only
25 specimens were taken the first 7 days of May 1967.

Table 2 presents data concerning periodic nightly collections of Calli-
baetis pretiosus during four winters. Some nights hourly determinations
were not made, hence the totals for Tables 1 and 2 are not the same.
Data for 1961 are not included in Table 2 because the records were very
irregular. However, during January, February, and March of that winter,
303 specimens were taken between 6 and 10 PM and 522 specimens between
2 and 7 AM. The catches were lowest during the early evening from 6 to
8 PM and increased in numbers as the night progressed, reaching the
maximum between 10 PM and 7 AM.
Table 3 clearly illustrates that the collections of females were always
greater than the males. This might be expected, as the females are
reported to live 9 to 10 days, while the males live for only several hours.

Frost: Mayflies from Archbold Biological Station

THE WINTERS OF 1958-59, 1959-60, 1966, AND 1967.

Month made 6-8 P.M. 8-10 P.M. 10 P.M.-2 A.M. 2-7 A.M. Totals

Nov. 26 45 65 86 122 318

Dec. 31 22 20 41 37 120

Jan. 90 23 47 49 84 203

Feb. 104 55 72 148 272 547

March 107 119 322 453 349 1243

April 60 92 148 187 225 652

Totals 418



Table 3 also shows that both males and

females were more abundant

during the period 10 PM to 7 AM. Data taken on four nights during
1958-59 reveal 21 males and 31 females taken from 6 to 10 PM and 35 males
and 76 females between 10 PM and 7 AM.


nights 10 P.M.-
count 6-8 P.M. 8-10 P.M. 2 A.M. 2-7 A.M. Totals
Month made S S S 9 $ 9 $ S $ 9

Jan. 59 6 9 5 53 3 20 16 23 30 85

Feb. 56 13 9 6 7 12 61 51 28 82 105

March 61 24 45 59 132 48 142 49 107 180 426

April 60 16 60 29 126 55 149 57 105 157 440

Totals 236 59 123 99 318 118 372 173 263 449 1076

*During March, 43 subimagos were taken, all males. During April, 67
subimagos were taken, 13 males and 54 females.

Stenonema interpunctatum (Say). Little is known concerning this
species. Apparently it inhabits any stream or flowing water, especially
where logs or rubbish occur permitting the nymphs to hide. Such habitats
are not common in the area where the traps were operated. Most of the


284 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 4

nearby ditches had sandy bottoms with no stones but considerable vegeta-
tion. Nymphs have been collected from the sandy-bottomed lakes. These
occur in the vicinity of the Archbold Biological Station. The adults are
said to be phototropic and the subimagos more so. This species was not
a common visitor at the light traps during the months they were operated.
Only two specimens were taken March 6 and 7.
Callibaetis floridanus Banks. Only one female subimago was taken
January 8.
Centroptilum viridocularis Berner. Two females were taken March
13 and 30.
Berner, L. 1950. The Mayflies of Florida. University of Florida Press
4(4) :1-267.
Frost, S. W. 1963. Winter Insect Light Trapping at the Archbold
Biological Station, Florida. Fla. Entomol. 46:24-27.

The Florida Entomologist 50(4) 1967


University of Florida Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred


Predatory insects of the neuropteran family Coniopterygidae are known
commonly as mealy-wings, dusky-wings, or dusty-wings. For many years
they were considered to be rare and were given little attention. Then
Arrow (1917) and Withycombe (1923, 1924) studied the life cycles of
several species and found them to be relatively common. Other workers,
Narayanan (1942), Collyer (1951), and Fleschner and Ricker (1953), have
investigated the life cycles, life histories, bionomics, and biological control
potentials of other species. In general, all studies have indicated that
mealy-wings are voracious predators that may be of significant value in
the control of injurious insects and mites.

A coniopterygid, Coniopteryx vicina Hagen, was first recorded from
Florida citrus groves 11 years ago (Muma 1955). Adults were reported
to feed on citrus rust mites, Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead) and
larvae on coccid crawlers and six-spotted mites, Eotetranychus sexmacu-
latus (Riley). Predation of rust mites by this mealy-wing was recorded
again by Muma (1958) and Muma et al. (1961) but no additional biological
or ecological data were presented.

The studies reported in the present paper were initiated to obtain
information on the food habits, life cycle, seasonal history, and biological
control potential of C. vicina on citrus trees in Florida.


Several times during the study period both grove collected and labora-
tory reared adult specimens were sent to the United States National
Museum for verification. These specimens were invariably identified as
C. vicina Hagen. Biological studies involving mating and viable egg
production also verified a single species.
The blue-grey adults, (Fig. 1), are about 3.0 mm long including the
wings. They fly with a darting, fluttering pattern when disturbed and
come to rest primarily on the lower surfaces of leaves. Repeated disturb-
ance causes them to flutter, drop to the ground, and feign death. Eggs,
(Fig. 2), are white, about 0.61 mm long and 0.28 mm wide, with a distinct
terminal micropyle, and reticulate sculpturing. They are laid most com-
monly along the margins or midrib of leaves. Larvae, (Fig. 3, 4), are
spindle to top-shaped with the dark red to brown body color interrupted
with white behind the head, down the sides, and over the tail. Pupal
cases, (Fig. 5, 6), are a translucent white and broadly ovate, about 3.9 mm
long, and lay flat against the surface to which they are attached. Pupation

iFlorida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 2694.

5 6

Fig. 1 to 6. Coniopteryx vicina Hagen. Fig. 1. adult female, 15X.
Fig. 2. eggs along midrib of citrus leaf, 15X. Fig. 3. first instar larva
on citrus leaf, 20X. Fig. 4. third instar larva on citrus leaf, 10X. Fig. 5.
pupal, case on citrus leaf, 10X. Fig. 6. pupal case on citrus fruit, 9X.

Muma: Biological Notes on Coniopteryx vicina

may take place on the leaves, fruit, or bark, but pupal cases seem to be
more common on the bark of main limbs and trunks. Three parasites
were reared from the pupal cases of C. vicina; they were Dendrocerus
conwentziae var. rufus Gah., Camptoptera sp., and Cosmocomoidea mor-
rilli How. The latter is a common parasite of Homoptera eggs and may
have been a contaminant. Parasites were reared from less than 10% of
grove collected pupae.
Only one other coniopterygid is known from Florida citrus. This
species, as yet unidentified, grossly differs from C. vicina by an orange-
grey instead of blue-grey adult body color, by a short, broad, orange egg
instead of a long, slender, white egg, and by larval antennae that are
much longer instead of only slightly longer than the larval maxillary

Life cycle studies were conducted in the laboratory primarily under
controlled temperature, 800 F, and humidity, 70% RH, conditions. Grove
collected females were placed on citrus leaves in test tubes and fed honey
and Texas citrus mites or miscellaneous hosts to induce egg deposition.
Eggs were incubated at 600, 70, 800, and 90 F and 70% to 90% RH but
larvae, pupae, and adults were maintained at 800 F and 70% RH in shell
vials and test tubes.
Adult longevity was variable. Field collected adults seldom lived
longer than an average of 16 to 17 days with males shorter lived than
females. Laboratory reared adults lived an average of 26 to 29 days.
Although mating was never observed, one male is known to have fertilized


Egg production data obtained with
13 field 8 field 4 laboratory
collected 9 s collected 9 s reared 9 s
fed rust mites fed misc. fed misc.
Statistic and TCM foods* foods*

Max. Eggs/Female 96 226 130

Min. Eggs/Female 0 0 0

Mean Eggs/Female 26.2 94.8 53.8

Max. Eggs/Female/Day 14 14 9

Min. Eggs/Female/Day 0 0 0

Mean Eggs/Female/Day 2.2 5.1 2.0

Mean Days Survival 16.0 16.9 26.2

*Fed a variety of prey and foods including honey, Texas citrus mites (TCM), citrus red
mites, citrus rust mites, armored scale crawlers, and whitefly eggs and larvae.


288 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 4

the four laboratory reared females whose egg production is summarized in
Table 1. These females were obviously fertilized by the single male as
they were isolated prior to and following mating exposure. Further,
unfertilized females produced sterile eggs. Egg deposition has been
noted several times but was recorded only once: a female apparently at
rest on an edge of a leaf moved her abdomen up and down, and back and
forth as if rubbing the leaf; the second time the abdomen was raised it
"bowed" and an egg was quickly deposited. Twice, following such deposi-
tion, the female turned around and ate her egg.
Egg production data are summarized in Table 1. Tested females pro-
duced from 2 to 5 eggs a day for 16 to 26 days, depositing a maximum of
266 eggs per female. The data indicate that fecundity may vary with the
female's food regimen and that field collected females are more vigorous
than laboratory reared females.

TEMPERATURES OF 600, 70, 800, AND 90 F.

Incubation No. eggs No. eggs No. days to hatch
temperature incubated hatched Max. Min. Mean Mode

60 F 23 22 20 16 18.3 18

70 F 21 16 17 13 14.8 15
80 F 66 46 11 7 8.9 9

90 F 45 45 8 6 6.9 7

Egg hatching data are summarized in Table 2. The incubation period
lengthened and became more variable with decreased temperature. Egg
mortality was found to be associated with low humidity. Data indicate
that egg incubation may require 1 to 2 weeks under natural conditions.
Life cycle data are summarized in Tables 3 and 4. Tested foods and
combinations produced mean life cycles varying in length from 34 to 44
days. The shortest cycle and lowest mortality were obtained with whitefly
eggs and crawlers as food, the longest cycle with rust mites, and the
highest mortality with six-spotted mites. Four larval instars were demon-
strated for C. vicina.


An evaluation of the biological control potential of a predator is
predicated on its geographical and seasonal incidence and abundance, its
food preference and consumption, and its population dynamics in relation
to food hosts. The incidence and abundance of C. vicina have been
inferred from collections and unpublished survey records at the Citrus
Experiment Station (Simanton 1962). Food preference and consumption
were determined by grove observations, and by isolation of adults and
larvae with different hosts in test tubes and shell vials, and noting
survival, development, or number of hosts eaten. Population dynamics

Muma: Biological Notes on Coniopteryx vicina


TABLE 3.-LIFE CYCLE OF Coniopteryx vicina (HAGEN) AT 800 F AND 70%

Experimental larval foods
Texas Citrus Six- Whitefly scale
Life cycle Rust citrus red spotted eggs and eggs and
statistic mites mites mites mites crawlers crawlers

No. hatched
Days incubation

38 30 27 18 25 29

8.9 8.9
9 9


Days 1st instar

Days 2nd instar

Days 3rd instar

Days 4th instar

Mean No. days
Mode No. days
Total cycle
Mean No. days
Mode No. days

Per cent mortality

have been plotted
between groves.

3.9 5.0
4 4-5

3.9 3.4 2.6
3 3 2-3

3.4 3.0
3 3

- 4.3
- 3

12.3 11.6 11.6 11.3 10.4 11.8
12-13 11 11 12 10 12

43.5 36.7 36.0 36.4 34.3 41.2
39-43 34 33 29-30 31-32 36-37

63.2 50.0 37.0 77.8 32.0 41.4

from series of population estimates

both within and

C. vicina is distributed throughout the major citrus growing areas of
the state; there are records from 20 counties. It is not, however, found
on citrus trees in the east coast area or south of DeSoto and Highlands
Counties in the southern area. Larvae, pupae, and adults have been
collected or recorded in every month of the year. Collections and un-
published survey records indicate heaviest populations in the northern,
central, and west coast areas and lightest populations in the south. Peak

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 50, No. 4

TABLE 4.-LIFE CYCLE OF Coniopteryx vicina HAGEN AT 800 F and 70%

Experimental larval foods
Life cycle Rust mites and Rust mites and Rust mites and
statistic Texas citrus mites whiteflies Glover's scale

No. hatched 18 12 14
Days incubation
Mean 8.7 9.0 9.0
Mode 8-9 9 9


1st instar

Days 2nd instar
Days 3rd instar
Days 4th instar
Mean No. days
Mode No. days
Total cycle
Mean No. days
Mode No. days
Per cent mortality








Mean number hosts consumed per hour per predator
red mites Citrus Cloudy-wing
Stage of No. eggs and No. rust mites No. whitefly eggs
C. cicina tested larvae tested all stages tested and larvae

First larva 4 1.7 3 0.8 3 1.3
Second larva 6 0.2 2 2.7 2 0.9
Third larva 2 1.7 1 8.0
Fourth larva 3 27.8 1 5.4
Adult 2 0.2 3 40 5 0.6


Muma: Biological Notes on Coniopteryx vicina


populations may occur during any season but are most frequent in the
early summer and fall.









c -4
z ;D
m -


Fig. 7. Mean number of C. vicina pupal cases per tree in 16
experimental blocks and groves from August 1952 to September 1953 per
unit area of trunks and major limbs. (A unit area was comprised of all
bark surface from ground level to a height of 6 feet and laterally on limbs
3 feet on each side of the main trunk.)

292 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 50, No. 4

Recorded observations of natural feeding indicate a preference of C.
vicina larvae for whiteflies and six-spotted mites. Since most of these
observations were made during routine insect and mite counts, they
probably represent a random sample of feeding activity. Furthermore,
it is apparent from the data presented in Tables 1, 3, and 4 that the
species reproduced and developed more readily on diets including either
whitefly eggs and crawlers or six-spotted mites. However, survival on
six-spotted mites was low because of larval entrapment in the mite
webbing. When this information on food preference or suitability is
considered along with food consumption data presented in Table 5, it
seems that C. vicina prefers whitefly eggs and crawlers to other tested
hosts. Although there is a high consumption rate of citrus rust mites
C. vicina has a slow developmental rate and high mortality on this host.
Populations of C. vicina were estimated in two different ways: a
"5-minute predator count" and a "fresh pupal case count." The former
involved recording all larvae, pupae, and adults seen during a 5-minute
examination of a tree, the latter a count of all fresh pupal cases on the
trunk and limbs up to 6 feet above the ground and 3 feet out from the
main trunk. Both methods indicated a wide tree to tree and grove to
grove variation in C. vicina populations. Tree to tree variation for
C. vicina within a grove ranged from 24 to 127 and grove to grove
variation within an area from 0 to 15 for a single sample series. All
population dynamics data were subject to this variation which is probably
normal for the species.
Trend lines of means in 16 groves expressing population dynamics for
a 14-month period in 1952-1953 are presented in Fig. 7. Populations in
treated (sprayed and dusted) and untreated groves were comparable and
no consistent seasonal high or low could be detected. All intra- and inter-
grove studies have produced similar results. At one time and in one
grove, C. vicina populations will fluctuate with rust mite infestations,
at another with either spider mite or scale insect infestations. No con-
sistent relationship has been demonstrated with any of the major injurious
insects or mites on Florida citrus.
Published (Simanton 1960) and unpublished survey data do indicate,
however, a relationship between monthly and yearly whitefly indices and
C. vicina populations. This relationship is direct; peak infestations of
whiteflies and peak populations of C. vicina occur during the same
months and years.

Biologically C. vicina seems to be similar to other species of coniop-
terygids. It survives, reproduces, and develops readily on homopterous
insects and tetranychid mites. Except for three coniopterygids studied
by Fleschner and Ricker (1953) which did not develop on citrus red mites,
all species have been found to feed and develop on Homoptera and
Tetranychidae. C. vicina completes a life cycle in 29 to 46 days, well
within the range of 16 to 69 days recorded for other species. C. vicina
has four larval instars; Withycombe (1924), Narayanan (1942), and
Collyer (1951) reported three instars for their species; Quayle (1913)
and Fleschner and Ricker (1953) reported four instars for theirs. C.


Muma: Biological Notes on Coniopteryx vicina 293

vicina consumed 29 to 83 citrus red mite eggs, larvae, or nymphs per day
for development rather than 6 to 15 per day as reported by Quayle (1913)
for Conwentzia hageni Banks or 15 to 40 per day as reported by Collyer
(1951) for Conwentzia pineticola Enderlein.
All findings indicate that C. vicina has a biological control potential
equal to or greater than that reported for other species. It is widely
distributed throughout the main citrus growing areas of Florida, except
for the lower east coast and extreme south. Although tree to tree and
grove to grove populations are extremely variable, incidence is high and
mean populations are relatively stable. Its food range tolerance is wide,
including rust mites, spider mites, whiteflies, and scale insects. It develops
readily on six-spotted mites but suffers high mortality. It feeds readily
on rust mites but develops slowly and suffers high mortality. Whiteflies
seem to be more suitable hosts and C. vicina attains population peaks in
the same months and years as whiteflies.

Arrow, G. J. 1917. The life-history of Conwentzia psociformis Curt.,
Entomol. Monthly Mag. 53:254-257.
Collyer, Elsie. 1951. The separation of Conwentzia pineticola End. from
Conwentzia psociformis (Curt.) and notes on their biology, Bull.
Entomol. Res. 42(3) :555-564.
Fleschner, C. A., and D. W. Ricker. 1953. Food habits of coniopterygids
on citrus in southern California, J. Econ. Entomol. 46:458-461.
Muma, M. H. 1955. Factors contributing to the natural control of citrus
insects and mites in Florida, J. Econ. Entomol. 48:432-438.
Muma, M. H. 1958. Predators and parasites of citrus mites in Florida,
Proc. 10th Int. Cong. Entomol. 4:633-648.
Muma, M. H., A. G. Selhime, and H. A. Denmark. 1961. An annotated
list of predators and parasites associated with insects and mites on
Florida citrus, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. 634:1-39.
Narayanan, E. S. 1942. On the bionomics and life-history of Coniopteryx
pusana Withycombe Coniopterygidae (Neuroptera), Indian J. En-
tomol. 4(1) :1-4.
Quayle, H. J. 1913. Some natural enemies of spiders and mites. J. Econ.
Entomol. 6:85-88.
Simanton, W. A. 1960. Seasonal populations of citrus insects and mites
in commercial groves. Fla. Entomol. 43:49-57.
Simanton, W. A. 1962. Operation of an ecological survey for Florida
citrus pests, J. Econ. Entomol. 55:105-112.
Withycombe, C. L. 1923. Notes on the biology of some British Neurop-
tera (Planipennia), Trans. Entomol. Soc. London:501-594.
Withycombe, C. L. 1924. Note on the economic value of the Neuroptera,
with special reference to the Coniopterygidae, Ann. Appl. Biol.

The Florida Entomologist 50(4) 1967


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