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Title: Florida Entomologist
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Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1968
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Insects -- Periodicals
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The

FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Volume 51 No. 2 June, 1968



CONTENTS
Page
HUNTER, P. E. AND S. J. GLOVER-Hypoaspis (Laelaspis)
4Mites from North America and Mexico (Acarina:Der-
manyssidae; Laelapinae) ......................-----.......... 63
PATTERSON, R. S., C. S. LOFGREN, AND M. D. BOSTON-The
Sterile-Male Technique for Control of Mosquitoes: A
Field Cage Study with Anopheles quadrimaculatus---... 77
PETERSON, ALVAH-Eggs of Moths from Additional Species
of Geometridae-Lepidoptera .-........---.....-......--- ..- .......-- .. 83
STEGMAIER, C. E., JR.-Notes on the Biology of Trupanea
actinobola (Diptera :Tephritidae) .....................---------- .... 95
DONNELLY, T. W.-A New Species of Enallagma from Cen-
tral America (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) ........................ 101
BAILEY, D. L., D. W. MEIFERT, and P. M. BISHOP-Control
of House Flies in Poultry Houses with Larvicides .......... 107
EVERS, C.-Host Plants of Sixteen Aphids from Banana
Plantations in Honduras ..................-..................-.............. 113
HUNTER, P. E., and J. C. MOSER-Pseudoparasitus thatcheri
n. sp. (Acarina: Dermanyssidae; Laelapinae) Associa-
ted with Southern Pine Beetles --........-...............-- ...----... 119
Obituary: Roland F. Hussey-..-.......-................... ................ 75
Book Review .......--....-...... ................. .................. ..............--. 124
Membership List, Florida Entomological Society .................. 125


Published by The Florida Entomological Society









THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY

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HYPOASPIS (LAELASPIS) MITES FROM
NORTH AMERICA AND MEXICO.
(ACARINA: DERMANYSSIDAE; LAELAPINAE)1
PRESTON E. HUNTER AND SANDRA J. GLOVER2
Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Athens

ABSTRACT

Four new species of Hypoaspis (Laelaspis) are described and illus-
trated. These are: H. moseri from a laboratory culture of Anuroyryllus
muticus (DeGeer), Louisiana; H. picketti from citrus litter, Florida; H.
johnieae from sand pine litter, Florida; and H. mumai from citrus and
sand pine litter, Florida. Thirteen identifiable species are now known
from North America and Mexico. A key to the females of these species
is included.



Evans and Till (1966) list Laelaspis Berlese, 1903, as one of nine
subgenera of Hypoaspis Canestrini. The Hypoaspis mites from the nearc-
tic, tropical and subtropical regions have not been studied as thoroughly
as those from the palaearctic regions of the world. Collection and
study of species from these areas are needed to clarify the status of these
subgenera. Although we feel the subgeneric placement of some of the
Hypoaspis groups may be tentative, we are following the classification
proposed by Evans and Till (1966) and considering Laelaspis as a sub-
genus of Hypoaspis.

Nine species of Hypoaspis (Laelaspis) have been recorded from North
and Central America (Hunter 1961 and 1964, Hunter and Davis 1962).
Seven species have been taken from or in association with ants, a total of
six known genera of ants being represented. To date only two mite
species, pauli Hunter and Davis from Georgia and brevichelis Hunter from
Kansas, have been recorded from the same ant genus-Crematogaster.
Other ant genera from which Laelaspis mites have been collected are:
Aphaenogaster, Myrmica, Eciton, Neivamyrmex, and Iridomyrmex. To
date piloscutuli Hunter is the only species reported from two genera of
ants (see Hunter 1961). Two mite species have been recorded from non-
ant associations; these are longipilis Hunter from a lumber foundation
and lundi Hunter from Polianthes bulbs. We have taken vitzthumi, one of
the more commonly collected species in Georgia, from numerous Berlese
samples of litter containing ants, but a definite ant association has not
been made at this time.

Four new species are described below bringing the total number of
identifiable species from North America to 13. A key is given to females
of known species.


1 University of Georgia College of Agriculture Experiment Stations,
Journal Series Paper No. 162, College Station, Athens.
2 Associate Professor and graduate student, respectively.










64 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 51, No. 2

KEY TO FEMALE Hypoaspis (Laelaspis) FROM NORTH AMERICA3

1. At least some dorsal plate setae pilose or bearing minute barbs
near tip ---... --..........------.... --------............. ...--- ................. ......-.............- .. 2
Dorsal plate setae without barbs, never pilose .................................. 9
2. Fixed cheliceral digit distinctly shorter than movable digit
.............................. ........ -........................ brevichelis Hunter, 1964
Cheliceral digits of equal length .............................................................. 3
3. Marginal setae of dorsal plate either pilose or bearing minute
barbs, median dorsal plate setae smooth ............................................... 4
Both marginal and median dorsal plate setae pilose or bearing
m minute barbs ......................... .... ................ .... ......................................... 8
4. Marginal setae of dorsal plate bearing 4-6 minute barbs on apical
half of seta; marginal setae of dorsal plate longer than median
setae; seta Z5 bearing 4-6 minute barbs ..............-........-..........-........ 5
Marginal setae of dorsal plate pilose along most of setal shaft;
marginal setae of dorsal plate not distinctly longer than median
setae; seta Z5 cylindrical, %1/ to % of setal shaft pilose ....................----- 6
5. Genito-ventral plate with distinct median posterior tip; ventral
body setae arising from platelets; dorsal plate reticulations hori-
zontal across entire dorsal plate in area from setae j5 to J3
...................................................................... .......... piloscutuli H hunter, 1964
Genito-ventral plate rounded posteriorly; ventral body setae aris-
ing from integument; dorsal plate reticulations pologonal
---........--.. .-------------...------.... -------.-........dubitatus Hunter, 1964
6. Dorsal plate setae J5 pilose; median dorsal plate setae not with
needlelike point ............................................................................ m um ai n. sp.
Dorsal plate seta J5 not pilose, lanceolate in shape; median dorsal
plate setae with needlelike point .................... .......... .................... 7
7. Width between setae Jvl equal to width of genito-ventral plate;
peritremal plate not reaching posterior margin of exopodal IV;
exopodal IV not pointed posteriorly ........................................ moseri n. sp.
Width of genito-ventral plate greater than distance between setae
Jvl; peritremal plate extending to posterior level of exopodal IV;
exopodal IV pointed posteriorly ................ vitzthumi (Womersley), 1956
8. Dorsal plate setae with minute barbs along most of setal shaft;
ventral body setae arising from small platelets.......................
............................................................................ pauli H hunter & D avis, 1962
Dorsal plate setae with minute barbs near tip of seta only; ventral
body setae arising from integument ........ bakeri Hunter & Davis, 1962
9. Dorsal plate setae with small knoblike extension near base ............. 10
Dorsal plate setae without knoblike extension on setal shaft ........ 11
10. Ventral body setae lateral of metapodal plate at least two times
length of plate; seta Jv5 not distinctly thicker than Jv4; post-anal
seta not distinctly thicker than para-anals, 11% times length of
para-anals ............................................... .. ..- .. lundi Hunter, 1961
Ventral body setae lateral of metapodal plate not noticeably longer
than length of plate; setae Jv5 distinctly thicker than Jv4; post-


3 Does not include H. (L.) regalis Berlese, 1921, which was taken from
moss from Columbia, (Missouri), N. A.










Hunter: Hypoaspis Mites from North America and Mexico 65

anal seta distinctly thicker than para-anals but equal in length to
para-anals ................................................................... johnieae n. sp.
11. Ventral body setae not arising from platelets or raised bases in
integument; dorsal plate setae about equal in length, none whip-
like; J5 about equal to Z5 in length; genito-ventral plate with
reticulations along lateral margins only, absent medially .............
.........................-...- ...----.------ ..----------- p---------------picketti n. sp.
Ventral body setae arising from platelets or from raised bases in
integument; J5 much shorter than Z5, or if not dorsal plate setae
not extending much beyond base of next posterior seta in that row;
genito-ventral plate with distinct reticulations medially as well as
laterally ................................................................... ........ .. ................. 12
12. Dorsal plate setae not extending much beyond base of next pos-
terior seta of that row, never whiplike; seta Jv5 shorter than
length of anal plate; ventral body setae arising from raised bases
in integument ------.. ..------.....................----... brevipilis Hunter, 1961
Some dorsal plate setae long and whiplike, up to 1/4 length of
idiosoma; setae Jv5 11/2 times as long as anal plate; ventral body
setae arising from platelets .-.............................. longipilus Hunter, 1964

Measurements for the plates and legs in the new species descriptions
refer to the following:
Dorsal plate: greatest length on midline; greatest width.
Sternal plate: length on midline; width at level of second pair of
sternal setae (st2).
Genito-ventral plate: length on midline from posterior margin of ster-
nal plate; greatest width.
Anal plate: length on midline from anterior margin to base of post-
anal seta; greatest width.
Holoventral plate: length of midline from anterior margin of genital
opening to base of post-anal seta; width at level of second pair of sternal
setae (st2) and greatest width posterior to coxae IV.
Legs: length including claw and coxa.
Type depositions for the new species are abbreviated as follows:
U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. (USNM); Dr. Martin H.
Muma, University of Florida, Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred,
Florida (CES); U. S. Forest Service, Alexandria, Louisiana (USFS);
Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia (UG).

Hypoaspis (Laelaspis) mumai n. sp.
Fig. 1A-F

Known from the adults which may be recognized by the pilose J5 seta,
marginal dorsal plate setae (r and S rows) pilose, median dorsal setae
lanceolate but not needle-pointed.
FEMALE. Idiosoma oval. Dorsum. Fig. 1A. Covered by a single
plate (554, X 427--average of 6 specimens) ; reticulations over surface
of plate; 39 pairs plus 3 unpaired setae on plate; setae j2, zl, J5, Z5 and
all marginal plate setae (r and S rows) pilose, remaining setae lanceolate
in shape but not sharply pointed at tip; seta J1 up to 57/ long. Venter.
Fig. 1B. Pre-endopodal plates absent. Sternal plate (116, x 88u) bear-










The Florida Entomologist


C


F


Fig. 1. Hypoaspis (Laelaspis) mumai n. sp. Female: A, dorsum; B,
venter; C, chelicera; D, tectum. Male: E, venter; F, chelicera.

ing normal 3 pairs of setae and 2 pairs of pores; reticulations distinct,
shape as shown; connected with exopodal plate between coxae I and II.
Genito-ventral plate (264A X 215,u) not sharply enlarged posterior to
coxae IV; genital and Zvl setae on plate; reticulations distinct, as shown.
Anal plate (69A X 95A) not heavily reticulated; post-anal seta thicker
than para-anals, anal setae of about equal length. Metapodal plate rodlike.
Peritremal plate ending on level with endopodal plate; lateral margin of
peritremal plate appearing semi-sclerotized; general shape as shown.
Exopodal plate rounded posterolaterally of coxa IV, extending anterior


Vol. 5 1, No. 2










Hunter: Hypoaspis Mites from North America and Mexico 67

to middle of coxa II. Metasternal seta arising from above endopodal
plate. Opisthogastric setae Jvl, Jv2, Zvl and Zv2 simple, remaining
setae pilose primarily on one side of setal shaft. Tritosternum as shown.
Legs. Relative size and length of ventral setae as illustrated. All tarsi
with claws and caruncles. Chaetotaxy typical for subgenus (see Hunter,
1964). Lengths: I, 497/; II, 372gu; III, 357g; IV, 457A. Gnathosoma.
Deutosternal groove with 6 rows of teeth, general facies as shown in Fig.
2D. Internal mali ciliated medially. Apotele 2-tined. Cheliceral digits
of equal length (Fig. 1C), well sclerotized, fixed digit bearing 2 teeth,
movable digit bearing 5-6 teeth and pilus dentilis; dorsal seta normal.
Tectum with serrated margin, Fig. 1D.
MALE. Shape more elongate than in female. Dorsum. Single plate
(406% X 283--average of 5 specimens) covering dorsum; chaetotaxy as
in female. Venter. Fig. 1E. Holoventral plate 332A long, 751 at level
of st2 and 192/ behind coxae IV; bearing 10 pairs of simple setae plus
3 anal setae, relative length of setae as illustrated; reticulations distinct
over surface of plate, as illustrated. Opistogastric setae short, 2 pairs
simple, remaining setae pilose. Peritremal and exopodal plates of gen-
eral facies as in female. Tritosternum consisting of base and 2 pilose
lacinae. Legs. Legs II not modified; all legs similar to those of female.
Lengths I, 314g; II, 233A; III, 217/; IV, 283/. Gnathosoma. General
appearance as in female. Chelicerae (Fig. 1F) chelate, fixed digit
without distinct tooth, bearing pilus dentilis; movable digit with terminal
and subterminal teeth; spermodactyl process not extending much beyond
digit, consisting of a grooved digit-shaped process and a longer mem-
branous fingerlike extension.
Type series consisting of 7 males and over 20 females collected by
Martin H. Muma from Florida. Holotype (female) data: Fort Pierce,
Florida; 3-IX-1962; coll. M. H. Muma; on citrus litter. Paratypes data:
Minneola, Florida, 4-IV-1962, citrus litter; Avon Park, Florida, 7-XII-
1959, citrus litter; Turnbull Hammock, Florida, 25-VII-1960, citrus litter;
Clearwater, Florida, 9-1-1961, citrus litter; and Frostproof, Florida, 7-VI-
1963, sand pine litter. Holotype, 4 female and 2 male paratypes USNM;
10 female and 3 male paratypes UG; remaining paratypes CES.

Hypoaspis (Laelaspis) moseri n. sp.
Fig. 2A-I

This species may be recognized by the following combination of
characters: dorsal seta J5 lanceolate, Z5 pilose; marginal dorsal plate
setae (r and S rows) pilose, median setae lanceolate and sharply pointed.
This species is very similar to vitzthumi from which it may be separated
by the characteristics given below.
FEMALE. Shape evenly oval, widest above coxae IV: Dorsum. Fig.
2A. Single dorsal plate (580, X 412p-average of 5 specimens) covering
all of dorsum; reticulations as shown; 39 pairs of dorsal setae plus one
or more unpaired setae between J rows; setae zl, j2, r and R rows and
Z5 pilose; jl spinelike, remaining setae lanceolate; J5 short (up to 36U
long), not as distinctly lanceolate as remaining J setae; Z5 up to 55A
long, cylindrical, pilose on apical 1/% to % of seta; J4 up to 60t long.
Venter. Fig. 2B. Sternal plate (109g X 82/) bearing 3 pairs of simple









The Florida Entomologist


setae and 2 pairs of pores; surface with reticulations; pre-endopodal area
semi-sclerotized, without distinct plates. Genito-ventral plate (248, X









S 2'H
































Fig. 2. Hypo.spis (Leelaspis) moseri n. sp. Female: A, dorsum;
,r 1 ,.,








Fig. 2. Hypoaspis (Laelaspis) moseri n. sp. Female: A, dorsum;
B, venter; C, pilose opisthogastric seta; D, deutosternal groove; E, cheli-
cera; F, tectum. Male: G, venter; H, chelicera. H. (L.) vitzthumi
(Womersley). Female: I, venter of genito-ventral and posterior of peri-
tremal and exopodal plates.


Vol. 51, No. 2










Hunter: Hypoaspis Mites from North America and Mexico 69

197g) enlarging, but not sharply so, behind coxae IV (not wider than
distance between bases of setae Zvl); reticulations as shown. Anal
plate 91p at greatest width; post-anal seta distinctly thicker than para-
anal setae. Metapodal plate rodlike. Exopodal plate lateral of coxae
III and IV. Peritremal plate not extending posterior to exopodal plate.
Endopodal plate medial of coxae III and IV; metasternal seta arising
from integument above this plate. Opisthogastric setae Jvl, Jv2, Zvl
and Zv2 simple, remaining setae pilose on one side of setal shaft; setal
bases with small knob in integument (Fig. 2C). Tritosternum as shown.
Legs. All legs with ventral setae thicker than lateral setae; relative
size and lengths of ventral setae as illustrated (Fig. 2B); all tarsi with
claws and caruncles. Chaetotaxy typical for subgenus. Lengths: I, 5231;
II, 398u; III, 336u; IV, 476,. Gnathosoma. Deutosternal groove (Fig.
2D) with 6 rows of teeth plus edentate gl row; approximate number of
teeth/row as follows: g2, 16; g3, 20; g4, 16; g5, 14; g6, 11; g7, 13. Internal
mali ciliated medially. Apotele 2-tined. Cheliceral digits (Fig. 2E) of
equal length, well sclerotized; fixed digit with 2 teeth, movable digit
with 5 to 6 teeth plus pilus dentilis; dorsal seta as shown. Tectum as
illustrated, Fig. 2F.
MALE. Shape elongate oval. Dorsum. Covered by single dorsal plate
(417/, X 295g-average of 3 specimens); chaetotaxy as in female. Venter.
Fig. 2G. Holoventral plate 363g long, 73m at st2, 205/ behind coxae
IV; bearing 10 pairs of setae plus 3 anal setae; relative size and lengths
of setae as shown; reticulations as illustrated. Integument bearing 12
pairs of setae, setae not as strongly pilose as in female; setal bases
with small knob in integument as in female. Pre-endopodal area semi-
sclerotized, without distinct plates. Tritosternum as in female. Peritremal
plate as shown. Legs. Similar to female; leg II not modified; all tarsi
with claws and caruncles. Lengths: I, 423u; II, 300,; III, 298/; IV, 395/.
Gnathosoma. Gnathosoma and palps as in female. Chelicerae chelate
(Fig. 2H); fixed digit edentate, bearing pilus dentilis; movable digit
bearing one subterminal tooth; spermodactyl consisting of sclerotized,
grooved process and membranous fingerlike process.
IMMATURES. The material available included 2 deutonymphs, only one
of which was usable, and one poorly preserved protonymph. Both stages
may be recognized by the type of dorsal setae-lanceolate medial setae,
lateral row pilose, Z5 cylinderical and heavily pilose. The deutonymph
has the anterior and posterior dorsal plates touching above coxae IV;
protonymph with anterior plate larger than and removed from posterior
plate. Idiosoma of specimens as follows: deutonymph 430A long, 270,
wide; protonymph 290/ long, 180l wide. Larval stage not represented
in the material available.
The type series consisted of 5 females, 4 males, 2 deutonymphs and
one protonymph. Holotype (female) data: Pineville, Louisiana; Feb-
ruary, 1967; coll. John Moser; from laboratory cultures of Anuroyryllus
muticus (DeGreer). All specimens with same data. Holotype, female
paratype and 2 male paratypes USNM; female, male and deutonymph
paratypes USFS; remaining type material UG.
COMMENTS. Superficially this species is similar to vitzthumi (Womer-
sley), particularly in the type of dorsal setae. The female of the new










70 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 51, No. 2

species is readily separated from vitzthumi by the genito-ventral plate,
the exopodal plate and the relative length of the peritremal compared to
the exopodal plate (see key above and Fig. 21). Reticulation of the
genito-ventral plate of the two species is also distinct. The males are
readily separated by the chelicerae and the spermodactyl. In vitzthumi
the spermodactyl curves towards the fixed digit apically, rather than
away as in the new species and the movable digit is apparently endentate.
The leg setae of the new species are distinctly heavier than in vitzthumi.

Hypoaspis (Laelaspis) johnieae n. sp.
Fig. 3A-C
This species, known only from the female, is distinct in having no
dorsal or ventral pilose setae and in having the median dorsal plate
setae, including J5, with a small lateral knob just above the setal base.
FEMALE. Shape oval, evenly rounded anteriorly and posteriorly. Dor-
sum. Fig. 3A. Dorsal plate (525u X 364g-average of 4 specimens)
covering all of dorsum; surface bearing reticulations as illustrated; dorsal
plate bearing 39 pairs of setae plus 3 unpaired setae between J rows; one
seta on each side arising from integument at anterior end of r series;


C


Fig. 3. Hypoaspis (Laelaspis) johnieae n. sp.
B, venter; C, chelicera.


Female: A, dorsum;











Hunter: Hypoaspis Mites from North America and Mexico 71

setae jl and zl simple, sharply pointed; setae in r and S rows thickened
and without lateral knob, remaining setae with small knob on setal shaft
just above setal base; J5 shorter than other J setae (J5 up to 52t long)
and bearing a small knob; a deep porelike pit medial of each Z1 seta.
Venter. Fig. 3B. Sternal plate (104l X 95A) bearing 2 pairs of pores
and 3 pairs of simple setae; reticulations distinct. Separate pre-endopodal
plates absent. Genito-ventral plate (241l X 188A) not widening
sharply posterior to coxae IV; only genital setae on plate; reticulations
distinct, pattern as illustrated. Anal plate (80g X 87A) with post-anal
seta thicker than para-anals, all subequal in length. Metapodal plate
elongate; small platelet between metapodal and exopodal plates. Peritre-
mal plate with pore lateral of peritreme at level of coxa II and 2 pores
posterior to stigmata. Exopodal plate rounded posterolaterally of coxa
IV, extending anteriorly to level of coxa II. Tritosternum consisting of a
base and paired pilose lacinae.
Opisthogastric setae arising from integument; setae Jv4, Jv5, Zv4 and
Zv5 thickened and rodlike, remaining setae needlelike. Metasternal setae
arising from integeument above endopodal plates. Legs. All tarsi with
claws and caruncle; setae slender, simple. Lengths: I, 530,; II, 3251; III,
335,; IV, 480A. Chaetotaxy typical for the subgenus. Gnathosoma.
General facies as illustrated, relative lengths of setae as shown. Apotele
2-tined. Chelicerae chelate (Fig. 3C); movable digit with 2 teeth, fixed
digit with 3-4 teeth plus pilus dentilis; dorsal seta as shown.
Type series consist of 4 females. Holotype data: Sebastian, Florida;
4-VI-1965; coll. M. H. Muma; from moist sand pine litter. Paratypes
data: one specimen with same data as holotype; one specimen from
Frostproof, Florida, 15-XII-1964, coll. M. H. Muma, from sand pine litter;
remaining specimen collected in Florida at junction of highway 535-A,
21-IV-1963, by M. H. Muma from sand pine duff. Holotype USNM; one
paratype CES; remaining paratypes UG.

Hypoaspis (Laelaspis) picketti n. sp.
Fig. 4A-E
The female and male of this species are distinct in having simple
needlelike dorsal setae with setae J5 about equal in length to Z5, and
without reticulations on the dorsal plate. The female is unique in the
absence of reticulations medially on the genito-ventral plate and the male
in having a spermodactyl process over twice as long as the movable
chela.
FEMALE. Dorsum. Fig. 4A. Covered by a single plate (648u X 442u--
average of 5 specimens); plate without reticulations; dorsal plate with 39
pairs of simple needlelike setae plus 3 unpaired setae between J rows;
seta J1 up to 70 long, J5 about equal in length to Z5; a deep porelike
pit medial of each Z1 seta. Venter. Fig. 4B. Without separate pre-
endopodal plates. Sternal plate (140u X 125/) not heavily reticulated,
pattern as illustrated; bearing 2 pairs of pores and 3 pairs of simple
setae. Metasternal seta arising from above narrow endopodal plate.
Genito-ventral plate (338[t X 233g) bearing genital and Zvl setae; with
distinct lateral reticulations, but without the normal median V-shaped
reticulations typical for this subgenus. Metapodal plate elongate. Anal










The Florida Entomologist


plate (88g X 109,) without reticulations; post-anal seta longer than, but
of same type as para-anal setae. Peritremal plate thick, extending medi-
ally for entire length of peritreme. Exopodal plate rounded posterolater-
ally of coxa IV, extending anteriorly to level of coxa II. Opisthogastric
setae needlelike; setal base with small knoblike extension in integument.
























7--






D














venter; C, chelicera. Male: D, venter; E, chelicera.


Vol. 51, No. 2











Hunter: Hypoaspis Mites from North America and Mexico 73

Legs. Chaetotaxy typical for subgenus. All tarsi with claws and carun-
cle. Setae simple. Lengths: I, 945u; II, 577g; III, 560A; IV, 858,. Gnath-
osoma. Deutosternal groove with 6 rows of teeth, of general facies as
shown in Fig. 2D. Internal mali fringed medially. Apotele 2-tined.
Chelicera chelate (Fig. 4C), well sclerotized, digits of equal length; fixed
digit with two teeth, movable digit with 4 teeth and setiform pilus
dentilis. Dorsal seta and arthrodial process present.
MALE. Smaller than female; shape similar to that of female. Dorsum.
Dorsal plate (515 X 365-a-average of 2 specimens) covering all of
dorsum; without reticulations; chaetotaxy as in female. Venter. Fig.
4D. Holoventral plate 350u long, 105l at level of st2 and 240, posterior
of coxae IV; bearing 10 pairs of needlelike setae plus 3 anal setae;
reticulations indistinct medially between coxae II and III, coxae IV and
anterior of anal opening; pattern as shown. Exopodal plate divided at
level of coxae III. Peritremal plate as in female. Opisthogastric setae
needlelike, relative lengths and positions as shown. Legs. Leg II not
modified; all legs similar to those of female. Lengths: I, 770g; II, 475u;
III, 460g; IV, 665u. Gnathosoma. General facies as in female. Chelicera
sclerotized, chelate (Fig. 4E); fixed digit edentate, movable digit with
2 subterminal teeth; spermodactyl curving over fixed digit, over twice
length of movable digit; grooved along entire length anterior to digit.
Type series consisting of 9 females and 2 males all collected by M. H.
Muma from Florida. Holotype (female) data: Malabar, Florida; 13-VII-
1960; M. H. Muma, coll.; from citrus litter. Paratypes data: 4 females
and 1 male same data as holotype; 3 females from St. Cloud, Florida,
4-II-1965, from dry sand pine litter; one male from Frostproof, Florida,
7-VI-1963, from sand pine litter. Holotype, 2 female and male paratypes
USNM: 3 female paratypes CES; remaining paratypes UG.

LITERATURE CITED

Evans, G. 0., and W. M. Till. 1966. Studies on the British Dermanyssidae
(Acari: Mesostigmata). Part II Classification. Bull. Brit. Mus.
(Natur. Hist.) Zool. 14:109-370.
Hunter, Preston E. 1961. The genus Laelaspis, with descriptions of
three new species. (Acarina: Laelaptidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc.
Amer. 54:672-683.
Hunter, Preston E. 1964. Three new species of Laelaspis from North
America. (Acarina: Laelaptidae). J. Kan. Entomol. Soc. 37:293-
301.
Hunter, Preston E. and R. Davis. 1962. Two new species of Laelaspis
mites. (Acarina: Laelaptidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 64:
247-252.


The Florida Entomologist 51(2) 1968











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Roland F. Hussey. 1896-1967. Photo by Frank W. Mead, Div. Plant
Industry, Fla. Dept. Agr.

ROLAND FOUNTAIN HUSSEY
1896-1967

To me has come the sad duty of making known the death of Roland
Fountain Hussey, my good friend. Although his eyesight was begin-
ning to fail, his death was sudden. He died of a heart attack at his home
in Gainesville on the 19th of August, just at the time of his retirement
from teaching and at the very beginning of his long-awaited opportunity
to devote his fulltime to research on Hemiptera.
Born in San Francisco, California, 16 November 1896, Dr. Hussey first
attended the University of Michigan in 1915 where he earned his A. B.
degree in 1918. He thcn did graduate work at the University of Minne-
sota (1918-1920), but later earned his M. S. degree (1921) and Sc. D.
(1923) at Harvard University, each with a major interest in Entomology.
Upon graduation, Dr. Hussey accepted an appointment as Instructor in
Biology at New York University (Washington Square College) where he
remained until 1926.
During these early years as student and teacher he maintained an
active interest in the taxonomy of Hemiptera and published regularly










but in 1926 he left the academic field and for the next 20 years held real
estate and mortgage management positions with the New York Academy
of Medicine and various administrative positions with Doctors Hospital.
The only relief from his duties during these years was an entomological
reconnaissance in Paraguay during the Summer of 1931-32. He published
little during this period but outstanding is his monograph of the family
Pyrrhocoridae which appeared in 1929 as Fascicle 3 of the General
Catalogue of Hemiptera.
In 1947, he married the genial and sociable Karlene Cozart and
accepted a teaching position at Florida Southern College at Lakeland.
Then began the happiest and most productive period of his life. He was
back in his element of teaching and research. At this time he began the
monumental task of bringing the Van Duzee Catalogue of American
Hemiptera up to date and extending coverage to all of the Americas.
In 1953 he accepted a position as Assistant Professor with the Depart-
ment of Biology at the University of Florida and rose to Professor of Bi-
ology, Professor of Biological Sciences and Professor of Entomology. He
was justly proud that he was to have been retired Professor Emeritus of
Biology, the first in the history of the University of Florida.
Dr. Hussey was Associate Curator of Insects at the University of
Michigan Museum of Zoology during the summers of 1950, 1952, 1953, and
1956. He was a member of Sigma Xi, Entomological Society of America,
Entomological Society of Washington, Florida Entomological Society,
and Kansas Entomological Society; formerly, when he was resident in
the respective areas, he was a member of the Cambridge (Mass.)
Entomological Club, New York Entomological Society, and the Brooklyn
Entomological Society. For the last 10 years he was Editor of the
Annals of the Entomological Society of America.
Roland was a quiet man with great tolerance for the views of others,
yet he stated his own opinions forcefully and clearly. His unassuming
demeanor was sometimes mistaken for aloofness when actually he was a
most heartwarming gentleman. He was always ready to help his col-
leagues untangle a taxonomic problem or to collaborate on a research
Project. As a guest in his home, I soon discovered that he was very
fond of cats, classical music, and conversation. He had a keen sense of
humor and almost always had a new anecdote to tell.
His research was carried out with great enthusiasm and thorough-
ness. He wrote few extensive articles and seldom attempted comprehen-
sive monographic treatments, probably because he lacked continuous spare
time. He chose his subjects well and rarely failed to make some definite
and essential contribution. He published 58 papers, many dealing with
his favorite group, the aquatic and semi-aquatic Hemiptera.
It is indeed unfortunate that Roland left unfinished what would have
been undoubtedly his greatest contribution, a catalogue of the Heteroptera
of the Americas. At Mrs. Hussey's request, I have assumed the responsi-
bility of maintaining this uncompleted work and have agreed to make an
effort to complete it. According to Dr. Hussey's own wishes, his excellent
Hemiptera collection has been deposited in the Museum of Zoology at
the University of Michigan. Mrs. Hussey has given his fine library to the
University of Florida.
In addition to his wife Karlene, Roland is survived by two sons and
two daughters by two former marriages.
-Jon L. Herring















roP










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THE STERILE-MALE TECHNIQUE FOR CONTROL OF
MOSQUITOES: A FIELD CAGE STUDY WITH
ANOPHELES QUADRIMACULATUS

R. S. PATTERSON, C. S. LOFGREN, AND M. D. BOSTON
Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA,
Gainesville, Fla. 32601

ABSTRACT
The use of sterile males to control a cage population of a laboratory
strain of Anopheles quadrimaculatus was not successful, even though 80
to 90% of the females laid sterile egg clutches. At the ratio of sterile
males to normal males being used, complete sterility should have been
quickly achieved. Subsequent studies of the survival and sexual vigor of
these sterile males indicated that only a small number, about 5%, of the
released males were actually competing with normal males for the unin-
seminated females. Thus, until a more hardy and sexually vigorous male
A. quadrimaculatus can be reared in the laboratory, the use of the
sterile-male technique to control this insect seems impractical.


Research was begun several years ago to adapt the technique of
releasing sterile males to the control or eradication of mosquitoes. Davis
et al. (1959) showed that doses of 8,865 to 12,000 R applied in the adult
or pupal stage caused complete sterility in males and females of Anopheles
quadrimaculatus Say. However, in the laboratory, males sterilized by
gamma irradiation were not as competitive as normal males in inseminat-
ing females, although at high ratios of sterile to fertile males (6:1 and
10:1) production of viable eggs decreased more than 80%. In contrast,
Weidhaas et al. (1962) were unsuccessful in either suppressing natural
populations of A. quadrimaculatus or in causing a significant degree of
sterility in wild females by the release of males sterilized by gamma
irradiation. Also, when Dame et al. (1964) studied the behavior of
released sterile A. quadrimaculatus from the laboratory colony and that
of wild mosquitoes in the field, they concluded that the behavioral de-
ficiencies of colony males prevented them from effective sexual competition
for wild females though they were capable of mating effectively with
released colony females.
To gain a better insight into the problems associated with the release
of sterile male mosquitoes, we decided to release sterile males into a
population of A. quadrimaculatus breeding in a large outdoor cage. By
using the caged population, we could study both the efficacy of the
induced sterility and also the behavior and survival of a strain exposed
to semi-natural conditions. The regular Gainesville laboratory colony of
A. quadrimaculatus was used as a source of the sterile males and to
start the cage population since it was difficult to establish a wild strain
in the cage (several attempts had little success).

METHODS AND MATERIALS

The cage used for the experiment was 40 x 16 ft, and 12 ft high, and
consisted of an aluminum frame covered by 20-mesh plastic screen. It










78 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 51, No. 2

was located in a wooded area near the Insects Affecting Man Laboratory,
Entomology Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, U. S. De-
partment of Agriculture, Gainesville, Florida. A wooden shed, 12 x 8 ft by
7 ft high, was built within the cage, and a calf stabled in this shed
throughout the experiment as a blood source for the female mosquitoes.
The shed also served as the main resting area for engorged females,
which made it relatively easy to estimate the adult female population.
Cotton pads soaked in honey and water were placed in the cage and
changed weekly to provide nutrient for the males. Also, 2 plastic-lined
ponds (5 x 6 x 2/3 ft), a stainless steel tank (4 x 3 x 2/3 ft), and three
wooden trays (3 2/3 x 1 1/2 x 1/4 ft) filled with water were installed
to serve as oviposition and breeding sites. In addition, about 2 inches
of soil was put on the bottom of each of the two plastic-lined ponds, and
about five clumps of grasses and reeds obtained from a nearby swamp
were planted in the soil. A small amount of soil and leaves was added
periodically to the stainless steel tank to act as infusion media in the tap
water. Although the females readily laid eggs in these containers, larval
development was poor. Therefore, periodically throughout the experiment,
a mixture of dried liver extract and brewer's yeast was added to the ponds
with the daily supplement of finely ground laboratory chow. Despite
this, larval production remained so poor that only about 1% of the
progeny from these eggs ever reached adulthood. It became apparent
after 2 months that the colony strain of A. quadrimaculatus could not
maintain itself at a high level under these conditions. Moreover, the
number of larvae decreased after the first few generations, indicating
that something was being depleted from the water or that unfavorable
elements were accumulating that prevented development.
To increase production, we set the three wooden trays on a rack under
a leanto on the back side of the calf shed and added distilled water infused
with liver extract and yeast. The female mosquitoes rarely oviposited in
these trays, but larvae placed in them developed readily with little
mortality. As the larvae matured, finely ground laboratory chow was
sprinkled on the surface of the water as a supplemental food source.
The trays had several advantages over the ponds, among them the in-
creased production of adult mosquitoes and the ease with which pupae
could be counted; also, these pupal counts permitted us to make a more
accurate estimate of the daily adult emergence. The trays could be
easily washed, and, since they were set up at staggered intervals, they
could be cleaned after each generation and set up again without greatly
interfering with overall adult production. Therefore, the best method of
achieving a workable population of A. quadrimaculatus for this study was
to use the two plastic-lined ponds and the stainless steel tank primarily
for egg deposition and the trays for rearing the larvae to adults. We
gathered the eggs daily by using a common water dipper (running it along
the rim of the ponds and tank) and then transferred them to the trays.
As noted, the laboratory colony of A. quadrimaculatus also served as
the source of sterile males for release in the cage. These larvae were
reared on a diet of dried liver extract, brewer's yeast, and finely ground
Purina laboratory chow. The pupae were held in waxed paper cups in
cages, and cotton soaked in a 2.5% sugar solution provided food for the










Patterson: Control by Use of Sterile Male Mosquitoes 79

emerging adults. Two days after emergence, these mosquitoes were in-
activated in a cold room and sexed, and the males were sterilized by dust-
ing with apholate. The dusting was accomplished by placing about 100
males in an 8-oz waxed paper cup and sprinkling about 1 g technical
apholate over them. The cup was gently rotated at an angle to insure an
even distribution of the material on all the insects, and then removed from
the cold room and placed in a small cage in a room at 85F and 60 relative
humidity. Once the males had recovered, a cup containing a 2.5% sugar
solution on cotton was placed in the cage. The sterilized males were held
in the laboratory for 24 hr to check for any excessive mortality. Nor-
mally little mortality occurred.
The releases of the sterilized males were usually made daily in the
late afternoon. First the cloth sleeve of the small cage was turned back,
and the waxed paper cups containing the technical apholate and the sugar
solution were removed. Then the cage was placed just above the rearing
trays under the leanto. By morning, all the live males had left the
smaller cage and migrated to resting areas around the calf shed. Gen-
eral observations on total numbers of males present at any given time in
the cage indicated that the majority probably did not survive more than
2 to 3 days. Since these sterile males were 3 days old at the time of
release and were released near newly emerging females, they should have
had ample opportunity to mate.
Population estimates were made by daily counts of all engorged rest-
ing females and pupae present in the rearing trays. The three ponds
normally averaged 20 pupae per day throughout the experiment; however,
pupae were extremely difficult to locate in the ponds. The ratio of sterile
to nonsterile males was established each day from the count of pupae
divided by four (about 48 hr is required for pupae to mature and half
the newly emerging adults are females).
Weekly, as many as 3 dozen engorged females were taken from the
calf shed with an aspirator and placed individually in 10-dram vials con-
taining 5 ml of distilled water. A waxed paper ring about 1/8 in. wide
and the same diameter as the vial was floated on the water surface to
prevent surface tension from pulling the eggs up the sides of the vial
where they would dessicate. After a week, the percentage of hatched eggs
was determined. As a check on the handling procedures, engorged fe-
males obtained from the laboratory colony were placed in vials, and the
viability of their eggs was determined in the same manner. Also, peri-
odically throughout the program, sterile males were removed from the
holding cage and placed with control virgin females. After 4 days, these
females were blooded on a guinea pig, and their eggs were also assayed
for sterility.
As noted previously, most males survived only a few days, but no
facilities were available to evaluate the effect of this factor on the results.
In addition, the experiment had to be discontinued before it was com-
pleted because of cold weather. We therefore found it advisable to
develop a technique for determining the actual longevity of the sterilized,
released males at comparable conditions. Twelve outdoor cages, 4 x 8 x
6 ft, were each stocked with 100 three-day-old sterile males and 50 three-
day-old virgin females from the laboratory colony of A. quadrimaculatus.











80 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 51, No. 2

Each cage contained a black resting box, 2.5% sugar solution, and a pan
of water. After 24, 48, and 72 hr, all the live mosquitoes were collected
with a small hand battery aspirator from four cages, the number was
recorded, and the females were dissected and their spermathecae were
checked for sperm, indication of successful insemination.


RESULTS
Table 1 summarizes the data. So many outside factors obviously
affected the population that it was almost impossible to evaluate suppres-
sion of the population (short of almost complete eradication). Any vari-
ation in the care and handling, for example, the number of eggs trans-
ferred to the trays or the amount of food used, influenced the number of
larvae that survived. Also, the test was conducted during September and
October, and the cool weather undoubtedly affected the survival of the
adults. The removal of as many as 3 dozen females each week from a
fairly small population may have influenced the size of the total popula-
tion, especially since complete sterility was never nearly achieved for any
length of time. Thus, the number of females that laid sterile egg batches
was the only true indication of the effectiveness of the sterile males, but
because the method of inducing sterility was not always 100% effective,
the percentage of sterile females could only be based on the number of
females laying normal free-floating egg clutches in which less than 10% of
the eggs hatched. Many clutches from sterile females contained fewer
eggs than the nonsterile clutches.
Between the second and fifth weeks of the test while the ratio of
sterile to nonsterile males ranged from 10:1 to as much as 40:1, the
percentage of females that laid sterile eggs ranged from 40 to 65. For
the first 2 weeks after the ratio was increased to 100:1, the percentage
remained about the same (62 to 67%), but the last 3 weeks of the test, it
increased to better than 80%. At the release rate of 100:1, the theoretical
number of sterile females should have been 99% if the sterile males had
been competing favorably. Obviously they were not, even though they
were sexually mature at the time of release (3 days old). Indeed, at this
rate, even if only half the released males were competing adequately,
almost all the egg clutches should have been sterile.
No positive explanation of the results can be offered, but the male
survival tests conducted after the release experiment indicate that the
lack of hardiness of the colony-reared males is the logical cause. In these
survival tests, only 50% of the males and 78% of females survived 24 hr,
7% of the males and 48% of the females survived 48 hr, and less than 1%
of the males and 4% of the females survived 72 hr. After 24 hr. only 3%
of the surviving females were inseminated. Then since only 7% of the males
were surviving after 48 hr and less than 1% after 72 hr, the number of
additional females that could have been inseminated was low. If we
assume a value of 5% insemination, only 5% of the males released in the
cage could have been competitive with normal males. The theoretical
ratios of sterile:nonsterile males based on this figure have been computed
and are reported in the table. The degree of sterility obtained (based on
these figures) was close to the theoretical value (83% theoretical vs. 80 to




















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82 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 51, No. 2

90% actual during the last 3 weeks of the experiment when the ratio of
sterile to nonsterile males was 5:1).
A check cage of sterile males and nonsterile female mosquitoes was
held in the laboratory for 3 days while the survival tests were made. Of
these, 69% of the sterile males survived for 3 days and 82% of the females.
Thus, the poor survival in the outdoor cages was undoubtedly caused by
the rearing conditions for the larvae in the laboratory and the handling
of the adults before they were placed in the outdoor environment.
Tests made during the experiment to verify the effectiveness of the
apholate treatment showed that more than 97% of the females mated to
apholate-dusted males laid sterile egg masses. Natural sterility in fe-
males from the laboratory colony was checked each week and found to
range from 0 to 33% with an average of 8%.


LITERATURE CITED
Dame, D. A., D. B. Woodard, H. R. Ford, and D. E. Weidhaas. 1964.
Field behavior of sexually sterile Anopheles quadrimaculatus males.
Mosquito News 24(1) : 6-14.
Davis, A. N., J. B. Gahan, D. E. Weidhaas, and C. N. Smith. 1959.
Exploratory studies on gamma radiation for the sterilization and
control of Anopheles quadrimaculatus. J. Econ. Entomol. 52:868-
870.
Weidhaas, D. E., C. H. Schmidt, and E. L. Seabrook. 1962. Field studies
on the release of sterile males for the control of Anopheles quadri-
maculatus. Mosquito News 22(3) : 283-291.

The Florida Entomologist 51(2) 1968













EGGS OF MOTHS FROM ADDITIONAL SPECIES OF
GEOMETRIDAE-LEPIDOPTERA'

ALVAH PETERSON
Ohio Historical Society Museum
Columbus, Ohio

ABSTRACT
Eggs of the Geometridae have very few features typical of all species.
The great majority are oval in shape and deposited on their sides. The
eggs of a few species are vertical or at a 45' angle when deposited in
clusters. As a rule they are not spherical or cone shaped as in Arctiidae
and Notodontidae, or distinctly depressed and scale lke with radiating
ridges as in Noctuidae, or very flat overlapping masses as in Pyralidae
and Tortricidae. One fact of significance is that eggs of species in a given
genus usually resemble each other rather closely.


This report is a continuation of a study on some eggs of moths among
the Geometridae presented in The Florida Entomologist, 1962, volume 45,
pages 109-17. Since that date eggs from many additional species of
geometrids have been seen. Most of them are presented in this publica-
tion.
The great majority of the eggs of the geometrids in this study came
from females caught at "black lights" adjacent to a white cloth or in
traps with a "black light" suspended over a metal funnel inserted in the
top of a screened walking cage or a screen covered, box-like container.
The captured females were placed in polyethylene or paper bags or in
polyethylene lined glass containers where they deposited their eggs on the
polyethylene, paper, foliage, bark, or other objects placed in the deposition
cages.
The following is a review of all eggs of the Geometridae seen to date.
All references to figures reported on in 1962 will have a 62 before each
numeral. The figures of the species and their descriptions are arranged
in the same sequence as that found in J. McDunnough's 1938. Checklist
of the Lepidoptera of Canada and the United States of America, Part 1,
Macrolepidoptera. This arrangement was not used in the 1962 report.
Eggs of most species are oval and usually deposited on their sides,
especially if the eggs are somewhat flattened (1, 8, 12, 21, 29, 37, 62-9).
Rarely are they spherical or scale-like. Some species deposit their eggs
in a vertical position (62-1, 62-22) or at a 450 angle (38, 62-2). Com-
paratively few deposit eggs in masses where they overlap (38, 39, 62-2,
62-5).
Most geometrid eggs possess an external transparent adhesive coating.
Many are very adhesive and cannot be removed from the substrate to

1 This investigation and costs of publication of results were supported
by a research grant from the National Science Foundation assigned to
the Ohio Historical Society at Columbus, Ohio. The author is indebted to
C. P. Kimball for determination of many of the species used in their
publication.















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Peterson: Eggs of Geometrid Moths


which they are attached without breaking the chorion (21, 31, 38, 43, 62-9),
especially if the substrate is rough and dry. The strength of the ad-
hesive coating varies considerably. Many eggs, if deposited on a very
smooth surface like polyethylene, can be removed without breaking the
chorion, yet some of these eggs if deposited on paper toweling or bark
are firmly attached and will break if one tries to disturb their position.
The following are a few examples (19, 41, 42, 44, 62-12, 62-15, 62-22, 62-38),



Fig. 1. Nemoria darwiniata Dyar. 1.0 x 0.75 x 0.5 mm. Color near
white to yellowish and shiny. Upper flat surface possesses small ir-
regular hexagonal reticulations. The flattened eggs are adhesive and
deposited singly and close together. They resemble the eggs of Synchlora
denticularia (Wlk), (62-10).
Fig. 2. Chlorochlamys chloroleucaria Gn., 0.65 x 0.4 x 0.25 mm. Color
medium to light green and shiny. Surface with very fine irregular
indentations. Eggs deposited singly or the flattened surfaces are adjacent
to each other. Eggs of Chlorochlamys indiscriminate Wlk, (62-31) are
somewhat similar to this species.
Fig. 3. Xystrota rubromarginaria Pack. 0.4 x 0.3 x 0.3 mm. Color
near white to pink, Twelve plus conspicuous indented longitudinal ridges
occur on the surface with prominent cross striae, 15 or more, between
them. The longitudinal ridges terminate or join together near the two
poles of the eggs. The eggs are slightly adhesive. They do not adhere
to polyethylene.
Fig. 4. Scopula enucleata Gn. 0.5 x 0.3 x 0.3 mm. Color light
yellowish white and shiny. Twelve plus conspicuous indented longitudinal
ridges extend lengthwise from pole to pole with about 20 distinct cross
striae between them. The eggs are nonadhesive and do not cling to each
other.
Fig. 5. Scopula inductata Gn. 0.6 x 0.3 x 0.3 mm. Color light cream
to near white. Sixteen faint slightly indented ridges extend from the
obtuse end to the smaller rounded end with very few or no cross striae
between them. The eggs are slightly adhesive. Also see Scopula aemulata
(Hlst.) (62-22).
Fig. 6. Euphenolia pallimedia Grossb. 0.3 x 0.2 x 0.2 mm. Color near
white to pink. Ten plus conspicuous nearly smooth longitudinal ridges
extend lengthwise and possess about 16 prominent cross striae in the
deep depressions between the ridges. The eggs are non-adhesive.
Fig. 7. Sterrha flavescens Hlst. 0.4 x 0.3 x 0.3 mm. Color yellow to
orange. Ten plus distinct indented ridges extend lengthwise on the eggs
and possess 15 plus prominent cross striae in the depressions between the
ridges. Eggs are nonadhesive. Also see S. demissaria (Hbn). (62-21).
Fig. 8. Haematopis grataria Fab. 0.5 x 0.3 x 0.25 mm. Color shiny
light tan to brown. Flattened surface of chorion possesses rounded
to hexagonal reticulations with no ridges or striae. Eggs are adhesive
and may cling to each other in clusters.
Fig. 9. Cosymbia packardi Prout. 0.5 x 0.25 x 0.25 mm. Color cream-
like and shiny with irregular hexagonal reticulations on adhesive surface
of eggs. Deposited singly on polythylene.
Fig. 10. Eupithecia sp. 0.5 x 0.25 x 0.25 mm. Color cream-like to
near white smooth and shiny. Adhesive eggs deposited in clusters on
polyethylene.










































41


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Peterson: Eggs of Geometrid Moths 87

A number of species have eggs that are completely or nearly non-
adhesive (3, 4, 6, 7, 45, 62-21).
The external texture of the chorion of geometrid eggs varies greatly.
Some possess a smooth shiny surface with no signs of tiny depressions or
reticulations (10, 12, 19, 20, 40, 62-33, 62-36). Other species are smooth
and shiny yet under considerable magnification, 25 X plus, show tiny
and very faint reticulations (15, 16, 41, 42, 44, 62-27, 62-32). Some of
these may be within the eggs and visible through the transparent or
translucent chorion. Many eggs of the Geometridae show on their ex-
terior distinct and prominent depressions surrounded by hexagonal or
irregular ridges producing a reticulated or net-like appearance. (18, 25,
29, 33, 34, 35, 62-5, 62-6, 62-11 to 17). Frequently these depressions are
distributed in longitudinal rows. A few of these species may possess
tiny, light colored, puff-like projections on the margins of the reticula-
tions (23, 29).
Among species in several genera and most species in a given genus
prominent longitudinal ridges occur between the two ends of the oval or
nearly spherical eggs. Cross striae or lines are present between the



Fig. 11. Eupithecia miserulhta Grt., 0.5 x 0.35 x 0.3 mm. Color near
white to cream. Surface adhesive, shiny, smooth and somewhat granu-
lated. Deposited singly or in clusters on paper or polyethylene.
Fig. 12. Eupithecia ir,,,:i..,ttr Hlst., 0.5 x 0.35 x 0.35 mm. Color near
white, smooth and shiny. Adhesive eggs are deposited in loose clusters
on polyethylene.
Fig. 13. Lygris molliculata Wlk. 0.6 x 0.5 x 0.5 mm. Color near
white with a chalk-like surface. Deposited on polyethylene in small
clusters, near each other and lightly adhesive.
Fig. 14. Stamnodes cassinoi Swett. 0.7 x 0.45 x 0.4 mm. Color near
white with very small elevated bumps on surface. Eggs are adhesive
and deposited in small clusters on polyethylene.
Fig. 15. Xanthorhoe ferrugata Clerk, 0.45 x 0.35 x 0.35 mm. Color
near white, surface shiny and possess small faint reticulations especially at
one end. Deposited singly on polyethylene.
Fig. 16. Mesoleuca ruficillata Gn. 0.7 x 0.5 x 0.45 mm. Cream
colored. Surface shiny with very faint tiny reticulations, Deposited singly
on polythylene.
Fig. 17. Euphyia centrostrigaria Woll., 0.5 x 0.4 x 0.4 mm. Color near
white to yellow. Surface smooth, shiny and some specimens slightly
pointed, adhesive eggs deposited loosely on polyethylene.
Fig. 18. Hammaptera parinotata Zell. 0.65 x 0.45 x 0.35 mm. Color
near white to light green. Chorion surface possesses conspicuous ir-
regular reticulations with deep depressions. Eggs slightly adhesive and
somewhat scattered on polyethylene.
Fig. 19. Camptogramma stellata Gn., 0.6 x 0.45 x 0.45 mm. Color
near white. Surface smooth, shiny, adhesive and cling to each other when
in clusters.
Fig. 20. Eudule unicolor Rob. 0.65 x 0.5 x 0.5 mm. Color near white.
Surface smooth, shiny and adhesive. Deposited singly or in small clusters
on polyethylene.













41


26



i~51k~~











Peterson: Eggs of Geometrid Moths


ridges (3, 4, 6, 7, 45, 62-21, 62-22). Other eggs have a chalk-like, smooth
surface (13) or a granulated texture (12). A few eggs possess an
obtuse end (7, 23, 33, 34, 35, 38, 39, 43, 62-1, 62-2, 62-22) which may be
the top (62-1, 62-2) or the bottom (62-22). Eggs of a few geometrids
have a circular cap like top which comes off or is chewed off when the
larva hatches (39, 45-48, 62-1, 62-2).

Among the species seen and studied to date some interesting and
significant structural similarities exist. The eggs of most species among
the Xystrota (3), Scopula (4), Euphenolia (6), and Sterrha (7, 62-21)
resemble each other closely, all possessing distinct longitudinal ridges.


Fig. 21. Delinia erythemaria Gn. 0.8 x 0.4 x 0.4 mm. Color medium
brown and shiny. Side view shows 10 plus slightly elevated, longitudinal
ridges whhch extend from the rounded to the somewhat obtuse end. Eggs
are adhesive and deposited in somewhat irregular clusters on polyethylene.
Fig. 22. Chloraspilates bicoloraria Pach. 0.65 x 0.4 x 3.5 mm. Color
light green and shiny. A side view shows 10 plus faint longitudinal
parallel rows of depressions extending lengthwise on the egg. Eggs are
adhesive and deposited on loose clusters in polyethylene.
Fig. 23. Physostegania pustularia Gn. 0.6 x 0.4 x 0.25 mm. Color
grey to pink. Entire chorion covered with faint diamond-shaped elevations
with conspicuous near white knobs occurring at most of the corners of
the diamond areas. Eggs are adhesive and deposited singly on polyethy-
lene.
Fig. 24. Semiothisa bisignata Wlk., 0.75 x 0.5 x 0.4 mm. Color light
green. Chorion with rough elevations most distinct near one end and near
the margin from a side view. Eggs are adhesive and deposited singly or
in irregular clusters on polyethylene.
Fig. 25. Seimothisa pallidata Pack. 0.6 x 0.4 x 0.3 mm. Color light
pale green. Entire surface possesses moderately faint hexagonal to
irregular reticulations. Eggs are adhesive and deposited singly or in
clusters on polyethylene.
Fig. 26. Semiothisa colorata Grt., 0.6 x 0.4 x 0.25 mm. Color light
green. Entire surface of chorion possesses small irregular depressions
frequently in longitudinal rows. Eggs are adhesive and deposited in
clusters usually on their narrow sides and in rows on polyethylene.
Fig. 27. Semiothisa continuata Wlk., 0.6 x 0.4 x 0.3 mm. Color light
green and shiny. Surface of chorion possesses many very tiny elevations
close together and irregular in their distribution. Eggs are adhesive and
deposited in small clusters on polyethylene.
Fig. 28. Semiothisa hypaethrata Grt. 0.7 x 0.45 x 0.3 mm. Color
light green. Surface of chorion possesses minute irregular depressions
frequently most prominent along margin. Eggs are adhesive and usually
deposited in irregular clusters on polyethylene.
Fig. 29. Itame fulvaria Vill., 0.6 x 0.4 x 0.25 mm. Color light green,
Entire surface covered with numerous tiny, white, rounded, pufflike dots
frequently in circles of seven. Eggs are adhesive and may be attached
to each other.
Fig. 30. Itame coortaria Hlst., 0.6 x 0.4 x 0.25 mm. Color greenish
to cream. Most of the surface possesses rounded to hexagonal depres-
sions with white, knob-like puffs about the depressions similar to those
seen in Fig. 23. Eggs are adhesive and cling to polyethylene.




















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Peterson: Eggs of Geometrid Moths 91

Also species in each of the following and respective genera look much
alike, Eupithecia (10, 11, 12), Semiothisa (24 to 28, 62-17, 62-25, 62-26),
Itame (29, 30), Euchlaena (62-11 to 14), and Lambdina (42, 62-27).
Hatching of the larva among some species of geometrids has been
observed. In most cases the larva chews out an escape opening, usually


Fig. 31. Tornos scolopacinarius spodius Rindge, 0.65 x 0.4 x 0.35 mm.
Color deep green and shiny. Side view with 10 plus longitudinal rows of
medium ridges possessing between them many striae creating oblong
depression. Eggs are adhesive and close together, mostly in a flattened
mass.
Fig. 32. Holochroa dissociarius Hlst. 0.8 x 0.7 x 0.7 mm. Color
cream to light brown. An egg is nearly spherical with a circle of 22 to
25 dots around the top-end. Eggs are adhesive and deposited in a
single layer of 20 or more ova on a flat substrate.
Fig. 33 Vinemina opacaria Hlst., 0.7 x 0.45 x 0.4 mm. Color light
green with an obtuse end frequently reddish. Broad side of egg possesses
10 plus longitudinal rows of irregular ridges with distinct irregular cross
striae between them resulting in deep depressions covering the entire
surface. Eggs are adhesive, and deposited in loose clusters on polyethy-
lene.
Fig. 34. Stenopropia anastomosaria Grossb. 0.8 x 0.5 x 0.45 mm.
Color cream to pinkish grey and shiny. Side view possesses 10 to 12
somewhat zig zag longitudinal ridges with distinct cross striae between
them resulting in tiny pits. Near the obtuse end small, white knobs
occur about the pits. Eggs are adhesive and are deposited in loose flat
masses on polyethylene.
Fig. 35. Anacamptodes larvaria Gn., 0.7 x 0.45 x 0.55 mm. Color pale
green. Twelve or more bumpy longitudinal ridges occur in a side view
with cross striae between them. The ridges project beyond the obtuse end
and converge near the rounded end. The eggs are adhesive and adhere to
their substrate. This species differs from eggs of A. defectaria (62-7) and
A. humaria (Gm) (62-8)
Fig. 36. Priocycla armataria H-S., 0.7 x 0.5 x 0.4 mm. Color light
yellowish green and shiny. Surface smooth and possess very tiny reticu-
lations. Eggs are adhesive and deposited singly on polyethylene.
Fig. 37. Metanema inatomaria Gn. 0.75 x 0.55 x 0.5 mm. Color yel-
low to deep orange and may show red spots within the egg. Entire egg
possesses small, faint, hexagonal or irregular reticulations not arranged
in a definite pattern. The eggs are adhesive and deposited singly or in
small clusters.
Fig. 38. Ennomos subsignarius Hbn. elm spanworm. View of an en-
tire egg mass on a twig. For an enlarged view and description of eggs
see Fla. Entomol. 1962, Fig. 2, p. 110, 115.
Fig. 39. Plataea trilinearia Pack. 0.8 x 0.65 x 0.5 mm. Color grey to
bluish and shiny. Side view shows about 12 faint longitudinal ridges
with many tiny cross striae producing narrow, oblong areas between the
ridges. A plain, caplike top occurs at the blunt end. The adhesive eggs
may occur in irregular clusters and adjacent to each other when deposited
on polyethylene.
Fig. 40. Caripeta divisata Wlk. 0.85 x 0.65 x 0.6 mm. Color green to
light brown with red flecks scattered within the embryo. A round,
cap-like area occurs at one end. The chorion is smooth, shiny and ad-
hesive. Eggs are deposited in rows or clusters on polyethylene.




































47






49"


48










Peterson: Eggs of Geometrid Moths


at one end or on a side. Among a few species there appears to be a
round cap-like top operculumm) present at one-end (39, 40, 45). Pressure
by the larva within pushes off this cap and then the larva emerges.
Hatching of Apicia confusaria Hbn. (45 to 50) has been observed several
times. During incubation the color of the egg changes from a uniform
green to a multicolored state (46). At prehatch time the near black larva
fills the entire egg (47). The larva pushes itself out of the round
opening (48). If the head comes out first the larva discards the empty
translucent egg shell quickly. If the anal end emerges first the larva has
a more difficult time to rid itself of the empty egg shell (49). Immediately
after emergence the larva increases in size shown in figure 50.


Fig. 41. Snowia montanaria Newn. 1.15 x 0.75 x 0.6 mm. Color a
deep green with red specks scattered through the embryonic tissue.
Surface of chorion smooth, shiny, and adhesive, also possesses faint
tiny reticulations. Some of the eggs torn away from the polyethylene
show the adhesive layer.
Fig. 42. Lambdina pultaria (Gn.), 0.85 x 0.65 x 0.6 mm. Color slightly
greenish grey, chorion surface smooth, shiny, and adhesive, also possess
very tiny reticulations. Eggs are deposited singly or in loose clusters on
polyethylene. The torn adhesive membrane visible in egg on upper row.
Also see eggs of L. pellucidaria (G and R) (62-27).
Fig. 43. Deuteronomos magnarius (Gn.), 1.1 x 0.5 x 0.6 mm. Color a
muddy brown. Eggs flattened out at one end and rounded at other. The
adhesive eggs are deposited side by side in chains. These eggs were
collected by Roy Rings. Hatched eggs of this species (62-4) were found
in southern Florida on bark of gumbo-limbo. Similar eggs seen in col-
lection at the U. S. National Museum, Washington D. C.
Fig. 44. Prochoerodes transversata Div., 0.9 x 0.6 x 0.6 mm. Color
green to deep red, chorion surface smooth, shiny, adhesive, and possesses
very faint reticulations. Eggs are deposited singly or in loose clusters on
polyethylene.
Fig. 45-50. Apicia confusaria Hbn., 0.75 x 0.65 x 0.65 mm. Eggs,
incubation, and hatch. Newly deposited eggs are light green and shiny.
The exterior of the chorion possesses 20 to 21 distinct light colored,
bead-like ridges that extend from the round end to the circular, cap-like
structure at the opposite end. Faint line-like striae are present between
the ridges. The eggs are nonadhesive and roll around freely when de-
posited in dry poleythylene bags or glass containers.
Fig. 45. Newly deposited nonadhesive green eggs showing ridges, stri-
ae, and cap-like ends
Fig. 46. During incubation color changes occur from green to reds to
near black
Fig. 47. Eggs about to hatch show near black larvae within the egg
shell. Hatched eggs are colorless and transulcent with an open end.
Fig. 48. A larva partially hatched. Usually the head end emerges
first.
Fig. 49. A partially hatched larva with the head still within the
translucent egg shell.
Fig. 50. A hatched larva adjacent to the empty egg shell. Upon
emergence the newly hatched larva expands quickly in size and may show
a remanent of the embryonic tissue attached to the caudal end.









94 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 51, No. 2

The following descriptions of the forty-five additional species of the
Geometridae presents for each the scientific name of the species, the
size in millimeters, including length, width and depth, its over-all color,
surface appearance and detailed features on the chorion, adhesiveness of
the exterior, and manner of deposition.

LITERATURE CITED

McDunnough, J. 1938. Checklist of the Lepidoptera of Canada and the
United States of America. Part 1, Macrolepidoptera. Mem. S. Calif.
Acad. Sci. 1:1-274.
Peterson, Alvah. 1962. Some eggs of moths among the Geometridae-
Lepidoptera. Fla. Entomol. 45: 109-119.
Peterson, Alvah. 1963a. Some of the eggs moths among the Amatidae,
Arctiidae and Notodontidae. Fla. Entomol. 46: 169-182.

Peterson, Alvah, 1963b. Egg types among moths of the Pyralidae and
Phycitidae-Lepidoptera. Fla. Entomol. Suppl. #1. Sept. 1963.
Peterson, Alvah. 1964. Egg types among the moths of the Noctuidae
(Lepidoptera). Fla. Entomol. 47: 71-91.
Peterson, Alvah. 1965. Some eggs of moths among the Olethreutidae
and Tortricidae. Fla. Entomol. 48: P. 18.


The Florida Entomologist 51(2) 1968










































































































































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NOTES ON THE BIOLOGY OF TRUPANEA ACTINOBOLA
(DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE)1

CARL E. STEGMAIER, JR.2
11335 N.W. 59th Avenue, Hialeah, Florida 33012

ABSTRACT
The immature stages of Trupanea actinobola (Loew), a seed-feeding
tephritid, infest the unopened and fully developed flower heads of the
daisy fleabane, Erigeron strigosus Muhl. One hundred seventeen un-
opened flower buds and fully opened flower heads contained 140 pupae
and 134 larvae. From 2 to 12 pupae may occupy a pupal chamber in a
seed head. Dead seeds or eaten achenes form the pupal chamber around
the pupae. Two hymenopterous parasites, Heteroschema punctata (Ash-
mead) and Colotrechnus ignotus Burks, family Pteromalidae, were reared
from the immature stages of T. actinobola. The study was conducted
during April and May 1967.


INTRODUCTION

Foote (1960) reported that the genus Trupanea is a group of small
flies with grey pollinose bodies. These flies are characterized by wings
with a starlike pattern. Foote stated that the males and females of this
genus visit flowers of the family Compositae. The genus Trupanea
is worldwide in distribution, but has been neglected taxonomically since
it largely contains non-economic fruitflies. Foote stated that larvae are
known, from published literature, to feed within the ovaries of the com-
posite flowers.
The present report is concerned with the life history of Trupanea
actinobola (Loew) and is the result of a 2 month study during April
and May 1967, on Dodge Island, Dade County, Miami, Florida. An isolated
plant community of Erigeron strigosus Muhl. var beyrichii (Fischer and
Meyer) T. and G., a daisy fleabane, comprised the situation under which the
studies were conducted.
Our present knowledge of the biology of T. actinobola is fragmentary.
The larvae of actinobola were known to infest flowers of various com-
posites, but were not known to infest flower buds nor the tender stems
of the Compositae flowers (Benjamin 1934). Phillips (1946) stated that
larvae of actinobola live within the Compositae flowers and that a single
larva usually infests 1 flower head. Phillips suggested that pupae of
actinobola are formed within the flower heads, and he recorded Erigeron
sondbergiana (author unknown) as a host plant of T. actinobola in New
York.
Benjamin (1934) recorded the host plants of actinobola as Aster
adnatus Nutt., A. carolinianus Walt., Actinospermum angustifolium
(Pursh), Coreopsis sp., and Hieracium sp. Benjamin said that 1 to 3 actino-
bola adults were known to have been reared from the above plants. He also


1Contribution No. 117, Entomology Section, Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture, Gainesville.
2 Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Division
of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture.










The Florida Entomologist


reported Erigeron vernus (L.) Torrey and Gray, E. quercifolius Lamarck
and Solidago sp. to be host plants of T. actinobola; however, he made no
mention of the individual flower head infestations of these plants. Foote
(1960) listed Solidago chapmanii Torrey and Gray and Solidago serotina
Retzinger as additional host plants of actinobola. According to Mr. John
Breckner (University of Florida Herbarium) S. chapmanii is a synonym
of Solidago gigantea Aiton, variety leithylla Fernald (personal corres-
pondence from Dr. Howard V. Weems, Jr.).
Foote and Blanc (1963) discussed collections of actinobola from
flowers in California and stated that actinobola represents an extremely
variable complex of North American forms needing additional study. Foote
(1960) reported that possibly a statistical study based on a much larger
number of specimens than are now available would show the presence of
several subspecies on the North American continent.

METHODS

Numerous unopened flower buds and fully mature or fully bloomed
flower heads of Erigeron strigosus were collected at random in the field
and brought into the laboratory for study. A dissection needle was
used to remove larval or pupal infestations from the buds and fully
bloomed flower heads. A dissection scope was used as a visual aid in
counting the number of immature infestations and in locating the poten-
tial infestations of the buds and heads. The larval and pupal infesta-
tions were removed from the plants and placed into containers in order
to rear actinobola adults and their parasites. The container was securely
covered with a fine mesh cloth.

LIFE HISTORY

The female fly commonly oviposits from 1 to 12 eggs. The eggs are
laid near the center of the capitulum. The female seems to prefer the
unopened flower buds rather than the fully opened flower heads for
oviposition sites. The newly hatched larvae bore down through the
immature flowers until the seed layer has been reached. Larvae then bore
laterally through several developing seeds. As the larvae increase in
size, they feed upon more and more seeds, destroying several immature
or mature achenes. One larva devoured 32 achenes, and I estimate this to
be about 10% of the seeds within one mature flower head. Prior to pupa-
tion, a larva usually reverses its position in the seed head so that the
anterior end of the larva is oriented away from the receptacle of the flower.
The adults emerge through the dead flowers. When pupation occurs
within the unopened flower buds, the pupae may be found lying in any
position and the dead achenes or dead immature seeds do not envelop
the pupae, which lie naked and scattered within the immature disk flower
of the bud.
Fully bloomed flower heads frequently contained pupae of actinobola;
several to many pupae, usually in an upright or vertical position within
the fully bloomed flower heads, were not uncommon. Each pupa was
surrounded by and stuck to an envelope of dead achenes. The pupal
chamber or pupal cell consisted of a base of devoured achenes and an


Vol. 51, No. 2











Stegmaier: Biology of Trupanea actinobola


outer margin of floral tubes around the upper surface of the group of
pupae. The number of pupae may vary from 2 to 12 adjacent to each
other and usually enveloped within a common pupal cell by the fibers of
the dead achents. The pupae were found sometimes in a horizontal
position; however, this position was not common. The dead seed cover-
ing around the pupae may afford protection from parasites for the in-
active pupae.
The flower heads of E. strigosus together with the ray flowers mea-
sured one-half inch in diameter. The flower head minus the ray flowers
measured about one-fourth inch in diameter. Indications of first and
second instar larval infestations are a greenish coloration or discoloration
on the otherwise normal disk florets of Erigeron. Fully developed larval
and pupal infestations on fully bloomed flower heads were characterized
by dead patches of disk florets. Infestations in buds prior to opening
can be detected by distorted, somewhat swollen flower buds.
Pupal infestations of T. actinobola in unopened flower buds are par-
ticularly interesting since pupal infestations of other known tephritid
flies are rather infrequent within the unopened flower buds of composites.
The unopened flower bud does not have mature achenes on which the usual
seed feeding tephritids feed, and larvae of T. actinobola are restricted to
the non-mature achenes and possibly other portions of the immature ray
and disk florets within the immature capitula. There may be several
generations of actinobola on E. strigosus in south Florida with damage
to the seeds of strigosus being extensive.

UNOPENED FLOWER BUD INFESTATIONS:
Thirty-two unopened flower buds were dissected and were found to be
infested with 70 larvae and 24 pupae. Table 1 indicates 12 unopened
flower buds were infested with 1 larva in each flower bud. The highest
number of larvae frequenting an unopened flower bud was 9. Six flower
buds contained 1 pupa in each unopened flower bud. The highest number
of pupae found infesting a single unopened flower bud was 4. In some
cases both pupae and larvae were found in a common unopened flower
bud.

FULLY BLOOMED FLOWER HEADS:
Eighty-five fully bloomed flower heads were dissected and were found
to be infested with 64 larvae and 116 pupae. Twenty-one larvae and 4
pupae were parasitized. Sixteen flower heads were infested with 1 larva
per fully bloomed flower head. Twelve pupae infesting a single flower
head was the largest number found during the limited field survey.
Twenty-one fully bloomed flower heads each contained 1 pupa per flower
head. Less frequently, larvae and pupae were found infesting the same
fully bloomed flower head.

Heteroschema punctata (ASHM.):
Two females of a hymenopterous parasite, Heteroschema puncttat
(Ashmead), family Pteromalidae, were reared from the immature stages
of Trupanea actinobola in seed heads collected 6 June 1966, at Hialeah,
Florida. One specimen, USNM No. 67-386, was retained for the United










The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 51, No. 2


States National Collection. The other female was deposited in the
Florida State Collection of Arthropods at Gainesville, Florida.
Dr. Howard V. Weems, Jr. (personal communication) lists Paraoxyna
picciola Bigot (Tephritidae), Melanagromyza virens (Loew) (Agromyzi-
dae), and Ophiomyia sp. (Agromyzidae) as additional host insects of
H. punctata.
Colotrechnus ignotus BURKS:
One male parasite of a larva of Trupanea actinobola was reared from
a collection on 16 May 1967, at Dodge Island, Miami, Florida. Dr. B. D.
Burks (personal communication) stated that he was very glad to obtain
the host record for C. ignotus. The specimen, USNM No. 67-25025, is being


Trupanea actinobola (Loew). Fig. 1 Wing of female. Fig. 2 Wing of
male; no sexually dimorphic differences in wings of male and female are
apparent. Fig. 3 female actinobola. Fig. 4 male actinobola. Fig. 5
A typical chamber containing 3 pupae from a fully bloomed flower head
of E. strigosus. The posterior portions of the pupae seen in the photo
were next to the receptacle of the flower head. The mature dead achenes
surround the lateral portion of the pupae; moreover, the dead disk florets
form a layer of seeds around the sides and over the top portion (anterior)
of the pupae.










Stegmaier: Biology of Trupanea actinobola


TABLE 1.-A COMPARISON OF THE NUMBER OF LARVAE AND PUPAE OF
Trupanea actinobola WITHIN THE UNOPENED FLOWER BUDS AND
FULLY BLOOMED FLOWER HEADS OF Erigeron strigosus. L INDI-
CATES LARVAE. P INDICATES PUPAE.
Number of Number of Unopened Number of Fully Bloomed
Insects Flower Buds Infested Flower Heads Infested
* 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12 1 2 3 4 9 10 16 21
1 P L LP
2 L L,P L,P L P
3 P L P
4 P L P
5 L P
6 L P
7 P
8
9 L
10
11
12 P

deposited in the Florida State Collection of Arthropods. All parasite
determinations were made through the courtesy of Dr. B. D. Burks
(Entomology Research Division, ARS, USNM).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author is indebted to Dr. Richard H. Foote, Entomology Research
Division, ARS, USDA; Dr. James Nation, Associate Editor,
Zoology Department, University of Florida; and to John A. Novak,
formerly of the Department of Biological Sciences, Kent State University,
for critical comments and suggestions concerning the manuscript. My
thanks to Dr. Kenneth R. Langdon, Nematologist and Botanist, Florida
Department of Agriculture, for the determination of E. strigosus; to
Dr. B. D. Burks, Entomology Research Division, ARS, USDA, for the
determinations of the hymenopterous parasites; and to Dr. Howard V.
Weems, Jr., Coordinator for the Research Associate Program of the Flor-
ida State Collection of Arthropods, for his numerous suggestions con-
cerning the manuscript.
All photographs are through the courtesy of the Department of Bio-
logical Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio, John A. Novak,
photographer.
LITERATURE CITED
Benjamin, F. H. 1934. Descriptions of some native trypetid flies with
notes on their habits. USDA Tech. Bull. No. 401. 96 p.
Foote, R. H. 1960. A revision of the genus Trupanea in America north
of Mexico. USDA Tech. Bull. No. 1214. 29 p.
Foote, R. H. and F. L. Blanc. 1963. The fruitflies or Tephritidae of
California. Bull. Calif. Insect Surv. No. 7. 117 p.
Phillips, V. T. 1946. The biology and identification of trypetid larvae
(Diptera: Trypetidae). Mem. Amer. Entomol. Soc. No. 12. 161 p.

The Florida Entomologist 51(2) 1968










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A NEW SPECIES OF ENALLAGMA FROM CENTRAL
AMERICA (ODONATA: COENAGRIONIDAE)'

THOMAS W. DONNELLY
Dept. of Geology, State University of New York, Binghamton, New York;
Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods

ABSTRACT

Enallnama rua n. sp., from the highlands of southern Mexico, Guate-
mala, and Honduras, is most closely related to the more northerly Enal-
lagma praevarum (Hagen), from which it differs principally by the shape
of the male appendages. The two species do not appear to intergrade
in southern Mexico.


The species of Enallagma herein described has a wide distribution in
the mountainous region between southern Mexico (Chiapas) and Honduras.
It is very closely related to E. praevarum (Hagen), which ranges from
the southwestern states of the United States south to Oaxaca, Mexico.
The lowland region of Tehuantepec may effectively separate the two
species, though there might be an effective ecological barrier should they
be found to occur in the same region: E. praevarum prefers high, rather
dry regions and the new species is found in more moist habitats.

Enallagma rua, new species

HOLOTYPE MALE: Head blue, black as follows: dorsal surface of ante-
clypeus, dorsum of head posterior to bases of antennae, except for broad,
rounded postocular spots and isolated, elongate spot connecting these
spots. Rear of head pale.
Prothorax: Black on dorsum except for comma-shaped, blue, lateral
spots on middle lobe and obscure transverse band on fore lobe. Prop-
leura blue.
Pterothorax: Black mid-dorsal, blue antehumeral, and black humeral
stripe, the pale antehumeral stripe 1 1/3 times as broad as the pale mid-
dorsal (to mid-dorsal carina only), and 3 times as broad as the humeral
stripe, at mid-height. Sides and venter of thorax pale blue, except for
black dash at posterior end of 2nd lateral suture. Mesostigmal laminae
subrectangular, with rounded tip and raised, somewhat flattened apical
portion.
Legs: Black on dorsum of femora and outer surface of tibiae, except
for pale lines partially encircling bases of femora. Apices of tibiae pale,
grading proximally into the black color. Spines and tips of tarsal claws
black. Pale color of legs obscure bluish-brown.
Wings: Veins and stigmata black. 10 1/2 postnodal crossveins in
fore wing; 9 1/2 in hind wing. M2 originating 5 1/2 cells from nodus
in fore wing; 4 in hind wing, Subnodal cell bounded by M1, Rs3, and M3 dis-

1 Contribution No. 118, Entomology Section, Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture, Gainesville.










The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 51, No. 2


tinctly broader than high; that is, the M1 side is broader than the Rs3 side.
Wings stalked distinctly proximal to Ac.
Abdomen: Blue, except for black markings on apical half of 1; distal
third of 2, fifth of 3, half of 4, two-thirds of 5, four-fifths of 6, seven-
eights of 7; and dorsum of 10. Black of distal fifth of 3 6 extending
ventrally to lateral mid-line of segments. Superior appendage dark, elon-
gate, equal in length to the 10 segment at mid-height, slightly curved
mesally, with broad ventral projection bearing a small, raised, subterminal
pad. Inferior appendage pale with dark tip, pointed, extending two-
thirds the length of the superior.
Genitalia: Penis very similar to that of E. praevarum (as figured by
Donnelly 1963).
ALLOTYPE FEMALE: Pale color obscure brownish-green (brown in dried
specimens). Generally similar to male, except that the proximal black
color on the femora is more restricted. The dorsum of the abdomen is
black, with pale color limited to distal half of 1, proximal eighth of 4 and
5, seventh of 6, and sixth of 7. The dark color tapers on each segment
to a rounded point proximally and expands abruptly at distal fifth of 3 7.
Segments 8 10 black dorsally, with dark color narrowed very slightly
distally on 9 and 10.
Mesostigmal laminae very similar to those of male, with anterior
margin bilobed and centrally excavated, and tip curving abruptly pos-
teriorly.
DIMENSIONS AND VARIATIONS AMONG THE TYPE SERIES: Abdomen of
holotype male 24 mm; allotype female, 23 mm. Hind wing of holotype
male 17.5 mm; allotype female, 18.5 mm. Abdomens of paratypes vary
from 22.5 to 25.5 mm (32 males), and from 22.5 to 25.5 mm (3 females).
Hind wings vary from 15.5 to 18 mm (32 males), and from 16.5 to 19.5
mm (3 females). There is some variation in the relative extent of dark
and pale colors: many specimens have the central spot between the pale
postocular spots reduced, and a few have this spot enlarged to connect
the postocular spots across the center of the head. Ten males have more
dark color on the abdomen, with the distal three-fifths of 4 and four-fifths
of 5 black. The four female specimens vary greatly in size but show little
color variation. One female has the dark color at the base of the 8th
segment narrowed abruptly to a rounded point.
MATERIAL EXAMINED: Holotype male and allotype female: Los Aposen-
tos, near Chimaltenango, Guatemala, 12 Sept. 1964, coll. T. and A. Don-
nelly. Paratypes: 4 $ 8.6 mi. N.W. of Comayagiiela, Prov. Francisco
Morazan, Honduras, 27 Aug. 1964, coll. F. G. Thompson (in collection of
D. R. Paulson); 1 &, "along small stream near R.R., near Guatemala
City", Guatemala, 30 Jan. 1905, coll. E. B. Williamson; 10 & $, Santa Cruz
de Verapaz, Dept. Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, 4 July 1962, coll. T. Donnelly;
8 & &, Caldera Lake near San Francisco de Sales, VolcAn Pacaya, Guate-
mala, 22 Aug. 1964, coll. T. Donnelly; 5 &$ 1 9, Los Aposentos (same
locality and date as holotype); 2 &3 stream and pond, 9.2 mi. N. of
Jitotol, Chiapas, Mexico, 16 July 1965, coll. D. R. Paulson; 2 &$ 2 9 9,
reservoir at San Cristobal de las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico, 13 July 1965,
coll. D. R. Paulson.
The holotype and allotype are deposited in the Florida State Collection


102










Donnelly: A New Species of Enallagma 103

of Arthropods. Paratypes will be deposited in the Museum of Zoology,
University of Michigan; the United States National Museum, and several
other collections.
A total of 79 S& and 9 9 9 of E. praevarum from central and southern
Mexico, as well as many from the United States, were examined. These
specimens were all borrowed from the Williamson collection at the Uni-
versity of Michigan, and are distributed approximately as follows: Speci-
mens from Oaxaca, Michoac6n, Quer6taro, Distrito Federal, and San Luis
Potosi, all collected between 1890 and 1903, principally by Deam and by
Adams; specimens from Guerrero and Guanajuato collected in 1932 by
Smith and Taylor; and specimens from Jalisco collected in 1923 by J. H.
Williamson.
The new species bears approximately the same relationship to E.
praevarum in the southern part of its range as does E. anna Williamson
in the north. E. praevarum is a remarkably stable species throughout a
wide range and occurs with a large variety of other Odonata species at
most of the places it is found. Both anna and rua live in marginal areas
which must be considered harsher, judged by the relatively more re-
stricted faunas with which they coexist. E. rua was found in one locality
(Santa Cruz de Verapaz) flying virtually alone, with only one speci-
men of another species (Anomalagrion hastatum (Say) ). Seen at Caldera
Lake, it was found along with Libellula foliata (Kirby), Aeshna jalapensis
Williamson, Sympetrum illotum (Hagen), and Argia fissa Selys. At Los
Aposentos it flew with A. jalapensis, Coryphaeschna luteipennis (Bur-
meister), S. illotum and Enallagma civil (Hager). At none of the three
Guatemala localities was the Odonata fauna especially rich, nor were
specimens abundant. No information is available on the Honduras and
southern Mexico occurrences.
All of the localities at which E. rua were found were at fairly high
elevations. At the Honduras locality the elevation is given as 5800 feet;
at Santa Druz de Verapaz it is about 4900 feet; at Caldera Lake, 5900
feet; at Los Aposentos, 6500 feet; at Jitotol, 5800 feet; and at San
Cristobal de las Casas, 7400 feet.
Morphologically rua and anna differ from praevarum in about the
same way. Both species have distinctly longer superior appendages then
does praevarum, though anna is a relatively stout species, with heavy
appendages, and rua is more delicate. E. rua is distinguished from prae-
varum by its longer superior appendages, with the mesal-ventral projec-
tion far less prominent in lateral view than is that of praevarum.
The lateral aspect of the appendage of praevarum is that of a blunt
appendage, as high as long, and distinctly shorter than the tenth seg-
ment. The appendage of rua is thinner and distinctly longer than high in
lateral view. The females are not easily distinguished. The mesostigmal
laminae of rua have the mesal lobe of the anterior margin more promi-
nent than that of praevarum, and the tip of the laminae less tapered
and more abruptly rounded.
Though the species rua and praevarum are obviously close, both
appeared to be internally consistent, and there was no tendency towards
gradation between the two species. The northern species anna is closer










104 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 51, No. 2





7-00










rua 1. 2. 3.
















praevarurm













8.
anna


9.



Fig. 1-3, Enallagma rua, n. sp.; Fig. 4-6, E. praevarum; Fig. 7-9,
E. anna. Fig. 1, 4, 7, lateral view of male appendage; Fig. 2, 5, 8,
inclined view of male appendage; Fig. 3, 6, 9, dorsal view of mesostigmal
lamina of female.


_


__ __









Donnelly: A New Species of Enallagma


105


to rua in appearance, though it is stockier than that species and is
separated from rua by the much heavier superior appendage of the male
by the different form of the mesostigmal laminae, by its yellow costa, and
by the fact that the range of the two species are separated by about
2000 miles. Very possibly both anna and rua are only slightly derived
from an ancestral form which praevarum effectively displaced in the
major part of the range of that hypothetical species.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I am grateful to Dr. Irving J. Cantrall, University of Michigan, Dr.
Minter J. Westfall, Jr., University of Florida, and Dr. Dennis R. Paulson,
Washington State University, for the loan of specimens. The new
species is named for Miss Ruth Birkhoff who, with her cousin Garrett
Paine, was a delightful companion on some short trips in Guatemala.

LITERATURE CITED

Donnelly, T. W., 1963. Possible phylogenetic relationships among North
and Central American Enallagma. Proc. North Central Branch,
Entomol. Soc. Amer., 18: 116-119.


The Florida Entomologist 51(2) 1968










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CONTROL OF HOUSE FLIES IN POULTRY HOUSES
WITH LARVICIDES

DONALD L. BAILEY, D. W. MEIFERT, AND P. M. BISHOP
Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA,
Gainesville, Fla. 32601

ABSTRACT

Field tests were conducted with 19 insecticides against the larvae of
the house fly, Musca domestic L. Seven were effective for 1 day, 4 for
5 days, and 3 for 7 days. All the compounds were ineffective the 9th day.
Laboratory tests with diazinon made to determine the resistance of larvae
from the field strain compared with a susceptible laboratory strain showed
that at the LCso level the field strain was 75.6 times harder to kill than
the susceptible strain and 120.5 times harder at the LCo level.

The house fly, Musca domestic L., has been and continues to be a
major problem in establishments handling caged poultry since the accumu-
lation of manure under laying hens is an ideal rearing medium for the
larvae. Even with the most effective insecticides, control of larvae in
such circumstances has been difficult. The large quantity of breeding
medium cannot be thoroughly treated because application to the surface of
the manure and constant movement of the larvae through the surface
layer mixes the chemical with the medium and quickly makes the con-
centration too low to be effective. Second, the daily deposit of fresh
manure by the chickens provides the flies with a constant supply of new,
untreated medium. Finally, and a factor that needs more study, the
chemical properties of the medium cause detoxification of the insecticides.
After the house fly developed resistance to chlorinated hydrocarbons,
organophosphate insecticides were used for larval control. Most of these
organophosphorous materials are more effective than the chlorinated hy-
drocarbons in controlling larvae at the time of application, but they
lose their effectiveness much more rapidly. Also, house flies are develop-
ing resistance to these new insecticides as they become available (La-
Brecque and Wilson 1957). Consequently, the Gainesville, Florida labora-
tory of the Entomology Research Division is making a continuous search
for new and more effective chemicals, and over the past 12 years, more
than 50 chemicals have been evaluated as house fly larvicides (Wilson and
Gahan 1957, Wilson and LaBrecque 1958, 1960, Morgan et al. 1966, and
Brady and LaBrecque 1966). Because diazinon produced complete larval
control for 1-2 weeks in 1957, it has since been frequently selected as
the standard (Wilson and Gahan 1957). However, its extensive use by
poultrymen to control house fly larvae has apparently caused the house fly
to develop resistance; Morgan et al. in 1966 could obtain only 1 day
control. In this paper, we present the results of evaluations of additional
insecticides as larvicides and describe tests of resistance of house fly
larvae to diazinon.
METHODS AND MATERIALS
Nineteen compounds applied as emulsions or as suspensions of wet-
table powders were evaluated against natural infestations of house fly










The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 51, No. 2


larvae in manure under caged poultry in Hillsborough County, Florida,
in September 1967. The company designations or common names for the
compounds tested, their chemical names, and their acute oral toxicities, as
compiled by the Pesticide Chemicals Research Branch, Entomology Re-
search Division, ARS, or as received from the manufacturers, are listed
below. All LDso's are based on tests with white rats except those
followed by "M" which are based on tests with white mice.


Abate

Anthio


Banol
Bay 33051


Bay
Bay
Bay


37344
39007
41831


Bay 62863

Bay 77488

Bay 78182

Calcium arsenate
Coumaphos
Diazinon
Dimethoate
Dursban

Hooker HRS-1422
Montecatini L-561

Neopynamin



Shell SD-8447


Minimum
LD,, (mg/kg)
0,0-dimethyl phosphorothioate 0,0- 2000
diester with 4,4'-thiodiphenol
0,0-dimethyl phosphorodithioate S- 375
ester with N-formyl-2-mercapto-N-
methylacetamide
6-chloro-3,4-xylyl methylcarbamate 300M
ethyl mercaptophenylacetate S-ester with 200
0,0-dimethyl phosphorodithioate
4- (methylthio) -3,5-xylyl methylcarbamate 130
0-isopropoxyphenyl methylcarbamate 95
0,0-dimethyl 0-4-nitro-m-tolyl 250
phosphorothioate
2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-7-benzofuranyl 100
methylcarbamate
0,0-diethyl phosphorothioate 0-ester with >1000
phenylglyoxylonitrile oxime
0,0-diethyl phosphorothioate 0-ester with >1000
(o-chlorophenyl) glyoxylonitrile oxime
35
860
100
200
0,0-diethyl 0-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl 135
phosphorothioate
3,5-diisopropylphenyl methylcarbamate 526
ethyl mercaptophenylacetate S-ester 250
with 0,0-dimethyl phosphorodithioate
2,2-dimethyl-3- (2-methylpropenyl)= 15000
cyclopropanecarboxylic acid ester
with N- hydroxymethyll) -1-cyclohexene-
1,2-dicarboximide
2-chloro-1- (2,4,5-trichlorophenyl) vinyl 4000
dimethyl phosphate


Each compound was applied to the surface of 10 m2 plots of droppings
at the rate of 2 g active ingredient/m2. One liter of water was used as
the diluent for the insecticide for each plot treated. A small carbon
dioxide cylinder charged to a pressure of 70,000 g/cm2 (about 1,000 psi)
was adapted to a two-liter compressed air sprayer. This cylinder was
equipped with a pressure regulator that maintained a constant pressure


108











Bailey: House Fly Control with Larvicides


109


of 3,000 g/cm2 (about 40 psi) in the spray tank. All hoses had quick-
disconnect couplings to make loading the tank easier. The sprayer was
equipped with a TeeJet 80-02 nozzle that delivered 1 liter of spray per
minute. This type sprayer had not previously been used to apply larvi-
cides, but it proved superior to hand pump sprayers and enabled us to
treat a large number of plots in a relatively short period by eliminating
the time required for pumping.
Larval density in each plot was determined by collecting a large
spoonful of manure from each of 10 locations where the heaviest infes-
tations were apparent, spreading the samples on a plywood panel, and
counting the larvae present. The effectiveness of the treatments was
determined by comparing the difference in counts made immediately
before and 1, 5, 7, and 9 days after treatment. The compounds were
considered ineffective after control dropped below 75%.
Also, a sample of adult flies was collected at the poultry farm, brought
into the laboratory, and reared to the F, generation. The resistance of
the F1 larvae to diazinon was then determined by comparing their
susceptibility to diazinon with that of the Orlando regular (susceptible)
strain as follows: technical diazinon in 50 ml water was thoroughly
mixed (in 225 g cups) with 25 g dry CSMA larval medium at concen-
trations of 3.0, 1.0, 0.3, 0.1, 0.03, 0.01, 0.003, or 0.001 mg toxicant/g med-
ium. Then 50 third-instar larvae were placed on the medium in each cup,
and a piece of organdy cloth was laid over the top and secured by a
rubber band. Each concentration and an untreated check was replicated
once for each strain of flies. The cups were held at 27 C and 50% relative
humidity until the larvae pupated and emerged as adults. Percentage
mortality was computed from the number of larvae that failed to develop
into adult flies, and the data were used to compute the LCso's and LCgo's.

RESULTS

The results of the field test are presented in Table 1. Of the 19 com-
pounds tested, 7 were effective for 1 day and 4 were effective for 5 days.
At the 7th day, reduction from the wettable powder suspensions of Bay
62863 and Shell SD-8447 and an emulsion of dimethoate was still above 75%
All compounds were ineffective the 9th day. Calcium arsenate, which
was being used by personnel at the poultry farm for larval control
before the test, showed only 27.2% reduction the 1st day after treatment.
This percentage was not much higher than natural reduction in the un-
treated checks (20.3%) the 1st day, but the checks then showed no reduction
during the remainder of the test.
Diazinon, which has been used for several years to control house fly
larvae and which was effective during the early years of its use, gave
57.4% reduction after 1 day. The laboratory comparison of the resistance
of larvae from the field strain with the susceptible laboratory strain is
shown in Table 2. At the LC,5 level, the field strain was 75.6 times
harder to kill than the susceptible strain, and at the LCGo level, it was
120.5 times harder to kill. Thus investigators in various parts of the
country would be well advised to evaluate the resistance in house flies to
chemicals presently recommended for their control.










The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 51, No. 2


TABLE 1.-EFFECTIVENESS OF VARIOUS INSECTICIDES (AT 2 G/M2) AS LARVI-
CIDES IN POULTRY HOUSES (AVERAGE OF 2 REPLICATIONS OF
10 M2).

Pretreatment Percentage reduction
Formu- counts of after indicated days-
Insecticide lation larvae 1 5 7 9
Abate E.C. 1538 48.9
Anthio E.C. 1664 100.0 95.4 71.0
Banol W.P. 1620 71.6
Bay 33051 E.C. 1053 34.0
Bay 37344 W.P. 996 89.2 19.9
Bay 39007 W.P. 798 93.3 8.2
Bay 41831 W.P. 1664 0.0
Bay 62863 W.P. 1371 97.7 98.9 79.6 38.6
Bay 77488 E.C. 973 46.0
Bay 78182 E.C. 1104 34.6
Calcium arsenate W.P. 1307 27.2
Coumaphos E.C. 1040 60.7
Diazinon E.C. 1413 57.4
Dimethoate E.C. 1155 100.0 88.3 80.5 0.0
W.P. 1116 99.8 67.7
Dursban W.P. 1100 49.1
Hooker HRS-1422 W.P. 2021 33.8
Montecatini L-561 E.C. 1184 41.5
W.P. 1121 47.8
Neopynamin E.C. 1599 53.3
Shell SD-8447 W.P. 1791 99.6 92.0 84.2 47.9
None (check) 908 20.3 0.0 '0.0 0.0


TABLE 2.-RESISTANCE OF A FIELD STRAIN OF HOUSE FLIES TO DIAZINON
COMPARED WITH THAT OF THE ORLANDO REGULAR (SUSCEPTIBLE)
STRAIN (AVERAGE OF 2 REPLICATIONS OF 50 LARVAE EACH PER
CONCENTRATION).

LC50 LCgo
Mg/g Ratio to Mg/g Ratio to
Colony medium Regular medium Regular


Field strain
Orlando regular
(susceptible) strain


0.378


75.6


2.650
.022


120.5


LITERATURE CITED

Brady, U. E., Jr., and G. C. LaBrecque. 1966. Larvicides for the control
of house flies in poultry houses. J. Econ. Entomol. 59: 1521.
LaBrecque, G. C., and H. G. Wilson. 1957. House fly resistance to
organophosphorus compounds. Agr. Chem. 12(9): 46-47, 147, 149.
Morgan, P. B., G. C. LaBrecque, and H. G. Wilson. 1966. Tests with


110







Bailey: House Fly Control with Larvicides


larvicides for the control of house flies, Musca domestic (Dip-
tera: Muscidae), in poultry houses. Fla. Entomol. 49: 91-93.
Wilson, H. G., and J. B. Gahan. 1957. Control of house fly larvae in
poultry houses. J. Econ. Entomol. 50: 613-614.
Wilson, H. G., and G. C. LaBrecque. 1958. Tests with organophosphorus
compounds as house fly larvicides in poultry houses. Fla. Entomol.
41: 5-7.
Wilson, H. G., and G. C. LaBrecque. 1960. Tests with larvicides for the
control of house flies in poultry houses. Fla. Entomol. 43: 19-21.
The Florida Entomologist 51(2) 1968


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HOST PLANTS OF SIXTEEN APHIDS FROM
BANANA PLANTATIONS IN HONDURAS

CARLOS EVERS
Division of Tropical Research, Tela Railroad Company'
La Lima, Honduras, C. A.

ABSTRACT
The ground cover plants in banana plantations of the Ulua Valley in
northern Honduras were examined for aphids, particularly Aphis gossypii
Glover, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), and Myzus persicae (Sulzer)
which have vectored a virus disease of bananas experimentally. In addi-
tion, the following aphids were found: Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe,
A. craccivora Koch, A. spiraecola Patch, A. coreopsidis Thomas, A. illinoisen-
sis Shimer, Toxoptera aurantii (Fonscolombe), Tetraneura hirsuta (Baker),
Capitophorus eleagni (Del Guercio), Hysteroneura setariae (Thomas),
Hyadaphis pseudobrassicae (Davis), Tinocallis kahawaluokalani (Kirk-
aldy), Dactynotus verbesinae (Boudreaux), and Pentalonia nigronervosa
(Coquerel). The host plants and the place on the plant where the aphids
were found are listed under each aphid species.


In 1955, Dr. C. W. Wardlaw found a virus disease in commercially
grown Giant Cavendish bananas in the Aguan River Valley near La Ceiba,
Honduras. By 1957 the virus, infectious chlorosis, began to appear in
Gros Michel bananas in plantations in the Ulua Valley over 100 miles
from the first discovery. The virus was transmitted between bananas
experimentally by Aphis gossypii Glover, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), R.
maidis (Fitch), Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and Acyrthosiphom pisum (Har-
ris) (Waite 1960). In addition, the virus produces mosaic symptoms on
Physalis sp., Isotoma longiflora (L.) Presl., Ricinus communis L.,, Cucumis
sp., Cucurbita sp., Crotalaria sp., and Pueraria sp., plants found in or near
banana plantations.
In 1961, an outbreak of infectious chlorosis prompted a study to
determine all the aphid species and their host plants in banana farms.
This study was begun by Dr. E. R. Willis now at Illinois State Normal
University, Normal, Illinois. The host plants were determined by Mr. J.
D. Dickson, Division of Tropical Research, La Lima, Honduras. The
aphids were identified by Miss L. Russell, USDA Entomology Research
Division at Washington, D. C., Dr. M. E. McGillivray, Can. Dep. Agr.,
Fredericton, N. B., Dr. Clyde F. Smith, N. Carolina State College,
Raleigh, N. C., and Dr. J. O. Pepper, The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, Pa.
METHODS

The banana farms surveyed were situated along the Comayagua, Ulua,
and Chamelecon Rivers, north and south of La Lima, Cortes, Honduras.
The area is approximately 40 miles long and 5 to 10 miles wide.
The plants in 14 2-acre stations were examined for aphids every
month for one year, then at intervals when time permitted. All aphids


1 A subsidiary of United Fruit Company










The Florida Entomologist


collected were preserved in alcohol. There was no definite system of
plant inspection. Usually a team of three surveyors worked in each
station for approximately one hour. Every plant encountered was ex-
amined. Specimens of plants hosting aphids were collected in plastic
bags and identified.
There are undoubtedly more aphid species and host plants still to be
collected in the banana plantations. In fact, five unidentified aphids were
collected in addition to those presented below. The aphids are listed in
order of approximate abundance, the most frequently found aphids listed
first. Where possible, the common and scientific names follow the approved
list of the Entomological Society of America.

HOST PLANTS OF APHIDS2

Aphis gossypii Glover, the cotton or melon aphid


Acanthaceae-acanthus family
Blechum pyramidatum (Lam.) Urban

Apocynaceae-dogbane family
Rauwolfia tetraphylla L.
Araceae-arum family
Xanthosoma roseum Schott
Aristolochiaceae-birthworth family
Aristolochia grandiflora Sw.

Bombacaceae-bombax family
Hampae stipitata Wats.
Boraginaceae-borage family
Cordia dentata Poiret
Compositae-composite family
Ageratum conyzoides L.
Baltimora recta L.
Chaptalia nutans (L.) Polak.
Erechitites hieraciifolia (L.) Raf.
Gynura aurantiaca (Blume) D. C.
Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
Cucurbitaceae-gourd family
Cucumis sativus L.
Momordica Charantia L.

Euphorbiaceae-spurge family
Acalypha Wilkesiana Muell. Arg.
Labiatae-mint family
Teucrium inflatum Sw.
Malvaceae-mallow family
Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis L.


On stems and underside of
leaves





Behind open flowers and under-
side of leaves.














Terminal stems, runners and
tender leaves.





Unopened flowers


2Unless otherwise noted, the aphids were found on the underside of
leaves.


114


Vol. 51, No. 2











Evers: Hosts of Aphids in Honduras


Malachra fasciata Jacq.
Sida acuta Burm.
Moraceae-mulberry family
Cecropia hondurensis Standl.
Musaceae-banana family
Musa sapientum L.

Piperaceae-pepper family
Piper sp.
Portulacaceae-purslane family
Portulaca oleraceae L.
Rubiaceae-madder family
Hamelia patens Jacq.
Ixora coccinea L.
Solanaceae-nightshade family
Capsicum annum L.
Solanum hirtum Vahl.
Solanum nigrum L.
Solanum sp.
Solanum verbascifolium L.
Sterculiaceae-sterculia family
Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.
Urticaceae-nettle family
Urera sp.
Verbenaceae-vervain family
Priva lappulacea (L.) Pers.
Unidentified Hosts
A broadleaf plant
A broadleaf plant


Underside of upper leaves.



Underside of lower leaves on
young plants.




















Underside of lower leaves.


On terminal stems and underside
of leaves.


Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), the corn leaf aphid


Boraginaceae
Cordia dentata Poiret

Gramineae-grass family
Holcus sorghum L.
Ixophorus unisetus (Presl) Schlecht.
Panicum barbinode Trin.
Panicum maximum Jacq.
Pennisetum purpureum Shumacher
Zea mays L.

Unidentified grass
Unidentified grass


Young shoots on a stump in
corn patch.

Central furled leaf.
Central furled leaf.
Central furled leaf.

Central furled leaf.
Tassel, central furled leaf on
young plants.
Central unfurled leaf.
Central unfurled leaf.


Aphis illinoisensis Shimer, the grapevine aphid

Vitaceae-vine family
Vitis tiliaefolia Humb. & Bonpl.


115











The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 51, No. 2


Cisus sicyoides L.
Unknown Hosts
An unidentified vine

Capitophorus elaeagni (Del Guercio)

Compositae
Cirsium costaricense (Polak.) Petrak.

Tetraneura hirsuta (Baker)


Gramineae
Ixophorus unisetus (Presl) Schlecht.
Panicum barbinode Trin.
Paspalum fasciculatum Sw.
Setaria geniculata (Lam.) Beauv.
Unidentified grass


On root
On root
On root
On root
On root


near
near
near
near
near


crown.
crown.
crown.
crown.
crown.


Aphis coreopsidis (Thomas)


Compositae
Bidens pilosa L.


Chaptalia nutans (L.) Polak.
Vernonia scorpioides (Lam.) Pers.


Underside of upper leaves,
at base of young leaves and
terminal stems and flowers.


Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, the oleander and milkweed aphid

Asclepiadaceae-milkweed family
Asclepias curassavica L. On flowers and slender branches
and underside of leaves.
Cynanchum rensoni (Pittier) Woodson On terminal stems and under-
side of leaves.
Funastrum clausum (Jac.) Schlechter. On stems and underside of
leaves.
Verbenaceae
Priva lappulacea (L.) Pers.


Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel, the banana aphid


Aracea
Xanthosoma roseum Schott

Musaceae
Heliconia latispatha Benth.

Musa sapientum L.


Within unfurled leaves and at
base.

At leaves' bases near base of
plant.
At leaves' bases on young
plants.


116











Evers: Hosts of Aphids in Honduras

Aphis craccivora Koch, the cowpea aphid

Leguminosae-pulse family
Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud.
Vigna sinensis (L.) Endl.
Zygophyllaceae-caltrop family
Kallstroemia maxima (L.) Torr. & Gray

Toxoptera aurantii (Fonscolombe), the black citrus aphid


Euphorbiaceae
Acalipha Wilkesiana Muell. Arg.
Piperaceae
Piper tuberculatum Jacq.
Rubiaceae
Ixora coccinea L.
Rutaceae-rue family
Citrus Limonia Osbeck.
Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack.


Underside of young leaves.
Underside of young leaves.


Aphis spiraecola Patch, the spirea aphid

Asclepiadaceae
Cynanchum rensoni (Pittier) Woodson On terminal stems
Rubiaceae
Hamelia patens Jacq.
Rutaceae
Citrus sinensis Osbeck.

Tinocallis kahawaluokalani Kirkaldy

Lythraceae-loosestrife family
Lagerstromia indica L.

Myzus persicae (Sulzer), the green peach aphid


Araceae
Xanthosoma roseum Schott.
Aristolochiaceae
Aristolochia grandiflora Sw.


Leaves' bases.

Underside of leaves, and
behind flowers.


Cruciferae-mustard family
Brassica oleracea botrytis D. C.
Brassica oleracea var. acephala D. C.

Hyadaphis pseudobrassicae (Davis)

Cruciferae
Brassica oleracea var.
Raphanus sativus L.


117










118 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 51, No. 2

Hysteroneura setaria (Thomas), the rusty plum aphid

Gramineae
Unidentified grass Underside of top leaves and
on spikes.
Zea mays L. Underside of top leaves.

Dactynotus verbesinae (Boudreaux)

Compositae
Verbesina myriocephala Sch. Bip.

LITERATURE CITED

Blickenstaf, C. C. 1965. Common names of insects approved by the
Entomological Society of America. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 11
(4) : 287-320.
Cottier, W. 1953. Aphids of New Zealand. N. Z. Dep. Sci. and Indust.
Res. Bull. 106:179.
Johnston, M. I. 1947. Flora of Trinidad and Tobago. Trin. and Tobago
Dep. Agr. 2(3): 197 p.
Palmer, A. M. 1952. Aphids of the Rocky Mountain region. Thomas
Say Found. 5:149.
Patch, M. E. 1937. Food-plant catalogue of the aphids of the world.
Maine Agr. Exp. Sta., Orono. Bull. 393. 430 p.
Standley, C. P. 1928. Flora of Panama Canal Zone. Bull. Smith. Inst.,
U. S. Nat. Mus. Wash. D. C. 27. 281 p.
Standley, C. P. 1931. Flora of the Lancetilla Valley, Honduras. Field
Mus. Nat. Hist., Chicago. 418 p.
Standley, C. P. 1937. Flora of Costa Rica. Field Mus. Nat. Hist.,
Chicago. 17(1). 88 p.
Waite, B. H. 1960. Virus diseases of bananas in Central America. Proc.
Carib. Reg. Amer. Soc. Agr. Sci. 4:26-29.

The Florida Entomologist 51(2) 1968













PSEUDOPARASITUS THATCHERI N. SP. (ACARINA:
DERMANYSSIDAE, LAELAPINAE) ASSOCIATED
WITH SOUTHERN PINE BEETLES1

PRESTON E. HUNTER AND JOHN C. MOSER
Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Athens, and
Southern Forest Experiment Station, Forest Service, USDA
Alexandria, La., respectively.

ABSTRACT

Adults and nymphal stages of Pseudoparasitus thatcheri n. sp., a mite
associated with beetles occurring under bark of southern pine trees in
Louisiana are described. Generic placement of the species is discussed.


At present authors disagree on the generic limits of Pseudoparasitus.
The species described here shows characters of both Pseudoparasitus and
Hypoaspis, as defined by Evans and Till (1966). Evans and Till would
exclude it from Pseudoparasitus for the following characters: apotele
2-tined; tectum smooth; podal plate not strongly enlarged posterior to
coxa IV; para-anals not at anterior level of anal opening; and seta av1 on
femur II not spinelike in the female or spurlike in the male. Hunter
(1966) broadens Pseudoparasitus to include some species from the Nearc-
tic area which have podal plates not strongly developed, para-anals not
at the anterior level of the anal opening, and seta av, not spinelike in the
female. A study of material from other areas of the world is needed to
determine if these characters are variable in this genus. We have chosen
to place the species described below in Pseudoparasitus.

Pseudoparasitus thatcheri n. sp.
(Fig. 1 and 2)

DIAGNOSIS: Adults and nymphs with some whiplike setae arising from
dorsum of genu, tibia, and tarsus of legs III and IV; posterior pair of
ventral body setae (Jv5) longer than other ventral setae; setae Z5 about
as long as Jv5; all setae simple. Movable chela of adults with a single
tooth; leg II unarmed in both sexes. Apotele 2-tined.
FEMALE: Idiosoma oval, evenly rounded anteriorly and posteriorly,
527p long, 333u wide. Dorsum. Covered by single plate which extends
ventrally; opisthonotal region with scalelike reticulations, pronotal area
with reticulations along lateral margins only; with 39 pairs of simple
needlelike setae arranged as shown (Fig. 1A); posterior marginal setae
longest, Z5 up to 77, long. Venter. (Fig. 1B). Tritosternum with base
and 2 pilose lacinae. Pre-endopodal plates conspicuous, anterior margin
of each semi-sclerotized. Sternal plate 109lO long, 88g at narrowest
width between coxae II; bearing 3 pairs of simple setae and 2 pairs of

1 University of Georgia College of Avricultrre Experiment Station,
Journal Series Paper No. 128, College Station, Athens.










The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 51, No. 2


Fig. 1. Pseudoparasitus thatcheri n. sp. Female: A, dorsum; B,
venter; C, chelicera.

pores; reticulations as illustrated. Metasternal seta arising from integu-
ment medial of endopodal plate. Genito-ventral plate flask-shaped, ex-
panding behind coxae IV, posterior margin truncate; plate 257U long
from posterior margin of sternal plate, 171A at greatest width; bearing
4 pairs of needlelike setae; setae Zvl, Jvl, and Jv2 on plate and medial
of lateral margin of plate (in some specimens one or both Jv2 setae off
plate) ; reticulations as shown. Anal plate 68u long, 931 wide, anterior
margin slightly convex; para-anals longer than post-anal, positions as
illustrated; reticulations not strongly developed. Number and relative
lengths of opisthogaster setae as shown, seta Jv5 conspicuously longer
than other ventral setae. Metapodal plates as shown. Peritremal plate
widest at level between coxae II and III; fused to dorsal plate anteriorly,
free posteriorly. Exopodal plates as shown; slightly enlarged area pos-
terior to coxa IV not as strongly sclerotized as remainder of plate. Legs.
All setae smooth; dorsum of tarsus, tibia, and genu of legs III and IV,
and femur and tarsus of leg II each with 1-2 whiplike setae; ventrally
tarsi II and IV with some setae stout basally with fine tips; femur II
with seta av1 only slightly stouter than other setae of that segment, not
spinelike. Lengths, including claw and coxa, as follows: I, 4861; II, 368g;
III, 354/; and IV, 485p. Gnathosoma. Deutosternal groove with 6 rows
of teeth, 2-5 teeth/row. Internal malae with median fingerlike anterior
extension and similar but shorter lateral extension. Chelicerae chelate
(Fig. 1C), movable digit with 1 tooth (true of all specimens), fixed digit


120









Hunter: Pseudoparasitus thatcheri n. sp.


margin smooth or with few small serrations. Apotele 2-tined.










MALE: Idiosoma 392 long, 243 wide, shape as in female. Dorsum.























Chaetotaxy and general appearance as in female. Venter. (Fig. 2A).
C V. ,-

I/ \-f

























with 4 teeth; plus dentilis small, setiform. Tectum rounded anteriorly,
margin smooth or with few small serrations. Apotele 2-tined.
MALE: Idiosoma 392g long, 243,u wide, shape as in female. Dorsum.
Chaetotaxy and general appearance as in female. Venter. (Fig. 2A).
Holoventral plate 321, long, 71 at narrowest width between coxae II,
166g at greatest width behind coxae IV; bearing 10 pairs of setae plus
the post-anal seta; reticulations as illustrated; exopodal plate IV and part
of III fused to holoventral, anterior exopodal plate free as shown. Pre-
sternal plates not as heavily sclerotized as in female. Peri-
tremal plate free posteriorly. Three pairs of setae arising from integu-
ment in opisthogaster area, posterior pair (Jv5) long. Legs. Chaetotaxy










122 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 51, No. 2

as in female; leg II without spur or heavy spinelike setae on femur and
genu. Length, including claw and coxa: I, 404,/; II, 301u; III, 289/; and
IV, 392u. Gnathosoma. General features as in female. Movable digit of
chelicera with 1 tooth, fixed digit with 2 teeth, one of which is partially
divided, and a setiform pilus dentilis; spermadactyl grooved, directed
anteriorly (Fig. 2B).
DEUTONYMPH: (Fig. 2C). Idiosomal shape as in female. Dorsum.
Dorsal plate partially divided; 383, long, 216A wide; anterior half of
plate bearing 22 pairs of setae setaa s6 missing from female chaetotaxic
pattern); setae R1-R7 arising from integument; Z5 up to 78, long.
Venter. Sternal plate 210p long, 90A at greatest width, bearing 4 pairs
of setae and 2 pairs of pores. Integument bearing 9 pairs of setae pos-
terior of sternal plate; seta Jv5 long. Anal plate 58g long, 65t wide;
para-anal setae twice as long as post-anal seta. Peritreme not sur-
rounded by distinct plate. Exopodal plates absent. Legs. Chaetotaxy and
comparative setal lengths as in female. Lengths, including claw and
coxa: I, 400%; II, 300~; III, 295g; and IV, 390/. Gnathosoma. General
features as in female.
PROTONYMPH: (Fig. 2D). Dorsum. Anterior plate 190% long, 170u
wide; bearing 11 pairs of setae. Posterior plate 75u long, 130a wide;
with 8 pairs of setae, posterior pair (Z5) up to 60, long, lengths and
positions of other setae as shown. Integument bearing 11 pairs of setae;
4 platelets between anterior and posterior plates. Venter. Sternal plate
150% long, 80/ wide, with 3 pairs of setae and 2 pairs of pores. Tritoster-
num as shown. Anal plate 40, long, 50A wide. Integument bearing 5
pairs of setae posterior of sternal plate, posterior pair (Jv5) 2-3 times as
long as other ventral setae. Peritreme reaching to middle of coxae III;
peritremal plate absent. Legs. General chaetotaxy as shown; all setae
simple, 1 or more whiplike setae arising from dorsum of tarsi, tibiae,
and genua II, III, and IV, and femur II. Lengths, including claw and
coxa: I, 360%; II, 270%; III, 270L; IV, 330t. Gnathosoma. Chaetotaxy
as shown; deutosternal groove similar to that of female.
Description and measurements based on a series of 5 females, 5 males,
3 deutonymphs, and 1 protonymph. Holotype (female) data: in boring
dust from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) containing Dendroctonus fronta-
lis Zimm. and wood borers; 16 June 1966: John Moser, coll.; Elizabeth,
Louisiana. Data for all slides same as for holotype. Holotype, male
and d-utonymph paratypes deposited in U. S. National Museum, Washing-
ton, D. C. Remaining specimens (paratypes) deposited with Department
of Entomology, University of Georgia, Athens.
P. thatcheri was discovered as a part of a larger study by R. C. Thatcher
(for whom the mite is named) to determine the seasonal variations in
activity of Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm. in Pinus taeda L. at Elizabeth,
Louisiana. This investigation was similar to another in east Texas
(Thatcher and Pickard, 1964).
Between 1 January 1966, and 17 April 1967, bolts were cut from trees
every 2 weeks at various heights of infestation, and the bark beetle
galleries examined for mites. When all beetles had emerged (about 30
days after the bolts were cut) galleries were again investigated, as well
as the boring dust.









Hunter: Pseudoparasitus thatcheri n. sp.


During the 16-month period, P. thatcheri was found 6 times in bolts
cut 16 May, 30 May, 14 June, 26 July, 5 September and 3 October at
heights of 16, 34, and 51 feet. Relative abundance was infrequent 4 times,
common once, and rare once. Adults were always seen, and occasionally
nymphs and larvae were collected. The mite was found only after beetles
had emerged from bolts, and usually was present in dry boring dust.
D. frontalis and cerambycid(s) infested trees on all 6 dates, but Ips
spp. on only 3 dates. Hence the former appear to be more likely carriers.
The species was always in association with 6 to 20 other species of mites.
No observations were made on its feeding habits.

LITERATURE CITED
Evans, G. 0. and W. M. Till. 1966. Studies on the British Dermanyssidae
(Acari: Mesostigmata). Part II. Classification. Brit. Mus. (Natur.
Hist.) Zool. Bull. 14: 109-370.
Hunter, P. E. 1966. Some mites of the genus Pseudoparasitus Oudemans,
1902 (Acarina: Laelaptidae). J. Georgia Entomol. Soc. 1(3): 1-20.
Thatcher, R. C. and L. S. Pickard. 1964. Seasonal variations in activity
of the southern pine beetle in East Texas. J. Econ. Entomol.
57: 840-842.

The Florida Entomologist 51(2) 1968







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Phone 295-0451










124 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 51, No. 2

PRINCIPLES OF INSECT PATHOLOGY. Edward A. Steinhaus (University of
California, Irvine, California). Reprint of 1949 edition. Hafner
Publishing Company, New York and London. 1967. 757 pp. $15.75.

It is of interest that this fine text has been reprinted in its original state
and is again available. The Hafner Publishing Company, by providing a
new source for this book, demonstrates a concern for the continued demand
for comprehensive literature in the field of insect pathology. The original
edition, printed in 1949 by another publisher, was the first book in English
to assemble and review the widely scattered literature on the subject.
The introductory chapter of the book outlines the relation of insect
pathology to other branches of entomology, briefly reviews the historical
aspects, and discusses techniques. Chapters 2 and 3 consider the effects of
mechanical, physical, and chemical injuries and abnormalities due to nu-
trition and metabolism. An 83 page discussion of the intracellular and
extracellular microbiota of healthy insects is followed by chapters dealing
with epizootiology, resistance, and immunity. Chapter 8, devoted to symp-
toms and pathologies of various types of infections, is especially useful as
a reference for those not trained in pathology who occasionally observe
diseased insects in field collections.
Chapters 9 through 13 deal with diseases caused by bacteria, fungi,
viruses, protozoa, and nematodes, respectively. As would be expected, these
chapters comprise the major portion of the book and provide excellent sum-
maries and discussions of work in these areas to the time of first publica-
tion. The final chapter covers applied insect pathology and biological con-
trol. References are given at the end of each chapter, and an 8-page
author index is included just before the complete subject index.
A more recent two-volume advanced treatise on insect pathology edited
by the same author covers the basic studies in more detail and presents new
areas of research. This tremendous proliferation of studies in insect path-
ology may explain why the book in review is still so necessary as a standard
text and reference. It will continue to be useful to entomologists, micro-
biologists, and all those who want fundamental information about this rela-
tively new science. Hopefully, the present review will serve as a recom-
mendation for its use by those unacquainted with its contents.

R. E. Lowe
Entomology Research Division
ARS-USDA
Gainesville, Florida













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Broce, Alberto B., P. O. Box 12887, University Station, Gainesville, Fla.
32601
Brogdon, James E., 324 N.W. 30th St., Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Brooks, Robert F., Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, Fla. 33850










126 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 51, No. 2

Brooks, Troy, CIBA Corp., P. O. Box 1105, Vero Beach, Fla. 32960
Brown, Arthur C., 2700 N.W. 4th Place, Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Brown, Rue L., Box 369, Fort Pierce, Fla. 33450
Bryans, Thomas G., P. O. Box 2530, Managua, Nicaragua
Buff, John C., 6234 S.W. 57 Drive, South Miami, Fla. 33143
Bullock, Robert C., 1706 Wyoming Ave., Fort Pierce, Fla. 33450
Burden, George S., ARS-USDA, P. O. Box 1268, Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Burditt, Arthur K., Jr., 4413 Tonquil St., Beltsville, Maryland 20705
Burger, Sanford J., 275 S.W. 6th St., Miami, Fla. 33130
Butcher, F. Gray, Dept. Biology, Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, Fla. 33124
Butler, Linda, Dept. of Entomol. Univ. of Georgia, Athens, Ga. 30601

Caid, Russell D., United Fruit Company, La Lima, Honduras, C.A.
Callaway, W. J., P. O. Box 310, Marianna, Florida 32446
Calvo, Jose R., 200 0. Y. 250 N. de Jefatura, San Juan Tibas, Costa Rica,
C.A.
Cannarozzi, Patrick, 1031 N. E. 8th Ave., Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Cantrall, Irving J., 1531 Las Vegas, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48103
Carpenter, Thomas L., South Bay Growers Co-op, South Bay, Fla. 33493
Chellman, C. W., 2516 Lake Shore Drive, Tallahassee, Fla. 32303
Chiu, Yann Jee, Dept. of Entomol. Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Christie, James R., 8311 San Lando Ave., Jacksonville, Fla. 32211
Chubb, Henry S., 2447 N. Dean Road, Orlando, Fla. 32807
Clark, Harvey R., 2204 Boulevard, Jacksonville, Fla. 32206
Clark, Philip H., 414 N.W. 36 Terrace, Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Clements, F. Peter, 1507 South Andrews Ave., Fort Lauderdale, Fla. 33316
Clements, W. B., 211 N. W. 12th St., Leesburg, Fla. 32748
Cline, Larry Daniel, 304 Woodley Rd., Savannah, Georgia 31406
Cohee, P. R., P. O. Box 8856, Orlando, Fla. 32806
Collier, Barret L., 801 West Fairbanks Ave., Winter Park, Fla. 32789
Connell, James R., P. O. Box 1192, Winter Park, Fla. 32789
Conroy, William J., 15 N. Federal Hwy., Pompano Beach, Fla. 33062
Cooksey, Jennings B., 3425 Cesery Blvd., Jacksonville, Fla. 32211
Corlazzoli, Arthur B., 10760 S.W. 3 St., Miami, Fla. 33144
Counselman, James C., CIBA Corp., P. O. Box 1105, Vero Beach, Fla.
32960
Crawford, Harvey J., P. O. Box 4886, Patrick AFB, Fla. 32925
Creamer, Harold S., 30200 S.W. 172 Court, Homestead, Fla. 33030
Crossman, Roy A., Jr., Bur. of Entomol. P. O. Box 944, Winter Haven,
Fla. 33880
Curran, C. H., 1302 Peters Drive, Leesburg, Fla. 32748

Dakin, Matt E., Box 1435, USL, Lafayette, Louisiana 70501
Dale, John W., College of Forestry, Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83843
Dame, David A., c/o American Consulate, AIBA 4 ARS, Salisbury, Rhodesia
Davis, John W., 403 W. Kentucky St., Tavares, Fla. 32778
Davis, Leland A., 294 N.W. 10th Ct., Boca Raton, Fla. 33432
Davis, L. E., 1267 N. Highland Ave., Clearwater, Fla. 33514
Davis, Robert, Dept. of Entomol., University of Ga., Athens, Georgia
30601
DeBarr, Gary L., S.E. Forest Exp. Station, Box No. 3, Olustee, Fla. 32055










Membership List


127


Decker, George C., 6040 S.W. 29th St., Miami, Fla. 33155
Dekle, G. W., Div. of Plant Industry, P. O. Box 1269, Gainesville, Fla.
32601
DeNeve, Robert T., Dept. of Entomol., Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla.
32601
Denmark, H. A., Div. of Plant Industry, P. O. Box 1269, Gainesville, Fla.
32601
Desin, George W., P. O. Box 1744, Sanford, Fla. 32771
Dianous, Gabriel de Jr., 514 Fourth St., Lake Park, Florida 33403
Dicke, Ferdinand F., Pioneer Hi-Bred Corn Co., Johnston, Iowa 50131
Dickens, Timothy H., Dept. of Entomol., Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla.
32601
Diem, John J., P. O. Box 324, Palmetto, Fla. 33561
Dixon, R. Earl, Peninsular Pest Control Serv., P. O. Box F, W. Bay
Annex, Jacksonville, Fla. 32203
Dobrovsky, T. M., 295 St. George St., St. Augustine, Fla. 32084
Dohner, Luke D., 6610 Pine Tree Circle, West Palm Beach, Fla.
Donaldson, Fred S., 1216 E. Colonial Dr., Orlando, Fla. 32803
Donnelly, Thomas W., Dept. of Geology, St. Univ. of N.Y., Binghamton,
N.Y. 13901
Douthit, Pete, c/o Farm Supply Inc., P. O. Box 319, Princeton, Fla. 33171
Dowling, Curtis F., Jr., 11545 S.W. 107 Court, Miami, Fla. 33156
Dozier, Byrd K., 32 Corydon Drive, Miami Springs, Fla. 33166
DuChanois, F. Robert, Bureau of Entomol., Fla. St. Bd. of Health, Jack-
sonville, Fla. 32201


Eden, William G., Dept. of Entomol., Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Eisman, Michael H., 1225 Lenox Ave., Miami Beach, Fla. 33139
Ellis, Leslie L., Box 875, State College, Mississippi 39762
Emerson, K. C., 2704 North Kensington St., Arlington, Virginia 22207
Eron, Robert E., P. O. Box 7412, St. Petersburg, Fla. 33734
Eyer, John R., 1112 N. Canal St., Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220
Evers, Carlos, Div. of Trop. Res., Vining C. Dunlap Lab., Tela Railroad
Co., La Lima, Honduras, Central America


Fagan, Brad, Dept. of Entomol., Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Fairchild, G. B., Gorgas Memorial Lab., Box 42, Balboa Heights, Canal
Zone
Farnworth, Edward G., Dept. of Entomol., Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla.
32601
Fatzinger, Carl W., 650 Cir. Dr., Lake City, Fla. 32055
Federici, Brian, Dept. of Entomol., Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Fichter, George S., P. O. Box 1368, Homestead, Fla. 33030
Field, Howard M., 910 Clearview, Lakeland, Fla. 33801
Fifield, Willard M., 519 N.E. First St., Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Flavin, James P., 2462 Falmouth Road, Maitland, Fla. 32751
Flint, Hollis M., Metabolism and Radiation Res. Lab., State Univ. Station,
Fargo, North Dakota 58102
Formichella, F. J., 8011 S.W. 18 Terr., Miami, Fla. 33155
Frazier, Warren, 7036 Green Fern Lane, Jacksonville, Fla. 32211










The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 51, No. 2


Frierson, Paul E., Div. of Plant Industry, P. O. Box 1269, Gainesville,
Fla. 32601
Frost, S. W., 465 Foster Street, State College Pennsylvania 16801

Gahan, J. B., ARS-USDA, P. O. Box 1268, Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Geary, Robert, Box 1149, Vero Beach, Fla. 32960
Gentry, Cecil R., P. O. Box 549, Quincy, Fla. 32351
Genung, W. G., Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, Fla. 33430
Gibson, Kenneth E., US/AID Agricultural Division, APO New York 09675
Gifford, James R., Dept. of Entomol., LSU Agric. Exp. Sta., Baton Rouge,
La. 70803
Gilbert, I. H., 218 N. W. 30th St., Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Glancey, B. Michael, 3002 N.E. 14th St., Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Goggans, R. P., 725 Ave. F, S.E. Winter Haven, Fla. 33880
Goldman, Leonard J., Dept. of Entomol., Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla.
32601
Goode, J. P., P. O. Box 7067, Orlando, Fla. 32804
Gouck, Harry K., ARS-USDA, P. O. Box 1268, Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Gouger, Richard, Dept. of Entomol., Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Greene, Gerald L., P. O. Box 909, Sanford, Fla. 32771
Gresham, Bill B., Box 2468 Sta. B., Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, Tennessee
87203
Gresham, W. B., Jr., 202 N. Dale Mabry, Tampa, Fla. 33609
Griffith, Bruce, Jr., 16705 S.W. 301 St., Homestead, Fla. 33030
Griffiths, J. T., Rt. 1, Box 655, Winter Haven, Fla. 33880
Gross, Joseph, Rt. 1, Box 252, Odessa, Fla. 33556
Gruis, Jake, 572 N. Central, Apopka, Fla. 32703
Gurney, A. B., Div. of Insects., US Nat. Museum, Washington, D. C. 20506

Habeck Dale H., Dept. of Entomol., Fla. Agric. Exp. Sta., Gainesville,
Fla. 32601
Hall, Charles W., P. O. Box 1713, Jacksonville, Fla. 32201
Hancock, Robert E., 1443 Fisher Lane, Tallahassee, Fla. 32301
Harrington, Don G., 502 Hyde Park, Richardson, Texas 75080
Harris, Emmett D., Jr., Ext. Entomol. Dept., Univ. of Ga., Athens, Ga.
30601
Harris, Kerry F., 1568-J. Spartan Village, East Lansing, Michigan 48823
Harris, Pat, Box 1709, Jacksonville, Fla. 32201
Haynie, J. D., Fla. Agr. Ext. Service, Univ. Fla., Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Hayslip, Norman C., P. O. Box 248, Ft. Pierce, Fla. 33450
Hazard, Edwin I., 1920 N.W. 7th Place, Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Heidt, James H., 965 N.E. 138th St., North Miami, Fla. 33161
Heitzman, John R., 3112 Harris Ave., Independence, Missouri 64052
Heller, Jack, Dept. of Entomol., Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Hepner, L. W., 617 University Drive, Starville, Mississippi 39759
Hetrick, L. A., Dept. of Entomol., Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Hill, Charles C., 13025 N.W. 21 Ave., Miami, Fla. 33167
Hill, Lester B., P. O. Box 551, Largo, Fla. 33540
Hill, Russell E., Apt. 7K 87 70 173rd St., Jamaica, N. Y. 11432
Hill, Sam. O., USDA, PPCD, P. 0. Box 989, Gulfport, Mississippi 39501
Hilton, Harry O., P. O. Box 144, Shalimar, Fla. 32597


128










Membership List 129

Hoelscher, Clifford E., P. O. Drawer E. M., State College, Mississippi 39762
Holley, Lewis W., P. O. Box 295, Tavares, Fla. 32778
Holtsberg, Harold I., 1908 Oleander Blvd., Fort Pierce, Fla. 33450
Howell, Charles R., 2118 Jackson Bluff Rd., Apartment 2-C, Tallahassee,
Fla.
Hudson, R. W., 224 East Government St., Pensacola, Fla. 32501
Hughes, Idwal W., P. O. Box 238, Hamilton, Bermuda
Hunt, Paul J., 1719 Cordova Ave., Hollyhill, Fla. 32017
Hunter, Preston E., Dept. of Entomol., Univ. of Georgia, Athens, Georgia
30601
Hunter, William P., 1201 W. Reynolds St., Plant City, Fla. 33566

Jackson, Billy Dean, 2552-2nd St., Apt. 12, Fort Myers, Fla. 33901
Jamieson, Ellery W., 4011 Florida Ave., Tampa, Fla. 33603
James, Melvin J., Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, Fla. 33430
Johnson, F. Clifford, Dept. of Zoology, Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla.
32601
Johnson, Freddie, 1620 N.W. 10th St., Homestead, Fla. 33030
Johnson, Robert T., 10301 S.W. 52nd Terrace, Miami, Fla. 33165
Johnson, Roger B., Box 1177, Lake Alfred, Fla. 33805
Jones, Calvin M., Insectary, Agr. Campus, Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln,
Nebraska 68503
Jones, Halwin L., Div. of Plant Industry, P. O. Box 1269, Gainesville,
Fla. 32601
Josey, Thomas S., P. O. Box 2088, Fort Myers, Fla. 33901

Kaplan, Henry, 6345 S.W. 4th St., Miami, Fla. 33144
Karhan, Frank, 153 N.W. 56th St., Miami, Fla. 33127
Kelsheimer, E. G., Gulf Coast Station, Box 2125 Manatee Station, Braden-
ton, Fla. 33505
Kerr, Stratton H., Dept. of Entomol., Newell Hall, Univ. of Fla., Gaines-
ville, Fla. 32601
Khalaf, Kamil Toma, Loyola University, Dept. of Biology, New Orleans,
Louisiana 70118
Khan, M. A., Dept. Entomol., Miss. State Univ., State College, Miss. 39762
Kimball, Charles P., 7340 Point of Rocks Rd., Sarasota, Fla. 33581
Kime, C. D., P. 0. Box 877, Fort Pierce, Fla. 33450
King, Harold L., P. 0. Box 1171, Sarasota, Fla. 33578
King, John R., 802 Texas Court, Fort Pierce, Fla. 33450
King, W. V., 1336 Seabreeze Ave., Fort Lauderdale, Fla. 33316
Kirchof, G., 1216 E. Colonial Drive, Orlando, Fla. 32803
Knowles, Joseph H., 219-s Flavet III, Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Knutson, Lloyd V., Systematic Entomol. Lab., U. S. National Museum,
Washington, D. C. 20560
Kovitvahdi, Kovit, Dept. of Entomol., Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Kozuchi, G., 5001 N.W. 179 Terr., Opa Locka, Fla. 33054
Kuitert, L. C., Newell Hall, Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla. 32601

LaBrecque, Germain C., 213 N.W. 29th St., Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Laudani, Hamilton, 12802 Sunnybrook Drive, Savannah, Georgia 31406
Lawhorn, Ralph, Union Carbide Corp., 1525 No. Mercy Drive, Orlando, Fla.
Lee, Frank A., Route 4, Box 149-A, Gainesville, Fla. 32601










The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 51, No. 2


Lee, Jim, 902 Main St., Altamonte Springs, Fla. 32701
Leeper, Ray, Apt. 1, 710 Ave. C., Opelika, Alabama 36801
Lesser, Frederick H., P. O. Box 2237, Fort Myers, Fla. 33902
Lewis, Richard L., P. 0. Box 2148, Orlando, Fla. 32802
Lieux, Davidson B., 11000 S.W. 87th Ave., Miami, Fla. 33155
Linkfield, Robert L., 23 Hopatcong Dr., Trenton, N.J. 08638
Lofgren, Clifford S., 1321 N.W. 31st Drive, Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Long, Ray A., 2028 Longwood Road, West Palm Beach, Fla. 33405
Loomis, Harold F., 5355 S.W. 92 St., Miami, Fla. 33156
Lowe, Ronald E., ARS-USDA, P. O. Box 1268, Gainesville, Fla. 32601

McClelland, William, 9803 Forest Grove, Silver Springs, Maryland 20902
McCowan, Vaughan F., 6816 Market St., Upper Darby, Pa. 19082
McCullough, David L., 444 Orleander Way South, St. Petersburg, Fla.
33707
McGuinness, John, 74 South St., St. Augustine, Fla. 32084
McIntyre, A. E. C., P. 0. Box 319, Princeton, Fla. 33171
McKay, Don Neil, 142 174th Terrace Drive, Redington Shores, St. Peters-
burg, Fla. 33708
McPherson, Berton E., 708 N.E. 1st St., Belle Glade, Fla. 33430
Mabry, Paul H., The Kilgore Seed Company, Plant City, Fla. 33566
Magliocco, J., Jr., 703 Nicoma Trail, Maitland, Fla. 32751
Masheswary, N. P., Dept. of Entomol., Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Maietta, Frank A., 17410 N.E. 11th Ave., N. Miami Peach, Fla. 33162
Mangus, Harold R., 5975 S.W. 104 St., Miami, Fla. 33155
Marshall, Clarence W., 2170 Piedmont Road N.W., Atlanta, Georgia 30324
Mason, J. W., 3525 Raymoor Rd., Kensington, Md. 20795
Mather, Bryant, Box 2131, Jackson, Mississippi 39205
Mathews, William H., 5302 Ashmeade Road, Orlando, Fla. 32810
Matta, James F., Dept. of Entomol., McCarty Hall, Univ. of Fla., Gaines-
ville, Fla. 32601
Maxwell, L. S., 6230 Travis Blvd., Tampa, Fla. 33610
Mays, David L., 3927 S.W. 37th St., Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Mead, Frank W., Div. of Plant Industry, P. O. Box 1269, Gainesville,
Fla. 32601
Meadows, Karen E., 1705 Round Pond Ave., Tampa, Fla. 33612
Meifert, David W., ARS-USDA, P. 0. Box 1268, Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Merkel, Edward P., 517 Craig Ave., Lake City, Fla. 32055
Merrill, G. B., 203 N.W. 15th St., Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Messcr, Ancel L., Bay County Pest Control, P. O. Box 9, Lynn Haven,
Fla. 32444
Metz, Robert W., 4679 Middle Ridge Road, Perry, Ohio 44081
Mills, Alfred S., 4771 N.W. 5th St., Miami, Fla. 33126
Milton, James P., P. O. Box 1193, Tavares, Fla. 32778
Minnick, Danny R., 2821 S.W. Archer Road, Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Mitchell, E. R. Entomol. Dept., Ga. Coastal Plain Exp. Sta., Tifton, Ga.
31794
Mockford, Edward L., Dept. of Biology, Illinois State Univ., Normal,
Illinois 61761
Moherck, Emil A., Jr., P. 0. Box 516, Ocoee, Fla. 32761
Morgan, Philip B., ARS-USDA, P. 0. Box 1268, Gainesville, Fla. 32601


130











Membership List


Morman, Paul A., 2120 Camden Road, Orlando, Fla. 32803
Morse, Roger A., Dept. of Entomol., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. 14850
Morton, Henry V., 817 Sarazen Drive, West Palm Beach, Fla. 33406
Mossimino, J. A., Del Monte Corp., P. O. Box 5568, Tampa, Fla. 33605
Mount, Gary A., 1600 S.W. 23rd Drive, Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Muesebeck, C. F. W., Dept. of Entomol., U.S Nat. Museum, Washington,
D. C. 20506
Mulrennan, J. A., State Board of Health, P. O. Box 210, Jacksonville, Fla.
32201
Mulrennan, J. A., Jr., 1122 East Elm Ave., Stillwater, Oklahoma 74074
Muma, Martin H., Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, Fla. 33850
Murphey, Milledge, Jr., Dept. of Entomol., Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla.
32601

Nation, James L., Biology Dept., Flint Hall, Univ. of Fla., Gainesville,
Fla. 32601
Newson, Brent, Route 2, Box 48A, Sanford, Fla. 32771
Nielsson, Richard J., Dept. of Entomol., Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla.
32601
Noegel, Kenneth A., Apt. D, 811 S.W. llth St., Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Nowell, John, 2036 W. Amelia Ave., Orlando, Fla. 32805

O'Brien, Bob, 1661 Huron Trail, Maitland, Fla. 32751
Olinger, Lee D., Leopold Bldg. Suite 217, West Dodge Road, Omaha,
Nebraska 68114
O'Neil, John B., 5107 Azeele St., Tampa, Fla. 33609
O'Rear, William B., 2426 W. Central N.W., Winter Haven, Fla. 33880
Ostmark, H. Eugene, Entomologist, Tela R. R. Company, Research Div.,
La Lima, Honduras, C. A.
Overman, James L., Dept. of Entomol., Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla.
32601

Padgett, Herbert L., P. O. Box 310, Marianna, Fla. 32446
Palmer, Dudley A., 1453 S.W. 20th Ave., Fort Lauderdale, Fla. 33312
Parker, Vernon E., 1019 West Broward Blvd., Fort Lauderdale, Fla. 33312
Patterson, Richard S., 2058 N.W. 7th Place, Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Peele, James H., 602 Simmons, Goldsboro, North Carolina 27530
Peters, William L., Box 111 University P. O., Florida A&M Univ.,
Tallahassee, Fla. 32307
Peterson, Alvah, Ohio State Univ., Dept. of Zoology and Entomol., Colum-
bus, Ohio 43210
Petri, Henry C., 3927 N.W. 35th Ave., Miami, Fla. 33142
Phillips, A. M., P. O. Drawer A, Monticello, Fla. 32344
Pierce, Roger R., P. O. Box 2221, Jacksonville, Fla. 32203
Pitre, Henry N., Dept. of Entomol., Mississippi State Univ., State Col-
lege, Miss. 39762
Porter, John E., U. S. Quarantine Station, 1915 Port Blvd., New Port
of Miami, Miami, Fla. 33132
Pospichal, A. T., Stauffer Chemical Co., P. O. Box 5388, Tampa, Fla. 33605
Poucher, Charles, Route 2, Box 34, Winter Haven, Fla. 33880
Prasad, V., Dept. Biol., Wayne State Univ., Detroit, Mich. 48202
Prince, E. Riley, Jr., 5712 W. Flagler St., Miami, Fla. 33144










132 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 51, No. 2

Provost, M. W., Entomological Research Center, P. O. Box 308, Vero
Beach, Fla. 32960

Ratanaworabhan, Sawart, P. O. Box 14082, Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Rathburn, Carlisle B., Jr., P. O. Box 2326, Panama City, Fla. 32401
Reed, David K., Brown Soft Scale Investigations, USDA, Box 267, Wes-
laco, Texas 78596
Reese, Edward H., P. O. Box 299, Eau Gallie, Fla. 32935
Reese, Leslie B., P. O. Box 299, Eau Gallie, Fla. 32935
Reichart, C. V., Biology Dept., Providence College, Providence, Rhode
Island 02918
Reinhardt, Jack F., 1216 E. Colonial Drive, Orlando, Fla. 32803
Rhoades, W. C., P. O. Box 470, Quincy, Fla. 32351
Riherd, Paul T., Box 247, La Feria, Texas 78559
Ringdahl, James D., 1212 Lake Ave., Lake Worth, Fla. 33460
Roberson, Gordon H., 5920 Jennings Road, Orlando, Fla. 32808
Robinson, Frank A., Dept. of Entomol., Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla.
32601
Rogers, A. J., P. 0. Box 2326, Panama City, Fla. 32401
Rogers, Buel, Fairfield Chemicals, FMC Corp., 1003 Virginia Ave., Suite
211, Hapeville, Georgia 30054
Rowan, Wilford T., 51 E. 56 St., Hialeah, Fla. 33012
Ruff, Joseph P., 1910 S.W. Ave. F., Winter Haven, Fla. 33880
Russell, Charles C., Dept. of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oklahoma State
Univ., Stillwater, Oklahoma 74074
Russell, J. C., P. O. Box 7801, Orlando, Fla. 32804
Samol, H. H., 111 Bond St., Clewiston, Fla. 33440
Sapp, Dempsey R., Florida Pest Control & Chemicals, 20 & 24 N.W.
16th Ave., Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Sapp, Erle Leslie, 2417 Crill Ave., Palatka, Fla. 32077
Scott, Wm. E., 311 Cardena St., Coral Gables, Fla. 33134
Searcy, V. S., P. O. Box 1105, Vero Beach, Fla. 32960
Seiler, Charles E., 208 N.W. Ave. I, Belle Glade, Fla. 33430
Selhime, Allen G., 345 N. Echo Drive, Box 686, Lake Alfred, Fla. 33850
Sequeira, Julio F., Minis. de Agric., Apartado Postal 188, Managua,
Nicaragua
Shepard, C. E., Div. of Plant Industry, P. O. Box 1269, Gainesville, Fla.
32601
Shields, S. E., 2241 Saul Drive, Jacksonville, Fla. 32216
Shinholser, James F., 1101 Hardy Drive, Tampa, Fla. 33612
Shuler, Jack, 110 N.W. 7th Terrace, Apartment 3, Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Simanton, William A., Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, Fla. 33850
Sivik, Frank P., 1115 N. 13th Terrace, Hollywood-by-the-Sea, Fla. 33020
Sloan, G. D., Route 1, Box 218, Tampa, Fla. 33612
Smallwood, P. R., P. O. Box 708, Daytona Beach, Fla. 32015
Smith, Carl W., P. O. Box 393, Winter Haven, Fla. 33880
Smith, Carroll N., ARS-USDA, P. O. Box 1268, Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Smith, William W., 1947 N.W. 31st Terrace, Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Smittle, Burrell J., 3435 N.W. 10th Ave., Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Spears, Elwin F., 207 Kingston Drive, Fort Myers, Fla. 33905
Spencer, N. R. Dept. Agr., Agana, Guam 96910










Membership List


133


Stedman, Carling H., 8401 S.W. 68th St., Miami, Fla. 33143
Stegmaier, Carl E., Jr., 11335 N.W. 59th Ave., Hialeah, Fla. 33012
Steinbruck, Rudolph H., P. O. Box 5568, Tampa, Fla. 33605
Stelzer, Lorin, P. O. Box 516, Ocoee, Fla. 32761
Stewart, Charles W., 622 N.E. 127th St., Miami, Fla. 33161
Stiritz, Kenneth F., 1000 Kowanee Trail, Maitland, Fla. 32751
Stone, Karl J., Dept. of Entomol., McCarty Hall, Univ. of Fla., Gaines-
ville, Fla. 32601
Stover, Fred, 4911 Lester Road, Tallahassee, Fla. 32301
Strayer, John R., Building OG, Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Stringfellow, Thomas S., Plantation Field Lab., 5305 S.W. 12th St., Fort
Lauderdale, Fla. 33314
Stueben, E. B., Box 575 U.S.L. Station, Lafayette, Louisiana 70501
Summers, Francis M., Dept. of Entomol. & Parasitology, Univ. of Cali-
fornia, Davis, Calif. 95616
Summers, Tom, Sugarcane Field Sta., P. O. Box 156, Canal Point, Fla. 33438
Sutton, Cliff, P. O. Box 7067, Orlando, Fla. 32804
Sutton, Robert, P. O. Box 2348 Manatee Station, Bradenton, Fla. 33505

Tappan, William B., North Florida Exper. Sta., P. O. Box 470, Quincy
Fla. 32351
Taylor, Doyle J., 314 Mission Hills Drive, Tampa, Fla. 33617
Taylor, James Lloyd, P. O. Box 12714 Univ. Sta., Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Taylor, John B., Geigy Agricultural Chemicals, 2421 Miscindy Place,
Orlando, Fla. 32806
Taylor, W. Kent, 155 Sherwood Drive, Athens, Georgia 30601
Thew, Thomas B., M. D., 540 W. Belmont, Chicago, Illinois 60657
Thompson, W. L., Box 1075, Lake Alfred, Fla. 33850
Thullberry, Howard A., P. O. Box 95, Lake Wales, Fla. 33853
Tissot, A. N., Dept. of Entomol., Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Tomasello, R. P., Box 6338, West Palm Beach, Fla. 33405
Tomerlin, Arthur H., Jr., Dept. of Entomol., McCarty Hall, Univ. of Fla.,
Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Trammell, Kenneth, Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, Fla. 33850
Trudeau, Richard J., 520 Tumblin-Kling Road, Fort Pierce, Fla. 33450
True, H. H., 438 N.E. 8th Ave., Fort Lauderdale, Fla. 33301
Turk, James F., 4314 South Hubert Ave., Tampa, Fla. 33611

Valdes, Francisco A., P. O. Box 1709, Jacksonville, Fla. 32201
Vanasia, Santo, via Mauro Macchi, 58, 20124, Milan, Italy
Van Duyn, John W., Route 6, Box 440, Jacksonville, Fla. 32216
Van Horn, M. C., 4517 Peachtree Circle E., Jacksonville, Fla. 32207

Wagner, William E., Vero Beach Laboratories, Inc., P. O. Box 2290,
Vero Beach, Fla. 32960
Waites, Robert E., Dept. of Entomol., Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla.
32601
Walker, Billie Joe, 3210 Clay Ave., Orlando, Fla. 32804
Walker, T. J., Dept. of Entomol., Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla..32601
Walkup, Sam H., Jr., P. O. Box 2969, Orlando, Fla. 32802
Wallace, H. K., Biology Dept., Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla. 32601










The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 51, No. 2


Walley, G. Stuart, Div. of Entomol., Dept. of Agriculture, Ottawa, On-
tario, Canada
Washbon, Edward, Dept. of Entomol., Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Watson, Brandt G., P. O. Box 725, Naples, Fla. 33940
Watve, Chand M., Dept. of Entomol., Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Webb, Don, 1325 Alfred Drive, Orlando, Fla. 32810
Weber, Thomas A., 1216 E. Colonial Drive, Orlando, Fla. 32803
Weems, H. V., Div. of Plant Industry, P. O. Box 1269, Gainesville, Fla.
32601
Weidhass, Donald E., 1330 N.W. 25th Terrace, Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Westfall, Minter J., Dept. of Biology, Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla.
32601
Whitcomb, Willard H., Big Bend Horticulture Lab., Monticello, Fla. 32344
White, Albert C., 1052 E. Shaw, Fresno, Calif. 93726
Whittington, Kinion, BioFerm, Windemere, Fla. 32786
Wilkinson, Robert C., Dept. of Entomol., Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla.
32601
Wilkinson, W. Thomas, Jr., 525-D Woodland Dr., Florence, S. Car. 29501
Williams, David F., Dept. of Entomol., Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Williams, Francis M., Dept. of Entomol., Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla.
32601
Williams, Javier, Div. of Tropical Research, Tela Railroad Company,
La Lima, Honduras, C. A.
Williams, Tommy S., 1535 Live Oak Drive, Fort Myers, Fla. 33901
Wilson, Dwight R., P. O. Box 747, Jupiter, Fla. 33458
Wilson, F. L., 420 Hillcrest, Winter Haven, Fla. 33880
Wilson, Harold G., Route 4, Box 273A, Oh-Kay Trailer Court, Gainesville,
Fla. 32601
Wilson, J. W., Route 2, Box 468, Sanford, Fla. 32771
Witherington, C. G., 1711 Fairway Lane, Rockledge, Fla. 32955
Wojcik, D. P., Dept. of Entomol., Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Wolfenbarger, Dan A., ARS-USDA, P. O. Box 1033, Brownsville, Texas
78520
Wolfenbarger, D. 0., Sub-Tropical Experiment Station, 18905 S.W. 280th
St., Route 1, Homestead, Fla. 33030
Woodruff, Robert E., Div. of Plant Industry, P. 0. Box 1269, Gainesville,
Fla. 32601
Woofter, Darrell, 3040 Nassau Dr., Vero Beach, Fla. 32960
Workman, Ralph B., Potato Investigations Laboratory, Hastings, Fla.
32045
Wright, J. D., 1109 Pine Hills Road, Orlando, Fla. 32808
Wright, M. Lewis, Jr., P. O. Box 5044, Clearwater Fla. 33518
Others, W. W., 836 Alameda St., Orlando, Fla. 32804
Young, Frank N., Dept. of Zoology, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Indiana
47401
Young, H. C., USDA, P. O. Box 132, Florala, Alabama 36442
Young, T. Roy, 2011 W. Platt St., Tampa, Fla. 33606
Zeiger, Charles F., 3751 Sommers St., Jacksonville, Fla. 32205
Zettler, F. W., Plant Virus Lab., Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla. 32601
Ziegler, L. W., 106 McCarty, Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla. 32601


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