Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00149
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1970
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00149
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Volume 53 No. 2 June 1970

GENUNG, W. G.-Flooding Experiments for Control of Wire-
worms Attacking Vegetable Crops in the Everglades..-.. 55
PETERSON, A.-Eggs from Miscellaneous Species of Rho-
palocera-Lepidoptera ........--------------------------------- 65
REINERT, J. F.-Description of the Pupa of Aedes (Ochler-
otatus) mitchellae (Diptera: Culicidae) ........-------- ...... 73
MUMA, M. H.-Natural Control Potential of Galendromus
floridanus (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) on Tetranychidae
on Florida Citrus Trees ............-.. --------------------.... -- 79
son of Four Chinchoninates, an Oxetanone, and Two
Standard Skin Repellents Against Aedes aegypti and
Stomyxs calcitrans ...........-------------------------------- 89
WIRTH, W. W., AND F. S. BLANTON-Notes on Brachypogon
kieffer (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a New Species,
and Two New Neotropical Genera of the Tribe Cera-
topogonini ........-- -------------...--------------- 93
GENUNG, W. G., AND M. J. JANES-Further Investigations
on Control of the Corn Stem Weevil, Hyperodes humi-
lis, as a Pest of Field and Sweet Corn ------...........---............ 105
DEBARR, G. L.-Characteristics and Radiographic Detection
of Seed Bug Damage to Slash Pine Seed ...-------........ ..- 109
DENMARK, H. A., AND M. H. MUMA-Ricoseius loxocheles
(Phytoseiidae: Acarina) ..-...-....-.....- .........---------------- 119
Society Honors W. L. Thompson -------------------- 72
Minutes of 52nd Annual Meeting --- -----------.. -.....- 123
Notices to Members -..----------.... -- ...--------.-.----.---- ..77, 92

Published by The Florida Entomological Society


President.. .....---------------------....... ............................-- .H. A. Denmark
Vice-President .........-----..--...... -........................... L. C. Kuitert
Secretary---------...........................................-....-- F. W. Mead
Treasurer----............................. ...................................... J. R. Strayer
SJ. E. Brogdon
J. E. Porter
Other Members of Executive Committee..... A. Selhime
J. F. Reinhardt
J. B. O'Neil

Publications Committee
Editor....-..-......-................ .............. .... S. H Kerr
Associate Editor............................... R. E. Woodruff
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University of Florida, IFAS, Everglades Experiment Station


Either continuous or alternate flooding appears effective for control of
Melanotus communis and Conoderus sp(p). The minimal effective contin-
uous flooding period in these tests was 6 weeks. Since a 4-2-4 weekly
alternation of flooding to drying repeatedly showed perfect control and
since 2-2-2 alternations produced 71 to 87% mortality, it appears that a
3-2-3 alternation should normally be effective. Ecological factors resulting
from flooding evidently are important and should be studied further.
Birds attracted to impoundments are particularly beneficial.

During recent seasons a number of Everglades vegetable growers have
expressed dissatisfaction with certain currently registered insecticides be-
cause of failure to control wireworms. Inspection revealed that the corn
wireworm2, Melanotus communis (Gyllenhal), was commonly involved in
these failures although the populations often included the southern potato
wireworm, Conderus fall Lane. It is not implied that wireworm "resist-
ance" to these chemicals was involved in these alleged failures since
extraneous factors could usually be implicated. Concurrently with these
chemical failures, an increasing volume of questions was received relative
to the merits of flooding, time required for wireworm control by flooding,
and comparative effectiveness of alternate versus continuous flooding.


A normally abundant water resource, usually available facilities, and
water control knowhow have created an ideal situation in the Everglades
for water utilization in the control of certain diseases, nematodes, possibly
certain weeds, and most subterranean insects. Flooding organic soils for
control of soil-borne pests is compatible with sound soil conservation
practices since these soils oxidize continuously (due in part to action of
aerobic bacteria) except when under water. Evans and Allison (1942) and
Clayton (1943) discussed effects of excessive drainage on peat soils.
Moore et al. (1949) recommended flooding for control of Sclerotinose
disease, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) De By. Thames and Stoner (1953)
found that flooding of growing low land rice effectively controlled root-
knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood, on

'University of Florida, IFAS, Everglades Experiment Station, Journal
Series No. 3449.
2Not an approved common name by the Committee on Common Names
of Insects of the Entomological Society of America although this name is
in frequent use in the literature.

56 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 53, No. 2

a subsequent vegetable crop. Fisher and Winchester (1964) found that
flooding intermittently (2 weeks flooded, 2 weeks dried, and 2 weeks re-
flooded) controlled nematodes as effectively as 9 months of continuous
flooding. Winchester (1964) discussed flooding among other cultural
practices for control of nematodes in kenaf. Genung (1957) reported on
the heavy and rapid mortality of cutworms Feltia subterranea (Fabricus)
and Agrotis ipsilon (Rottemburg) observed under natural flooding, and
more recently (1964) verified these observations in laboratory tests. Or-
senigo (1967) found in weed control experiments that flooding might
have merit for control of goosegrass. A search of the literature revealed
that very little experimental data existed on wireworm control by flood-
ing3. Thomas (1930) concluded that flooding for wireworms would be im-
practicable and ineffective. Everglades growers have practiced flooding
for various purposes for a number of years but results were often contra-
dictory insofar as wireworms are concerned. A need for some experimental
information on the various aspects of flooding for wireworm control was
evident and preliminary investigations in the laboratory and field were
initiated. Atmospheric Temperatures during field investigations are given
in Table 1.


Month Year Max. Min. Mean max. Mean min. Mean

July 1966 93.0 70.0 89.8 73.0 81.4
July 1967 94.0 68.0 90.9 70.7 80.8
July 1969 95.0 70.0 91.0 72.6 81.8
August 1966 94.0 68.0 90.8 71.4 81.1
August 1967 93.0 67.0 90.5 69.7 80.1
August 1969 94.0 65.0 89.7 70.6 80.1

September 1966 94.0 68.0 89.7 71.2 80.4
September 1967 92.0 65.0 89.3 69.5 79.4
September 1969 93.0 68.0 88.1 70.9 79.5

*Data are from official weather station records maintained at the Everglades Experiment


The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of different
time increments of continuous flooding on corn wireworm mortality.

"A paper by M. Calvino (1922) on flooding for wireworms in Cuba is
extant but the writer has not seen the original paper entitled: Nuovo
metodo di lotta control il pasador del tobacco a Cuba. Rev. Agric. Con.
il trabajo V.P. Ir, Havana Rae. X1, 104. The practice, as described in
Review of Applied Entomology is a mere saturation and not flooding as
practiced in the Everglades and would not be effective against our species.

Genung: Flooding for Wireworm Control

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The treatments (time increments) included 6 dif-
ferent periods in comparison with an untreated check all of which were
replicated 3 times in a randomized complete block design. Glazed, earthen-
ware, 6-inch diam. crocks were partly filled with field collected soil and
10 field collected and apparently healthy, advanced instar larvae of M. com-
munis were placed in each. Additional soil was then placed over the wire-
worms and firmed. Water was then added carefully, to avoid washing
out or exposing the larvae. The water level was maintained about 3 inches
above the soil in the 18 flooded crocks. The remaining 3 crocks consti-
tuted the check and were therefore not flooded. Since preliminary obser-
vations indicated that wireworms under flooding became relatively inac-
tive in a short time, no food was supplied those in the treated crocks.
Those in the check were supplied Irish potato halves just below soil sur-
face. The flooding increments were: 3 days, 7 days, and weekly periods
thereafter up to 35 days. As the time expired for each increment, the
water was drained off and the soil carefully examined for live and dead
wireworms, including any disintegrating parts, but the check was not
examined until the expiration of the experiment. Those that survived
were provided with food.

RESULTS: As shown in Table 2 mortality commenced with the 7-day treat-
ment and generally increased thereafter. A delayed mortality (failure to
survive 72 hr) after removal of water occurred in the flooded crocks. A


Initial Delayed Total
Average Average Average
Time Increment % Mortality % Mortality % Mortality

3 days 0 0 0
7 days 3.3 10.0 13.3
14 days 3.3 10.0 13.3
21 days 23.3 10.0 33.3
28 days 33.3 43.3 76.6
35 days 63.3 13.3 76.6
Check 10.0 0 10.0

*Mortality in checks due mainly to cannibalism.

light mortality in the checks appeared to be due mainly to cannibalism
even though ample food material had been supplied. An average of about
77% mortality was obtained after 35 days of sustained flooding, indicating
that a greater time period would be required for control under heavy
population conditions.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 2

This experiment was initiated to compare the recommended practice
for nematode control (alternate flooding and drying) with results ob-
tained in the continuous flooding experiment as given above.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two treatments (1) one week flooded, one week
dried and one week reflooded and (2) two weeks flooded, two weeks
dried, and two weeks reflooded (the standard flooding recommendation
for nematodes) were set up in crocks as in Experiment 1, except that 15
wireworms were used per crock. These treatments and an untreated check
were replicated 3 times. Food was provided in the checks as mentioned

RESULTS: In this experiment the first treatment was entirely inadequate
(Table 3). A much better mortality was obtained in the second treatment

JULY 1966*

Initial Delayed Time
Average Average Average
Weekly Alternation % Mortality % Mortality % Mortality

1 1 1 17.8 2.2 20.0
2-2-2 69.2 2.2 71.4
Check 8.9 0 8.9

*Mortality in checks due mainly to cannibalism.

but under conditions of heavy field infestation would be inadequate for
grower needs. It appeared that some mortality in the check was due
mainly to the cannibalistic tendency of the larvae.

This experiment was conducted almost concurrently with Experiment
2 and the purposes were the same; but the present test was in a flooded
field instead of the laboratory.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: 6-inch diam, screen wire, cylindrical cages were
partly filled with soil and 10 wireworms added to each. The treatments
and replications were the same as in Experiment 2. The cages were sub-
merged in a flooded field until the soil in the cages was even with the soil
line in the field. During the second 2-week period because of a temporary
subsidence of the water, it was necessary to temporarily place the cages
in tubs of water.

RESULTS: Both of the treatments gave better control (70% and 87% re-
spectively) than the laboratory test, but even the results of the 2-week al-
ternation would be barely adequate under very heavy field population con-
ditions. (Table 4).

Genung: Flooding for Wireworm Control


Initial Delayed Total
Average Average Average
Weekly Alternation % Mortality % Mortality % Mortality

1-1-1 70.0 0 70.0
2-2-2 80.0 6.7 86.7
Check 13.3 0 13.3

*Mortality in checks due mainly to cannibalism.


This was an evaluation of (1) field flooding in comparison with 2
other conditions; (2) unflooded but treated with parathion the previous
winter and (3) unflooded and with no recent history of insecticide treat-

METHODS: About 112 acres in preparation as a celery seed bed at the Ever-
glades Experiment Station was flooded for 4 weeks, dried out for 2 weeks,
and reflooded for 4 additional weeks. The second area was an adjacent
comparable sized block that had been in sweet corn earlier in the spring
and had been treated with parathion 5 Ib/acre the previous winter. The un-
flooded check, a more distant comparable area, was selected because it
had been continuously free from soil insecticidal treatment during recent
years. Two-hundred evenly spaced soil cores 3 inches in diam and 6 inches
deep were taken on all 3 areas after termination of flooding and examined
by finely pulverizing and sifting the soil for wireworms.

RESULTS: As shown in Table 5, the flooded area samples were completely
free of wireworms. The adjacent area treated the previous winter had


Number Number Number Total %
Soil M. Conoderus Wire- Samples
Treatment Samples Communis spp. worms Positive

Flooded* 200 0 0 0 0
Insecticide"" 200 10 0 10 5.0
Unfloodedf 200 6 7 13 6.5

*4 2 4 weekly alternation
**Treated with parathion about 4 months previously
tNo recent insecticidal history

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 2

more M. communis than the check but no Conoderus spp. A moderately
high infestation occurred in the check area. If projected on a per acre
basis the wireworm population in the check would undoubtedly be of
economic proportions.


This was almost identical with Experiment 4 except that the insecti-
cidally treated area was replaced by a partially but insufficiently fallowed

RESULTS: No wireworms were found in the flooded area. The insufficiently
fallowed area was moderately infested and the check quite heavily infested
with wireworms. (Table 6).

BER 1967.

Number Number Number Total %
Soil M. Conoderus Wire- Samples
Treatment Samples Communis spp. worms Positive

Flooded* 200 0 0 0 0
Fallowede" 200 6 2 8 4.0
Unflooded 200 14 4 18 9.0

*4 2 4 weekly alternation.
**Fallow not perfectly maintained.


In a test conducted in 1969, 2 additional conditions were compared with
a 4-2-4 alternation with post flooding fallow well maintained. These were
a 4-2-4 alternation where the post flooding fallow was rather inadequately
maintained, and a continuously flooded treatment with inundation main-
tained without any lapse for 6 weeks. Because of factors beyond the
writer's control it was possible to examine only 100 samples per treatment
instead of the desired 200 samples.

RESULTS: Despite the reduced sample size a greater total number of wire-
worms as well as numbers of individual species were recorded in the check
than in the previous field tests. A single wireworm and several corn
rootworms indicate that some reinfestation is liable to occur in flooded
fields unless the post flooding fallow is carefully maintained. The treat-
ments and a full breakdown of data are shown in Table 7.

Genung: Flooding for Wireworm Control




No. No. Total %
No. M. Conoderus No. Wire- Samples
Treatment Samples communis sp. miscel. worms positive

+ good post
flood fallow 100 0 0 0 0 0

- good post
flood fallow 100 1 0 0 1 1

continuous 100 0 0 0 0 0

no treatment 100 30 14 4 48 42

*4 2 4 alternation.
**4 2 4 alternation.

In addition to wireworm 3 corn rootworms, probably Diabrotica bal-

teata Le Conte, were taken under this treatment.
tFlooded for 6 weeks.


Observations in both the field and laboratory show that 40% or more of
wireworms under flooding or simulated flooding, may eventually make their
way to the soil surface. In the field this percentage would be more vulner-
able to attack by various aquatic organisms. Soon after flooding many
semi-aquatic and wading birds move into the flooded areas. It is believed
that the surfacing soil organisms including wireworms are a major attrac-
tions to birds in these impoundments. Under natural flooding in pastures,
earth worms, white grubs, cutworms, and wireworms were observed at the
surface where many birds were gathering. Brids observed at wireworm
flooding sites included: mottled duck, Anas fulvigula fulvigula Ridge-
way; king rail, Rallus elegans elegans Audubon; killdeer, Charadrius
vociferus vociferus Linnaeus; snipe, Capella gallinage delicate (Ord);
blacknecked stilt, Himantopus mexicanus (Muller); gulls Larus sp(p).;
American egret, Casmerodius albus egretta (Gmelin); little blue heron,
Florida caerula caerula (L.) ; white ibis, Eudocimus albus (L.) ; glossy ibis,
Plegadis falcinellus falcinellus (L.); limpkin, Aramus guarouna pictes
(myer) ; and Weston's boat tailed grackle, Cassidix mexicanus westoni
In Laboratory experiments many of the wireworms under simulated

4Source for scientific names of birds: Florida Bird Life, Alexander
Sprunt, Jr. 1954. Coward-McCann, Inc., New York, Nat. Audubon Soc.
and Fla. Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Cooperating.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 2

flooding were observed to have, after 2 to 3 weeks, a filamentous type
of algal growth attached to the integument so firmly that the growth
could not be removed without injury to the insect. Although patho-
genicity of the organism was not established, it seems noteworthy that
none of the affected larvae survived over 72 hrs when removed from the
Many predatory aquatic insects, reptiles, and amphibians find a suit-
able habitat in flooded fields but our knowledge of their possible effects
on wireworms is at present too limited for comment.


Flooding for wireworm control is a slow process. The time require-
ment may be one reason some growers feel wireworms cannot be
drowned in practicable percentages. This method appears highly effective
if continued for a long enough time and is in complete harmony with
good organic soils conservation practices. In addition, flooding can be
practiced when crop acreages are at a minimum, during the summer
months. Besides drowning the current population, flooding prevents
further oviposition during the period of inundation.
Reportedly wireworms soon reappear on land that has been flooded thus
indicating a belief that previously flooded land holds affinity for the
adult ovipositing elaterids. More probably, such lands are not maintained
in a proper state of clean fallow prior to planting and resulting weed
growth therefore encourages oviposition. It is important that the land
be as well prepared for flooding as for planting and that the entire field
is completely inundated. Field observations indicate that improperly pre-
pared land results in poorer control by flooding than where reasonable
care is taken. Wireworms have a better chance of survival where there
are many unrotted stalks and other coarse organic debris. Unlevel
land with many spots of protruding ground also contributes to poorer con-
It is evident that flooding for wireworm control produces an ecological
situation in which benefits are derived from various biological agents
among the most important of which are birds. It is also evident that our
knowledge of what all these factors are and how they operate is very in-
Flooding is not an unmixed blessing. That populations of carabid
larvae and other predators in and on the soil were reduced was indicated by
the sampling of flooded and unflooded areas. A determination of the full
ecological effects of flooding on these lands would be a worthwhile study.


Alternate flooding and drying on a 4-2-4 weekly basis indicated excel-
lent control of wireworms on organic soils. Since 5 weeks of continuous
simulated flooding in the laboratory gave only about 77% control it was
desirable to test 6 weeks of continuous flooding of carefully prepared
land. This was done in the field in 1969 and excellent control was ob-
tained. However, additional tests of this increment should be made. While

Genung : Flooding for Wireworm Control

a 2-2-2 weekly alternate flooding to drying gave only fair control it can be
projected from the data that a 3-2-3 alternation would probably be quite
satisfactory. Since only M. communis was used in the laboratory tests
and since that species and Conoderus sp. generally predominated in the
field the results obtained are only considered applicable to those species.
Since field observations indicate that dehydration is more quickly
lethal to wireworms than flooding, it is suggested that during dry seasons
fields could, where feasible, be disked frequently to good advantage prior
to flooding.
More field tests on the effectiveness of flooding should be conducted.
These should also include careful observations on the ecological aspects
both from the positive and negative sides.


Clayton, B. S. 1943. Shrinkage and subsidence due to drainage and culti-
vation. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc. Vol. V-A: 118-120.

Evans, Charles B., and R. V. Allison. 1942. The soils of the Everglades
in relation to reclamation and conservation operations. Soil. Sci.
Soc. of Fla. Proc. Vol. IV-A: 34-46.
Fisher, D. W., and J. A. Winchester. 1964. The effects of flooding on
root-knot nematodes in organic soil. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla.
Proc. 62: 150-154.

Genung, W. G. 1957. Ecological and cultural factors affecting control of
subterranean cutworms in the Everglades. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
Proc. 72: 163-167.

Genung, W. G. 1964. Cutworm control studies. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Annu. Rep. 1964: 279.

Moore, W. D., Robert A. Conover, and David L. Stoddard. 1949. The
sclerotinose disease of vegetable crops in Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Bull. 457.

Orsenigo, J. R. 1967. Simulated flooding for weed control. Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Annu. Rep. 1967: 297.

Thames, W. H., Jr., and W. N. Stoner. 1953. A preliminary trial of low
land culture rice in rotation with vegetable crops as a means of
reducing root-knot infestation in the Everglades. Plant Disease
Reporter. 37:178-192.

Thomas, C. A. 1930. A review of research on the control of wireworms.
Pa. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 259.

Winchester, J. A. 1964. Cultural control of plant nematodes. Second In-
ternat. Kenaf Conference. Dep. of State Agency for International
Development, Washington, D. C.
The Florida Entomologist 53(2) 1970




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Ohio Historical Society Museum, Columbus, Ohio

Photographs and descriptions of several species of the Rhopalocera
are presented. Similarly to the Heterocera, the eggs of the Rhopalocera
described vary considerably in size, 0.5 mm to 2 plus mm. Their shapes may
be round, conelike, somewhat flattened, elongated, or spindle-shaped. Their
colors vary from near-white to yellow, green, orange, red, grey, to near
black. The surface of the chorion may be smooth, rough, pitted, ridged,
fringed, and adhesive to non-adhesive. Many are deposited singly and
scattered or in flat or bunched masses.

During the past decade the author has devoted most of his research
fun to collecting, photographing, and describing eggs of insects, especially
eggs from many species of moths. Since 1961 he has published in the
Florida Entomologist and elsewhere a number of papers on eggs of moths
representing more than 25 families of the Heterocera.
In addition to the eggs of the Heterocera, eggs from a number of
Rhopalocera have been obtained. This is the first paper by the author
which presents eggs from several species of butterflies, skippers, and other
Rhopalocera. These eggs were found in the field by observing and captur-
ing females in the act of oviposition or were obtained by placing wild
captured females in oviposition cages possessing plant tissues, especially
leaves, stems, flowers, fruits, dry and moist paper towelling, wood, and
other objects.
Eggs from a number of species of Rhopalocera were sent to me from
several entomologists. Full credit is given to these persons. I am especi-
ally indebted to Mr. and Mrs. R. 0. Kendall of San Antonio, Texas; also to
J. H. Fales of Beltsville, Maryland, and to Kilan Roever of Phoenix, Ari-
zona. Without this help the author might never have prepared this short
paper. Here is hoping that other investigators may see fit to continue
this fascinating study of the eggs of other Rhopalocera.
In the publication by Cyril F. dos Passos (1964) entitled A Synonymic
List of the Nearctic Rhopalocera, one finds 10 families listed containing
682 species, namely Megathymidae-19 species, Hesperiidae-222 species,
Papilionidae-22 species, Pieridae-58 species, Riodinidae-18 species,
Lycaenidae-132 species, Libytheidae-2 species, Nymphalidae-146 spe-
cies, Danaidae-4 species, and Satyridae-46 species.
Fig. 1 to 24 are microphotographs of one or more species from all of
the above families except the Libytheidae. The original photographs were
in color taken through a microscope on 35 i~m Kodachrome II professional
K.P.A. film under flood light. These were transposed to black and white
Panatomic X film from which the black and white prints were made.
The eggs of the different species shown vary considerably in size, shape,
color, surface texture, adhesiveness and distribution. Following are photo-
graphs and descriptions of the eggs of 24 species.

The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 53, No. 2


Peterson: Eggs of Rhopalocera-Lepidoptera

Fig. 1. Agathymus sp., Megathymidae. Two views of the conelike
eggs of an undescribed species. They are near white to cream colored
when deposited, and nonadhesive.

Fig. 2. Agathymus baueri (Stallinger and Turner), Megathymidae.
This large round egg has a concave bottom and a slightly depressed micro-
pyle area at the top. When deposited, it is nonadhesive and light yellow.
Near hatching time the color changes to a grey with red blotches.

Fig. 3. Calpodes ethlius (Stoll), Hesperiidae, larger canna leaf roller.
The female deposits eggs singly, scattered and readily visible on the
green foliage. Each egg is light gray in color, rounded, slightly flattened,
and possesses a dark micropyle depression at the top center. Faint trans-
vers! granular lines occur on the chorlon near the lower portion of the

Fig. 4. Atrytonopsis hianna (Scudder), Hesperiidae. This ornate,
slightly yellowish egg possesses a uniformly rough surface showing dis-
tinct rounded and pointed projections which extend in rows from the base
of the egg to the depressed greenish micropyl area at the top. Some 10
or more projections exist in each vertical row.

Fig. 5. Lerodea eufala (Edwards), Hesperiidae. The egg is large,
smooth, and light green in color. It becomes darker in color when ready
to hatch.

Fig. 6. Erynnis zarucco funeralis (Scudder and Burgess), Hesperiidae.
The eggs are somewhat coneshaped, yellowish green in color, possess a
flat base, and are deposited singly. Twelve to 14 prominent vertical
ridges occur on the sides of the egg. These extend from the base toward
the apex. Transverse striae occur between the ridges.

Fig. 7. Achlyodes thraso tamenund (Edwards), Hesperiidae. The egg
is yellowish brown, somewhat coneshaped, and deposited singly. The sur-
face possesses 14 plus blunt vertical ridges with very faint cross striae
between them.

Fig. 8. Thorybes plades (Scudder), Hesperiidae. The shiny, grass
green eggs are deposited singly and possess 12 plus inconspicuous vertical
ridges without transverse striae.

The Florida Entomologist

* 1irI A

Vol. 53, No. 2

Peterson: Eggs of Rhopalocera-Lepidoptera

Fig. 9. Epargyreus clarus clarus (Cramer), Hesperiidae. The eggs are
deposited singly or adjacent to each other. Their overall color is light
green and may show a distinct circular red band near the top. Fifteen
prominent vertical ridges occur on the chorion with no distinct transverse
striae between them.

Fig. 10. Staphylus mazans mazans (Reichert), Hesperiidae. The over-
all color is a medium brown. The lower half of each egg resembles a
woven basket with transverse strands. The upper half of each egg
possesses several irregular potato-like humps.

Fig. 11. Battus philinor philinor (Linnaeus), Papilionidae, pipevine
swallowtail. The eggs are adhesive and usually deposited in irregular
clusters. They are spherical and have a reddish orange to a dark color.
The chorion is rough and irregular with faint indications of incomplete
vertical ridges.

Fig. 12. Papilio polyxenes asterius (Stoll), Papilionidae. The egg is
large, nearly spherical, quite smooth, and distinctly green.

Fig. 13. Pieridae sp. An egg found commonly on Acacia foliage in
Florida. Each egg is greatly elongated and deposited in an upright posi-
tion on the leaf. They are light green in color and possess very faint
vertical lines on the chorion.

Fig. 14. Colias eurytheme eurytheme (Boisduval), Pieridae, alfalfa
caterpillar. The egg is elongated, spindle shaped, near white to pink, and
possesses 16 or more faint vertical ridges with transverse striae between

Fig. 15. Lephelisca nemesis (Edwards), Riodinidae. This small egg
is very ornate, round, and doughnut shaped. Its overall color is purple
with near white ridges about the 12 to 14 hexagonal or nearly round areas
near the top and sides. At the top, a conspicuous near-white ring sur-
rounds the micropyle area.

Fig. 16. Strymon beon (Cramer), Lycaenidae. Eggs are nearly spheri-
cal, near-white, and the chorion possesses many small round to hexagonal
depressions bearing tiny projections on the ridges about each depression.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 2

- .

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,1.; -

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Peterson: Eggs of Rhopalocera-Lepidoptera

Fig. 17. Danaus plexippus plexippus (Linneaus), Danaidae. Monarch
butterfly. Each egg is somewhat coneshaped, single, and has a vertical
position on the host plant. It is near white in color and possesses 25 or
more inconspicuous vertical ridges which extend from the base of the egg
toward the bluntly pointed top end. Faint transverse striae occur between
the vertical ridges.

Fig. 18. Danaus gilippus strigosus (Bates), Danaidae. This prehatch,
dark colored, coneshaped egg possesses 20 plus verticle ridges and trans-
verse striae on the chorion between the ridges.

Fig. 19. Heliconius charitonius vazquezae (Comstock and Brown),
Nymphalidae. The eggs are deposited singly and in a vertical position on
host tissue. Each light colored egg is approximately twice as high as its
diameter. Some 14 prominent rounded ridges extend from the base to near
the top with inconspicuous transverse striae between the ridges.

Fig. 20. Mestra amymone (Menetries), Nymphalidae. This yellowish,
conelike egg is deposited singly in a vertical position. It is unusual in
that the 20 or more vertical ridges possess greatly elongated near-white
filaments which project up and out from the chorion like a brush.

Fig. 21. Polygonia interrogationis (Fabricius), Nymphalidae. Two
eggs, one on top of the other. Each egg is a dark shiny green with 10
vertical ridges which extend from the base of the egg toward the top where
they are most prominent. Faint transverse striae occur between the

Fig. 22. Agraulis vanilla incarnata (Riley), Nymphalidae. An en-
larged, nearly black, shiny prehatch egg possessing 14 plus prominent
vertical ridges and 10 plus transverse striae between the ridges creating
vertical series of somewhat square, shiny spots.

Fig. 23. Nymphalis antiopa antiopa (Linneaus), Nymphalidae, mourn-
ing-cloak butterfly. The female deposits her eggs in single clusters of 50
or more. This is a top view of some of the eggs in a cluster. Each of the
prehatch, reddish brown eggs show 8 vertical ridges projecting from the

Fig. 24. Cercyonis pegala texana (Edwards), Satyridae. Several large,
reddish, and somewhat irregular, spherical eggs each possessing 18 or
more faint vertical ridges with inconspicuous transverse striae between

Passos dos, Cyril f. 1964. A synonymic list of Nearactic Rhopalocera.
Lepidopterists Society Memoirs No. 1. Peabody Museum of Natural
History. Yale University, New Haven, Conn. USA.

The Florida Entomologist 53(2) 1970

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 2

William Louden Thompson was born at State College, Pennsylvania, in
1896. He obtained a B.S. degree at the present Pennsylvania State
University in 1923, and he was granted an honorary D.Sc. degree by the
University of Florida after his retirement. Tommy held positions in Florida
as follows: Assistant entomologist, Florida State Plant Board 1925-27;
assistant entomologist, Citrus Branch Station 1927-39; associate entomolo-
gist, Citrus Experiment Station, 1939-43; and entomologist for the period
1943-62, until his retirement. He was elected president of the Florida
Entomological Society in 1935 and reelected in 1936-in times of de-
pression days. In 1936, the financial condition of the Florida Entomolo-
gical Society became very low. Tommy's work in and for the Society
successfully introduced new life into it to turn its future along a bright
path. He became a member of the Gamma Sigma Delta fraternity in
1959. He became an Honorary member of the Florida State Horticultural
Society in 1962. Tommy did research work on insects affecting citrus and
made direct contact with growers and others in the industry in a manner
that gave him the image "Mr. Citrus Entomologist". He was thorough,
honest, fair, and practical, and his conference "bedside manners" inspired
growers with hope, confidence, and a desire to call on him again when the
need arose. His publications number about 135 as junior or senior author,
excluding preparations (sometimes in collaboration with other entomolo-
gists) of a monthly article for the Citrus Industry. Tommy was always
well informed on the latest methods and pesticides. Members of the
Thompson family are valued citizens in and about Lake Alfred where
they reside. A son, their only child, is a,citrus grove caretaker in the
Indian River area.
Dr. Thompson retired in 1962 after more than 37 years of distin-
guished service in Florida.

G. W. Dekle
A. N. Tissot
D. W. Wolfenbarger, Chairman
Honors and Awards Committee


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Department of Entomology, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32601


The pupa of Aedes (Ochlerotatus) mitchellae (Dyar) is described and
illustrated for the first time. A table lists the range, mode and mean num-
ber of branches of each pupal hair.

The original description of Aedes (Ochlerotatus) mitchellae was pub-
lished by Dyar in 1905. A more complete written description, accompanied
by illustrations of the male, female and larva, was given by Carpenter and
La Casse (1955). The egg was described and illustrated by Craig and
Horsfall (1960). In the present paper the pupa is described and illustrated
(Fig. 1-3) for the first time. Table 1 lists the range, mode, and mean num-
ber of branches for each pupal hair. Chaetotaxy and morphological
nomenclature used in this description follow that of Belkin (1962).

Aedes (Ochlerotatus) mitchellae (Dyar)
Cephalothorax (Fig. 1). Hairs C-l, 3 extra long, C-2, 7 long, C-4-5,
8-9 moderately long, C-6 short, C-1, 3 double, C-2, 9 usually double, C-4
usually triple, C-5-7 usually with 3-4 branches, C-8 usually with 4-5
Respiratory trumpet (Fig. 2). Strongly pigmented; scattered tiny
spine-like setae on distal 0.85 of inner surface; index 3.81-4.33.
Metanotum (Fig. 3). Hairs C-10-12 long, C-10 usually with 3-5
branches, C-11 single, C-12 usually double or triple.
Abdomen (Fig. 3). Hair 0-II-VIII minute, single; 1-I well developed
with 24-37 branches on basal one third, 1-II short, 1-III moderately long,
1-IV-VII long, 1-II usually with 4-5 branches, 1-III usually with 4-6
branches, 1-IV-V usually with 3-4 branches, 1-VI usually triple, 1-VII
usually double or triple; 2-I-VII short, 2-I usually double, 2-II-VII single;
3-I, III, VI long, 3-II, IV-V long, 3-I single, 3-II-III single or double,
3-IV usually with 4-6 branches, 3-V usually with 3-4 branches, 3-VI
usually double, 3-VII usually triple; 4-I-III short, 4-IV-VI moderately
long, 4-VII-VIII long, 4-I, VI usually with 4-5 branches, 4-II usually with
4-6 branches, 4-III usually with 3-4 branches, 4-IV, VII usually double
or triple, 4-V usually with 5-6 branches, 4-VIII usually double; 5-I short,
5-II-III moderately long, 5-IV-VI extra long, 5-VII long, 5-I with 5-7
branches, 5-II usually with 4-5 branches, 5-III usually with 5-6 branches,
5-IV-VI usually triple, 5-VII usually double or triple; 6-I-II long, 6-III-

1Major, Medical Service Corps, U. S. Army. The opinions contained
herein are the private ones of the author and are not to be construed as
official or as reflecting the views of the Department of the Army. Fla.
Agri. Experiment Station Journal Series No. 3541.

The Florida Entomologist

Aedes mitchellae

Hair Range Mode Mean Hair Range Mode Mean


Abdomen III


2 2.7

Abdomen I
30 29.5
2 1.9
1 1
5 5.2
5 5.9
1 1
2 2.7
1 1
1 1.6

Abdomen II

Abdomen IV

Abdomen V

1 1



Vol. 53, No. 2

Reinert: Pupa of Aedes mitchellae

TABLE 1. Continued

Hair Range Mode Mean

Hair Range Mode Mean

Abdomen V (Cont)
-4 3 3.1
-4 3 2.9
1-7 5 4.8
-4 3 2.9
1 1 1
L-2 1 1.4
1 1 1
1 1 1

Abdomen VII

Abdomen VI

Abdomen VIII

9 1 1 1
LO 1 1 1
L1 1 1 1
L4 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

VI moderately long, 6-VII short, 6-I single, 6-II single or double, 6-III,
VI usually double or triple, 6-IV-V usually with 3-4 branches, 6-VII
usually with 4 branches; 7-I-II, V-VI moderately long, 7-III-IV short,
7-VII long, 7-I, VII usually double, 7-II usually double or triple, 7-III,
V usually with 4-5 branches, 7-IV usually with 3-4 branches, 7-VI single
or double; 8-III-VII short, 8-III, VII usually with 3-4 branches, 8-IV-V
usually double or triple, 8-VI usually triple; 9-I-VI short, 9-VII-VIII
moderately long, 9-I usually single, 9-II-VI single, 9-VII stellate, usually
with 5-6 branches, 9-VII1 stellate, usually with 7 or 9 branches; 10-
III-IV, VI-VII moderately long, 10-V long, 10-III with 2-4 branches,
10-IV double or triple, 10-V single or double, 10-VI-VII single; 11-I,
III-VII short, 11-I usually single or double, 11-III-VII single; 14-II-VIII
minute, 14-II-VIII single.
Paddle (Fig. 3). Ovoid with minute spicules along distal 0.25 of mar-
gin, midrib does not reach apex; 1-P short and single; index 1.14-1.43.

The Florida Entomologist

i- 0.5mm --

Fig. 1-3. Pupa of Aedes mitchellae (Dyar). Fig. 1. Cephalothorax.
Fig. 2. Respiratory trumpet. Fig. 3. TMetanotum and abdomen. C=
cephalothorax, I-VIII=abdominal segments 1 through 8, P=paddle.

The above description is based on 4 male and 6 female associated
pupal skins reared from larvae collected by the author-at Gainesville,
Alachua County, Florida on 17-18 January 1970. The larvae were col-
lected from a partially shaded, temporary, fresh water pool approximately
3-5 inches deep with numerous tree leaves and dead grass on the bottom.

Vol. 53, No. 2


Reinert: Pupa of Aedes mitchellae


Belkin, J. N. 1962. The mosquitoes of the South Pacific. Univ. Calif.
Press, Berkeley. 2 vols., 608 and 412 p.
Carpenter, S. J., and W. J. LaCasse. 1955. Mosquitoes of North Amer-
ica (north of Mexico). Univ. Calif. Press, Berkeley. 360 p.
Craig, G. B., Jr., and W. R. Horsfall. 1960. Eggs of floodwater mosqui-
toes. VII. Species of Aedes common in the southeastern United
States (Diptera: Culicidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 53:11-18.
Dyar, H. G. 1905. A new mosquito. J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 13:74.

The Florida Entomologist 53(2) 1970


Plans for a new global organization in biological control, building from
the existing "Organization Internationale de Lutte Biologica" (OILB),
under the title given in the above heading, were consummated at Amster-
dam in November 1969, as far as could be done at the time. New statutes
were proposed and approved by delegates, and other agreements reached.
It is hoped that the widest possible interest and support can be made evident
before February 1971, at which time approval by the current OILB's
General Assembly will presumably occur.
The following slate of candidates for the Executive Committee of the
proposed new Council of IOBC was recommended by unanimous vote of the
delegates in Amsterdam:

Paul DeBach, President
E. Biliotti, Vice President
Frank Wilson, Vice President
Vittorio Delucchi, Secretary General
Fred J. Simmonds, Treasurer

A fuller statement of the meeting in Amsterdam and of the aims and
functions of this new organization, and the progress of developments in
other respects is being published in The Bulletin of Entomological Society
of America, to which interested parties are referred. Such interested
parties should contact any of the above slate of candidates, or for the U.S.,
Dr. Reece Sailer.

Every product
bearing the Blue Bullseye
has been proved
and proved again

before it is offered to you.

You can count on it.
At Chemagro, test tube to test plot to market
is a never ending process. As makers of chemicals
for agriculture, we are acutely aware of the
responsibilities and opportunities we face. So we
keep scientists very busy in the laboratories, testing,
testing. And our field testing and demonstration
forces prove the dependability and effectiveness of
every product time and again before we release
it for general use. This takes years . not just a
little time. Years that pay off in a better product for
you, a proud reputation for us. We work at
making the Blue Bullseye a meaningful trademark.
Look for it when you need an insecticide, miticide,
fungicide or herbicide. irs




University of Florida, IFAS, Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida 33850


The identity, life cycle, food habits, and host-predator relationships of
the predatory mite, Galendromus floridanus (Muma), are reviewed and
new substantiating data are presented. It is concluded that the predator
is capable of reducing six-spotted mite infestations but is probably ineffec-
tive in the natural control of the Texas citrus mite or citrus red mite.

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the potential of Galendromus
floridanus (Muma) in the natural control of spider mites, Tetranychidae,
in Florida citrus groves. The following paragraphs present available
historical information concerning this predatory mite.
Originally described as Typhlodromnus floridanus Muma (1955), the
species has been variously taxonomically assigned as Typhlodromus (Typh-
lodromus) helveolus Chant (1959) ; Galendromus floridanus Muma (1961);
Galendromus (Galendromus) floridanus Muma (1963); Metaseiulus flori-
danus, Schuster and Pritchard (1965); and Typhlodromus floridanus, Chant
and Baker (1965).
In the original description (Muma 1955), the species was recorded as
feeding on six-spotted mites, Eotetranychus sexmaculatus (Riley); citrus
red mites, Panonychus citri (McGregor); and Texas citrus mites, Eute-
tranychus banksi (McGregor). Later (Muma 1955A, 1958, 1961A, 1964,
and Muma et al. 1961), evidence was presented and discussed concerning
the association with and feeding of the species upon E. sexmaculatus.
In most cases, however, the coincidence of the low host mite populations,
high predator populations, higher temperatures, and increased rainfall pre-
vented an evaluation of the predator as a biotic natural control agent.
Muma (1964) reported that the species was the sixth most common
phytoseiid on Florida citrus leaves but represented only 2.8% of the total
phytoseiid population on random leaf samples. The species was found to
be most common in the central and west coast citrus-growing areas in the
spring with a sex ratio of 1 male to 4 females. Despite these findings,
however, Muma (1965) did not report the predator as a prevalent species
on citrus owing, it was believed, to its remarkably consistent coincidence
with sporadic infestations of the six-spotted mite.
The present paper presents additional experimental and observational
data on G. floridanus which is known locally as the "tan mite." On the
basis of these supplementary data, the biological control potential of the
tan mite is reevaluated.

1Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 3531.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 2


Since the data presented here have been accumulated over a 16-year
period and methods have been modified as new knowledge was gained, no
consistent methods or techniques have been utilized. Therefore, pertinent
procedures are detailed and discussed in preliminary paragraphs of each


The species under consideration conforms to the following diagnoses.
Females are typical phytoseiids of the genus Galendromus and subgenus
Galendromus as delineated by Muma (1963). They are distinguished from
the very closely related or synonymous Galendromus gratus (Chant) by
proportionately longer L, and L3, nodular dorsal scutal ornamentation
between the opposite members of M.,, and a slightly longer spermatheca.
The distinctly shorter M,, longer peritreme, and larger size distinguish
the species from Galendroinus longipilus (Nesbitt), G. occidentalis (Nes-
bitt), G. annectens (DeLeon), and G. ferrugineus DeLeon. Males are
readily distinguished from all other species of the genus and, as far as is
known, from the family by possession of a pair of strong nodular pro-
cesses between the opposite members of M, and a ventral connate process
on the trochanter of Leg II.
The generic nomenclature is, as indicated by Pritchard and Baker
(1962) and Schuster and Pritchard (1965), open to question. For the pre-
sent, however, the genera Galendromus Muma, 1961 and Metaseiulus Muma,
1961 are conservatively maintained separately until the variation ranges of
the type species have been determined. The overly conservative use of the
genus Typhlodromus Scheuten, 1857, as proposed by Chant (1965) and
Chant and Baker (1965), is untenable.


Data on the life cycle of the tan mite were obtained in 2 different ways.
In 1956, 30 daily stage counts were made on 3 laboratory cultures of the
predator, fed six-spotted mites, and maintained at 75" to 80' F. These data
were then arrayed in bar graphs for each day, and the number of days
between numerical peaks of each stage were computed. In 1967, individ-
ual newly hatched larvae were isolated in the laboratory on excised citrus
leaves, in plastic boxes on water-saturated cotton batting at 80 F, fed
six-spotted mites, and observed daily until maturity. The eggs were de-
posited in the laboratory by grove-collected females. Altogether, 27 indi-
viduals were reared to adults with this technique and the maximal, minimal,
mean, and modal times for development computed.
Egg production and mating experiments were conducted in the labora-
tory at 80' F with laboratory-reared males and females.
The 1956 data did not produce any usable information on the dura-
tion of eggs, larvae, protonymphs, and deutonymphs but did indicate a
complete cycle from egg to adult of 7 to 9 days. The 1967 data are arrayed
in Table 1. From these results, it is obvious why the 1956 method did not

Muma: Control Potential of Galendromus floridanus 81

prove satisfactory; all stages completed development in 1 to 3 days. Both
sets of data, however, indicated a maximum cycle of 9 days; and the 1967
data showed that development can be completed in a much shorter period
of time-4 days.

Galendromus floridanus (Muma) WHEN FED SIX-SPOTTED MITES

Days to Complete Development
Females (19) Males (8)
Maxi- Mini- Maxi- Mini-
Stage mum Mean Mode mum mum Mean Mode mum
Egg 2 1.9 2 1 2 1.9 2 1
Larva 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Protonymph 3 2.2 2 1 3 1.8 1-2 1
Deutonymph 3 2.7 1 1 3 1.8 2 1
Total 9 7.8 6 4 9 6.5 6-7 4

Egg production of laboratory-reared virgin females following primary
mating varied from 16 to 45 eggs with a mean of 26.2 for 5 females. Fe-
males deposited eggs for 1 to 2 weeks, frequently depositing 6 or more
eggs per day in a cluster. Males mated 2 or more times, depositing in the
5 females 1 spermatophore in each spermathecum. Females would not
permit a second mating until after deposition of 20 or more eggs. Virgin
females lived for 1 to 2 weeks but did not deposit eggs. Unmated males
also lived for 1 to 2 weeks. Mating procedure and position was the same
as that reported for other phytoseiids. For details, see Muma (1970) on
mating of Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma).


Studies on the food habits of the tan mite involved feeding observa-
tions under grove conditions and in the laboratory. Specimens, primarily
adult females, were also isolated on excised citrus leaves in plastic boxes
on water-saturated cotton batting in the laboratory at 80 F, and starva-
tion, survival, and reproduction were used as indices of food suitability.
Since the rate of host consumption is also pertinent, 31 females and 6
nymphs retained in plastic boxes as indicated above were also exposed to
known numbers of the various growth stages of six-spotted mites.
Observations have demonstrated that although this predatory mite is
most commonly associated with and is seen feeding upon six-spotted
mites, it will also readily feed on other Tetranychidae. It has been ob-
served several times, under grove conditions, feeding on the eggs and
nymphs of citrus red mites and Texas citrus mites. It has also been
observed in the laboratory feeding on eggs and active stages of Tetrany-
chus tumidiellus Pritchard and Baker.
Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that the tan mite reproduces

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 2

readily and develops large populations when fed six-spotted mites, citrus
red mites, and Texas citrus mites. On the other hand, the species lived
for a limited time, up to 9 days, but did not reproduce when main-
tained on clean citrus leaves and when fed whitefly (Dialeurodes spp.)
eggs and crawlers, Glover's scale (Lepidosaphes gloveri Newm.) eggs and
crawlers, honey, honey and citrus pollen, and honeydew.

Laboratory experiments on rate of consumption and stages consumed
were conducted in 1958 and 1967 using six-spotted mites as food. In 1958,
27 female tan mites tested for a total of 231 hours consumed a mean of
0.12 six-spotted mite eggs per hr., 0.10 nymphs per hr., and 0.20 adults
per hr. In 1967, 4 female tan mites tested for 24 hrs., consumed a mean
of 1.62 six-spotted mite eggs per hr., 0.33 nymphs per hr., and 0.00 adults
per hr.; 6 nymphal tan mites tested for 45 hrs., consumed 0.37 six-
spotted mite eggs per hr., 0.23 nymphs per hr., and 0.22 adults per hr.


The interrelationships of host and predator populations were studied
in several ways in the laboratory and in groves. In the laboratory, the
ability of the predator to survive and to attain high population levels on
large host populations and to reduce host populations was tested on ex-
cised leaves, green oranges, and citrus seedlings. Grove studies included
investigation of the coincidence of predators and hosts in host infestations,
a survey of the leaf-to-leaf populations of hosts and predators, and a
continuing population dynamics study involving population interactions of
hosts and predators on leaves in groves indicating injurious host infesta-
tions. The methods utilized in the several studies are detailed below.
Excised citrus leaves were placed in plastic boxes on moist cotton
batting and covered with a layer of moist cotton batting cut out so as
to expose most of the lower leaf surface. The leaves were then infested
with a tetranychid host and 1 gravid tan mite female. Such leaves were
held at 80" F, examined daily, and the number of predatory mites recorded.
Host mites were added as needed to maintain adequate food supply. When
Texas citrus mites were used as hosts, the predator population increased
in 2 to 3 weeks to numbers that could not be accurately counted without
destroying the culture. The same results were obtained with citrus red
mites or six-spotted mites as hosts.
Green oranges were placed in syracuse dishes for ease in handling.
They were then infested with host tetranychids, six-spotted mites, citrus
red mites, or Texas citrus mites, and held at 80 F until the fruit was
heavily infested. Then, 1 to 4 gravid tan mite females were placed on
each fruit. Within 2 weeks after addition of 1 or 2 predators, the predator
populations increased to 20 to 30 mites per fruit. When more than 2 pred-
ators were added per fruit, the mite population was too numerous to
count at the end of 2 weeks, or the host mite population was decimated
and only 5 to 10 predators could be found on the test fruits.

Fig. 1. Mean index of six-spotted mites and number of Galendromus
floridanus (Muma) in 7 grapefruit groves under varying winter and spring
temperatures and rainfall during 1955-56 in Polk County, Florida.


0 0 0 0 0 C

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The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 2

Citrus seedlings exhibiting 2 or more leaves in excess of the plumules
were infested with host tetranychids, six-spotted mites, citrus red mites,
and Texas citrus mites. Thirty days later, when the seedlings were heavily
infested with the host mites, 5 gravid female tan mites were introduced on
each of 2 seedlings; and 2 seedlings infested with six-spotted mites were
retained without predators as controls. Two weeks later, all plants were
examined for host and predator populations. Plants maintained as con-
trols had many six-spotted mites; plants infested with six-spotted mites
had no predators or host mites; plants infested with citrus red mites had
no predators and only 1 or 2 eggs and nymphs of the host; plants infested
with Texas citrus mites had no predators or host mites. Despite these
evaluations, however, both six-spotted mites and citrus red mites re-
covered from the decimations and regained high population levels within
30 days. The Texas citrus mite infestations never recovered from the
Grove studies were necessarily biased to groves exhibiting infestations
of six-spotted mites during years when economically injurious infestations
could be located. Indication of such infestations usually consisted of light
to severe yellowing and cupping of old and new flush leaves. When such
infestations were noted, 5 or more groves were selected as study groves
and 1 sample was collected from each grove once a week until the six-
spotted mite infestation virtually disappeared. Each sample consisted of
20 randomly selected but damaged leaves, which were placed in plastic
boxes for transportation to the laboratory. In the laboratory, each leaf
was examined under a dissecting microscope and the number of active
stages of G. floridanus and E. sexmaculatus recorded. In the case of E.
sexmaculatus, the leaf-by-leaf population was coded-0 for no mites, 1 for
1 to 50 mites, 2 for 51 to 100 mites, and 3 for 101 or more mites. This was
done to reduce counting time since heavily infested leaves frequently sup-
ported 200 or more mites. The resulting data were then analyzed for coin-
cidence of the predator with its host and for predator potential, as a
biotic factor, in the control of its host on a leaf-to-leaf and grove-to-
grove basis.
Coincidence of G. floridanus with E. sexmaculatus was remarkably
high. Every study grove in every year sooner or later developed a popu-
lation of the predator. In most cases, the predator appeared within 2 weeks
after initiation of sampling.
The leaf-to-leaf relations of G. floridanus numbers with E. sexma-
culatus infestation levels is shown in Table 2. These data show that on
leaves exhibiting previous or current damaging infestations of six-spotted
mites, the host mite populations were lower where the predator population
was greater in every year except 1965. During 1965, the higher host mite
populations sustained greater predator populations.
The population interrelationships of predator and host under grove
conditions have been shown for 1953, 1954, and 1955, Muma (1955, 1958).
Data for 1956, 1958, and 1965 are presented in Fig. 1, 2, and 3. In 1956,
six-spotted mite infestations did not produce significant injury until late

Fig. 2. Mean index of six-spotted mites and number of Galendromus
floridanus (Muma) in 10 grapefruit groves under varying winter and
spring temperatures and rainfall during 1957-58 in Polk County, Florida.


0 o 0 0 0 0

I It
-i ___ ^ i-i


z m



4 t-----


0 N ( m OD (J
mI 0n -j oo o o o o o
M 0 T*


The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 2

March and disappeared in May following predator, temperature, and rain-
fall increases. In 1958, seriously damaging six-spotted mite infestations
developed in late January and maintained high levels into the first week of
June; during this year, temperatures and rainfall increased during May but
the predator population remained low. In 1965, the six-spotted mite in-
festations did not develop until mid-April and never produced serious in-

TABLE 2. MEAN NUMBER OF Galendromus floridanus (MUMA) ON DAM-
Eotetranychus sexmaculatus (RILEY) DURING 1953, 1954, 1956,
1965, AND 1966.

Mean Number Predators/Leaf with
Mean Mean Varying Numbers SSM
Number Groves/ Leaves/ 101 or
Year Counts Count Count None 1 to 50 51 to 100 more
1953 7 5 130 0.30 1.60 0.80 0.25
1954 9 8 177 0.45 0.55 0.43 0.26
1956 7 7 134 0.11 0.52 0.66 0.19
1965 10 5 96 0.62 0.73 0.34 0.95
1966 10 6 118 0.18 0.22 0.14 0.03
Mean 8.6 6.2 131 0.33 0.72 0.47 0.35

juries; spring temperatures were unusually high, rainfall was low until
late May, and the predator population was variable.


Published data and data presented here indicate that the tan mite,
G. floridanus (Muma), is primarily a tetranychid predator. It is usually
associated with high host densities, which under grove conditions are
most frequently represented by the webbing colonial six-spotted mite, E.
sexmaculatus (Riley). The life cycle of the predator, from egg to adult,
on six-spotted mites, varies from 4 to 9 days, with an average of 6 to 7
days. It feeds on all stages of its host with a slight preference for eggs
and nymphs. The predator has a high rate of coincidence with six-
spotted mite infestations where it exhibits an inverse predator-host rela-
tionship on both a leaf-to-leaf and temporal basis.

Although data presented by Muma (1955A, 1958) and in Fig. 1 through
3 and Table 2 here indicate that other factors such as temperature and
humidity also influence six-spotted mite populations, there is little doubt
that this predator is capable of causing and in many instances is responsible
for natural control of six-spotted mite infestations. Since the predator
seems to require highly localized or colonial host densities for population

Fig. 3. Mean index of six-spotted mites and number of Galendromus
floridanus (Muma) in 5 grapefruit groves under varying winter and
spring temperatures and rainfall during 1964-65 in Polk County, Florida.


S o w U
0 0 0 0 0 c

- -

H o




- I --I




0 r0 i -,4 C D 0 -D


0M 0 0 0U
o o 0 0






- H

- I

t i I

- I

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 2

development, it is questionable that any predator control pressure is
exerted by the species on infestations of citrus red mite or Texas citrus


Chant, D. A. 1959. Phytoseiid mites (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) : Part II.
A taxonomic review of the family Phytoseiidae, with descriptions of
38 new species. Canadian Entomol. 91(Suppl. 12): 166 p.
Chant, D. A. 1965. Generic concepts in the Phytoseiidae (Acarina:
Mesostigmata). Canadian Entomol. 97: 351-374.
Chant, D. A., and E. W. Baker. 1965. The Phytoseiidae (Acarina) of
Central America. Mem, Entomol. Soc. Canada 41: 56 p.
Muma, Martin H. 1955. Phytoseiidae (Acarina) associated with citrus in
Florida. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 48: 262-272.
Muma, Martin H. 1955A. Factors contributing to the natural control of
citrus insects and mites in Florida. J. Econ. Entomol. 48: 432-438.
Muma, Martin H. 1958. Predators and parasites of citrus mites in Florida.
10th Int. Congr. Entomol. 4: 633-647.
Muma, Martin H. 1961. Subfamilies, genera and species of Phytoseiidae
(Acarina: Mesostigmata). Bull. Fla. State Mus. Biol. Sci. 5(7):
Muma, Martin H. 1961A. Mites associated with citrus in Florida. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 640: 39 p.
Muma, Martin H. 1963. The genus Galendromus Muma, 1961 (Acarina:
Mesostigmata) Fla. Entomol. Suppl. 1: 15-41.
Muma, Martin H. 1964. The population of Phytoseiidae on Florida citrus.
Fla. Entomol. 47: 5-11.
Muma, Martin H. 1965. Populations of common mites in Florida citrus
groves. Fla. Entomol. 48: 35-46.
Muma, Martin H. 1970. Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma) (Acarina:
Phytoseiidae) on Florida citrus. Proc. 2nd Int. Congr. Acarology.
(in press).
.lIF.., Martin H., A. G. Selhime, and H. A. Denmark. 1961. An anno-
tated list of predators and parasites associated with insects and
mites on Florida citrus. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 634: 39 p.
Pritchard, A. E., and E. W. Baker. 1962. Mites of the family Phy-
toseiidae from Central Africa, with remarks on the genera of the
world. Hilgardia 33(7): 205-309.
Schuster, R. 0., and A. E. Pritchard. 1962. Phytoseiid mites of California.
Hilgardia 34(7) : 191-285.
The Florida Entomologist 53(2) 1970

CALCITRANS2, 3, 4, 5

Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA
Gainesville, Fla. 32601


Five compounds (50% solutions in ethanol) were evaluated as skin re-
pellents against caged Aedes aegypti (L.) and Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) by
comparing the protection times obtained with the protection times obtained
with 2 standard repellents, deet (25% solution in ethanol) and dimethyl
phthalate (50% solution in ethanol). Against mosquitoes, the deet was
significantly more effective than the candidate compounds or than dimethyl
phthalate, and dimethyl phthalate was equal in effectiveness to the 4 cin-
choninates and was less effective than 4-pentyl-2-oxetanone, which had a
disagreeable odor. In the tests with Stomoxys calcitrans, 4-pentyl-2-
oxetanone as a 50% solution in ethanol was more effective than deet and
the other repellents; also, ethyl 3-ethylcinchoninate and butyl 3-methylcin-
choninate as 50% solutions were about as effective as deet, buy ethyl 3-
methylcinchoninate was only about half as effective as deet, and propyl 3-
methylcinchoninate and dimethyl phthalate were the least effective.

A continuing program to evaluate and develop compounds as insect
repellents for use on humans is maintained at the Insects Affecting Man
and Animals Research Laboratory, Gainesville, Florida, of the Entomo-
logy Research Division (Smith 1958a,b). We were therefore interested
when Yeoman and Lindberg (1968) reported at the XIII International Con-
gress of Entomology, Moscow that certain cinchoninates were effective
repellents against biting flies. Only 3 compounds of this chemical group
had been evaluated as repellents by this laboratory (King 1954, Agricul-
tural Research Service 1967), and none had been effective as mosquito re-
pellents. This paper presents the results of laboratory evaluation of 5
candidate repellents, 4 of which were cinchoninates, to determine their
potential as skin repellents against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Stomoxys calci-
trans (L.).


The test method used was that described by Gilbert et al. (1957a,b)
and Smith (1958a,b). All candidate repellents were tested as 50% solu-
tions in ethanol. Also, dimethyl phthalate (50% solution in ethanol) was
used as one of the standards; the other standard, deet, was tested as 25%

1Diptera: Muscidae
2Diptera: Muscidae
3Mention of a pesticide in this paper does not constitute a recommen-
dation of this product by the USDA.
4Research was conducted in part with funds transferred from the
Medical Research and Development Command, Office of the Surgeon Gen-
eral, U. S. Army.
5Nelson Smith, D. R. Godwin, D. Smith, Ken Posey, and J. Jackson
assisted in conducting the tests.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 2

- M CO

o0 0 (


o --







0: O
.g CI (U
s ^d
u rt 'r
S 1??
c" ^
*s -
i? a,
p P- .S
TO 4

o t Co Co
o Vo o~ c'


o 00 0 -

o o o

0 0 CO O3
M M to


-4 C

C )
-4 '
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SC -4

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?>> ^3 ^


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00 0 0 L 00 *
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-< ng

Gilbert: Comparison of Repellents

solution in ethanol. (The lower concentration of deet was used to keep
the test period within a normal working day.) Two series of tests were
made: 3 candidate chemicals were evaluated in the first series and 2 in the
second series; the 2 standard repellents were tested in both series.
One ml of a solution of a candidate repellent was spread evenly over
one forearm of a test subject from the wrist to the elbow. The other fore-
arm was treated similarly with another repellent, either one of the other
candidate compounds or one of the standards. Each compound was thus
paired with every other compound in a given series of tests. In the test
with A. aegypti, each arm was exposed for 3 min. at about 30-min inter-
vals in a cage of about 1500 avid 7 to 9-day-old females from the
laboratory colony. Immediately thereafter, the same arms were exposed
for 3 min. in cages containing about 1000 avid 3 to 4-day-old female S.
calcitrans. The effectiveness of a repellent was based on the time a com-
pound gave complete protection from bites, i.e. the time between the ap-
plication and the first confirmed bite (one bite followed by a second within
30 min).
A balanced incomplete-block design was used for the analysis of vari-
ance of the data in each of the series (Gilbert et al. 1966), and the least
significant differences (LSD) between any 2 repellents in each series were
computed. Results are expressed as protection time in min. For the
comparison of repellents within or between series, a ratio of the protec-
tion time (min) obtained with each candidate and with dimethyl phthalate
to the protection time obtained with deet was computed.


Table 1 includes the chemical names of the candidate compounds, the
protection times obtained, and the ratio of the protection time of each
material to deet (taken as 1). Against mosquitoes, deet was signif-
icantly more effective than the candidate compounds and than dimethyl
phthalate in both series. 4-Pentyl-2-oxetanone, which gave an average
protection time of 215 min., was 0.62 times as effective as deet and about
6 times more effective than dimethyl phthalate. However, the oxeta-
none had a disagreeable odor. The cinchoninates were equal in effective-
ness to dimethyl phthalate.
In the test against Stomoxys calcitrans, 4-pentyl-2-oxetanone as a 50%
in ethanol was more effective than deet as a 25%solution and the other
repellents in both series. Ethyl 3-ethyl- and butyl 3-methylcinchoninate as
50% solutions were about equal in effectiveness to deet as a 25% solution,
and ethyl 3-methylcinchoninate was about half as effective as deet. Propyl
3-methylcinchoninate and dimethyl phthalate were the least effective.


Agricultural Research Service. 1967. Materials evaluated as insecticides,
repellents, and chemosterilants at Orlando and Gainesville, Fla.
USDA. Agricultural Handbook 340.
Gilbert, I. H., H. K. Gouck, and C. N. Smith. 1957a. New insect repellent.
Soap Chem. Spec. 33(5) : 115-117, 129-133. 1957b. Part II. Cloth-
ing treatment. Soap Chem. Spec. 33(6) : 95-99, 109.

The Florida Entomologist

Gilbert, I. H., H. K. Gouck, and C. N. Smith. 1966. Attractiveness of men
and women to Aedes aegypti and relative protection time obtained
with deet. Fla. Entomol. 49: 54-66.
King, W. V. 1954. Chemicals evaluated as insecticides and repellents at
Orlando, Fla. USDA Handbook 69. 397 p.
Smith, C. N. 1958a. Insect repellents. Soap Chem. Spec. 34(5): 103,
105-112. 1958b. Part II. Insect repellents. Soap Chem. Spec.
34(6); 126-133.
Yeoman, G. H., and U. H. Lindberg. 1969. Insect repellency of certain
alkyl cinchoninic acid esters. Proc. XIII International Congress
Entomol., Moscow, 1968, Repellents and Attractants, Section 9B:

The Florida Entomologist 53(2) 1970


The 1970 meeting (53rd Annual) of the Florida Entomological Society
will be held at the Langford Hotel at Winter Park, Florida, on September
9, 10, and 11. The theme of our meeting will be "Entomology-A Dynamic
Future." Several titles indicate that there will be much discussion involving
new approaches to insect control during the seventies. The local arrange-
ments committee is cooperating in developing a good program so make your
arrangement now to attend.

Vol. 53, No. 2


Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Entomology Research Division
Agr. Res. Serv., USDA2 and Department of Entomology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601, respectively


Two new genera are described in the Ceratopogonini: Baeohelea, type-
species nana n. sp. from Colombia and Dominica, and Rhynchohelea, type-
species monilicornis n. sp. from California and Florida. Two species are
transferred to Baeohelea: (new combinations) Ceratopogon bourioni
Clastrier 1961 and C. fuscipennis Tokunaga 1964. Brachypogon is re-
stored to generic rank and characterized, and in it are included (newcom-
binations) : Ceratopogon africanus de Meillon 1929, C. bergensis de Meil-
lon and Hardy 1953, C. corius de Meillon and Hardy 1954, Palpomyia
fuscivenosa Lutz 1914, Ceratopogon impar Johannsen 1938, C. insuli-
cola Tokunaga 1959, C. novaguineae Tokunaga 1964, C. papuensis Tokun-
aga 1964, C. petersi Tokunaga 1964, C. sensegalensis de Meillon and Wirth,
1955, C. sitius de Meillon 1959, and C. vitiosus Winnertz 1852. Brachy-
pogon fuscivenosus Lutz is redescribed and B. paraensis n. sp. is described
from Brazil.

The genus Ceratopogon Meigen and its relatives in the tribe Ceratopo-
gonini have remained in a state of confusion ever since the original all-
inclusive genus Ceratopogon was subdivided by Kieffer (1906, 1919, 1925),
Goetghebuer (1920) Goetghebuer & Lenz (1934), and Edwards (1926).
In the generic treatments by Edwards (1926), Goetghebuer & Lenz (1934),
Macfie (1940), Johannsen (1943), and Wirth (1952), the tribe Ceratopo-
gonini has grown to include the genera or subgenera Alluaudomyia
Kieffer, Anakempia Kieffer, Brachypogon, Kieffer, Ceratopogon Meigen,
Fanthamia de Meillon, Isohelea Kieffer, Nilohelea Kieffer, and Psilohelea
Kieffer. Macfie (1940) recognized five genera in this group in two divisions:
those with patterned, hairy wings, and unequal hind tarsal claws in the fe-
male (Alluaudomyia and Fanthamia), and those with unmarked bare wings
and equal tarsal claws (Ceratopogon, Isohelea, and Brachypogon). Following
Edwards (1926), the classification of the latter group was based on the
extent of wing vein M2, it being entire in Ceratopogon, broadly inter-
rupted at the base in Isohelea, and absent in Brachypogon. De Meillon in
a series of papers (1929, 1939, 1953, 1954, 1959) kept pointing out the
serious shortcomings of this system, and it was finally more or less aban-
doned in recent papers by Clastrier (1961) and Tokunaga (1964) who rec-
ognized only the genus Ceratopogon in this group.
Work by the present authors and Dr. Niphan Ratanaworabhan is pro-
gressing on a world-wide classification And key to the genera of the
Ceratopogonidae. In the tribe Ceratopogonini we will not use the extent

1This investigation was supported in part by. U. S. Army Medical
Department Contract No. DA-49-193-MD-2177.
2Male address: c/o U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 2

of vein M1 as a generic character, but will rely more on the condition
of the radial cells, the separation of the eyes, various other modifications
of the head, palpus and antenna, on the structure of the male and female
genitalia, and to a lesser degree on wing macrotrichia and modifications of
the tarsal claws. We are now describing two new genera and presenting
a revised definition of Brachypogon in preparation for the broader and
briefer treatment to be followed in the comprehensive paper.
We are greatly indebted to Dr. Niphan Ratanaworabhan and Miss Linda
Heath for making the illustrations.





Fig. 1, Baeohelea nana: a, female antenna; b, male antenna; c, female
palpus; d, female wing; e, female head; f, male head; g, femora and
tibiae (left to right) of fore, mid, and hind legs; h, hind tibial comb; i,
female tarsi (left to right) of fore, mid, and hind legs; j, female fifth
tarsomere and claws (left to right) of fore, mid, and hind legs; k, fe-
male spermatheca; 1, male genitalia.



Wirth: New Ceratopogonini

Baeohelea, new genus (Fig. 1)
Type-species, Baeohelea nana, new species.
Head (Fig. le) : Eyes broadly separated, with fine, short, interface-
tal hairs. Female frons with a submedian pair of low, tuberculate swel-
lings just above antennal bases. Female antenna (Fig. la) 15-segmented;
third segment elongate, provided with 4-5 sensory pits bordered by short
setae; segments 4-10 short oval, 11-12 long oval, 13-15 more elongate and
tapering; verticils short. Male antenna (Fig. Ib) 7-10 segmented, the distal
2-4 segments much elongated, plume absent but segments provided with
sparse, long verticils. Palpus (Fig. Ic) 2-segmented, the first (primitive
third) swollen, with a few spoon-shaped sensilla borne on mesal surface
near base; second segment slender. Proboscis greatly reduced, scarcely
extending below ventral head margin; mandible vestigial.
Thorax broad, relatively flattened above, humeral pits not apparent.
Legs (Fig. Ig) slender, without special armature or strong bristles; hind
tibial comb (Fig. Ih) with 4 spines, a distinct spur present. Tarsi (Fig.
li) without spines or armature, segments slender; claws of female (Fig. Ij)
short, sharp, nearly straight, each provided with a short, hairlike, basal
barb; male claws similar to those of female.
Wing (Fig. Id) short and broad, distally rounded, anal angle reduced;
costa reaching about two-fifths of wing length; radial cells obsolete, the
radius somewhat thickened near costa; vein M2 complete nearly to base
of medial fork; sparse, rather long macrotrichia present on distal fifth of
Abdomen: Short and slender; female genital opening without spe-
cial armature. Spermatheca (Fig. 1k) single, spherical, without neck, the
opening of the duct broad. Male genitalia (Fig. 1L) quite small and
poorly developed; ninth sternum a narrow ribbon; ninth tergum short and
rounded, slightly bilobed without apicolateral processes; basistyle moder-
ately broad, simple; dististyle slender, curved, with pointed tip; aedeagus in
form of a high arch with the distal end broad and somewhat truncate;
parameres not developed.

Baeohelea nana, new species

Female.-Wing 0.58 mm long. Thorax brown subshining; abdomen
with 2 proximal segments whitish, distal segments dull brownish black;
legs pale; wing glassy clear; halter pale. Antenna with lengths of flagella
segments in proportion of 25-10-12-12-12-12-12-12-20-20-25-25-42. Costa
extending to 0.41 of wing length. Spermatheca measuring 0.034 mm in
Male.-Similar to the female with differences as noted above. Wing
0.50 mm long; costa extending to 0.37 of wing length. Antenna 7-seg-
mented, lengths of flagellar segments in proportion of 26-60-50-55-60;
fourth segment (see Fig. Ib) frequently divided just past the basal swel-
ling bearing the verticils. Genitalia as in Fig. 1L.
Distribution.-Colombia, Dominica, Eucador.
Types.-Holotype female, Pont Casse, Dominica, 2000 ft., 12 February
1965, W. W. Wirth, rain forest (Type no. 70647, USNM). Allotype male,
Fond Figues River, Dominica, 13 March 1965, W. W. Wirth, light trap.
Paratypes, 15 males, 10 females, as follows:

The Florida Entomologist

COLOMBIA: Rio Raposo, Valle, March-August 1964, V. H. Lee, light
trap, 4 males, 1 female.
DOMINICA: Dleau Gommier, 15 February 1956, W. W. Wirth, stream
margin, 1 male, 1 female; Fond Figues River, January-March 1965, W. W.
Wirth, rain forest, 12 males, 6 females; Freshwater Lake, 21 January 1965,
W. W. Wirth, 1 male, 1 female.
ECUADOR: Linje Chimborazo, July 1955, R. Levi-Castillo, 1 male, 1
female; Pambay, Napo Pastaza, March 1956, R. Levi-Castillo, 6 males.
Discussion. In Dominica, Baeohelea nana is confined to the rain forest
at an elevation of about 2000 ft. or above. In its appearance it greatly
resembles the small chironomid midge Corynoneura Winnertz and some of
the small parasitic Hymenoptera. Its habits and breeding place are un-
The genus Baeohelea stands somewhat between Alluaudomyia and
Brachypogon, but it has become greatly specialized and in many ways
degenerated. The structure of the female antenna, the hyaline wing with
reduced radial cells and scanty macrotrichia, and slender legs are remindful
of Alluaudomyia of the parva group. The absence of radial cells and
general structure of the male genitalia are similar to Brachypogon. The
extreme reduction of the palpus and proboscis, the female tarsal claws, and
the male antenna are unique in the Ceratopogonini. The generic name is
taken from the Greek: baeo (tiny) +heleia (marsh dweller).
Ceratopogon bourioni Clastrier (1961) from France and C. fuscipennis
Tokunaga (1964) from New Guinea are referred to Baeohelea (NEW
COMBINATIONS) on the basis of their male and female antennal seg-
mentation, palpal segmentation, similar head structure, including the wide
eye separation and reduced proboscis, small simple tarsal claws, and all
features of the male genitalia. These two species are very similar to each
other and quite set apart from B. nana, however, in the presence of a small
but complete second radial cell and of coarse microtrichia in the wing, and
in the persence of 2 female spermathecae. In these two species the male
antenna is 9 or 10-segmented and only the distal 2 or 3 segments are
moderately to much elongated.

Rhynchohelea, new genus (Fig. 2)

Type-species, Rhynchohelea monilicornis, new species.
A small, stocky, black midge with bicolored legs and bare, smoky wings.
Known only from the female.
Head (Fig. 2d) : Eyes broadly separated, the arcuate line separating
frons and vertex sharply demarcated and bordered by 3 setae on vertex;
eyes with long interfacetal hairs. Clypeus broad; head bearing an elongate
proboscis with apex broadly truncate and armed with several strong hooks
and spines. Antenna (Fig. 2a) 14-segmented, moniliform, segments 7-11
slightly broader than long, 14 as long as 12-13 together, with blunt pointed
tip; 3 short and scarcely expanded, provided with a sensory pit bordered
by short setae; verticils very short. Palpus (Fig. 2b) 5-segmented, first
segment indistinct, third segment very short and broad, bearing a small,
deep, sensory pit. Mandible (Fig. 2e) well developed with about 8 distal
Thorax moderately broad and convex; mesonotum provided with scat-

Vol. 53, Nuo. 2

Wirth: New Ceratopogonini


C: j


S .........C



Fig. 2, Rhynchohelea monilicornis, female: ..a, antenna; b, palpus; c,
wing; d, head; e, mandible; f, femora and tibiae (left to right) of fore,
mid, and hind legs; g, hind tibial comb; h, tarsi (left to right) of fore, mid,
and hind legs; i, fifth tarsomere and claws (left to right) of fore, mid,
and hind legs; j. spermathecae.

tered, erect, moderately long hairs; scutellum with 2 pairs of marginal
hairs. Legs (Fig. 2f) short and moderately stout, without special arma-
ture or long bristles; hind tibial comb (Fig. 2g) with 8 spines, the spur
quite small. Tarsi (Fig. 2h) with some sharp ventral spines, more prom-
inent on mid legs; basitarsi elongate, as long as next 3 tarsomeres com-
bined, distal tarsomeres short, fourth not condiform, fifth unarmed ven-
trally; claws (Fig. 2i) sharp and slightly curved, without basal barb,
moderately long on foreleg, short on mid and hind pairs.


The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 2

Wing (Fig. 2c) short and broad, bluntly rounded distally, anal angle
reduced; costa reaching to less than half of wing length; radial cells
obsolete, the fused radial veins forming a distinct stigma; vein M1 obsolete
distally, vein M2 entirely absent, mediocubital fork at same level as end of
costa; macrotrichia absent; microtrichia coarse and dark, but forming a
distinct pale line in middle of medial cell.
Abdomen: Short and rounded distally; genital opening without special
armature. Spermathecae (Fig. 2j) 2, oval, with short, slender necks (3
present in the paratype).

Rhynchohelea monilicornis, new species

Female.-Wing 0.52 mm long. Head, thorax, and abdomen dark brown;
antenna brown, palpus yellow; foreleg yellow except dark knee spot;
and hind legs brownish, tarsi and bases of femora yellowish; wing smoky
grayish brown, radius forming a dark stigma; halter with dark brown
stem, the knob pale. Antenna with lengths of flagellar segments in pro-
portion of 12-10-10-10-9-8-8-9-9-10-10-23. Costa extending to 0.41 of wing
length. Spermathecae subequal, each measuring 0.030 by 0.024 mm.
Distribution.-California, Florida.
Types.-Holotype females, Torreya State Park, Liberty Co., Florida, 20
May 1966, H. V. Weems, light trap (Type no. 70648, USNM). One fe-
male paratype, Westmorland, Imperial Co., California, 6 April 1949, W. W.
Discussion.-The generic name is taken from the Greek: rhyncho
(nose, snout, muzzle) +heleia (marsh dweller). The striking feature of
this genus is the short, broadly truncate proboscis provided distally with
strong hooks and spines, and opposing this on each side, the well developed
palpus with greatly expanded third segment. The antenna is developed
similarly to that of many species of Brachypogon in which the segments
are reduced to 14 and the intermediate segments are reduced in size. The
wing is much like that of Brachypogon, with even greater reduction of the
media, and M1 becoming obsolete distally. The wing is superficially similar
to that of Baeohelea fuscipennis (Tokunaga) from New Guinea, but in
that species the second radial cell is distinct and the costa is much longer.

Genus Brachypogon Kieffer
Brachypogon Kieffer, 1899: 69. Type-species, Ceratopogon vitiosus Win-
nertz, by original designation.
Brachypogon has nearly unanimously been accepted as a subgenus of
Ceratopogon based upon the complete lack of vein M2 and the obsolescence
of the radial cells. A survey of the species which have been placed in
Brachypogon on the basis of these characters shows some important com-
mon features apart from the wing venation. The eyes are always
contiguous on the midline; the palpi are 5-segmented, the third bearing a
small deep pit; the antennae are 14 or 15-segmented, the intermediate
segments or the female usually reduced in size, and the male bearing a
plume; there is 1 spermatheca present; the male genitalia have the ninth
tergum tapering but without strong apicolateral processes; basistyles usu-

Wirth: New Ceratopogonini

ally rather stout; dististyles gradually curved and tapering; aedeagus a
simple, moderately broad, distally tapering plate with short basal arms;
parameres usually 2 moderate size submedian processes, sometimes fused
in an H-shaped or U-shaped piece. In the wing venation the absence of
radial cells due to the fusion of the branches of the radius is a constant
feature in Brachypogon as here defined, but the extent of vein M2 is use-
less, except that no Brachypogon species has it complete to the base. The
species of Baeohelea and Rhynchohelea which also lack radial cells and
vein M2 differ greatly from Brachypogon in having widely separated eyes,
reduced or highly modified proboscis and palpi, and the male genitalia with
very short ninth tergum, aedeagus with long anterior arms and broadly
rounded apex, and reduced parameres.
A complete description of the type-species B. vitiosus (Winnertz), has
never been made, and material is not available for its description here.
As an example of the genus the description and illustration of the fol-
lowing species is made in some detail, showing the generic features as
well as the specific characters.

Brachypogon parasensis, new species (Fig. 3)

Female.-Wing 0.95 mm long. A pale yellowish brown species; legs
pale yellow, knee spots brownish, hind tibia with median brownish band;
wing whitish with 3 prominent small brown anterior spots (on r-m cross-
vein, on end of costa and radius, and in middle of cell R5) and brown
streaks in cells M1 and M2 directly behind the spot in cell R5; halter pale.
Head (Fig. 3f) : Eyes contiguous on midline, with fine interfacetal
hairs. Antenna (Fig. 3a) long and slender, with lengths of flagellar seg-
ments in proportion of 23-15-15-15-16-18-20-20-30-35-40-35-35; distal sen-
sory pit present on third segment. Palpal segments (Fig. 3d) with lengths
in proportion of 10-15-30-15-25; third segment slightly swollen, 2.5 times
as long as broad, with a small, deep, round, sensory pit. Proboscis well
developed, elongate; mandible (Fig. 3g) with 7-8 large teeth.
Thorax: Moderately broad and convex; mesonotum with scattered,
moderately long hairs; scutellum with 4 marginal hairs. Legs (Fig. 3h)
moderately slender, with scattered short hairs; femora unarmed; hind ti-
bial comb (Fig. 3i) with 6 spines, spur small; tarsi (Fig. 3j) with a few
sharp ventral spines at apices of tarsomeres; fourth segment short and
simple, fifth slender; claws (Fig. 3k) long and slender, subequal, each with
small basal barb on inner side.
Wing (Fig. 3e) : Radial cells both obsolete; costa extending to 0.60 of
wing length; tips of costa and radius thickened forming a distinct stigma;
vein M1 slightly undulating, vein M2 obsolete at base; microtrichia in-
conspicuous, macrotrichia absent.
Abdomen: Yellowish; constricted distally from seventh to tenth
segment; eighth segment in form of a yellowish sclerotized ring. Sper-
matheca (Fig. 3m) single, obliquely ovoid, with short conical portion tap-
ering to duct, measuring 0.073 mm in both length and breadth.
Male.-Similar to the female with the usual sexual differences. Antenna
(Fig. 3b) with segments 3-13 fused, 13-15 with lengths in proportion of
53-44-50, 13-14 with long verticils; plume well developed. Palpus (Fig. 3c)
as in female. Claws (Fig. 3L) short and equal. Genitalia (Fig. 3n) with

100 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 53, No. 2


^' II

H I ( H


Fig. 3, Brachypogon paraensis: a, female antenna; b, male antenna;
c, male palpus; d, female palpus; e, female wing; f, female head; g, female
mandible; h, femora and tibiae (left to right) of fore, mid, and hind legs;
i, hind tibial comb; j, female tarsi (left to right) of fore, mid, and hind
legs; k, female fifth tarsomere and claws (left to right) of fore, mid, and
hind legs; 1, male fifth tarsomere claws (left to right) of fore, mid, and
hind legs; m, female spermatheca; n, male genitalia.
ninth sternum short and transverse; ninth tergum tapering abruptly to
rather narrow distal portion with bilobed apex. Basistyle moderately
stout, straight; dististyle long and slender, slightly curved, abruptly nar-
rowed and slightly bent distally with a sharp tip. Aedeagus with broad,
low basal arch, tapering to slender, blunt-pointed tip; a pair of strongly
sclerotized, pointed, submedian processes extending caudad from arch
about two-thirds way to tip. Parameres fused in a short, strongly

Wirth: New Ceratopogonini

sclerotized sclerite articulating at base with inner corners of basistyles
and distally with bases of the submedian dorsal processes of aedeagus, with
a slender median point extending caudally between the submedian dorsal
Types.-Holotype female, allotype male, 10 male, 15 female paratypes,
Mission Tiriyos, Rio Paru, Para, Brazil, 14 March 1962, E. J. Fittkau, at
light (Type no. 70649, USNM).
Discussion.-This species is closely related to B. fuscivenosus (Lutz)
with close agreement in wing venation, head structure including antennae
and palpi, and details of the legs and abdomen. Specific differences are
found in the number of antennal segments bearing sensory pits, the wing
markings, body color, shape of the spermatheca, and small details in the
structure of the male genitalia. Both species differ somewhat from other
Brachypogon species available for study in their long antennae, somewhat
more bristly legs, and longer and more perpendicular r-m cross-vein.

Brachypogon fuscivenosus (Lutz), NEW COMBINATION (Fig. 4)

Palpomyia fuscivenosa Lutz, 1914: 94 (Male, female; Brazil; Fig. wing);
Floch and Abonnenc, 1942: 4 (French Guiana; Fig. wing, palpus).
Parabezzia fuscivenosa (Lutz; Lane, 1945: 370 (types redescribed; Bra-
zil; Fig. male genitalia).
Female.-Wing 0.96 mm long. A dull grayish brown species, mesono-
tum heavily greenish-gray dusted; legs yellowish, knee spots blackish, mid
and hind coxae, trochanters, femora, tibiae, and tarsi brown; wing (Fig. 4c)
whitish, with deeply infuscated lines along veins and 2 prominent dark
brownish spots, one covering 4-m crossvein and the other across the swol-
len apex of costa and radius and extending caudad about a third-way across
cell R5. Eyes continuous, with long interfacetal hairs. Antenna (Fig.
4a) with lengths of flagellar segments in proportion of 30-20-20-20-20-
20-20-20-30-32-38-40-40, distal sensory pits present on segments 3-6. Pal-
pal segments (Fig. 4b) with lengths in proportion of 10-25-31-23-25; third
segment moderately swollen, 1.7 times as long as greatest breadth, with a
moderately large, round, shallow, sensory pit. Mandible with 8 teeth.
Legs moderately stout, with scattered, short, stout, stiff, erect bristles;
hind tibial comb with 8-9 spines; claws long and curved, 0.6 as long as
fifth tarsomere, each with prominent internal barb at base. Wing (Fig.
4c) with costa extending to 0.60 of wing length; radial cells obsolete, end
of costa and radius greatly thickened, forming a prominent stigma; r-m
cross-vein unusually long and nearly perpendicular, vein M2 obsolete at
extreme tip and for about proximal fourth of its length; macrotrichia
absent. Halter pale. Abdomen grayish brown; eighth segment heavily
sclerotized on sternum with an angular posterior median cleft. Sperma-
theca (Fig. 4d) single, subspherical with a long subconical neck, measur-
ing 0.095 + 0.022 (neck) by 0.086 mm (some Panama specimens with the
neck quite slender).
Male.-Similar to the female with the usual sexual differences; antennal
segments 3-13 fused, segments, 13-15 with lengths in proportion of 70-55-
53; plume well developed. Genitalia (Fig. 4f) large and heavily sclero-
tized; ninth tergum tapering with a bluntly truncated apex; basistyle

102 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 53, No. 2


B /
:, "' "'' \


Fig. 4, Brachypogon fuscivenosus: a, female antenna; b, female palpus;
c, female wing; d, spermatheca; e, male aedeagus; f, male genitalia,
aedeagus removed.

moderately stout, not curved; dististyle moderately stout, nearly straight,
apical portion with cancavity on inner side, with bent, slender tip. Aede-
agus (Fig. 4e) about 2.5 times as long as broad, basal arms short and
stout, only slightly diverging, basal arch rounded, main portion tapering
to a bluntly rounded point, ventral surface wrinkled, dorsal side provided
with a semi-hyaline sheath with pointed apex slightly surpassing tip of
aedeagus proper. Mesal side of ninth tergum distally with a large, quad-
rate, strongly sclerotized thickening with anterior margin notched to fit
the base of the U-shaped parameres.
Distribution.-Florida, Mexico, Panama, French Guiana, Brazil, Ja-
maica, Virgin Islands.
Specimens Examined.-
FLORIDA: Everglades city, Collier Co., February 1949, June 1950,
Davidson, light trap, 18 specimens; Key Largo, Monroe Co., 30 May 1950,
Buderus, light trap, 2 females, 16 March 1965, S. Kemp, light trap, 3 males;
Lake Worth, 9 August 1951, W. W. Wirth, light trap, 1 female; Longboat
Key, Manatee Co., 27 April 1956, light trap, 1 male; Palm Beach Co., Au-
gust 1953, E. L. Seabrook, light trap, 1 female; Sanibel Island, Lee Co.,
24 April 1956, Woodring, light trap, 1 female; Vero Beach, April 1956, 1959,
October 1958, Ent. Res. Center, light trap, 11 males, 36 females.
JAMAICA: Duncans, 25 February 1958, D. J. Lewis, 1 female; Runa-
way Bay, February 1969, W. W. Wirth, light trap, 1 female.
MEXICO: Cozumal, Espirito Santo Bay, 5 April 1960, J. F. G. Clarke,
2 females; Quintano Roo, Puento de Morelo, June 1961, light trap, 1 fe-
PANAMA: Almirante, Bocas del Toro Prov., April 1953, F. S. Blanton,
light trap, 1 female; Chame, Panama Prov., 3 April 1951, F. S. Blanton,
light trap, 2 females; Fort Knobbe, Camaron, C. Z., 23 June 1952, F. S.
Blanton, light trap, 7 males, 6 females; France Field, C. Z., 22 April 1952,
F. S. Blanton, light trap, 1 male, 1 female; Galeta Point, C. Z., 15 Sep-

Wirth: New Ceratopogonini

tember 1958, S. Breeland, emergence trap, 1 male, 1 female, 26 August
1952, F. S. Blanton, light trap, 2 males, 2 females; Garachine, Darien Prov.,
February 1963, F. S. Blanton, light trap, 2 males; Mojinga Swamp, Fort
Sherman, C. Z., January 1953, F. S. Blanton, light trap, 1 female; Patino
Pt., Darien Prov., 21 July 1952, F. S. Blanton, light trap, 1 male, 2
VIRGIN ISLANDS: Lameshur Bay, St. John, 5 September 1961, R. W.
Williams, emergence trap, 2 males, 2 females.

List of Species of Genus Brachypogon Kieffer

africanus (de Meillon) 1929:248 (Ceratopogon, subgenus Brachypogon)
Transvaal (Fig. wing, male genitalia; male only). N. COMB.
bergensis (de Meillon and Hardy) 1953:26 (Ceratopogon) Cape Prov., S.
Africa (male; Fig. wing, hind leg, aedeagus, parameres). N. COMB.
corius (de Meillon and Hardy) 1954:69 (Ceratopogon) Cape Prov., S.
Africa (male; Fig. wing, genitalia). N. COMB.
fuscivenosus (Lutz) 1914:94 (Palpomyia) Brazil (male, female; Fig.
wing). N. COMB.
impar (Johannsen) 1938:223 (Ceratopogon, subg. Brachypogon) Puerto
Rico (female). N. COMB.
insulicola (Tokunaga) 1959:350 (Ceratopogon, subg. Brachypogon) Caro-
line Islands (female; Fig. antenna, palpus, wing, spermatheca). N.
novaguineae (Tokunaga) 1964:294 (Ceratopogon) New Guinea (male, fe-
male; Fig. antennae, palpi, wings of male and female, male genitalia).
papuensis (Tokunaga) 1964:296 (Ceratopogon) New Guinea (male female;
Fig. male, female antennae, female palpus, wing, male genitalia). N.
paraensis Wirth and Blanton, new species, Brazil (male, female; Figs.).
petersi (Tokunaga) 1964:293 (Ceratopogon), New Guinea (male, Fig.
antenna, palpus, wing, genitalia). N. COMB.
senegalensis (de Meillon and Wirth) 1955: 275 (Ceratopogon, subg.
Brachypogon) Senegal (male, Fig. genitalia). N. COMB.
sitius (de Meillon) 1959:345 (Ceratopogon, subg. Brachypogon) Natal
(male; Fig. genitalia). N. COMB.
vitiosus (Winnertz) 1852:49 (Ceratopogon) Europe (male, female; Fig.
wings, male palpus).


Clastrier, J. 1961. Notes sur les Ceratopogonides XV. Ceratopogon et
Alluaudomyia de la Region Palearctique. Arch Inst. Pasteur de'Al-
g6rie 39: 401-440.
de Meillon, B. 1929. Some ceratopogoninhe from the transvaal. Trans.
Entomol. Soc. London 77:245-249.
de Meillon, B. 1939. A new sub-genus of Ceratopogon. Ruwenzori Ex-
ped., 1934-35, 1 (5). Ceratopogonidae. Appx., p. 103-107.
de Meillon, B. 1959. Diptera (Nematocera) Ceratopogonidea. S. Afr.
Animal Life 6:325-355.
de Meillon, B., and F. Hardy 1952. New records and species of biting in-

104 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 53, No. 2

sects from the Ethiopian Region-IV. J. Entomol. Soc. S. Afr.
de Meillon, B. and F. Hardy 1954. New records and species of biting
insects from the Ethiopian Region. V. J. Entomol. Soc. S. Afr.
de Meillon, B., and W. W. Wirth 1955. A new species of Ceratopogon
from West Africa (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae). Proc. Entomol.
Soc. Washington 57:275-276.
Edwards, F. A. 1926. On the British biting midges (Diptera, Cerato-
pogonidae). Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 74:389-426, 3 plates.
Floch, H., and E. Abonnenc 1942. Ceratopogonides divers de la Guyane
Francaise III. Inst. Pasteur Guyanne et Terr. I'Inini publ. 55, 6 pp.
Goetghebuer, M. 1920. Ceratopogoninae de Belgique. Mem. Mus. Roy.
Hist. Nat. Belgique 8:1-116.
Goetghebuer, M., and F. Lenz 1933, 1934. Heleidae (Ceratopogonidae).
In Lindner, Flieg. Pal. Reg. Fam. 13, 77:1-48 (1933); 78:49-133
(1934), 12 pl.
Johannsen, O. A. 1938. New species of Nemocera from Puerto Rico. J.
Agr. Univ. Puerto Rico 22:219-225.
Johannsen, O. A. 1943. A generic synopsis of the Ceratopogonidae
(Heleidae) of the Americas, a bibliography, and a list of the North
American species. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 36:763-791.
Kieffer, J. J. 1899. Description d'un nouveau genre et tableau des genres
europ&ens de la famille des Chironomid6s. Bull. Soc. Entomol.
France p. 66-70.
Kieffer, J. J. 1906. Diptera, Fam. Chironomidae. In Wytsman, Genera
Insectorum, fasc. 42, 78 p.
Kieffer, J. J. 1919. Chironom;des d'Europe conserves au mused national
hongrois de Budapest. Ann. Mus. Nat. Hungarici 17:1-131.
Kieffer, J. J. 1925. Faune de France. DiptBres (Nematoceres piqueurs):
Ch-ronomides Ceratopogoninae. Paris Lechavalier 11:1-138.
Lane, J. 1945. Redescricio de Ceratopogonideos Neotropicos. (Diptera:
Ceratopogonidae). Rev. de Ent. 16:357-372.
Lutz, A. 1914. Contribuicao para o conhecimento das "Ceratopogon-
inas" do Brasil. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 6:81-99, 2 pl.
Macfie, J. W. S. 1940. The genera of Ceratopogonidae. Ann. Trop.
Med. Parasit. 34:13-30.
Tokunaga, M. 1964. Biting midges of the genus Ceratopogon from
New Guinea (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Pacific Insects 6:292-299.
Tokunaga, M., and E. K. Murachi 1959. Diptera: Ceratopogonidae. In-
sects of Micronesia 12:103-434.
Winnertz, J. 1952. Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Gattung Ceratopogon Mei-
gen. Linnaea Ent. 6:1-80, 8 pl.
Wirth, W. W. 1952. The Heleidae of California. Univ. California
Pubs. Entomol 9:95-266.

The Florida Entomologist 53 (2) 1970



University of Florida, IFAS, Everglades Experiment Station,
Belle Glade


After a dozen years corn stem weevil continues as an economic pest in
the Everglades. While standard phosphatic soil insecticide treatments in-
dicated reasonable commercial control, all experimental phosphate and
carbamate insecticides tested as foliar and soil treatments showed great
promise. The following materials looked particularly effective: carbo-
furan; R-2596, 0-ethyl-S-p-chlorophenyl ethylphosphonodithioate; UC-
34096, 4-([(dimethylamino) methyline]amino) -m-tolyl methylcarbamate;
Fundal, N,N-dimethyl-N'-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenyl) formamidine hydro-
chloride; Gardona, 2-chloro-l- (2,4,5-trichlorophenyl) vinyl dimethyl phos-
phate; VCS-506, 0,2,5-dichloro-4-bromophenyl-0-0-methylphenylthiophos-
phonate; Monitor, 0-S-dimethyl phosphoramidithioate; Lannate, S-methyl
N-[(methylcarbamoyl) oxy] thioacetimidate; Ortho Bux, m-(l-ethylpro-
pyl) phenyl methylcarbamate mixture (1-4) with m-(1-methyl=butyl)
phenyl methylcarbamate; and Dursban, 0,0-diethyl 0-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-
pyridyl) phosphorothioate.

Although the corn stem weevil, Hyperodes humilis (Gyllenhal), a
widely occurring curculionid, is reported by Blatchley and Leng (1916) to
range from Newfoundland and Quebec to Montana and thence south to
Kansas and Mississippi, the species is recognized as an economic pest only
on the organic soils area of the Everglades, where it made its debut as an
injurious species over a decade ago. More recent grower reports of dam-
age on Florida sandy soils in the Immokalee and Devils Garden areas and
on similar soils on the Lower East Coast are to be investigated. The au-
thors recently (1969) described the damage and discussed the current
status and control of this insect as a pest of sweet corn. The previous eco-
nomic literature, consisting entirely of the work of E. D. Harris and Harris
and J. R. Orsenigo, was reviewed at that time. The present paper gives re-
sults of the authors' experimental control of corn stem weevil obtained
since their previous (1969) report.


Corn stem weevil control was considered an important aspect of 2 ex-
periments conducted during the spring of 1969. These were: 1) a general
sweet corn (Florigold variety) insect spray trial, and 2) a general subter-
ranean insect control test with field corn (Funk 5945) as the test crop. The
tests were randomized complete block design' experiments. Plots were 25

'University of Florida, IFAS, Experiment Stations Journal Series No.
2Research aided by grants-in-aid from Shell Chemical Co., Chevron
Chemical Co., and Niagara Chemical Division.

106 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 53, No. 2

ft. long, 4 rows (3ft. between rows) wide and separated by alleyways on
all sides.
The spray trial had 10 spray treatments, 1 granular systemic (Furadan)
soil treatment and 2 checks. One check like all the spray treatments had a
broadcast application of Niran (methyl-ethyl parathion) 6-3 E at 4 lb/acre
disked in for wireworm control. The other check was untreated. The treat-
ments were replicated 5 times. The corn was planted February 26; results
were taken March 26-27 after 2 weeks of sprays-3 per week. The insecti-
cides, formulations, and amounts of active material applied/acre/applica-
tion are given with results in Table 1.



UC 34096
C 9491
VCS 506
Check No. 1
Check No. 2

75 WP
75 WP
100 SP
50 WP
98 SP
10 Gt
50 WP
90 SP
90 SP

- Untreated

Lb. AI/acre % injury
free plants**

1.0 100 a
1.0 100 a
1.0 100 a
1.5 99 a
0.5 99 a
4.0 99 a
1.0 99 a
1.0 99 a
1.0 97 a
0.5 97 a
0.25 93 ab
88 b
38 c

*Niran 6-3 applied broadcast prior to seeding, 4 lb/acre for wireworm control, on all sprayed
plots and check No. 1: Check No. 2 not treated.
**Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level using
Duncan's multiple range test.
fPlaced in soil in band prior to seeding.

In the subterranean insect trial all insecticides were applied in the row
in a single application on April 1, and the furrows covered within a few
minutes of application. The compounds tested were all in granular formu-
lations. The furrows were re-opened and the corn seed planted 1 week
later. Treatments were replicated 4 times. The materials used and
amounts of active ingredients applied per acre are given with results in
Table 2. These amounts were concentrated, in a 6-inch band in the row.
Chemical names of the newer proprietary compounds tested in these ex-
periments are:3

3Chemical names of UC-34096, VCS-506, and Monitor were from the re-
spective company sources; all others are from Eugene Kenaga and William
E. Allison, 1969, Commercial and Experimental Organic Insecticides, Bull.
Entomol. Soc. Amer. 15(2), 85-148.

Genung: Control of Corn Stem Weevil

Ciba C 9491-0-(2,5 dichloro-4-iodophenyl) 0,0-dimethyl phosphorothioate
Lannate-S-methyl N-[(methylcarbamoyl) oxy] thioacetimidate
UC-34096-4- ([ (dimethylamino) methyline] amino) -m-tolyl methylcarbamate
Gardona-2-chloro-l- (2,4,5-trichlorophenyl) vinyl dimethyl phosphate
Dursban-0-0-diethyl 0- (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothioate
Ortho Bux-m-(1-ethylpropyl) phenyl methylcarbamate mixture (1-4)
with m-(1 methyl =butyl) phenyl methylcarbamate
GS-13005-S-[ (2-methoxy-S-oxo-A-1,3,4-thiadiazolin-4-yl) methyl] 0,0-
dimethyl phosphorodithioate
Mocap-0-ethyl S,S-dipropyl phosphorodithioate
R-2596-0-ethyl-S-p-chlorophenyl ethylphosphonodithioate
Fundal, N,N-dimethyl-N'-(2 methyl-4-chlorophenyl) formamidine hydro-
Monitor-0-S-dimethyl phoshoramidithioate
Stem weevil counts were made on a 20-plant random sample per plot by
examination under a binocular microscope in the laboratory. The number
of plants with either eggs, mines, larvae, or pupae were recorded and the
percent, of infested plants determined.



Ortho Bux
Ortho Bux
Check untreated

Lb. AI/acre

% injury
free plants*

10 G
10 G
10 G
5 G
10 G
10 G
10 G
10 G
10 G
10 G
14 G

*Means followed by the same letter are not significantly
Duncan's multiple range test.

different at the 5% level using


The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 2

All insecticide treatments (including the treated check) in both experi-
ments were significantly better than the untreated checks at the 5% level
of significance, using Duncan's multiple range test (Tables 1 and 2). In
the spray test the percent injury free plants was very high ranging from
93 to 100%. The only granular treatment in the test (Furadan 10 G) was
in the same range of significance as the better treatments. These data are
shown in Table 1. Similarly, very good control was indicated by most of
the experimental compounds in the subterranean insect trial (Table 2).
High and low rates of most of these compounds were tried, and the higher
rates usually produced more undamaged plants. The standard, diazinon,
gave nearly 89% undamaged plants. Since the Niran treated check in the
spray trial gave an almost identical figure it can be concluded that standard
soil treatments for wireworm control result in considerable control of corn
stem weevil (Tables 1 and 2). Many new compounds used either as sprays
or granular soil applications show great promise for stem weevil control.
Blatchley, W. S., and C. W. Leng. 1916. Rhynchophora or weevils of
North Eastern America. 177 p. Nature Pub. Co. Indianapolis.
Janes, M. J., and W. G. Genung. 1969. The status and control of the corn
stem weevil in the Everglades. Fla. Entomol., 52: 137-40.
The Florida Entomologist 53(2) 1970


Complete Line of Insecticides, Fungicides and
Weed Killers
Ortho Division

Located at Fairvilla on Route 441 North

P. O. Box 7067


Phone 295-0451

Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Forest Service,
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forestry Sciences Laboratory,
Athens, Georgia
A leaf-footed bug, Leptoglossus corculus (Say), and the shield-back
bug, Tetyra bipunctata (H. + S.), feed on seeds of the major pine species
grown in seed orchards in the Southeast. Characteristics of the inconspic-
uous damage caused by these seed bugs are described, along with the use
of radiography to detect damage in mature seed. At least 82% as many
damaged seeds were detected on radiographs as could be detected in ocular
examination at 60X.

In my research on seed orchard insects the need arose for a simple, ac-
curate method of detecting inconspicuous seed damage by two sucking in-
sects: a leaf-footed bug, Leptoglossus corculus (Say) (Hemiptera: Corei-
dae), and the shield-back bug, Tetyra bipunctata (H. + S.) (Hemiptera:
Pentatomidae) (Fig. 1). Gilbert et al. (1967) studied the bionomics of T.
bipunctata in association with jack pine, Pinus banksiana Lamb., and sug-
gested that this species fed on developing pine seeds. DeBarr (1967) first





Or M

Fig. 1.-Left: adult of the leaf-footed bug, Leptoglossus corculus
(Say); right: adult of the shield-back bug, Tetyra bipunctata (H. + S.).



A' A L

The Florida Entomologist

reported that T. bipunctata and L. corculus damaged the seeds of slash
pine, P. elliottii Engelm., and longleaf pine, P. palustris Mill., in southern
pine seed orchards. Krugman and Koerber (1969) discussed the effects of
cone feeding by a related species, Leptoglossus occidentalis Heideman, on
development of seed in ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa Laws.). They em-
phasized the difficulty in detecting seed bug damage to immature seed.
This paper describes the characteristics of slash pine seed damage by
L. corculus and T. bipunctata, along with results of an evaluation of radi-
ography for detecting damage in mature seed.


Leptoglossus corculus and T. bipunctata are well adapted to feeding on
pine seeds. Their mouth parts consist of a long, slender proboscis contain-
ing a bundle of 4 interlocking, bristle-like stylets encased in a retractable
sheath. To reach a seed lying along the cone axis within a closed cone, the
insect inserts its stylet bundle through alternate layers of cone scales and
seed wings (Fig. 2). Punctured cone scales seldom exhibit external symp-

Fig. 2.-Longitudinal diagram of a slash pine cone showing how the
stylets of seed bugs penetrate alternate layers of cone scales and seed
wings to puncture seeds lying along the cone axis.

toms that might indicate the presence of damaged seeds within a cone.
Damaged seeds also lack conspicuous symptoms; the stylet puncture
hole in the seedcoat is the only visible external evidence of seed damage.
On a dark-colored seedcoat the damage often appears as a minute white
fleck, 0.29-+0.08 mm in diameter (Fig. 3a). This fleck is caused by partial
digestion of the seedcoat by the insect's saliva. Located in the center of
the fleck is a puncture hole, 0.06+0.01 mm in diameter (Fig. 3b). In some
cases, however, the puncture hole closes after the stylets are withdrawn. If
damage occurs before the seedcoat is completely developed, the hole is
difficult to detect.
Damage to the endosperm varies with the length of time the insect
feeds. When feeding is undisturbed, the entire endosperm can be reduced
to a shrunken remnant. If the insect withdraws its stylets shortly after
penetrating the seedcoat, only a small necrotic area develops in the endo-


Vol. 53, No. 2

DeBarr: Slash Pine Seed Bug Damage


Fig. 3a.-Slash pine seed with two minute flecks caused by saliva of T.

sperm beneath the puncture hole. But, even slight damage to the endo-
sperm may reduce the chance that a seed will germinate successfully. In
addition, the puncture hole in the seedcoat also provides an entrance port
for pathogens.

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 2

Fig. 3b.-Enlarged view of the flecks in fig. 3a showing holes where in-
sect's stylets penetrated the seedcoat.


Unopened, second-year cones of slash pine were collected from 2 trees
about 2 weeks prior to cone-maturity, and stored at 2 C. During a period
of 4 months these cones were periodically removed from cold storage and
used to maintain laboratory colonies of nymphs and adults of L. cor-
culus and T. bipunctata. The cones were placed in 1-gal. glass jars and
exposed to colonies of feeding insects for periods ranging from 7 to 28
days. Then the cones were removed and allowed to open fully; cones fail-
ing to open were dissected. The seeds from each cone were collected sep-
arately and stored in glass vials.
The seeds were glued in rows on sheets of white paper, which were
placed directly over ready packs of type AA industrial X-ray film. Expo-
sures were made with a Picker Industrial X-ray unit, Model No. 805D
at 15 KV, 3 ma, 6 sec. at a 30-inch focal-film distance.
Radiographs were evaluated on a small light box. Based on the radio-
graphic image (Fig. 4), each seed was classified as:
A. Sound-Endosperm undamaged: no necrotic areas; appeared a solid
B. Hollow-Seeds empty; no necrotic areas or collapsed endosperm;
trace of shriveled, aborted gametophyte present.
C. Damaged by seed bugs-Endosperm partially destroyed; often with
small, dark, necrotic areas; endosperm shrunken, partially collapsed, or
almost entirely missing.


DeBarr: Slash Pine Seed Bug Damage

Fig. 4.-Radiograph showing slash pine seeds that are sound (A), hol-
low (B), damaged by seed bugs (C), and damaged by seedworms (D).

D. Damaged by the slash pine seedworml-Endosperm destroyed;
packed with granular larval frass; frass often appeared as grey con-
centric rings.
To evaluate accuracy of the radiographic interpretations, each seedcoat
was examined ocularly using 60X magnification and determined to be:
1. Not damaged by insects-Seedcoat without a stylet puncture hole
or seedworm larval entrance or exit hole.
2. Damaged by seed bugs-Seedcoat with a stylet puncture hole.
3. Damaged by seedworms-Seedcoat with the characteristic seedworm
larval entrance or exit hole.
A total of 2,956 seeds from 62 cones exposed to the 2 laboratory insect
colonies was examined ocularly and radiographically. In addition, a ran-
dom sample of 10 slash pine cones was collected from an orchard where
L. corculus and T. bipunctata had been observed on numerous occasions.
The seeds were extracted and classified as described above. The radio-
graphic interpretations were then compared with the ocular examinations.

For cones exposed to the laboratory colonies, the radiographic tech-
nique provided 92% accuracy or better in 'distinguishing sound seeds, na-
turally hollow seeds, and seeds damaged by seed bugs or by seedworms.
Radiographic and ocular examinations yielded similar counts of seeds in
each category (Table 1).

1Laspeyresia anaranjada Miller (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae).

The Florida Entomologist



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The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 2

None of the seeds identified as sound on the radiographs exhibited
the puncture hole. On the radiographs, 948 seeds were classified as
damaged by seed bugs (Table 2). Ocular examination of these seeds
revealed that 1% was damaged by seedworms and 85% damaged by seed
bugs. The remaining 14% of the 948 seeds had no puncture holes.
These seeds were cut open; more than half had shrunken or collapsed
endosperms, many of which were covered with fungal mycelium.
Of the seeds classified as hollow on the basis of radiographs, 11% had
a puncture hole in their seedcoats. These seeds may have been severely
damaged by insects or could have been empty before the insects pene-
trated them.


Overall there was close congruity between the radiographic detection
of seed bug damage and ocular detection of damage. Ninety-one percent
of the seed damaged by seed bugs in the laboratory and 82% of those
damaged in the field were correctly distinguished on the radiographs.
Severely fed-upon seeds, or seeds damaged in the early stages of their
development are not always distinguishable from naturally hollow seeds.
Thus, estimates of seed bug damage based on radiographs of mature
seed are conservative. On radiographs, seedworm damage was easily dis-
tinguished from seed bug damage.
Mature slash pine seeds show no obvious external evidence of damage
by L. corculus and T. bipunctata. The minute stylet puncture hole in the
seedcoat is the only reliable visible indication of seed damage, and it can
only be observed by time-consuming scrutiny of each individual seedcoat
under considerable magnification. Although future studies are needed to
evaluate the extent of seed bug damage to immature seeds, radiography,
for the present, should prove to be a valuable tool for forest entomologists
involved in damage surveys and in research on sucking insects destroying
pine seeds. It can be used in slash pine seed orchards and production areas
as a survey method to scan quickly large samples of seed and detect seed
bug damage. In addition, it should provide researchers with an efficient
method of evaluating the effectiveness of insecticides for seed bug control
in orchards because of the rapidity with which the presence of damaged
seed can be detected.


Special appreciation is expressed to Harry 0. Yates III, Principal Ento-
mologist, and William Lewis, Biological Aid, Forest Service, USDA, Fores-
try Sciences Laboratory, Athens, Georgia, for their assistance in making


DeBarr, G. L. 1967. Two new sucking insect pests of seed in southern
pine seed orchards. Southeast. Forest Exp. Sta., U.S. Forest Serv.
Res. Note SE-78, 3 p.

Gilbert, B. L., S. J. Barras, and D. M. Norris. 1967. Bionomics of Tetyra


DeBarr: Slash Pine Seed Bug Damage 117

bipunctata (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Scutellerinae) as associated
with Pinus banksiana in Wisconsin. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 60:
Krugman, Stanley L., and Thomas W. Koerber. 1969. Effect of cone feed-
ing by Leptoglossus occidentalis on ponderosa pine seed develop-
ment. Forest Sci. 15: 104-111.
The Florida Entomologist 53(2) 1970












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Chief of Entomology, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville
32601, and Entomologist, University of Florida Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred 33850, respectively


A second specimen of Ricoseius loxocheles (De Leon) has been found,
redescribed and illustrated to correct errors in the original description.
This specimen is from Brazil.

The late Dr. Donald De Leon (1965: 128) described a most unusual
phytoseiid, Amblyseius (Ricoseius) loxocheles De Leon, on Cordia al-
liodora from Puerto Rico. Muma and Denmark (1968:233) elevated
Ricoseius to generic status. Recently a second specimen of R. loxocheles
was collected by Dr. Carlos Flechtmann from Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
The holotype is badly damaged and poorly oriented, resulting in errors of
interpretation of setal number and position by De Leon (1965), and Muma
and Denmark (1968).
The description and drawings in this paper are of the Brazilian speci-
men and are presented to correct previous errors. Body length and width,
length of setae, and profile of spermatheca of the Brazilian female vary
somewhat from those of the holotype, but these are believed of no specific
Unusual characteristics of this genus are 3 pairs of scapular setae,
form and position of ventrolateral and caudal setae, very long and knobbed-
setaceous dorsal setae, and the number and position of knobbed-bacillate to
knobbed-setaceous leg setae.
Generic diagnosis: Females (Fig. 1) characterized by 4 pairs of dorsal
setae with D, and D4 very long and knobbed-setaceous; 2 pairs of median
setae with M2 very long and knobbed-setaceous; 9 pairs of lateral setae
with most very long and knobbed-setaceous; 3 pairs of scapular setae on
the interscutal membrane with all knobbed-setaceous, verticals knobbed-
setaceous; 3 pairs of sternal setae; 3 pairs of preanal setae; 1 or more
knobbed bacillate or knobbed-setaceous setae on genu I to IV; similar
setae on the femur, tibia, and tarsus of leg IV, the tibia of legs I and
II, and femur of leg III. Setae in the positions of Sge I and Sge II are
2,2 2,2
not macrosetae. Genu II formula is 2- -1 and genu III is 1- -- -1
00 1
(terminology follows Evans 1963). Tarsus, I has 3 bacillate setae with
the proximal one being the shortest. It is a typical amblyseiine with 4
pairs of laterals well anterior to D,

1Contribution No. 170, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant In-
dustry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
2Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series no. 3529.

The Florida Entomologist

1 /
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Fig. 1: Female. A. dorsal and leg structure and station; B. ventral
scuta and station; C. genital scuta and station; D. ventrianal scutum
and station; E. posterior peritremal and stigmatal development; F. sper-
mathecal structure showing variation, figure on the right is of holotype; G.
cheliceral structure; H. genu leg I; I. tibia leg I; J. tarsus leg I
with enlarged bacillate setae; K. genu leg II; L. genu leg III; M. genu
leg IV.

Species diagnosis: Female. Dorsal scutum smooth, 361 long and
236/ wide at L4. Sternum slightly wider than long, smooth, and lo-
bate posteriorly. Genital scutum longer than wide and slightly creased.
Ventrianal scutum longer than wide, slightly creased with a pair of pores,
and with 3 pairs of preanal setae. Peritremes long, extending forward to
between L1 and verticals. Stigmatal scutum with one distinguishable sec-
ondary pore. Chelicerae medium; fixed fingers with 10 to 12 denticules;
movable fingers with 2 denticules. Legs ranked in size: 4123.
Male: Unknown.
Specimens examined: Female holotype,' Cayey Mt., Puerto Rico, 28
August 1963 (D. De Leon), on Cordia alliodora in the Museum of Com-
parative Zoology, Harvard; 1 female, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil, Sep-
tember 1966 (Carlos Flechtmann), on Morus alba L.
Discussion: Nothing is known about the biology or food habits.
The Brazilian host plant was re-examined by Dr. Flechtmann, but no
other specimens were found.


Vol. 53, No. 2

Denmark: Ricoseius loxocheles

De Leon, Donald. 1965. Phytoseiid mites from Puerto Rico with descrip-
tions of new species (Acarina: Mesostigmata). Fla. Entomol. 48:
Muma, Martin H. and H. A. Denmark. 1968. Some generic descriptions
and name changes in the family Phytoseiidae (Acarina: Mesostig-
mata). Fla. Entomol. 51: 229-240.
Evans, G. 0. 1963. Observations on the chaetotaxy of the legs in the
free-living Gamasina (Acari: Mesostigmata). Bull. British Mus.
(Nat. Hist.) Zool. 10(5): 277-303.
The Florida Entomologist 53(2) 1970





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The 52nd Annual Meeting of The Florida Entomological Society was
held at the Sheraton Hotel, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, on 10-12 September
1969. A pre-meeting "Bull Session" of selected topics was held the eve-
ning of the 10th with Dr. L. C. Kuitert as Moderator.
President John B. O'Neil opened the convention at 9:00 AM on 11 Sep-
tember. Thirty-one papers were presented. Registrations at the meeting
totalled 149.
The first business meeting was called to order at 11:30 AM on 11
September. Over 100 members were present.
The minutes of the 51st Annual Meeting were presented by the Secre-
tary as published in Vol. 52, No. 1 of The Florida Entomologist. The
minutes were approved as read.
President O'Neill appointed the following committees:
Resolutions: Leland A. Davis
Dale H. Habeck
Willard H. Whitcomb, Chairman
Auditing: Harry H. Samol
Ralph B. Workman
Robert E. Waites, Chairman
The meeting was adjourned at 12:00 noon.
The final business meeting was convened by President O'Neil at 10:55
AM on 12 September. Approximately 50 members were present.

At the present time there are 400 memberships in our Society: 309 in
Florida; 200 institutional subscriptions, 27 in Florida, making a total of at
least 600 parties interested in our Society.
The Florida Enomologist is sent to 328 locations in Florida, 82 more
elsewhere in the Southeastern United States. Copies go to every state
except Vermont and Alaska, and it is sent to 14 countries in Central and
South America and the Caribbean. A total of 43 countries around the
world receive it.
Our committee suggests to next years' committee that if an application
for membership were included with an early issue of The Florida Entomol-
ogist, perhaps this would encourage recruitment.
D. L. Bailey
R. C. Bullock
D. B. Lieux
R. A. Crossman, Jr., Chairman

The Florida Entomological Society through its committee of G. W.
Dekle, A. N. Tissot, and D. O. Wolfenbarger, Chairman, extended honors
to Dr. William Louden "Tommy" Thompson of Lake Alfred, Florida. Dr.
Thompson was unable to attend the 52nd Annual Meeting, so Dr. Martin
H. Muma was asked to accept the plaque for Dr. Thompson and present it
to him later at an appropriate time. This was done during November 1969
in ceremonies at the University of Florida Citrus Experiment Station at
Lake Alfred. Dr. Muma, a fellow entomologist at the Experiment Station,
presented the plaque in the presence of thrpe others who were Dr. Thomp-
son's colleagues in entomological research work, Drs. R. F. Brooks, R. B.
Johnson, and W. A. Simanton. A photograph and account of this pre-
sentation appeared in the Winter Haven News Chief newspaper.
Elsewhere in this issue of The Florida Entomologist is a photograph
of Dr. Thompson accompanied by the Report of the Honors and Awards
F. W. Mead, Secretary

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 53, No. 2

A member deceased since our last meeting is John W. Davis, Tavares,
Florida, on 3 February, 1969.

During 1969, the Entomology In Action Committee developed and
built a new exhibit, "Public Health Careers in Entomology." This exhibit
is in addition to the original exhibit, "Careers in Entomology." These ex-
hibits are available to any member for use in talks or displays. In past
years the exhibit has been used for bank lobbies, malls, schools, junior
colleges, fairs, and various other meetings and occasions. Try to re-
member them and put them to good use.
The Entomology In Action slide set was used by W. G. Gresham, Jr., at
Winter Park in a "Visiting Scientist" lecture to high school students; R. A.
Crossman, Jr., at Winter Haven in the "Matchmaker Program for Talent
Development" to junior high school students; R. C. Bullock at Ft. Pierce
to Boy Scouts; R. W. Brown, and F. W. Mead at Gainesville to Boy
Scouts; and S. H. Kerr at Gainesville.
The condition of the slide set has degenerated over the years to the
point that one inadequate set remains. The committee recommends that
future Entomology In Action Committees renovate and up-date these
slides and the accompanying script.
In 1969, the Society granted a $150.00 stipend to John Strayer in sup-
port of development of a Leader's Entomology Kit. This kit is a training
aid designed for leaders to show youth what entomological equipment is
and how it is used. Money from this stipend was used to purchase equip-
ment for assembling the first kits. The kit was developed during 1969
and ten kits have been sold. After initial demand is met the money from
this assistance will be used further in the state 4-H Entomology Recogni-
tion and Awards Program. Persons interested in further details about the
kit should contact John Strayer.

John E. Porter
Frank A. Robinson
John R. Strayer, Chairman

At the final business meeting the Chairman of the Public Relations
Committee read a comprehensive report of the many activities of ento-
mologists in Florida. The entomological activities of the following agencies
were dealt with in some detail: Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services; University of Florida Dept. of Entomology and Nema-
tology (teaching, extension, and research both at Gainesville and in the
far-flung experiment station system); State Board of Health; and two
laboratories of the USDA Agricultural Research Service at Gainesville.
The older of these two laboratories is, "The Insects Affecting Man and
Animals Laboratory." Its staff of 25 professional entomologists and 30
technicians was busy during 1969 on the development of control measures
for use against insects that are deleterious to the health of man or which
are annoying to man. The personnel of this laboratory made 16 talks on
entomology to non-entomological groups totalling approximately 1000
people. A list of the scientific papers published and submitted for publica-
tion by this staff was attached to and made an official part of the Public
Relations Committee Report. The newer of the two USDA laboratories is
devoted to research on insect attractants, behavior, and basic biology. It
was officially opened during March 1969. A several page report by Carroll
N. Smith on the purposes of this new laboratory was made a formal part
of the Public Relations Committee Report.
Two past presidents of The Florida Entomological Society retired dur-
ing 1969. They were E. G. Kelsheimer of the University of Florida Gulf

Minutes of .7:,,i Annual Meeting

Coast Experiment Station at Bradenton and W. C. Rhoades of the North
Florida Experiment Station at Quincy. Both men performed long and
faithful service to the Society and to Florida entomology.
Another highlight from the Committee Report is that entomology has
an important part in the West Florida Natural Resources Council recently
formed by the Governor. One of the three tasks forces of the Council is
related to the "dog fly" (stable fly). Drs. W. G. Eden and D. E. Weidhaas
from Gainesville and Dr. A. J. Rodgers of Panama City will be leaders in
this phas-.
Dr. Eden spent three months in South Vietnam, working with the
National Agricultural Center in organizing a University of Florida pro-
gram for improvement of instruction in agriculture. This work is under a
United States AID special contract to the University of Florida, which
now has a team in Saigon. The student society, Alpha Zeta, at the U.
of Florida, elected Dr. Eden "Professor of the Year" in the College of
Agriculture, a highly coveted award.
The Committee Report noted that R. E. Dixon spoke to the Westside
Civitan Club of Jacksonville on "Entomology as a Career." As Repre-
sentative to the Florida State Legislature, 25th District, Mr. Dixon reported
that membership of the Fertilizer and Pesticide Technical Committees was
enlarged by the Legislature. House Bill No. 409 gives the Commissioner
of Agriculture additional licensing and regulatory authority over pesti-
cides by providing for the licensing and regulation by him of the sale,
possession and use of restricted pesticides. House Bill No. 299 gives the
Commissioner of Agriculture the authority to issue, hold, remove, or stop
orders for any pesticide held in violation of the pesticide law, and House
Bill No. 304 permits bulk delivery of pesticides subject to rules and regu-
lations of the Department of Agriculture.
The Florida Structural Pest Control Law, originally passed in 1947,
was substantially changed. The former Pest Control Commission has been
eliminated and all the administrative responsibilities of this law have been
placed under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Entomology, Florida State
Board of Health.
Legislation was introduced during the past session which would have
banned the use of several important insecticides within the State. None of
this type of legislation was passed at this time, but it is felt that it will
be reintroduced in future legislative sessions. Entomologists should keep
a sharp eye open for this type of legislation in the future as it so closely
relates to the health, sanitation, comfort, and economic welfare of the
The full text of the Public Relations Committee report may be bor-
rowed from the Society Secretary on request.

W. C. Adlerz
W. G. Eden
M. J. Janes
R. B. Johnson
W. B. Gresham, Jr., Chairman


The Auditing Committee has examined the books of the Business Man-
ager for the fiscal year ending 31 July 1969, and has found them to be in
good order and in balance. We wish to commend R. D. Patterson for the
orderly manner in which he has kept the books.

H. H. Samol
R. B. Workman
R. E. Waites, Chairman

126 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 53, No. 2


Cash used for change at 51st Ann. Mtg. in Clearwater $ 100.00
Registration fees 402.00
Hospitality Hour contributions 340.00
Dues 1544.00
Subscriptions 916.00
Advertisements 711.53
Reprints and plates 2286.76
Back issues 683.54

Cash on hand July 31, 1968 2825.93

Cash used for change at 51st Ann. Mtg. in Clearwater 100.00
Programs for 51st Ann. Mtg. 91.74
Jack Tar Hotel 492.66
Art work Ent. Soc. banner 7.35
Entomology in Action, 4H foundation 150.00
Overpayment refund 2.00
Supplies for Business Manager 12.64
Cabinets for Florida Entomologist journals (back issues) 170.21
Postage and box rent 80.71
Storter Printing Co.-Fla. Entomologist reprints, etc. 3209.94
Help for Business Manager (Mrs. J. Shuler) 170.25
Plaque 30.50

Cash on hand July 31, 1969 5291.76

Savings Account-
Guaranty Federal Savings & Loan Assn. balance 2778.88
Interest earned 127.14

Cash on hand July 31, 1969 5291.76

Total $8197.78

R. S. Paterson, Business Manager


BE IT RESOLVED by the Florida Entomological Society that:
The Society shall recommend and support all efforts to have the State
of Florida provide funds to construct biological control unit at the
headquarters of the Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, for the purpose of pro-
viding adequate and safe space to conduct investigations of promising,
exotic biological control agents.
The Society recognizes the importance of this facility to the field of
entomology specifically and to agriculture in general because of the
limited uses of certain chemical pesticides.

Minutes of 52nd Annual Meeting

The Society further recognizes that no other organization has such
a facility for these investigations.
The Society will send copies of this resolution to the Commissioner
of Agriculture, Director of the Division of Plant Industry, Florida Agri-
cultural Council, and the Florida Entomological Society Chairman of
Public Relations to distribute to those legislators serving on committees
for agriculture in Florida and other interested agencies and associations.

BE IT RESOLVED by the Florida Entomological Society that:
The Society favors the establishment of an Arthropod Pathogen Center
at Florida Technological University at Orlando and gives to the effort
to establish such an institute its whole-hearted support.
Said institute will be concerned specifically with the diagnosis of insect
diseases and maintenance of cultures of the various pathogens.
A committee be appointed to give advice in the establishment of the
The above-mentioned committee consist of co-chairmen W. G. Eden and
George Allen and members Clay McCoy, G. E. Greene, R. E. Lowe,
and W. H. Whitcomb.

WHEREAS the Society is aware and deeply appreciative of the efforts and
time of the Local Arrangements Committee in providing excellent facili-
ties and

WHEREAS the Program Committee has provided an interesting array of
papers, including those by the invitational speakers,

BE IT RESOLVED THAT: the chairmen and members of these and all other
standing committees and the officers of the Society be given a grateful
vote of thanks.

WHEREAS the members of the Society appreciate the accommodations and
services of the Sheraton Hotel,

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED THAT: the Secretary write a letter to the
Management expressing the thanks of the Florida Entomological So-
L. A. Davis
D. H. Habeck
W. H. Whitcomb, Chairman

The Nominating Committee offers the following slate of officers for
President: H. A. Denmark
Vice President: L. C. Kuitert
Secretary: F. W. Mead
Treasurer: J. R. Strayer
Executive Committee: J. T. Reinhardt
A. G. Selhime
R. M. Baranowski
J. L. Taylor
W. G. Eden, Chairman
A motion was made, seconded, and approved for the Secretary to cast
a unanimous ballot for the nominees presented by the Nominating Com-
The gavel was turned over to incoming President Harold A. Denmark.
The meeting was adjourned at 11:30 AM.
F. W. Mead, Secretary

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