Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00150
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1970
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00150
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

Full Text


Volume 53 No. 1 March 1970

sistance of House Flies (Diptera:Muscidae) to Di-
methoate and Ronnel in Florida ..------------------ 1
WIRTH, W. W., AND F. S. BLANTON-New Genera of Neo-
tropical Ceratopogonidae (Diptera)-- 7
States Records for a West Indian Burrower Bug, Am-
nestus trimaculatus (Hemiptera:Cydnidae) -----.......... 15
REINERT, J. F.-Description of the Pupa of Deinocerites
pseudes (Diptera:Culicidae) ------..... -........-- --------........ --...... 17
HETRICK, L. A.-Biology of the "Love-bug", Plecia nearctica
(Diptera:Bibionidae) ---------------------.. 23
REISKIND, J.-First Description of the Male of Myrmecoty-
pus lineatus (Araneae:Clubionidae:Castianeirinae)....... ----- 27
MARSH, P. M.-A New Species of Fruit Fly Parasite From
Florida (Hymenoptera:Braconidae:Opiinae).---..---.........----.. 31
PITRE, H. N.-Observations on the Life Cycle of Dalbulus
maidis on Three Plant Species-........................ ..-------.. 33
WIRTH, W. W., AND F. S. BLANTON-New Species of Neo-
tropical Culicoides (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae)................ 39
REINERT, J. F.-Description of the Pupa of Aedes (Ochlero-
tatus) fulvus pallens (Diptera:Culicidae) .-------.....-.... ..... 47
O'NEIL, J. B.-The Florida Entomological Society-A Per-
sonnel Appraisal......-................--------------. .. .... .............. ....... 51
Book Review-.....--.--- --------------------................... 38, 46

Published by The Florida Entomological Society


President.........-- ......-...................--- ----..-- ......-.--- H. A. Denmark
Vice-President ----.....--..... --...-.... ..--------------. L. C. Kuitert
Secretary .......-..-- .......................--........------..---- ..-- F. W. Mead
Treasurer-..................-- ...-- .............. .----------....-- J. R. Strayer
J. E. Brogdon
J. E. Porter
Other Members of Executive Committee-... A. G. Selhime
J. F. Reinhardt
J. B. O'Neil

Publications Committee
Editor--...---..........-...................---..-S. H. Kerr
Associate Editor __---....----..........---...--.R. E. Woodruff
Business Manager _._.. ........ .........-.-- J. R. Strayer
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Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA,
Gainesville, Florida 32601
A statewide survey was made to determine the resistance to dimethoate
and ronnel of house flies, Musca domestic L., collected from poultry or
dairy farms at 32 locations throughout the state of Florida. Compared to
flies from the susceptible Orlando strain, flies from dairies were 4.9 to
21.2-fold more resistant to ronnel, and flies from poultry farms were 3.8
to 54.5-fold more resistant. Also, fly strains from dairies were 3.4 to 31.0-
fold more resistant to dimethoate than flies from the Orlando strain, and
fly strains from poultry farms were 1.8 to 28.5-fold more resistant.

King and Gahan (1949) reported resistance in house flies, Musca do-
mestica L., to DDT, the first published account of resistance to an insecti-
cide in a field strain of house flies in Florida. Subsequently, when evi-
dence indicated that resistance to chlorinated hydrocarbons was indeed
becoming a problem, organophosphorus insecticides (primarily mala-
thion and diazinon, but later ronnel and dimethoate) were used for control.
The residual activity of the newer compounds is less than that of the
chlorinated hydrocarbons, but were successful for a time. Though it has
been slower in coming, resistance to most organophosphorus compounds
is a reality. Thus, though Hansens and Bartley (1953), in one of the first
records of the use of organophosphates against house flies, found that di-
azinon gave excellent control of flies for an entire season in a horse barn
and 3 to 4 weeks of control in dairy barns in New Jersey, Hansens and
Scott (1955) obtained only 40 to 50 days of control with diazinon in
dairies, and Gahan et al. (1957) could control flies in animal barns with
surface sprays of diazinon for only 3 to 49 days in Florida and 9 to 35 days
in Nebraska. The lack of control in some of those tests indicated possible
resistance to diazinon at that time, only 4 or 5 years after its widespread
use for fly control began. By 1966, Brady et al. reported no more than 3
to 4 days of control with diazinon in Florida dairies.
Likewise, ronnel (Dow ET-14 or Dow ET-57 in earlier literature) has
been very effective for fly control in the past. Hansens (1956) obtained
as much as 65 days of control with it in dairy barns, but Gahan et al.
(1957) reported a maximum of 28 days of control, and by 1966, Brady et
al. could get no more than 3 to 4 days of control with ronnel.
Dimethoate was another promising chemical developed to replace or-
ganophosphorus compounds that were failing. However, after Brady et
al. (1966) achieved good control with dimethoate in dairy barns for as
much as 43 days, Bailey et al. (1967) had control for a maximum of only
14 days, and in the summer of 1968, we obtained control for only 1 day
(unpublished data).

"Mention of a pesticide or a proprietary product in this paper does not
constitute a recommendation or an endorsement of this product by the

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 1

The most recent survey of the resistance of house flies to organophos-
phates in Florida was made by LaBrecque et al. (1958) with flies collected
from the southern and central parts of the state. When they compared
wild flies with susceptible flies in tests with contact sprays, they found re-
sistance in wild flies greater by 3 to 133-fold to malathion, 1.3 to 72-fold
to trichlorfon, 5 to 38-fold to diazinon, and 3 to >18-fold to parathion.
This information and the lack of adequate fly control in recent years in
Florida suggested the need for a survey of the state to determine the cur-
rent status of resistance in populations of wild house flies to ronnel and


A statewide survey was made in Florida by collecting flies at poultry
or dairy farms located in 32 different sections of the state from Dade
County in the south to Escambia County in the west. The adult flies col-
lected were brought to the laboratory, reared to the F, generation, and
tested when the adults were 5 days old. The flies were exposed to space
sprays of dimethoate or ronnel in the wind-tunnel described by Davis and
Gahan (1961). Identical tests were made simultaneously with the Orlando
regular (susceptible) strain to establish a basis for comparison.
The space sprays were prepared by dissolving each insecticide in ace-
tone at various concentrations between 0.01 and 5.0% (w/v). For the
tests, 20 females were placed in cages made of metal sleeves enclosed
with screen wire at each end. Then these cages were placed in the wind
tunnel, 0.25 ml of spray was atomized at 1 psi into the mouth of the ma-
chine, and drawn by an air current (4 mph) through the cages. Dupli-
cate cages of flies were treated with each concentration. Immediately
after treatment, the flies were transferred to clean holding cages, and a
cotton pad saturated with 10% sugar-water solution was placed on top of
each cage as a source of food and water. Mortality was recorded after
24 hr at 25C and 50% relative humidity. The data were used to compute
LC, 's by the probit analysis technique described by Litchfield and Wil-
coxon (1949).


The LCs~'s and the resistance levels to ronnel and dimethoate for flies
collected from dairy and poultry farms in various areas of the state are
given in Table 1. Resistance to ronnel was 4.9 to 21.2-fold greater in fly
strains from dairies and 3.8 to 54.5-fold greater in fly strains from poultry
farms than the resistance of the Orlando regular strain. Eleven of the 32
strains tested had resistance that was less than 10-fold greater and 3 had
resistance that was more than 30-fold greater. Resistance to dimethoate
was 3.4 to 31.0-fold in fly strains collected in dairies and 1.8 to 28.5-fold
greater in fly strains from poultry farms than the resistance of the Or-
lando regular strain. Ten of 20 strains tested had resistance that was less
than 10-fold greater and 1 strain had resistance that was more than 30-
fold greater.
Table 2 summarizes the average resistance to ronnel and dimethoate
found in flies from 4 regions of the state. In dairies, in every section ex-

Bailey: Resistance of House Flies


Ronnel Dimethoate
LC,5 Resistance LCo5 Resistance
County Region (%) level* (%) level*


St. Lucie
Indian River
Control (Orlando




0.02 0.09




0.04 0.19



*Based on resistance of Orlando regular (susceptible) strain as 1.0.

4 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 53, No. 1


Average resistance* (at LC)o level) to:

Region Ronnel Dimethoate

Dairy farms
South 18.0 4.4
Central 13.5 26.5
North 11.5 10.2
West 14.4 4.7

Poultry farms
South 25.7 9.8
Central 8.6 4.5
North 8.9 12.8
West 21.6 4.5
*Based on resistance of Orlando regular (susceptible) strain as 1.0.

cept the central part of the state, flies had more resistance to ronnel than
to dimethoate; in poultry farms, flies were more resistant to ronnel than to
dimethoate in all except the northern part of the state. However, the re-
sistance to ronnel in flies collected from poultry farms was more erratic
than in flies collected at dairy farms since both the highest (25.7 in the
southern part) and lowest (8.6 in the central part) levels of resistance to
ronnel were found in flies from poultry farms.
Resistance to dimethoate varied even more throughout the state. The
highest level of resistance (26.5-fold) was found in dairies in the central
part of the state. The lowest (4.4-fold) was found in dairies in the
southern part; however, dairies in the western part (4.7), and poultry
farms in the central and western parts (4.5) also had flies with low resist-
ance. Dimethoate has not been in use as long as ronnel, which may ex-
plain the lower resistance to dimethoate in some areas. Still, even when
flies from some areas had a low average resistance to dimethoate, a very
high degree was present in fly strains from individual dairy and poultry
farms (Table 1). Thus, resistance to dimethoate may become more wide-
spread as it has with other compounds that were originally highly effective.
Unfortunately, alternative insecticides to replace those that are now in-
effective, because of the development of resistance, are becoming hard to
find. This problem is undoubtedly caused, at least in part, by cross resist-
ance in field populations i.e., flies that develop resistance to insecticides
commonly used for fly control may also be resistant to new organic phos-
phorus and carbamate compounds without ever being exposed to them.
For example, in our laboratory, when compounds were evaluated as re-
sidual insecticides (unpublished data), 3 organophosphates [dimethoate,
fenthion, and Gardona (2-chloro-l-(2,4-trichlorophenyl) vinyl dimethyl
phosphate] and 1 carbamate [Mobam@ (benzo[b]thien-4-yl methylcarba-
mate)] remained toxic to susceptible house flies for 12 to 24 weeks. How-

Bailey: Resistance of House Flies

ever, when these insecticides were tested against multiresistant house flies
that had never been exposed to these 4 materials, they were toxic for only
0 to 4 weeks. Furthermore, Bailey et al. (1967) showed that these 4 in-
secticides were relatively ineffective when they were tested against field
strains in naturally infested dairies.
The need for other means of controlling house flies in dairy and poul-
try farms is therefore apparent. Perhaps a combination of sanitation,
one of the best methods, and chemical or biological methods may provide
the degree of control needed at these installations.


Bailey, D. L., G. C. LaBrecque, and P. M. Bishop. 1967. Residual sprays
for the control of house flies, Musca domestic, in dairy 'barns.
Fla. Entomol. 50: 161-3.
Brady, U. E., Jr., D. W. Meifert, and G. C. LaBrecque. 1966. Residual
sprays for the control of house flies in field tests. J. Econ. Entomol.
59: 1522-3.
Davis, A. N., and J. B. Gahan. 1961. Wind-tunnel tests with promising
insecticides against adult salt-marsh mosquitoes, Aedes taeniorhyn-
chus (Wied.). Mosquito News. 21(4): 300-3.
Gahan, J. B., H. G. Wilson, J. C. Keller, and C. N. Smith. 1957. Organic
phosphorus insecticides as residual sprays for the control of house
flies. J. Econ. Entomol. 50: 789-93.
Hansens, E. J., and C. E. Bartley. 1953. Three new insecticides for house
fly control in barns. J. Econ. Entomol. 46: 372-4.
Hansens, E. J., and R. Scott. 1955. Diazinon and Pirazinon in fly control.
J. Econ. Entomol. 48: 337-8.
Hansens, E. J. 1956. Control of house flies in dairy barns with special
reference to diazinon. J. Econ. Entomol. 49: 27-32.
King, W. V., and J. B. Gahan. 1949. Failure of DDT to control house
flies. J. Econ. Entomol. 42: 405-9.
LaBrecque, G. C., H. G. Wilson, and J. B. Gahan. 1958. Resistance of
house flies in Florida to organophosphorus insecticides. J. Econ.
Entomol. 51: 616-7.
Litchfield, J. T., and F. Wilcoxon. 1949. A simplified method of evalu-
ating dose-effect experiments. J. Pharmocol. Exp. Therap. 96:

The Florida Entomologist 5i3(1) 1970


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Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Entomology Research Division,
Agr. Res. Serv., USDA2, and Department of Entomology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32601, respectively

Three new genera of Neotropical Ceratopogonidae are described:
Fittkauhelea, type-species F. amazonica, n. sp. from Brazil, related to
Parabezzia Malloch; Parastilobezzia, type-species P. leei, n. sp. from
Columbia, related to Stilobezzia Kieffer; and Leptohelea, type-species
L. micronyx, n. sp. from Colombia, related to Ceratopogon Meigen.

We are taking this opportunity to describe three new genera of Neo-
tropical Ceratopogonidae to make the names available for a comprehen-
sive key to the genera of the world, which is in preparation. Explanations
of our terminology may be found in papers by Das Gupta and Wirth
(1968) and Wirth (1952, 1953, 1965). We are grateful to Dr. Niphan
Ratanaworabhan for the illustrations.

Fittkauhelea, new genus (Fig. 1)

Type species: Fittkauhelea amazonica, new species.

A very small, compact, nearly bare midge.

Head (Fig. If) : Eyes broadly separated, with very fine, short, inter-
facetal hairs. Vertex with two pairs of small bristles above eye margin
and median one near the point of the interocular bridge. Female antenna
(Fig. la) 15-"segmented", with intermediate segments distinctly reduced
in size, segments 12-15 stouter and longer than those preceding; apical
segment with rather blunt tip, distal sensory tufts not present. Male an-
tennal (Fig. Ib) segments 13-15 bearing short verticils, remaining flagellar
segments bearing a plume of long hairs. Male (Fig. Id) and female
(Fig. Ic) palpi four-segmented, slender, third segment without apparent
sensilla. Female mandible (Fig. Ig) with 10-14 strong distal teeth.
Thorax: Scutum broadly convex, without anterior spine or tubercle,
with scattered strong erect setae; humeral pits absent; scutellum with four
erect setae. Legs (Fig. lh) slender, unarmed; fore tibia distinctly swollen
on distal half; hind tibial comb (Fig. li) with six long spines, the spur
poorly developed. Tarsi (Fig. Ij) with strong sharp spines at the apices
of tarsomeres 1-4 plus some scattered spines on mid basitarsus which is
distinctly longer and more slender than the others; hind basitarsus with a
distinct ventral swelling bearing a stout spine at base, appearing bent at
proximal third, and bearing a ventral fringe of fine setae; fourth tarso-

1This investigation was supported in part by U. S. Army Medical De-
partment Contract No. DA-49-193-MD-2177.
2Mail address: c/o U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 20560.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 1


1% .,.,

'77 ~ fl~r'U U .s'





J-~ -7-I


Fig. 1. Fittkauhelea amazonica: a, female antenna; b, male antenna;
c, female palpus; d, male palpus; e, female wing; f, female head; g, female
mandible; h, legs; i, hind tibial comb; j, female tarsi (top to bottom: hind,
mid, and fore) ; k, female claws (left to right: fore, mid, and hind); 1, fe-
male spermathecae; m, male genitalia.

mere short and cordate, fifth slender without ventral armature; female
claws (Fig. 1k) subequal to slightly unequal, moderately long and slender,
sharp and each bearing a small basal barb on inner side; male claws short
and simple, slightly bent near apices; empodium absent.
Wing without microtrichia or macrotrichia; in female (Fig. le) broad
with rounded tip, anal angle moderately broad, radial veins somewhat

x..~.,/-6~rvc~~,~~, _

Wirth: New Neotropical Ceratopogonidae

thickened, one radial cell present, costa surpassing tip of radial cell and
nearly attaining wing tip, costa with sparsely spaced spinose setae along
entire length; vein R1 about half as long as Rs, the latter bowed an-
teriorly; media petiolate, the petiole about as long as crossvein; M2 with
base indistinct a short distance. Male wing more slender, the costa reach-
ing only slightly past midlength of wing, the radial cell quite short with
fairly broad lumen.
Abdomen of female short with moderately pointed tip; two strongly
sclerotized spermathecae (Fig. 1L) present, no trace of third; genital
opening without special armature. Male genitalia (Fig. 1m) short and
broad; ninth sternite without caudomedian excavation; ninth tergite
broadly rounded distally, ventral side with characteristic pair of large,
well-sclerotized lateral lobes continuous with mesal face of basistyles; the
latter stout, each bearing a strongly sclerotized, sharp-pointed mesal
process; dististyle slender, curved, with strong, blunt, distal spine;
aedeagus with short anterolateral arms; main body appearing as a slender
truncate cone in ventral aspect; parameres not visible (possibly hidden
by aedeagus).

Fittkauhelea amazonica, new species

Female.-Wing 0.76 mm long. Uniformly brownish black with whitish
abdomen and faintly milky-white wings; halter whitish, base of knob
dark; legs dark brown, tarsomeres 1-4 on mid and hind legs whitish. An-
tenna with lengths of flagellar segments in proportion of 20-20-18-17-15-
15-15-15-16-24-28-27-36. Costa extending to 0.96 of wing length. Sperma-
thecae slightly unequal, measuring 0.055 by 0.046 mm and 0.046 by
0.044 mm., oval without sclerotized necks, openings to the ducts broad.
Male.-Similar to the female with the usual sexual differences. Wing
0.83 mm long; costa extending to 0.70 of wing length. Genitalia as in
Fig. Im.
Types.-Holotype female, allotype male, Rio Marauia, Amazonas,
Brazil, Jan.-Feb. 1963, E. J. Fittkau, at light (Type no. 70646, USNM).
Paratypes, 95 females, same data as type.
Discussion.-It is a pleasure to name this genus in honor of its col-
lector, Dr. Ernst J. Fittkau of the Hydrobiologische Anstalt in Pln, West
Germany, who has contributed so much to our knowledge of the
aquatic midges of the Amazon. It was our privilege to study the Cerato-
pogonidae collected by Dr. Fittkau in the Amazon in 1962 and 1963. The
Rio Marauia is a small tributary on the north bank of the Rio Negro near
the border of the Venezuelan state of Amazonas. The light was operated
regularly, and the data on two representative collections are as follows:
No. 452, 2 January 1963, "etwa unter dem Xquator, Seringeiro Tapiri am
Schwarzwasserbach, rechtes Ufer, Lichtfang"; No. 486, 22 January 1963,
"eine Tagesreise oberhalb Mission, grosse Sandpraia, flaches Flussbett
mit Blitterpackung an Sandbinken, Lichtfang".
Fittkauhelea is closely related to Parabezzia Malloch (Wirth 1965)
which it resembles in wing venation, both male and female, especially in
the single long radial cell with bowed Rs and prolonged costa in the fe-
male; in its 4-segmented palpus, unarmed legs with cordate fourth tarso-

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 1

mere and simple, unarmed fifth tarsomere; simple, curved, more or less
unequal tarsal claws in the female; female antenna with middle segments
smaller and distal segments not greatly elongated; and in the general
features of the male genitalia, especially the shape of the aedeagus. It
differs from Parabezzia in its widely separated eyes; the pubescence of the
eyes; the male coxa without long, spinelike hairs; the tibia of the foreleg
swollen distally; the male ninth tergite with strong sclerotized lobes on
ventral face, and the absence of the male parameres.

Parastilobezzia, new genus (Fig. 2)

Type-species; Parastilobezzia leei, new species

A very small, nearly bare midge with long second radial cell and pro-
longed costa.
Head: Eyes moderately separated, with long interfacetal hairs. Anten-
na of female (Fig. 2a) 15-segmented, elongate, no marked distinction
in lengths between last 5 segments and those preceding; verticils short;
male antenna similar to that of female. Proboscis moderately long; fe-
male mandible (Fig. 2d) with 6 coarse teeth. Palpus of both sexes (Fig.
2b) appearing 3-segmented, the true second and fourth segments appar-
ently indistinctly fused with the third, the latter broad and swollen, with
an indistinct round sensory pit.
Thorax: Scutum broadly convex, with scattered, coarse, erect setae.
Legs (Fig. 2e) unarmed, moderately slender; hind tibial comb (Fig. 2f)
with 5-6 spines, the spur not developed. Tarsi (Fig. 2g) simple without
strong ventral spines, hind basitarsus somewhat enlarged basally, taper-
ing distally; fourth tarsomere slightly cordate, fifth short, moderately
slender, that of female with a single, moderately long, curved, sharp-
pointed claw bearing a minute basal barb; male claws normal, paired,
simple, short, sharp and curved.
Wing (Fig. 2c) without macrotrichia; microtrichia coarse, wing ap-
pearing uniformly grayish; first radial cell small, vein R1 located in direct
line with r-m crossvein as seen in Stilobezzia, second radial cell extending
nearly to wing tip; vein R4+5 bowed and paralleling costa; media very
obscurely marked, exceptionally long petiolate; anal angle rounded.
Abdomen: Short and moderately slender; female genital opening
flanked by a pair of sclerotized flaps. Two large spermathecae (Fig. 2i)
present, no third one visible. Male genitalia similar to those of Stilo-
bezzia (Eukraiohelea) elegantula (Johannsen).

Parastilobezzia leei, new species

Female.-Wing 0.74 mm long. Dull dark yellowish with straw-colored
legs and uniformly grayish wings; halteres brownish. Antenna with
lengths of flagellar segments in proportion of 32-23-23-24-24-25-27-30-
40-40-40-40-52. Spermathecae subspherical, with long slender necks, sub-
equal, each measuring 0.050+0.012 (neck) by 0.044 mm.
Male.-Similar to the female, including structure of antenna and
palpus; mandible teeth vestigial; wing 0.57 mm long; costa reaching to
0.90 of wing length. Genitalia: Ninth tergite with well-developed, sub-

Wirth: New Neotropical Ceratopogonidae



d, mandible; e, legs (left to right: fore, mid, and hind); f, hind tibial
comb; g, tarsi (left to right: fore, mid, and hind); h, claws (left to right:
fore, mid, and hind).

median, setose lobes corresponding to apicolateral processes. Basistype
moderately stout, with a prominent, broad, well-sclerotized mesal lobe
near apex; dististyle short and stout, tip blunt and slightly bifid. Slide
mount unsuitable for examination of aedeagal sclerites; parameres sepa-
rate, each with prominent, curved basal apodeme, main body a long,
slender, strongly sclerotized rod surpassing tips of apicolateral processes,
its tip bluntly pointed.
Types.-Holotype female, allotype male, 1 female paratype, Rio Ra-
poso, Valle, Colombia, July, August 1964, V. H. Lee, light trap (Type no.
70651, USNM).
Discussion.-This species is dedicated to Dr. Vernon H. Lee of the
Rockefeller Foundation, who has contributed so much to our knowledge
of the biting Diptera of Colombia.

12 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 53, No. 1

Parastilobezzia is closely related to the genus Stilobezzia Kieffer
(Wirth 1952, 1953; Das Gupta and Wirth 1968). The wing venation is of
the Stilobezzia type, particularly the shape of the first radial cell and the
relative placement of vein R1, and the media is long petiolate although
very faintly indicated. The extreme prolongation of the second radial
cell and the costa to the wing tip, with the parallel course of vein R4+5,
is similar to that of Parabezzia and Fittkauhelea. The male genitalia are
of the type found in the Stilobezzia subgenus Eukraiohelea. The long
slender antenna, with sparse, coarse setae and somewhat rugose contour
are typical of Stilobezzia. The partial fusion of the palpal segments and
the reduction of the female tarsal claws to a single, curved, moderately
long claw on each leg are unique features of this genus.

Leptohelea, new genus (Fig. 3)
Type-species: Leptohelea micronyx, new species.
A very small, delicate, nearly bare midge with weak venation and tiny
tarsal claws. Male unknown.
Head: Eyes bare, frontal area damaged, eye separation not discernible.
Antenna (Fig. 3a) 15-segmented, segments elongate, subcylindrical; verti-
cils short; third segment elongate, provided with 3 sensory pits bordered
by fine setae. Palpus (Fig. 3b) apparently 3-segmented, the second
(primitive third) swollen, with a small, round, sensory area, third seg-
ment small and oval. Proboscis quite short; mandible with 5 coarse teeth.
Thorax: Mesonotum relatively broad, with sparse, scattered setose
hairs; scutellum with four marginal setae. Legs (Fig. 3d) moderately
slender, without special armature or strong bristles; hind tibial comb
(Fig. 3e) with 3 spines, a long slender spur present. Tarsi (Fig. 3f)
short and slender, without strong spines or armature, fifth tarsomere
setose like the rest; claws (Fig. 3g) very small, somewhat bent at base
with a basal swelling but no barb or empodium, sharp and nearly straight
Wing (Fig. 3c) short and rounded, with moderately developed anal
angle; costa and radial veins not greatly thickened, only slightly stronger
than the obscure medial and cubital veins; one radial cell present, vein R1
long and oblique, arising at r-m crossvein; costa and vein Rs extend-
ing 0.76 of wing length. Media apparently unbranched, extending straight
from r-m crossvein to wing margin considerably behind wing tip; a faint
intercalary vein present in distal part of cell R5 with midportion bowed
anteriorly from media, the ends approaching but not meeting media;
macrotrichia absent; microtrichia coarse, wing appearing smoky grayish
Abdomen: Moderately short and slender; female genital opening with-
out special armature; cerci short. Spermatheca (Fig. 3h) single, large,
oval, with long slender neck.

Leptohelea micronyx, new species
Female.-Wing 0.78 mm long. Uniformly pale yellowish brown, in-
cluding legs and halteres; wing smoky grayish brown. Antenna with
lengths of flagellar segments in proportion of 40-18-17-17-17-18-18-20-
24-24-26-27-26. Spermatheca measuring 0.049+0.022 (neck) by 0.042 mm.

Wirth: New Neotropical Ceratopogonidae


/Y'pr, ,rq,,,.,T" C V


Fig. 3. Leptohelea micronyx, female: a, antenna; b, palpus, c, wing; d,
legs (left to right) : fore, mid, and hind; e, hind tibial comb; f, tarsi (left
to right: fore, mid, and hind) ; g, claws (left to right: fore, mid, and hind);
h, female spermathecae.

Types.-Holotype female, 1 female paratype, Rio Raposo, Valle, Co-
lombia, 28 July 1964, V. H. Lee, light trap (Type no. 70652, USNM).
Discussion.-gThe generic name is taken from the Greek: leptos (small,
delicate) +heleia (marsh dweller). The wing venation and tarsal structure
of this tiny midge are so anomalous that its systematic position is difficult
to assess, but most of the characters will place it in the Ceratopogon
group of genera (Macfie 1940). In this we are guided by the coarse man-
dibular teeth, the structure of the palpus and antenna, especially the pres-
ence of sensory tufts only on the third segment of the latter, and the ab-
sence of macrotrichia on the wing. Wing venation, palpal segmentation,
and condition of the tarsal claws seem to be in a state of flux in much of
the Ceratopogon group, which may be the most generalized in the family.

14 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 53, No. 1
Das Gupta, S. K., and W. W. Wirth. 1968. Revision of the Oriental
species of Stilobezzia Kieffer (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae). Bull. U.
S. Nat. Mus. 283: 1-149.
Macfie, J. W. S. 1940. The genera of Ceratopogonidae. Ann. Trop.
Med. Parasit. 34: 13-30.
Wirth, W. W. 1952. The Heleidae of California. Univ. California Pubs.
Entomol. 9: 95-266.
Wirth, W. W. 1953. Biting midges of the heleid genus Stilobezzia in
North America. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 103: 57-85.
Wirth, W. W. 1965. A revision of the genus Parabezzia Malloch (Dip-
tera, Ceratopogonidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Washington 67:
The Florida Entomologist 53(1) 1970





Carefully Executed

Delivered on Time




Smithsonian Institution, and Sub-Tropical Station, Homestead,
University of Florida, respectively

Thirty-two specimens of Amnestus trimaculatus Froeschner were col-
lected in Dade County Florida in 1968 and 1969.

The type series and subsequently examined specimens of Amnestus
trimaculatus Froeschner (1960, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 111:633, 662) showed
it to range along the full length of Cuba from Pinar del Rio to Oriente
A significant extension of its known range is now furnished by 32
specimens collected at black light traps in Dade County on the southern
tip of Florida during the years 1968 and 1969. Whether this is a part of
its natural range or one of man's unwitting transportation is not clear;
however, 1 specimen was taken at the Sub-Tropical Experiment Station,
Homestead, and points to the probability of man's intervention. Exact
data are: Homestead, 29 August 1969, 1 specimen; Orchid Jungle Ham-
mock, Newton Road, 5 September 1968, 1 specimen, and 1 October 1969,
1 specimen; Ross and Castellow Hammock, 24 December 1968, 2 specimens,
5, 11, 23 September 1969, 13 specimens and 2, 9, 10, 14, 24 October 1969,
14 specimens.
The coloration marks it as distinct from all other Amnestus. The head,
thorax, and abdomen are dark reddish brown and the pale hemelytra are
hyaline to light yellow with 3 distinct dark brown marks: a subbasal cloud
on each costa and 1 across apices of clavi, and on the apex of the corium
a narrow, transverse line along the lateral half. Structurally trimaculatus
can be separated from all other members of the genus by the impunctate
outer third or half of the exocorium. It belongs to that group of Amnes-
tus species having 5 marginal pegs on each jugum.

The Florida Entomologist 53(1) 1970

'Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal, Series No. 3500.





The Asgrow Kilgore Company, manufacturers and formulators of
Insecticides and Fungicides, offers a complete advisory service to
Florida farmers through the facilities of its 16 Stores, Laboratory
and technically trained Field Staff.





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Department of Entomology, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32601

The pupa of Deinocerites pseudes Dyar and Knab is described and
illustrated for the first time. A table lists the range, mode, and mean
number of branches of each pupal hair.

Females of Deinocerites pseudes Dyar and Knab are vicious biters and
readily attack man as well as other vertebrates (Peyton et al. 1964, Ga-
lindo 1967). The feeding habits of this crabhole breeding species, com-
bined with the isolation of St. Louis encephalitis virus from wildcaught
specimens in Panama (Grayson et al. 1967), suggests that it may be a
vector of this arbovirus. Currently nothing is known of its vector po-
tential, but as a suspected vector, all stages should be described.
In their revision of the genus Deinocerites, Belkin and Hogue (1959)
presented a description of the adults and larva of D. pseudes but stated
that the pupa was unknown. The present paper gives a detailed de-
scription of the pupa. Chaetotaxy and morphological nomenclature used
in this description follow that of Belkin (1962). The pupa is illustrated
in Fig. 1-3 while Table 1 lists the range, mode, and mean number of
branches for each pupal hair.

Deinocerites pseudes Dyar and Knab

Cephalothorax (Fig. 1): Hairs C-1-3, 6, 9 moderately long, C-4, 7-8
long, C-5 extra long, C-1, 5, 7 usually double, C-2 triple, C-3 single or
double, C-4 usually triple, C-6, 8 usually single, C-9 single.
Respiratory Trumpet (Fig. 2): Strongly pigmented; tracheoid in basal
third; index 4.23-4.75.
Metanotum (Fig. 3): Hairs C-10-12 moderately long, C-10 with 31-38
branches; C-11 usually double or triple; C-12 usually double.
Abdomen (Fig. 3): Hair 0-II-VIII minute, single; 1-I well developed,
with 22-33 branches; 1-II-VII moderately long, 1-II usually with 8-9
branches, 1-III-V usually double, 1-VI usually with 2-3 branches, 1-VII
single; 2-I-II moderately long, 2-III-VII short, 2-I-VII single; 3-VII
single or double, 3-I, IV, VI-VII moderately long, 3-II-III, V long, 3-I-III,
V-VI usually single, 3-IV with 2-3 branches; 4-I short, 4-II-VII moderately
long, 4-VIII long, 4-I, V usually with 3-4 branches, 4-II, IV, VII-VII1 usu-
ally single, 4-III usually single or double, 4-VI usually double; 5-I-III

1Publication costs were supported by Research Contract No. DA-49-
193-MD-2177 from the U. S. Army Medical Research and Development
Command, Office of the Surgeon General. The opinions contained herein
are the private ones of the author and are not to be construed as official
or as reflecting the views of the Department of the Army.
2Major, Medical Service Corps, U. S. Army.

18 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 53, No. 1

moderately long, 5-IV-VI extra long, 5-VII short, 5-I usually triple, 5-II
usually with 2-3 branches, 5-III usually single, 5-IV-VII single; 6-I-VI
long, single, 6-VII short, usually with 3-4 branches; 7-I-II, V moderately

- 0.5mm ----

Fig. 1-3. Pupa of Deinocerites pseudes Dyar and Knab. Fig. 1.
Cephalothorax. Fig. 2. Respiratory trumpet. Fig. 3. Metanotum and
abdomen. C=cephalothorax, I-VIII=abdominal segments 1 through 8,

Reinert: Pupa of Deinocerites pseudes

Deinocerites pseudes

Hair Range Mode Mean Hair Range Mode Mean


31-38 34
2-3 3
1-3 2

Abdomen I
22-33 30
1 1
1-2 1
2-4 3
3-4 3
1 1
2-4 2
1 1
1 1
1 1

Abdomen II
1 1
6-10 9
1 1
1 1
1 1

Abdomen III



Abdomen IV

Abdomen V

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 1

TABLE 1 Continued

Hair Range Mode Mean Hair Range Mode Mean

Abdomen V (Cont)

Abdomen VII

1 1
1 1

Abdomen VI

Abdomen VIII


long, 7-III short, 7-VI-VII long, 7-I, V usually

double, 7-II, VI usually

single, 7-III usually with 2-3 branches, 7-IV usually single or double, 7-V
usually double, 7-VII single; 8-III-V short, 8-VI-VII moderately long,
8-III usually with 4 branches, 8-IV, VII usually double, 8-V-VI usually
single or double; 9-II-VI short, 9-VII-VIII long, 9-II-VII single; 10-I short,
10-III-VII moderately long, 10-I single, 10-III, V, VII usually single, 10-IV,
VI usually single or double; 11-I, III-VI short, 11-VII moderately long,
11-I, III-V, VII single, 11-VI usually single or double; 12-I minute, single;
14-III-VII minute, 14-VIII short, 14-III-VIII single.
Paddle (Fig. 3): Ovoid, with tiny spicules along outer proximal 0.5
of margin, upper and lower surfaces sparsely clothed with minute spicules,
midrib does not reach apex; 1-P long, single; index 1.28-1.42.
The above description is based on 6 female and 2 male pupal skins col-
lected by the author at Brownsville, Texas on 6-7 March 1964.

Reinert: Pupa of Deinocerites pseudes


Belkin, J. N. 1962. The mosquitoes of the South Pacific Univ. Calif.
Press, Berkeley. 2 vols., 608 and 412 p.
Belkin, J. N., and C. L. Hogue. 1959. A review of the crabhole mos-
quitoes of the genus Deinocerites (Diptera, Culicidae). Univ.
Calif. Pub. Entomol. 14(6): 411-458.
Galindo, P. 1967. Preliminary observations on the colonization and
bionomics of the crab-hole breeding mosquito Deinocerites pseudes
Dyar and Knab, 1909. Mosquito News 27(2) : 187-190.
Grayson, M. A., S. Srihongse, and P. Galindo. 1967. Isolation of St.
Louis encephalitis virus from Deinocerites pseudes in Panama.
Mosquito News 27(2): 204.
Peyton, E. L., J. F. Reinert, and N. E. Peterson. 1964. The occurrence
of Deinocerites pseudes Dyar and Knab in the United States, with
additional notes on the biology of Deinocerites species in Texas.
Mosquito News 24(4): 449-458.

The Florida Entomologist 53(1) 1970

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bearing the Blue Bullseye
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, .... 5 : .


University of Florida, I.F.A.S.,
Department of Entomology & Nematology,
Gainesville 32601

Plecia nearctica Hardy has two annual generations, with adults emerg-
ing in May and September. Eggs are laid in moist soil, and larvae feed
gregariously on decaying vegetation. Pupation occurs in the locations of
larval development. Pairs of mating adults feed on pollen and nectar of
flowers blooming at the seasons of adult activity.

My first encounters with the "love-bugs" were in south Louisiana in
the mid-1930's. Locally these insects were called "honeymoon flies". At
that time we referred to the species as Plecia bicolor Bellardi; P. nearctica
was not described by Hardy until 1940. In Louisiana, many larvae de-
veloped in grass clippings along highway subgrades. Flights of adults
were present in May and September. Although Hardy's description of the
species does not list any localities east of the Mississippi Gulf Coast, he
does indicate that the species is widely distributed and extends into Mexico
and Central America.
Extensive populations of P. nearctica have persisted over the past 4
years in north central Florida. Flights of large numbers of adults have
been present each year in May and September. Adult flies are a nuisance
when they spatter on automotive windshields at usual highway speeds.
Driver vision is impaired and filling station attendants expend considerable
time and effort removing the spattered eggs and fly remnants from the
glass of windshields and headlights, and the fronts of vehicles. Large
numbers of flies drawn into the cooling systems of liquid-cooled engines
may cause overheating of motors, resulting in extensive damage to the
parts of reciprocating engines. Flights of adults are frequent in towns
as well as in the open countryside. The flies drift into freshly painted
surfaces, and exterior painting of buildings is often suspended in May and
It is estimated that the September 1969 flight of adults extended over
approximately one-fourth the land area of Florida. During this flight,
Florida Highway Patrol airplane pilots and observers in Alachua County
reported the adult flies at altitudes of 1000 to 1500 ft. Prevailing winds
at these altitudes could carry the flies over long distances. Fishermen
have reported flights of adults over the marine waters of the Gulf of
Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean.
Flights of adults extend over a period of about 4 weeks in May and
September. Individual flies do not live this long but are constantly being
replaced by other individuals of the same generation. Male flies live for 2-
or 3 days; female flies may live for a week or longer and may mate with

1Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal, Series No. 3641.
2Mr. C. E. Leach, Student Assistant, was employed part-time on this
study during the summer of 1968.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 1

more than one male. Male adults emerge slightly ahead of females and
assume a hovering flight over developmental locations. Emerging females
apparently are located by sight and numerous males dive at each emerging
female. Copulation is effected in flight and usually continues until the
male dies. The larger and stronger female controls flight and walking ac-
tivity of the tandem pair (Fig. 1). Flight is restricted to the hours of

Fig. 1. Mating pair of
with red dorsal portion of
Drawing by C. E. Leach.

P. nearctica; female on right. Color: black
thorax. Length of mating pair; 13-15 mm.

daylight; the mating pairs rest at night, usually on low-growing vege-
ation. Favored food sources of the adults are blackberry and clover
blossoms in May, and goldenrod and other composite blossoms in Sep-
Females lay grey, irregularly-shaped eggs in or on the soil under par-
tially decayed vegetation. Mr. C. E. Leach dissected 20 randomly selected
females from the May 1968 emergence. Eggs per female varied from 152
to 602 but averaged slightly less than 350 for the 20 specimens. It is not
known that all of these eggs are laid prior to the natural death of fe-
males. Eggs in the soil are subject to desiccation and eggs held in the
laboratory have been overgrown by an unidentified fungus.
The slate-grey larvae, with distinct and darker head capsules (Fig. 2),
are found in aggregations in or on the soil under decaying vegetation
where moisture is fairly constant. Larvae are found in the soil in oak
hammocks and other low areas that retain moisture. Larvae feed with

Hetrick: Biology of Plecia nearctica

Fig. 2. Larva of P. nearctica; color slate grey with darker head cap-
sule. Length of full-grown larva, 11-12 mm. Drawing by C. E. Leach.

chewing mouthparts on fallen leaves, fallen Spanish-moss, and other ac-
cumulated decaying vegetation on the soil surface. Dead leaves are often
skeletonized by larval feeding (Fig. 3). On one low pasture area near
Gainesville (Payne's Prairie, an old lake bottom), extensive larval develop-
ment has occurred under weathered cow manure. Conditions needed for
larval development are adequate moisture, partially decayed vegetation,
and favorable soil temperatures. The larvae perform a useful function by
converting dead vegetation into soil components.
Larval developmental locations in Florida differ somewhat from those
observed in Louisiana in the 1930's. Louisiana receives more rainfall than
Florida and the south Louisiana soils have better moisture retention than
Florida's sandy soils. Under Louisiana conditions, extensive larval de-

/ ,"b.- .-; *

Fig. 3. Dead leaves on soil surface skeletonized by feeding of larvae
of P. nearctica. Photo by Milledge Murphey.

26 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 53, No. 1

velopment occurred on grass clippings on highway subgrades. Examina-
tion of highway subgrades in Florida has shown them to be so well
drained that they fail to provide the consistent moisture needed by the
Bibionid larvae.
Diseases of the larvae have not been observed but they are subject to
desiccation. Many aggregations of larvae have been observed near the
nests of fire ants but they were not attacked by the ants. Predators of the
larvae have not been observed. Numerous field-collected larvae failed to
show parasitism when held under laboratory conditions.
Pupation occurs in the locations of larval development. Transforma-
tion from the dark grey pupa to the adult is rapid and is completed within
7 to 9 days. Diseases, predators, or parasites of the pupae have not been
Although spiders catch a few of the adult flies, they are avoided by
many predators. Birds, dragonflies, toads, frogs, and lizards pay no at-
tention to the flies. Many of the pairs are killed on the highways by
motor vehicles. However, this seemingly has little effect on the total
population which is equally high either on or off the highways. At the
present time, it is not known what ecological factors are responsible for
the population explosion of this species in north central Florida.

Hardy, D. E. 1940. Studies of New World Plecia (Bibionidae: Diptera).
J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 13(1): 20-21.

The Florida Entomologist 53(1) 1970



Department of Zoology, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida

The male of Myrmecotypus lineatus (Emerton) is described for the
first time. It is an atypical member of its genus, possessing several
Castianeira-like characteristics.

Myrmecotypus lineatus (Emerton) was originally described from
specimens collected in eastern Massachusetts (Emerton 1909). Since that
time about a dozen specimens have been collected along the eastern
coastal plain of the United States with most found in northern Florida.
All specimens collected and studied before this report have been females
or immatures; the female has been redescribed recently in a revision of
the North American Castianeirinae (Reiskind 1969). Several males have
been collected recently, unfortunately too late for inclusion in the sub-
familial revision, and are described below. The measurements and termi-
nology used are the same as used in the redescription of the female
(Reiskind 1969).

Myrmecotypus lineatus (Emerton)
Fig. 1-4.
Castianeira lineata Emerton, 1909, Trans. Conn. Acad. Sci. 14(3):216, pl.
10, Fig. 5, 9. Female holotype from Sharon, Massachusetts in the
Museum of Comparative Zoology, examined.
Myrmecotypus lineatus (Emerton), Reiskind, 1969, Bull. Mus. Compar.
Zool. 138(5) : 272-273, Fig. 111, 112, 153-155, 9.
Measurements (based on two males) : carapace length 1.65-1.75 mm;
carapace width 0.90-0.95 mm; carapace index (carapace width carapace
length X 100) 53-55; sternum length 0.75-0.80 mm; sternum width 0.55
mm; sternum index (width length X 100) 71-73.
(Leg measurements based on the larger male only.) Femur IV length
1.54 mm; femur IV width 0.21 mm; leg thickness index (femur IV width -
femur IV length X 100) 14; leg length index (femui IV length carapace
length X 100) 87.

1Contribution No. 166, Entomology Section, Div. of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville.
2Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Div. of
Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Serv-

The Florida Entomologist


Fig. 1-4. Myrmecotypus lineatus (Emerton) male: 1) carapace, 2)
"face", 3) abdomen, 4) left palpus. (Scale line for Fig. 1-3=1.0 mm; Fig.
4=0.5 mm.)

Abdomen length 2.05-2.15 mm; abdomen width 0.80 mm; abdomen index
(width length X 100) 37-39.
Embolus length 0.05 mm; bulb length 0.50-0.51 mm; male genital index
(embolus length -: bulb length X 100) 10.
Description: Carapace yellow-orange, hairless and long, slightly darker
in cephalic region and along lateral and posterior edges. Cephalic region
fairly wide (width at level of second eye row 0.68-0.70 times the maximum
width of the carapace) and truncated anteriorly (Fig. 1). Eyes small,
subequal (anterior median eyes slightly larger than anterior lateral eyes)
and bordered in black (Fig. 2). Carapace narrows considerably behind
with posterior end flat. Thoracic groove absent but a small distinct longi-
tudinal impression present.
Abdomen long, oval, yellow-orange, with a very strong median con-
striction and a full dorsal sclerite (Fig. 3). Two thin horizontal white
hair bands; one across the middle of the region anterior to the constric-
tion and one at the constriction. Epigastric sclerite light yellow-orange.
Long, rectangular, yellow, ventral sclerite from -epigastric furrow to
spiracle (about seven-eighths the distance from furrow to spinnerets).
Small inframammilliary sclerite. Abdominal setae: first pair thin and
moderately long, second pair fairly stout.
Sternum shield-shaped, long, yellow, with a few long, thin setae.
Pedicel moderately long.
Chelicerae yellow-orange with two moderately small retromargin teeth
and two promargin teeth, the distal larger and the proximal smaller than

Vol. 53, No. I

Reiskind: Male of Myrmecotypus lineatus

the retromargin teeth; an extremely small denticle just medial and distal
to the larger promargin tooth. No heavy setae at cheliceral apex.
Coxa I light yellow; coxae II and III yellow-white, coxa IV light
yellow-orange. Trochanter IV notch absent.
Legs very thin. Femora striped; I and II light yellow with dark red-
brown dorsal and prolateral stripes, III lighter with weaker red-brown
stripes, IV yellow with dorsal and retrolateral red-brown stripes. Rest of
legs I and II light yellow; rest of leg III: patella-tibia yellow, slightly
striped, metatarsus and tarsus light yellow; rest of leg IV: patella yellow,
tibia striped like femur IV, metatarsus red-brown, tarsus light yellow. Legs
lightly hirsute. Tibia I ventral spination: 2-2 (two pairs), moderately
thin and short.
Pedipalp with a short tibial apophysis. Tarsus with a globose genital
bulb drawn out into a long neck with a short, straight embolus (Fig. 4).
Remarks: This species is an atypical Myrmecotypus differing from the
rest of the members of the genus by its relatively small anterior median
eyes and the somewhat Castianeira-like genitalia. However the wide
cephalic region of the carapace and the absence of a thoracic groove have
led to its placement in Myrmecotypus.
The key for species of Myrmecotypus published in the revision of the
Castianeirinae (Reiskind, 1969) includes M. lineatus and is applicable to
both sexes.
Little is known of the natural history of this species but one male was
collected in a building and the other from an open field.
Records (males only): Florida. Alachua Co.: Gainesville, 25-IV-1968
(R. E. Woodruff). Leon Co.: Tall Timbers Research Station, 16/21-VIII-
1968 (E. V. Komarek).


Emerton, J. H. 1909. Supplement to the New England Spiders. Trans.
Connecticut Acad. Sci. 14(3): 171-236.
Reiskind, J. 1969. The Castianeirinae of North and Central America
(Araneae, Clubionidae). Bull. Mus. Compar. Zool. 138(5): 163-

The Florida Entomologist 53(1) 1970

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Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service,
U. S. Department of Agriculture1

Parachasma anastrephilum, n. sp., a parasite on larvae of Anastrepha
suspense (Loew.) and A. interrupta Stone, is described from southern

The following description of a new species of Parachasma Fischer is
provided to make a name available for work being done on fruit flies in
Florida. It is also the first record of this genus from the United States.

Parachasma Fischer

Parachasma Fischer, 1967, Beitr. Neotr. Fauna 5(1) :7. Type-species:
Opius zeteki Muesebeck, original designation.
This genus is characterized by the sinuate anterior margin of the
clypeus (Fig. 2), the slight mouth opening, the complete absence of an
occipital carina, and the second segment of the radius of the fore wing
being shorter than the first intercubitus (Fig. 1). The species in this
group were formerly included in Opius subgenus Diachasma Foerster, but
Fischer (1967) has given them separate generic status and presented a key
to the 11 neotropical species. The genus was restricted to Mexico, Central
and South America, and the West Indies, but the species described below
extends the range into the sub-tropical southern tip of Florida. All known
species of Parachasma are parasitic on larvae of the fruit fly genus
Anastrepha Schiner except for one which is restricted to Toxotrypana

Parachasma anastrephilum new species

Female: Length of body, 3.5-4.5 mm; ovipositor, 2.5-3.0 mm. Color of
head, thorax and abdomen orange or reddish-orange; lower portion of
face and venter of thorax occasionally yellowish-orange; antennae, tegulae
and ovipositor sheaths black; legs black or brown except fore coxae, base
of middle and hind coxae, apex of femora and fore and middle tarsi which
are yellowish-orange; abdomen occasionally marked with black at apex;
wings hyaline, veins dark brown or black. Head transverse; vertex and
temples smooth, face and frons weakly punctate; anterior margin of
clypeus sinuate (Fig. 2), mouth narrowly open; malar space about 1/3 eye
height; occipital carina completely absent; antennae 45- to 55-segmented.
Thorax smooth and shining; notauli complete, smooth; anterior face of.
middle mesonotal lobe with a longitudinal raised median area; scutellar
furrow short, broad, rectangular, with one median carina; sternaulus
short, broad, shallow, smooth; propodeum with central pentagonal areola,

'Mail address: c/o U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 20560.

32 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 53, No. 1


Fig. 1-2, Parachasma anastrephilum, n. sp.: 1, fore and hind wings;
2, head, anterior view.

sometimes top of areola incomplete or obscured so that areola appears
open. Wing venation as in Fig. 1. Abdomen completely smooth and
polished; longitudinal carinae on first tergum parallel, extending to apical
1/3 of tergum; ovipositor slightly longer than abdomen.
Male: Essentially as in female.
Holotype female.-FLORIDA: Miami, 24 October 1967, A. G. Selhime,
ex. Anastrepha suspense (Loew). U. S. Nat. Mus. type no. 70855.
Paratypes.-FLORIDA: Homestead, 23 9 9, 10 S 8, collected on
several dates during 1967 and 1968 by R. W. Swanson and R. M. Baranow-
ski, most being reared from Anastrepha suspense or A. interrupt; Miami,
1 9, 1 S, same data as holotype. Paratypes are deposited in the U. S.
National Museum, the Sub-Tropical Experiment Station, Homestead, Flor-
ida, and the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville.
Hosts: Reared from Anastrepha suspense (Loew) and A. interrupta
Stone (Diptera: Tephritidae).
This species is similar to Parachasma cereum (Gahan), but is easily
distinguished by its black tegulae and legs. It also resembles P. trini-
dadense (Gahan), but can be distinguished by its orange head and com-
plete areola on the propodeum.
Specimens for this study were sent by R. M. Baranowski, Sub-Tropical
Experiment Station, University of Florida, Homestead.

Fischer, M. 1967. Zusammenfassung der neotropischen Opiinae mit
Ausschluss der Gattung Opius Wesm. Beitr. Neotr. Fauna 5(1):

The Florida Entomologist 53(1) 1970



Department of Entomology, Mississippi State University,
State College 39762

Dalbulus maidis (Delong and Wolcott) preferred corn to gamagrass or
Johnsongrass for adult survival and oviposition. Incubation periods
for eggs in these plants were approximately the same. Developmental
period from eclosion to adult was shorter on corn than on gamagrass,
whereas nymphs did not survive on Johnsongrass. Leafhoppers reared on
corn weighed .0003 mg (average per insect) more than leafhoppers reared
on gamagrass.

The corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis (Delong and Wolcott), was re-
ported by Kunkel (1946) to be a vector of the corn stunt virus3. This
leafhopper is generally considered to be a subtropical species and has been
collected in the United States from California east to the Atlantic, but no
farther north than Missouri or North Carolina.
D. maidis has received much attention during the past few years in con-
nection with the corn stunt disease problem of recent origin in the South-
eastern United States (Stoner 1965). This leafhopper, one of 4 known
vectors of the corn stunt disease agent, occurs in some areas of epidemic
infection (Douglas et al. 1966). However, studies on the biology and oc-
currence of D. maidis in Mississippi and surrounding states revealed that
this leafhopper is of little significance in the incidence of corn stunt in-
fection in the southeastern United States (Pitre et al. 1967). It has not
been collected in Mississippi and other Southeastern States until late
summer, but the disease is prevalent earlier in the season. Adults ap-
parently migrate into the area late in the summer and are unable to sur-
vive the winter, at least in the northern part of Mississippi.
Kunkel (1948) reported that both the corn stunt virus and D. maidis
seemed highly specific for corn, Zea mays L., and toesinte, Eucheaena
mexicana Schrad. However, a gamagrass, Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L,
was recently reported to be the third plant species to serve as a host for
D. maidis (Pitre et al. 1966).
Johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.), has been the subject of much
speculation as to its role in the epidemiology of corn virus diseases, par-
ticularly corn stunt. This perennial grass is a common overwintering
host for several mosaic viruses of corn and serves as a source of spring
inoculum, but evidence that this species is not susceptible to the corn
stunt disease agent was recently obtained (Pitre, unpublished results).
The apparent unsuitability of Johnsongrass to be a breeding host for D.

1Publication No. 1815, Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station.
2Associate Professor
3Evidence has been presented recently suggesting that the causal agent
of corn stunt, transmitted by leafhoppers, is a mycoplasma-like organism.
Until there is additional information concerning this etiological agent, I
will refer to the causal organism as "virus".

34 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 53, No. 1

maidis has also been reported (Pitre 1967). In the present study the life
cycle of D. maidis on Johnsongrass and its potential as a breeding host
for this leafhopper vector were examined.
Comparative data on some phases of the life cycle of D. maidis on 2
known host plants, corn and gamagrass, and 1 potential host plant, John-
songrass will be presented.


Corn (Pioneer 309B hybrid) and Johnsongrass plants used in these
studies were grown from seed, whereas gamagrass plants were grown from
rootstocks collected at State College, Miss. All plants were grown in clay
pots in the greenhouse and transferred to the laboratory for testing.
Generally, plants were about 1 month old at initiation of the various
Most D. maidis used in these studies were reared in an airconditioned
insectary on Pioneer 309B dent corn. Nymphs or adults were removed
as needed from the culture cages with a glass tube (mouth suction) as-
pirator and transferred to confinement cages attached to test plants.
The small cages used to confine the test leafhoppers on the plants
were 1%" square clear plastic boxes4, fitted with a hinged-lid and a snap-
type fastener, with openings cut into the sides of the box and covered with
nylon screen. An additional small hole with a tight fitting cotton plug
served as an insect introduction hole. A strip of foam rubber 1/8 inch
thick was glued around the edges of the box top and lid so that when a
leaf blade was inserted into the box and the lid closed the leaf tissue was
not injured and leafhoppers were unable to escape. The cages were held
in place by attaching them with rubber bands to wood stakes implanted in
the soil in which the plants were growing.
The laboratory temperature varied from 72 to 88'F (avg 84'F) and
the RH from 28 to 46% (avg 39%). Gro-Lux fluorescent lamps mounted
2 ft above each table top provided constant light.


D. maidis approximately 2-3 weeks old, individually confined for 4
days in clip-on cages, laid an average of 66 (9 ), 2.4 (159) and 1.2
(32 9) eggs per female in the leaves of corn, gamagrass and Johnson-
grass, respectively. These data were determined by leaf dissection and
egg chorion counts recorded 9 days after the leafhoppers were removed
from the plants. All 9 females confined on corn laid eggs (range 40-82
eggs), whereas, only 5 of 32 females oviposited in Johnsongrass (range
2-24 eggs), and 4 of 15 females in gamagrass (range 3-13 eggs).
The average incubation period for eggs in Johnsongrass, corn, and
gamagrass was 8.5 (2 eggs), 9.0 (25 eggs) and 9.3 (38 eggs) days, re-
The clip-on cages were allowed to remain on the leaves over the ovi-
position sites to restrict movement of nymphs and to allow visual obser-
vations of activity within the cages. Observations of nymphal emergence

4Althern Products, 2301 Benson Avenue, Brooklyn 14, New York

Pitre: Life Cycle of Dalbulus maidis

over the above 9-day period plus egg deposition data (chorion counts)
indicate that 74, 31, and 28%, respectively, of the eggs laid in corn, John-
songrass, and gamagrass, hatched.
First instar nymphs were individually isolated and allowed to develop
to adults within the clip-on cages attached to leaves of the plant species
(corn or gamagrass) on which they hatched. Since egg hatch was so low
on Johnsongrass and the nymphal population almost negligible, first instar
nymphs, hatched on corn, were transferred to and confined on the leaves
of this plant species. Observations over the next few days revealed that
of 20 insects confined on Johnsongrass, all died before reaching the
second instar.
Eighteen females and 18 males required an average of 12.2 and 12.1
days, respectively, to complete development on corn from egg hatch to the
adult stage. Developmental times for nymphs ranged from 11 to 16
days. Development of nymphs through this same period on gamagrass
averaged 15.4 days for 14 females and 15.3 days for 21 males.
Survival of nymphs from egg hatch to the adult stage on corn, gama-
grass, and Johnsongrass was 74%, 53% and 0%, respectively.
To compare weight differences of insects which had developed on corn
and gamagrass, newly formed adults were removed from the clip-on cages,
sexed, and weighed on a Mettler, Type H 15 balance. The average weights
of 29 females and 28 males reared on corn, was 0.0012 mg and 0.0010 mg,
respectively. When reared on gamagrass, both sexes, 39 females and 26
males, had an average weight of 0.0008 mg.
Sixteen leafhoppers, 9 females and 7 males, were confined on corn for
various intervals and survival was recorded. One female died 7 days
after confinement and another in 12 days, and 7 leafhoppers were alive
when the observations were terminated after 48 days. Three males died
after 11, 18, and 29 days of confinement; 4 test males were alive when ob-
servations were terminated either 48 or 51 days later.
On gamagrass 19 females and 26 males lived an average of 33 (range
5-104 days) and 11.6 (range 2-44 days) days, respectively. Two males
were alive 63 days after confinement when observations on male survival
were terminated; therefore, the data on these insects were not included in
the averages on male survival. However, these data do show that males
can survive on T. dactyloides for more than 3 months.
Little data were obtained to provide sufficient evidence of the ability
of adult D. maidis to maintain itself on Johnsongrass. In one instance,
20 females were confined on this species and after 24 hr. 80% mortality
was recorded. All test insects had died after 96 hr.


Results on the survival of D. maidis on corn are in agreement with
data presented by Barnes (1954), Davis (1966), and Combs (1967) that this
plant species is a good host for this leafhopper. In the present study
most males and females survived confinement on corn for 48-51 days.
Barnes (1954) reported the average life span of females in the field in
Central Mexico to be 44 days, whereas, Davis (1966) found that adults
lived from 26-51 days at 70"F. and 60% RH. A longer average life span
of 61 days for adult D. maidis was reported by Granados et al. (1968),

36 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 53, No. 1

who also reported that some females lived more than 4 months at 24
2C. Combs (1967) found that in a growth cabinet with the temperature
ranging from 52'-60F., 2 females lived 139 days; however, the average
longevity was 40.7 days.
My data on the longevity of D. maidis on T. dactyloides indicate that
this leafhopper can not survive as well on this host as it can on corn.
Data are also presented on the unsuitability of Johnsongrass for D.
maidis survival. However, previous data from this laboratory (Pitre
1967) showed that approximately 33% of the adults of this species sur-
vived a 30-day confinement on Johnsongrass. In this same test all D.
maidis survived when caged on corn for the same period in the green-
Corn appears to be greatly preferred over gamagrass or Johnsongrass
for egg laying. Fifty-six and 28 times more eggs were laid per female
in corn than in Johnsongrass or gamagrass, respectively. All females
tested on corn laid eggs, whereas only a small percentage of the test fe-
males oviposited in either gamagrass or Johnsongrass. These data obvi-
ously demonstrate the reluctance of D. maidis to utilize either gamagrass
or Johnsongrass as oviposition hosts.
The data reported from this study on egg laying by D. maidis in corn
(4-day average of 66 eggs per female) is low compared with oviposition
data reported by others, but it does show the high suitability of corn for
egg laying by this leafhopper. Barnes (1954), Combs (1967), and Davis
(1966), respectively, reported average number of eggs laid in corn by D.
maidis during the life span to be 131.9, 196.5 and 151 eggs per female.
The average incubation periods of eggs in all 3 plants tested at 84F
were approximately the same, 8.5 days in Johnsongrass, 9.0 days in corn,
and 9.3 days in gamagrass. Kunkel (1948) reported a longer incubation
period of 11 days at lower temperatures (72-75F).
Data on egg hatch further demonstrated the ability of D. maidis to
survive on corn compared to gamagrass or Johnsongrass. Forty-six and
43% fewer eggs hatched on gamagrass and Johnsongrass, respectively,
than on corn.
Development of nymphs from egg hatch to adult on corn required ap-
proximately 3 days longer on gamagrass than on corn. About 20% more
nymphs survived on corn than on gamagrass. Thus, it would appear that
some factors make corn a better host plant for development of D. maidis
than gamagrass. Adult leafhopper weights 24 hr after the last nymphal
molt suggest that this factor may be nutritional. Insects reared on corn
weighed an average of 0.0003 mg more than insects reared on gamagrass.
Although many eggs laid in Johnsongrass were observed to hatch, the
nymphs did not complete development through the first instar. Thus,
from this and similar data presented by Pitre (1967), I would conclude
that Johnsongrass is not a breeding host of D. maidisn

Barnes, D. 1954. Biologia, ecologia y destribucion de las chicharritas,
Dalbulus elimatus (Ball) y Dalbulus maidis (Del. and W.). Folleto
Technico Nol 11 of the Secritatia de Agricultura y Ganaderia officina
de Estudios Especiales, Mexico, D. F. 112 p.
Combs, R. L. 1967. Biological studies of Dalbulus maidis (Del. and W.)

Pitre: Life Cycle of Dalbulus maidis

a leafhopper vector of corn stunt virus in Mississippi. Ph.D. Dis-
sertation. Miss. State Univ. 134 p.
Davis, R. 1966. Biology of the leafhopper Dalbulus maidis at selected
temperatures. J. Econ. Entomol. 59: 766.
Douglas, W. A., W. H. Whitcomb, L. W. Hepner, V. M. Kirk, and R. Davis.
1966. Some Cicadellidae (Homoptera) collected from corn in the
Southeastern United States. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 59: 393-6.
Granados, R. R., Johanna S. Granados, K. Maramorosh, and Josh Reinitz.
1968. Corn stunt virus: transmission by three Eichclellid vectors.
J. Econ. Entomol. 61: 1282-87.
Kunkel, L. 0. 1946. Leafhopper transmission of corn stunt. Proc. Nat
Acad. Sci. 32: 246-7.
Kunkel, L. 0. 1948. Studies on a new corn virus disease. Archiv. fur.
die Gesamte Virusforschung. 4: 24-46.
Pitre, H. N. 1967. Greenhouse studies of the host range of Dalbulus
maidis a vector of the corn stunt virus. J. Econ. Entomol. 60:
Pitre, H. N. 1966. Gamagrass, Tripsacum dactyloides: a new host of
Dalbulus maidis, vector of corn stunt virus. Plant Dis. Reporter
50(8) : 570-71.
Pitre, H. N., Jr., W. A. Douglas, R. L. Combs, Jr., and L. W. Hepner.
1967. Annual movement of Dalbulus maidis into the Southeastern
United States and its role as vector of the corn stunt virus. J.
Econ. Entomol. 60: 616-17.
Stoner, W. N. 1965. A review of corn stunt disease (Achoparramiento)
and its insect vectors, with resumes of other virus diseases of maize.
USDA, ARS. 33-99: 1-35.

The Florida Entomologist 53(1) 1970

38 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 53, No. 1


THE BIOLOGY OF PSEUDOSCORPIONS. Peter Weygoldt, (Department of
Biology, University of Freiburg, Germany) Harvard University Press, Cam-
bridge, Massachusetts. Harvard Books in Biology, No. 6, 1969. 145 pp.
Dr. Weygoldt, in rewriting and expanding his "Moos-und Biicherskor-
pione" (Moss and Book Scorpions) into the present work, has presented the
field of biology with its first self-contained comprehensive volume on the
natural history of pseudoscorpions. The book, for this reason alone, will be
a welcome addition to the libraries of biologists, behaviorists, and particu-
larly arachnologists.
The large, detailed chapter on Reproduction and Development is particu-
larly interesting and informative, as it should be, since this is Dr. Wey-
goldt's special field of investigation. It is unfortunate that this chapter, one
of 11, comprises 71 pages of 132 pages of text but this is nothing more than
a testimonial to Dr. Weygoldt's studies and an indication of the need for
biological work on this interesting group of animals. Despite inadequacy
in such areas as life cycles, life histories, locomotion, general behavior,
feeding behavior, sensory reactions, and ecological niche requirements, the
book contains much useful data for students of this and related groups of
There are no more than the usual number of grammatical and typo-
graphical errors, which is unusual since English is not Dr. Weygoldt's
native language. It is this reviewer's opinion, however, that the book has
one major fault. That is in the organization, orientation, and direction of
the subject matter. The chapter on Evolution and Systematics should
have been placed after those entitled Introduction, External Morphology,
and Internal Anatomy and Physiology as chapter 4. Further, it should
have been expanded to permit identification of families and genera, and
should have indicated the species content of genera. The remaining "bio-
logical" chapters could have been oriented and directed meaningfully and
usefully toward genera and species.
The above comments and criticisms may well be referred to as picayune
and trivial, as indeed they are, since Dr. Weygoldt's book focuses attention
on the pseudoscorpions. This unquestionably will result in many additional
studies in areas where our information is now inadequate. Congratulations
on a fine stimulus, Dr. Weygoldt.

Citrus Experiment Station
Lake Alfred, Florida


Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Entomology Research Division, Agr.
Res. Serv., USDA2 and Department of Entomology, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32601, respectively

Three new species of Neotropical biting midges are described: Culi-
coides archboldi from Dominica and Trinidad, C. bredini from Dominica,
and C. martinezi from Trinidad.

In this paper we are describing three new species of Culicoides to make
the names available for forthcoming reviews of the biting midges of the
West Indies and Trinidad. We wish to thank Miss Linda Heath for making
the drawings.
Antennal ratio (abbreviated AR) is the combined length of the five
elongated distal flagellomeres (for convenience referred to as segments)
divided by the combined length of the eight shorter preceding "segments".
Palpal ratio (PR) is the length of the third palpal segment divided by its
greatest breadth. Proboscis/head ratio (P/H Ratio) is the length of the
proboscis measured from the distal end of the labrum-epipharynx to the
anterior margin of the tormae, divided by the distance measured from the
anterior margin of the tormae to the median hair socket between the eyes.
Wing length is measured from the basal arculus to the wing tip; costal
ratio (CR) is the length of the costa measured from the basal arculus to
the tip of the second radial cell (2RC) divided by the wing length.

Culicoides archboldi Wirth and Blanton, new species

(Fig. 1)
Female. Length of wing 0.89 mm.
Head: Eyes (Fig. la) narrowly separated, with strong interfacetal
pubescence. Antenna (Fig. Ib) with lengths of flagellar segments in pro-
portion of 30-20-20-20-20-20-21-23-55-55-55-60-70, AR 1.70; five distal seg-
ments greatly elongated; distal sensory tufts present on segments 3, 11-14.
Palpal segment (Fig. Ic) lengths in proportion of 10-40-42-14-13, PR 2.3;
third segment short and moderately swollen, with an open sensory area on
an irregular concavity on distal half. Proboscis moderately long, P/H
Ratio 0.87; mandible with 18-20 teeth.
Thorax: Uniformly dull dark brown, without prominent pattern; scu-
tum with numerous erect hairs. Legs brown, knee spots blackish; all
tibiae with faint, narrow, basal pale bands; hind tibial comb with four
spines, the one nearest the spur longest (Fig. If).

1This investigation was supported in part by U. S. Army Medical
Department Contract No. DA-49-193-MD-2177.
2Mail address: c/o U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 20560.

40 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 53, No. 1

a b

e f g h

Fig. 1. Culicoides archboldi: a, female eye separation; b, female an-
tenna; c, female palpus; d, female wing; e, female spermatheca; f, female
hind femur and tibia; g, male parameres; h, male genitalia, parameres re-

Wing (Fig. Id): Pattern as figured; dark brown without prominent
pattern; radial cells, margins of veins, and an indistinct area midway on
anterior margin of cell R5 darker brown; a small pale spot present at an-
terior margin of cell R5 just past tip of costa. CR 0.74; 2RC with mod-
erately broad lumen; macrotrichia long and coarse, relatively sparse but
covering most of wing except in radial field. Halter brownish.
Abdomen: Dark brown. Spermatheca (Fig. le) single, short, oval with
a long slender neck; measuring 0.053 by 0.035 mm; a sclerotized ring
Male.-Similar to the female with the usual sexual differences; antenna
with short, sparse plume, last three segments with lengths in proportion
of 60-64-66, distal sensory tufts present on 3, 11-14. Genitalia (Fig. Ih) :
ninth sternite with shallow caudomedian excavation, the ventral membrane
not spiculate; ninth tergite short and tapering, with small, slender apicolat-
eral processes, the caudal margin between them nearly straight. Basi-
style with ventral root foot-shaped but the posterior heel not well de-
veloped, ventral root slender; dististyle slender and curved to bent pointed
tip. Aedeagus with basal arch extending to about half of total length,
basal arms curved; distal portion tapering to rather stout, rounded, simple
tip. Parameres (Fig. Ig) each with small basal-knob, proximal portion
slender, with distinct dorsal swelling at midlength, without ventral lobe;
proximal portion slender and bent ventrocephalad, tapering to blunt-
pointed tip.
Distribution.-Dominica, Trinidad.
Types.-Holotype female, allotype male, Clarke Hall, Dominica, 21-29
April 1964, 0. S. Flint, light trap (Type no. 70640, USNM). Paratypes,
83 males, 216 females, as follows:

Wirth: New Neotropical Culicoides

DOMINICA: Clarke Hall, April-May 1964, 0. S. Flint, light trap, 14
males, 36 females; August 1964, T. J. Spilman, light trap, 28 males, 10 fe-
males; January-March 1965, W. W. Wirth, light trap, 1 male, 13 females;
21 January 1965, W. W. Wirth, Malaise trap, 1 male; 30 March 1966, R. J.
Gagn6, at light, 1 female. Cabrit Swamp, 23 February 1965, W. W. Wirth,
at light, 2 males, 6 females. d'Leau Gommier, 17 March 1956, J. F. G.
Clarke, at light, 24 males, 95 females. Fond Figures River, 20 January, 9
February 1965, W. W. Wirth, light trap, 5 males, 7 females. Grand Bay,
13 March 1964, D. F. Bray, at light, 3 females. La Plaine, 17 February
1964, D. F. Bray, at light, 1 female. Layou River mouth, 14 January 1965,
W. W. Wirth, light trap, 5 females. Macoucheri, river mouth, 14 January
1965, W. W. Wirth, 10 females. Manets Gutter, 5 March 1965, W. W.
Wirth, light trap, 1 male. Pont Casse, May-June 1964, 0. S. Flint, at light,
5 males, 20 females; January 1965, W. W. Wirth 2 males, 20 females.
South Chiltern Estate, 20 February 1965, W. W. Wirth, light trap, 1 fe-
TRINIDAD: No locality, 10, 17 September 1963, R. W. Williams, reared
from cocoa pods (nos. 33, 45), 2 females.
Discussion.-This species is dedicated to Mr. John Archbold, in ap-
preciation of his support of the Biological Survey of Dominica and his
keen interest in the scientific exploration of the island.
Among the Neotropical species Culicoides archboldi is probably most
closely related to C. eublepharus Macifie. Points of similarity include the
narrowly separated hairy eyes; long distal antennal segments and sen-
sorial pattern 3, 11-14; single spermatheca, and the general structure of the
male genitalia, especially the shapes of the parameres C. eublepharus,
however (redescribed by Wirth and Blanton, 1959, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.
109: 424 under the name C. transferrans Ortiz), has a distinct wing pattern
and a definite, round, palpal pit.

Culicoides bredini Wirth and Blanton, new species
(Fig. 2)
Female.-Length of wing 1.00 mm. Head: Eyes (Fig. 2a) contiguous,
bare. Antenna (Fig. 2c) with lengths of flagellar segments in proportion
of 28-20-20-20-20-20-21-22-47-50-52-52-73, AR 1.60; five distal segments
elongated; distal sensory tufts present on segments 3, 5, 7, 11-15. Palpal
segments (Fig. 2b) with lengths in proportion of 12-40-40-12-12, PR 1.8;
third segment broad, with a round, shallow, sensory pit. Proboscis mod-
erately long, P/H Ratio 0.80; mandible with 12 minute teeth.
Thorax: golden brown above on scutum and scutellum; humeri and
lower pleuron dark brown. Legs dark brown; knees with prominent
broad pale area covering apices of femora and bases of tibiae on all legs,
knee spot blackish on foreleg only; tip of hind tibia narrowly pale; hind
tibial comb with four spines, the one nearest the spur longest (Fig. 2f).
Wing (Fig. 2d): Pattern as figured; membrane dark gray due to coarse
dark microtrichia; prominent, discrete, small white spots. Pale spot over
r-m crossvein extending to costal margin; two poststigmatic pale spots in
cell R5 small, round and separate, the hind one lying slightly proximad of
the other; distal pale spot in cell R5 small and round, lying near apex of

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 1


0 ^,, .: -d

e f h

Fig. 2. Culicoides bredini: a, female eye separation; b, female palpus;
c, female antenna; d, female wing; e, female spermathecae; f, female hind
femur and tibia; g, male parameres; h, male genitalia, parameres removed.

cell but well removed from margin; cell M1 with two pale spots, the proxi-
mal one broadly extending over base of vein M2 into cell M2; the latter
with pale spot lying behind medial fork, another in front of mediocubital
fork, and a small round pale spot near wing margin; cell M4 with a large
pale spot in distal portion; anal cell with a double (sometimes divided)
pale spot in distal portion; apices of veins M1 and M2 with a pale spot at
wing margin. CR 0.62; 2RC with broad lumen; macrotrichia long and
coarse, moderately sparse, a few extending to base of wing except in
radial field. Halter yellowish, base of knob slightly infuscated.
Abdomen: Dark brown. Spermathecae (Fig. 2e) two plus a rudimen-
tary third and a long slender sclerotized ring; the functional ones oval
with short necks, subequal, each measuring 0.065 by 0.043 mm.
Male.-Similar to the female with the usual sexual differences; antenna
with well developed plume; segments 4-12 fused; last three segments with
lengths in proportion of 75-60-75, distal sensory tufts present on 3, 13-15.
Genitalia (Fig. 2h) : ninth sternite with broad, shallow, caudomedian ex-
cavation, the ventral membrane not spiculate; ninth tergite short and tap-
ering, with long, slender, pointed, apicolateral processes, the caudal mar-
gin between them straight. Basistyle moderately stout, with short, broad,
ventral root and slender dorsal root; dististyle slender and nearly straight,
with bent, pointed tip. Aedeagus with basal arch extending to about half
total length, the basal arms slender and slightly curved; distal portion
slender, with slightly flaring, rounded, simple tip. Parameres (Fig. 2g)
each with well developed, lobate, laterally directed basal knob; main por-
tion slender, curved, without ventral lobe, abruptly bent twice near apex
and tapering to slender, pointed tip without fringing spines.
Types.-Holotype female, Clarke Hall, Dominica, 28 March 1965, W. W.

Wirth: New Neotropical Culicoides 43

Wirth, light trap (Type no. 70641, USNM). Allotype male, same data but
collected 2 February 1965. Paratypes, 44 males, 114 females, as follows:
DOMINICA: Antrim Estate, 1000 ft., 15 March 1956, J. F. G. Clarke,
1 female. Cabrit Swamp, 23 February 1965, W. W. Wirth, light trap, 2
males. Clarke Hall, May-June 1964, 0. S. Flint, light trap, 3 males, 4 fe-
males; July-September 1964, T. J. Spilman, light trap, 7 males, 40 females;
October 1964, P. J. Spangler, at light, 1 male; January-March 1965, W. W.
Wirth, light trap, 17 males, 33 females. d'Leau Gommier, 17 March 1956,
J. F. G. Clarke, at light, 5 males, 11 females. Fond Figues River, 13
March 1965, W. W. Wirth, light trap, 2 females. Macoucheri, 5 March
1965, W. W. Wirth, at light, 2 females. Manets Gutter, 15 March 1965,
W. W. Wirth, light trap, 1 male, 4 females. Pont Casse, May-June 1964,
O. S. Flint, at light, 6 males, 7 females. South Chiltern Estate, 10 Febru-
ary 1965, W. W. Wirth, light trap, 2 males, 10 females.
Discussion.-This species is named for Mr. J. Bruce Bredin in apprecia-
tion of his interest in and support of the Biological Survey of Dominica.
Culicoides bredini has a wing pattern very similar to that of C. daeda-
loides Wirth and Blanton from Panama. In that species, however, the
distal pale spot in cell R5 is transverse and meets the anterior wing mar-
gin, there is no pale spot lying in front of the mediocubital fork, and the
distal pale spot in cell M2 meets the wing margin; the antennal sensorial
pattern is 3, 8-10; the scutum bears a prominent pattern of pale patches,
and the male parameres are shaped differently.

Culicoides martinezi Wirth and Blanton, new species

(Fig. 3)
Female.-Length of wing 0.81 mm. Head: Eyes (Fig. 3a) broadly
separated, bare. Antenna (Fig. 3b) with lengths of flagellar segments in
proportion of 24-18-18-20-20-20-20-20-26-28-33-33-50, AR 1.06; distal sen-



Fig. 3. Culicoides martinezi: a, female eye separation; b, female an-
tenna; c, female palpus; d, female wing; e, female spermathecae; f, male
parameres; g, male genitalia, parameres removed.

44 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 53, No. 1

sory tufts present on segments 3, 7-10. Palpal segments (Fig. 3c) with
lengths in proportion of 13-36-46-15-18, PR 2.9; third segment slightly
swollen, with a shallow round sensory pit. Proboscis moderately long,
P/H Ratio 0.97; mandible with 15 teeth.
Thorax: brownish; scutum pruinose grayish brown, with prominent
pattern of tiny dark brown punctiform dots at the seta bases. Legs brown,
knee spots blackish; fore femur with narrow subapical pale ring; all
tibiae with narrow sub-basal pale rings and hind tibia pale on distal
fourth; hind tibial comb with 5 spines, the second from the spur longest
(Fig. 3f).
Wing (Fig. 3d): pattern as figured; second radial cell included in a
very dark spot to its apex; a very small pale spot lying over r-m crossvein,
broadly expanded anteriorly across radius to costa; cell R5 with seven
small, usually round, pale spots, one lying at extreme base of cell, three
arranged in a triangle with apex at wing margin just past end of costa,
and three more arranged in a similar triangle in distal portion of cell;
cell M1 with three pale spots, the proximal one lying against vein M2 and
separated by only a narrow dark line along vein from a smaller pale spot
lying at same level in cell M2; cell M2 with an undulating chain of four
small pale spots in basal half, and a small round pale spot lying near wing
margin; cell M4 with a small round pale spot in midportion; anal cell with
two round pale spots in distal portion; apices of veins M1, M2, M3+4
and Cul dark. CR 0.54; macrotrichia moderately numerous on distal half
of wing and a few in anal cell. Halter brownish.
Abdomen: dark brown. Spermathecae (Fig. 3e) two plus a rudimen-
tary third and a sclerotized ring; oval with long slender necks, subequal,
each measuring 0.065 by 0.033 mm.
Male. Similar to the female with the usual sexual differences; antennal
plume well developed. Genitalia (Fig. 3h) : ninth sternite with shallow
caudomedian excavation, the ventral membrane not spiculate; ninth tergite
moderately short, tapering to short, slender, pointed, apicolateral proc-
esses, the caudal margin between them not indented. Basistyle with foot-
shaped ventral root, dorsal root slender and longer; dististyle slender,
gently curving to bent pointed tip. Aedeagus with basal arch as broad as
high, extending to 0.75 of total length, distal portion with moderately
slender, rounded, spiculate tip. Parameres (Fig. 3g) each with strong
basal knob, moderately stout and sinuate in midportion, expanded ven-
trally in midportion in a broad ventral lobe, distal portion moderately
slender, tapering to sharp tip, with lateral fringing barbs well developed.
Distribution. Trinidad.
Types. Holotype female, Macqueripe, Trinidad, 11 January 1956, T.
H. G. Aitken light trap (Type no. 70638, USNM). Allotype male, U. S.
Naval Station, Trinidad, 9 November 1955, T. H. G. Aitken, light trap.
Paratypes, 11 males, 10 females, as follows:
TRINIDAD: Chaguaramas Naval Station, 21 January 1957, T. H. G.
Aitken, light trap, 1 female. Las Cuevas Bay, 19 November 1968, P,
Bacon, reared from sand beach, 2 males. Port Delgado Naval Station, 20
October 1955, T. H. G. Aitken, light trap, 6 males, 1 female. Port of Spain,
June 1953, 25th Med. Det., light trap, 1 female. U. S. Naval Base, 3 No-
vember 1955, T. H. G. Aitken, light trap, 2 males, 6 females. U. S. Navy
83d area, 30 January 1956, T. H. G. Aitken, light trap, 1 female.

Wirth: New Neotropical Culicoides

Discussion. Culicoides venezuelensis Ortiz, a widespread Neotropical
species ranging from Costa Rica to Brazil and Chile, is very closely re-
lated to C. martinezi, with very similar wing and scutal patterns. C. vene-
zuelensis is a much larger species (wing 1.37 mm long), the apices of
veins Ml, M2, M3+4 and Cul have a pale spot at wing margin, the two
proximal pale spots in the distal triangle of cell R5 are fused in a double
spot, the eyes are narrowly separated, antennal segments 11-15 bear sen-
sory tufts, and the palpal pit is much deeper.
We are pleased to name this species for Mr. Raymond Martinez of the
Trinidad Virus Research Laboratory of the Rockefeller Foundation, who
has collected much of the Trinidad material studied by Dr. Aitken and

The Florida Entomologist 53(1) 1970

P. O. Box 7067


Complete Line of Insecticides, Fungicides and
Weed Killers
Ortho Division

Located at Fairvilla on Route 441 North


Phone 295-0451

46 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 53, No. 1


(Memoir 68). William T. M. Forbes (The late Professor of Entomology at
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York). Reprint of 1923 edition. Ento-
mology Reprint Specialists, P. O. Box 207, East Lansing, Michigan 48823.
1969. 729 pp. $17.50.
The publishers are to be commended for making this valuable reference
available again. It is an unabridged reprint of the original which has been
out of print. The book is designed primarily for the serious student of
moths in eastern North America but has introductory material and other
notes valuable to all Lepidopterists. Sections are included on taxonomy,
variation, phylogeny, distribution in relation to life zones and habitats,
morphology, artificial keys on larvae, pupae, and adults, and a synopsis of
the families of Lepidoptera (including skippers and butterflies). A highly
useful food index supplements the scientific name index. The main body of
the work consists of a wealth of information on the Primitive Forms, Micro-
lepidoptera, Pyraloids, and Bombyces. The illustrations are line drawings,
primarily of wing venation, male genitalia, side views of the adult head,
and setal maps of larvae.
This book is a must for Lepidopterists; however, since the author deli-
berately omitted colored figures, bibliography, and references as a measure
of economy, workers then and now should supplement it with other refer-
ences. Beyond this, of course, is the need to keep up with name changes
reflecting the new systematic knowledge that has accrued since the book
was written; however, the intrinsic value of Part I still ranks it as a prime
reference source.
The other parts written by Forbes and published by Cornell University
are as follows: Part II, issued in 1948, covering Geometridae, Sphingidae,
Notodontidae, and Lymantriidae (Memoir 274); Part III, 1954, covering
Noctuidae (Memoir 329); and Part IV, 1960, covering Agaristidae through
Nymphalidae, including butterflies (Memoir 371 and the last of the series
by Forbes).
Dr. Forbes was 82 when he passed away at Worcester, Massachusetts,
April 12, 1968.
Division of Plant Industry
Florida Dept. of Agriculture and
Consumer Services

Department of Entomology, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32601

The pupa of Aedes (Ochlerotatus) fulvus pallens Ross is described
and illustrated for the first time. A table lists the range, mode and mean
number of branches of each pupal hair.

The adults and fourth instar larva of Aedes (Ochlerotatus) fulvus
pallens were originally described by Ross in 1943. In the present paper a
detailed taxonomic description of the pupal stage is given. The pupa is
illustrated in Fig. 1-3, and Table 1 lists the range, mode and mean number
of branches for each pupal hair. Chaetotaxy and morphological nomen-
clature follow Belkin (1962).

Aedes (Ochlerotatus) fulvus pallens Ross

Cephalothorax (Fig. 1): Hairs C-1-5, 7-9 long, C-6 short, C-1, 5-6, 9
usually double or triple, C-2-3 double, C-4 usually with 3-4 branches, C-7-8
usually with 4-5 branches.
Respiratory trumpet (Fig. 2): Strongly pigmented; scattered tiny
spine-like setae on distal 0.75 of inner surface; index 4.27-4.86.
Metanotum (Fig. 3): Hairs C-10-12 moderately long, C-10 usually with
8 branches, C-11 usually triple, C-12 usually with 6 branches.
Abdomen (Fig. 3): Hair 0-II-VIII minute, single; 1-I well developed
with 15-24 branches, 1-II-III moderately long, 1-IV-VII long, 1-II usually
with 10 branches, 1-III usually with 8-10 branches, 1-IV usually triple, 1-
V-VI usually double, 1-VII usually with 3-4 branches; 2-I-VII short, 2-I
usually double, 2-II-VII single; 3-I-II moderately long, 3-III-VII long, 3-
I-II double, 3-III, VI-VII usually double, 3-IV usually with 6-8 branches,
3-V usually double or triple; 4-I-IV short, 4-V-VI moderately long, 4-VII-
VIII long, 4-I dendritic, usually with 5-6 branches, 4-II usually with 9-10
branches, 4-III usually with 6-8 branches, 4-IV forked, usually with 5-7
branches, 4-V usually with 10-12 branches, 4-VI usually with 6-7 branches,
4-VII usually with 4-5 branches, 4-VIII usually double or triple; 5-I, VII
short, 5-II moderately long, 5-III long, 5-IV-VI extra long, 5-1 forked,
usually with 17-18 branches, 5-II, VII usually with 4-5 branches, 5-III us-
ually with 6-8 branches, 5-IV-VI double; 6-I-VI long, 6-VII moderately
long, 6-I-II, IV-VI single, 6-III usually single or-double, 6-VII stellate,
usually with 3-4 branches; 7-I, VI-VII long, 7-II moderately long, 7-III-V
short, 7-I-II usually double or triple, 7-III-IV forked, usually with 5-6
branches, 7-V forked, usually with 7-9 branches, 7-VI-VII single; 8-III-'

1Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 3443.
2Major, Medical Service Corps, U. S. Army. The opinions contained
herein are the private ones of the author and are not to be construed as
official or as reflecting the views of the Department of the Army.

The Florida Entomologist

1 ,

S0.5mm. '

I--- 0.5mm -- (

Fig. 1-3. Pupa of Aedes fulvus pallens Ross. 1: Cephalothorax. 2:
Respiratory trumpet. 3: Metanotum and abdomen. C=cephalothorax;
I-VIII=abdominal segments 1 through 8; P=paddle.

VII short, forked; 8-III usually with 5-6 branches, 8-IV usually with 4
branches, 8-V usually with 4-5 branches, 8-VI usually with 5-7 branches,
8-VII usually with 6-7 branches; 9-I-VII short, 9-VIII moderately long,
9-I usually double, 9-II-VI single, 9-VII usually with 10-11 branches, 9-
VIII stellate, usually with 12 branches; 10-III-IV moderately long, 10-V-
VII long, 10-III usually triple, 10-IV, VII usually double or triple, 10-V
usually single, 10-VI single; 11-III-VII short, 11-III, V, VII usually single'
or forked with 2 branches, 11-IV single, 11-VI usually forked with 2
branches; 14-I-VII minute, 14-VIII short, 14-I-VIII single.
Paddle (Fig. 3): Ovoid, without spicules or fine hairs, midrib does not
reach apex; 1-P short, single or forked with 2 branches; index 1.03-1.23.

Vol. 53, No. 1

Reinert: Pupa of Aedes fulvus pallens 49

Aedes fulvus pallens

Hair Range

Mode Mean

Hair Range Mode Mean


7-11 E
2-3 3
5-8 6

Abdomen I
15-24 17 18.2
2-4 2 2.3
2 2 2
4-9 5 6.6
10-20 17 16.5
1 1 1
2-3 2 2.4
1-3 2 2

Abdomen II



Abdomen III
1 1
7-10 9
1 1
1-2 2
5-10 7
5-9 7
1-2 2
5-8 6
4-8 5
1 1
2-4 3
1-2 1
1 1

Abdomen IV
1 1
2-4 3
1 1
5-10 6
4-8 5
2 2
1-2 1
4-8 6
3-6 4
1 1
2-3 3
1 1
1 1

Abdomen V
1 1
2-3 2
1 1
1-3 3
7-12 10
2 2


The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 53, No. 1


Hair Range Mode Mean Hair Range Mode Mean

Abdomen V (Cont)
1 1
7-11 9
4-6 4
1 1
1-2 1
1-3 2
1 1

Abdomen VI

Abdomen VII
1 1
2-4 3
1 1
2-4 2
2-6 4
4-8 4
3-5 4
1 1
5-10 6
8-13 11
2-4 2
1-2 2
1 1

Abdomen VIII
1 1
2-5 3
9-13 12
1 1


The above description is based on 5 female and 11 male pupal skins
collected by the author at Gainesville, Alachua County, Florida on 15
August 1969.


Belkin, J. N. 1962. The mosquitoes of the South Pacific. Univ. Calif.
Press, Berkeley. 2 vols., 608 and 412 p.
Ross, E. S. 1943. The identity of Aedes bimaculatus (Coquillett) and a
new subspecies of Aedes fulvus (WiedemAnn) from the United
States (Diptera, Culicidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 45(6):

The Florida Entomologist 53(1) 1970




P.O. Box 1193, Brandon, Fla.

The feeling that I have standing before this group to deliver the presi-
dential address cannot be described. Past presidents of our society in the
audience have an appreciation of what I am saying, but even they cannot
fully understand my feelings. To me it is like a typical American story
that anyone with sufficient perseverance and time can be elected president.
While pondering over subjects that could be discussed this morning, it
occurred to me that a personnel appraisal of our group might be in order.
Why has The Florida Entomological Society prospered and grown over
the years? In my opinion, our society is founded on the same demo-
cratic principals that have made America strong. Truly, our members
comprise a body that functions more along the classic definitions of a
democracy than even does our country.
While it is true that all our members are trained entomologists or in-
terested in the field of entomology, within this general framework there
are major differences. Some are highly trained with several degrees while
others may only have a single degree. Some are highly specialized while
others have a wide range of interests in entomology. Look around at
members in adjoining seats. Some are experts in taxonomy and therein
lies their major interests. Some are interested in basic research, some are
engaged in applied research, and some are employed in commercial work.
The point that I wish to make is that each member, regardless of his po-
sition or interest, has the same rights and privileges in this society as
every other member. Therein lies our strength. Further, regardless of
individual interests, there is a good understanding and appreciation of the
entomological pursuits of others. Whether oriented in basic or applied
fields, members are able to communicate-that is, a genuine interest is ex-
pressed or implied in the activities of fellow members. Thus, the strength
of the society is in the members and more particularly in the attitude of
the members toward each other.
In order to strengthen our society we should build on our basically
strong foundation.
One way to improve our group is for more individual participation in
the needs of our society. Effort expended to further a project creates a
greater desire for accomplishment of the objectives as well as enhancing
the feeling of belonging to the group. Only by working for the society
can you appreciate the great individual efforts that are needed for the
successful operation of our society. Many members have worked tire-
lessly during the year to assist me. Not one person contacted for help
refused or even complained. Some even thanked me for inviting their
participation. This is the attitude that will result in the growth and im-
provement of our society.
While on the subject of work, there are two offices that merit special

1Presidential address presented at 52nd annual meeting of The Florida
Entomological Society.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 1

attention. These are the editors of our journal and the Business Manager.
Dr. S. H. Kerr has worked hard and faithfully to improve The Florida En-
tomologist. Many in this audience have no idea of the hours of work
that are required to publish a journal of such high calibre.
Dr. Jim Nation ably performed the task of associate editor until his
recent departure for a foreign assignment. A special note of gratitude
will be forwarded to Dr. Nation for his efforts on behalf of the society.
Unfortunately, our Business Manager Dr. R. S. Patterson, who has
done an outstanding job, must be replaced as he too anticipates a foreign
assignment. I do not wish to minimize the importance of the other
offices of the society, but I felt those were pretty well recognized by the
members, and I feel too little attention and credit is given to the editors
of The Florida Entomologist and our Business Manager.
A second way to strengthen our group is to increase the amount of
communication among members to develop an even greater understanding
of the various specialties involved in entomology.
It is truly said that the first step needed to solve most problems is a
definition of the problem. In our field, insect problems are not solved
until the insect is recognized. Thus, nothing is more important to entomol-
ogy than taxonomy. I know that personally I have not expressed suffi-
cient interest in the program and objectives of the taxonomists in our
group. Our vice-president, Mr. Denmark, has emphasized the point with
the theme of this meeting, "A Better Society Through a Better Knowledge
of Insects". We should all encourage, stimulate and, most important, rec-
ognize the vital contributions being made by taxonomists to the advance-
ment of entomology.
Records in fossil remains show that insects existed on earth many mil-
lions of years before man. The earliest written records of insects are
found in the Old Testament of the Bible. There, records of rodents in
granaries, plagues of locusts, lice, worms and other pests are found.
During the Middle Ages we find records of 25 million deaths from bu-
bonic plague. During all this time, little was known of the life histories
of insects or the role of insects in disease transmission. As little was
known about insects in ancient times, little could be done about control.
As recently as 30 years ago insects became a church problem according
to a Danish publication. The church reported a trial against white grubs
which had been destroying crops. An eloquent plea for the grubs was
made by a church appointed attorney who based his argument on the fact
that God placed the grubs and so the insects were entitled to live and
feed. Accordingly, a field was designated with appropriate signs as the
feeding site for grubs. The grubs not feeding on the assigned field would
be excommunicated from the church. The records indicate that "it did no
So, you can readily see that our profession would still be very primi-
tive if it were not for the information that has been developed. Future
generations of entomologists will probably consider some of our efforts
as amusing as the church story, owing to the development of information
in depth on the biology of insects.
One important area that should receive additional impetus in the future
is ecology. Just as knowledge of the biology of the insect is needed for

O'Neil: Appraisal of Florida Entomological Society 53

control, an increased knowledge of ecology will lead to more efficient con-
trol. Ecological studies will provide the information vital to control pro-
grams that result in elimination of the target organisms with a minimum
of effect on the non-target organisms.
A third way that could be used to add strength is a recognition of the
importance of applied entomology. The trend away from applied research
should be halted so that keen minds are attracted to the applied areas. No
attempt is being made to minimize the importance of basic research, but
it is felt that this area is getting its share of support already. There is a
need for applied entomology to regain some of the excitement, prestige,
and attraction that it once had for the alert young entomologists. This
can be accomplished in part by administrators rewarding excellence in the
applied area with promotions, praise, and salary increases. There is also
an obligation for the applied entomologist to continually evaluate his work
to be certain that a real contribution is being made to entomology.
Another way, and certainly not the least important, is for entomolo-
gists to unite to present a unified voice from the experts. The most quali-
fied persons in our country to discuss insects and insecticides are found in
entomological society meetings such as we are having here this morning.
However, too often the dangers of insecticides are proclaimed by unin-
formed pseudo-scientists in the popular press. When dangers exist we
should be the first to point them out and effect changes that will eliminate
the problem. However, when danger exists by innuendo, misstatements, or
half truths we should attempt to refute such non-existent dangers. We
are the best fed, best clothed, and healthiest nation because we have
manipulated nature for the betterment of man. When man first settles in
an area the so-called balance of nature is disrupted. In my opinion, this
fact in itself should not be regarded as catastrophic as some people want to
I am proud of our entomological accomplishments both in the basic and
the applied fields. I feel we should always strive to make others aware of
our contributions.
In conclusion, I would say that we have one of the best and strongest
entomological groups in the country right now. However, we cannot and
must not rest on our laurels. In modern talk, we each must do our own
thing, but we must weave our individual efforts into a common singular
purpose of advancing our profession of entomology, which will auto-
matically improve The Florida Entomological Society.

The Florida Entomologist 53(1) 1970

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