Volume 51 No. 1 March, 1968
HANIOTAKIS, G., AND F. M. SUMMERS-Morphology of the
Internal Reproductive Organs of the Navel Orange-
worm, Paramyelois transitella ------..............---...----......----- 1
KNORR, L. C., H. A. DENMARK, AND H. C. BURNETT-Occur-
rence of Brevipalpus mites, Leprosis, and False Lep-
rosis on Citrus in Florida --.......-- ---................ ....-.............. 11
STEGMAIER, C. E., JR.-Host Plant Records of Dyseuaresta
mexicana (Diptera: Telphritidae) with Notes on Its
Life History in Florida ...............---- ........ ......... . ................ 19
ANDERSON, NEIL H., AND DAVID B. ANDERSON-Ips Bark
Beetle Attacks and Brood Development on a Lightning-
Struck Pine in Relation to Its Physiological Decline ..-. 23
MEADOWS, KAREN E.-A Simple Method of Mosquito Ovary
D issection ------......... -- --.................................................... 31
MUMA, M. H.-Phytoseiidae of Sand-Pine Litter .-.................. 37
STEGMAIER, C. E., JR.-Erigeron, a Host Plant Genus of
Tephritids (Diptera) --...-........--......... ........... ...................... 45
FROST, S. W.-Notes on Meloidae Taken at the Archbold
Biological Station, Highlands County, Florida -............... 51
SMITTLE, B. J.-Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Female
Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus .----.....--.......................-.... 59
Minutes of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Florida Ento-
m logical Society ..-..---....... ............................................... 55
Notice -----.... ---.......... -----------------------.... ................................. ........ ... 44
Published by The Florida Entomological Society
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
OFFICERS FOR 1967-68
President-----...........................................................-.....-L. A. Hetrick
Vice-President --................................................ ... ..... ..... J. B. O'Neil
Secretary -................-....................................................H A. Denm ark
Treasurer............................-..............--..................... R. S. Patterson
W. G. Genung
J. E. Porter
Other Members of Executive Committee.... W. A. Simanton
J. E. Brogdon
W. B. Gresham, Jr.
Stratton H. Kerr-..-.....-...-..-- ..-- ..---...............-Editor
James L. Nation......-.--..-....--..----.....Associate Editor
Richard S. Patterson ...-------- Business Manager
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MORPHOLOGY OF THE INTERNAL REPRODUCTIVE
ORGANS OF THE NAVEL ORANGEWORM,
G. HANIOTAKIS AND F. M. SUMMERS
University of California, Davis
The gross anatomy of the internal reproductive organs of both sexes
of the navel orangeworm, Paramyelois transitella (Walk.), is described
and the histology of the ducts and associated glands is presented in
enough detail to suggest general functions of these parts. Peristalsis of
the ductus seminalis, as observed in freshly killed females, appears to aid
in the transmission of seminal fluid from the corpus bursae to the apical
end of the vagina.
Although much orchard and laboratory research has been directed
toward control of the navel orangeworm, Paramyelois transitella (Walk.),
in almond and walnut orchards of California, control measures are still
inadequate. Some recent investigations have explored the possibilities of
reducing the reproductive potentialities of the pest with radioisotopes,
X-rays, and chemosterilants. The evaluation of the effectiveness of these
sterilizing agents depends upon a thorough knowledge of the reproductive
organs. This study was conducted to supply some of this information for
the navel orangeworm.
The information to be presented was obtained from gross dissections
and from histological preparations of organs fixed in Gilson's fluid.
Sectioned material was stained with Harris's haematoxylin, as suggested
by McManus and Mowry (1960) and Hussein (1966).
Two testes (T) are inseparably united with a common sheath containing
a dark red pigment. This compound testicular organ, called a scrotum by
Cholodkovky (after Musgrave 1937), is embedded in fat and ligated by
tracheae to the upper body wall of the third and fourth abdominal seg-
ments. One testis consists of four seminiferous tubules intertwined with
four tubules of its companion to form a helical body. The tubules are
insulated one from the other by pigmented trabecula derived from the
external sheath. Sperm appear to pass from the testes in packets or
The vasa deferentia are paired tubes which connect the testes to the
paired rami of the ductus ejaculatorius duplex. (DED) Each vas deferens
comprises three identifiable segments: a short upper limb, (UVD), a dis-
tended vesicula seminalis, (VS) and a longer, very slender lower limb.
(LVD) The upper limb is fairly short and tapered and is lined with tall
Haniotakis: Reproductive Organs of Navel Orangeworm 3
columnar epithelium (Fig. 3). Its lumen is capacious and fluted at the
testicular end, but is very small close to the vesicular end. The epitheli-
um appears to be secretary but the nature of the secretion is conjectural;
Musgrave (1937) presumed that it elaborates nutrient for spermatozoa;
Ruckes (1919) and Norris (1932) suggested that it contributes a fluid
component to semen.
The seminal vesicle (VS) is a nodular distention of the vas deferens,
is fluid-filled and contains bundles of spermatozoa. The epithelium is
cuboidal and similar to the lining of the lower segment of the vas deferens.
The third or lower limb of each vas deferens (LVD) is longer than the
upper limb, convoluted and small in caliber.
The accessory glands (AG) are two identical tubular glands which
firmly adhere together in synaptic fashion. The distalltips of these glands
lie in the posterior end of the abdominal haemocoele and are bifid, i.e.,
each tubule terminates in a pair of minute caeca. The paired glands
gradually increase in diameter and pass forward to join the apical ends of
the paired arms of the ejaculatory duct. A constriction or valve marks
the junction between each gland and one arm of the duplex ejaculatory
duct. The epithelium of the accessory glands is relatively thin but the
cells appear to be secretary; they are ovoid to pyriform in shape and are
uniform in kind throughout the length of the tubules. It has been sug-
gested that glands such as these secrete sperm nutrients (Musgrave 1937),
or substances which initiate ejaculatory contractions (Khalifa 1950, Davey
1960), or spermatophore-forming materials (Snodgrass 1935).
Two short, separate tubes, collectively referred to as the ductus ejacu-
latorius duplex (DED), receive at their upper ends the outflow of the
accessory glands. Their lower ends join to form a common duct, the
ductus ejaculatorius simplex. Each vas deferens empties into one of the
duplex ducts, midway between its upper and lower ends.
Thin cuboidal epithelium in the duplex ducts indicates that the primary
function is storage rather than secretion. The lumen of each duplex duct is
large (Fig. 4), fluid-filled, and contains numerous. sperm bundles. Pat-
terson (after Musgrave 1937) applied the term "seminal vesicles" to the
duplex ducts whereas recent workers (Tedders and Calcote 1967) refer to
this pair of tubes as the ductus ejaculatorius duplex.
The ductus ejaculatorius simplex of the navel orangeworm comprises
at least four histologically distinguishable segments: a short apical seg-
ment (A), a long middle segment (B), a short distended or reservoirlike
segment (C) and a very slender terminal segment (D). The number of
differentiated regions of the simplex duct varies in different species of
moths; in Heliothis zea there are two (Callahan and Chapin 1960); in
Ephestia kuhniella there are as many as eight (Musgrave 1937).
In the apical segment (A), a thin muscularis supports a secretary
epithelium which is folded into a continuous spiral ridge. The second
Fig. 1. Reproductive system of the male. A-D-ductus ejaculatorius
simplex: (A-apical segment; B-middle segment; C-reservoir-like seg-
ment; D-terminal segment). AG= accessory gland. DED=ductus ejac-
ulatorius duplex. LVD=lower limb of vas deferens. P-aegeagus. T=
testes. UVD=upper limb of vas deferens. VS=vesicula seminalis.
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 51, No. 1
or middle segment (B) is lined with a cuboidal epithelium (Fig. 5); the
lumen is large and the contained fluids show a granular texture. The
volume of secretion varies according to age and mating activity. In
young, unmated males the simplex duct is turgid with this viscous, granu-
lar material; in old or repeatedly mated males this secretion is not
The junction between the middle (B) and the reservoir (C) segments
is constricted. The epithelium within this constricted part of the ejacula-
tory duct is very thick and the lumen minute (Fig. 6). The thick
glandular epithelium of the constriction continues into the upper end of
the reservoir segment but thins out beyond the middle part of the reser-
voir and becomes too thin to identify in sections. The wall of the distal
part of the reservoir appears to be an almost structureless, pliable mem-
brane. A band of secretary epithelium re-appears in the lowermost part
of the reservoir, close to the constriction which marks the transition be-
tween the reservoir and terminal segments.
The short terminal segment (D) links the reservoir to the aedeagus.
It is small in diameter and heavily muscular. The muscularis comprises
5-6 layers of circular fibers and the epithelium is folded into several
longitudinal ridges (Fig. 7). This part of the ejaculatory duct has an
intima from which numerous hair-like spines project. The muscularis
disappears and the intima thickens considerably where the duct makes a
triple fold at the base of the aedeagus. Apparently the ejaculatory duct
becomes the endophallic lining of the intromittent organ.
A spermatophore produced by this moth has a bladder-like corpus
and a short, kinked neck or collum. The kinks or folds in the neck resemble
the pattern of triple folds present in the terminal segment of the ejacu-
latory duct. According to Callahan and Cascio (1963), the neck of the
spermatophore of the corn earworm is formed in this part of the genital
Four constituents of the spermatophore are identifiable optically. Two
of the substances are evident in the middle segment (B) of the ductus
ejaculatorius simplex when this part of the genital tract of unmated males
is examined in a normal salt solution. A tubular column of viscous,
finely granular gel envelops a core of less viscous material in which
coarse, refringent granules are suspended. The outer column of viscous
gel terminates in a cluster of finger-like lobules (b) near the lower end of
this segment of the duct. When the duct is cut just below the finger-like
lobules, the viscous outer gel flows through the cut and forms an elastic
bag which fills with the thinner suspension of refringent granules. The
viscous column developed in this part of the simplex duct appears to be
the material of the spermatophore sheath.
A naturally formed spermatophore taken from the bursa copulatrix of
a female and immersed in alcohol shows two additional constituents: a
suspension of sperm enclosed within an envelope of flocculent coagulum.
The latter does not appear when the secretions from the cut end of the
simplex duct are immersed in alcohol. The sperm and flocculent envelope
are probably expressed into a forming spermatophore from the duplex
ducts or from some of the more apical parts of the system.
Haniotakis: Reproductive Organs of Navel Orangeworm 5
The ovaries of the navel orangeworm are symmetrically developed,
with four ovarioles per ovary. The terminal filaments (TF) of the four
ovarioles (0) of one ovary come together apically and these intertwine
with the filaments of the opposite ovary but there appears to be no
suspensory ligament. At the age of first mating, 1 to 4 days after
emergence, the germarium is but a small part of each ovariole and the
zone of oocyte growth is extensive. Each ovariole is a tapered, monili-
form strand of 50 to 60 progressively maturing oocytes of the poly-
trophic type. A cluster of trophocytes may be seen in all of the immature
follicles. Stained preparations show the number of trophocytes to be five.
Fig. 8 shows the follicular epithelium (cystocytes) and two nurse cells
(trophocytes) accompanying a young oocyte. The membranous wall of
the egg tube, the tunica propria, acquires a thin muscular layer near
the petiole. The confluence of four petioles forms the calyx (C) of a
short lateral oviduct. (LO) The lateral oviducts join to form the common
oviduct (CO), a short muscular tube which receives the ductus seminalis
(DS). At this point, the common oviduct enlarges to become the vagina
(V). Experience in dissecting hundreds of specimens for evidence of
mating indicates that neither unfertilized nor embryonated eggs accumulate
within the oviduct or vagina in large numbers. Apparently they are laid
soon after being expressed from the ovarioles.
The vagina is encased by as many as seven layers of muscle fibers and
has a cavernous lumen with folded lining. This tube traverses the
telescoped terminal abdominal segments and exits through a vertical slit
in the fleshy end-pad of the ovipositor. We have been unable to locate an
anal orifice in gross dissections; presumably the rectum ends very close
to the ovipore (OV), so that the two apertures may share a common exit
in the vertical slit in the end of the ovipositor. Cross sections of the
genital tract near the end-pad of the ovipositor show that the pre-anal
part of the rectum is intimately applied to the upper surface of the
vagina (Fig. 9).
The bursa copulatrix (BC) in this species lies between and dorsal to
the ovaries. The bulbous part of the bursa, or corpus bursae (CB), is
the terminal vesicle of the ductus bursae. (DB) The latter has an external
opening, the vulva or copulatory pore (VU). The vulva appears as a
semilunar slot stretched transversely in the cuticular folds beneath the
base of the ovipositor. If the ovipositor is artificially exserted, under
traction, the vulva slips into view from beneath the seventh sternite when
the abdominal segments in the ovipositor are fully extended.
Both corpus and ductus bursae are lined with a cuboidal epithelium
and an intricately ornamented cuticula called the lamina dentata. The
dentate appearance of the cuticle (Fig. 10) and the thickness of the epi-
thelium in the corpus bursae diminish progressively towards the base of
the corpus and in the ductus bursae. Near the vulvar end, the ductus
bursae seems to be a membranous tube without any discernible cellular
In unfertilized females the corpus bursae is incompletely inflated with
The Florida Entomologist
secretion; in fertilized individuals it is distended according to the number
of contained spermatophores. As many as four spermatophores have been
Fig. 2 Reproductive system of the female. AG=accessory gland. BC=
bursa copulatrix. BS=bulla seminalis. C=calyx. CB-corpus bursae.
CO=common oviduct. DB-ductus bursae. DR=spermathecal duct. DS=
ductus seminalis. LO-lateral oviduct. O-ovariole. OV=ovipore. P-
petiole. RAG-reservoirs of accessory gland. SC=spermatheca. SG=
spermathecal gland. SP=spermatophore. TF-terminal filament. V=
Vol. 51, No. 1
Haniotakis: Reproductive Organs of Navel Orangeworm 7
noted (Husseiny and Madsen 1964). Each spermatophore (SP) is initially
positioned with its tailpiece (collum) close to or in the ductus seminalis
A slender ductus seminalis (DS) connects the bursa copulatrix with
the apical end of the vagina. The seminal duct enlarges just before it
reaches the vagina and forms a bulla seminalis (BS). The epithelium
and muscularis of the bulla and proximal region of the seminal duct are
similar to the corresponding parts of the adjacent section of the vagina
whereas the histology of the seminal duct between the bulla and bursa
copulatrix resembles that of the corpus bursae. The lamina dentata lines
the seminal duct as far as the bulla although its teeth regress in length
and finally disappear.
The duct of the spermatheca (DR) connects with the vagina close
behind the entrance of the seminal duct. This duct has an endocuticle and
a substantial tunic of circular muscle. Its proximal part is tightly coiled
into approximately three loops. The duct then has a short straight
section before it merges with the spermathecal chamber (SC). In dissected
specimens, the spermathecal chamber is spindle-shaped and annulate; its
wall is a thin muscular membrane having no easily recognizable epithelial
lining. An unbranched tubular gland (SG) of uniform caliber empties into
the distal end of the spermathecal chamber. A section of this gland is
shown in Fig. 11.
One pair of tubular accessory glands communicates with the vagina
considerably behind the spermathecal connection. The pair of tubules unite
basally to form a common duct through which their secretions pour into
the vagina. The tubules are convoluted and fitted into the interstices
between other abdominal organs. Each tubule comprises two storage
segments and a secretary segment (Fig. 2). The proximal one-third is
somewhat larger in diameter than the distal two-thirds, is thin-walled and
filled with brown fluid. The middle one-third is colorless and translucent;
this portion has a very thick epithelium and a lumen of very small
caliber. The distal one-third of the gland resembles the proximal part in
respect to color of contents and thinness of walls. But this brown part
of the gland is subdivided by an attenuated strand which makes a T-shaped
junction with a short endpiece. The strand part of the tubule is believed
to be a non-cellular tunic, perhaps a thickened basement membrane.
The movements of sperm through the reproductive tracts of both sexes
of a noctuid moth, Heliothis zea (Boddie), were recently described by
Callahan and Cascio (1963). The functions of the various genital ducts
and reservoirs in the navel orangeworm have not been studied as ex-
tensively. In this work, it was possible to observe how the tailpiece of
each spermatophore projects into the atrium where the ductus seminalis
connects with the corpus bursae. The ductus seminalis is equipped with a
substantial muscularis. In freshly killed specimens, peristaltic contractions
may be observed as they traverse the duct from corpus bursa to vagina.
It may be supposed, therefore, that muscular action of the seminal duct
greatly assists in the transmission of seminal fluid on this part of its route
to the spermatheca.
The Florida Entomologist
Fig. 3-11. Cross sections through various parts of the genital ducts
or appended glands of navel orangeworm males or females. Fig. 3. Up-
per limb of vas deferens (UVD). Fig, 4. One channel of ductus ejacula-
torius duplex (DED). Fig. 5. Middle segment of simplex duct above
junction with reservoir. Fig. 6. Simplex duct at junction of middle (B) and
reservoir (C) segments. Fig. 7. Terminal segment (D) of simplex duct.
Fig. 8. Two trophocytes and an oocyte within a follicle. Follicular epithe-
lium evident near lower margin of photograph. Fig. 9. Section through
female genital tract within ovipositor. Lumen of hindgut lies above vaginal
canal. Fig. 10. Portion of corpus bursae is cross-section. Fig. 11. Super-
mathecal gland, female.
Vol. 51, No. 1
Haniotakis: Reproductive Organs of Navel Orangeworm 9
Callahan, P. S., and J. B. Chapin. 1960. Morphology of the reproductive
systems and mating in two representative members of the family
Noctuidae, Pseudoletia unipuncta and Peridrame margaritoza with
comparison to Heliothis zea. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 53:763-82.
Callahan, P. S., and T. Cascio. 1963. Histology of the reproductive tracts
and transmission of sperm in the corn earworm, Heliothis zea. Ann.
Entomol. Soc. Amer. 56:535-56.
Davey, K. G. 1960. The evolution of spermatophores in insects. Proc.
Roy. Entomol. Soc. London A, 35:107-13.
Hussein, M. K. E. 1966. The effects of chemosterilants on Lygus hesperus
Knight. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, U. of California, Davis.
Husseiny, N. M., and H. F. Madsen. 1964. Sterilization of the navel
orangeworm, Paramyelois transitella (Walker), by gamma radiation.
Hilgardia 36(3) :113-37.
Khalifa, A. 1950. Spermatophore production in Galleria mellonella L.
(Lepid.) Proc. Roy. Entomol. Soc. London A, 25:33-42.
McManus, J. F. A., and R. TV. Mowry. 1960. Staining methods. Hoeber.
Musgrave, A. J. 1937. The histology of the male and female reproduc-
tive organs of Ephestia kuhniata (Lepid.) Proc. Zool. Soc. London
B, (107) :337-64.
Norris, M. J. 1932. Contributions toward the study of insect fertility.
I. The structure and operation of the reproductive organs of the
genera Ephestia and Plodia (Lepidoptera, Phycitidae). Proc. Zool.
Soc. London 1932 (II) :595-611.
Ruckes, H. 1919. Notes on the male genital system in certain Lepidop-
tera. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 12:192-209.
Snodgrass, R. E. 1935. Principles of Insect Morphology. McGraw-Hill
Book Co., N. Y. 667 p.
Tedders, L. W. Jr., and V. R. Calcote. 1967. Male and female reproduc-
tive systems of Laspeyresia caryana the hickory shuckworm moth
(Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 60:280-82.
The Florida Entomologist 51(1) 1968
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OCCURRENCE OF BREVIPALPUS MITES, LEPROSIS,
AND FALSE LEPROSIS ON CITRUS IN FLORIDA'
L. C. KNORR, H. A. DENMARK, AND H. C. BURNETT
Plant Pathologist, Citrus Experiment Station, University of Florida,
Lake Alfred, Florida; Chief Entomologist, Division of Plant Industry,
Department of Agriculture, Gainesville, Florida; and Plant Pathologist,
Division of Plant Industry, Department of Agriculture, Winter Haven,
An 18-year survey of Brevipalpus mites on citrus was analyzed to
account for the almost complete disappearance in Florida of leprosis
nailheadd rust, Florida scaly bark). B. californicus, (Banks), the mite
responsible for leprosis in Florida, was found occasionally on citrus in
various parts of the State, but only in Volusia County and in Sumter
County was it accompanied by leprosis. B. obovatus Donnadieu, the cause
of leprosis in South America, was encountered twice on citrus (a new host
record for the State), but symptoms of leprosis were not in evidence. 'In
caged experiments, however, B. obovatus did produce leprosis. B. phoenicis
(Geijskes) was found on citrus throughout the State, often in large
numbers, but no economic consequences attended infestations. A descrip-
tion is given of "false leprosis," a disorder of unknown etiology that is
often mistaken for leprosis.
Leprosis (Fig. 1) limits the production of citrus in certain areas of
the world. In Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay, thousands of acres of
orange trees have been abandoned because of this mite-induced trouble.
Leprosis was first observed in Florida in the 1860s. From its focal
point in Pinellas County, it radiated to other citrus-growing areas, and by
1917, 9 counties contained affected trees. The seriousness of the problem
was memorialized by the quarantine of 12 March 1917 which attempted to
halt the spread of leprosis by confining nurserystock movements within
affected counties. Notwithstanding this measure, leprosis continued to
spread; by 1925, it was known in 17 counties.
A sudden reversal took place in the late 1920s; leprosis began to
disappear. By 1948, the trouble was no longer known in the State except
for a few unsprayed groves in Volusia County's Turnbull Hammock,
from Oak Hill to Daytona Beach.
The disappearance of leprosis appears to 'have coincided with the
increased use of sulfur in the late 1920s for combatting citrus rust mite.
Spray trials in 1949-1950 (Knorr and Thompson 1954) demonstrated the
marked effectiveness of sulfur in controlling Brevipalpus californicus
(Banks), the false spider mite associated with leprosis in Florida (Knorr
IFlorida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 2738.
1Division of Plant Industry, Entomological Contribution No. 109.
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 51, No. 1
RECENT REPORTS OF LEPROSIS AND FALSE LEPROSIS
In the late 1950s, sulfur was replaced in many groves by zineb, a
material subsequently found to be ineffective for combatting false spider
mites (Knorr 1959, 1965). Following the abandonment of sulfur, a
leprosis-like spotting of fruits and leaves appeared in some zineb-sprayed
groves-a development that raised fears about the re-establishment of
leprosis. A number of reports from the Ridge section of the State were
investigated; all such cases, however, proved to be "false leprosis" (Fig.
2), a trouble first encountered in Hillsborough County in 1949. While
symptoms on fruit and leaves closely resemble leprosis, false leprosis
causes no lesions on shoots, twigs, or branches, it is not accompanied by
Brevipalpus mites or casts, and it fails to re-appear in affected trees in
subsequent years. In further contrast to leprosis, which affects only
early and midseason varieties of sweet orange, false leprosis is seen only
in 'Valencias'. The cause of false leprosis is not known.
A new outbreak of leprosis was encountered recently by the third au-
thor at Wildwood. Early and midseason varieties of sweet oranges were
affected; no symptoms were seen on adjacent 'Valencia' trees. Mites
associated with the outbreak proved to be B. californicus. Spraying in
this grove had been limited to occasional applications of zineb.
OCCURRENCE OF FALSE SPIDER MITES ON FLORIDA CITRUS
The rise and fall of leprosis in Florida has long posed an enigma.
Undoubtedly the increasing use of sulfur for rust-mite control contributed
to the general disappearance of leprosis. But why did leprosis disappear
also in unsprayed and abandoned groves? The answer does not seem to
lie in the disappearance of B. californicus; a previous report (Knorr
1959) showed this species widely distributed on other hosts including
azalea, angel's-trumpet, croton, ground cherry, guava, mimosa, privet,
and spanish needles.
Does the disappearance of leprosis correlate with the disappearance
on citrus of B. californicus? Records of false spider mites on rutaceous
plants have been kept since 1949. Results of a recent survey together
with results from a survey reported earlier (Knorr 1959) are given in
Fig. 3. Findings based on both surveys are as follows:
1. False spider mites are common on citrus throughout the State. At
times, infestations are so heavy that a thousand mites may be found on a
2. The species almost invariably encountered is Brevipalpus phoenicis
(Geijskes). Of 129 collections of false spider mites from over the State,
106 proved to be this species. This is in agreement with findings of Muma
(1965) who reported that B. phoenicis is abundant in all citrus-growing
areas, and that with the exception of Phyllocoptruta oleivora, it is the
most frequently encountered mite on Florida citrus trees that are not
3. The following rutaceous hosts were found infested with B. phoenicis:
Citrus aurantium L., C. limon (L.) Burm. f., C. mitis Blanco, C. nobilis
Lour., C. paradisi Macf., C. reticulata Blanco, C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck, C.
sinensis x reticulata ('Temple'), C. paradisi x reticulata (tangelo), Aeglop-
StP ~ ~ rJ1
MuM- M w
Fig. 1. Leprosis (=Florida scaly bark, nailhead rust) as it appears in
Florida on fruit, leaves, twigs, and branches. Lesions grow apace with
increasing diameter of twigs; in time, branches and even trunks may
become girdled. The incitant is Brevipalpus californicus (Banks), but it
is still not known whether this disease results from a mite-injected toxin
or from a mite-vectored virus.
" ~pyrsefil~~ ~.7--
The Florida Entomologist
sis chevalieri Swing., Atalantia ceylanica (Arn.) Oliv., Hesperethusa crenu-
lata (Roxb.) Roem. The following hosts were found infested with B. cali-
fornicus: Citrus aurantium L., C. limon (L.) Burm. f., C. paradise Macf.,
Fig. 2. False leprosis. Lesions on fruit and leaves resemble leprosis
in color, size, and consistency, but twig lesions do not occur with false
leprosis, a trouble of unknown etiology.
Vol. 51, No. 1
Knorr: Brevipalpus Mites, Leprosis, and False Leprosis 15
Fig. 3. Distribution in Florida of Brevipalpus spp. on rutaceous hosts.
Figures within following symbols indicate the number of times the species
-=B. phoenicis (Geijskes). A=B. californicus (Banks).
O=B. obovatus Donn.
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 51, No. 1
C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck, C. sinensis x reticulata. B. obovatus was found
twice, once at Winter Haven on Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. and once at
Auburndale on C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck.
4. On the basis of 129 random collections of brevipalpids, it appears
that B. californicus is mostly restricted to northern sections of the State,
though it was occasionally encountered in the central, western, southern,
and eastern districts. In 1961, Muma (1961) stated that this species had not
been found outside Turnbull Hammock, but in 1965, on the basis of more
extensive records, he reported it common to abundant in groves of the
north and northeast coast districts (Muma 1965).
5. The presence of B. californicus at Loughman, Ruskin, and Stuart
was not accompanied by leprosis, presumably because hosts (respectively,
'Valenica', 'Temple', and rough lemon) were varieties insusceptible to
6. B. obovatus Donn. (syn. Tenuipalpus pseudocuneatus Blanchard),
the species responsible for leprosis in South America, was encountered
twice, both times in Polk County. These are new records for this species
on citrus in Florida. Hosts were Citrus limon and C. sinensis cult.
'Valencia'-varieties known to be insusceptible to leprosis. B. obovatus
occurs, however, on other hosts in Florida, including various weeds in
citrus groves. One collection from spanish needles was transferred to
caged seedlings of 'Pineapple' sweet orange; in due time, B. obovatus
led to the development of leprosis (Knorr, unpublished data). Muma
(1965) had earlier reported finding no B. obovatus on citrus, concluding
that this species is uncommon or rare in Florida on Citrus spp.
On the basis of the above described collections, it would seem that
leprosis is no longer found on Florida citrus because B. californicus is no
longer present on susceptible host varieties. About a third of the col-
lections were made in abandoned groves; therefore, it seems unlikely that
the decline of B. californicus is attributable to spraying. Neither is it
likely that the disappearance of B. californicus is due to changing environ-
ments; leprosis and the causal mite are still destructive in two disparate
ecological niches, at Oak Hill on the Indian River and at Wildwood on the
Ridge. Nor is it convincing to attribute the disappearance of B. californi-
cus to biological control since Muma (1965) found no evidence that
Brevipalpus mites are attacked by insects, mites, or fungi.
Though reasons for the disappearance of leprosis remain uncertain,
measures for control are well established (Jeppson et al. 1955, Knorr
1965, Knorr and Thompson 1954). An annual postbloom application of
either wettable sulfur (10 lbs/100 gallon of water) or chlorobenzilate
(1/4 pint of 45.5% liquid/100 gallon) controls both mite and disease.
Jeppson, L. R., J. J. Jesser, and J. O. Complin. 1955. Control of mites on
citrus with chlorobenzilate. J. Econ. Entomol. 48: 375-377.
Knorr, L. C. 1950. Etiological association of a Brevipalpus mite with
Florida scaly bark of citrus. Phytopathology 40: 15.
Knorr, L. C. 1959. Presenting Brevipalpus mites and some questions
that they pose. Citrus Mag. 21(10) : 8-12, 20, 22.
Knorr: Brevipalpus Mites, Leprosis, and False Leprosis 17
Knorr, L. C. 1965. Zineb contra-indicated as a control for leprosis in
citrus. Trop. Agr. 42: 175-176.
Knorr, L. C. and W. L. Thompson. 1954. Spraying trials for the control
of Florida scaly bark in citrus. Plant Dis. Reporter 38: 143-146.
Muma, M. H. 1961. Mites associated with citrus in Florida. Florida
Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 640: 3-39.
Muma, M. H. 1965. Populations of common mites in Florida citrus
groves. Fla. Entomol. 48: 35-46.
The Florida Entomologist 51(1) 1968
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HOST PLANT RECORDS OF DYSEUARESTA MEXICANA
WITH NOTES ON ITS LIFE HISTORY IN FLORIDA1
CARL E. STEGMAIER, JR.2
11335 N.W. 59th Avenue, Hialeah, Florida 33012
The life history of Dysetuaresta mexicana (Wiedemann) was studied at
Howard, and Miami, Florida. Before the study was conducted, the im-
mature stages of the seed-feeding tephritid were unknown. The larvae
infest seeds of the Compositae, Melanthera hastata Michx. and M. deltoidea
Michx.; both plants are new host records. One larva infests a single
seed and pupation takes place within the seed. Dark seed discolorations
indicate an infestation by a pupa of D. mexicana while a light greenish-
yellow seed discoloration indicates an infestation by a lava.
Wiedemann (1830) described a small tephritid as Trypeta mexicana.
Loew (1862) described Trypeta melanogastra and stated that Wiedemann's
species (T. mexicana) was not known to him. Loew (1873) published
an illustration of a wing of Wiedemann's type of Trypeta mexicana and
indicated a probable synonymy. Benjamin (1934) reported that he was
unable to observe any distinguishing morphological characteristics be-
tween the Loew type of melanogastra and his (Benjamin's) Florida series.
He stated that the only exception was that the Loew type possessed a
hyaline droplet ". . which is situated near the middle of the submarginal
cell, below the dark bar which divides the two large hyaline patches in the
marginal cell. Other specimens in the collections of the Museum of
Comparative Zoology and of D. M. Bates indicate that this slight differ-
ence is of little or no significance."
The generic designation "Dyseuaresta" was proposed by Hendel (1928)
for the Neotropical tephritids Euaresta adelphica Hendel, E. gephyrae
Hendel, and Trypeta mexicana Wiedemann. Dr. Richard H. Foote (per-
sonal correspondence) stated that today there are about ten species, all
primarily Neotropical, associated with the name "Dyseuaresta."
Benjamin (1934) recorded Dyseuaresta mexicana from Texas, Florida,
Mexico, Cuba, Puerto Rico, St. Vincent Island, Paraguay, and the Bahama
Islands. He added, "Some of the records may refer to distinct, but
closely related species." The host plant was given as Melanthera sp.
The immature stages were unknown to Benjamin.
The purpose of this paper is to report some personal hearings of
Dyseuaresta mexicana (Wiedemann) and to cite some observations on
its biology and life history. The hearings are new host plant records for
'Contribution No. 106, Entomology Section, Div. of Plant Industry Flor-
ida Department of Agriculture, Gainesville.
2Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Div. of
Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture.
20 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 51, No. 1
Small (1933) lists the genus Melanthera as a perennial and an erect
herb. About 12 tropical species are known. Melanthera deltoidea Michx.
is found in the hammocks and along the coastal sand dunes of south
peninsular Florida, the Keys, and in the West Indies. Melanthera hastata
Michx. and Melanthera lobata Small may be found along lakes, streams,
shores, and in damp soil along the coastal plain of Florida to Louisiana
and South Carolina.
Melanthera hastata Michx. Howard, Florida, 22 June 1964, (C.E.S.).
The author reared 10 adults from the seedheads of this composite.
All reared adults were deposited in the U. S. National Museum Col-
Melanthera deltoidea Michx. Dodge Island, Miami, Florida. 22 April 1966,
(C.E.S.). Some larvae and many pupae were found infesting single
seedheads of M. deltoidea. Collections of seedheads were placed into
rearing containers and from the seedheads emerged numerous adults.
Larvae, pupae, and adults of this rearing were deposited in the U. S.
National Museum Collection. Pupae and adults were deposited in the
Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Div. of Plant Industry, Florida
Department of Agriculture, Gainesville. Two pupae and two adults
were also donated to the Department of Biological Sciences, Kent State
University, Kent, Ohio.
Plant infestations were first noticed by the author as characteristic
black or dark discolorations on the rather flat seedheads of Melanthera.
The plants were growing on Dodge Island in a shady area within a few
feet of Biscayne Bay. Examination of the seedheads of Melanthera
deltoidea revealed that the dark discolorations were actually infested
single seeds. Each single seed contained a larva, pupa, or empty pupal
case. Other discolorations (greenish-yellow seeds) were observed to be
infested with immature larvae. The larvae feed on the internal contents
and after the entire seed is eaten, pupation occurs with the posterior
spiracular portion protruding from the base of the seed shell. Such
infestations are easily seen with a dissecting microscope.
D. mexicana feeds in a manner similar to the seed-feeding agromyzids.
Other hearings were conducted to determine the various parasites that may
be associated with this tephritid. Numerous seeds containing larval and
pupal stages were sorted from the seedheads and confined to rearing
containers to await parasite emergence. Although the author was success-
ful in rearing numerous parasites, they have not been determined.
The author thanks Dr. Richard H. Foote, Entomology Research Di-
vision, ARS, USDA, for his determinations of Dyseuaresta mexicana,
for suggestions, and for his critical comments concerning this manu-
script; the late Professor Erdman West, Botanist and Mycologist, Plant
Stegmaier: Host Plants of Dyseuaresta mexicana
Pathology Department, University of Florida for his identifications of
Melanthera deltoidea; Dr. J. A. Duke, Botanist, USDA, for the determina-
tions of Melanthera hastata; Mr. Harold A. Denmark, Chief, Entomology
Section, Div. of Plant Industry, Fla. Dept. Agric., and Dr. Howard V.
Weems, Jr., Curator, Florida State Collections of Arthropods, for their
help, numerous suggestions, equipment, and encouragement to continue
the Diptera research in south Florida.
Benjamin, F. H. 1934. Descriptions of some native trypetid flies with
notes on their habits. USDA, Tech. Bull. 401 96p.
Hendel, F. 1928. Neue oder weniger bekannte bohrfliegen (Trypetidae)
meist aus dem Deutschen Entomologischen Institut Berlin-Dahlem
Entomol. Mitt. 17:341-370.
Loew, H. 1862. Monographs of the Diptera of North America. (Part 1).
Smithson. Misc. Coll. 221 p.
Loew, H. 1873. Monograph of the Diptera of North America (Part 111).
Smithson. Misc. Coll. No. 256. 351 p.
Small, J. K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. Chapel Hill. Univ.
North Carolina Press. 1554 p.
Weidemann, C. R. W. 1830. Aussereuopaische Zweifluegelige Insekten.
2. 684 p.
The Florida Entomologist 51(1) 1968
The Kilgore Seed Company, manufacturers and formulators of
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BEACH, WAUCHULA, WEST
IPS BARK BEETLE ATTACKS AND BROOD
DEVELOPMENT ON A LIGHTNING-STRUCK PINE
IN RELATION TO ITS PHYSIOLOGICAL DECLINE1
NEIL H. ANDERSON2 AND DAVID B. ANDERSON
Duke School of Forestry, Durham, North Carolina
A study was made of the attacks and brood development of Ips
calligraphus (Germ.), Ips grandicollis (Eichh.), and Ips avulsus (Eichh.;
on a large lightning-struck pine tree to determine how these activities
were affected by certain factors associated with the physiological decline
of the tree. Results show a definite relationship between oleoresin exuda-
tion rate (O.E.R.) and incidence and success of Ips attacks. No attacks
succeeded where O.E.R. exceeded 0.1 ml/hr. from a standard wound. More-
over, the incidence of attack was less where O.E.R. was greater than 0.1
ml/hr. Inner bark moisture limited brood development only where severe
dessication occurred. The pH of the inner bark was within the range found
on normal, healthy trees. An hypothesis concerning Ips bark beetle inva-
sion and colonization of lightning-struck pine trees is offered.
The apparent attractiveness of lightning-struck pines to bark beetles
has been reported by numerous authors (St. George 1930, Hetrick 1949,
Anderson 1960, Rudinsky 1962, K. Graham 1963, and Johnson 1966).
Such trees often serve as nuclei for infestations of various proportions
and, therefore, are of interest to the student of bark beetle-host tree
ecology. Chance afforded the writers an opportunity to study the pro-
gression of Ips bark beetle attacks on a large loblolly pine tree (Pinus
taeda L.) in the Duke Forest at Durham, North Carolina.
The tree, 18 in. d.b.h. and 80 ft. tall, was noticed approximately 4 days
after being struck by lightning. The study was begun immediately. The
bole of the standing tree was marked off into 8 ten-foot sections; each
section, except the top, was divided into 10 one-foot subsections; and each
subsection was marked off into quadrants. The tree was studied with the
aid of a Swedish tree-climbing ladder, a special tree seat positioned
opposite the ladder and supported by it, and a safety belt (Fig. 1). The
lightning charge caused 2 major fissures in the bark and descended the
tree to the ground, roughly dividing the bark into longitudinal halves.
Three series of bark examinations were made during a 4-week period.
Each series consisted of several foot-square samples of bark (approxi-
mately one quadrant each) which were very carefully removed from the
tree with the aid of a linoleum knife and putty knife and examined for
IThis study was conducted as part of a research project which was
financially supported by a grant made jointly by the Southern Forest
Disease and Insect Research Council and Duke University.
2Presently Assistant Professor of Forest Entomology, Texas A&M Uni-
versity, College Station, Texas 77843.
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 51, No. 1
Fig. 1. Setup for Studying Ips Beetle Attacks and for Taking Foot-
square Bark Samples (Note relation of samples to lightning-caused
Anderson: Ips Attack on a Lightning-Struck Pine
evidence of gallery and brood development. In general, 1 sample was
taken from each 10-foot section of the tree, bordering on one edge of the
lightning-caused fissure (Fig. 1). Data were collected on number and
position of Ips beetle attacks, relative success of attacks (considered
successful if eggs were present in galleries), number of eggs and larvae
per gallery or portion thereof, whether broods were succeeding or failing
(considered successful if living larvae were present), and Ips species
involved: Ips calligraphus (Germ.), Ips grandicollis (Eichh.), and Ips
Concurrently with the bark examinations, measurements were made of
certain tree condition factors. These included oleoresin exudation rate
(O.E.R.), moisture content of the inner bark, and pH of the inner bark.
O.E.R. was measured from a standard circular wound in the tree bark
which was made by a number 5 cork borer. The outer bark was smooth-
ened, the borer was forced through the bark to the surface of the wood,
and the bark plug was removed. A collection vessel, consisting of the
outer part of a 000 gelatin capsule, was then inserted into the wound. A
small hole was cut in the side of each vessel and oriented upward to allow
air to escape as resin flowed in. One hour after installation, the amount
of resin in each vessel was estimated by a trained observer (Anderson
The moisture content of the inner bark was determined from 2" x 2"
samples collected from each foot-square area of bark (later examined for
Ips attacks) and was expressed as a percentage of the oven-dry sample
weight. The inner bark pH was determined with chemically treated test
papers and a color chart readable to half units.
The data presented in Tables 1, 2, and 4 should be considered in rela-
tion to the lightning-caused fissure, the height above ground, and time.
Table 1 contains a record of the Ips beetle attacks made on the bark areas
examined and indicates the status of each attack at the time of inspection.
Except where mass attacks occurred (Table 1, 7/22/64 at heights of 58
and 68 feet), each symbol represents 1 attack.
Successful attacks began to occur first near the lightning-caused
fissure (Table 1). From the corresponding data on O.E.R. (Table 2)
one recognizes a definite correlation between successful attacks and low
O.E.R. values, and vice versa between unsuccessful attacks or absence of
attacks and higher O.E.R. values. In fact, no successful Ips attacks were
observed where the rate of resin exudation (O.E.R.) exceeded 0.1 ml/hr.
Table 3 gives information on attack frequency and brood development in
relation to O.E.R. Very little gallery construction (except nuptial cham-
bers) occurred at 0.2 ml./hr. and above. These data indicate that success-
ful egg gallery construction by these three species (Ips calligraphus, Ips
grandicollis, and Ips avulsus) cannot occur where resin flow is appreci-
able, above 0.1 ml./hr. from a wound made by a No. 5 cork borer.
Numerous individual Ips attacks were examined, aside from those
contained in the regular foot-square bark samples. Where the pitch tubes
produced by active attacks were fresh and sticky at the outer end, gallery
TABLE 1.-ATTACKS OF Ips BARK BEETLES FROM NATURAL POPULATIONS ON
A LIGHTNING-STRUCK LOBLOLLY PINE TREE (SYMBOLS ARE
ARRANGED AFTER EACH HEIGHT TO INDICATE THE DISTRIBUTION
OF ATTACKS ON EACH FOOT-SQUARE BARK SAMPLE.)
Position Attacks in Relation to Lightning-caused Fissure*
ing Sample, Distance from Fissure (Inches)
(feet) 2 4 6 8 10 12
70 + + -
60 + ++
50 ++ -
+ + + +
20 + -
7/15/64 28 + + -
++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++
68** ++ + + ++ ++ ++ ++ ++
+ + ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++
++ + + ++ ++ ++ ++ ++
58** + ++ + + + ++ ++ + +++ ++
+ + ++ +.+ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++
36 + + -
*Symbols: -+=successful attack or brood; --unsuccessful attack or brood; =brood
failure after an initially successful attack.
**This sample under mass attack when taken.
Anderson: Ips Attack on a Lightning-Struck Pine
TABLE 2.-OLEORESIN EXUDATION RATE (O.E.R.) IN RELATION TO A
LIGHTNING-CAUSED FISSURE IN THE BARK OF A LOBLOLLY PINE
TREE (18" d.b.h.x80')
Sampl- Position of O.E.R. (ml/hr.)
ing Sample, height Distance from Fissure (Inches)
Date (feet) 2 4 6 8 10 12
70 0.0 0.1 0.4
60 0.0 0.0+ 0.3 0.5
50 0.0 0.1 0.0+ 0.5 0.4
7/9/64 40 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.5
30 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.1
20 0.0+ 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
10 0.0+ 0.5 0.9 0.7
38 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1
7/15/64 28 0.0 0.0 0.0+ 0.0+
18 0.0 0.5 0.6 0.3
68 0.0 0.0 0.0
7/22/64 58 0.0 0.0 0.0
36 0.0 0.0 0.0+ 0.1
5 0.0 0.0+ 0.0+ 0.2
TABLE 3.-Ips BARK BEETLE ATTACKS AND BROOD DEVELOPMENT IN RE-
LATION TO OLEORESIN EXUDATION RATE (O.E.R.) ON A LIGHT-
NING-STRUCK LOBLOLLY PINE TREE FOR A PERIOD OF 3 WEEKS,
BEFORE MASS INVASION OCCURRED (BARK EXAMINED= 10 SQ.
FT., 10 FOOT-SQUARE SAMPLES).
Percentage of Inches of No. of Eggs
O.E.R. No. of Total Sample Egg Gallery and Larvae
(ml/rAttacks Involved Constructed Produced
0.0-0.1 44 47 109.0 545
0.2-0.3 1 13 0.5 0
0.4-0.5 2 20 2.5 0
Above 0.5 6 20 2.0 0
Totals 53 100 114.0 545
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 51, No. 1
construction usually had not progressed beyond partially completed nup-
tial chambers. The beetles found inside such nuptial chambers were
usually alive if the pitch tubes remained open. Where the tubes were
plugged, however, the beetles invariably were dead in the pitch or they
were not found, indicating abandonment of the attack. The writers con-
cluded that resin exuding from attack wounds acted as a mechanism of
resistance to the Ips beetles from natural populations which attacked this
lightning-struck tree. Results (to be published later) from numerous
intensive experiments using Ips beetles of the same species caged on
the same species of pine completely corroborate this conclusion (Ander-
Table 4 presents moisture percentages for the inner bark. In general,
the tree lost moisture at a faster rate near the lightning fissure than at
-MOISTURE CONTENT OF THE INNER BARK OF A LOBLOLLY PINE
TREE (18" D.B.H. X 80' TALL) IN RELATION TO A LIGHTNING-
CAUSED FISSURE IN THE BARK (MOISTURE IS EXPRESSED AS A
PERCENTAGE OF THE OVEN-DRY WEIGHT OF THE INNER BARK
Sampl- Position of Moisture Content of Inner Bark (Percent O. D.)
ing Sample, ht. Distance from the Fissures (Inches)
Date (Feet) 2 4 6 8 10 12
50 199 210 210
40 183 204 197
7/3/64 30 167 203 206
20 183 194 171
10 155 192 197
68 78 184
58 55 176 -
7/22/64 36 185 206 221
30 72 171 224
20 163 188 151
5 205 236
locations 6 to 10 inches away. This was not due to the inner bark being
separated from the wood, but appeared to be caused by a disruption of
water uptake resulting from the lightning-caused injury. Water con-
tent of the inner bark appeared to have no direct effect upon Ips attacks
or brood development, except in cases of extreme water loss. Table 1,
7/22/64, at heights of 58 and 68 feet, indicates brood failure after success-
ful attacks near the fissure. The corresponding data on moisture in Table
4 show very low percentages of 55 and 78, respectively. In his studies on
a similar Ips species, Anderson (1948) found heavy brood mortality where
Anderson: Ips Attack on a Lightning-Struck Pine
inner bark moisture dropped below 100 percent (oven-dry basis). In the
present study, moisture was, in general, favorable to Ips bark beetle
development. Inner bark pH values were within the range, 3.5-5.5, of those
found on vigorously growing trees (Anderson 1967).
The progression of Ips attacks and brood development on this tree
occurred as follows: Two or 3 days after the tree was struck by lightning,
Ips calligraphus and Ips grandicollis began to attack near the lightning-
caused fissure along the middle bole. These attacks also occurred with less
frequency on the interspaces between fissures. Mass attacks on the tree
did not occur until about 4 weeks after the lightning strike, when Ips
avulsus and Ips grandicollis invaded the upper bole (Table 1, 7/22/64).
This coincided with the loss of resin flow (Table 2, 7/22/64). Ips calli-
graphus mass-attacked the lower bole approximately 5 weeks after the
Apparently, the lightning strike caused very extensive damage to the
root system of this tree, which ultimately resulted in its loss of cell turgor.
As the hydrostatic pressure within the tree grew less, so did the oleoresin
exudation pressure (O.E.P.), remembering that the turgor of the epithelial
cells of the resin ducts regulates O.E.P. (Vite and Rudinsky 1962). When
the O.E.P was lost, the O.E.R. became nil. With the tree's resistance
mechanism thus removed, it was mass-attacked by the Ips beetles. The
hydrostatic condition of this tree deteriorated first in the crown and the
water supply failure progressed gradually down the bole. Mass invasion
by the Ips followed the same pattern.
That the host or primary attraction of this tree for Ips bark beetles
was increased or enhanced by the lightning strike seems unquestionable.
The reasons for this increased attractiveness were not immediately ap-
parent. Johnson (1966) reported that 80% of the lightning-struck Pon-
derosa pines he observed were attacked and killed by the western pine
beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis Lec., and that these trees produced more
beetle brood than non-lightning struck trees attacked and killed by this
beetle. He hypothesized that fermentation of the exposed phloem may be
the source of the additional attractiveness of lightining-injured trees. A
similar hypothesis was offered by Person (1931) to explain the mass
invasion of trees after they were initially attacked by a few bark beetles.
Anderson (1948), however, demonstrated that, at least in the case of Ips
pini Say, the secondary attractant was produced by the male beetles. He
also showed that fermenting phloem was no more attractive to Ips pini
than healthy phloem.
The scope of the present study did not include an analysis of the
factors involved with the increased host attraction of lightning struck
trees, but sought, rather, to elucidate the relationship between Ips beetle
attacks and tree physiological conditions. The writers recognize the need
for more extensive investigations along these lines. On the basis of
considerable observational experience, however, and on the basis of the
results from this study, we offer the following hypothesis with regard to
invasion and colonization of lightning-struck pine trees by Ips bark
30 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 51, No. 1
beetles: When lightning strikes a pine tree and ruptures the bark, certain
host volatiles are given off by the exposed wood and phloem. Some of
these volatiles are attractive to the Ips beetles from the endemic flying
populations in the forest. Soon, some of these beetles begin to attack
the tree. Attacks are, at first, limited to those individual insects which
fly close enough to be attracted by the host volatiles. Mass invasion of
the bark of the tree occurs only after a sufficient number of the first-
attackers begins to succeed in their gallery construction and begins to
produce the population aggregating pheromone (see Anderson 1948, Vite
and Gara 1961, Wood 1962, Gara et al. 1965). Success of initial Ips
attacks (and therefore pheromone production) depends upon the subsi-
dence of resin exudation from attack wounds. Hence, mass invasion
coincides with the period of time when resin flow becomes negligible.
Colonization by brood larvae is assured after a successful mass invasion
by adult beetles.
Anderson, N. H. 1967. Some Relationships between host tree condition
and suitability for attack and brood rearing by Ips bark beetles.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Duke University, Durham, N.C.
Anderson, R. F. 1948. Host selection by the pine engraver. J. Econ.
Entomol. 41: 596-602.
Anderson, R. F. 1960. Forest and Shade Tree Entomology. John Wiley
and Sons, New York.
Gara, R. I., J. P. Vite, and H. H. Cramer. 1965. Manipulation of Den-
droctonus frontalis by use of a population aggregating pheromone.
Contrib. Boyce Thompson Inst. 23 (3): 55-66.
Graham, K. 1963. Concepts of Forest Entomology. Reinhold Publ. Corp.,
Hetrick, L. A. 1949. Some overlooked relationships of southern pine
beetles. J. Econ. Entomol. 42: 466-69.
Johnson, P. C. 1966. Attractiveness of lightning-struck ponderosa pine
trees to Dendroctonus brevicomis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Ann.
Entomol. Soc. Amer. 59: 615.
Person, H. L. 1931. Theory in explanation of the host selection of
certain trees by the western pine beetle. J. For. 29: 696-9.
Rudinsky, J. A. 1962. Ecology of Solytidae. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 7: 327-
St. George, R. A. 1930. Drought-affected and injured trees attractive to
bark beetles. J. Econ. Entomol. 23: 825-28.
Vite, J. P. and R. I. Gara. 1961. A field method for observation on ol-
factory responses of bark beetles (Scolytidae) to volatile materials.
Contrib. Boyce Thompson Inst. 21(3) : 175-82.
Vite, J. P. and J. A. Rudinsky. 1962. Investigations on the resistance of
conifers to bark beetle infestations. Proc. 11th Int. Cong. Entomol.
Wood, D. L. 1962. The attraction created by males of a bark beetle
Ips confusus (LeConte) attacking ponderosa pine (Coleoptera:
Scolytidae) Pan-Pac. Entomol. 38: 141-45.
The Florida Entomologist 51(1) 1968
A SIMPLE METHOD OF MOSQUITO OVARY
KAREN E. MEADOWS
Encephalitis Research Center, Florida State Board of Health,
An illustrated description of step-by-step dissection of mosquito ovaries
is accompanied by a list of important references pertaining to this pro-
The age-grouping of mosquitoes through examination of dissected
ovaries has contributed greatly to knowledge of the age of vector species.
At present, there are two principle techniques: tracheal, in which
tracheal skeins (coils) indicate nulliparous specimens, while a threadlike
net indicates parous females; and dilatation, which determines the physi-
ological age of the females by counting dilatations of the dissected ovarioles
after oviposition (Detinova 1962).
During viral studies at the Encephalitis Research Center, Tampa, it
was necessary to learn the age of certain mosquito species as they were
collected. For mass dissections as handled in our laboratory, the tra-
cheal system is best suited to a limited time factor, and gives a reasonably
accurate estimate of the parous rate.
This paper is intended as an elementary instruction guide for ovarian
dissection of mosquitoes. Although several publications illustrate the
finished ovaries on microscope slides, detailed description of the actual
process is lacking. The major purpose of this paper is to provide this
description. The techniques are adapted from those practiced for many
years by Mrs. Nina Branch at the Entomological Research Center, Vero
Dissecting microscope Several 2 in. x 2 in. gauze pads'
Clean microscope slides and lables Clear fingernail polish
Xylol Cellulose tape (1 in. width)
Small tipped forceps Several 6 in. wooden applicator sticks
(Watchmaker's) (1/8 in. diameter)
Dissecting needles Several No. 3 insect pins
Distilled water Minuten nadeln
Wax pencil and lead pencil Fine-tipped artist's paint brush
One 3 in. x 5 in. lined card Compound microscope
1The research on which this paper is based was supported in part by
grant number A1-05504 from the National Institue of Allergy and Infec-
tious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, U. S. Public Health Service,
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 51, No. 1
1. Dissecting needles are made by cutting an inch-long groove in one
end of an applicator stick, and putting a No. 3, or finer, insect pin
in the groove, with the point extending at least 1/2 in. With the
nail polish, cement the pin into the groove, and encircle it with two
or three rounds of 1 in. wide cellulose tape. Coating the tape with a
layer of nail polish will waterproof the tool and make it more
durable. (Fig. 1B)
Minuten nadeln (for the dilatation method) can be inserted into a hole
or slot in the end of the applicator and secured with nail polish.
Jones (1967) gives a complete description of tools and equipment for
more advanced types of mosquito dissections.
2. Marking permanent slides:
a. Use new slides, freshly cleaned with xylol.
b. On the reverse side, draw two parallel lines (for 20 mosquitoes),
or one line for 10 or less, with the wax pencil. Since this wax
line will be rubbed off before the slide and ovaries are put on the
compound microscope for reading, draw it lightly. Use the lined
card underneath the slide, as a drawing guide.
c. Flip the slide over immediately. Attach a label to the left end of
3. Slide label:
a. Collection number or name of study.
c. Collection site.
d. Mosquito identification.
e. Number of mosquitoes dissected (pairs of ovaries).
TRACHEAL METHOD OF DISSECTION
4. Use a dissecting microscope (low power, 9-12X) with both a plain and
a permanent labeled slide on the microscope stage. Use a dark
background of transmitted light. Work with fine dissecting needles
and small, fine-tipped forceps. Adjust mirror to reduce reflected glare.
If you are left handed, reverse all hand motions described below.
5. Put two separate drops of distilled water on the dissecting slide.
(Keep the labeled slide out of viewing field until step 9.) Distilled
water is preferred over saline, as it does not leave a residue of
crystals on the finished (dry) slide. Make the dissection in the left
drop. Steady the hands on the microscope stage, and/or with the
elbows on the table. (Fig. 1A).
6. Place the whole mosquito (empty, Sella's classification I, 1920) on its
left side, in the left drop of water. With the needle in the left hand
and forceps in the right, pull the abdomen off, holding the abdomen
at its base (near thorax) with forceps, while the needle holds the
thorax. Separate the abdomen gently from the thorax. (Fig. 1C)
7. Orient the abdomen in water with the venter facing up and the base
(torn area) pointing away from you.
8. Holding the abdomen stationary with the needle in the left hand, nick
chitin on each side of the abdomen between 5th and 6th segments,
with the forceps in the right hand. (Fig. 1D) Do NOT cut the tip of
Meadows: Mosquito Ovary Dissection
the abdomen off, just nick it lightly. Still holding the basal part of
abdomen with the needle in the left hand, pull the lower (apical)
part of abdomen gently away with the forceps. (Fig. 1E). Carefully
separate the ovaries from other material and clip the tracheae with
C D E
Fig. 1. Simple dissection of mosquito ovaries: A, Position of instru-
ments and slides; B, Dissecting needles; C, Position of adult female
mosquito in drop of water; D, E, Position of -abdomen and nicking of
chitin; F, Ovaries still attached to abdomen; G, Separated ovaries; H,
Transfer of ovaries in drop of water to final slide; I, Ovaries in water;
J, Dry ovaries.
34 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 51, No. 1
needle. (Fig. 1F). With the light focused by the mirror beneath the
stage, the ovaries will look like tiny clusters of shiny glass globules.
Remember, the critical step is pulling the lower part of the abdomen
9. Both microscope slides are now held side to side with the left hand.
Transfer a drop of water with forceps, from the clean right drop, to
the permanent slide. It takes practice to "slip" the drop of water off
the forceps onto the slide. Rinse the ovaries in the remaining water
of the right drop to wash off fat, scales, and other debris. Then
transfer the ovaries with forceps to the permanent slide. (Fig. 1H)
With the fine-tipped forceps, a tiny droplet of water can be picked
up and will cushion the ovaries during the transfer. This pair of
ovaries is placed in a separate drop of clean water on the permanent
slide. Arranging the pairs of ovaries over the wax pencil line will
facilitate later reading of results with the compound microscope.
Clean instrument points occasionally with the gauze pads.
10. If ovaries stick to the forceps, ease them off with the needle.
11. Dried mosquitoes: Use two needles, or needle and forceps, to stretch
the abdomen gently laterally, to let water enter. Also stretch the tip
of the abdomen. Let it soak for a few minutes. Hold the third
segment with the needle in the left hand. With the right hand, insert
the forceps into the tip of the abdomen, holding the tip with the
needle and contents with forceps. Then gently tease out and detach
ovaries with needles.
12. Allow slides to air dry before examining ovaries with the compound
microscope. Rub off the wax line before placing the slide on the stage
of the compound microscope. If dark areas appear on the dried
ovaries, a fine-tipped artist's brush can be dipped in water, and very
lightly touched to the surface of the ovaries, to moisten them. The
dark spots should disappear. (Fig. 1J)
13. Excellent photographs of ovaries after dissection, showing parous
and nullipars, can be found in Detinova (1962), Kardos and Bellamy
(1961), and Burdick and Kardos (1963). Refer to these for interpre-
tation of findings.
DILATATION METHOD OF DISSECTION
This technique is used to determine the number of ovipositions, and
the best description, along with diagrams of the ovarioles, is found in
Detinova (1962 p. 74-76).
The author expresses appreciation to: Doyle J. Taylor, Entomologist,
Leslie Storey, Laboratory Technician, of the Encephalitis Research Center,
Mary Jo Bashaw for art suggestions and Dr. Roy Chamberlain, National
Communicable Disease Center, Atlanta, and Dr. F. S. Blanton, University
of Florida, Gainesville, for reviewing the manuscript.
Mosquito Ovary Dissection
Burdick, D. J., and Ervin H. Kardos. 1963. Culex tarsalis in Kern County,
California. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 56: 527-535.
Detinova, T. S. 1962. Age-grouping methods in Diptera of medical
importance. World Health Organ. Monogr. Ser. No. 47, Geneva.
Jones, J. C. 1967. Methods for dissecting mosquitoes. Mosquito News
Kardos, E. H., and R. E. Bellamy. 1961. Examination of the ovarian
tracheation. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 54:448-451
Sella, M. 1920. Relazione della campagna antianofelica di Fiumicino
(1919) con special riguardo alla biologia degli Anofeli ed agli
Anofeli infetti. Ann. Igiene, 30, Supplemento 85.
The Florida Entomologist 51(1), 1968
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PHYTOSEIIDAE OF SAND-PINE LITTER'
MARTIN H. MUMA
University of Florida Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred
A survey of phytoseiidae living in sand-pine litter on Pliocene or
Pleistocene terraces in peninsular Florida has indicated that the popula-
tions were composed entirely of mites belonging to the sub-family Ambly-
seiinae. Altogether 18 species were collected, but only 8 were common.
Among the common species, 5 seemed to be essentially restricted to a
sand-pine litter habitat, 4 were not uniformly distributed among the
terraces, and 2 did not attain peak populations during the winter or
spring as is usual for phytoseiids.
Florida exhibits a series of recognizable Pliocene and Pleistocene
terraces (Alt and Brooks 1965) or Pleistocene terraces (McNeill 1950)
which range from 10 to 150 ft in elevation. On these terraces or their
shores a vegetational community known as "sand pine scrub" occurs
invariably associated with white, washed, and sorted Pliocene and/or Pleis-
tocene sea sands (Laessle 1958). According to Laessle, several contribut-
ing factors, including low nutrition and fire, have maintained this associ-
ation in a more or less static condition for hundreds of thousands of
The present study was initiated to determine if the Phytoseiidae
inhabiting the litter of sand-pine, Pinus clausa Vasey, were specifically,
ecologically, or biologically different from Phytoseiidae found in other
Widely separated sand-pine scrubs were selected as study sites. The
criteria for the selection of 6 scrubs included separation, elevation, size,
accessibility, and size uniformity of sand-pine stand. Comparative data
for the sites are given in Table 1. Most of the sites were readily dated,
according to Laessle (1958) in the Pleistocene by their elevations, topo-
graphies, and geographic locations. According to Alt and Brooks (1965),
the sites were located primarily on Pliocene terraces or islands. The
Oviedo scrub, however, occurred on the southeast slope of a dune at about
50 ft elevation between the levels of the Wicomico and Pamlico seas
according to Laessie and on a Pliocene-Paleogene terrace according to
Alt and Brooks.
Each scrub was sampled 12 times between October 1961, and December
1965. Although samples were not taken at regular intervals, they were
temporally spaced so that 3 samples were taken from each scrub in each
of the 4 seasons: winter (December, January, February), spring (March,
IFlorida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 2427.
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 51, No. 1
Muma: Phytoseiidae of Sand-Pine Litter 39
April, May), summer (June, July, August), and fall (September, October,
November). A sample consisted of the total layer of litter down to
the surface of the sand. The litter was scooped from the sand and placed
in a double-walled, size 25, paper sack which was sealed for transport.
In the laboratory, each sample was sifted through a rapidly vibrated
one-quarter inch mesh screen. The fine siftings were then placed on an
auto-segregator (Newell 1955) over a modified Tullgren apparatus
(Haarlov 1957), and processed for 48 to 72 hours. All phytoseiids were
then sorted from the other arthropods and slide mounted in a modified
Hoyer's medium for identification and tabulation. A species was con-
sidered common when it was represented in the study collections by 20
or more specimens.
Two variables existed in these methods. Although sample area, about
4 ft2 (1.3 m2), was constant, depth of litter was not constant either
among seasons or among scrubs. Small samples were processed 48 hours,
large samples 72 hours. Despite these inconsistencies, it is believed that
the total of all samples from a single scrub provided an adequate repre-
sentation of the species present. Further, the total of 18 samples for each
season has furnished an adequate estimate of the number of individuals
Seventeen litter samples were also taken in 1965 and 1966 from mixed
mesophytic hardwood hammocks composed primarily of oaks, sweet gum,
and hickories. Phytoseiids from these samples were compared with those
from sand-pine litter and those from citrus litter (Muma 1964b). Such
comparisons were made to determine which were sand-pine associated
Miscellaneous phytoseiids were also collected from the foliage of the
plants in the sand-pine scrub community and compared with those from
the litter. This comparison was made to determine which were sand-
pine litter associated species.
Altogether 18 species of Phytoseiidae were collected from sand-pine
litter during the 4-year study. Ten were collected in limited numbers.
Eight species were common but 3 of these were species common under
other ecological conditions. Amblyseiulus mexicanus (Garman) and Am-
blyseius floridanus (Muma) have been found to be common in ground-
surface litter throughout subtropical and temperate North America. Typh-
lodromips vicinus Muma has been collected commonly in North Carolina
forest litter (Muma, Metz, and Farrier 1967).
The common phytoseiid populations from the litter of sand-pine,
citrus, and mixed mesophytic hardwood trees are compared in Table 2.
One species, A. mexicanus, was associated with all communities. The
species, A. floridanus and T. vicinus, were associated with both sand-pine
and mixed mesophytic communities. The remaining 5 species common in
the sand-pine community were either absent from or present only in trace
numbers in the other 2 communities. Further, excluding the above men-
tioned exceptions, species common in the letter of the citrus and mixed
mesophytic hardwood communities were either absent or present only in
trace numbers in the litter of the sand-pine community.
The Florida Entomologist
Vol.51, No. 1
TABLE 2.-DISTRIBUTION OF COMMON PHYTOSEIIDS IN THE LITTER
OF THREE FLORIDA VEGETATIONAL COMMUNITIES.
Number of specimens from litter of
-Species Oak-Gum- Total
Sand-Pine Citrus* Hickory** specimens
Amblyseiulus clausae Muma 238 3 2 243
Amblyseiulus macrosetae Muma 117 7 2 126
Amblyseiulus mexicanus (Garman) 42
Amblyseiulus dorsatus Muma -
Amblyseiulus detritus Muma 45
Amblyseiulus asetus (Chant) 15
Amblyseiulus gracilisetae Muma
Amblyseiulus rotundus Muma
Amblyseius floridanus Muma
Amblyseius curiosa (Chant)
Amblyseius largoensis (Muma)
Iphiseiodes arenicolus (Muma)
Typhlodromips vicinus Muma
- 21 16
Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma) -
Cydnodromus marinellus Muma
Cydnodromus planatus Muma
*From a three-year study of citrus mite populations
**Miscellaneous samples taken in 1965 and 1966.
partially reported by Muma (1965).
Litter phytoseiids of the sand-pine scrub vegetational community proved
to be specifically distinct from the foliage phytoseiids. Ten species,
Amblyseiulus solens DeLeon, Amblyseiulus iphiformis Muma, Iphiseiodes
hystrix (Muma), Typhlodromips arenillus Denmark and Muma, Typhlodro-
mips hellougreus Denmark and Muma, Typhlodromips simplicissimus
(DeLeon), Typhlodromips dentilis (DeLeon), Typhlodromalus peregrinus
(Muma), Proprioseius meridionalis Chant, and Phytoseius chanti Den-
mark were taken from foliage. Only 2 relatively rare species were found
in both the litter and leaf strata. None of the common litter species
was found on the foliage. All sand-pine litter species were Amblyseiinae,
but P. chanti, a Phytoseiinae, was common on sand-pine foliage. On the
other hand, only one of the citrus species, Amblyseiulus rotundus Muma,
Muma: Phytoseiidae of Sand-Pine Litter
was restricted to the litter (Muma 1964b); the others were also found on
the bark, leaves (3 were common on leaves), and fruit. Typhlodromina
conspicua (Garman), a common phytoseiine on citrus leaves, was also
frequently collected from citrus litter.
The inter-site distribution of the species has been determined and is
shown in Table 3. A. clausae, by far the most common species, was
TABLE 3.-SPECIFIC COMPOSITION OF PHYTOSEIID POPULATIONS FROM LITTER
OF SIX SAND-PINE SCRUB SITES FROM 1962 THROUGH 1965.
Number of specimens collected
Species Lake Frost- Vine- St. Oviedo Sebas-
Placid proof land Cloud tian
Amblyseiulus clausae Muma*
Amblyseius floridanus (Muma)
Typhlodromips vicinus Muma
Iphiseiodes arenicolus Muma*
Amblyseiulus macrosetae Muma*
Amblyseiulus detritus Muma*
Amblyseiulus mexicanus (Garman)
Amblyseiulus gracilisetae Muma*
Amblyseiulus asetus (Chant)
Amblyseiulus tubulus Muma
Amblyseiulus citri Muma
Proprioseiopsis paxi (Muma)
Cydnodromus marinellus Muma
Amblyseius arenus Muma
Amblyseiulus cannaensis Muma
Typhlodromips digitulus (Denmark)
Amblyseiulus iphiformis Muma
Iphiseiodes hystrix (Muma)
- 1 - -
121 197 348 115 153
*Common sand-pine litter species.
strikingly abundant at the St. Cloud site ,but occurred at all sites. I.
arenicolus was common at all but the Oviedo site. A. macrosetae was
common only at the Frostproof, Vineland, and St. Cloud sites but
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 51, No. 1
occurred at the Lake Placid and Sebastian sites. The least abundant of the
common species, A. gracilisetae, occurred only at the Oviedo site and all
except one specimen of A. detritus were collected from the Vineland site.
Collection data for the 5 common sand-pine litter species are arranged
seasonally for each site in Table 4. Two of the species attained peak
populations in the winter-spring, one in the spring, one in the spring-
summer, and one was relatively abundant throughout the year. No strik-
ing variation from these patterns of seasonal abundance occurred on any
site. In contrast, all 7 of the common citrus litter species exhibited the
usual winter-spring or spring peak abundance of foliage phytoseiids
TABLE 4.-SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF COMMON PHYTOSEIIDS ON SIX
SAND-PINE SCRUB SITES FROM 1962 THROUGH 1965.
Number of Specimens collected
Species Season Lake Frost- Vine- St. Sebas-
Total Placid proof land Cloud Oviedo tian
Amblyseiulus Winter 134 11 8 15 95 3
clausae Spring 83 2 8 13 40 13 7
Muma Summer 17 3 1 10 1 2
Fall 6 5 1
Iphiseiodes Winter 43 28 8 7
arenicolus Spring 31 3 13 7 1 7
(Muma) Summer 26 6 3 3 3 11
Fall 33 6 3 9 10 5
Amblyseiulus Winter 57 11 13 31 2
macrosetae Spring 44 1 16 19 3 5
Muma Summer 11 1 4 6 -
Fall 5 2 2 1 -
Amblyseiulus Winter 2 2 -
detritus Spring 39 39 -
Muma Summer 3 3 -
Fall 1 1 -
Amblyseiulus Winter 1 1 -
gracilisetae Spring 10 10 -
Muma Summer 11 11 -
Fall 1 1 -
Interpretations of the results of this study lead to some interesting
speculations about predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae.
Sand-pine litter phytoseiids are all amblyseiine mites. Therefore, it is
Muma: Phytoseiidae of Sand-Pine Litter
possible that other similarly restricted habitats will prove to be occupied
by mites of a single sub-family. This appears to be the case with the
Macroseiinae which to date are found almost exclusively in the leaf-cups
of Sarracenia (Muma and Denmark 1968). A study of phytoseiids in
North Carolina forest leaf litter (Muma, Metz, and Farrier 1967) has
also demonstrated an amblyseiine litter population. On the other hand,
plant inhabiting phytoseiids represent 2 sub-families, the Amblyseiinae
and the Phytoseiinae, and no known habitat is occupied exclusively by
The 5 common litter phytoseiids may be restricted to a sand-pine
litter habitat because they have become narrowly adapted to the physical
and biological conditions that exist in sand-pine litter or are simply
unable to compete with species that inhabit the leaf litter of other plant
The discontinuous distribution of the common species on the island
of "sand-pine scrub" in peninsular Florida is difficult to explain. Nonuni-
formity of study sites or sampling techniques might be suspect. However,
each site was selected for uniform size and uniformity of the "sand-pine
scrub community" (Laessle 1958). Study of Tables 3 and 4 reveals no
relationships either between species and the deep litter sites, St. Cloud,
Oviedo, and Sebastian, or between species and the deep litter seasons, fall
and winter. Examination of Table 3 does reveal that only 2 common
species were abundant at Lake Placid, the highest, oldest, and southern-
most site, Oviedo the northern-most site, and Sebastian the lowest, young-
est, and eastern-most site. From these data, it is suggested that the
discontinuous distribution of the 5 common sand-pine litter phytoseiids
may be an expression of geographic or geologic differences among the
Finally, the fact that 2 of the common sand-pine litter phytoseiids attain
peak populations during seasons atypical for phytoseiids indicates that
these species are either ecologically or biologically different from other
phytoseiids. The supposition that this variation might be the 'result of
more moderate temperatures and humidites in and under ground-surface
litter seems to be negated by the fact that citrus litter species attained
peak populations during the typical seasons (Muma 1964b). It seems
more likely that these off-season population peaks are an expression of
the population peaks of the food hosts of these predators.
Alt, D., and H. K. Brooks. 1965. The age of Florida marine terraces.
J. Geol. 73(2) :406-411.
Fleschner, C. A., and D. W. Ricker. 1954. Typhlodromid mites on citrus
and avocado trees in southern California. J. Econ. Entomol. 47:
Haarlov, Niels, 1957. A new modification of the Tullgren apparatus. J.
Anim. Ecol. 16(2) :115-121.
Laessle, Albert M. 1958. The origin and successional relationship of
sand hill vegetation and sand-pine scrub. Ecol. Monogr. 28:361-
McNeill, F. S. 1950. Pleistocene shorelines in Florida and Georgia. U. S.
Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 221-F:95-107.
44 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 51, No. 1
Muma, Martin H. 1964a. The population of Phytoseiidae on Florida
citrus. Fla. Entomol. 47:5-11.
Muma, Martin H. 1964b. Annotated list and keys to Phytoseiidae
(Acarina: Mesostigmata) associated with Florida citrus. Univ. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. 685:1-42.
Muma, Martin H. 1965. Populations of common mites in Florida citrus
groves. Fla. Entomol. 48:35-46.
Muma, Martin H., and Harold A. Denmark. 1967. Biological studies on
Macroseius biscutatus Chant, Denmark, and Baker (Acarina:Phyto-
seiidae) Fla. Entomol. 50:249-255.
Muma, Martin H., Louis J. Metz, and Maurice H. Farrier. 1967. New
species and records of Phytoseiidae (Acarina:Mesostigmata) from
North Carolina forest litter. Fla. Entomol. 50:199-206.
Newell, Irwin M. 1955. An autosegregator for use in collecting soil-
inhabiting arthropods. Trans. Amer. Microscop. Soc. 74(4) :389-
The Florida Entomologist 51(1) 1968
51sT ANNUAL MEETING
The 51st Annual Meeting of The Florida Entomological Society will be
held 11-13 September 1968 at the Jack Tar Hotel in Clearwater. Mr. John
B. O'Neil, 5107 Azeele St., Tampa, is program chairman.
ERIGERON, A HOST PLANT GENUS OF TEPHRITIDS
CARL E. STEGMAIER, JR.2
11335 N.W. 59th Avenue, Hialeah, Florida 33012
Two female hymenopterous parasites were reared 6 June 1966 from
Trupanea actinobola (Lw.) feeding upon Erigeron strigosus. Dr. B. D.
Burk, Entomology Research Division, USDA, identified both as Hetero-
schema punctata (Ashm.) Family Pteromalidae.
Tropical Florida offers an excellent opportunity for entomologists to
study the host plants and other aspects of the biology and life history
of many seed-feeding insects. The diversity of neotropical plant species
within the family Compositae of south Florida and the association of
seed-feeding tephritids on these composites interested the author, and he
undertook some research on the subject in the southern peninsular area of
Benjamin (1934), in a rather complete and comprehensive discussion on
the Florida tephritids, cited distribution data on the life history of seed-
feeders and many host plants in the family Compositae. Benjamin dis-
cussed the genus Erigeron as a host for several tephritids; however, some
information on the life history and larval host plant data remained in-
complete concerning the Florida tephritid study. Much of Benjamin's re-
search and findings will be used in this paper to clarify certain aspects of
the author's study concerning tephritid infestations of the genus Erigeron.
Small (1933) cites the genus Erigeron L. as "An annual, biennial or,
perennial, caulesent, aster-like herb." Small also cites the various spe-
cies of Erigeron and their habitats; he provides information on the
following species: E. vernus (L.) T. and G., E. quercifolius Lam., E. phila-
delephicus L., E. annuus (L.) Pers., and E. ramosus (Walt.) B.S.P. Small
gives the following information regarding E. ramosus: Synonyms include
other daisy fleabanes referred to in literature as Erigeron strigosus
Muhl. and Erigeron strigosus Muhl. var. beyrichii (Fisch and Mey.) T. and
G. Dr. Kenneth B. Langdon, Nematologist and Botanist, Division of
Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture, determined the hosts of
author's tephritid infestations as Erigeron strigosus Muhl. var. beyrichii
(Fisch and Mey.) T. and G. This will be the plant species referred to in
the author's rearing records of tephritids.
IContribution No. 104, Entomology Section, Div. of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture, Gainesville.
2Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Div. of
Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture.
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 51, No. 1
Small stated that E. ramosus may be found along the roadsides, fields,
woods, and thickets throughout North America. Foote and Blanc (1963)
reported Neaspilota brunneostigmata Doane, and Trupanea jonesi Curran
reared from Erigeron spp. in California. They also reported collections
of Tephritis araneosa (Coquilett) and T. ovatipennis Foote on Erigeron
spp. in California.
The following information is taken from Benjamin's (1934) report on
the genus Neaspilota in Florida associated with the seedheads of such
plants as the genus Erigeron.
Benjamin discussed the smaller adult specimens of Neaspilota and re-
ported that the reason for some specimens being small in size was possi-
bly the result of their feeding in the larval stages within the seedheads of
some smaller flowering plants such as species of Erigeron. Such small
specimens were found to have the frons much sunken, and their heads
appeared to have a shape quite distinct from those normal adults noted
to have fed in the larval stages within the seed-heads of some larger
flowered host plants. Benjamin subsequently noted throughout a reared
series of Neaspilota adults from seedheads of larger flowering plants
some adults having the same morphological characteristics, such as size, as
those specimens reared from Erigeron.
Adult specimens of Neaspilota from any single locality and single
species of a given host-plant tend to form colonies according to Benjamin.
The species may be identified by slight morphological characteristics such
as a certain wing shape, coloration, quantity of black in the wing stigma,
or number of black markings on the abdominal segments of adult
Neaspilota specimens. Slight differences of the abdominal markings might
result in the descriptions of various species. Benjamin stated that
Neaspilota species seem to intergrade often when several species are
reared from the same host-plant. When reared from slightly different
localities, intergraded forms of Neaspilota also appeared. The inter-
graded adult forms may occur when several series are obtained from
similar, but distinct, host-plant species, for example, as those of Chrysop-
COLLECTIONS AND REARING RECORDS OF Neaspilota SPECIES:
Erigeron strigosus Muhl. var. beyrichii (Fisch and Mey.) T. and G.
Hialeah, Fla., 6 May 1966 (C.E.S.). Neaspilota sp. One reared
adult in poor condition. Same host: Hialeah, Fla., 9 May 1966
(C.E.S.). One reared adult, Neaspilota sp.
Heterotheca subaxillaris (Lam.). B. and R. Hialeah, Fla., 17 Aug. 1966.
Two swept specimens. (C.E.S.). Neaspilota sp.
Pluchea rosea Godfrey. Hialeah, Fla., 21 June 1965. (C.E.S.). One reared
adult. Neaspilota sp.
Vernonia sp. Kansas City, Kans., 12 Aug. 1965 (C.E.S.). Several adults
were reared from ironweed seedheads. Neaspilota sp. Same host,
Erigeron, Host Plant Genus of Tephritids 47
Lawrence, Kans., 12 Aug. 1965. (C.E.S.). Two adults were swept
from the flowers. Neaspilota sp.
Wild aster, possibly Erigeron sp. Kansas City, Kans., 9 Aug. 1965. (C.E.S.).
Three adults were swept from flowers. Neaspilota sp.
Neaspilota dolosa BENJAMIN
Benjamin (1934) found larvae of N. dolosa feeding singly within the
seedheads of Heterotheca subaxillaris (Lam.) Britton and Rusby. Short
series have been reared from Sideranthus megacephalus (? author),
Erigeron ramosus (Walt.) B.S.P., and E. vernus (L.) T. and G. He stated
that dolosa adults reared from both species of Erigeron are compact and
on an average are much smaller sized specimens than those reared from
seedheads of Heterotheca. Furthermore, the stigma of N. dolosa seemed
to be more contrastingly marked, with smoky black being more frequently
located basally. He theorized that the smoky black markings were the
result of a different host.
Collections and hearings of N. dolosa were reported from the following
Florida localities: Orlando, Florida City, Lockhart, Mount Dora, Lees-
burg, Wiersdale, Clermont, Fairvilla, Rocky Point, Cocoa, and New Port
FLORIDA REARING RECORDS AND COLLECTIONS OF Neaspilota dolosa BENJAMIN:
Erigeron strigosus Muhl. var beyrichii (Fisch and Mey.) T. and G. Hia-
leah, Fla., 28 April 1966 (C.E.S.). One reared adult emerged on 7
May 1966. Same host, Hialeah, 28 April 1966. (C.E.S.). One reared
Heterotheca subaxillaris (Lam.) Britton and Rusby. Hialeah, Fla., 22
July 1966 (C.E.S.). Two males were swept from the flowers of H.
subaxillaris. Same host, 24 July 1966 (C.E.S.). Two males and two
females were swept from the flowers of this plant.
Heterotheca sp. Miami, Fla., 14 Sep. 1960 (C.E.S.). The first specimen,
a female, was captured by hand from the flowers of Heterotheca.
Dr. Richard H. Foote replied in personal communication that the
locality was rather far south for Neaspilota dolosa.
Neaspilota achilleae JOHNSON
Benjamin (1934) recorded the host of N. achilleae as the flowers or
seedheads of a large number of Compositae. The preferred host plants
are possibly the various species of Hieracium. Benjamin stated that
reared adults were known from the following plants: Hieracium argyraeum
Small, H. gronovii L., and H. scabrum Michx. Other known hosts include
Sericocarpus acutisquamosus (Nash) Small, Aster carolinianus Walt., A.
concolor L., Chrysopsis latifolia (author not- located), C. microcephala
Small, C. oligantha Chapm., Erigeron ramosus (Walt.) B.S.P., and E.
vernus (L.) T. and G. Dr. Kenneth Langdon stated in his critical review
of this paper that "Chrysopsis latifolia is of uncertain standing and place-
48 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 51, No. 1
ment. It is virtually impossible to be certain what species the original
author had . ."
Neaspilota achilleae is recorded from the northern half of Florida,
Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Georgia. The author has
not yet swept nor reared the species from the greater Miami area of south
Procecidochares australis ALDRICH
Procecidochares australis is reported to have been reared from larval
infestations of galls on Erigeron pusillus Nutt., and on Heterotheca
subaxillaris (Lam.) B. and R. Benjamin (1934) stated that the gall infes-
tations made by australis were found more frequently on Heterotheca.
The tephritid galls were observed to be on the more succulent stems
of Heterotheca; however, galls were known (or are known) from the
more woody stems. P. australis also forms galls on the flowers of its host
plants, and as many as six or seven galls have been found on a single
plant. Each gall may contain from two to eight larvae or pupae. The
species is known from Texas and from many localities in Orange County,
Brooksville, and Orlando, Florida. It has not been previously reported
from south Florida.
SOUTH FLORIDA COLLECTIONS OF Procecidochares australis ALDRICH:
Heterotheca subaxillaris (Lam.) B. and R. Hialeah, Fla., 11 June 1966
(C.E.S.). Three males were swept from the flowers. Same host,
Hialeah, 12 July 1966 (C.E.S.). Two males and one female were
swept from leaves and flowers of this plant. Same host, Hialeah, 15
July 1966 (C.E.S.). Three empty pupal cases and a gall fragment were
collected and donated to the U. S. National Museum Collection.
Trupanea actinobola LOEW
Benjamin (1934) reported that the larvae of Trupanea actinobola are
known to infest the seedheads of many flowering composites. A study of
the life history revealed that rarely more than a single larva was known
to feed within one flowering seedhead. The terms flowerhead and seed-
head are considered synonymous by the author and are used interchang-
ably in this paper. Benjamin stated that no larvae of actinobola were
ever found infesting the tender tips of non-flowering plants and that no
infestations are known from the flower buds of their host plants.
The hosts include seedheads of such plants as Erigeron vernus (L.)
T. and G., E. quercifolius Lam., and various species of goldenrod or
Solidago. Benjamin also noted from one to three larvae were reared
from the following host plants: Aster adnatus Nutt., A. carolinianus
Walt., Actinospernum (Pursh), Coreopsis sp., and Hieracium sp.
Foote (1965) reported the distribution of T. actinobola as, "Idaho
to Mass., s. to Calif., n. Mexico, and Fla." Foote (1960a) records Solidago
chapmanii T. and G., and S. serotina (author not located) as larval host
plants. Foote (1960b) also reported a single male specimen of actinobola
from Grand Bahama Island. He stated that actinobola was regarded by
Stegmaier: Erigeron, Host Plant Genus of Tephritids 49
Benjamin as a species complex. Foote and Blanc (1963) cite collections
of the species from California.
FLORIDA REARING RECORDS AND COLLECTIONS OF Trupanea actinobola LOEW:
Aster simmondsii Small. Hialeah, Fla., Nov., 1964 (C.E.S.). Seventeen
adults were reared by the author from the flowerheads of this wild
native composite. Dr. Richard H. Foote (personal communication)
noted this as a new host record for T. actinobola.
Erigeron strigosus Muhl. var. beyrichii (Fisch and Mey.) T. and G. Hia-
leah, Fla., 28 April 1966 (C.E.S.). A total of 26 adults were reared
from this host plant. Other collection dates are as follows: Hialeah,
9 May 1966. (C.E.S.). Hialeah, 6 June 1966 (C.E.S.). Adult emer-
gence from the 28 April 1966 collection began 7 May and continued
until 15 May 1966. The author noted a single flowerhead of Erigeron
containing two pupal cases. T. actinobola seems to have a decided host
preference for this species of Erigeron.
Solidago caesia L. Hialeah, Fla., 31 May 1966 (C.E.S.). Two adults were
reared by the author from the seedheads. This is a new host record
report for T. actinobola.
Wild Aster: Kansas City, Kans., 9 Aug. 1965 (C.E.S.). Two adults were
swept from the flowers.
The seed infesting tephritids are extremely easy to rear to the adult
stages in Florida and elsewhere. The author has found through past
experience that random plant samples, confined to clear glass rearing
containers, often yield tephritid adults without first finding symptoms of
infestations in the field. Many new host plant records are possible using
this technique, not only for seed-feeding tephritids, but other insects such
as agromyzids, seed feeding midges, and a wealth of micro-lepidopterous
insects. The rearing from native Compositae is valuable since many plants
of a non-economic value to man have not yet been evaluated as host
plant reservoirs of economic plant pests.
The author collects wild or native composites from natural plant
habitats for rearing purposes, desirably from areas exhibiting large
stands of a single plant species. The composites are selected since the
plant family seems to be favored as hosts for the non-economic Tephriti-
dae. After the desired composite has been selected as a potential host
plant, the author confines the seedhead portion to a rearing container
covered with a fine mesh cloth and secured by a strong rubber band.
The host, if unknown, must be determined by a specialist. A daily check in
the morning and later in the evening will enable the observer to make an
accurate record of adult emergence.
It is hoped that this discussion will be of some interest to entomologists
engaged in this aspect of insect ecology. Florida, with its numerous
ecological plant-niches and other environmental areas, will prove to be an
interesting region for the study of the seed-infesting tephritids or other
50 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 51, No. 1
All Tephritidae cited in this paper, reared or collected by the author,
were deposited in the U. S. National Museum Collections and/or in the
Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture, Gainesville, Florida.
The author thanks the following persons for making this paper possi-
ble: Dr. Richard H. Foote, Entomology Research Division, ARS, USDA,
for his kindness concerning the tephritid determinations for the author,
for his numerous suggestions, and for his critical review of this manu-
script; Dr. W. H. Anderson, Chief, and Dr. B. D. Burks, Insect Identifica-
tion and Parasite Introduction Research Branch, Entomology Research
Division, ARS, USDA, for correspondence relative to the determination of
the tephritid parasite, Heteroschema punctata (LW.); Mr. Harold A. Den-
mark, Chief, and Dr. Howard V. Weems, Jr., Division pf Plant Industry,
Entomology Section, Florida Department of Agriculture, for their sug-
gestions, equipment, and encouragement to continue the Diptera research
in Florida; and to Dr. Kenneth R. Langdon, Nematologist and Botanist,
Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture, for his
suggestions on the critical review of this paper and for the specific
determination of Erigeron.
Benjamin, F. H. 1934 Descriptions of some native trypetid flies with
notes on their habits. USDA, Tech. Bull. 401, 95p.
Foote, R. H. 1960a. A revision of the genus Trupanea in America north
of Mexico. USDA, Tech. Bull. 1214, 29p.
Foote, R. H. 1960b. The Tephritidae and Otitidae of the Bahama Islands.
(Diptera). New York Entomol. Soc. 68:83-99.
Foote, R. H. and F. L. Blanc. 1963. The fruitflies or Tephritidae of
California. Univ. of Calif. Press. Vol. 7, 117p.
Foote, R. H. 1965. Family Tephritidae. p. 658-678. In A. Stone, C. W.
Sabrosky, W. W. Wirth, R. H. Foote, and J. R. Coulson. A catalog
of the Diptera of America north of Mexico. USDA Handbook
276, 1696 p.
Small, J. K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora. Chapel Hill Univ.
North Carolina Press. 1554p.
The Florida Entomologist 51(1) 1968
NOTES ON MELOIDAE TAKEN AT THE ARCHBOLD
BIOLOGICAL STATION, HIGHLANDS COUNTY, FLORIDA'
S. W. FROST
The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania
Nine of the twenty-one species of Meloidae recorded from Florida
have been taken at the Archbold Biological Station. Most of these were
represented by relatively few specimens. Only Lytta polita Say was
abundant enough to yield detailed biological data. Light trap studies
showed that adults were obtained chiefly during January, February, and
March. None were taken during November or December and the number
fell off rapidly during April. Measurements of males and females are
Twenty-one species of Meloidae have been recorded from Florida. Nine
of these have been taken at the Archbold Biological Station, representing
a rather large percentage. Individuals of four of these were captured in
light traps and recorded by Frost (1964, 1966). Epicauta lemniscata
Fabricius was taken during March and April; Pseudozonitis longicornis
(Horn) April 7, 11, and 22; a single specimen of Epicauta fabricii
(LeConte) on April 25. Only Lytta (Pomphopoea) polita Say was ob-
tained in sufficient numbers to yield detailed records. Nemognatha nemo-
rensis Hentz was collected on thistle flowers April 18. Other scientists,
working at the station, have contributed the following records: Epicauta
strigosa (Gyllenhal), H. Dietrich, March 28; E. tenuis Leconte, J. G.
Needham, April 7 and 28, May 8 and 21, and R. W. Dawson, April
14; E. sanguinicollis Horn, H. E. Evans, April 1; Nemognatha piezata
(Fabricius), H. Dietrich, March 28. The writer collected a specimen of
the latter species at Venus about 5 miles south of the station.
All the data pertaining to Lytta polita Say were obtained from light
trap catches. One trap was operated each night from 6 P.M. to 7 A.M.
regardless of light intensity. Yearly, monthly and daily records were
kept. Detailed hourly records were obtained for 1960 and 1967.
Lytta (Pomphopoea) polita Say
This is a southern species known from Alabama, Florida, Georgia,
Louisiana, Mississippi, and North and South Carolina. Selander (1960)
clarified the synonomy of the genus Lytta and gave notes on the biology
of the species. Adults have been reported as a pest on plums and other
The larval host is unknown; however, larvae probably prey upon antho-
phorid bees, as do other species of Lytta. The writer has observed that the
adults have a distinct sweetish odor resembling that of burnt sugar.
This species has been reported active, in part of its range, from mid-
December to early June. The writer found it abundant only during
January, February, and March. The adults were somewhat sluggish and
lAuthorized for publication as paper No. 3285 in the journal series
of the Pennsylvania Agricultural Experiment Station on 4 August 1967.
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 51, No. 1
did not enter the light traps freely. They were strongly phototactic but
often rested on the light standard or nearby objects for a considerable
time, often until morning.
TABLE 1.-Lytta polita SAY, TAKEN IN LIGHT TRAPS AT THE ARCHBOLD
operated Year Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. March April May Totals
147 1959-60 0 0 61 726 95 882
152 1960-61 0 0 53 1186 38 127
55 1962 212 984 1196
90 1965 140 192 116 488
117 1966 176 480 87 2 745
137 1967 54 528 29 2 0 613
TOTALS 0 0 696 4096 365 4 0 5161
*Blanks indicate no counts were made.
Although traps were operated only two winters during November and
December, it is evident that collections were absent during these months
(Table 1). Adults first appeared in January. During 1964 and 1965
single specimens were collected January first. Other years they were not
obtained until or after January fifth or sixth. During 1966 and 1967 spec-
imens were not obtained until January eighth and tenth respectively.
It is evident that light traps operated from January first to May first
covered the period of activity of this species. The peak of activity
was reached during February, the number fell off noticeably during March,
and the catches were low or absent during April and May.
Counts of Lytta polita Say taken in light traps were made at four
intervals from 6 P.M. to 7 A.M. These periods varied from 2 to 5 hours
and were not directly comparable. When the catches were calculated on a
per hour basis, a trend towards a lower count for the period 2 to 7 A.M.
seems evident (Table 2).
TABLE 2.-NUMBER OF Lytta polita SAY, COLLECTED PER HOUR DURING FOUR
DAILY TIME INTERVALS IN FEBRUARY.
Time intervals Years* 1967 (28)
1960 (29) & y
6 PM- 8 PM 45.5 23.0 23.5
8 PM-10 PM 58.5 33.0 15.5
10 PM- 2 AM 78.5 23.2 21.5
2 AM- 7 AM 40.8 17.8 14.0
*Number of nights on which interval samples were taken shown m paren-
Frost: Meloidae from Archbold Biological Station
There is considerable variation in the size of these beetles in both males
and females. The females are generally larger, although one female was
actually smaller than any of the males. These differences are illustrated
in Table 3. Measurements were made of fresh material, from the front of
the head, in its normal position, to the tip of the abdomen. As these are
soft bodied beetles, care was taken not to extend the head or stretch the
TABLE 3.-LENGTH IN MILLIMETERS OF MALES AND FEMALES OF Lytta polita
Number Length in millimeters Mean
Measured 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Totals and S.E.
Males 0 1 0 3 4 11 12 31 19 10 2 1 0 0 94 19.80.2
Females 1 0 1 2 3 5 6 12 12 16 17 10 9 4 98 21.60.3
Frost, S. W. 1964. Insects taken in light traps at the Archbold Biologi-
cal Station, Highlands County, Florida. Fla. Entomol. 47:129-161.
Frost, S. W. 1966. Additions to Florida insects taken in light traps.
Fla. Entomol. 49:243-251.
Selander, R. B. 1960. Bionomics, systematics, and phylogeny of Lytta,
a group of blister beetles (Coleoptera, Meloidae). Ill. Biol. Monogr.
A specimen of Pyrota sinuata Oliver was taken at the Archbold Biologi-
cal Station 31 January 1967 by Richard Archbold.
The Florida Entomologist 51(1) 1968
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MINUTES OF THE 50TH ANNUAL MEETING OF
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
The 50th Annual Meeting of the Florida Entomological Society was
held at the Ramada Inn, Gainesville, Florida on 11-13 October 1967.
A pre-meeting "Bull Session" of selected topics was held the evening of
the 11th with Dr. James L. Nation as moderator
President James E. Brogdon opened the convention at 9:00 AM on 12
October. One hundred and seventy-nine persons registered. Twenty-five
papers were presented.
The first business meeting was called to order at 11:30 AM on 12
October by President J. E. Brogdon. Ninety-two members were present.
The minutes of the 49th Annual Meeting were presented by the Secre-
tary as published in Vol. 49 No. 4 of The Florida Entomologist. The min-
utes were approved as presented.
President Brogdon appointed the following committees:
Resolutions: Gerald Greene
John B. O'Neil
A. N. Tissot, Chairman
Auditing: M. J. Janes
P. R. Cohoe
R. E. Waites, Chairman
The meeting was adjourned at 11:45 AM.
The final business meeting was convened by President Brogdon at
11:15 AM on 13 October. Sixty members were present.
REPORT OF THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY COMMITTEE
The committee goals for the anniversary year were (1) to publicize
the science and profession of entomology, (2) to strengthen the Florida
Entomological Society, and (3) to make the 50th Anniversary Annual
Meeting a memorable occasion for Society members. These goals were
accomplished through the excellent cooperation of the Executive Com-
mittee and the committees on Program, Local Arrangements, Entomology
in Action, Public Relations, and others.
Activities completed were as follows:
1. A 50-year history of the Florida Entomological Society was written
by Dr. J. W. Wilson and published by the Society. Copies were
mailed to all members, and each new member will receive a copy
when joining the Society.
2. A golden map of Florida showing the type and distribution of
entomological activities in Florida was prepared by Mr. G. W.
Dekle and used as a cover for the history of the Society and for
one issue of The Florida Entomologist.
3. Popular articles were prepared by Society members on several phases
of entomology for publication in Sunday supplement magazines.
News of the Society and its activities were reported through news-
paper, radio, and television stories in many parts of the state.
4. Outstanding invitational speakers were obtained for the 50th An-
nual Meeting. Orange "golden" juice was served during program
breaks courtesy Florida Citrus Mutual. A trip to the home of
Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, a luncheon and modeling, and bridge
and canasta were arranged for ladies during the annual meeting in
5. An outstanding exhibit using the 50-year anniversary theme was
prepared for the annual meeting by a local committee under the
leadership of Mr. G. W. Dekle. Fine and impressive exhibits sur-
rounded a display of the complete set ol The Florida Entomologist.
6. Society members were challenged to help accomplish the following
goals: (1) present or arrange 50 talks on the science and profes-
sion of entomology to civic, fraternal, school or church groups,
(2) obtain 50 new Society members, (3) have 50 ladies attend the
50th anniversary banquet.
7. The anniversary banquet featured entertainment, music, dancing,
This committee expresses its appreciation to the many people who
have made the Fiftieth Anniversary year an outstanding success.
J. E. Brogdon
G. W. Dekle
L. C. Kuitert
N. C. Hayslip, Chairman
REPORT OF THE HONORS AND AWARDS COMMITTEE
This committee had no recommendations to make.
L. S. Maxwell
R. E. Waites
M. Murphey, Jr., Chairman
REPORT OF THE GRADUATE FELLOWSHIP COMMITTEE
Because of financial difficulties due to the expenses in rebuilding new
manufacturing facilities following an explosion in the warehouse of
Southern Mill Creek Products Company, Mr. H. J. Friedman regrets that
it has not been possible to initiate the program as originally agreed upon.
H. V. Weems, Jr., Co-Chairman
G. W. Dekle, Co-Chairman
REPORT OF THE NECROLOGIST
Members deceased since our last meeting include:
Stanley V. Fuller
Alfred Paul Stone
Elmer A. F. Kuntz
H. A. Denmark, Secretary
REPORT OF ENTOMOLOGY IN ACTION COMMITTEE
The exhibit that was destroyed in transit to the 49th Annual Meeting
has been replaced with the $125 award the Society received in claims
against a Jacksonville taxi company. The pictures have been replaced and
it is now available for display.
A. N. Tissot
F. A. Robinson
F. W. Mead
G. W. Dekle, Chairman
REPORT OF THE AUDITING COMMITTEE
The auditing committee has examined the books of the Florida En-
tomological Society for the year ending 30 September 1967 and found them
to be in order and presented with all accounts in balance.
Dr. D. H. Habeck, Business Manager, is to be commended for his
efforts in conducting the Society's business during the past year.
REPORT OF THE TREASURER-BUSINESS MANAGER FOR THE YEAR ENDING 30
Cash used for change at 49th Ann. Mtg. in Jacksonville................$ 100.00
Registration fees .................................................................................... 238.00
Banquet fees ........................................................................................... 368.50
Hospitality hour contributions ............................................................ 360.00
D ues .................... ........................----........................ .. 2,007.75
Subscriptions ......................................................................................... 675.75
Advertisem ents .................... .. ............. .......... ..................... 897.29
Reprints and plates ................................................................................ 1,333.25
B ack issues ............................................................................................... 161.69
Claim settlement-entomology exhibit-Safety Cab. Co................. 125.00
B ook Sales ............................................................................................... 18.00
Cash on hand 31 August 1966 .............................................................. 2,270.25
Cash to be used for change at 49th Ann. Mtg. in Jacksonville .... 100.00
Hotel George Washington-banquet, hospitality hour,
& coffee breaks ................................................................................... 647.59
Jacksonville Convention Bureau-badges .........................-............. 12.00
Robertson's Jewelers-plaque & engraving ...................................... 31.53
Business Envelope Manufacturers, Inc.-envelopes...................... 24.20
G. W. Dekle-exhibit supplies .............................................................. 5.17
Florida Nat'l Bank-service charges .................................................. 6.28
Mrs. Elisabeth Beck-poster & banquet tickets ................................ 6.12
Campus Shop & Bookstore-Business Manager supplies ................ 3.09
Mrs. Heather Demree-assisting Business Manager ...................... 15.00
Flair-film and developing for new exhibit ...................................... 6.36
Postmaster-postage and box rent ................................................. 162.25
Storter Printing Co.-programs-Jacksonville meeting ................ 82.40
Storter Printing Co.-Florida Entomologist & reprints ................ 4,727.57
Storter Printing Co.-Florida history .......................................... 193.79
Cash on Hand 30 September 1967 ...................................................... 2,532.13
Savings Account-Guaranty Federal Savings & Loan Assn.
Balance 31 August 1966 .................................................................... 2,540.01
Interest earned ...................................................................................... 147.17
Cash on hand 30, September 1967 ................................................... 2,532.13
D. H. Habeck, Treasurer
REPORT OF THE RESOLUTIONS COMMITTEE
WHEREAS the Florida Entomological Society is celebrating its Golden
WHEREAS the members of the Society are deeply appreciative of the
service of the Fiftieth Anniversary Committee in so suitably commem-
orating this notable occasion with a well rounded program and the
excellent History of the Society by Dr. J. W. Wilson and
WHEREAS the Program Committee has provided an interesting array of
papers including the notable addresses by the invitational speakers and
WHEREAS the Local Arrangements Committee has secured such outstanding-
ly excellent exhibits and provided the delightful buffet dinner and
other entertainment and so efficiently handled the numerous details
associated with the Meeting,
BE IT RESOLVED THAT: the chairmen and members of these and all other
standing committees, the Officers of the Society, and the many "behind
the scenes" workers who helped to make the meeting so successful,
be given a grateful vote of thanks.
WHEREAS the members of the Society appreciate the accommodations and
services of the Ramada Inn,
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED THAT: the Secretary write a letter to the Manage-
ment expressing our thanks.
John B. O'Neil
A. N. Tissot, Chairman
A motion to approve the resolutions was made. The motion was
seconded and passed.
REPORT OF THE NOMINATING COMMITTEE
The Nominating Committee offers the following slate of officers for
President L. A. Hetrick
Vice President John B. O'Neil
Secretary H. A. Denmark
Treasurer R. S. Patterson
Executive Committee Member W. B. Gresham, Jr.
L. C. Kuitert
H. V. Weems, Jr.
H. H. True, Chairman
A motion was made to elect the slate of officers as presented by the
Nominating Committee. The motion was seconded and then passed unani-
The gavel was turned over to incoming President Dr. L. A. Hetrick.
The meeting was adjourned at 11:50 AM.
The Executive Committee met 14 February 1967, at the Ramada Inn,
Gainesville, Florida; 24 April 1967 at the Holiday Inn, Leesburg, Florida;
and on 11 October 1967, at the Ramada Inn, Gainesville, Florida.
H. A. Denmark, Secretary
EFFECT OF GAMMA IRRADIATION ON FEMALE
CULEX PIPIENS QUINQUEFASCIATUS'
B. J. SMITTLE
Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA, Gainesville, Fla.
Female Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say were exposed to 2000 to 9000
R of gamma irradiation as 1-day-old pupae. The average number of eggs
per egg raft decreased with an increase in dose, and at 7000 R and above
no eggs were deposited. The sterility produced by the different exposures
ranged from 12% at 2000 R to 60% at 6000 R. It appears that complete
female sterility due to gamma irradiation is accomplished by inhibiting egg
production rather than by inducing the production of all sterile eggs.
Most information about the effect of gamma irradiation on female mos-
quitoes is contained in reports that are concerned primarily with the effects
on males. Davis et al. (1959) reported that egg production of Anopheles
quadrimaculatus Say decreased when females were exposed to doses of
5000 R or more; however, at 5000 R almost 90% of the eggs hatched, and
some fertile eggs were deposited by females exposed to 12,900 R. McCray
et al. (1961) reported that few eggs were laid by female Aedes aegypti (L.)
exposed to 10,500 to 17,000 R, and those eggs laid failed to hatch. Abdel-
Malek et al. (1966) reported that with females of Anopheles pharoensis
Theobald exposed to 4500 to 7000 R the percentage deviation in egg produc-
tion from controls remained almost constant at a value of 95%; also, egg
production increased in females exposed to only 1000 or 1500 R. Davis et al.
(1959) also noted an increase in egg production when female Anopheles
quadrimaculatus were exposed to 1500 or 2500 R.
In a sterile-male release program such as that conducted by Morlan et al.
(1962) where 3 to 4% of the mosquitoes released were females, the fecun-
dity and fertility of irradiated females should be known to properly inter-
pret the results. Tests were therefore made to determine the effect of
gamma irradiation on the fecundity and fertility of female Culex pipiens
METHODS AND MATERIALS
One-day-old pupae from the laboratory colony were sexed by the differ-
ence in size. Then groups of 100 female pupae were placed in plastic dishes
that were 8.5 cm in diameter and contained 50 ml of distilled water. These
dishes had a vial 2.7 cm in diameter glued in the center to confine the pupae
in a ring 2.9 cm wide around the vial, and this confinement ring provided
a more uniform dose of irradiation. Exposures were made in a cobalt-60
source similar to that described by Jefferson (1960) at a rate of about
400 R/min. Other female pupae and all male pupae were left untreated.
1The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance of Patrick A. Can-
narozzi of the University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
60 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 51, No. 1
Adults were examined within 20 hr after emergence to remove any that
were not properly sexed in the pupal stage. Individual handling of the
adults was facilitated by rapidly immobilizing them in a cold room at
Crosses were made between irradiated females and untreated males, and
crosses between untreated females and untreated males were the controls.
These groups of 50 male and 50 female mosquitoes were placed in 16x24x25
cm aluminum frame cages covered with tublar gauze and provided with 10%
sugar water. Three days were allowed for mating before the females were
given a blood meal on a 1- to 14-day-old chicken. Two days after the fe-
males had fed, paper cups containing hay infusion water were placed in the
test cages to serve as the oviposition medium. Eggs were collected daily
for 7 to 12 days and allowed 3 days to hatch before determinations of ster-
ility were made. Percentage sterility was determined by comparing the
number of unhatched eggs with the total number of eggs.
TABLE 1.-FECUNDITY AND STERILITY OF FEMALE C. p. quinquefasciatus
IRRADIATED AS PUPAE AND MATED WITH UNIRRADIATED MALES
(AVG. OF 2 TESTS WITH 50 MALES AND 50 FEMALES PER TEST).
Irradiation No. of egg Avg. no. of
dose rafts eggs per Percentage
(R) examined raft sterility
2000 40 170 12
3000 45 126 30
4000 32 76 43
5000 24 37 56
Check 34 198 6
*Only 48 eggs deposited.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The results are shown in Table 1. The average number of eggs per
female or per egg raft decreased as the dose of irradiation increased. At
7000 R and above, no eggs were deposited. In one test at 5000 R, 82 eggs
were deposited individually or in groups of 2 or 3 rather than in organized
rafts. Since the average number of eggs per raft for 22 rafts at this dose
was 37, these 82 eggs were considered to be from 2 rafts in calculating the
average for 5000 R. All eggs from females exposed to 6000 R were de-
posited individually or in groups of 2 or 3 rather than in organized rafts.
The increased egg production at about 2000 R reported by Davis et al.
(1959) and Abdel-Malek et al. (1966) was not observed.
Sterility increased from 12 to 60% as the dose increased from 2000 to
6000 R. Six percent of the eggs in the control failed to hatch. Since the
highest dose that permitted egg laying produced only 60% sterility, com-
Smittle: Irradiation Effect on Southern House Mosquito 61
plete sterility of C. p. quinquefasciatus can apparently be obtained only
when sufficient irradiation is used to prevent egg production.
Abdel-Malek, A. A., A. O. Tantawy, and A. M. Wakid. 1966. Studies on
the eradication of Anopheles pharoensis Theobald by the sterile-male
technique using cobalt-60. I. Biological effects of gamma radiation
on the different developmental stages. J. Econ. Entomol. 59: 672-678.
Davis, A. N., J. B. Gahan, D. E. Weidhaas, and C. N. Smith. 1959. Ex-
ploratory studies on gamma radiation for the sterilization and control
of Anopheles quadrimaculatus. J. Econ. Entomol. 52: 868-870.
Jeferson, M. E. 1960. Irradiated males eliminate screw-worm flies. Nuc-
leonics 18: 74-76.
McCray, E. M., Jr., J. A. Jensen, and H. F. Schoof. 1961. Cobalt-60 ster-
ilization studies with Aedes aegypti (L.). Proc. New Jersey Mosquito
Exterm. Assoc. 48th Annu. Meeting p. 110-115.
Morlan, H. B., E. M. MicCray, Jr., and J. W. Kilpatrick. 1962. Field tests
with sexually sterile males for control of Aedes aegypti. Mosquito
News 22: 295-300.
The Florida Entomologist 51(1) 1968.