Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00153
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1969
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00153
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

Full Text


Volume 52, No. 2 May, 1969

House Fly, Musca domestic, Control with Chemosteri-
lants and Insecticides ------------------------- 55
PETERSON, ALVAH-Bagworm Photographs: Eggs Larvae,
Pupae, and Adults of Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis
(Psychidae: Lepidoptera) ---.---.--.--.... -------..-....------....... 61
MUMA, M. H. AND H. A. DENMARK-Sibling Species of Phy-
toseiidae (Acarina: Mesostigmata) ..-------.----.. --.... ........ 67
JOHNSON, R. B.-Control of Texas Citrus Mite with New
Acaricides ----.. -------..----...-.------.. .... . -..... ... ...... 73
SABROSKY, C. W.-A Review of the Genus Juriniopsis Town-
send (Diptera: Tachnidae) --------.......... ..... ......-........ 79
FROST, S. W.-Supplement to Florida Insects Taken in Light
Traps ...-..-----------.-........ ..--------------..... 91
HOELSCHER, C. E., AND R. L. COMBS, JR.-Laboratory Rear-
ing of Spalangia nigroaenea (Hymenoptera: Pteromal-
idae) --- ........----------.....-----.................... ...... 103
MUMA, M. H.-Coincidence and Incidence of Entomophthora
floridana with and in Eutetranychus banksi in Florida
Citrus Groves ---.. -----------------------.................... 107
HEINRICH, G. H.-The Charcoal Digger Wasp, Isodontia
pelopoeiformis .......-----------...... ....---------------.......... 113
BURKS, B. D.-Redefinitions of Two Genera of Chalcidoids
from Figs, with New Florida Species (Hymenoptera) 115
Note to Authors ---- ----------------.... ---..--- ---- ----..... ............... 101

Published by The Florida Entomological Society


President ----.............---... ................. ......-............... ...J. B. O'N eil
Vice-President ..............--------------....H. A. Denmark
Secretary ............................. ------ ----------F. W. Mead
Treasurer...--........-..--....--.---------....------ R. S. Patterson
W. G. Genung
J. E. Porter
Other Members of Executive Committee.... W. A. Simanton
J. R. Connell
L. A. Hetrick

Publications Committee
Stratton H. Kerr -. -----------..--..... ....... Editor
James L. Nation .--- ----------. Associate Editor
Richard S. Patterson ....------. Business Manager
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST is issued quarterly-March, June, Septem-
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Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be sent to the Editor,
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When preparing manuscripts, authors should consult Style Manual for
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Washington, D. C., 1964). For form of literature citations, see recent
issues of THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST. Further, authors are re-
ferred to "Suggestions for preparation of manuscripts for THE FLORIDA
ENTOMOLOGIST." Fla. Ent. 48 (2): 145-146. 1965.
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This issue mailed June 17, 1969


Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA,
Gainesville, Fla. 32601


Field tests in poultry-caged-layer operations showed that 0.5% hempa
+ 0.5% thiourea or 1.0% hempa in sugar bait, 1.0% trichlorfon in granular
sugar bait, and 1.0% dimethoate in water applied to the droppings at the
rate of 1 g active ingredient/m2 all gave good control of house flies, Musca
domestic L. Releases of sterile flies in a pig-rearing establishment com-
bined with weekly larvicide treatments (1.0% coumaphos in water at the
rate of 1 g/m2) reduced the field fly population by more than 5-fold.

Within the past decade, the movement of the urban population to sub-
urban and rural areas has demonstrated to many people that house flies,
Musca domestic L., are often associated with large-scale production of
livestock. This increasing awareness of the problem of controlling house
flies has meant that levels of control that were formerly considered ade-
quate are now rather unacceptable. At the same time, the development of
some resistance in flies to many commercially available insecticides and the
limitations placed on the application of insecticides because they might
leave residues in foodstuffs have reduced the available chemical methods of
control that can be recommended. As a result, additional investigations
are now being made on control of flies by sanitation, pesticides, biological
control, and sterile-male techniques. The sterile-male approach now looks
particularly promising though it is not yet approved. LaBrecque and Mei-
fert (1966) recently demonstrated that house flies can be controlled in
poultry houses with chemosterilants.
The present paper reports the results of limited field tests made during
the summers of 1966 and 1967, to determine whether house flies in poultry
houses could be controlled with either of 2 chemosterilants; thiourea and
hempa, or with either of 2 insecticides, trichlorofon and dimethoate. Also,
in another study at a pig farm, we evaluated the effect of releases of sterile
flies on a field population suppressed with coumaphos. Nothing in this
paper should be construed as a recommendation.


METHODS AND MATERIALS.-The first test was made at 3 poultry farms in
central Florida to compare the effectiveness of thiourea, a sterilant of fe-
male flies; hempa, a sterilant of male flies at lower concentrations; and a
combination of the two. The flies were breeding in manure underneath

'Diptera: Muscidae
2Conducted in part with funds transferred from the Medical Research
and Development Command, Office of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army.
sThe authors express their thanks for the technical assistance of R. L.
Fye, A. P. Benton, and J. Morgan, Jr., all of this Division, in performing
the experiment.

56 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 52, No. 2

chickens that were in wire cages 1 m above ground. All 3 chemosterilants
were formulated in sugar-water solutions (1 part sugar, 2 parts water) and
applied semi-weekly. The concentrations used were calculated to give the
desired dose in g of active ingredient/m2 and were 0.25% for each chemical
for the first 2 months and 0.5% thereafter except that hempa alone was
used at a 1.0% concentration. Untreated poultry farms were the checks.
All applications were made with a 3-gal garden sprinkling can with a 3-ft
extension fitted to the spout.
Variations in the abundance of adult house flies present were deter-
mined weekly by exposing a grid (45 cm by 45 cm) made of 2.5-cm wooden
strips at 10 locations in the most heavily infested areas of each poultry
house and counting the number of flies landing on it in 1 min.
The female sterility induced by the treatments was determined by cap-
turing flies at each site, placing them in cages containing untreated food
and water, and returning the cages to the laboratory; then, 2 days later,
aged CSMA oviposition medium was placed in the cages, and a random
sample of 500 eggs (or all eggs laid if less than 500 were present) was
taken from each cage and placed on moist larval medium in a rearing con-
tainer so percentage hatch could be determined. Male sterility was deter-
mined by caging males collected in the field with virgin females from a
colony reared in the laboratory. Oviposition and larval medium were sup-
plied 3 or 4 days later. The larvae from the eggs that hatched were held
until pupation, and the pupae were counted. The same procedures were
followed with flies from the check farms.
RESULTS.-The results of the test are given in Table 1.
The fly population at the poultry farm where thiourea was used re-
mained at about pretreatment levels throughout the test. Pretreatment fe-
male sterility was 6%; during the test, sterility ranged between 22% and
58%. Little male sterility occurred.
The fly population at the poultry farm where the combination of thio-
urea and hempa was used decreased rapidly from a pretreatment average
of 40/grid to 8/grid after 1 month of treatment. Also, the population con-
tinued to drop throughout the test until it was difficult to find flies for the
assessment of sterility.
The fly population at the poultry farm where hempa was used de-
creased, and considerable control was achieved; however, infiltration from
a nearby pig farm and stockyard prevented elimination of the flies. Fe-
male sterility was high after the first week of treatments and remained high
throughout the test (82% to 96%).
The untreated poultry farms had an increase in fly populations during
the test.

METHODS AND MATERIALS.-In the second experiment, tests were run to
determine the effect of releases of chemosterilized house flies on a field
population partially suppressed with insecticides. Moderate numbers of
flies were reared and sterilized in the laboratory and released weekly into a
field population that was first treated with coumaphos to lower the size of
the population. Also, the insecticide was reapplied weekly to maintain the
field population at manageable levels. Because the chemosterilized insects

Meifert: House Fly Control

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The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 52, No. 2

to be released were highly resistant to coumaphos this insecticide was
chosen for the weekly treatment, even though previous tests had indicated
that the insecticide-resistant males were sexually less acceptable than wild
males to wild females.
The site selected was a pig farm where from 50 to 200 mature pigs were
confined at any one time in pens covering an area of about 465 m2. The
floor of the pens was concrete, and the excrement that collected was washed
off daily into a trough which emptied into a low area where it accumulated
and provided an ideal breeding site for flies.
The flies for the release were reared en masse at the laboratory by
placing about 25,000 eggs in a tub containing 14 liters of CSMA larval
medium that had been moistened with 4 liters of distilled water. Two cellu-
lose sponges (about 12.5 by 7.5 by 5 cm) saturated with distilled water
were also placed in the tubs to insure adequate moisture for the larvae.
Seven days later the pupae were separated from the medium by flotation
and dried overnight. (Each tub produced from 15,000 to 20,000 pupae.)
The next day, 5-liter cartons, each containing about 10,000 pupae from the
insecticide-resistant strain were taken to the pig farm. The pupae were
then dusted with 10 g of fluorescent pigment and covered with 18 cm of
chemosterilant-treated polystyrene foam strands. The containers of pupae
were placed on a raised platform with a roof to protect the foam and
newly closed adults from the elements. In all but 3 instances, tepa was
the chemosterilant used; when tepa was unavailable, metepa was used. The
maximum uptake of tepa recovered per fly from those that had migrated
through the treated strands was 21.1 ug for the integument, 24.9 jg for the
homogenate, and 57.8 Ag for environmental contamination (Fye et al.
1968). The fluorescent pigment was used to identify the released flies, and
color was changed each week.
Samples of flies from various areas of the test site were collected each
week and returned to the laboratory where they were separated according
to color with a long-wave ultraviolet lamp to allow us to compute the ratio
of released to field flies. Sterility of the field flies was determined by using
the techniques described previously. Variations in population were as-
sessed 3-5 times a week as previously described by making 10 counts and
using the average for the week as the index of fly abundance.
Coumaphos was applied at a rate of 1 g/m2 each week 1 day before the
sterile adults were released. However, it was unavailable on 3 occasions
and was replaced with dimethoate. (The released flies were also resistant
to dimethoate.)
RESULTS.-The results of the test are presented in Table 2. The popu-
lation of native flies decreased from an average of 22/grid during the first
month to 2 to 9/grid during subsequent months when releases were made.
By the third month, the ratio of released to field flies had increased from
1:7 to 6:1, and this change in ratio was accompanied by a gradual increase
in the sterility of the field population.


METHODS AND MATERIALS.-In the third experiment, field tests were con-
ducted in buildings at 3 poultry farms to evaluate the effectiveness of a bait
containing trichlorfon or larvicides containing dimethoate for the control

Meifert: House Fly Control 59

Number of
released Grid counts Field flies
flies Released Field Reduction Sterility
Weeks (x 1000) flies flies % %
4-3 33 16
2-1 35
0 50 3 21 16
1-2 200 8 23 0 14
3-4 200 4 22 0 27
5-6 287 8 9 58 15
7-8* 538 8 7 67 46
9-10* 635 13 2 91 35
11-12" 802 18 3 86 49
13-14 660 17 5 77 84
15-16 810 25 4 81 78
17-18 990 35 7 67 55
19**-20 28 7 67 61
21 2 17 19 47
* Dimethoate substituted for coumaphos.
** Application of insecticide discontinued after 18th week.

of house flies. The flies were breeding in manure beneath hens in wire
cages suspended 1 m above ground.
One farm was treated semiweekly with a 1.0% concentration of trichlor-
fon in a granular sugar bait; the two others were treated weekly or semi-
weekly with emulsions of dimethoate at a rate of 1 g/m2. Untreated farms
were the checks. The trichlorfon-sugar bait was applied with a hand
shaker to the outer edges of the manure; the emulsions were applied to the
entire surface area of the manure with a 3-gal hand sprayer.
The technique described previously was again used to determine the
variations in the abundance of adult house flies.

RESULTS.-The results are presented in Table 3.
The populations of adult flies were reduced at all treated poultry farms.
However, the dimethoate emulsions applied semiweekly were the most ef-
fective and had reduced the population from a pretreatment count of 21.2 to
0.2 by the end of the test. Dimethoate applied weekly reduced the counts
from 35.9 to an average of less than 15 during the last 9 weeks of the test.
The trichlorfon-sugar bait also reduced the counts, but during the last 3
weeks of this test larvae of Hermetia sp. were so abundant in the chicken
manure that the breeding of house flies was curtailed. The untreated poul-
try farms had an increase in fly populations during the test.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 52, No. 2

Average number flies/grid with indicated treatment applied-
Test Semiweekly Weekly
period 1.0% 1.0%
(weeks) Trichlorfon Dimethoate 1.0% Dimethoate
bait emulsion Check emulsion Check
1 9.7 13.1 1.3 38.3
2 10.7 21.2 2.4 35.9 41.4
1 8.2 2.2 2.6 26.9 55.2
2 7.1 .9 5.1 22.1 69.5
3 3.4 .9 8.3 19.7 65.3
4 3.4 .5 22.0 18.7 69.6
5 3.0 1.3 31.2 6.1 76.8
6 2.7 .5 38.3 8.1 79.8
7 1.6 .3 11.6 83.1
8 2.9 .2 13.6 67.9
9 14.8 69.5
10 14.9* 44.6*
Average of 4 grid counts/week.

Fye, R. L., G. C. LaBrecque, P. B. Morgan, and M. C. Bowman. 1968. De-
velopment of an autosterilization technique for the house fly. J.
Econ. Entomol. 61(6) : 1578-1581.

LaBrecque, G. C., and D. W. Meifert. 1966. Control of house flies in poul-
try houses with chemosterilants. J. Med. Entomol. 3: 323-326.

The Florida Entomologist 52(2) 1969


Ohio Historical Society Museum, Columbus, Ohio

A series of photographs is shown, illustrating the various stages in the
unusual life cycle of the bagworm Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Ha-
worth) with special emphasis on eggs and their location, and on the struc-
ture and behavior of the females that may crawl out of pupae that have
been removed from their bags. Notes are included on the use of single,
clean, bagworm eggs in rearing egg parasites, especially T' ,lr,,,,,,
minutum Riley.

In all species of the Psychidae, commonly called bagworms, the larvae
construct portable bags. They carry these around as they feed on ever-
green or deciduous foliage of shrubs or trees. The larvae close the proxi-
mal ends of their bags and attach the bags to plant parts or other objects
when they transform to succeeding instars or change to pupae.
Fig. 1-17 are photographs of a very common and photogenic species of
bagworm, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Haw.), found in the south-
eastern and midwestern United States of America usually south of 400 N.
In Ohio bagworm eggs hatch (9) in June from eggs found outdoors in
female pupae within female bags. Newly hatched 2 mm larvae (9-11) may
crawl out of the broken cephalic ends of the female pupae (3) and the small
opening at the distal ends of the bags. Upon emergence the larvae con-
struct individual silken shelters over their bodies. These eventually take
on a cone shape and become portable bags (12). As the larvae feed they
incorporate on the exterior of their bags pieces of foliage, bits of bark, or
other plant parts. For more details on early bag construction see Kauf-
mann (1968).
Late in the summer or early fall after the larvae of both sexes have
passed through several instars and are full grown they attach their bags
(1, 15) firmly to a substrate which may be a plant part or some other ob-
ject. After the proximal portions of the bags are closed the larvae of both
sexes reverse their positions in the bags (2) so that their anterior ends are
near the distal small openings. At this point the full grown larvae of both
sexes (13) change to pupae. Their shed larval skins are usually pushed to
the proximal portions of the bags (2) adjacent to the caudal segments of
the pupae.
The male pupa, when ready to transform to a winged adult crawls to
the distal pointed end of the bag and protrudes its body about halfway out
of the bag (14). The adult male within the pupa expands and splits its
middorsal region and emerges. After emergence (15) is complete and the

'This investigation and cost of publication of results were supported by a
research grant from the National Science Foundation assigned to the Ohio
Historical Society of Columbus, Ohio.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 52, No. 2

Peterson: Bagworm Photographs

wings and appendages are dry and firm the male (17) takes flight and seeks
a female bag containing a female within her pupa and ready for copulation.
When a female is ready to copulate she may rupture the thoracic portion of
her pupa (3) and then wait for the arrival of a male. For more details on
copulation of bagworm adults see D. R. Davis (1964, p. 11).
A fertilized female deposits her eggs in the caudal portion of her pupa.
After all eggs have been laid the female covers the top of the egg mass (8)
with a light colored waxy layer consisting chiefly of the caudal yellowish
brown, waxlike tufts (5) located on the exterior of her body. After depo-
sition is complete the empty shriveled female (7) proceeds to leave the bag
via the small opening at the distal end and drops to the ground. In some
cases the dying female fails to get out of the bag. Fig. 7 is a photograph
of a dead dry female found in her bag.
Fig. 4-6 are photographs of full grown females crawling or that have
crawled out of their pupae. So far as known this emergence occurs only
among some pupae that have been removed from their bags early in the
fall and kept in small glass covered dishes. The emerged female is wing-
less and possesses a head and a short thorax with small legs. Its color is
near white except for a somewhat darkened head region and light brown,
waxy tufts near the caudal end. The entire body is filled with near white
eggs, usually visible through the translucent body covering (6).
An emerged female crawls toward light. Fig. 5 is a flash picture of a
crawling female. The constriction on the sides of the body is a moving
pulsation that proceeds lengthwise as the female crawls forward. So far
as known when females are out of their pupae they eventually die and
never deposit their eggs.
To obtain single eggs (10) from a female pupa for study or experimen-
tal purposes open the cephalic end of a pupa taken from a bag late in the
fall or during winter. Remove the cephalic segments to the waxy layer
covering the eggs (8). Then blow (exhale) vigorously across the top of
the egg mass. This removes the wax covering and exposes a more or less
uniform layer of near white to yellowish eggs (9). At this point carefully
remove the remaining pupal segments. Place the single or clusters of eggs
into a round bottom shell vial. Shake the vial gently to break up the
clusters. To get rid of fragments of wax that cling to the eggs pour the

Fig. 1. A full grown bag containing a female larva that fed on blue
Fig. 2. An opened female bag showing position of pupa and the dis-
carded larval exuviae.
Fig. 3. Two views of female pupae with split cephalic ends ready for
Fig. 4-6. Views of females that have crawled out of their pupae. So
far as known this occurs only among some pupae removed from their bags
soon after pupation.
Fig. 4. A full grown female partially out of its pupal case.
Fig. 5. A flash picture of a dorsal view of a living full grown active
female crawling toward light. The constriction (pulsation) moves length-
wise as the female crawls. Note the yellowish brown, waxy tufts near the
caudal end.
Fig. 6. A lateral view of a full grown female slit lengthwise to show
the many white eggs which fill the entire body cavity.
Fig. 7. Ventral view of an egg empty shriveled female found dead near
the distal pointed end of the bag.

W~~V'Pr Vf'
b rA

Peterson: Bagworm Photographs 65

eggs from one vial into another in the presence of gentle air movement.
This will free the eggs of wax and make possible a photograph seen in Fig.
(10). Also eggs free of wax can be used in rearing egg parasites.
The author has used clean bagworm eggs for year around rearing of
Trichogramma minutum Riley. See Peterson (1964, p. 149). Bagworm
eggs can be kept in a refrigerator around 40 F until ready for use. They
should be stored within the female pupae and will be satisfactory until a
new crop is available.
Cameras. Three cameras were employed to produce the photographs
recorded. For objects exceeding 10 mm. in length, a single lens reflex
camera (Honeywell Pentax H3 camera equipped with a Kilfitt-Makro-Kilar
D 1:2 lens) was employed. Also a pinhole Startech flash camera was use-
ful when depth of focus was needed. For objects less than 5 mm in length
a Leitz-Wetzlar Micro-Ibso 35 mm microphotographic camera was used.
All photographs were taken on color film and transposed to black and
white. For more details see Peterson (1964 pl. 187).

Davis, D. R. 1964. Bagworms of the Western Hemisphere. U. S. National
Museum, Washington, D. C. Bul. 244, 233 p.
Kanfmann, T. 1968. Observations on the biology and behavior of the
evergreen bagworm moth, ThIridvropti'l r pi ,,, r51 tror';is (Haw.),
Psychidae, Lepidoptera. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 61: 38-44.
Peterson, A. 1930. A biological study of Trichogramma minutum Riley as
an egg parasite of the oriental fruit moth. USDA Tech. Bull. 215.
Peterson, A. 1964. Entomological Techniques, How to Work with Insects,
10th edition. 435 p. Edwards Brothers Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan,
(see p. 148 and pl. 187.)
Peterson, A. 1967. Larvae of Insects, Part 1. Edwards Brothers Inc.
Ann Arbor, Michigan. 315 p. (see p. 195.)

The Florida Entomologist 52(2) 1969

Fig. 8. A female pupa with the cephalic segments removed to the waxy
cover on the eggs in the caudal portion of the pupa.
- Fig. 9. A more or less uniform layer of eggs exposed by blowing off
the waxy cover over the eggs. In this figure hatching larvae were present.
Fig. 10. Single, near white eggs of the female bagworm cleaned and
freed of wax-like particles by shaking, careful teasing, and air movement.
Fig. 11. Three newly hatched bagworm larvae each about 2 mm in
Fig. 12. A newly hatched larva with a bag about its body.


7 -

Fig. 13. Dorsal and lateral views of full grown larvae, lengths 30 plus
mm. See Peterson (1967, p. 195).
Fig. 14. A male bagworm pupa emerging from its bag.
Fig. 15. A male bagworm showing a cast pupal skin from which a
clear winged adult emerged.
Fig. 16. A lateral view of a male pupa removed from its bag.
Fig. 17. An adult clear winged male showing a contracted sex organ
at the tip end of its abdomen.


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Entomologist, University of Florida Citrus Experiment Station, IFAS,
Lake Alfred, Florida 33850, and
Chief Entomologist, Department of Entomology, Department of
Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry,
Gainesville, Florida 32601, respectively.

A sibling species of Athiasia arenicola (Muma) is described and the fol-
lowing groups of sibling species are diagnosed and distinguished: Proprio-
seius meridionalis Chant and P. anthurus Denmark and Muma; Proprio-
seiopsis rotundus (Muma) and P. cannaensis (Muma) ; Proprioseiopsis
mexicanus (Garman) and P. lepidus (Chant), and P. temperellus (Den-
mark and Muma); Proprioseiopsis dorsatus (Muma) and P. solens (De-
Leon); Chelaseius floridanus (Muma) and C. vicinus (Muma); Typhlodro-
mips dentilis (DeLeon) and T. arenillus (Denmark and Muma); Neoseiulus
paspalivorus (DeLeon) and N. mumai (Denmark); Phytoseius macropilis
(Banks), P. betulae Denmark, and P. chanti Denmark; Galendromus lougi-
pilus (Nesbitt) and G. occidentalis (Nesbitt) ; and Athiasia arenicola
(Muma) and A. imbricata new species Muma and Denmark.

Sibling species are defined by Mayr et al. (1953) as "pairs or groups of
closely related species which are reproductively isolated but morphologi-
cally identical or nearly so." Ideally, and according to this definition,
sibling species should not be recognized until observation and experimenta-
tion have proved reproductive isolation. However, such proof is often quite
difficult if not impossible to obtain.
Reproductive isolation is frequently inferred, though not always cor-
rectly so, when morphologically closely related species have distributions
that exhibit allopatry. The same inference can, and has been drawn, when
the nearly identical morphological species are ecologically isolated or the
sexually mature stages are seasonally isolated. In these cases, the isola-
ted forms can be brought together with some effort and experimentally
demonstrated to be or not to be reproductively isolated.
An altogether different problem is posed by forms that are nearly mor-
phologically identical but whose distributions exhibit sympatry. In this
case, the species must be separated morphologically. This frequently can
be accomplished by careful counts and measurements of a series of struc-
tures on specimens of the populations in question and the application of
simple statistical procedures. These separations, particularly in the case of
mites, cannot be experimentally proved to be or not to be reproductively
isolated since males and females of the different separations cannot be ex-
posed to each other with certainty.
Despite this difficulty in recognizing sibling species of mites, a number
have been described and are recognized among the Phytoseiidae. They are
identical in dorsal and ventral station, leg chaetotaxy, and spermathecal

'Florida Agriculture Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 3181.
2Contribution No. 145, Entomology Section, Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture.

68 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 52, No. 2

and spermatodactyl form. Such sibling species can be separated only by a
systematic, numerical comparison of setal form and lengths, scutal size and
form, and length to width ratios of spermathecae, spermatodactyls, peri-
tremes, etc. These do not however, include such readily distinguishable
species as Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Amblydromella rhenana
(Oudemans), which Chant (1959, 1965) stated were closely related, or T.
pyri and T. corticis Herbert that differ by size, setal number, pore number,
and habits as stated by Herbert (1958).
Several previously described sibling phytoseiid species with which we
are familiar are diagnosed and distinguished in the following paragraphs.
A sibling of Athiasia arenicola (Muma) is described.
Proprioseius meridionalis Chant, P. anthurus Denmark and Muma:
These 2 species may be diagnosed together below the generic level as hav-
ing L,, L,, and L, serrate and clavate, and S, serrate. They may be dis-
tinguished by the much shorter L,, L6, and L, on P. anthurus; the smooth
or faintly serrate L3 on P. meridionalis; and the comparatively shorter
caudal setae on P. anthurus. They are presently indistinguishable in all
other known morphological characters.
Proprioseiopsis rotundus (Muma), P. cannaensis (Muma): These 2
species may be diagnosed together below the generic level as having sac-
cular spermathecal services, an elongate lateral process on the spermato-
dactyls, elliptical preanal ventrianal pores between the posterior preanal
setae, and L3 longer than the dorsal setae. They may be distinguished by a
cervix 5 times longer than wide on P. rotundus and only 2 to 3 times longer
than wide on P. cannaensis; the spermatodactyl lateral process is 1/3 the
length of the foot on P. rotundus and 2/5 the length of the foot on P.
cannaensis; and L, and L3 are shorter on P. rotundus than they are on P.
cannaensis. Proprioseiopsis ovatus (Garman) is either another sibling or
a senior synonym of P. rotundus or P. cannaensis. It is also possible that
Proprioseiopsis lindquisti (Schuster and Pritchard), P. fragariae (Ken-
nett), and P. exopodalis (Kennett) are siblings of this group but we are
not familiar with them.
Proprioseiopsis mexicanus (Garman), P. lepidus (Chant), P. temper-
ellus (Denmark and Muma) : These 3 species are siblings that can be diag-
nosed as a group below the generic level as having poculiform spermathe-
cal services with short nodular atria, elliptical ventrianal preanal pores
that lie between the posterior preanal setae, M3 shorter than Ls, and L, dis-
tinctly longer than L3. Distinguishing characters for P. lepidus are an im-
bricate and creased dorsal scutum; L, only 1/3 longer than L,; and L4, M,,
and L, shorter than on the other species. For P. temperellus, the dorsal
scutum is smooth: L, is twice the length of L3; L4, M., and Ls are shorter
than on P. mexicanus; and the preanal ventrianal pores are closer to the
posterior preanal setae than to each other. For P. mexicanus, the dorsal
scutum is smooth; L, is twice the length of L,; L,, M,, and L, (particularly
L,) are much longer than on the other species; and the preanal ventrianal
pores are closer to each other than to the posterior preanal setae. We
know of no other siblings of this group.
Proprioseiopsis dorsatus (Muma), P. solens (DeLeon) : These 2 species
may be diagnosed together below the generic level as having a macroseta
and an erect seta on leg I; L2 and L3 small and subequal in size; M3 dis-
tinctly shorter than L,; and the spermatheca with fundibular cervix and

Muma: Sibling Species of Phytoseiidae 69

elongate atrium. They may be distinguished by P. solens having L2 and
L3 more robust and longer than on P. dorsatus; the preanal, ventrianal
pores located behind rather than between the posterior preanal setae; and
the atrium of the spermatheca nearly as long as the cervix rather than only
half as long. Proprioseiopsis elongatus (Garman) is either a senior
synonym of one of these species or another sibling of the group.
Chelaseius floridanus (Muma), C. vicinus (Muma) : These 2 species may
be diagnosed together below the generic level as having 2 to 4 denticules on
the fixed cheliceral finger, L1 distinctly shorter than L4, the spermathecal
atrium indistinct and obscure, and the spermatodactyl toe bent at a right
angle to the foot. They may be distinguished by the smaller size, shorter
setae, lack of distinct leg I macrosetae, more slender spermathecal cervix,
and larger spermatodactyl toe on C. vicinus. C. austrellus (Athias-Hen-
riot) may be another sibling but we are not familiar with it.
Typhlodromips dentilis (DeLeon), T. arenillus (Denmark and Muma):
These 2 species may be diagnosed together below the generic level as hav-
ing the dorsal scutium rugose anteriorly and reticulate posteriorly, leg IV
macrosetae knobbed, spermatheca with a tubular cervix and indistinct
atrium, and spermatodactyl with large distinct lateral process and distinct
nodular toe. They may be distinguished by the shorter, less distinct macro-
setae on T. arenillus, the longer, more slender spermathecal cervix on T.
dentilis, and the broad bilobed spermatodactyl lateral process on T. arenil-
lus. They are virtually indistinguishable in other known characters. We
know of no other siblings.
Neoseiulus paspalivorus (DeLeon), N. mumai (Denmark) : These 2 spe-
cies may be diagnosed together below the generic level as having an elon-
gate dorsal scutum with elongate imbrication between the dorsal setae, the
ventral scuta distinctly imbricate and creased, a distinct macroseta on the
basitarsus of leg IV, and a tiny poculiform spermathecal cervix. They may
be distinguished by the longer L,, longer leg IV macroseta, and broad
spermatodactyl toe on N. mumai. Otherwise, the 2 species seem to be mor-
phologically the same. There are no other known siblings.
Phytoseius macropilis (Banks), P. betulae Denmark, P. chanti Denmark:
These 3 species may be diagnosed as a group below the generic level as hav-
ing L, and L; as long as or longer than L, and L, with all 4 setae being
thick and strongly serrate or dentate, the macrosetae on leg IV broadly
knobbed with that on the genu distinctly longest, and the spermathecal
cervix saccular. They may be distinguished by the tiny setiform clunals
and much larger leg IV basitarsal macroseta on P. chanti; the strong sub-
equal serrate clunals and verticals, and small equal-sized leg IV basitarsal
and genual macrosetae on P. betulae; and the serrate but unequal-sized
clunals and verticals, and the small but unequal-sized leg IV basitarsal and
genual macosetae on P. macropilis. We know of no other species of this
sibling group.
Galendromus longipilus (Nesbitt), G. occidentalis (Nesbitt) : These 2
species may be diagnosed together below the generic level as having M1 as
long as or longer than D2, the peritreme not extending forward beyond L4,
the ventrianal scutum elongate with the ventrianal pores punctate, and the
spermathecal cervix slender and saccular. They may be distinguished by
the overlapping dorsal setae on G. longipilus, the peritremes extending for-
ward only to L5 on G. occidentalis, and the slightly larger size of G. occi-

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 52, No. 2

dentalis. Although these species are closely related to, and in the same
subgenus as Galendromus floridanus (Muma), G. gratus (Chant), G. an-
nectens (DeLeon), and G. ferrugineus (DeLeon), they represent a distin-
guishable sibling group below the subgeneric level. We know of no other
species of this sibling group.
Athiasia arenicola (Muma), A. imbricata new species: These 2 species
may be diagnosed together below the generic level as having slender seti-
form dorsal scutal setae, the ventrianal scutum slightly narrower than
the genital scutum, and a very narrow ectal strip of the peritremal scutum
that extends posteriorly around leg IV exopodal scutum. The species are
distinguished in the following diagnosis.

Athiasia imbricata new species
Fig. 1 to 4

DIAGNOSIS: This species may be distinguished from the closely allied A.
arenicola by its larger average dorsal scutal size, 405 y long as opposed to
325 u; by its laterally and posteriorly imbricate dorsal scutum, that on A.
arenicola is smooth; and by having the vertical setae 2/3 rather than 1/2
the length of L,. Measurements of the holotype and 2 paratypes produced
a mean dorsal scutal length of 405 1 and a mean width of 320 g.

FEMALE HOLOTYPE: Dorsal scutum 410 A long and 350 g wide, and dis-
tinctly imbricate laterally and posteriorly. All setae on the dorsal scutum
are setiform, slender, and smooth with proportionate lengths as shown in
Fig. 1. The sublateral setae are the same size as the dorsal setae and are
visible from above. Ventral scuta and station as shown in Fig. 2; sternal
scutum much wider than long and reticulate; metasternal scuta broadly tri-
angular; genital scutum massive and smooth; ventrianal scutum shield-
shaped, nearly as wide as genital scutum, and reticulate; primary meta-
podal scuta elongate; caudal setae about 3 times the length of ventro-
lateral setae. Posterior end of peritreme and associated scuta as shown in
Fig. 3. Spermatheca with fundibuliform cervix and distinct elongate
atrium as shown in Fig. 4.

MALES: Unknown.

TYPE LOCALITY: Female holotype and female paratype from moist sand
pine litter at St. Cloud, Florida on 21 September 1965 by M. H. Muma and
H. L. Greene. There is also a female paratype with the same ecology, col-
lectors, and date from Vineland, Florida.

DISCUSSION: This cryptic species was identified when routine measure-
ments were being made to determine the size limits of A. arenicola. Fig.
5 to 8 of A. arenicola permit comparison of the 2 species. On A. arenicola
S, and S, are not usually visible from above.

Fig. 1 to 4. Athiasia imbricata new species. 1. Dorsal structure and
station. 2. Ventral scuta and station. 3. Posterior peritremal and stig-
matal development. 4. Spermatheca. Fig. 5 to 8. Athiasia arenicola
(Muma). 5. Dorsal structure and station. 6. Ventral scuta and seta-
tion. 7. Posterior peritremal and stigmatal development. 8. Sperma-

Muma: Sibling Species of Phytoseiidae 71

o /

2 I

8 7

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2 I


r6U F

The Florida Entomologist

Chant, D. A. 1959. Phytoseiid mites (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Part I.
Bionomics of seven species in southeastern England. Part II. A
taxonomic review of the family Phytoseiidae, with descriptions of
38 new species. Can. Entomol. 91(Suppl. 12) : 164 p.
Chant, D. A. 1965. Generic concepts in the family Phytoseiidae (Acarina:
Mesostigmata). Can. Entomol. 97: 351-374.
Herbert, June. 1958. A new species of Typhlodromus Scheuten, 1857,
(Acarina: Phytoseiidae), with notes on life-histories and food habits
of Typhlodromus sp. n. and T. tiliae Oudemans. Can. Entomol. 90:
Mayr, Ernst, E. G. Linsley, and R. 0. Singer. 1953. Methods and Prin-
ciples of Systematic Zoology, McGraw Hill Book Co., Inc., New
York. 328 p.
The Florida Entomologist 52(2) 1969





Carefully Executed

Delivered on Time



Vol. 52, No. 2


University of Florida, IFAS, Citrus Experiment Station
Lake Alfred, Florida 33850

Seventeen acaricides were tested against Texas citrus mite, Eutetrany-
chus banksi (McG.) in two experiments conducted on young 'Valencia'
orange trees. The standard acaricides dicofol, oil, carbophenothion, and
ethion were less effective than the experimental acaricides Hercules 14503,
S- (2-choro-l-phthalimidoethyl) 0,0-diethyl phosphorodiehioate; Dowco
213, tricyclohexyltin hydroxide; N-4543, 0-isopropyl S-(phthalimidomethyl)
ethyl phosphonodithioate; R.P. 11974, S-[ (6-chloro-2-oxo-3-benzoxazoli-
nyl) methyl] 0,0-diethyl phosphorodithioate; and NC-5016, 5,6-dichloro-1-

In 1951, Texas citrus mite, Eutetranychus banksi (McG.), was first
found on Florida citrus in one east coast grove (Muma et al. 1953). Two
years later, it was discovered in central Florida (Muma 1954) and was soon
distributed over all the north-central citrus areas of the state (Muma 1955).
Texas citrus mite is now found throughout Florida and is more uniformly
distributed than the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McG.) (Muma 1965).
It is more common than citrus red mite and predominates in many groves
once heavily infested with citrus red mite. Texas citrus mite has thus be-
come a major Florida citrus pest.
Several acaricides have been found to be effective against Texas citrus
mite under Florida conditions. These include tetradifon, ethion, carbophe-
nothion, dicofol, and Morestan (Johnson 1959, 1962, 1966). In the tests
reported here, 13 experimental materials were tested and compared with
most of the acaricides now used on Florida citrus.

Two tests were conducted on young 'Valencia' orange trees at Daven-
port, Florida between November 1966 and July 1967. Thirteen experimen-
tal materials were included in the first test (Table 1). Dicofol was the
standard treatment. All of the materials were applied to plots of one tree
in a randomized complete block design with six blocks. The second test in-
cluded only the seven experimental materials that showed promise in the
first test and compared these with dicofol, oil, carbophenothion, and ethion
(Table 2). The oil used in the second test met Florida specifications desig-
nated FC 435-66 (Simanton and Trammel 1966). A split-plot design with
six blocks was used in this test. Each acaricide was applied to main plots
of three trees, while three different dosages of each acaricide were used on
subplots of one tree.
In both tests, the acaricides were applied with a high-pressure sprayer
equipped with double Boyce guns. Application was made at about 300 psi
at the pump.

1Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 3171.

The Florida Entomologist

The effectiveness of the acaricides was determined by repeatedly meas-
uring the densities of the mite populations. Samples of 25 leaves per tree
were used for this purpose. These samples were picked at random and
transported in cylindrical cardboard containers to the laboratory where a
Henderson machine was used to brush the mites onto glue-coated glass
plates. The mites were then counted with the aid of a binocular micro-

The chemical definitions
are as follows:


Hercules 14503



Dowco 213

R.P. 11974


TH 346-I




of proprietary compounds used in these tests

S- (2-chloro-l-phthalimidoethyl)
0,0-diethyl phosphorodithioate
0-isopropyl S- (phthalimidomethyl)
ethyl phosphonodithioate
thiadiazol-5- (4H) -onyl- (4) -methyl] -
Tricyclohexyltin hydroxide
30% m-( [(dimethylamino) methylene]
amino) phenyl methylcarbamate
hydrochloride and
60%'/ N,N-dimethyl-N'-(2 methyl-4-
chlorophenyl) -formamidine
S- [ (6-chloro-2-oxo-3-benzoxazolinyl)
methyl]0,0-diethyl phosphorodithioate
Ethyl-N-2 (0,0-dimethylphosphorodithionyl)
ethyl mercaptophenylacetate, 0,0-
dimethyl phosphorodithioate
0,0-dimethyl-S- (2-
methoxyethylcarbamoylmethyl) -
N- (2-methyl-4-chlorophenyl) -N',


The results of the first test are presented in Table 1. All of the materials
in this test were initially effective against Texas citrus mite, but only NC-
5016, Hercules 14503, N-4543, GS-13005, Dowco 213, EP-334, and R.P. 11974
produced as long control as dicofol. These materials were effective from
mid-November until March. A population decline in February may have
extended the control period.
The results of the second test are summarized in Table 2. In this test,
the acaricides were applied as postbloom sprays intended to last until July.

Vol. 52. No. 2

Johnson: Texas Citrus Mite Control

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The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 52, No. 2

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Johnson: Texas Citrus Mite Control

A population decline occurred during much of this interval and this un-
doubtedly prolonged residual effectiveness. At the end of one month, car-
bophenothion, ethion, EP-334, and GS-13005 were no longer as effective as
dicofol, oil, and the remaining acaricides. Dicofol and oil, although still
satisfactory, were no better than the check after two months while N-4543,
R.P. 11974, and NC-5016 were no longer giving control at the end of three
months. The better acaricides were thus Hercules 14503 and Dowco 213.
N-4543 was also very promising, being intermediate between Dowco 213
and R.P. 11974.
There were no differences between dosages of the more effective acari-
cides until June when the lowest dosage of 2.0 oz of active ingredient of
NC-5016 was unsatisfactory. By July, the lowest dosage of R.P. 11974 was
also ineffective. The higher dosages of 4.0 and 8.0 oz of both NC-5016 and
R.P. 11974 were as effective as any material tested (see Table 3).

Acaricides Dosage of active ingredient per 100 gal.*
Applied 17 and 18 April, 1967 2.0 oz. 4.0 oz. 8.0 oz.
Hercules 14503 0.64 a 0.37 a 0.13 a
R.P. 11974 (3E) 14.37 b 3.87 ab 2.64 a
NC-5016 (20W) 25.87 c 3.12 a 1.01 a
Numbers of mites followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level
according to Duncan's multiple range test.

Johnson, R. B. 1959. The use of Tedion against citrus red mite and Texas
citrus mite. Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 72:51-56.
Johnson, R. B. 1962. The effectiveness of ethion against mites that feed
on Florida citrus. Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 75:89-94.
Johnson, R. B. 1966. Control of citrus rust mite, citrus red mite, and
Texas citrus mite with Morestan. Fla. Entomol. 49: 225-232.
Muma, M. H., H. Holtzberg, and R. M. Pratt. 1953. Eutetranychus banksi
(McG.) recently found on citrus in Florida (Acarina: Tetranychi-
dae). Fla. Entomol. 36: 141-144.
Muma, M. H. 1954. Insect parasitism and related biological factors as
concerned with citrus insect and mite control. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Annu. Rep. 1954, p. 167.
Muima, M. H. 1955. Insect parasitism and related biological factors as
concerned with citrus insect and mite control. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Annu. Rep. 1955, p. 184.
Muma, M. H. 1965. Populations of common mites in Florida citrus
groves. Fla. Entomol. 48: 35-46,
Simanton, W. A., and K. Trammel. 1966. Recommended specifications for
citrus spray oils in Florida. Proc. Fla. Sta. Hort. Soc. 79: 26-30.

The Florida Entomologist 52(2) 1969


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Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, USDA,
Washington, D.C. 20560

Problems of identification and the characters of the male genitalia are
reviewed, with a key to the seven species. Lectotypes are designated for
Juriniopsis adusta (Wulp), its synonym J. myrrhea (Brauer and Bergen-
stamm), and Parafabricia nitidula (Wulp), the last a new generic reference
that clarifies a badly mixed series which involved Juriniopsis in part.

The genus Juriniopsis consists of large, heavily-spined tachinids of
typically dejeaniine habitus. It may or may not survive as a distinct taxon
when the generic classification is studied on a broad basis, but it is at least
a closely knit species group. Townsend (1916) proposed Juriniopsis for a
new species, J. floridensis. Curran (1960) reviewed the genus and recog-
nized five species, including two new species from Cuba and Peru. How-
ever, his key did not include adusta (Wulp, 1888), myrrhea (Brauer and
Bergenstamm 1889), and lampuris Reinhard, 1953, and only the first of
these is mentioned. In the "Catalog of the Diptera of America North of
Mexico," Sabrosky and Arnaud (1965) listed adusta as "apparently not n.
of Mexico," and floridensis as the species in eastern United States "(Mo. to
Mass., s. to Tex. and Fla.)." J. myrrhea was recognized as an available
name in Juriniopsis, but it was not further identified though the authors
questioned that it might be a senior synonym of floridensis. Subsequently,
I recognized that Florida specimens were narrowly but consistently differ-
ent from specimens collected elsewhere in the eastern United States, and I
suspected that myrrhea, described from Pennsylvania, would apply to that
eastern population. Through the kindness of A. Kaltenbach of the Natur-
historisches Museum in Vienna, I was able to borrow the type of myrrhea
and to confirm its identity. A revised key that would reflect these conclu-
sions seemed appropriate, but this project involved the correct recognition
of species described from Mexico. Through the good offices of R. W.
Crosskey, I was able to study representatives of the type series of van der
Wulp species and the male genitalia of Tachina basalis (Walker 1849) from
the British Museum (Nat. Hist.). To both these colleagues, I express my
sincere appreciation.
The species of Juriniopsis have in common the characters of eyes bare,
ocellar bristles absent, parafacials sparsely covered with long black hairs,
palpi elongate and somewhat spatulate, first aristal segment short and the
second somewhat elongate, four postsutural dorsocentral bristles, pro-
pleura haired, three sternopleural bristles, intermediate abdominal terga
without discal bristles, third tergum (apparent second) with a row of six or
more closely set median marginal spines, cerci of male fused but deeply di-
vided on the midline, and the anterior gonites strongly curved, broad
basally, and more or less incrassate.
In all these respects, Juriniopsis resembles Parafabricia Brauer and Ber-
genstamm (1894). However, the latter genus (or species group) has a

80 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 52, No. 2

different type of male genitalia, notably a different aedeagus, and I leave
the two as distinct until a more comprehensive study of the generic classifi-
cation can be made. Parafabricia is also easily distinguished from Jurini-
opsis by having fine, dense, pale yellow hairs on parafacials and cheeks
though this is probably a character of convenience rather than of signifi-
cance. Jurinia nitidula Wulp, the type series of which is a mixture of
several genera, is herein referred to Parafabricia by lectotype selection, in
order to obviate further confusion.
Juriniopsis also resembles the common genus Archytas in many ways,
and the two may easily be confused, especially if one is studying a dark and
highly shining species of Archytas such as A. metallicus (R.D.). An excel-
lent distinguishing feature is the presence in Archytas of decussate apical
scutellar bristles, curved and projecting posteriorly in the same horizontal
plane as the subapical scutellars. In Juriniopsis, and also in Parafabricia,
there are no decussate apical scutellars, and the area between the sub-api-
cals bears along its upper rim 2-4 or more pairs of straight, parallel or
diverging spines that project posterodorsad at an angle to the subapicals.
Archytas vernalis Curran from South America is an exception: the decus-
sate apicals are absent though tergum III has only a single pair of median
marginals. In any event, the species is not involved in the present prob-
lem: its fine yellow parafacial hairs, median marginal pair on tergum III,
and different male genitalia eliminate it from Juriniopsis.
It should be mentioned that Jurinia punctata Wulp has been referred to
Juriniopsis, at least in identifications by some authors, but Aldrich, after
the type in London, placed it as a synonym of Pararchytas decisus
(Walker), and this has kindly been confirmed by Crosskey. The synonymy
was first published by Austen (1907). Aldrich in his Card Catalogue (U.S.
National Museum) also referred Jurinia assimilis Wulp to Juriniopsis;
however, a specimen compared with the type by Aldrich belongs to Eujuri-
niodes, and Aldrich's notes contain a sketch showing a median area of dis-
cal bristles on the third and fourth terga, quite unlike Juriniopsis.
The species of Juriniopsis are exceedingly similar, and it is difficult to
express precisely some of the differences that one sees between series.
However, slight though these are, they seem to be consistent and also to
have geographical associations that indicate recognizable and namable
populations. This is particularly true of the density of tomentum on the
parafrontals and the consequent differences in color and shine. If one
arranges the species in descending order of shine, insularis has polished
parafrontals (male unknown) ; floridensis and peruana have very thin and
fine tomentum that leaves highly shining parafrontals with black ground
color, concolorous with the mesonotum; aurifrons has slightly more tomen-
tose parafrontals though they are still somewhat thinly tomentose and
subshining; and adusta has the parafrontals subshining yellowish-gray in
the females but more tomentose and duller in the males. The other spe-
cies have the parafrontals of males densely tomentose and dull, but females
are unknown to me.
The male genitalia are remarkably uniform, and differences between
species are slight. For the type-species, J. floridensis, Fig. 1 shows the
posterior aspect, with the deeply divided cerci (inner forceps), and the
surstyli each with an apical excision that divides it into inner and outer
arms; Fig. 2 shows the lateral aspect of the aedeagus and gonites (gona-

Review of Genus Juriniopsis








Fig. 1. Male genitalia of Juriniopsis. 1, posterior aspect of cerci,
surstyli, and epandrium of floridensis; 2, lateral aspect of aedeagus and
gonites (gonapophyses) of floridensis. 3-7, distal portion of left surstylus
of: nitidiventris (3) ; peruana (4) ; floridensis (5) ; lampuris(6) ; and auri-
frons (7). 8, postgonite of nitidiventris. 9-10, pregonites of: aurifrons
(9) ; and floridensis (10), posterior aspect of distal half.
pophyses). The species of Juriniopsis differ most in the distal portion of
the surstyli, as seen in a direct end view that reveals the maximum amount
of excision (Fig. 3-7). However, even a slight rotation will change this
appearance; moreover, the two surstyli of a given specimen may differ
slightly between themselves in the length or curvature of the outer arm or
in the length of the inner arm and the consequent depth of the excision.
Nevertheless, in general the species seem distinguishable on this feature.
The pregonites (anterior gonapophyses) appear broader on the proximal
half in some species than in others, and the distal half is sometimes notably




The Florida Entomologist

enlarged. The extremes occur in floridensis (Fig. 10) and aurifrons (Fig. 9) ;
other species are more or less intermediate and not distinctive. The post-
gonites (posterior gonapophyses) are usually slender and curved, as in
floridensis (Fig. 2), but they are slightly broader and straighter, and end in
a "beak" in nitidiventris (Fig. 8) and peruana. The aedeagus appears to
be essentially the same in all species.
Few specimens of Juriniopsis have been reared, and I can list only the
following host records known to me:
Epargyreus clarus(Cramer) (Hesperiidae) : Pittsburgh, Penn., parasiti-
zed by J. adusta.
Halisidota sp. (Arctiidae) : Caliente, Nev., parasitized by J. aurifrons.
Ecpantheria scribonia Stoll (deflorata F. of authors) (Arctiidae) : Ash-
wood, Lee Co., S.C., 14 Feb. 1948, parasitized by J. adusta; Gainesville, Fla.,
5 Oct. 1955, recorded as parasitized by J. adusta by Patton (1958:39) but
probably by floridensis (only puparia available); Fort George, Fla., 10 June
1880, recorded as Jurinia metallica in Coquillett's Revision of Tachinidae
(1897:18) but actually a Juriniopsis, probably floridensis.


1. Parafrontals polished, except narrowly along orbits and inner margins;
face with two stripes of whitish tomentum alternating with stripes
of brownish tomentum on a dark background; antennae and palpi
infuscated; intermediate segments of front tarsi of female strongly
broadened (Cuba) --....................--....-- ......---.. --................ insularis Curran
- Parafrontals entirely tomentose, though sometimes so thinly as to
appear subshining; face with yellow ground color, uniformly covered
with white to whitish-yellow tomentum ...........................- ..--............-- 2
2. Palpi entirely bright reddish-yellow; antennae often with considerable
yellow areas ......................................... .................. ........................... ...----- 3
- Palpi more or less infuscated, brown to blackish, at least on the slender
stalks; antennae black, except narrow apices of first and second
segments; parafrontals very thinly tomentose, shining, blackish;
intermediate segments of female front tarsi broadened (Fla.) .........
.......-...-..-... ------------- ----------....................... floridensis Townsend
3. M ales ..... ...... .........------------. ... ................. ............--... ...........- 4
Females -------.....--- ....------...-- ---- -........... ................ ........... 8


4. Front at vertex obviously narrower than an eye and little over 1/4
(0.25-0.27) the head width ........................---------- -..................-.....--.. 5
- Front at vertex relatively broad, equal to or greater than the width of
an eye and 1/3 (0.33-0.35) the head width ....-....-........- ...........--...... 7
5. Parafrontals densely tomentose, dull or only slightly shining, whitish
to yellowish-white ..----........--------....................... 6
- Parafrontals thinly tomentose, shining, blackish; antennae largely
black (Peru) ............---....................................... peruana Curran
6. First and second antennal segments more or less infuscated; third
antennal segment broadened, less than twice as long as wide (1.71-
1.87) and obviously wider than the slender second segment; abdomen
usually entirely castaneous, occasionally traces of black mesally on
intermediate terga; calypteres usually dark brown (eastern U. S.,
Mexico to Costa Rica) -.-- -.................................... .. adusta (W ulp)
- First and second antennal segments bright reddish-yellow; third anten-
nal segment narrow, 2.2 times as long as broad and subequal to or

Vol. 52, No. 2

Sabrosky: Review of Genus Juriniopsis

widening only gradually from the second segment; abdomen with
broad black stripe on intermediate terga and some black on tergum
V; calypteres (in the two available specimens) predominantly whit-
ish, the rims brown (Mexico) .......................... nitidiventris (Curran)
7. Abdomen polished castaneous, at most with narrow black stripe on
intermediate terga; apical excision of each surstylus broadly U-
shaped, the arms slender, subequal in length (Fig. 7); third antennal
segment broadened basally, conspicuously wider than apex of second
segment (sw. U. S., n. Mexico) .............................. aurifrons Brooks
- Abdomen appearing polished black to bluish-black, but under micro-
scope more or less dark castaneous on sides; arms of each surstylus
unequal, the inner short and broad, outer long and slender, excision
V-shaped (Fig. 6); third antennal segment not abruptly broadened
at base, widening only gradually from second segment (Mexico) .....-
......................................................................................... lam puris R einhard

(Female nitidiventris is unknown to me; if the color of the calypteres
is consistent (cf. males), that would serve to identify them.)
8. Fore tarsi with intermediate segments (2 through 4) broadened and
flattened ............... -. --- -. ............ ................................. 9
- Fore tarsi slender, all segments equibroad ............................................ 10
9. Parafrontals very thinly and finely tomentose, shining, blackish
(Peru) .......-..........- ......------. .................................... peruana Curran
- Parafrontals more densely tomentose, subshining, dark yellowish
gray ......-.......... ..................... ...... adusta (Wulp)
10. Abdomen polished casteneous (sw. U. S., n. Mexico) ....................
------.-------.-----.. -... ... -. --................................... aurifrons Brooks
- Abdomen polished black to bluish-black to the naked eye (Mexico) .....
........................-........... .......... ........ .......lampuris Reinhard

Juriniopsis adusta (Wulp)

Jurinia adusta Wulp, 1888: 28, pl. 2, Fig. 7.-Mexico (Ventanas in
Jurinea [sic] myrrhea Brauer and Bergenstamm, 1889: 179 (separate: 111),
and pl. 10, Fig. 234; 1891: 409 (separate: 105). N.syn.
Jurinea [sic] (Paradejeania) myrrhea; Brauer and Bergenstamm, 1893:
184, 223 (separate: 96, 135).
Juriniopsis myrrhea (Brauer and Bergenstamm); Sabrosky and Arnaud,
1965: 1001.
Juriniopsis adusta appears to be a widespread species. I have been un-
able to separate Mexican and Central American specimens, including the
type series of adusta, from material from eastern United States, including
the holotype of J. myrrhea, and I have concluded that the two names must
be considered synonymous.
The distinguishing characters are given in the key. The male genitalia
are like those of floridensis(cf. Fig. 1, 2, 5), with the apical arms of each
surstylus broad and thick, the inner arm only slightly shorter than the
outer and subquadrate, not rounded apically, and the postgonites slender
and curved. There appears to be some variation in the color of the calyp-
teres, which are normally dark brown. In the four "cotype" examples of
adusta, one male has only the upper (alar) calypteres whitish, the other
male has both upper and lower calypteres whitish, and the two females

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Vol. 52, No. 2

have both brownish, though all are from the same locality and certainly
appear to be the same species. This variation throws doubt on the reli-
ability of the character as stated for nitidiventris on the basis of the only
two specimens available.
Juriniopsis adusta was described from 4 males and 2 females. Dr. Cross-
key kindly loaned 2 of each sex. One male has been designated and labeled
as lectotype, the other three specimens as paralectotypes. A headless
male of the original series is also in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.), and
is probably the same species. The whereabouts of the fourth original
male is unknown. The U.S. National Museum has a female from northern
Yucatan (Gaumer) labeled "cotype" with one of its own red cotype labels,
but this is obviously a curatorial error. The specimen bears a Biologia
label as "adusta var." and is one of the specimens recorded in the 1903
Supplement. It is conspecific with the lectotype.
The name myrrhea first appeared in Brauer and Bergenstamm (1889) in
the legend on a plate and in the accompanying index to the figures, in the
latter credited to Wiedemann. There is no description, but the association
with a figure (prior to 1931) makes the name available. The figure shows
the proboscis extended ventrad of the head, whereas the type has it in rest-
ing position between the palpi; however, Brauer may well have drawn the
proboscis as if extended in order to show its length. Incidentally, the gen-
eric name is correctly given as Jurinia in the text, but as Jurinea on the
plate, in the explanation of the plate, and in the index.
Only the male sex was cited by Brauer and Bergenstamm, and they
labeled a male in the Vienna Museum from "Pensylvanien/Coll. Winthem"
as "Myrrhea Say/Type." I regard this specimen as the holotype, and it is
the specimen loaned me by Dr. Kaltenbach. However, Paul H. Arnaud,
Jr. has kindly called attention to the existence in the Vienna Museum of a
female specimen labeled "Philadelphia/Coll. Winthem" and "myrrhea/Coll.
Winthem". To avoid future uncertainty from possible argument that this
specimen also formed part of what must be considered the original type
series of the available name myrrhea, I hereby designate the above male as
In an outline of their classification, Brauer and Bergenstamm (1891)
listed under Jurinea (sic) "myrrhea Say. Coll. Wth. [Winthem Colln., in
Vienna] Pennsylvanien." However, myrrhea did not appear in the alpha-
betical list of species studied by them, though this was probably an over-
sight. In 1893, in a supplement to the alphabetical list of the 1891 work,
they listed "myrrhea Say. n. (Jurinea) Paradejeania n.nunc. N.Amerika."
Paradejeania, as a new subgenus of Jurinia, appears on p. 147 (separate
p. 59), with a note about its characters on p. 184 (separate p. 96) where the
included species are said to be rutilioides Jaennicke and "myrrhea Say."
Other than these references, myrrhea was listed in Aldrich's Catalo-
gue (1905), mentioned by Engel (1920), qnd mentioned in an incidental
way as not being correctly referred to Paradejeania by Curran (1947)
and Arnaud (1951). Both Aldrich and Curran considered it a manuscript
name, but Arnaud correctly recognized that it was associated with a figure
and hence available. Sabrosky and Arnaud (1965) referred it to Juriniop-
sis, a new combination at that point but through oversight not so marked.
I have seen numerous specimens from the eastern United States (Penn.,
Ohio, Md., Va., Ky., Tenn., Ga., Miss., La., and Texas), and from Mexico

Sabrosky: Review of Genus Juriniopsis

(Ventanas in Durango, Yucatan), and females that appear to belong here
from El Salvador (San Salvador) and Costa Rica (Higuito, San Mateo).
Records that probably belong here but that have not now been rechecked
are from Mass., N.Y., N.C., S.C., and Mo.

Juriniopsis aurifrons Brooks
Brooks, 1949: 21.-N. Mex.
This species has the most distinctive male genitalia of the species of
Juriniopsis known to me. The arms of each surstylus are slender, subequal
in length, and widely separated, leaving a broad U-shaped excision api-
cally (Fig. 7); the pregonites are conspicuously incrassate on the distal
half (Fig. 9).
In addition to the type series holotypee, N.Mex.; paratypes, N.Mex.,
Ariz.), I have before me specimens from Utah and Colorado and two males
from northeast Louisiana.

Juriniopsis floridensis Townsend
Tachina basalis Walker, 1849: 713 (preocc. Walker, 1837).-Jamaica.
Juriniopsis floridensis Townsend, 1916: 73.-Fla.
J. adusta (Wulp) (syn., basalis) ; Townsend, 1931: 162.
J. floridensis Townsend (syn., basalis) ; Townsend, 1936: 272.
J. adusta, authors, in part.
Juriniopsis floridensis, together with J. peruana, is distinguished from
all other known Juriniopsis by the thinly tomentose, shining, blackish para-
frontals. In insularis from Cuba, these are polished; in other species, they
are more densely tomentose and hence subshining to dull, depending on the
density of the tomentum. The palpi, at least the slender stalks, are consis-
tently more or less infuscated, brown to blackish in floridensis; in all other
known species of the genus the palpi are entirely bright reddish yellow.
The color of the palpi is especially useful in distinguishing floridensis from
the easily confused peruana. Furthermore, in floridensis the fifth abdomi-
nal tergum is much more densely bristled, irregularly so but with the equiv-
alent of 4-5 rows of discals that leave unbristled only a narrow anterior
band about 1/4 the length of the tergum. In peruana, while there is some
variation, most available specimens show fewer "rows" of bristles, and the
unbristled basal area is 1/3-1/2 the length of the tergum. In females of
both species, the intermediate segments of the front tarsi are broadened
and flattened, and one must rely on the color of the palpi and the abdomi-
nal bristles. The antennae in floridensis are also much darker, typically
only narrowly reddish on the apices of the first and second segments; in
peruana the second segment is usually broadly reddish yellow distally, and
the third segment shows much of the same color basally and below, espe-
cially on the outer surface.
The width of the front at the vertex in the male is obviously less than
the width of an eye and nearly 3/10 the width of the head (sample of 10:
average 0.286, range 0.27-0.31). The male genitalia, typical of the whole
genus except in some details, are figured in detail (Figs. 1-2, 5, 10).
This species has often been recorded as adusta, especially following
Aldrich (1931: 120). Townsend at first accepted this synonymy but later
reaffirmed the distinctness of his floridensis.

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Vol. 52, No. 2

As "Jurinia metallica," which was the name adopted in Coquillett's 1897
revision of the Tachinidae, the species was twice figured in Howard's "The
Insect Book" (1901). Both figured examples are before me. One female
from Georgiana, Fla., recorded by Coquillett (1897) and used for plate 15,
Fig. 32, is typical floridensis. The other female, labeled merely "Fla."
and used for plate 22, Fig. 16, has slender fore tarsi and must therefore
be some other species. Its head seems too dark for aurifrons, but the spec-
imen is discolored, and interpretation is difficult.
I have studied a long series of specimens (145) from Florida (Boynton,
Fernandina, Georgiana, Lake Worth, Miami, New Port Richey, Royal Palm
State Park, and Sebring) and 4 ( 3 9 ) from Jamaica, including the holo-
type male of Tachina basalis.
One female, labeled "Col." (presumably Colorado) and identified by
Brauer and Bergenstamm as Jurinia adusta (hence recorded under J. metal-
lica by Coquillett, 1897), has infuscated palpi, shining parafrontals, and
broadened fore tarsi. These characters agree with floridensis, but Colorado
is far out of its known range. I believe that the specimen is probably mis-
Jamaican specimens agree with floridensis except in having a slightly
narrower front. The holotype male of Tachina basalis Walker, kindly
examined for me by R. W. Crosskey and later checked personally, has the
front at vertex only 0.23 times the head width. However, the close agree-
ment of other characters, including those of the male genitalia, convince
me that the Jamaican specimens are floridensis, as Townsend had already
Juriniopsis insularis Curran
Curran, 1960:6.-Cuba.
Only the holotype female of the species is known to me, and there are
no other published records. It is the most distinctive species in the genus
(see key). Presumably the first three characteristics will also apply to the
Juriniopsis lampuris Reinhard
Reinhard, 1953:93.-Mexico (Morelos).
The entirely black to bluish-black abdomen described for this species
is unique among the known species of Juriniopsis, all other species having
a castaneous abdomen though that color is often so dark as to appear
blackish to the naked eye. At most (e.g., nitidiventris) there is a black
median stripe with some black on the fifth (apparent fourth) tergum. It
is possible, however, that the abdominal color of lampuris is not as distinct
as described. I have before me ten males and nine females with abdomen
bluish black to the naked eye in ordinary light, but under the microscope
there are varying amounts of dark castaneous areas on the side, some-
times leaving only a median black stripe. In the darkest specimen, a male
from Nayarit, Mexico, there is only a hint of dark red on the sides in cer-
tain lights. Some years ago, I noted that the abdomen of the holotype was
slightly reddish distally as seen under the microscope. Although the ma-
terial is rather limited, the consistency of the genitalic characters leads me
to the conclusions that these specimens are conspecific and can all be refer-
red to lampuris, and that the abdominal color of lampuris is variable.

Sabrosky: Review of Genus Juriniopsis 87

In addition to the characters noted in the key, the parafrontals are dull,
heavily yellow tomentose; the first two antennal segments and base of
third reddish yellow; alar calypteres whitish in some specimens, the tho-
racic calypteres regularly dark brown; postgonites slender and curved as
in floridensis.

The surstyli are distinctive, each having a moderately wide, V-shaped
excision, long and slender outer arm, and short, blunt inner arm (Fig. 6).
This is a stage of development intermediate between nitidiventris and au-
rifrons, with which reddish examples of lampuris might be confused in
external appearance. Males of nitidiventris are distinguished by narrow
front and (if the character should prove reliable) whitish calypteres with
brown rims. Both lampuris and aurifrons males have the front broad, and
the abdominal color may vary enough that some specimens are doubtful;
for these, the character of the surstyli will be useful. Females of lampuris
and aurifrons will be difficult to separate when the abdomen of the former
is partly castaneous. Females of nitidiventris are unknown, but if they too
have slender fore tarsi they will add further to the difficulty.

The nineteen specimens before me, all from Mexico, that I place as
lampuris are as follows: 4 males (3 Guerrero, 1 Jalisco), "cotypes" of
Jurinia nitidula Wulp (see section "B" under Parafabricia nitidula); 4
males, Cuernavaca, Morelos, May-July 1945 (N. L. H. Krauss); male, 20
miles s. Tepic, Nayarit, 25 July 1963 (P. J. Spangler) ; male, Guanajuata
(A. Duges); 8 females, 5 miles w. Durango, 6500 ft., Durango, 23 July-11
Aug. 1964 (J. F. McAlpine); female, Rio Chico, 20 miles w. Durango, 7000
ft., Durango, 22 July 1964 (J. F. McAlpine). Two of the Guerrero speci-
mens and that from Jalisco are in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.); the
Durango specimens are in the Canadian National Collection at Ottawa, and
the others are in the U. S. National Museum.

Juriniopsis nitidiventris (Curran)
Jurinia nitidiventris Curran, 1928:205.-Mexico (San Rafael, Vera Cruz).

N. comb.

I have before me the holotype male and one other male from Mexico
(Cuernavaca, Morelos, May 1945, N.L.H.Krauss) with the distinctive char-
acters noted. I know of no other records. Unfortunately, the female is
unknown so that it cannot be entered in that part of the key.

The narrow front at the vertex is only 0.66-0.73 times the eye width and
0.25-0.27 times the head width, the first figure in each case being that for
the holotype. In the male genitalia, the arms of each surstylus are thick
and heavy, unequal, the inner short and subquadrate, the median excision
short (Fig. 3); the postgonites are strong compared with other species
of the genus and straight, abruptly curved forward distally (Fig. 8);
pregonites deeply notched at apex.
If the whitish, brown-rimmed calypteres were a constant feature, the
species would be distinctive and easy to spot, but unfortunately, series of
other species such as adusta and lampuris suggest that the color of the
calypteres may be variable and an unreliable specific criterion.

The Florida Entomologist

Juriniopsis peruana Curran

Juriniopsis peruanus Curran:1960:4.-Peru.
This species is close to floridensis, resembling it notably in the shining
black, very thinly tomentose parafrontals. Curran distinguished the two
species chiefly on the basis of the shape of the "posterior forceps" (cerci) ;
but I have also noted differences in the color of the palpi and the antennae
(see key), and a fairly consistent difference in the discal bristles on the fifth
(apparent fourth) tergum (see discussion under floridensis). In the single
available male, the front at the vertex is narrower than an eye and 0.27
times the head width. Both arms of each surstylus are broad, rounded
distally, and the median excision is narrow (Fig. 4). The postgonites are
relatively broad for the genus, about as figured for nitidiventris (see Fig.
8), ending acutely in a narrow beaklike apex.
I have before me (U.S.Nat.Mus.) the holotype male from Verruga
Canyon, Peru, the allotype and 5 female paratypes from Chosica, Peru, and
one other female from Chosica. Several were collected on the flowers of

Parafabricia nitidula (Wulp), new combination
Jurinia nitidula Wulp, 1892:191.-Mexico (inference from introduction);
1903:467.-Mexico (Jalisco and Guerrero).
The "cotype" (i.e., syntype) series in the collection of the British
Museum (Nat.Hist.) originally consisted of 20 specimens according to
manuscript notes made in 1929 by J.M. Aldrich, and these had been sorted
by E.E. Austen into 6 species. One syntype was later sent to the U.S. Na-
tional Museum in Washington, and 11 of the others, representing all 6 com-
ponents, were kindly loaned me through the good offices of Roger W.
Crosskey. These 12 syntypes belong to 6 species, as follows:
A. Parafabricia sp.-3 females, Amula, Guerrero, 6000 ft., Aug. Para-
facial hairs numerous, pale yellow; calypteres dark brown; abdominal
tergum III with 3 pairs of stout median marginal spines; fore tarsi slightly
B. Juriniopsis lampuris Reinhard.-4 males (3 BMNH, 1 USNM): 2,
Acaguizotla, Guerrero, 3500 ft., Oct.; 1, Chilpancingo, Guerrero, 4600 ft.,
June; 1, Santiago Iscuintla, Jalisco, July (Schumann). Parafacial hairs
few, long and black; calypteres dark brown; tergum III with 3-4 pairs of
stout median marginal spines.
C. Archytas sp. female (?metallicus R.D.)-R. Papagaio, Guerrero,
1200 ft. Oct. Parafacial hairs few, black; calypteres dark brown: tergum
III with one pair of median marginals; fore tarsus slender.
D. Archytas lateralis (Macq.)-male, female, Xucumanatlas, Guerrero,
7000 ft., July. Parafacial hairs black; calypteres whitish; tergum III with
one pair of median marginals; fore tarsus of female slender.
E. Genus?-female, same locality as preceding. A completely different
fly, with bare parafacials, bare propleura, and long ocellar bristles.
F. Archytas sp. near aterrimus Robineau-Desvoidy--male, Acapulco,
Guerrero, Sept. Parafacial hairs few, black; calypteres whitish: tergum
III with one pair of median marginals.

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Sabrosky: Review of Genus Juriniopsis

Aldrich labeled a specimen of species "B" as holotype, but only species
"A" agrees with the original description and with the detailed redescription
in the Biologia. Van der Wulp (1892) gave only a brief, 7-line description,
chiefly of color, that applied in gross aspect to all the species. He did
mention the slightly dilated front tarsi of the female, and this is true only
of females of species "A". His more complete description in 1903 repeated
this but further specified that the cheek hairs were concolorous with the
cheeks, i.e., "yellowish-white", and that the thoracic dorsum had pale
yellowish pile. Both these are characters only of the "A" series. In as much
as Aldrich did not publish his selection, his lectotype is not binding, and I
choose to ignore it and to designate herewith a specimen of species "A" as
lectotype and the other two before me as paralectotypes. Five other fe-
males of the original series in the British Museum (Nat.Hist.) agree
with these, according to information from Dr. Crosskey, and they are also
here designated as paralectotypes. All eight are from the same locality,
Amula, Guerrero. Seven were collected in August and one in September
by H.H. Smith.
The differences in these 6 species are so great that it is difficult to be-
lieve all were actually "cotypes" as labeled. It seems likely that some were
associated with the true originals and so labeled as a curatorial error
though Van der Wulp himself may have associated some or all of them
on the basis of superficial resemblance.
Van der Wulp's 1903 description, except for his brief notes on males,
will serve to characterize the species, with the following slight amend-
ments: The third antennal segment is longer than the second and is nar-
rowly rufous at base; the hairs of all parts of the head are pale yellowish
to yellowish-white except for black hairs on the ocellar tubercle and on the
upper parafrontals laterad the reclinate frontal bristles; the abdomen does
appear "shining bluish-black" to the naked eye, but under the microscope
the ground color is chiefly dark reddish to reddish black, with bluish-
purple shine; the yellow pile of the thoracic dorsum is variably mixed with
black pile, but yellow predominates on the humeri and notopleura, and
sometimes on the prescutum. I may add that the pleural hairs are yellow,
including those of the propleura, and that in the 3 females before me the
front is narrowed above, the width at vertex only slightly wider than an
eye (1.1-1.2 times) and 1.37 times the width of the head.

Aldrich, J. M. 1905. A catalogue of North American Diptera. Smithso-
nian Inst., Smithsonian Misc. Collect. 46(2): 1-680.
Aldrich, J. M. 1931. Notes on Diptera No. 5. Entomol. Soc. Wash. Proc.
33: 116-121.
Arnaid, P. H., Jr. 1951. A study of the genus Paradejeania Brauer and
Bergenstamm (Diptera: Tachinidae or Larvaevoridae). Canad.
Entomol. 83: 317-329.
Aissten, E. E. 1907. The synonymy and generic position of certain species
of Muscidae (sens. lat.) in the collection of the British Museum,
described by the late Francis Walker. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist.,
Ser. 7, 19: 326-347.
Brauer, F., and Bergenstamm, J. E. von. 1889. Die Zweifliigler des Kaiser-
lichen Museums zu Wien, IV. K. Akad. der Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat.
CI., Denkschr. 56(1) : 69-180, 11 P1. (also separate, 1889, 112 p.)

90 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 52, No. 2

Brauer, F., and Bergenstamm, J. E. von. 1891. Die Zweifliigler des Kaiser-
lichen Museums zu Wien. V. K. Akad. der Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. Cl.,
Denkschr. 58: 305-446. (also separate, 1891, 142 p.)
Brauer, F., and Bergenstamm, J. E. von. 1893. Die Zweifliigler des Kaiser-
lichen Museums zu Wien. VI. K. Akad. der Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat.
Cl., Denkschr. 60:89-240. (also separate, 1893, 152 p.)
Brauer, F., and Bergenstamm, J. E. von. 1894. Die Zweifliigler des Kaiser-
lichen Museums zu Wien. VII. K. Akad. der Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat.
Cl., Denkschr. 61: 537-624 (also separate, 1894, 88 p.)
Brooks, A. R. 1949. New North American larvaevorine flies (Diptera,
Larvaevoridae). Canad. Entomol. 81: 21-24.
Coquillett, D. W. 1897. Revision of the Tachinidae of America north of
Mexico. USDA., Div. Entomol., Tech. Ser. 7: 1-156.
Curran, C. H. 1928. Revision of the American species of Archytas (Tachi-
nidae, Diptera). Canad. Entomol. 60: 201-208, 218-226, 249-256, 275-
Curran, C. H. 1947. New and little known American Tachinidae. Amer.
Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull. 89:41-122.
Curran, C. H. 1960. Review of the tachinid genus Juriniopsis Townsend
(Diptera). Amer. Mus. Novitates 2014: 1-7.
Engel, E. 0. 1920. Studien fiber neotropische Hystriciidae sensu B. et B.
(Dipt.) Zool. Jahrb., Abt. f. System. 43: 273-328.
Howard, L. 0. 1901. The Insect Book. New York, 429 p., 48 pl., 264 text
Patton, C. N. 1958. A catalogue of the Larvaevoridae of Florida. Fla.
Entomol. 41: 29-39, 77-89.
Reinhard, H. J. 1953. New species of Tachinidae from Mexico (Diptera).
Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. Bull. 48: 89-96.
Sabrosky, C. W. and P. H. Arnaud, Jr. 1965. Tachinidae. p. 961-1108, In
Stone et al., A catalog of the Diptera of America north of Mexico.
Washington, D.C., 1696 p.
Townsend, C. H. T. 1916. Some new North American muscoid forms. In-
secutor Inscitiae Menstruus 4: 73-78.
Townsend, C. H. T. 1931. Notes on American oestromuscoid types. Rev.
de Entomol. 1: 65-104, 157-183.
Townsend, C. H. T. 1936. Manual of Myiology. Part 4. Sao Paulo, 303 p.
Walker, F. 1849. List of the specimens of dipterous insects in the collec-
tion of the British Museum, 2: 231-484.
Wulp F. M. van der. 1888-1890. Insecta, Diptera, Vol. 2, 428 p., 12 P1. In
Godman, F. D., and Salvin, 0., eds., Biologia Centrali-Americana.
Wulp, F. M. van der. 1892. Diagnoses of new Mexican Muscidae. Ti-
jdschr. v. Entomol. 35: 183-195.
Wulp, F. M. van der. 1903. Supplement. Insecta, Diptera, 2: 429-489, PI.
13, In Godman, F. D., and 0. Salvin, ed. Biologia Centrali-Ameri-

The Florida Entomologist 52(2) 1969


The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa.

Two hundred and eighty eight new records have been obtained since
publication of the previous lists of insects taken in light traps at the Arch-
bold Biological Station, Highlands County, Florida. A new genus and
species of aphid Grylloprociphilus frosti Smith and Pepper and records of
two new species of Coleoptera, Eurygyne frosti Dybas and Serica frosti
Dawson, are included. Several species are recorded from Florida for the
first time.

The first list of insects taken in light traps at the Archbold Biological
Station appeared in 1964 (Frost 1964). Two years later additions to this
list were published (Frost 1966). Sufficient new records have been obtained
to warrant additions. Many new species have been retained by specialists
for study and description. Methods of entry and abbreviations are the
same as those used in the previous lists.


Cycloptilum trigonipalpum (R.&H.) 3/25
Acheta assimilis Fab. 2/26, 3/27, 4/8, 4/27


Mantispidae (R. G. Beard, CU)
Mantispa sayi Banks delete from 1964 list
Mantispa interrupta Say 3/17 to 5/7 SC.

Chrysopidae (P. A. Adams, UC)
Chrysopa bimaculata McClendon 1/26, 2/8
Chrysopa incomplete Banks 3/8
Chrysopa near lineaticornis Fitch 3/4, 3/16, 3/26, 3/30
Nodita pavida Hagen 3/17

Conioprerygidae, at least three species have been retained by M. Meinander,
Finland for study.


Callibaetis floridanus Banks 1/8
Centroptilum viridocularis Berner 1/17, 3/13, 3/30
Hexagenia mundo orlando Traver 4/28

'Authorized for publication on 6 December 1968 as paper No. 3521 in the
journal series of the Pennsylvania Agricultural Experiment Station.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 52, No. 2

ODONATA (G. H. and A. F. Beatty, State College, Pa.)

Enallagma laurenti Calvert 5/7
Ischnura posita Calvert 5/22
Nehallenia pallidula Calvert 4/22

PSOCOPTERA (E. L. Mockford, ISU)

Lachesilla pedicularia (Linn.) 4/24

Caecilius tamiama Mockford 3/5
Graphocaecilius sp. 4/2

Ectopsocus meridionalis Ribaga
Peripsocus madescens complex 2/13
Peripsocus madidus (Hagen) 1/4, 2/13
Peripsocus stragnivagus Chapman 1/11, 3/25
Blaste opposite (Banks) 3/12
Psocidus submarginatus (Aaron) 1/22

Lichenomima sp. B 2/22


Membracidae (R. C. Froeschner, USNM)
Archasia galeata (Fab.) 4/1 to 4/28
Cyrtolobus clarus Woodruff 4/21
Enchenopa binotata (Say) 4/18 to 4/27
Entylia concisa Walker 2/26
Ophiderma flaviguttula J. ,.:o' Woodruff 1/23
Ophiderma pubescens (Emmons) 3/31, 4/13
Telamona new sp. 4/11, 4/22, 4/24, 4/25

Cicadellidae (J. P. Kramer except Erythroneura L. Hepner MSC)
Chlorotettix products Saund. & DeLong 1/5, 2/10, 2/14, 2/21, 3/12
Erythroneura brevipes Beamer 2/9
Erythroneura comoides Ross & DeLong 1, 2, 4 S.C.
Erythroneura florida Ross & DeLong 1/26
Gyponana octolineata cana Burm. 4/29
Homalodisca coagulata (Say) 5/7
Norvellina seminuda (Say) 4/16
Scaphoideus sp. 1/25

Bothriocera tinealis Burm. 4/29, 5/3
Cedusa sp. 11, 3, 4
Delphacodes sp. 2/12

Frost: Florida Insects From Light Traps

Megamelus gracilis Beamer 1/4
Ormenaria rufifascia (Wlk.) 4/27, 4/28, 5/7
Sogata sp. 11/16
Aphididae (J. O. Pepper, PSU)
Aphis sambucifoliae Fitch 1/11
Colopha ulmisacculi Patch 1/11
Grylloprociphilus frosti Smith & Pepper 1, 2. 3, 104 specimens Jan. 4.
Cicadetta calliope floridensis Davis 5/24

HEMIPTERA (R. C. Froeschner USNM)
Sphyrocoris obliquus (Germar) 1/5
Symphylus caribbeanus Kirkaldy 4/7
Arvelius albopunctatus (De Geer) 4/17
Piezodorus guildinii (Westw.) 3/12, 3/15, 3/20, 4/11
Solubea pugnax (Fab) 3/10 S. C.
Thyanta perditor (Fab.) 4/11
Hyalymenus longispinus Stil. 2/13, 3/7
Leptocorixa filiformis (Fab.) 11, 3, S. C.
Leptocorixa tipuloides (De Geer) delete from 1964 list.
Namacus annulicornis StAl. 5/7
Namacus sp. 5/26, 5/28
Belonochilus numenius (Say) 4/1
Exptochiomera intercisa Barber 3/25, 4/4 Det by J. Herring
Nysius raphanus Howard 4/12
Ochrimnus mimulus (Stal.) 5/18
Oedancala crassimana (Fab.) 3/29

Largus davisi Barber 1/1, 1/26
Largus succinctus (Linn) 11/8
Empicoris armatus (Champ.) delete from 1964 list
Empicoris errabundus (Say) 1/7 to 4/1 C.
Narvesus carolinensis Stal. delete from 1964 list
Oncocephalus geniculatus Stal. 1/10 to 3/29 C.
Saica florida Barber 1/5
Stenopoda cinerea Lap. 4/22, 4/25

Prepops fraternus (Knight) 5/7 to 5/28 C.
Stenodemini sp. 4/24
Nabis capsiformis Germar 4/24

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 52, No. 2

Carabidae (H. Dietrich, CU)
Agonum decorus (Say) 2/24
Agonum octopunctatum Fab. 1/15
Polopinus nitidus Lee. 3/31, 4/27, 5, 5
Orthoperidae (H. Dietrich CU)
Molamba fasciatus (Say) 2/18, 3/14
Molamba ornata Csy. 3/14
Ptiliidae (H. S. Dybas, CNHM)
Eurygyne contorta Dybas 11/15
Eurygyne frosti Dybas 11/10, 11/16 over 200 specimens
Eurygyne lutea Dybas 11/15
Eurygyne steevensi Dybas 11/15
Phengodidae (H. Dietrich CU)
Phengodes fuscipes Lee. 1/16
Cleridae (J. N. Knull, OS)
Trichodes apivorus apivorus (Germ) 3/29
Lampyridae (J. E. Lloyd, UF)
The Lampyridae are under critical study by J. E. Lloyd, which will re-
sult in many new species and varieties. Photuris brunneipennis Florida
Barber and Photuris potomaca Barber have not been taken at the Archbold
Biological Station and should be dropped from the 1964 list.
Lucidota luteicollis Lee. 4/11, 4/18
Photinus collustrans Lee. Complex 4/22, 4/27
Photinus umbratus Lee. 4/27, 5/5
Photuris lloydi McD. 3/4, 3/12, 3/16, 4/7
Photuris pennsylvanicus (DeG.) complex A 3/16, 5/3
Photuris pennsylvanicus (DeG.) complex B 4/11
Photuris versicolor (Fab.) complex 4/8, 4/17, 4/26
Corynetidae (H. Dietrich CU)
Orthopleura damicornis Fab. 5/7
Oedemeridae (H. Dietrich, CU)
Oxacis thoracica Fab. 5/2, 5/3, 5/12
Xanthochroa sp. 5/14
Meloidae (H. Dietrich CU)
Epicauta fabricii (Lec.) 4/25
Elateridae (J. N. Knull, OSU)
Esthesopus sp. 4/28, 5/5
Conoderus amplicollis (Gyll.) 5/11
Conoderus arvensus (Lec.) 5/11, 5/12, 5/17
Drasterius sp. 3/2
Hemirhipus fascicularis (Fab.) 4/29
Melanotus ignobilis Melsh. 4/27
Orthostethus infuscatus (Germ.) 5/14, 5/21
Pyrophorus atlanticus Hyslop 5/21

Frost: Florida Insects From Light Traps 95

Erotylidae (W. Boyle, PSU)
Ischyrus dunedinensis Blatchley 5/12, only two other specimens known, one
at U. S. National Museum, one at Ohio State University
Nitidulidae (H. F. Howden, CDA)
Stelidota geminata (Say) 2/18
Lagriidae (C. T. Parsons, Manchester, Vt.)
Statira daplera Parsons 2/24, 3/5. paratypes
Amphicerus cornutus (Pallas) 5/4
Scarabaeidae (0. L. Cartwright USNM)
Eucanthus alutaceus Cartw. 1/10
Eucanthus impressus Howden 3/25
Hybosorus illigeri (Reiche) 4/21, 5/2, 5, 8, 5.16
Phyllophaga elongata (Linell) 5/5, 5/25
Psammodius malkini Cartw. a small series taken at light by Cartwright
Serica errans Blatchley deleted from 1964 list.
Serica frosti Dawson all previous records relate to this species.
Cerambycidae (J. N. Knull, OSU)
Eburia distinct Hald. 5/18
Ecyrus dasycercus floridanus Linn. 4/28
Enaphalodes atomarius (Drury) 4/26
Lepturges angulatus (Lec.) 5/12
Neoclytus cordifer (Klug.) 3/12
Prionus imbricornis (Linn.) 4/2, 4/16, 4/22, 5/2
Psyrassa pertenius (Csy.) 5/5
Chrysomelidae (S. W. Frost)
Colaspis brunnea (Fab.) 4/28
Cryptocephalus notatus (Fab.) var. 3/7
Curculionidae (H. Dietrich, CU)
Eugnamptus striatus Lec. 3/30, 4/22, 5/3
Piazorhinus pictus Lec. 3/3
Trigonorhina sticticus (Boh.) 3/19
Cebrionidae (H. Dietrich, CU)
Selondon bicolor Fab. 5/24
Selondon mandibularis Lee. 5/6, 5/24

LEPIDOPTERA (C. P. Kimball, Sarasota, Fla.)
Amphion nessus (Cramer) 2/11, 4/12, 4/25,
Ampeloeca myron texana Clark 2/29, 3/30
Cressonia juglandis (A. and S.) 3/15, 4/3, 4/25
Deidamia inscriptum (Harr.) 2/14, 3/12
Herse cingulata (Fab.) 4/12, 4/20, 5/3
Pachylia ficus (Linn.) 2/24

The Florida Entomologist

Phlegethontius sexta (John.) 5/1, 5/2, 5/4
Pholus achemon (Drury) 4/9
Pholus labruscae (Linn.) 1/15

Citheronia sepulchralis G & R. 4/12

Neoplynes eudora (Dyar) 4/10
Acronicta americana Harris 3/22
Acontia aprica (Hbn.) 3/9
Araeoptera vilhelmina Dyar 1/27
Lacinipolia parvula (H.-S. )4/2
Leucania latiuscula (H.-S.) 11, 11, 1/5 to 5/1 S.
Morrisonia confuse (Hbn.) 3/13
Bellura melanopyga (Grote) 2/20
Euthisanotia unio Hbn. 4/20
Phospila miseloides (Gn.) 2/16, 4/22,
Spodoptera exigua (Hbn.) 4/7
Marathyssa basalis Wlk. 3/15, 3/17, 3/25, 4/3, 4/
Trichoplusia oxygramma (Geyer) 1/24
Catocala consors (A & S.) 4/27, 5/2, 5/22, 5/27
Catocala muliercula Gn. 4/30
Zale aeruginosa (Gn.) 5/2
Zale horrid Hbn. 3/3, 3/23

Vol. 52, No. 2


18, 4/25

Melipotis fasciolaris (Hbn.) 3/13, 4/18
Melipotis januaris (Gn.) 2/23
Ophiuche minualis (Gn.) 2/28
Scolecocampa liburna (Geyer) 3/25, 3/30, 4/11
Salia interpuncta (Grote) 4/2
Bleptina hydrillalis Gn. 2/20
Hypenula cacuminalis (Wlk.) 4/10
Renia discoloralis Gn. 4/3 Det. Franclemont CU.
Renia flavipunctalis Geyer 4/13 Det Franclemont CU.
Renia nemoralis B. & McD. 3/11, 3/29

Dasylophia anguina (A. & S.) 3/29, 4/8
Nadata gibbosa (A. & S.) 2/23

Frost: Florida Insects From Light Traps

Malacosoma disstria Hbn. 4/20, 4/27, 5/1

Abbottana clemataria (A. & S.) 3/26
Chlorochlamys indiscriminata (Wlk.) 1/5, 1/26, 2/2, 2/14, 2/22, 4/5
Epimecis hortaria (Fab.) 2/10
Hammaptera parinotata (Zell.) 3/20
Mellilla inextricata (Wlk.) 3/26
Oxydia vesulia transponens (Wlk.) 3/1
Scelolophia pannaria (Gn.) 2/16
Lygris gracilineata Gn. 4/10

Cicinnus melsheimeri (Harris) 1/7, 4/29, 4/30, 5/2, 5/4

Dicymolomia metalophota (Hamp.) 2/27
Dicymolomia pegasalis Wlk. 3/12, 3/22, 3/25
Glaphyria fulminalis (Led.) 3/29, 4/5
Loxostege neoheloides Capps 4/9, 5/23
Loxostege polling Capps, 3/8, papatype
Sylepta obscuralis (Led.) 3/15
Omphalocera dentosa Grote 3/25
Rupela sejuncta Hein. 3/18, 3/28, 3/29
Scirpophaga perstrialis (Hbn.) 4/28
Crambus multilineellus Fern. 2/23
Ommatopteryx texana Rob. 2/22
Tetralopha melanogrammos Zell. 4/2

Euzophera ostricolorella Hulst 3/23
Salebria tenebrosella Hulst 2/10, 2/11, 3/30, 4, 13

Adaina buscki B & L. 1/11, 1/21, 1/22
Platyptilia brachymorpha Meyrick 1/10
Trichoptilus parvilus B. & L. 4/17
Several other species are awaiting identification

Hedia cyanana Murtf. 3/14
Phaecasiophora inspersa Hein. 4/15

Argyrotaenia tabulana Freeman 3/6, 3/18
Archips semiferanus (Wlk.) 5/1

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 52, No. 2

Cosmopteryx minutella Beut. 3/5

Stegasta capitella (Fab.) 2/2

Aegeriidae (A. E. Bower, Me. Forest Service)
Synanthedon marica Beut. 5/1

Plutella porrectella (Linn.) 2/13

Erynnis zarucco (Lucas) 2/9, 3/11
Goniurus proteus (Linn.) 1/2, 1/7, 1/19, 1/24, 5/22
Polites vibex (Geyer) 4/13
Atlides halesus (Cramer) 3/12
Leptotes cassius theonus (Lucas) 1/13
Strymon cecrops (Fab.) 5/21
Strymon martialis (H.-S.) 2/3, 4/12


Psychodidae (L. W. Quate, BBM)
Telmatoscopus albipunctatus (Will.) 1, 2, 3, 4

Dilophus orbatus (Say) 1/9
Plecia americana Hardy 4/24, 5/1
Sargus lucens Loew 4/20

Tabanidae (L. L. Pechuman, CU.)
Asaphomyia texensis Stone 5/20
Chrysops vittatus var. floridanus John. 4/21, 4/26
Chrysops near pudicus 0. S. 4/8
Diachlorus ferrugatus (Fab.) 5/12
Microtabanus pygmaeus (Will.) 4/15
Tabanus aar Philip 5/12, 5/18
Tabanus americanus Forster 5/4
Tabanus lineola floridanus Szil 4/21
Tabanus trijunctus Wlk. 4/13, 4/26, 5/5, 5/7
Tabanus wiedemanni 0. S. 5/4

Therevidae (L. L. Pechuman, CU)
Furcifera nr. rufiventris (Loew) 3/17, 3/i9
Asilidae (C. H. Martin, OSU)
Beameromyia vulgaris Martin 5/21
Holopogon phaeonotus Loew 4/8
Bombyliidae (L. L. Pechuman, CU)
Phthiria punctipennis Wlk. 4/13

Frost: Florida Insects From Light Traps

Dolichopodidae (F. C. Harmston, Greely, Colo.)
Condylostylus chrysoprasi (Wlk.) 1/4
Diasphorus mundus (Wd.) 2/9, 3/5, 3/12, 4/26
Gymnopternus vockerothi (Rob.) 2/23
Mesorhaga caudata VanD. 4/23
Pipunculidae (D. E. Hardy, UH)
Pipunculus (Cephalosphaera) constrictus Banks 2/18
Pipunculus (Eudorylas) affinis Cres. 3/28, 4/14
Phoridae (T. Borgmeier, Jacarepagus, Brasil)
Becherina neotropica Borgm. 3/10
Platypezidae (E. L. Kessel, US)
Platypeza millironi Kessel 12/24

Conopidae (S. Camras, Chicago)
Physocephala sagittaria (Say) 3/28, 4/15, 5/4
Physoconops sylvosus (Will.) 4/26
Sphecomyiella valida (Harris) 4/23, 4/27, 5/1, 5/2, 5/4, 5/5
Otidae (G. Steyskal, USNM)
Chaetopsis fulvifrons (Macq.) 3/17, 3/18, 3/25
Physiphora aenea (Fab.) 1/22, 1/26, a new record for Florida
Tephritidae (R. H. Foote, USNM)
Anastrepha suspense (Loew) 4/20, 4/21, 4/22, 4/29, also reared from guava
and Surinam cherry
Platystomatidae (G. Steyskal, USNM)
Rivellia variabilis Loew 2/21
Sciomyzidae (L. Knutson, USNM)
Atrichomelina pubera (Loew) 2/26
Dictya floridensis Steyskal 12/10, 1/1, 3/29
Dictya ptyarion Steyskal 4/24
Pherbellia humilis (Loew) 3/28
Sphaeroceridae (C. W. Sabrosky, USNM)
Copromyza sp. 1/12
Chamaemyidae (J. F. McAlpine, ODA)
Leucopis (ocellaris Mall. group) 2/2, 2/19, 3/13, 4/2, 4/7 retained for study
Milichiidae (S. W. Frost)
Leptometopa latipes (Meig.) 2/16, 4/14
Neophyllomyza quadricornis Mel. 2/4
Milichiella arcuata (Loew) 4/4, 4/5, 4/15, 4/23, 4/27
Phyllomyza n. sp. (C. W. Sabrosky USNM)
Ephydridae (W. W. Wirth, USNM)
Notiphila vittata Loew 4/15
Chloropidae (C. W. Sabrosky, USNM)
Ectecephala unicolor (Loew) 3/28
Monochaetoscinella nigricornis (Loew) 2/12

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 52, No. 2

Agromyzidae (K. A. Spencer, London, Eng.)
Liriomyza munda Frick 11, 12, 1, 2, 3 also reared from mines on leaves of
Phytobia (Amauromyza) maculosa (Mall.) recorded on 1964 list; subse-
quently reared from mines on the leaves of Emile coccinea, Baccharis
halmifolia, Erechtites hieracifolia, and Garberia fructosa 2, 3, 4
Phytobia (Calycomyza) cassiae Frost 4/28, also reared from mines on the
leaves of Cassia.
Phytobia (Calycomyza) malvae Burgess recorded on 1964 list, subsequently
reared from mines on the leaves of Sida.
Phytomyza sp. 4/23, 4/30, also reared from blotch mines on the leaves of
Ilex arenicola.

Mumetopia nigrimanna (Coq.) 3/4

Chyromyidae (J. F. McAlpine, ODA)
Aphaniosoma near aldrichi Wheeler 3/22, 4/7
Sigaloessa sp.

Muscidae (H. C. Huckett, Long Island, N.Y.)
Coenosia (Neodexiopsis) floridensis (Mall.) 4/27
Coenosia (Neodexiopsis) major (Mall.) 1/4, 2/17

Tachinidae (H. J. Reinhard, TAMC)
Eucordyligaster septentrionalis (Twns.) 4/18
Euphasiopteryx brevicornis (Twns.) 4/23
Oestrophasia clausa B & B. 3/16, 4/11
Sarcophagidae (H. R. Dodge, UW.)
Ravinia anandra (Dodge) 1/20
Ravinia derelicta (Wlk.) 1/9, 2/3
Calliphora livida Hall 2/3

Emmesomyia apicalis Mall. 4/9, 4/10
Pegomyia rubriceps Huckett 12, 1, 2, 3, 4 C. also reared as a leaf miner on
the leaves of Amaranthus


Acordulecera sp. 3/4, 3/5

Xyelidae (B. D. Burks, USNM)
Xyela obscure (Strobl.) 1/23, 1/25

Pristiphora chlorea (Norton)
Schizocerella pilicornis (Holmgren) 4/30, 5/2 also reared from blotch mines
on the leaves of blackberry

Frost: Florida Insects From Light Traps

Ichneumoninae (G. H. Heinrich, Dryden, Maine)
Coelichneumon navus (Say) 4/2
Xorides humeralis piceatus (Rohwer) 5/28

Tiphiidae (K. V. Krombein USNM)
Tiphia floridana Robt. 1/4, 1/31, 3/25
Tiphia intermedia Hall. 5/6
Pompilidae (H. Evans, MCZ)
Paracyphononyx funereus (Lep. )3/18, 3/28
Phanagenia bombycina (Cress.) 4/41
Priocnessus nebulosa (Dahlb.) 4/22

Augochloropsis cuprea (Smith) 3/11

Frost, S. W. 1964. Insects taken in light traps at the Archbold Biological
Station, Highlands County, Florida. Fla. Entomol. 47: 129-161.
Frost, S. W. 1966. Additions to Florida insects taken in light traps. Fla.
Entomol. 49: 243-251.
The Florida Entomologist 52(2) 1969

Taxonomic papers that contain descriptions of new species or genera
should be illustrated and must contain keys or be correlated with existing


a new name stands out

on the pesticide label...


The name "Cythion" on the label means the
product is premium-grade.
Cythion is manufactured under our exclusive
patented process that assures maximum quality
and superior reliability.
Low in odor and low in hazard-only Cythion is
registered for use on stored grain, recommended
for use inside homes, and accepted for use on
humans. Registered for use on a wider range of
pests than any other product, and on a larger
number of crops and animals, with no.residue
problems for close-to-harvest uses.
Look for Cythion, the premium-grade malathion,
on pesticides for agricultural, home and garden,
pet, stored product, ULV and public health use-
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Before using any pesticide, stop and read the label.


Department of Entomology, Mississippi State University, State College

A laboratory colony of Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis has been estab-
lished to rear parasitoids in larger numbers than can be field collected.
Sufficient parasitoids are being produced for various biological studies.
This rearing procedure could be employed for studying other related
species, or with modifications could be the basis for developing a biological
control technique for various pest species of Diptera.

Studies conducted under field conditions by Pinkus (1913) and Lindquist
(1936) provided partial knowledge of the life cycle of Spalangia sp.
Richardson (1913) reported on a detailed study of habits and development
of Spalangia muscidarum Richardson. His report included an extensive
literature review of Spalangia and described the various stages of develop-
ment. This species also develops in horn fly and house fly pupae. DeBach
(1964) reported that several species of Spalangia would hybridize if con-
fined in the laboratory but would not cross in nature.
The parasitoid, Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis can be field collected in
small numbers from house fly, Musca domestic (L.), and horn fly, Haema-
tobia irritans (L.), pupae in the area of State College, Mississippi. Its
small natural incidence makes field collections time consuming without
providing adequate numbers for a meaningful biological study. Certain
necessary and intricate data can be collected with fewer variations when
laboratory rearing procedures are available. Therefore, studies to rear
this parasitoid were initiated during February 1968.


The colony is maintained in the laboratory at a temperature of 23 -27
C in a nylon screen sleeve cage 31 x 31 x 46 cm. The cage is fitted with a
glass top to facilitate the work inside required during the rearing proce-
dure. The entire cage is covered with a removable vinyl material to keep
out light when work is not being done with the colony. Excess light causes
a reduction in the percentage of host pupae that are parasitized. Host fly
pupae with adult parasitoids are kept in 20 dram vials stoppered with a
cotton plug. Two or three drops of distilled water are added to each vial
as needed to avoid dryness and reduce mortality of the pupae and parasi-
toids. Approximately 200 fly pupae are placed in each rearing vial with
25-30 adult parasitoids. The males and females mate 2-3 hr after emer-
gence with multiple mating of females being observed. Males live
longer than females and the sex ratio was found to be nearly 1:1 in each
developing group. Both species of fly pupae must be collected and exposed
to the adult parasitoids within 4 to 5 hrs after pupation to be suitable

1Supported by USDA Cooperative Agreement No. 12-14-100-8478(33).
2Research Assistant and Assistant Professor, respectively.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 52, No. 2

hosts. After the pupal covering has turned dark and becomes rigid, the
parasitoid will not deposit its eggs through the puparium.
Adult Spalangia specimens are collected daily with soft forceps as they
emerge from pupae in the rearing vial. Initially the parasitoids were
grouped with new host pupae for 2-5 days depending on numbers
For detailed biological and environmental studies the specimens have
been individually reared. This procedure involves dissection and removal
of the fly puparium under a binocular microscope 5 days after parasitization.
Preliminary dissections indicated it requires 3 days for eggs to hatch and
approximately 2 days for the new larva to become satisfactorily attached
to the host. The body of the fly and the developing parasitoid are en-
closed in clear plastic for rearing. A 3 inch square of Saran Wrap is
folded with the opposite corners joining to form a pocket for the develop-
ing specimen. This plastic enclosure is placed in a 5 dram vial with 2 ml
water to avoid dryness. The vial is stoppered with a tight cotton plug.


At present the colony is flourishing and a group of approximately
200 fly pupae are being parasitized on alternate days. The colony is now
in its sixth generation and includes approximately 450 individuals. Emer-
gence time of a group of 50 parasitized pupae will vary from 25-37 days
when reared at 23.3-26.1 C. The number of days required for complete
development is usually 3 or 4 days less than the above stated emergence
time. Individuals will mate shortly after emergence. Males and females
can be separated without the aid of a microscope. The female is somewhat
larger and the abdomen is elongated and narrow, with males having a
shorter and rounder abdomen. Adult size is directly proportionate to the
mass of the host pupae. Specimens are approximately twice as large when
reared from normal house fly pupae as from horn fly pupae. Fly pupal
size can be controlled by the numbers reared in each batch of medium.
Parasitoids are monoembronic in their development, even when very large
pupae are used as hosts.
Adult parasitoids crawl quickly but fly feebly soon after emergence.
Two days after emergence the adult is able to maintain sustained flight and
is very agile. They are positively phototropic but not strongly attracted
to light. This trait aids in the collection of adult parasites when large
numbers are produced.
The technique of individual rearing provides a tool for studying imma-
ture development and the production of virgin females. The assessment
of larval and pupal development periods can be made by inspection through
the plastic.
The biotic potential of this parasite is high with females able to para-
sitize 8-20 house fly pupae in preliminary tests. A moderate number of
days is required for its development and its reproductive potential is high.
We believe this parasite has potential as a biological control agent for the
horn fly, particularly since this parasitoid can be reared simply on house
fly pupae. These studies have led to the establishment of a laboratory
colony which is completely removed from field conditions. Rearing and


Hoelscher: Rearing of Spalangia nigroaenea

releasing large numbers of the parasitoid may have promise for horn fly
control if releases are made when horn fly populations are small during the
time of overwintering.
We thank B. D. Burks for assistance in specimen identification and J. R.
Brazzel for suggestions in rearing procedures.
DeBach, P. 1964. Biological Control of Insect Pests and Weeds. Rein-
hold Pub. Co. New York. 844 p.
Lindquist, A. W. 1936. Parasites of horn fly and other flies breeding in
dung. J. Econ. Entomol. 29:1154-1158.
Pinkus, H. 1913. The life history and habits of Spalangia muscidarum
Richardson, a parasite of the stable fly. Psyche. 20: 148-158.
Richardson, C. H. 1913. Studies on the habits and development of a hy-
menopterous parasite Spalangia muscidarum Rich. J. Morphol., 24:
The Florida Entomologist 52(2) 1969


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Your partner in crop production ROHM I


University of Florida, IFAS, Citrus Experiment Station
Lake Alfred, Florida 33850

Grove studies indicate that the parasitic fungus, Entomophthora flori-
dana Weiser & Muma, is consistently coincident with infestations of the
Texas citrus mite, Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor), and is highest in
southern citrus growing areas during the summer and fall in adult mites.
Mean incidence of infection varies from year-to-year and grove-to-grove,
but at rates from 36.8 to 86.3 per cent apparently produces mite population
reducing mortalities.

The parasitic fungus, Entomophthora floridana Weiser & Muma, was
described in 1966 in order to give status to biological studies on the fungus
by Selhime and Muma (1966). The latter 2 workers determined that in the
laboratory at room temperatures the fungus completed a cycle in Texas
citrus mite, Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor), from exposure to infection
to the production of primary conidia in 5 to 6 days. Infection was found
to be predominately accomplished by anadhesive spores. Laboratory
studies indicated that the fungus would infect citrus red mite, Panonychus
citri (McGregor), and six-spotted mite, Eotetranychus sexmaculatus
(Riley), but with less frequency than in Texas citrus mite.
Although most studies by Selhime and Muma were conducted in the
laboratory, some preliminary data was obtained on coincidence or co-
existence, and incidence or infection of E. floridana with and in Texas citrus
mite under grove conditions. They found that during a 3-month period,
from 27 April to 27 July 1964, incidence of infection varied from 0 to 16.5
with an average of 1.9 for protonymphs, from 0 to 20.2%, with an average
2.2 for deutonymphs, and from 0 to 49.2%/1 with an average of 5.7 for adult
females. In a moderately infested grove during a rainy period between
4 and 10 August 1964, they found that the incidence of E. floridana on
adult females varied from 12.1 to 100/ with an average of 49.3. The coin-
cidence, or occurrence of the fungus with Texas citrus mite, was found to
vary from 0 to 60%' in 10 groves checked during the spring and summer
of 1964.
Since these date were obtained from limited samples and were in certain
respects incomplete, a series of studies was designed to produce more sub-
stantial information on coincidence and incidence rates of E. floridana
under grove conditions. The present paper presents these results which
indicate the biological control potential of this fungus.

Mite infested leaf samples were collected and processed for the years
1965, 1966, 1967, and 1968.

'Flor:da Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 3316.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 52, No. 2

During 1965, 5 or 6 groves were sampled each week. In succeeding
weeks, from 3 to 5 new groves were substituted for groves previously
sampled. This technique was used in order to obtain broad grove data on
coincidence and incidence of E. floridana. During 1966 and 1967, the same
3 to 7 groves were sampled each week; however, when infestations dis-
appeared, new groves were selected in order to maintain an adequate num-
ber of groves in the survey. This technique was used to determine both
incidence rates and annual epizootiology for each grove. Ten groves were
continuously sampled at 2-week intervals from 2 April to 29 July in 1968.
Five were located north of Leesburg in Lake and Marion Counties and
sampled on alternate weeks, and 5 located south of Avon Park in Highlands
County. This technique was used to determine the influence of location,
temperature, and mite density on the occurrence and epizootics of the
In 1965, 1966, and 1967, leaf samples were biased to mite infestations;
that is only leaves (20 to 40) exhibiting cast skins or living mites were
collected. In 1968, unbiased, random samples were utilized; 3 terminal
leaves from one tip in each quadrant of 4 trees were collected, making a
total of 48 leaves per grove.
Processing of the samples in 1965, 1966, and 1967 involved preparation
of hot lactic acid slide mounts (Selhime and Muma 1966) of randomly
selected living adult female, adult male, deutonymph, and protonymph
Texas citrus mites from each grove. A dissecting microscope was used for
these preparations. Thirty specimens of each stage were mounted when
possible; otherwise, all living mites were mounted. After specimens had
cleared, slides were examined by phase microscopy with a compound micro-
scope at magnifications of 400X to 600X, and the fungus-infected and
noninfected mites were recorded. In 1968, mite infestations were estimated
in 2 ways for statistical study. One set of samples was processed with a
mite brushing machine, the mites counted on one-quarter plate aliquots,
and the total infestation computed. A second set of samples was examined
with a dissecting microscope, the living females per leaf counted, the
leaves rated 0 (no s), 1 (1 to 4 9s), 2 (5 to 9 9s), and 3 (10 or more
Ss), and the samples given numerical indices equal to the sum of the leaf
A coefficient of correlation was computed between total infestations and
numerical indices at the end of the experimental sampling period. The r
value obtained, 0.7965 for 88 counts, was highly significant at the 1/i level,
which validated the numerical indices utilized in Table 4.2 Fungus-infected
adult male and adult female mites were determined by the method indicated
Mites were arbitrarily considered to be infected if they had either or
both attached anadhesive spores or developing internal hyphal bodies or


To be potentially effective as a biological control agent, an attacking or-
ganism must consistently coexist with its host. This condition is defined as
coincidence for the purpose of this paper. Area-to-area, season-to-season,

2Dr. R. B. Johnson of the University of Florida Citrus Experiment Sta-
tion cooperated in this investigation of sample validity.


Muma: Incidence of Mite Fungus

Floridana WEISER & MUMA WITH Eutetranychus Banksi (Mc-
AND 1968.
No. E. banksi E. floridana
Year Area Season groves population* coincidence Rain***
1965 Central Spring 21 Med to High 31.2 Dry
Summer 30 Low to High 76.6 Spotty-Regular
Fall 5 Low to High 60.0 Spotty-Regular
1967 Central Winter 9 High 44.4 Dry-Regular
Spring 3 Med. to High 0.0 Dry-Regular
Summer 13 Low to High 100.0 Regular
Fall 9 Med. to High 88.8 Dry-Regular
1967 Central Winter 8 Med. to High 55.5 Spotty-Regular
Spring 6 High 100.0 Dry-Spotty
Summer 5 Med. to High 100.0 Spotty-Regular
Fall 5 Med. to High 100.0 Dry-Regular
1968 North Spring 5 Low 0.0 Dry-Regular
Summer 5 Low to Med. 40.0
South Spring 5 Low to Med. 60.0 Dry-Regular
Summer 5 Low 100.0
*Low=l to 9 mites per slide. Medium=10 to 19 mites per slide. High=20 to 30 mites per
**Coincidence=% mite infestations exhibiting some degree of E. floridana incidence.
***Dry=no rain. Spotty=less than 3 days rain per week. Regular=3 or more days rain
per week.

grove-to-grove, and population-to-population coincidence of E. floridana
with E. banksi is presented in Tables 1 and 2.
From these data, it is apparent that coincidence of the fungus with the
mite tends to be higher in the summer and fall than in the winter and
spring, higher in the south than in the north, higher during periods of
regular rains than during periods of infrequent rains, and higher in coinci-
dence with adult males and adult females than with protonymphs and deu-
tonymphs. Data obtained during 1967 and 1968 indicate that host popula-
tion level is also a factor influencing coincidence of the disease.
From these results, it would seem that E. floridana is widespread, prob-
ably universal, in Florida citrus groves. It is further evident that coinci-
dence of the fungus with Texas citrus mite infestations is influenced by a
multiplicity of factors, namely area, season, rainfall, and host density.
Variations related to area and season are probably expressions of variation
in temperature, rainfall, photo period, and other environmental factors;
but further study is necessary for clarification of this possibility.
Once it has been ascertained that an attacking organism, due to consist-
ent coexistence with its host, is potentially effective as a biological control
agent, its incidence rate must be determined before its effectiveness as a
biological control agent can be inferred. Data on the incidence rates of E.
floridana are presented in Table 3..
From these data, it is apparent that all feeding growth 4tadia of the
mite are regularly attacked by the fungus but that adult males and females

The Florida Entomologist

TABLE 2.-COINCIDENCE OF Entomophthora Floridana WEISER & MUMA
Presence (+) or absence (-) of E. floridana
proto- deuto-
Grove Year Season nymphs nymphs males females
BSD 1965 Spring + + +
Summer + + + +
1966 Summer + + + +
Collins 1965 Summer +
Fall +- -
1966 Summer + + + +
Winter -
C.E.S. 1965 Fall -
1966 Winter + +
Summer + + +
Fall + + + +
1967 Winter + + + +
Auburndale (3) 1967 Winter -
Spring + + + +
Summer + + +
Fall + + + +
Weirsdale (N1) 1968 Spring -
Summer + +
Lake Placid (Sl) 1968 Spring + -
Summer + +

sustain higher incidence levels. It is also pertinent that average rates of
infection in populations exhibiting fungus coincidence are proportionately
greater in adult males and females than in protonymphs and deutonymphs.
The fact that maximal populations can sustain 100% infection is also im-
portant. It should be noted that maximal incidence rates in 1967 and 1968
were slightly lower than those obtained in 1965 and 1966, but this might be
an expression of the limited number of groves utilized during the latter 2
years. There are indications of limiting factors governed by ecological
conditions within certain groves.
The coincidence and incidence of E. floridana with and in Texas citrus
mite in Florida citrus groves indicate that the fungus is potentially capable
of reducing spider mite infestations in most groves during the summer and
fall and in the southern half of the central citrus growing area. The poten-
tial exists but with less consistency during the winter and spring and in the
northern half of the central citrus growing area. Intensive studies have
not been conducted on the east and west coasts, but the fungus is known to
occur in those areas and probably exhibits a'similar potential there.
Some evidence that the biological control potential of E. floridana might
be realized in actual reduction of E. banksi was presented in Table 3 of Sel-
hime and Muma (1966). Additional data are presented in Table 4. The
data show that both mite populations and Entomophthora infections were
lower and developed later in northern groves than in southern groves, and
that mite populations decreased coincident with increased percent fungus

Vol. 52, No. 2

Muma: Incidence of Mite Fungus

Floridana WEISER & MUMA IN Eutetranychus Banksi (Mc-
AND 1968.

No. No. Perfect infection with Entomophthora
Year State groves counts minimum maximum* mean**
1965 52 21
Protonymphs 0.0 70.0 4.5
Deutonymphs 0.0 70.0 11.3
Adult males 0.0 80.3 16.0
Adult females 0.0 100.0 17.1
1966 21 20
Protonymphs 0.0 56.6 11.4
Deutonymphs 0.0 63.3 15.5
Adult males 0.0 86.6 27.7
Adult females 0.0 80.0 24.6
1967 6 50
Protonymphs 0.0 32.7 5.9
Deutonymphs 0.0 47.3 10.0
Adult males 0.0 59.3 17.2
Adult females 0.0 68.0 14.8
1968 North 5 9
Adult males 0.0 83.3 28.9
Adult females 0.0 80.3 32.8
South 5 9
Adult males 0.0 66.6 30.9
Adult females 0.0 70.0 32.4
*Populations less than 30 not included.
**Populations with no fungus coincidence not included.

infection. However, significant populations developed in only 2 (N1 and
N5) out of 5 northern groves and 4 (S1, S2, S3, and S4) out of 5 southern
groves. The detailed data for these 6 groves indicate that epizootics of E.
floridana produced mortalities of E. banksi that varied from 36.8 to 86.3%.
Such mortalities occurred within 2 to 4 weeks after fungus coincidence in
most groves, but high mite populations persisted for 8 to 10 weeks in 2
groves. The cause for such variation is not apparent but must have been
some factor other than host density or fungus coincidence. Environmental
factors such as rainfall, humidity, or temperature are the most suspect.
Many questions concerning the influence of temperature, rainfall, photo-
period and possibly other environmental factors have not been answered
by the results obtained during these studies. On the other hand, the coinci-
dence of E. floridana with E. banksi is remarkably high and consistent.
Also, E. banksi infestations exhibiting coincidence of E. floridana usually
develop a high incidence of the pathogen. Further, moderate to high inci-
dence of the fungus is frequently associated with or followed by strikingly
decreased spider mite populations. Despite the unanswered questions, con-
sistent fungus coincidence, high pathogen incidence, and striking host mor-
talities all indicate that E. floridana has a good biological control potential.

The Florida Entomologist

Mite indicates and percent infection per grove
Sample N1* N5 S1 S2 S3 S4
16I % I % I % I % I % I %
4/2 0 0 0 0
4/8 26 0 42 0 37 1.6 7 8.3
4/15 4 0 4 0
4/22 42 0 70 0 41 3.8 18 0
4/29 2 0 5 0
5/6 56 1.6 87 8.3 40 13.3 40 0
5/13 3 0 0 0
5/20 65 0 61 45.0** 48 6.6 77 0
5/28 6 0 6 0
6/10 32 10.6 3 25.0 11 36.8 48 25.4
6/12 54 0 18 0
6/17 30 7.1 1 0 2 100.0 41 65.0
6/24 16 17.6 64 1.6
7/2 51 18.3 2 0 0 0 2 100.0
7/8 37 61.1 98 13.3
7/16 30 65.0 0 0 0 0 0 0
7/22 9 23.5 27 86.3
7/29 0 0 0 0 1 100.0 0 0
*Code for "Northern grove Number 1 to Southern grove Number 4."
**The italic figures indicate the percent infection apparently associated with reduction.

Additional studies will, however, be necessary to determine if the citrus
groves, mite populations, or fungus can be manipulated to realize this po-

Selhime, A. G., and M. H. Muma. 1966. Biology of Entomophthora flori-
dana attacking Eutetranychus banksi. Fla. Entomol. 49: 161-168.
Weiser, J. and M. H. Muma. 1966. Entomophthora floridana n. sp. (Phy-
comycetes: Entomophthoraceae) a parasite of the Texas Citrus mite,
Eutetranychus banksi. Fla. Entomol. 49: 155-159.

The Florida Entomologist 52(2) 1969


Vol. 52, No. 2


Dryden, Maine 04225
A digger wasp, Isodontia pelopoeiformis Dahlbom, was discovered in the
Angolan plateau in Africa, using charcoal as a nest building material, in
this case building the nest in a shotgun barrel.

On a recent trip the writer camped in the savannah woods on the An-
golan plateau in Africa, somewhere between the Cuanza and Cunene Rivers.
A 16 gauge single-barreled shotgun was left hanging unattended on a pole
at the entrance of the tent for several days. One morning, when attempting
to load this shotgun many fragments of charcoal tumbled out when I drew
back the bolt. An examination revealed that the chamber was solidly filled
with the same material. I cleaned it out, used the gun, and returned it to
its place on the tent pole. Several days later, when I went to use the gun
again, I examined the barrel, and once again the chamber was solidly
plugged with charcoal.
The following day, I noticed a digger wasp running hither and thither
on the sandy ground. It found a bean-sized fragment of charcoal which it
manipulated for a moment, and then grasped and flew away with. I ran
to the tent in time to see the wasp disappear into the mouth of the shotgun
with its load of charcoal. This appears to be a remarkable behavioristic
adaptation connected with fires which yearly, during the dry season, sweep
over the grasslands and through the savannah woods of Africa.
The wasp was captured and later identified as Isodontia pelopoeiformis
Dahlbom, by Mr. H. N. Empey of Johannesburg, South Africa.

'Contribution No. 146, Entomology Section, Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture, Gainesville.
2Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Division of
Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture.

The Florida Entomologist 52(2)1969

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fungicide or herbicide. w10


Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA
U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 20560

A redefinition is given of the genus Physothorax Mayr, 1885 (Tory-
midae), which was originally described from wingless or brachypterous
males only, and now is characterized in winged male and female and wing-
less male forms; P. bidentulus, n. sp., is described from fruits of Ficus
aurea and F. laevigata, S. Florida, and a key to the N. American species of
the genus is given. Sycophila Walker, 1871 (Eurytomidae) is redefined;
and a description is given of the only known Nearctic species, S. butcheri,
n. sp., from fruits of Ficus .urea and F. laevigata, S. Florida.

In southern Florida there are two species of wild figs, Ficus laevigata
Vahl brevifoliaia Nuttall) and F. area Nuttall. Their fruits yield a large
assortment of chalcidoids, primary fig wasps and inquilines, most of which
were described and named 50 or more years ago. These will be found listed
in the two catalogues of Peck (1951, 1963), and Butcher (1964) has pub-
lished a key to them. There are two additional species of inquilines, how-
ever, which often emerge from the fruits of these figs; specimens have been
in the U. S. National Museum collection for many years, and they are sub-
mitted for identification fairly regularly. These two species are described
in this paper, and the genera to which they have been referred are redefined
because they are of questionable placement. The first of these genera,
Physothorax Mayr, is listed as recently as 1967 by Hill as "Incertae sedis."
The second, Sycophila Walker, was long considered to be an idarnine genus
in the Torymidae and was so listed as recently as 1964 by Joseph. It is,
however, a eurytomid (see Burks 1967), and the name has been misapplied
throughout the literature.



Genus Physothorax Mayr

Physothorax Mayr, 1885, Verh. zool. bot. Ges. Wien 35: 159, 196; Miiller,
1886, Entomol. Nachr.: 195; Dalla Torre, 1898, Cat. Hym. 5: 321; Ash-
mead, 1904, Mem. Carnegie Mus. 1: 243, 385, 399; Gahan and Fagan,
1923, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 124: 115; Peck in Muesebeck et al., 1951,
USDA Agr. Monogr. 2: 527; Peck, 1963, Canad. Entomol. Suppl. 30: 559;
Hill, 1967, Figs of Hong Kong, p. 96.

TYPE-SPECIES: Physothorux disciger Mayr; desig. by Gahan and Fagan,
Nannocerus Mayr, 1885, Verh. zool. bot. Ges. Wien 35: 159, 195; Miller,
1886, Entomol. Nachr.: 196 [syn. of Physothorax]; Dalla Torre, 1898,
Cat. Hym. 5: 321; Ashmead, 1904, Mem. Carnegie Mus. 1: 382.

116 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 52, No. 2

TYPE-SPECIES: Nannocerus biarticulatus Mayr; monotypic.
Physothorax was originally described from 2 male species of fig inqui-
lines, one of which, disciger Mayr, had reduced, stumplike forewings and
the other, annuliger Mayr, lacked forewings. Both had the antennae re-
duced to 7 or fewer segments. Both also had the hind femur bearing 2
teeth on the ventral margin. The type material of disciger, mounted on
slides, is in Vienna. W. H. Ashmead studied the Mayr collection in Vienna
in the 1890's, and he concurred with Miller in considering that Mayr had
described the female of this genus under the name Diomorus variabilis and
the male as Physothorax. Evidently then or later the types of Diomorus
variabilis were transferred in the Vienna collection under the name Physo-
thorax. At any rate, when A. B. Gahan studied the Mayr collection in 1927,
he was able to find only the winged female and winged male types of vari-
abilis under the genus Physothorax in the pinned collection (unpublished
Gahan manuscript notes in the U. S. National Museum).
The type-species of Physothorax, P. disciger Mayr, had been desig-
nated by Gahan and Fagan (1923) because Ashmead's earlier type designa-
tion was obviously invalid. Ashmead (1904) had cited the type-species as,
"Diomorus variabilis Mayr 9, Physothorax disciger Mayr S". Fortu-
nately the description of disciger is detailed and clear, as is also the generic
description, leaving very little doubt about the characters of the species,
or of the brachypterous or wingless form of the genus. Dr. J. T. Wiebes
of Leiden, Netherlands, has kindly sent me information about the type of
disciger. Furthermore, Ashmead in 1900 described a species of Physotho-
rax that has a winged female and both a winged and a wingless male, and
the type series of this species is in the U.S.N.M. The characters of this
species, plus those obtained by the study of a female specimen of variabilis
obtained from the Vienna Museum, have made it possible to describe the 3
forms of this genus.
For taxonomic and bibliographical information about Physothorax, I
am indebted to Dr. Wiebes, who at present has the Mayr collection of fig
insects on loan.
WINGED FEMALE: Antennae inserted approximately in center of frons,
well above level of ventral margins of compound eyes; apex of scape
reaching or slightly exceeding level of vertex; antenna with formula
1:1:1:7:3; frons with umbilicate punctation, scrobe cavity laterally carinate
in ventral half, anterior ocellus located in scrobe cavity; malar furrow in-
complete, extending only halfway from compound eye to base of mandible;
occiput carinate.
Pronotum semiquadrate, posterior margin slightly concave; mesonotum
with umbilicate punctation; notaulices complete, axillae advanced slightly
anteriorly, scutellum with frenal suture; forewing with submarginal vein
only about 1 1/2 times as long as marginal, stigmal minute, sessile or sub-
sessile, submarginal vein short; hind coxa enlarged and lengthened, pos-
terior margin carinate; fore femur enlarged, mid femur linear, hind femur
enlarged and bearing 2 triangular teeth on ventral margin in apical half;
hind tibia subarcuate, bearing 2 short apical spurs; margin of mesepimeron
Abdomen sessile; first gastral tergum with a minute median notch on
posterior margin; gaster as long as thorax; ovipositor approximately as
long as body.

Burks: Redefinitions of Two Chalcidoid Genera

WINGED MALE: As in female, but ocelli larger, malar suture complete,
and gaster slightly shorter than thorax; apex of aedeagus exserted in all

WINGLESS OR BRACHYPTEROUS MALE: Head and body smooth, shining.
Eyes greatly reduced, probably nonfunctional; ocelli absent; antennal scape
stout and short, funicle reduced to 4 to 6 short, transverse segments, club
short, compact and broad; occiput ecarinate.
Thorax narrower than head; pronotum quadrate, making up nearly half
the dorsal length of thorax; notaulices complete, axillae not advanced;
forewing greatly reduced or absent, hindwing rudimentary or absent; mar-
gin of mesepimeron notched; fore femur greatly enlarged, mid femur re-
duced, hind femur somewhat smaller than fore femur but bearing 2 minute,
triangular teeth on ventral margin in apical half; hind tibia thickened,
only slightly curved, bearing 2 apical spurs; all tarsi with 5 short, stout
Propodeum slightly broader than thorax and slightly longer than scu-
tellum; gaster almost as long as thorax, subrectangular in form; aedeagus
prominently extruded.

1. Forewing bare in area behind marginal vein; thoracic dorsum pale tan
with a faint metallic lavender sheen ........................ pallidus Ashmead
Forewing with a row of bristles behind marginal vein or area behind
marginal vein generally setose; dorsum of thorax not pale tan with
lavender sheen, but more or less metallic green ...................-....-..... 2
2. Thorax bronzy-violet with metallic green umbilicate punctures; area
behind marginal vein generally setose; umbilicate punctures of tho-
racic dorsum large, scattered .................................... russelli Crawford
Thorax light to dark brown with metallic green sheen; area behind
marginal vein with a single row of bristles; umbilicate punctures of
thoracic dorsum small, closely set ................ bidentulus new species

Physothorax russelli Crawford

Physothorax russelli Crawford, 1910, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Washington 11:
204, Y ; Peck in Muesebeck et al., 1951, USDA Agr. Monogr. 2: 527;
Peck, 1963, Canad. Entomol. Suppl. 30: 560; Butcher, 1964, Fla.
Entomol. 64: 236-237.

TYPE: Lectotype 9, U.S.N.M. No. 12582, here designated. Species de-
scribed from 2 9 cotypes; U.S.N.M. collection contains the paralectotype.

DISTRIBUTION: Cutler, Fla., ex fruits of Ficus area, H. M. Russell; Dade
Co., Fla., 14 Feb. 1957, J. Porter; Coral Gables, Fla., 16 June, 1961, ex fruits
of Ficus aurea, F. G. Butcher.

Physothorax palliduh Ashmead
Physothorax pallidus Ashmead, 1900, Trans. Entomol. Soc. London: 254, 9,
winged &, wingless & ; Peck in Muesebeck et al., 1951, USDA Agr.
Monogr. 2: 527; Peck, 1963, Canad. Entomol. Suppl. 30: 560.

TYPE: Lectotype 9, U.S.N.M. No. 6427, here designated. Species de-

118 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 52, No. 2

scribed from 14 cotypes, 11 of which are still preserved in the U.S.N.M.
collection. Aside from the lectotype, there are 7 winged 9, 1 wingless 8,
and 2 winged S paralectotypes.

DISTRIBUTION: Cocoanut Grove, Fla., 16 May, 1887, ex fruits of Ficus
laevigata, E. A. Schwarz; Cutler, Fla., 10 Feb., 1909, on Ficus area, H. M.
Russell; Miami, Fla., Feb. 1927, ex fruits of Ficus aurea, G. F. Moznette;
Coral Gables, Fla., ex wild fig, F. G. Butcher; St. Vincent, W. I.; Salinas,
P. R., 10 July, 1958, ex fruits of Ficus laevigata, S. Medina-Gaud.

Physothorax bidentulus, new species

This species resembles russelli Crawford in being generally dark in color
with green umbilicate punctures on the head, in having bristles in the area
behind the marginal vein of the forewing, and in having the temporal line
behind the eyes short. The two differ in that bidentulus has the umbilicate
punctures on the head and thoracic notum much more closely set and nu-
merous than they are in russelli; the bristles behind the marginal vein are
arranged in a single row in bidentulus, but they are in a general, haphazard
arrangement in russelli; and the propodeum in russelli has paraspiracular
carinae, but these are wanting in bidentulus.
WINGED FEMALE: Length, 2.5 mm. Tan to brown with metallic green
luster on head, thoracic dorsum, propodeum, and ventral sector of mese-
pimeron; thoracic pleura and gastral terga may have faint lavender or
blue-green metallic luster. Legs tan; wings hyaline, veins yellow.
Apex of antennal scape exceeding level of vertex; scape 3 1/4 times as
long as pedicel, ring segment 1/3 as long as pedicel; first 3 funicular seg-
ments equal in length, slightly longer than wide, and each 3/4 as long as
pedicel; apical 4 funiculars equal in length and each 5/6 as long as first
funicular; club twice as long as pedicel. Width of malar space 1/2 as great
as height of compound eye. Postocellar line 2 1/2 times as long as ocell-
ocular line. Mandible with one slender, acute ventral tooth and a stout,
blunt median tooth.
Thoracic dorsum with shallow, closely set, umbilicate punctures; inter-
stices shagreened and about as broad as the punctures; apical frenum of
scutellum set off by a relatively weak transverse carina, frenum sha-
greened; axillae with umbilicate punctation at anterior median angles only;
prepectus smooth, shining; mesepisternum shagreened, mesepimeron
smooth and shining except for darkened ventral sector, which has faint
lineolate sculpture. All coxae sculptured, posterior pair strongly so; legs
otherwise almost smooth; posterior femur with 2 teeth of equal size
on ventral margin. Forewing with submarginal vein 1 1/3 times as long as
marginal, postmarginal vein 1/6 as long as marginal, stigmal sessile,
minute; a single row of bristles behind marginal vein.
Propodeum sometimes with a faint median carina, but paraspiracular
carinae absent; surface of propodeum with minute, irregular, alveolate
sculpture; spiracles ovate, touching anterior propodeal margin, a sparse
tuft of hair lateral to each spiracle. Gaster faintly sculptured, almost
smooth; dorsal surface slightly flattened; apical margin of first gastral
tergum incised on meson; cerci clearly exserted, each cercus bearing 5

Burks: Redefinitions of Two Chalcidoid Genera 119

bristles; gaster equal to or slightly longer than thorax; ovipositor twice as
long as gaster.

WINGED MALE: Length 2.0-2.5 mm. As in female, but pronotum lighter
in color than mesonotum and gaster pale tan at base, dark brown apically;
width of malar space 1/3 height of compound eye; ocelli larger than in fe-
male; postocellar line 4 times as long as ocellocular line; apical frenum of
scutellum not set off by a distinct suture; propodeum usually with a vague
median carina; gaster and thorax equal in length.
Wingless or brachypterous forms unknown.


HOLOTYPE: U.S.N.M. Catalogue No. 70229.
Described from 20 9, 15 8 specimens: Holotype Y, allotype 8, and
2 9, 4 S paratypes, Miami, Fla., 1968, reared from fruits of Ficus laevi-
gata, Victoria I. Sullivan; 2 2, 2 8 paratypes, Richmond, Fla., 24 Feb.,
1946, reared from fruit of wild fig, John E. Porter; 3 9 paratypes, Key
Largo, Fla., 15 June, 1960, F. C. Craighead; 1 2, 1 & paratypes, Miami,
Fla., 15 Jan., 1942, reared from Ficus altissima, 0. D. Link; 1 9 paratype,
Plantation Key, Fla., 2 Mar., 1945, reared from wild fig, C. Griswold; 10 9,
7 & paratypes, Miami, Fla., reared from fruits of Ficus area, Feb. 1922,
C. F. Moznette. All specimens in the U.S.N.M. collection.
The data may be incorrect for the specimens listed above as having
been reared from Ficus altissima. This species of Ficus is native to the
Orient but is commonly planted as an ornamental in Florida. All the other
reared specimens of this species of Physothorax came from the native Ficus
area or F. laevigati. It seems unlikely that bidentulus could develop in
the native species of figs and in an exotic one as well.


Genus Sycophila Walker

Sycophila Walker, 1871, Notes on Chalc.: 63; Patton, 1884, Proc. R.
Entomol. Soc. London, p. xvi; Dalla Torre, 1898, Cat. Hym., 5: 319;
Ashmead, 1904, Mem. Carnegie Mus., 1: 389; Gahan and Fagan, 1923,
U. S. Nat. Mus. Bul. 124: 139; Hill, 1967, Figs of Hong Kong: 97. [Not
of Joseph (1964) and other authors who treat it as Torymidae, Idarni-
TYPE-SPECIES: Sycophila decatomoides Walker; desig. by Ashmead, 1904.
Isanisa Walker, 1875, Entomologist 8: 15; Patton, 1884, Proc. R. Entomol.
Soc. London, p. xvi [syn. of Sycophila].
TYPE-SPECIES: Isanisa decatomoides Walker; monotypic.
Pseudisa Walker, 1875, Entomologist 8: 15; Patton, 1884, Proc. R. Entomol.
Soc. London, p. xvi [syn. of Sycophila].

TYPE-SPECIES: Pseudisa smicroides Walker; monotypic.

FEMALE: Head as broad as high; height of compound eye twice as great
as width of malar space; malar furrow complete; margin of clypeus bilobed,
deeply incised on meson; interantennal process narrow, elongate; median

The Florida Entomologist

vertical carina of scrobe cavity wanting, lateral and dorsal scrobe margins
ecarinate or faintly carinate dorsally; anterior ocellus located above scrobe
cavity; antennae inserted slightly above level of ventral margins of com-
pound eyes, cheeks laterally carinate near mandibular bases; apex of scape
reaching level of anterior ocellus or extending slightly higher; funiculus
with 5 segments, club with 3 clearly separated segments; entire antennal
flagellum clothed with relatively long hair.
Anterior margin of pronotum ecarinate, posterior margin broadly and
shallowly curved from side to side; notaulices complete; dorsum of thorax
shining and smooth or nearly so, or umbilicate; prepectus triangular,
large; submarginal vein extremely long, many times longer than marginal;
marginal vein widened, usually darkened, stigmated; postmarginal vein
weak, short, virtually wanting; stigmal vein approximately as long as mar-
ginal; wing may be shaded behind marginal vein; all femora enlarged,
plump in the middle.
Propodeum vertical, a broad, longitudinal depressed area present on
meson, this bounded laterally by strong carinae, surface of propodeum
within median depression smooth and shining or minutely roughened; areas
lateral to depression may be smooth or bear a few short, irregular carinae;
a small neck present at apex of propodeum. Petiole slightly longer than
wide. Gaster compressed, its surface smooth and shining; ovipositor di-
rected slightly dorsad, its apex not markedly exserted.

MALE: As in female, but antennal funiculus with 4 segments, petiole
greatly lengthened, as long as or longer than hind coxa, and gaster not
strongly compressed.
This genus was identified several years ago as a member of the Eury-
tomidae, not the Torymidae, by E. F. Riek, who saw the type in London. In
the original description Walker (1871) stated that a new family was re-
quired for its reception, although his description mentioned that the pro-
notum was quadrate. That character would have referred Sycophila to the
Eurytomidae. Ashmead (1904) unfortunately referred it to the Torymidae,
subfamily Idarninae. It is obvious from Ashmead's characterization of it
as having an ovipositor "a little shorter than the abdomen" that he mis-
identified it. The original description specifies that the ovipositor extends
"very little beyond the tip of the abdomen."
The described species of Sycophila occur in the Oriental region. The
following species is the only one so far known from the Nearctic region.
The Nearctic and Neotropical species that have been placed under this name
are Torymidae, Idarninae.

Sycophila butcheri, new species
This species agrees with the Oriental decatomoides Walker in having the
forewing stigmated, in having a dark mediodorsal stripe on the gaster, and
in having the body otherwise colored yellowish tan. The two differ in that
the head and thoracic notum in decatomoides are smooth, while they have
umbilicate punctation in butcheri; the stigmated marginal vein in decato-
moides is dark brown but is pale yellow in butcheri; and the scrobe cavity
in decatomoides is ecarinate dorsally but is carinate dorsally in butcheri.
FEMALE: Length 2.0 mm. Yellowish tan, with black on mesal margins of

Vol. 52, No. 2

Burks: Redefinitions of Two Chalcidoid Genera 121

lateral ocelli and posterior margin of anterior ocellus, median spot on
occiput, longitudinal mediodorsal stripe on thorax and propodeum, petiole,
and mediodorsal stripe on gastral terga 1 to 3 or 4; wings hyaline, veins
(including stigmated marginal vein) pale yellow. Head and thoracic dor-
sum with closely set, umbilicate punctation, gaster smooth and shining.
Apex of antennal scape reaching level of vertex; pedicel and first funi-
cular segment equal in length, second to fifth funiculars equal in length
and each 5/6 as long as first; club slightly shorter than apical 3 funiculars.
Malar furrow arcuate, its path faint but discernible; height of compound
eye 1 1/2 times width of malar space. Mandible with 3 acute teeth, ven-
tral one the largest. Head in dorsal aspect half as long as wide and broadly
rounded; ocellocular line 1/3 as long as postocellar line.
Pronotum half as long as wide, its posterior margin shallowly concave;
forewing with submarginal vein 6 times as long as marginal, stigmal 1 1/2
times as long as marginal; postmarginal difficult to see but apparently 2/3
as long as marginal. Fore coxa with a notch on anterior face into which
lateral carinate margin of gena fits when head is depressed. Mesepisternum
with closely set, longitudinal, parallel, minute ridges. Legs smooth and
shining except for hind coxae which are shagreened. Postnotum with a
pair of large, shallow foveae on meson.
Propodeum as long as scutellum, median furrow with 1 or 2 pairs of
large, shallow foveae at base, surface posterior to these minutely
roughened; lateral margins of furrow irregularly carinate, lateral areas of
propodeum with gross, alveolate sculpture. Neck at apex of scutellum with
minute, shagreenate sculpture. Petiole smooth, shining, 1/3 as long as hind
coxa. Gaster as long as thorax, compressed, but not so greatly so as in
decatomoides; tip of ovipositor exserted.

MALE: Length 1.8-2.0 mm. As in female, but antennal funiculus with 4
segments, first segment slightly longer than others; marginal vein wider
than in female; abdominal petiole as long as hind coxa; gaster as long as

TYPE LOCALITY: Coral Gables, Fla.

HOLOTYPE. U. S. N. M. Catalogue No. 70230.
Described from 4 9, 4 & specimens: Holotype 9, Coral Gables, Fla.,
reared from fruits of Ficus aurea, F. G. Butcher; allotype &, Miami, Fla.,
reared from fruits of Ficus laevigata, Victoria I. Sullivan; 3 2, 3 & para-
types, Miami, Fla., reared from fruits of Ficus aurea, Feb. 1922, G. F. Moz-
nette. All specimens in U.S.N.M. collection.

Ashmead, W. H. 1900. Report upon the Aculeate Hymenoptera of the
islands of St. Vincent and Grenada. Trans. Roy. Entomol. Soc.
London: 207-367.
Ashmead, W. H. 1904. Classification of the Chalcid flies. Mem. Carnegie
Mus. 1 (4) : xi+225-551.
Burks, B. D. 1967. In K. V. Krombein and B. D. Burks, Hymenoptera of
America North of Mexico, Synoptic Catalog, Second Supplement.
USDA Agr. Monogr. 2: 213-282.
Butcher, F. G. 1964. The Florida fig wasp. Fla. Entomol. 47: 235-238.

122 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 52, No. 2

Gahan, A. B., and Margaret M. Fagan. 1923. The type species of the
genera of Chalcidoidea or Chalcid-flies. U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 124,
173 p.
Hill, D. S. 1967. Figs (Ficus spp.) of Hong Kong. Hong Kong Univ.
Press, 130 p., 65 pl.
Joseph, K. J. 1964. A proposed revision of the classification of the fig in-
sects (Hymenoptera). Proc. Roy. Entomol. Soc. London, Ser. B. 33
(3-4) : 63-66.
Peck, 0. 1951. In C. F. W. Muesebeck et al., Hymenoptera of America
North of Mexico, Synoptic Catalog. USDA Agr. Monogr. 2: 410-
Peck, 0. 1963. A catalogue of the Nearctic Chalcidoidea. Canad.
Entomol. Suppl. 30. 1092 p.
Walker, F. 1871. Notes on Chalcidiae. London, Janson, 129 p.

The Florida Entomologist 52(2) 1969

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