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Title: Florida Entomologist
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Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1972
Copyright Date: 1917
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The

FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Volume 55 No. 1 March 1972

CONTENTS
Page
SUBLETTE, J. E., and W. W. WIRTH-New Genera and
Species of West Indian Chironomidae (Diptera) ..........- 1
DENMARK, H. A., and M. H. MUMA-Some Phytoseiidae of
Colombia (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) --............................ 19
WHITCOMB, W. H., H. A. DENMARK, W. F. BUREN, and J. F.
CARROLL--Habits and Present Distribution in Florida
of the Exotic Ant, Pseudomyrmex mexicanus (Hy-
m enoptera: Formicidae) .................................................. 31
GENUNG, W. G.-Seasonal Occurrence of Click Beetles (Co-
leoptera: Elateridae) in the Everglades as Measured by
Two Types of Traps......-......-... .. .......................... .. 35
ROBINSON, F. A., K. L. SMITH, and P. M. PACKARD-Gas
Sterilization of Beekeeping Equipment Contaminated by
the American Foulbrood Organism, Bacillus larvae ---.... 43
WILSON N., and H. W. KALE II-Ticks Collected from
Indian River County, Florida (Acari: Metastigmata:
Ixodidae) -------...........-.............................. ...................... 53
MORRILL, W. L.-Tool Using Behavior of Pogonomyrmex
badius (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) ......--......-...... ..... --59
YOUNG, D. G.-Phlebotomine sand flies from Texas and
Florida (Diptera: Psychodidae) ........................................ 61
NICKLE, D. A., and T. M. NEAL-Observations on the Forag-
ing Behavior of the Southern Harvester Ant, Pogo-
nomyrmex badius ....-------....... ...... ---------...........---. 65
Dr. William G. Eden Receives Award From The Florida
Entom logical Society ... ..... ....... .................................. 67
Minutes of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Florida En-
tom logical Society ..........-....-...........---.. ........................... 69
Notice to M em bers ... ---..-.... ............................................... 33
Book Reviews --..............-..................................... 34, 42, 52, 58, 64


Published by The Florida Entomological Society












THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY

OFFICERS FOR 1971-72
President ----........... ........................... W. B. Gresham, Jr.
Vice-President--....--....--....-................... A. B. Selhime
Secretary ......................................................................... .W M ead
Treasurer ............................................. . .... J. F. Butler
S G. C. Decker
R. M. Baranowski
Other Members of Executive Committee..... L. C. Kuitert
H. D. Bowman
D. E. Short

Publications Committee
Editor.................................................---- -.....S. H Kerr
Associate Editor.-..-...----..............R. E. Woodruff
Business Manager ---.....-..-.....-.......- J. F. Butler
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This issue mailed March 1, 1972














NEW GENERA AND SPECIES OF
WEST INDIAN CHIRONOMIDAE
(DIPTERA)

JAMES E. SUBLETTE AND WILLIS W. WIRTH
Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, New Mexico 88130 and
Systematic Entomology Laboratory, ARS, USDA
c/o U.S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 20560, respectively

ABSTRACT
The following new genera and species of chironomid midges are de-
scribed from the West Indies: Petalocladius new genus, type species P.
setosus new species from Jamaica. Ancylocladius new genus, type species
A. relicinus new species from Jamaica. Xestochironomus new name (for
Insulanus Sublette, 1967, preoccupied by Insulanus Fleutiaux, 1930), type
species Chironomus furcatus Johannsen, with the following new species:
X. comptus from Jamaica and Panama; X. dominicanus from Dominica; X.
flinti from Dominica; X. hobbsi from Dominica and Jamaica; X. luteifur-
catus from Dominica; and X. nebulosus from Puerto Rico. Stenochirono-
mus leptopus (Kieffer) is recorded from Dominica.


Our knowledge of the non-biting midges (Chironomidae) of the West
Indies remains fragmentary, consisting only of the very limited reports
found in the papers by Williston (1896), Coquillett (1900), Gerry (1932,
1933), Johannsen (1938), and most recently by Curry (1971) and Miller
(1971).
Recent collecting by the junior author in Dominica and Jamaica, and
by other participants in the Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Sur-
vey of Dominica has yielded a good assemblage of this family from which
we are describing two new orthocladiine genera and several new species
in one of the most characteristic genera of the islands.
Good references to morphology and terminology can be found in the
revisions by Brundin (1956), Edwards (1929), Freeman (1955-58, 1959,
1961), Saether (1969), and Townes (1945). Our terminology most closely
follows that of Saether (1969).

SUBFAMILY ORTHOCLADIINAE

Petalocladius, new genus

Eyes densely hairy, without dorsal extensions but with upper margin
angulate in male. With 1 to 2 setae on each side near fork of epicranial
suture; with about 3 setae behind each eye. Palpi normal, with 4 movable
segments. Antennal ratio less than 1.0. Clypeus trapezoidal, base width
almost 2 times the apex.
Pronotum broad, almost parallel-sided to the apex; the 2 halves sepa-
rated by a notch; mesonotal projection well developed. Dorsocentral setae
strongly developed, multiserial; acrostichal setae decumbent and weakly
developed, in a single, staggered row which extends forward to near base
of mesonotal projection. About 6 to 10 prealar setae. Scutellum with
single transverse row of setae which is staggered in the female.













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Vol. 55, No. 1


Wing membrane with microtrichia visible at 300 magnification. Anal
lobe well developed, almost right-angled. Squama with about 8 to 10
marginal setae. Venation of modified Orthocladius-type (Brundin 1956);
costa slightly extended; R,, R,,,, and R4+5 without setae; R2+3 ends slightly
beyond middle; R4+5 ends proximal to M,+2 almost directly over M,+4; Cu1
moderately downcurved, then recurved at tip.
Foretarsus without beard. Hind tibia with comb and with 2 spurs, the
outer reaching less than half the length of inner which is only very slightly
sinuate. Pulvilli absent.
Genital capsule (Fig. 3) massive and darkened. Anal point lacking.
Dististyle strongly curved, with a subapical, decumbent, weak seta but
without the typical orthocladine macroseta set at right angles to the ap-
pendage; proximally the dististyle bears a strong lobe which is basally
directed. Ventrobasal appendage of basistyle well developed. Phallapo-
deme strongly developed with mesial apex forming a darkened, beaklike
structure.
Type Species.-Petalocladius setosus, new species.
Remarks:-This genus most closely resembles Diplocladius Kieffer, but
differs in having multiserial dorsocentral setae, non-setose R and R4+5,
outer spur of hind tibia less than half the length of the inner, and above
all, by the distinctive male genitalia.

Petalocladius setosus, new species
(Fig. 1-3)

MALE.

Wing length 1.86 mm.
Coloration: Dorsum of head, fused thoracic vittae, mesosternum, a spot
on each mesopleuron, scutellum, postnotum, and most of abdomen includ-
ing genitalia, blackish brown; antennae, palpi and dark markings of legs
dark brown; legs dark as follows: narrow apices of fore femur and fore
tibia and all of fore tarsi; middle and hind tarsi progressively darkened
towards apex. Ground color of head and thorax infuscate yellow; halter
pale.
Head: Antennal ratio 0.66; palpal proportions 5:10:14:23. Eyes reni-
form, mesal margins broadly wedge-shaped; hairy. Clypeus along its
widened base 1.05 times width of antennal pedicel; considerably narrower
at apex; with 14 bristles. Antennal flagellum fully haired to near tip.
Postocular bristles in a single row behind the eyes; with 1 to 2 bristles
near midline of head slightly posterior to junction of Y-shaped epicranial
suture. Tentorium as in Fig. 1.
Thorax: Pronotum rather broad at base, apically tapered; with two
halves separated by broad gaping notch; with the two halves narrowly
contiguous posteriorly. Mesonotum without a median tubercle. About
56 dorsocentral bristles in multiple rows, alveolus of each bristle sur-
rounded by conspicuous pale area. Acrostichal bristles in single staggered
row; short, decumbent; beginning near pronotum and extending to near
middle of mesonotum. About 7 prealar bristles; alveoli as with dorsocen-












Sublette: New Chironomidae


trals. Scutellum with partially doubled transverse row of about 16 bristles.
Scutellum and postnotum densely covered with fine microtrichia.
Wing (Fig. 2): Membrane without macrotrichia but densely covered
with microtrichia visible at 645 magnification. Costa extended 0.075 mm
beyond R4+5; R4+5 ending considerably proximal to M,+2 almost directly
over M,+4; without bristles. R2+3 ending at 0.78 of distance between apex
of R1 and R4+~. Stigmal sensilla (Fig. 2). Cu1 moderately downcurved
and then recurved at tip; downcurved portion at an angle of 12" to basal
part of Cu1. Anal vein ending distal to fMCu, at 0.50 of distance between
fMCu and apex of Cu,. Anal lobe well developed, right angled. Ven-
arum ratio 1.04. Squama with 9 fringe setae.
Legs: Fore tarsus with short hairs only. Fore tibial spur short, with-
out side denticles; ratio of length of spur to apical diameter of tibia,
34:36; middle tibial spurs short and blunt with 1-2 inconspicuous side
denticles; ratio of length 18:14; ratio of length of longer spur to apical
diameter of tibia 18:36. Pulvilli absent; empodium as long as claws. Claws
moderately curved, with bifurcate tips. Leg proportions (femur to Ts):
fore leg 41:56:36:20:14:10:8, leg ratio 0.64; mid leg 48:46:24:13:10:6:5, leg
ratio 0.52; hind leg 43:52:27:16:12:7:6, leg ratio 0.52.
Genitalia (Fig. 3): Similar in some features to Diplocladius, but with
dististyle not bifurcate; proximally dististyle bears a strong, basally di-
rected lobe. Phallapodeme strongly developed, mesial apex a darkened
beaklike structure.

FEMALE.

Coloration: Similar to holotype male.
Head: Antennal flagellum 6-segmented, proportions, 20:16:15:16:16:40;
terminal segment with an apical long stiff seta. Basal palpal segment
adnate, proportions of distal four segments 15:35:47:85. Eyes hairy. Dor-
sal margin of eye more rounded than in male, giving the eye an almost
reniform appearance. Clypeus wider than high, width 1.6 times as wide as
the antennal pedicel; with 22 setae; with at least 5 broadly spaced temporal
setae in a single row reaching almost to the midline of the head. Coronal
triangle without setae. Vertex projected forward between the eyes reach-
ing a point level with the ventral margin of the antennal pedicel.
Thorax: Similar to male. Pronotum as male, laterally with the usual
clump of about 8 setae. About 74 dorsocentral setae in multiple rows.
Acrostichal setae in 1 row, short, decumbent. About 10 prealar setae.
Scutellum with the bristles in more of a strewn pattern than the male.
Wing: Similar to male. Costa extended 0.10 mm beyond R45,. Venarum
ratio 1.08; wing length 2.09 mm; squama with 10 marginal setae: wing
width 0.62 mm.
Legs: As male. Leg proportions (fempr to Ts) : fore leg 45:61:38:22:
15:12:8, leg ratio 0.62; mid leg 50:50:25:14:10:7:6, leg ratio 0.50; hind leg
47:56:31:18:13:7:7, leg ratio 0.55.
Abdomen: Genital lamellae small without strong ventral prolongation;
cerci long digitiform, setose, about as long as genital lamellae.
Diagnosis: The features of the genus will serve to separate this species
from the species of Diplocladius which it superficially resembles.











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2


Vol. 55, No. 1


Fig. 1-3, Petalocladius setosus: 1, tentorium; 2, stigmal sensilla and
associated venation; 3, male genitalia, dorsal view. Fig. 4-7, Ancylocladius
relicinus: 4, tentorium; 5, pronotum and anterior end of mesonotum, lateral
view; 6, male genitalia, dorsal view; 7, female genitalia, lateral view.
Distribution.-Jamaica
Types.-Holotype, male; allotype, female, Hardwar Gap, Jamaica, 20
February 1969, W. W. Wirth, light trap (Type No. 71265, USNM).


I


4 4
1 k"- j












Sublette: New Chironomidae


Ancylocladius, new genus
Eyes reniform, moderately exserted on head, glabrous. Vertex moder-
ately projecting between antennal pedicels. Temporal setae reduced, oc-
curring posterior to the dorsal apex of the eye. Antennal flagellum of
male 12-segmented, antennal ratio less than 1.0, apical antennal segment
slightly thickened, tip with several fine setae but without an enlarged seta
as in Smittia. Female antennal flagellum of 5 segments. Palpi of normal
proportions. Pronotum narrowed dorsally, evanescent at apex, laterally
without bristles. Mesonotum without a definitely discernible tubercle but
with a single small acrostichal seta in the center of the very slightly dif-
ferentiated area. Dorsocentral setae in a single row. Scutellum with 6
setae. Abdominal terga sparsely setose, with an anterior and posterior
row joined laterally by a longitudinal row. Wing sexually dimorphic.
Wing membrane without macrotrichia or microtrichia. In the male the
R4+, ends proximal to M,,,; costa very slightly extended beyond R415; R2+3
parallels R4, and terminates near it. R1 and R4+5 non-setose. Fork MCu
lies far distal to r-m. Cul downturned at apex but not strongly sinuate.
Anal end proximal to fMCu. Anal lobe rounded; squama glabrous. In the
female the costa is strongly elongated, ending almost over M1+2; R1, costa
beyond apex of R,, and R4, thickened, and setose; R,,3 faintly discernible
at base, evanescent at tip; r-m more sharply angled than male; other wing
features as male. Tibial spurs long, almost straight; outer spur of hind
leg slightly less than half as long as the inner. Comb of posterior tibia
normally developed. Tarsomeres with an apical stiff seta. Pulvilli absent.
Empodium as long as the claws, dissected. Claws sharp tipped.
Male genitalia (Fig. 6). Anal point short and broad with two sub-
marginal setae on each side. Lobe of basistyle directed caudad, with a re-
flected chitinized appendage. Dististyle slender and bowed. Female geni-
talia (Fig. 7).
Type species.-Ancylocladius relicinus n. sp.
Remarks.-At first glance the males and females, because of wing fea-
tures, appear to be 2 different taxa. However, a comparison of all features
as well as the fact of having been collected at the same time and place
leads us to contend that only 1 sexually dimorphic species is involved. The
male of this genus most closely resembles Parakiefferiella Thienemann,
sensu Brundin (1956), as emended by Saether (1969), but differs in having
a short costal extension and a downcurved Cu, rather than a long extension
and a sinuate Cu The genitalia also show many features of Parakieffer-
iella but differ most noticeably in the lobe of the basistyle being directed
caudad and having a reflected chitinized lobe.
The female is also very similar to Parakieferiella but can be differen-
tiated from most species by lacking a mesonotal tubercle and from all
species of that genus by the far distally placed posterior fork and non-
sinuate Cu1 of the wing.
Ancylocladius relicinus, new species
MALE.
Wing length 1.07 mm.
Coloration: Generally dark; ground color of thorax and mouthparts
infuscate yellow; coxae, extreme base of femora and halter capitulum pale.













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Vol. 55, No. 1


Head: Antennal ratio 0.54. Palpal proportions, 7:10:24:28:46. An-
tennal flagellum fully haired to near the tip; terminal segment with
slightly more than the apical half with short setae only. Eyes reniform,
moderately exserted on head; glabrous. Clypeus triangular, 1.07 times
the width of the antennal pedicel; with 6 setae. With 2 temporal setae be-
hind and slightly medial to the dorsal apex of the eyes. Coronal triangle
without discernible fine setae. Tentorium (Fig. 4).
Thorax: Pronotum (Fig. 5), narrow, apically tapered, anteriorly with
a scarcely discernible notch, laterally without the usual clump of setae.
Mesoscutum without a definite median tubercle, but with a slightly paler
area with a single fine acrostichal seta. About 10 long erect dorsocentral
setae in 1 row. Three prealar setae. Scutellum with a straight row of 6
setae, the 2 central ones larger than the laterals.
Wing: Membrane glabrous. Costa very slightly extended beyond R,45;
length of extension, 0.03 mm. R4,5 ends proximal to M3+4 at 0.54 of the
distance between the apices of Cu, and M,34. R2+3 closely parallels R445
ending at 0.79 of the distance between the apex of RH and R4+5. Radio-
medial crossvein very oblique, at an angle of 13 to the base of M. Cu1
moderately downcurved at tip; downcurved portion at an angle of 160 to
basal part of Cu1. Anal ends considerably proximal to f-MCu. Anal lobe
obsolete. Venarum ratio 1.67; wing length 1.07 mm; squama without
marginal setae; wing width 0.29 mm.
Legs: Foretarsus with short setae only. Foretibia with a long spur;
ratio of length to apical diameter of the tibia, 30:19. Middle tibia with
only 1 spur; ratio of length of spur to apical diameter of tibia 19:20. Hind
tibia with 2 spurs, ratio of lengths 32:15; ratio of length of longer spur to
apical diameter of tibia, 32:25 (Paratype). Comb of about 12 long setae.
Tarsi with a slightly stronger seta at the apex of each tarsomere. Pul-
villi absent. Claws strongly curved; tips acute. Leg proportions (femur
to T,): fore leg 70:80:42:25:17:10:10, leg ratio 0.52; mid leg 80:81:42:21
15:10:9, leg ratio 0.52; hind leg 80:85:50:26:25:11:10, leg ratio 0.59.
Abdomen: Abdominal terga 2-6 with a sparse anterior and posterior
row of setae joined to a lateral row; segment 8 basally constricted giving
the segment a triangular outline.
Genitalia (Fig. 6). Basistyle elongate as in Parakiefferiella; basal
lobe of basistyle directed caudad with a unique reflected chitinized lobe.
Dististyle rather strongly curved. Hypopygial ratio 2.5.

FEMALE.

Coloration: Paler than male, darker markings of thorax and abdomen
less extensive, those of the abdomen giving a vittate appearance.
Head: Antennal proportions 20:17:20,:20:42; three intermediate seg-
ments with a single whorl of long setae. Distal antennal flagellar seg-
ment with short setae only. Palpal proportions, 7:10:23:29:46. Eyes reni-
form, moderately exserted on head; glabrous; dorsally the eyes separated
by a distance equal to 5 times the width of the antennal pedicel; ventrally,
2.6 times. Clypeus triangular, width at dorsal margin 2.5 times the width
of the antennal pedicel; with 14 setae. With 3-4 temporal setae in a
single row, reaching slightly medial to the dorsal apex of the eyes. Coronal












Sublette: New Chironomidae


triangle without fine setae. Tentorium similar to male but narrower and
without the lateral shoulder.
Thorax: Pronotum similar to male (Fig. 5). Mesoscutum without a
discernible median tubercle, but with a single fine acrostichal bristle on a
slightly differentiated area, 15 dorsocentral setae in 1 row which is slightly
staggered anteriorly. Four prealar setae without supra-alar setae. Scutellum
with a straight row of long erect setae, about 7 bristles in the row, the
central 2 the largest.
Wing: Membrane glabrous. Costa greatly extended, extension 0.138
mm beyond apex R,45. Termination of R,, rather indefinite but approxi-
mately over M,+4. R. scarcely distinguishable at base becoming evanes-
cent at tip. R, R,, and R, + setose, R with 7, R, with 4, and R4+5 with 9
setae. Costa beyond the junction of R, R,, and R,,, thickened. Cu,
slightly down-curved at tip; down-curved portion at an angle of 7 to basal
part of Cu,. Anal ends considerably proximal to f-MCu. Anal lobe ob-
solete; squama without marginal setae. Venarum ratio 1.70; wing length
0.90 mm; wing width 0.31 mm.
Legs: Foretibia with a long spur; ratio of length to apical diameter
of the tibia, 25:20. Middle tibia with a single spur; ratio of length of
spur to apical diameter of tibia, 22:20. Hind tibia with two unequal spurs,
ratio of lengths, 15:37; ratio of length of longer spur to apical diameter
of tibia, 37:29. Comb of 14 long setae. Pulvilli absent. Claws rather
strongly curved; tip acute. Leg proportions (femur to T,) : fore leg 60:
72:35:15:12:8:8, leg ratio 0.49; mid leg 75:82:40:20:15:9:9, leg ratio 0.49;
hind leg 69:80:45:22:22:10:10, leg ratio 0.56.
Abdomen: Genitalia (Fig. 7).
Diagnosis: This species may be differentiated from various P r,F:', if. r-
iella species by the features of the male genitalia with its unique reflected
tip at the apex of the basistylar lobe.
Distribution.-Jamaica.
Types.-Holotype, male, allotype, female, Runaway Bay, Jamaica, 16-
28 February 1969, W. W. Wirth, Sweeping bay shore wrack (Type No.
71267, USNM). Paratypes, 4 males, 4 females collected with the holotype.

SUBFAMILY CHIRONOMINAE

Xestochironomus, new name

(=Insulanus Sublette, 1967, nec Insulanus Fleutiaux, 1930)

Eyes bare; with narrow dorsal extensions failing by about diameter
of antennal scape to meet on midline. Palpus with 4 elongate segments
and a small basal protuberance. Male antennal flagellum with 13 segments,
female flagellum with 6 segments, first 2 fused; male antennal ratio 0.83 to
1.38. Frontal tubercles absent.
Thorax very convex anteriorly, but mesonotum not as conical and not
produced as far anteriorly over head as in Stenochironomus. Mesonotum
without median hump or tubercle. Pronotum evanescent mesally, far sur-
passed by the anteriorly projecting mesonotum. Mesonotum with well
developed series of acrostichal and dorsomedian setae in 3 irregular rows;













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Vol. 55, No. 1


setae sometimes quite conspicuous and erect. Legs slender, usually with
some ornamentation of dark-colored hairs; hairs usually quite reduced
on fore leg; fore tibia with inner apical scale (Fig. 8) with rounded end;
combs (Fig. 9) of mid and hind tibia fused, each comb with strong spine,
the paired spines of subequal to slightly unequal lengths; pulvilli well de-
veloped; leg ratio 1.15 to 1.30. Wing with squamal fringe present but re-
duced; fringe of somewhat flattened hairs prominent around wing margin;
radius and its branches and stem of media with similar long prominent
hairs; r-m crossvein located proximal of mediocubital fork; venarum ratio
1.17 to 1.25; ends of R4+5 and M1 2 both near wing apex; R, and R,+3 lying
very close together; anal angle rounded, sometimes much reduced.
Male genitalia (Fig. 11-16) : Anal point present, long and slender, some-
times with blunt or spatulate tip; ninth tergum usually distinctly truncate,
projecting shelflike on each side of anal point. Dististyle elongate and
curved, with spiculate mesal margin distally; with various distal modifica-
tions involving the prolongation of a tapering distal point bearing an
apical seta and the development of a spiculate mesial lobe which may be-
come long and thumblike. Inferior appendage long and broad, with nu-
merous recurved setae on dorsal face; always a long, caudally projecting,
apical seta present. Superior appendage long and slender, with bent or
hooked tip, with a single lateral seta as well as a medial group of setae
from irregular lobe at base.
Type Species.-Chironomus (Stenochironomus) furcatus Johannsen.
Remarks.-Besides the type species, this genus contains 6 Neotropical
species (see Table 1), all except 1 confined to the West Indies. The 13-
segmented male flagellum, well developed pulvilli, fringed squama, reduced
pronotum, and anteriorly produced mesonotum ally Xestochironomus with
Stenochironomus Kieffer, from which it differs mainly in the structure of
the male genitalia, particularly the shapes of the inferior and superior
appendages and the dististyle.
The pronotum and wing are most like those of Polypedilum Kieffer;
the genitalia are most like those of Phaenopsectra Kieffer but the ninth
tergum is strongly truncate forming a shelflike protection on either side
of the anal point, the anal point may be strongly spatulate, and the apex
of the dististyle bears a projecting seta-bearing tubercle; the fore tibia is
similar to some species of Endochironomus Kieffer; the mid and hind tibial
spurs are similar to those of Endochironomus, but the spurs are distinctly
longer; and the coloration is similar to some species of Stictochironomus
Kieffer and Stenochironomus.
Harrisius Freeman from New Zealand is also similar in its reduced pro-
notum, 13-segmented male flagellum, pulvilli present, anterior tibia with
oval scale and mid and hind tibiae each with fused combs and two spurs,
male genitalia with long, slender, distally hooked superior appendage, and
long, slender, anal point, but it differs in having hairy wings, the inferior
appendage of the male genitalia lacks the long posteriorly projecting hair,
and the dististyle has long mesial setae distally.
The immature stages and larval habitat are unknown, but the adult col-
lection records indicate that the species probably breed in the small rocky
streams in the mountains.












Sublette: New Chironomidae


Key to the Species of Xestochironomus

1. Mesonotum and legs uniformly pale yellow, but fore tarsus may be
somewhat brownish ........................ ....--...-...---- .......-- ........- -.......--..- 2
- Mesonotum yellow with brown markings; legs usually with brown
m arkings .-------. .. --..........................-..........---...... ........--------- .....--- ..-- 4
2. Male dististyle with simple bluntly pointed apex ..-.. dominicanus n. sp.
- Male dististyle with apex furcate or drawn out into slender distal
point --..........---- ........- ........-------.. ....... --....................... ........................-...- 3
3. Male dististyle with apex deeply cleft into a spiculate thumblike mesial
lobe half as long as the tapering slender distal lobe .. luteifurcatus n. sp.
- Male dististyle not cleft, but with apex bearing a slender distal point
and a bluntly rounded, spiculate, subapical mesial lobe .... hobbsi n. sp.
4. Wing with prominent infuscation over midportion and at apex; halter
brown; legs with prominent brown bands ............................ ............. 5
- Wing uniformly grayish or pale brownish; halter pale; legs not
banded .........................................................................-..................--............ 6
5. Abdomen with prominent pattern of broad brownish crossbands; hind
tarsus uniformly pale; male dististyle not cleft distally .. comptus n. sp.
- Abdomen with narrow segmental brownish bands; first to third tarso-
meres of hind leg with median dark bands; male dististyle deeply cleft
distally ..............--- ...-...........................--.................... -------nebulosus n. sp.
6. Abdomen with segmental dark crossbands; legs uniformly straw yellow-
ish ........................................................... furcatus (Johannsen), n. comb.
- Abdomen uniformly straw yellowish; legs uniformly brownish infus-
cated .................----.....-....................... ..................... flinti n. sp.

Xestochironomus comptus, new species

(Fig. 8-10)

MALE.

Wing length 2.06 mm.
Head: Yellow; antenna brownish; palpus whitish. Antennal ratio 1.36.
Palpal proportions 22:45:42:72.
Thorax: Yellow with brown markings; mesosternum with faint anterior
median, and prominent posterior lateral bands, brown; scutellum, post-
notum, and mesonotum brown. Mesonotal hairs strong and erect, 7-8 in
acrostichal series and 7-14 in each dorso-central series, 5-6 prealars; scu-
tellum with 8 hairs. Legs yellowish; distal third to half of femora brown;
all of fore tibia, proximal third of mid tibia, and proximal half of hind
tibia brown; fore tarsus brownish proximally, gradually becoming yellow-
ish distally. Leg ratio 1.23. Wing slightly infuscated, except darker
clouding on veins near r-m crossvein and near posterior fork; distal
margin infuscated between apices of veins R5 and M3+4. Venarum ratio
1.25. Halter dark brown.
Abdomen: Yellowish with prominent brown bands on distal half of
tergum two, distal third of terga 5 and 6, all of tergum 7, and on basistyles
of genitalia. Genitalia (Fig. 10) with dististyles not furcate, but with at-
tenuated apical point. Hypopygium ratio 0.90.













The Florida Entomologist


FEMALE.
Wing 2.12 mm long. Color pattern as in the male. Antenna with
flagellar segments in proportion of 18-24-30-28-38; first two flagellar seg-
ments incompletely fused, proximal segments yellow, distal segment brown-
ish. Leg ratio 1.21; venarum ratio 1.19.
Distribution.-Jamaica, Panama.
Types.-Holotype, male; allotype, female,-Hardwar Gap, Jamaica, 20
February 1969, W. W. Wirth, light trap (Type No. 71169, USNM). Para-
types, 7 males, 2 females, as follows. JAMAICA: Same data as types, 3
males, 2 females. Runaway Bay, February 1969, W. W. Wirth, swept from
damp mud and rocks in dried stream bed in hills, 3 males. PANAMA:
Gamboa, Rio Agua Salud, July 1967, W. W. Wirth, light trap along margin
of small rocky stream in rain forest, 1 male.

Xestochironomus dominicanus, new species

(Fig. 11.)

MALE.

Wing length 1.50 mm.
Head: Yellow; antenna brownish; palpus whitish. Antennal ratio 0.84.
Palpal proportions 15:32:35:55.
Thorax: Yellow; disc of mesonotum and postnotum slightly darker.
Mesonotal hairs pale and inconspicuous; 12-15 in irregular acrostichal row;
15 in each dorsocentral series; 5 prealars; scutellum with 12 hairs. Legs
straw yellow; fore tibia and tarsus dusky pale brown. Leg ratio 1.15.
Wing uniformly grayish hyaline; venarum ratio 1.18. Halter pale.
Abdomen: Uniformly straw yellow. Genitalia (Fig. 11) with anal point
short and distally capitate; dististyle elongate, spatulate with blunt distal
point, with dense fine spicules on ventro-mesial surface distally. Hypo-
pygium ratio 0.69.

FEMALE.
Unknown.
Distribution.-Dominica.
Types.-Holotype, male, Manets Gutter, Dominica, 15 March 1965, W.
W. Wirth, light trap near rocky stream (Type No. 71174, USNM). Para-
types, 8 males, as follows. DOMINICA: Same data as type, 2 males. Fond
Figues River, 25 January, 9 February, 13 March 1965, W. W. Wirth, swept
in rain forest beside rocky stream, 5 males. Pont Casse, 1.5 miles N, 12
February 1965, W. W. Wirth, swept in rain forest near stream, 1 male.

Xestochironomus flinti, hew species

(Fig. 12)
MALE.
Wing length 1.62 mm.
Head: Yellow, palpus pale brownish. Antenna missing in specimens
examined; palpi shrunken, proportions not measured.


Vol. 55, No. 1











Sublette: New Chironomidae


10


















12 h13


Fig. 8-13, Xestochironomus: 8-10, comptus; 8, distal scale of fore tibia;
9, combs of mid tibia; 10, male genitalia, dorsal view, and separate view
of superior appendage. 11-13, male genitalia, dorsal view, and separate
view of superior appendage; 11, dominicanus; 12, flinti; 13, furcatus.
Thorax: Yellow; mesonotum with broad anterior median and posterior
lateral bands brown; postnotum and mesosternum brown. Mesonotal hairs
pale and inconspicuous, borne in pale integumental punctures; 12-15 in ir-
regular acrostichal row, 10-12 in each dorsocentral series; 3-4 prealars;
scutellum with 12 hairs. Legs uniformly brownish, bearing dense, decum-













12 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 55, No. 1

bent hairs and longer, erect, bristly ones; fore tarsi missing. Wing uni-
formly grayish, nearly hyaline; wing narrow at base, anal lobe greatly
reduced; venarum ratio 1.22. Halter pale.
Abdomen: Yellowish, becoming dusky distally, without crossbands.
Genitalia (Fig. 12) with dististyle deeply furcate, both mesial and distal
lobes slender, the distal one especially so; ninth tergum especially broad
and rather truncate distally, anal point long and slender. Hypopygium
ratio 0.67.

FEMALE.

Similar in color to the male.
Distribution.-Dominica.
Types.-Holotype, male, Dominica, Pont Casse, 0.4 miles E, 23 June
1964, O.S. Flint, at light (Type No. 71173, USNM). Allotype female, Pont
Casse, 1.7 miles E, 12 March 1965, W. W. Wirth, light trap. Paratypes, 2
males, 3 females, as follows: Dominica: Same data as holotype, 1 male.
Same data as allotype, 1 female. Clarke Hall, 11-20 January 1965, W. W.
Wirth, light trap, 1 female. Manets Gutter, 10 March 1965, W. W. Wirth,
light trap, 1 female. Fond Figues River, 13 March 1966, W. W. Wirth, 1
male.
Remarks.-It gives us great pleasure to name this species for Dr. Oliver
S. Flint of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. in recognition
of his important contributions to our knowledge of the aquatic insects of
the West Indies.

Xestochironomus furcatus (Johannsen), new combination

(Fig. 13)

Chironomus (Stenochironomus) furcata Johannsen, 1938: 221 (male;
Puerto Rico).
Insulanus furcatus (Johannsen); Sublette, 1967, 40: 546 (Description of
types; generic position).

MALE.

Wing length 1.83 mm.
Head: Yellow, antenna yellow, scape, palpi and proboscis pale brown-
ish. Antennal ratio 1.38; palpal proportions 18:42:40:60.
Thorax: Yellow; mesonotum with 2 broad lateral brown vittae; scu-
tellum, postnotum, and 3 large angular spots on pleuron brownish. Meso-
notal hairs strong and erect; 12 in acrostichal series and 12 in each dorso-
central series; 4 prealars; scutellum with 15 hairs. Legs yellowish; leg
ratio 1.28. Wing uniformly grayish hyaline, veins yellowish; venarum
ratio 1.17. Halter pale.
Abdomen: Yellowish, with prominent brown segmental crossbands
across apices of terga 2-6; tergum 1 entirely dark, 7 pale; genitalia yel-
lowish. Genitalia (Fig. 13) with dististyle deeply cleft distally, the shorter,
spiculate, mesial lobe rounded distally, the slender distal lobe bare except
for distal seta; inferior appendage with distomedian point; superior ap-
pendage not hooked at tip. Hypopygium ratio 0.64.











Sublette: New Chironomidae


Fig. 14-16, male genitalia of Xestochironomus, dorsal view and separate
view of superior appendage: 14, hobbsi; 15, luteifurcatus; 16, nebulosus.

FEMALE.

Unknown.
Distribution.-Puerto Rico.
Types.-Holotype, male, paratypes, Luquillo Mts., Puerto Rico, 7 June
1935, at light (in Cornell University collection).
Specimens Examined.-Puerto Rico: Two topotypic males, Luquillo
Experimental Forest, 21 January 1963, P. and P. Spangler, light trap
(USNM).

Xestochironomus hobbsi, new species

(Fig. 14)

MALE.

Wing length 1.58 mm.
Head: Yellow, antennal flagellum brownish, palpi whitish. Antennal
ratio 1.09; papal proportions 15:35:33:60.
Thorax: Yellow, without brown pattern. Mesonotal hairs inconspicu-
ous, pale; about 15 in acrostichal series; 15 in each dorsocentral series; 4
prealars; scutellum with 9 hairs. Legs yellowish; fore tarsi slightly brown-
ish; leg ratio 1.30. Wing grayish hyaline, without pattern except veins
slightly brownish; venarum ratio 1.21. Halter pale.













The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 55, No. 1


Abdomen: Yellowish. Genitalia (Fig. 14) with dististyle gradually
broadened distally, a low, rounded, spiculate, subapical lobe on mesial
side, apex tapering to slender point bearing an apical seta. Hypopygium
ratio 0.51.

FEMALE.

Unknown.
Distribution.-Dominica, Jamaica.
Types.-Holotype, male; Dominica, Pont Casse, 1.7 miles E., 12 March
1965, W. W. Wirth, light trap (Type No. 71170, USNM). Paratypes, 10
males, as follows: DOMINICA: Same data as type, 8 males. Pont Casse,
1.6 miles W., 15 June 1964, 0. S. Flint, at light, 1 male. JAMAICA: Hard-
war Gap, 20 February 1969, W. W. Wirth, light trap, 1 male.
Remarks.-We are dedicating this species to Dr. Horton H. Hobbs, Jr.
of the Smithsonian Institution, Department of Invertebrate Zoology, in ap-
preciation of his contributions to our knowledge of the West Indian Crus-
tacean fauna, and his most effective leadership of the Bredin-Archbold-
Smithsonian Biological Survey of Dominica.

Xestochironomus luteifurcatus, new species

(Fig. 15)

MALE.

Wing length 1.58 mm.
Head: Yellow, antennal flagellum brownish, palpi whitish. Antennal
ratio 0.83; palpal proportions 18:40:35:58.
Thorax: Brownish yellow, postnotum darker brown. Mesonotal hairs
conspicuous, long and pale; about 40 in a broad irregular acrostichal series
and 20 in each irregular dorsocentral series; 7 prealars; scutellum with
20 hairs. Legs yellowish; fore tarsus, tibia and apex of femur slightly
brownish; leg ratio 1.25. Wing grayish hyaline, veins pale brownish;
venarum ratio 1.20. Halter pale.
Abdomen: Yellowish. Genitalia (Fig. 15) with dististyle deeply furcate
distally, the slender, spiculate, thumblike mesial lobe about half as long as
the slender distal lobe which tapers to slender point bearing a fine apical
seta. Hypopygium ratio 0.65.

FEMALE.

Similar in color to male. Wing length 1.50 mm; venarum ratio 1.22;
leg ratio 1.30.
Distribution.-Dominica.
Types.-Holotype, male; allotype, female, Dominica, Pont Casse, 1.7
miles E., 12 March 1965, W. W. Wirth, light trap (Type No. 71172, USNM).
Paratypes, 12 males on slides as follows: Dominica: Same data as types,
5 males. Pont Casse, 0.2 mile W., 13 January 1965, W. W. Wirth, at light,
3 males; 0.4 mile E., 23 June 1964, 0. S. Flint, at light, 1 male. Point Lolo,












Sublette: New Chironomidae


0.5 mile W., 25 January 1965, W. W. Wirth, at light, 1 male. Fond Figues
River, 13 March 1965, W. W. Wirth, 2 males. Additional paratypes, same
data as types, 40 males, 10 females on pins, 100 males, females in alcohol.

Xestochironomus nebulosus, new species

(Fig. 16)

MALE.

Wing length 1.75 mm.
Head: Yellowish; antenna, palpi and proboscis brown. Antennal ratio
1.25; palpal proportions 15:38:40:73.
Thorax: Yellowish brown; mesonotum with a pair of small anterior
median spots and a pair of irregular lateral bands brown; scutellum brown
anteriorly and postnotum brown on sides. Mesonotal hairs not counted.
Legs yellowish; fore and mid femur and extreme base and apex of hind
femur brown; mid tibia all pale, fore and hind tibia brown except extreme
base on fore leg and narrow base and broad apex of hind leg; fore tarsi
missing; mid and hind tarsi with long semierect hairs, these forming broad
dark median bands on tarsomeres 1 through 3; leg ratio not measured.
Wing grayish hyaline, with 3 prominent brownish cloudy areas: first on
basal arculus and along base of radius; second on r-m crossvein and along
R,, appearing again on posterior fork; third along wing margin between
apices of veins R4+, and M3+4. Venarum ratio 1.18. Halter brown.
Abdomen: Yellowish, with narrow segmental bands at apices of terga
1-5; brown along sides of fourth tergum, on much of terga 6 and 8, and
on basistyles. Genitalia (Fig. 16) slightly distorted in mounting; dististyle
bifid, with spiculate, rounded mesial lobe and slender, pointed apical lobe,
with proportions about midway between conditions found in X. hobbsi and
luteifurcatus. Hypopygium ratio 0.80.

FEMALE.

Unknown.
Distribution.-Puerto Rico.
Type.-Holotype, male, on slide, Maricao Fish Hatchery, Puerto Rico,
23 December 1962, P. and P. Spangler, light trap (Type No. 71171, USNM).

Stenochironomus leptopus (Kieffer)

Chironomus longimanus Williston, 1896: 274 (male; St. Vincent; Fig.
wing); Johannsen, 1905: 233 (redescr.; fig. wing) (preocc. longimanus
Meigen).
Chironomus leptopus Kieffer, 1906; 19 new name for longimanus Willis-
ton, not Meigen).
Stenochironomus leptopus (Kieffer); Townes, 1945: 85 (generic position
from syntype); Sublette, 1966: 28 (lectotype description; Fig. male
genitalia).













16 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 55, No. 1

We are referring here to this species to compare it with Xestochiron-
omus, to which it is similar in many ways, and to record new Dominica
distribution. The Dominica material agrees perfectly with the lectotype
from St. Vincent which was redescribed by Sublette (1966). This species
proved to be one of the most abundant Chironomini on Dominica, occur-
ring in the lowlands at Clarke Hall as well as at numerous localities in the
mountains.
Dominica: Clarke Hall, 2 February, 28 March 1965, W. W. Wirth, light
trap, 3 males. Fond Figues River, 9 February 1965, W. W. Wirth, rain
forest, 1 male. Point Lolo, 0.5 mile W., 25 January 1965, W. W. Wirth,
at light, 1 male. Pont Casse, 1.7 miles E., 12 March 1965, W. W. Wirth,
light trap, 3 males 1.5 miles N., 12 February 1965, W. W. Wirth, rain for-
est, 3 males; 0.4 mile E., 15 June 1964, 0. S. Flint, at light, 1 female. South
Chiltern Estate, 19 February 1965, W. W. Wirth, light trap, 2 males.
Remarks.-Wing length of Dominica material 1.57 mm; antennal ratio
1.12; venarum ratio 1.19; leg ratio 1.23; palpal proportions 13:38:35:57;
hypopygium ratio 1.0. Color pattern prominent, superficially similar to
that of Xestochironomus comptus but mesonotum has only a pair of nar-
row lateral stripes from front to back, the scutellum and postnotum are
pale, the dark crossband across the middle of the wing is complete and
the dark leg markings are confined to the narrow apices of mid and hind
femur and bases of mid and hind tibiae. The segmental dark banding on
the abdomen is also arranged differently.

TABLE 1. COMPARISON OF NUMERICAL CHARACTERS OF WEST INDIAN
SPECIES OF Xestochironomus AND Stenochironomus (MALES)

Wing Venarum Antennal Leg Hypopy-
Length Ratio Ratio Ratio gium
mm Ratio
Xestochironomus
comptus 2.06 1.25 1.36 1.23 0.90
dominicanus 1.50 1.18 0.84 1.15 0.69
flinti 1.62 1.22 x x 0.67
furcatus 1.83 1.17 1.38 1.28 0.64
hobbsi 1.58 1.21 1.09 1.30 0.51
luteif urcatus 1.58 1.20 0.83 1.25 0.65
nebulosus 1.75 1.18 1.25 x 0.80
Stenochironomus
leptopus 1.57 1.19 1.12 1.23 1.00


LITERATURE CITED
Brundin, L. 1956. Zur Systematic der Orthocladiinae (Diptera Chirono-
midae). Inst. Freshwater Res. Drottningholm Rept. 37: 5-185.
Coquillett, D. W. 1900. Report on a collection of dipterous insects from
Puerto Rico. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 22: 249-270.
Curry, L. L. 1971. The Chironomidae (Diptera) found in the U. S. Virgin
Islands and Anegada, British Virgin Islands. Can. Entomol. 103:
310-314.












Sublette: New Chironomidae 17

Edwards, F. W. 1929. British non-biting midges (Diptera, Chironomidae).
Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 77: 279-430, 3 pl.
Freeman, P. 1955-1958. A study of the Chironomidae of Africa south of
the Sahara. Bull. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 4: 1-67 (1955),
4: 285-366 (1956), 5: 321-426 (1957), 6: 261-363 (1958).
Freeman, P. 1959. A study of the New Zealand Chironomidae (Diptera,
Nematocera). Bull. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 7: 395-437, 1 pl.
Freeman, P. 1961. The Chironomidae (Diptera) of Australia. Australian
J. Zool. 9: 611-737.
Gerry, B. I 1932. A new species of Chironomus from Jamaica (Chirono-
midae). Psyche 39: 69-71.
Gerry, B. I. 1933. Four new species of Chironomidae from the Greater
Antilles. Psyche 40: 94-97.
Johannsen, O. A. 1905. Aquatic nematocerous Diptera, II. New York
State Mus. Bull. 86: 76-311.
Johannsen, O. A. 1938. New species of Nemocera from Puerto Rico. J.
Agr. Univ. Puerto Rico 22: 219-225.
Kieffer, J. J. 1906. Diptera. Family Chironomidae. in Wystsman, P.,
ed. Genera Insectorum 42: 1-78.
Miller, A. C. 1971. Observations on the Chironomidae (Diptera) in-
habiting the leaf axils of two species of Bromeliaceae on St. John,
U. S. Virgin Islands. Can. Entomol. 103: 391-396.
Saether, O. A. 1969. Some Nearctic Podonominae, Diamesinae, and Or-
thocladiinae (Diptera: Chironomidae). Fisheries Res. Bd. Can. Bull.
170: 1-154.
Sublette, J. E. 1966. Type specimens of Chironomidae (Diptera) in the
American Museum of Natural History. J. Kansas Entomol. Soc.
39: 1-32.
Sublette, J. E. 1967. Type specimens of Chironomidae (Diptera) in the
Cornell University Collection. J. Kansas Ent. Soc. 40: 477-564.
Townes, H. K., Jr. 1945. The Nearctic species of Tendipedini (Diptera,
Tendipedidae (=Chironomidae)). Amer. Midl. Nat. 34: 1-206.
Townes, H. K. 1959. Notes on the types of Nearctic Tendipedini in Lon-
don and Copenhagen (Diptera, Tendipedidae). Proc. Ent. Soc.
Washington 61: 135-136.
Williston, S. W. 1896. On the Diptera of St. Vincent (West Indies).
Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London 1896: 253-446, 7 pl.

The Florida Entomologist 55(1) 1972











The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 55, No. 1


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SOME PHYTOSEIIDAE OF COLOMBIA (ACARINA:
PHYTOSEIIDAE)

H. A. DENMARK AND M. H. MUMA

Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services,
Gainesville, Florida 32601, and
University of Florida Agricultural Research and Education Center,
Lake Alfred, Florida 33850, respectively.

ABSTRACT

Eleven species of phytoseiid mites are reported from Colombia; 2 are
new species: Iphiseiodes zuluagai, and Typhlodromips sinensis.


Several collections of phytoseiid mites have been received recently
from several localities in South America. The species involved in these
collections are gradually being described and recorded to extend our
knowledge of the South American fauna. Denmark and Muma (1970) in-
cluded a summary of South American species in their introduction to the
phytoseiids of Paraguay, and Denmark and Muma (1970a) redefined Rico-
seius loxocheles (De Leon) from a Brazilian specimen.
Two new species from Colombia are described and new distribution
records of 9 other phytoseiids are reported in this paper. To our knowl-
edge this is the first report of phytoseiids from Colombia. Specimens were
collected by Dr. Ivan Zuluaga who has requested that the new species be
described and new distribution records be published. Other mite families
received from Dr. Zuluaga are not included in this paper. Only the origi-
nal description and latest revision are given in the synonomy.

Genus Amblyseius Berlese, 1914

Amblyseius Berlese, 1914:143. Type of the genus: Zercon obtusus
Koch, 1839, by indication of Berlese (1914). Amblyseius,
Muma, Denmark, and De Leon, 1971:62.

DIAGNOSIS: This large genus is world wide in distribution and is found
commonly in the Caribbean area and South America. The distinguishing
characters are 4 pairs of dorsal setae, 8 pairs of lateral setae (some elon-
gate and weakly plumose), 3 pairs of median setae, 2 pairs of long sub-
lateral setae on the interscutal membrane, 3 pairs of sternal setae, and 3
pairs of preanal setae. Peritreme long, extending forward to or between
the vertical setae. Peritremal scutum without distinguishable ectal strip
extending to leg IV exopodal scutum. Chelicerae normal, fixed finger with
8 or more denticules and movable finger with 1 to 4. Macrosetae on Sge
I, Sge III, Sti III, Sge IV, Sti IV, St IV of which Sge IV is the longest.
Males similar to but smaller than females. Spermatodactyl with heel
terminal.


'Contribution No. 211, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Indus-
try, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.













20 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 55, No. 1

Amblyseius deleoni Muma and Denmark

Amblyseius (Amblyseialus) largoensis Muma; Muma 1961:287
(Muma, 1964:22) (not largoensis Muma, 1955).
Amblyseius deleoni Muma and Denmark; Muma, Denmark, and De
Leon, 1971:68.

DIAGNOSIS: This species has a slender elongate fundibuliform spermathe-
cal cervix with a greatly swollen atrium and an L-shaped spermatodactyl
with a weakly bifurcate toe on the foot; Sge IV approximates L4. A. lar-
goensis (Muma), a closely related species, has a parallel-sided spermath-
ecal cervix and Sge IV is longer than L,.
TYPE: Female holotype from citrus leaves at Ft. Pierce, Florida, 20
March 1959 (Helen Louise Greene), in the U. S. National Museum, Wash-
ington, D. C. This species has been taken at the following locations in
Colombia: 1 nymph and 1 female, Villa Carmelo, Valle, 2 April 1969 (Ivan
Zuluaga), on Citrus sinensis; 1 female, Villa Carmelo, Valle, 5 June 1969
(Ivan Zuluaga), on Citrus sinensis.

Amblyseius anacardii De Leon, 1967:23

DIAGNOSIS: This species closely resembles A. coffeae De Leon from Mex-
ico; it is distinct in the shape of the spermatheca.
TYPE: Female, St. Augustine, Trinidad, 1 October 1963 (D. De Leon),
on Vengueria madagascarensis. This species has been taken at Mariquita,
Tolima, Colombia, July 1970 (Ivan Zuluaga), on Passiflora edulis var.
flavicarpa.

Genus Euseius Wainstein, 1962

Euseius Wainstein, 1962:15. Type of the genus: Seiulus finlandicus
Oud., 1915, by designation, Wainstein (1962). Euseius, Muma,
Denmark, and De Leon, 1971:92.

DIAGNOSIS: The females have 4 pairs of dorsal setae, 3 pairs of median
setae of which M3 is setiform and scarcely if any longer than M, and M,, 8
pairs of lateral setae with L, usually weakly plumose, 2 pairs of sublateral
setae on the interscutal membrane, 3 pairs of sternal setae, and 3 pairs of
preanal ventrianal setae. Chelicerae are small with fixed finger edentate
or with 1 or 2 denticules usually distal to the medially located pilus den-
tills. Peritreme short, extending forward at most to about L,. Peritremal
scutum indistinguishable fused with stigmatal scutum and leg IV exopodal
scutum. Sternal scutum usually lobate posterior margin. All preanal
ventrianal setae remote from anterior scutal margin. Macrosetae some-
times occur on the genu of leg II and III and on Sge, Sti, and St of leg IV
always present. Males similar to and smaller than females. Spermato-
dactyl with foot terminal and heel distinct. This large genus of over 40
species is world wide in distribution.

Euseius flechtmanni Denmark and Muma, 1970:223

DIAGNOSIS: This species is close to E. caseariae De Leon, but flechtmanni
has L, longer and macrosetae on Sge III is knobbed setaceous.












Denmark: Phytoseiidae of Colombia


TYPE: Female holotype from San Lorenzo, Paraguay, July 1968 (Brau-
lio Ramon Arnada Centurion), on Citrus sp., in the Florida State Collec-
tion of Arthropods, Gainesville, Florida. In addition to the many collec-
tions in Paraguay, it has been taken at the following location in Colombia:
3 nymphs, 2 males and 16 females Palmira, Colombia, 5 May 1969 (Ivan
Zuluaga), on Ricinus communis.

Euseius paraguayensis Denmark and Muma, 1970:224

DIAGNOSIS: E. paraguayensis can be distinguished from all other species
in the sibelius group by the comparative lengths of the dorsal scutal setae
and the short distinct spermatheca.
TYPE: Female holotype from Cecilio Baez, Paraguay, 1 January 1969,
on Citrus sp. The male allotype taken at San Lorenzo, Paraguay, July
1968, on Cycas revoluta Thunb. is in the FSCA, Gainesville, Florida, and
a paratype female at Carandayty, Paraguay, 13 January 1969, on Citrus sp.
All collections were made by Braulio Ramon Aranda Centurion. This spe-
cies has been taken in Colombia at the following locations: 1 female, Pal-
mira, Colombia, 26 June 1969 (A. Angel S.), on Corchorus orinocensis.

Euseius naindaimei (Chant and Baker); NEW COMBINATION

Amblyseius naindaimei Chant and Baker, 1965:22

(Fig. 1 to 6)

DIAGNOSIS: This species is closely related to the E. vivax (Chant and
Baker) complex and E. multimicropilis De Leon, but naindaimei has L4
shorter and the spermatheca is vesicular. It is illustrated and redescribed
here as Chant and Baker only gave a partial illustration and the male is
now known.

FEMALE: Length 338/; width at L4 244/. Dorsal scutum smooth with
several pores and 17 pairs of setae. Measurements of setae: verticals 291/;
D, and D, 8D, D, and D4 10f; clunals 41/; L, 18t, L, 12/1, L, 9/, L, 17,, L,
11/i, L,; 15/,, L7 l1/, L, 53 ,; M, 8/k, M, 10/, M3 6t/; anterior sublaterals
12/; posterior sublaterals 11/. Sternal scutum lightly reticulated, wider
than long and concave. This is unusual for this genus. Peritreme extends
forward to between L, and L_. Chelicerae small, fixed finger of chelicerae
with 3 denticules and the movable finger with 2 small denticules. Leg
formula 4132. Macrosetae present on Sge I, II, III and IV. Length of
macrosetae on leg IV as follows: Sge IV 43/k, Sti IV 32/, St IV 61/,.
2,2 22
Genu II 2,- ,1; genu III 1,- ,1. Spermatheca vesicular.

TYPE: Female holotype No. 3003 from La Lima, Honduras, 19 Septem-
ber 1958, J. G. Matthysse, on a "tree", in the U. S. National Museum,
Washington, D. C. Other female specimens are from Naindaime, Nica-
ragua, 16 April 1959, E. W. Baker on cacao leaves. Specimens of the male
and female have been collected at Palmira, Colombia, 5 May 1969 (Ivan
Zuluaga), on Ricinus communis; female at Villa Carmelo, Valle, Colombia,











The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 55, No. 1







I 1>"


tic>
/>-^


Fig. 1 to 6: Female Euseius naindaimei (Chant and Baker). 1) Dorsal
and leg structure and station. 2) Ventral scuta and station. 3) Poster-
ior peritremal and stigmatal development. 4) Spermathecal structures
(two views). 5) Male spermatodactyl structure. 6) Male ventrianal scu-
tum.

2 April 1969 (Ivan Zuluaga); female at Palmira, Valle, Colombia, 21
May 1969 (Ivan Zuluaga), on Citrus sinensis.
Genus Iphiseiodes De Leon, 1966
Iphiseiodes De Leon, 1966:84, Fig. 104-105. Type of the genus:
Sejus quadripilis Banks, 1905, by subsequent designation of
De Leon, 1966. Iphiseiodes De Leon; Muma, Denmark, and
De Leon, 1971:70.
DIAGNOSIS: Females of this genus have 4 pairs of dorsal setae, 3 pairs
of median setae, 8 pairs of lateral setae with L4 and/or L8 much longer
than others, 2 pairs of sublateral setae on the interscutal membrane, 3 pairs
of sternal setae, and 3 pairs of preanal ventrianal setae. Peritreme vari-
able but extending forward to L,. The peritremal scutum extends poster-
iorly to leg IV exopodal scutum. The chelicerae are small with 9 to 10
denticules on the fixed finger and 2 to 3 denticules on the movable finger.
Sternal scutum much wider than long and with concave posterior margin.
Ventrianal scutum wide shield-shaped. Macrosetae are usually present on
the genu of all legs and also Sti and St of leg IV. The male spermato-
dactyls have the foot terminal, heel obscure, and lateral process distinct.












Denmark:


Phytoseiidae of Colombia


2', 1


















|i ^ 13
1: /









Fig. 7 to 13: Female Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark and Muma n. sp.
7) Dorsal and leg structure and station. 8) Ventral scuta and station.
9) Posterior peritremal and stigmatal development. 10) Spermathecal
structures. 11) Chelicera. 12) Male spermatodactyl structure. 13) Male
ventrianal scutum.

The genus has been reported from several localities in the southeastern
United States, Mexico, Central America, South America and the Caribbean
area. Three species are presently recognized in this genus: I. quadripilis
(Banks), I. nobilis (Chant and Baker), and 1. kamahorae De Leon.

Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark and Muma, n. sp.
Fig. 7 to 13
DIAGNOSIS: This species can be separated from all other species of this
genus by the long knobbed setaceous macrosetae on leg IV and leg III,
and distinctly knobbed L,. The parallel-sided spermathecal cervix with
slightly enlarged atrium is distinct.
FEMALE: Length 330,; width at L, 237[. Dorsal scutum smooth with
8 to 10 small pores and 17 pairs of setae. Measurements of setae: verti-
cals 22;; D, 2, D, 2t, D:, 2, D4 2/; clunals 1t; L, 26p, L, 2[, L:, 2, L4
971,, L, 2[, L,; 2>, L, 22, L, 1101; M, 2,, M, 2t, M, 2[; anterior sub-
laterals 2,; posterior sublaterals 21A. Sternal scutum smooth with 2 pairs
of pores. Ventrianal scutum reticulated. Peritreme extends forward to
between L. and L,. Chelicerae small; movable cheliceral finger with 2









The Florida Entomologist


denticules and fixed cheliceral finger with 9 denticules. Leg formula 4123.
Macrosetae present on Sge I, Sge II, Sge III. Length of macrosetae on
leg IV as follows: Sge IV 95M, Sti IV 55M, St IV 35,. Genu II 2, -,1;
220
genu III 2, ,1. Spermatheca tubular.

TYPE: Female holotype from Palmira, Colombia, 20 May 1969 (Ivan
Zuluaga), on Citrus sinensis, in the FSCA, Gainesville, Florida. This spe-
cies has been taken at the following locations: male allotype from El Bolo,
Palmira, Colombia, 29 May 1969 on Citrus sinensis; paratypes: 2 females
from El Bolo, Palmira, Colombia, 20 May 1969 on Citrus sinensis; 1 male
and 5 nymphs from Palmira, Valle, Colombia, 21 March 1969 on Citrus sp.;
1 female from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, November 1968 on Citrus sp.; 1
female from Tolima, Colombia, July 1970 on Passiflora edulis var. flavi-
carpa; 4 females, 1 male and 1 nymph from Mariquita, Tolima, Colombia,
June 1970, on Passiflora edulis; all collected by Ivan Zuluaga.

Genus Typhlodromips De Leon, 1959
Typhlodromopsis De Leon, 1959:113 (in part, not typical species).
Typhlodromips De Leon, 1965:23. Type of the genus: Typhlodro-
mopsis simplicissimus De Leon, 1965, by original designation
of De Leon, 1965.
Typhlodromips, Muma, Denmark, and De Leon, 1971:78.

DIAGNOSIS: The females have 4 pairs of dorsal setae, 3 pairs of median
setae with M3 stout and serrate or plumose, 2 pairs of sublateral setae on
the interscutal membrane, 3 pairs of sternal setae, and 3 pairs of preanal,
ventrianal setae. Chelicerae normal size; fixed finger with 8 or more den-
ticules, several of which lie proximal to the pilus dentilis. Peritreme long,
extending forward to or between the vertical setae. Peritremal scutum
almost indistinguishable or indistinguishable fused to stigmatal scutum
and leg IV exopodal scutum. Sternal scutum as wide or wider than long
with straight or concave posterior margin. Ventrianal scutum pentagonal.
Macrosetae are usually present on the genu and occasionally on the tibia
of legs I, II, and III; leg IV has macrosetae on Sge, Sti, and St with St
usually the longest. Males are similar to and smaller than females. Sper-
matodactyl with foot terminal, a distinct heel, and lateral process distinct
to obscure. This large genus is represented by at least 50 known species
and is world wide. It can be separated from Neoseiulus Hughes by pro-
portions of the sternum, greater number of cheliceral denticules, and the
presence of macrosetae on legs I, II, III, and IV. It differs from Typhlo-
dromalus Muma in the form of sternal and ventrianal scuta and in the de-
velopment of the spermatodactyl.

Typhlodromips sinensis Denmark and Muma, n. sp.
Fig. 14 to 18

DIAGNOSIS: Typhlodromips sinensis can be separated from T. aciculus
De Leon by shorter L, and L3, and longer L6 and L7. The spermathecal
cervix of sinensis is fundibuliform with a nodular atrium and aciculus has
a fundibuliform spermathecal cervix but an indistinct atrium. T. sinuatus


Vol. 55, No. 1












Denmark:


Phytoseiidae of Colombia


U 15 --- V----



Is







14 \

Fig. 14 to 18: Female Typhlodromips sinensis Denmark and Muma n.
sp. 14) Dorsal and leg structure and station. 15) Ventral scuta and
station. 16) Posterior peritremal and stigmatal development. 17) Sper-
mathecal structures. 18) Chelicera.

(De Leon) has a spermatheca similar to that of sinensis but the dorsal
scutal setae are much longer.
FEMALE: Length 299$p; width at L, 181$. Dorsal scutum smooth with
a pore at L7 and 17 pairs of dorsal setae. Measurement of setae: verticals
27$; D, and D2 11$, D, 138, D, 22/; clunals 8/; L, 41/, L2 17$, L, 19,,
L4 444, L5 26$, L, 19/, L, 19/, LS 60,; M, 8/, M2 26/, M, 45/1; anterior
sublaterals 18,; posterior sublaterals 20$. Sternal scutum smooth. Ven-
trianal scutum smooth. Peritreme extends to verticals. Chelicerae normal
in size; moveable cheliceral finger with 3 denticules and fixed cheliceral
finger with 10 denticules. Leg formula 1423. Macrosetae present on
Sge I, II, and III, and occasionally on tibia of Sti I, II, III, and IV.
Length of macrosetae on leg IV as follows: Sge IV 388, Sti 22$, St 47$/.
Genu II 2, ,1; genu III 1,--,1. Sperjnatheca fundibuliform, nodular.
MALE: Unknown.
TYPE: Female holotype from Villa Carmelo, Valle, Colombia, 2 April
1969 (Ivan Zuluaga), on Citrus sinensis, in the FSCA, Gainesville, Florida.
Typhlodromalus Muma, 1961
Amblyseius (Typhlodromalus) Muma, 1961:288.









The Florida Entomologist


Typhlodromalus, De Leon, 1966:87. Type of the genus: Typhlodro-
mus peregrinus Muma, 1955, by original designation of Muma,
1961.
Typhlodromalus Muma; Muma, Denmark, and De Leon, 1971:86.

DIAGNOSIS: Females of this genus have 4 pairs of dorsal setae, 3 pairs of
median setae, 8 pairs of lateral setae of which L1, L4, and L, are longer and
stouter and L, is usually serrate, 2 pairs of sublateral setae on the inter-
scutal membrane, 3 pairs of sternal setae, and 3 pairs of preanal ventrianal
setae. Peritreme long extending forward or between vertical setae. Peri-
tremal scutum indistinguishable fused with stigmatal scutum and leg IV
exopodal scutum. Chelicerae normal with fixed fingers with 8 or more
denticules about half of which lie proximal to the pilus dentilis. Sternum
longer than wide and with lobate posterior margin. Ventrianal scutum
vase-shaped. Macrosetae are usually present on the genu and occasion-
ally on the tibia of legs I, II and III, and leg IV has Sge, Sti, and St with
the latter usually longest. Males are similar but smaller than females.
Spermatodactyl with an elongate shank, a broad spatulate foot, and a
small but distinct heel and lateral process. This genus is widely distributed
and is reported to be an omnivorous predator (Muma 1961a.).

Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma)

Typhlodromus peregrinus Muma, 1955:270.
Amblyseius (Typhlodromalus) peregrinus (Muma), Muma, 1961:288.
Typhlodromus peregrinus Muma; Muma, Denmark, and De Leon,
1971:88.
DIAGNOSIS: This species is closely related to T. planetarius (De Leon)
from Mexico and T. olombo (Pritchard and Baker) from Africa. Propor-
tions of setae on the dorsal scutum and genitalic details separate it from
these species.
TYPE: Female holotype from Minneola, Florida, 24 January 1952 (M. H.
Muma), on Citrus sinensis in USNM, Washington, D. C.

Genus Neoseiulus Hughes, 1948

Neoseiulus Hughes, 1948:141. Type of the genus: Neoseiulus bar-
keri Hughes, 1948, by original designation.
Typhlodromus (Typhlodromopsis) De Leon, 1959:113 (in part).
Cydnodromus Muma, 1961:290.
Neoseiulus Hughes; De Leon, 1965:23.
Cydnodromus Muma; Muma, 1967:273.
Neoseiulus Hughes; Muma and Denmark, 1968:235.

DIAGNOSIS: Females are characterized by 4 pairs of dorsal setae, 3 pairs
of median setae, 8 pairs of lateral setae that are subequal in length or
slightly longer posteriorly, 2 pairs of sublateral setae on interscutal mem-
brane, 3 pairs of sternal setae, and 3 pairs of preanal ventrianal setae.
Peritremal scutum indistinguishable fused with stigmal scutum but some-
times separated from the exopodal scutum by a faint suture. Sternum
longer than wide and with straight or concave posterior margin. Ventri-
anal scutum pentagonal to quadrate. There are no distinguishable macro-
setae on leg I, II and III, but St IV is nearly always present and Sti IV


Vol. 55, No. 1










Denmark: Phytoseiidae of Colombia


and Sge IV are present on some species. Males are smaller than females
and have the spermatodactyl with terminal heel or foot, and distinct to
obscure lateral process.

Neoseiulus anonymous (Chant and Baker)

Amblyseius anonymous Chant and Baker, 1965:21
Neoseiulus anonymous (Chant and Baker), Muma and Denmark,
1968:235.

DIAGNOSIS: This species closely resembles Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman),
but anonymous has 3 macrosetae on leg IV, the pores on the ventrianal
shield are elliptical, and the spermatheca is slender and more elongate
saccular.

TYPE: Female holotype from Tacamiche, La Lima, Honduras, 28 Octo-
ber 1959, J. G. Matthysse on banana leaves; in the USNM, Washington,
D. C. This species has been taken at the following locations in Colombia:
Palmira, Valle, Colombia, 1 July 1969 (Cesar Bonilla), on Glycine soja; El
Bolo, Palmira, Colombia, 26 June 1969 (A. Angel S.), on Vigna vexillata;
Palmira, Valle, Colombia, 23 June 1969 (Ivan Zuluaga), on Gossipium hir-
sutum.

Genus Diadromus Athias-Henriot, 1960

Diadromus Athias-Henriot, 1960:67. Type of the genus: Typhlo-
dromus contiguus Chant, 1959, by original designation; De
Leon, 1966:100; Muma, 1961:294.
Typhloseiopsis De Leon; Muma, 1961 (in part, not type).
Chanteius Wainstein, 1962:11; NEW SYNONYMY.
Diadromus Athias-Henriot, De Leon, 1966:100.
Chanteius Wainstein; De Leon, 1967:16.

DIAGNOSIS: The females have 4 pairs of dorsal setae, 2 pairs of median
setae, 8 pairs of lateral setae, 2 pairs of sublateral setae on the interscutal
membrane, 3 pairs of sternal setae, and 4 pairs of preanal ventrianal setae.
The chelicerae are normal with fixed finger multidentate with 5 or 6 den-
ticules anterior to the pilus dentilis. Sternum flat or truncate posteriorly.
Ventrianal scutum quadrate. Peritreme long, extending forward to L1.
Peritremal scutum indistinguishable fused with stigmal scutum and leg IV
exopodal scutum. Macrosetae on Sge, Sti, and St of legs I, II, III and IV.
T. regulars (De Leon) is the only other species known to be in this genus.

Diadromus regulars (De Leon)

Typhloseiopsis regulars De Leon, 1965a:122.
Diadromus regulars (De Leon); De Leon, 1966:100.
Chanteius regulars (De Leon); De Leon, 1967:16.

DIAGNOSIS: We do not think regulars is congeneric with the genus Dia-
dromus, but it is being left in this genus until more specimens can be ex-
amined. This species has been reported from British Guyana, Puerto Rico,










The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 55, No. 1


and Trinidad. It was collected at Valle, Colombia, 1 August 1969 (Ivan
Zuluaga), on Citrus sinensis.

Genus Phytoseius Ribaga, 1904
Phytoseius Ribaga, 1904:177.
Dubininellus Wainstein, 1959:1365.
Pennaseius Pritchard and Baker, 1962:223.
Phytoseius Ribaga; Muma and Denmark, 1968:229. Type of the
genus: Phytoseius plumifer (C. and F.), 1876, by subsequent
designation, Vitzthum (1914) based on Ribaga's (1904) de-
scription.

DIAGNOSIS. Females of the genus Phytoseius have the dorsal shield en-
tire, smooth or rugose, 3 or 4 pairs of dorsal setae, 1 pair of median setae,
8 pairs of lateral setae, some thickened and serrate, 1 or 2 pairs of sub-
lateral setae, with anterior on the dorsal shield, a pair of verticals and
clunals. Ventrianal scutum with 1 to 3 pairs of preanal setae.
There are about 45 species in this genus and it is world wide in dis-
tribution. Two subgenera are recognized, Phytoseius Ribaga and Pen-
naseius Pritchard and Baker.

Phytoseius (Pennaseius) purseglovei De Leon, 1965a:13

DIAGNOSIS: This species belongs to the nahautlensis group and is similar
to P. orizaba as both species have D4 missing, but L2 in purseglovei is about
half as long as in orizaba.
TYPE: Female holotype from St. Augustine, Trinidad, 14 September
1963, D. De Leon, on Cordia curasavica; in the MCZ, Harvard University,
Cambridge, Mass. This species has been taken at Valle del Cauca, March
1969 (A. Angel S.), on weeds in a cultivated field.

LITERATURE CITED
Athias-Henriot, C. 1960. Phytoseiidae et Aceosejidae (Acarina, Gama-
sina) d'Algerie IV. Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afr. N. 51:62-107.
Berlese, A. 1914. Acari nuovi. Redia 10:113-150.
Chant, D. A., and E. W. Baker. 1965. The Phytoseiidae (Acarina) of
Central America. Memoirs Entomol. Soc. Can. 41:1-57.
De Leon, Donald. 1959. Seven new Typhlodromus from Mexico with
collection notes on three other species (Acarina: Phytoseiidae).
Fla. Entomol. 42:113-121.
De Leon, Donald. 1965. A note on Neoseiulus Hughes 1948 and new
synonymy (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash.
67(1) :23.
De Leon, Donald. 1965a. Ten new species of Phytoseius (Pennaseius)
from Mexico, Trinidad, and British Guiana with a key to species
(Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Entomol. News 76(1) :11-21.
De Leon, Donald. 1966. Phytoseiidae of British Guyana with keys to
species (Acarina: Mesostigmata). Studies on the Fauna of Suri-
name and other Guyanas. 8:81-102.
De Leon, Donald. 1967. Some mites of the Caribbean area. Alien Press,
Inc. 66p.










Denmark:


Phytoseiidae of Colombia


Denmark, H. A., and M. H. Muma. 1970. Some phytoseiid mites of Para-
guay (Phytoseiidae: Acarina). Fla. Entomol. 53:219-227.
Denmark, H. A., and M. H. Muma. 1970a. Ricoseius lozocheles (Phyto-
seiidae: Acarina). Fla. Entomol. 53:119-121.
Muma, M. H. 1961. Subfamilies, genera and species of Phytoseiidae
(Acarina: Mesostigmata). Bull. Fla. State Mus. 5(7):267-302.
Muma, M. H. 1961a. Mites associated with citrus in Florida. Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Bull. 640:1-39.
Muma, M. H. 1964. Annotated list and keys to Phytoseiidae (Acarina:
Mesostigmata) associated with Florida citrus. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.,
Tech. Bull. 685:1-42.
Muma, Martin H., and H. A. Denmark. 1968. Some generic descriptions
and name changes in the family Phytoseiidae (Acarina: Mesostig-
mata). Fla. Entomol. 51:229-240.
Muma, Martin H., H. A. Denmark, and Donald De Leon. 1971. Phyto-
seiidae of Florida. Arthropods of Florida and neighboring land
areas 6:1-150.
Ribaga, Constantino. 1904. Gamasidi planticoli. Riv. Patol. Veg. 10:
175-178.
Wainstein, B. A. 1962. Revision du genre Typhlodromus Scheuten, 1857
et systematique de la famille des Phytoseiidae (Berlese, 1916) (Aca-
rina: Parasitiformes). Acarologia 4:5-30.

The Florida Entomologist 55(1) 1972










The Florida Entomologist


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Vol. 55, No. 1














HABITS AND PRESENT DISTRIBUTION IN FLORIDA OF
THE EXOTIC ANT, PSEUDOMYRMEX MEXICANUS
(HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE)12

W. H. WHITCOMB:, H. A. DENMARK', W. F. BUREN5, AND J. F. CARROLL3

ABSTRACT

Pseudomyrmex mexicanus Roger was first collected in Miami, Florida,
in 1960; it is now well-established as far north as West Palm Beach on
the East Coast and has been taken in Pinellas County on the Gulf Coast.
This species commonly nests in hollowed twigs of low shrubs or in the
canes of tall herbaceous plants. Much of its food consists of other insects,
especially lepidopterous larvae, but apparently includes fungus spores and
honeydew. While the worker and queen will sting if held between the
fingers, the small colonies and the solitary foraging habit of individual
workers precludes the species from becoming a serious nuisance to people.

Although Pseudomyrmex mexicanus Roger is well-known in Mexico
and Texas (Wheeler and Bailey 1925, Creighton 1950), to our knowledge,
nothing has been published on the presence of the species in Florida. It
was first discovered in this state about 1960 by H. F. Strohecker of the
University of Miami. The find was made in the yard of his house in south-
west Miami, Dade County. Specimens sent to H. A. Denmark of the Di-
vision of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture, and M. R.
Smith of the USDA were identified as P. gracilis mexicanus Roger. Al-
though still found in the United States only in Florida and Texas, P. mex-
icanus has spread steadily in Florida. In 1964, it was found in Broward
County on the East Coast and in Pinellas County on the Gulf Coast. By
1970, it had spread to the counties of Palm Beach and Glades. It now ap-
pears to be abundant in all southeast Florida from West Palm Beach
southward. In Texas, it also appears to have moved northward and east-
ward; at present it is not uncommon in the Houston area.
The genus Pseudomyrmex, the only new-world representative of the
sub-family Pseudomyrminae, is largely confined to tropical areas. The
range of 5 species extends into the continental United States, where these
species are tropical or subtropical in distribution. Ants of this genus are
long and slender, with unusually large eyes, 2 segments in the petiole, and
a well-developed sting. The queen and the workers are very active and
agile. Except for P. elegans F. Smith from British Guiana, as far as
known, all species nest in the cavities of plants, especially in the hollow,
twigs and thorns of trees and shrubs and in hollow, narrow stems of vines,
herbaceous plants, and larger grasses. Many of the exotic species are ag-
gressive and may sting viciously. Fortunately, this is not true of any of
the species that occur in the United States. All species of Pseudomyrminae

1Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 4046.
2Contribution No. 218, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant In-
dustry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
"Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida,
Gainesville.
'Entomologist, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
"Entomologist, United States Public Health Service, Atlanta, Georgia.













The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 55, No. 1


Fig. 1. Worker of Pseudomyrmex mexicanus Roger.

feed on both insect and vegetable matter to some extent; living insects,
honeydew, and fungus spores are all consumed. Wheeler and Bailey
(1925), to determine food habits of this group, studied the contents of the
pellets placed in the trophothylaces of the larvae of various species of this
genus. They reported that there can be no doubt that small miscellaneous
insects form the most important ingredient of the pellets in most species
of this subfamily.
P. mexicanus is shorter in proportion to its size than most other pseu-
domyrmines found in the United States and lacks the long, narrow head,
giving it an almost wasp-like appearance (Fig. 1). It is much larger than
other Florida members of the genus Pseudomyrmex; workers of P. mexi-
canus are 8 to 10 mm in length in contrast to the 4 to 5 mm of both P.
brunneus F. Smith and P. pallidus F. Smith. The orange markings on the
thorax and petiole distinguish this otherwise blackish ant from most other
Florida ants. It is somewhat more conspicuous than P. brunneus, P. pal-
lidus, and P. elongatus Mayr, contrasting more sharply with the leaf sur-
faces and branches on which it occurs. In Florida, P. mexicanus seems to
nest most frequently in shoulder-high shrubs, such as Brazilian pepper
tree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, although it is commonly found in the
hollow stems of composites of the genus Bidens. It is especially abundant
in dooryard plantings and in fence rows. In sugar-cane fields, it has been
found to nest in tunnels of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis
(Fabricius); more commonly the nests are found in the stems of the weeds
in the fields. This species may excavate ,its own cavities but usually de-
pends on tunnels made by cerambycids and other insects. Wheeler and
Bailey (1925), in their investigation of the feeding habits of P. mexicanus,
reported greater quantities of insect fragments, both large and small in the
trophothylaces of the larvae than in those of other pseudomyrmines. In
our field observations, workers of this species were observed carrying off
various lepidopterous larvae. In laboratory experiments, P. mexicanus
workers readily accepted eggs and larvae of the sugarcane borer. In the












Whitcomb: The Exotic Ant in Florida


field, this species was often observed in association with aphids and mealy-
bugs.
Where it has become established, P. mexicanus is often the most numer-
ous of the pseudomyrmine ants. However, it shows no evidence of be-
coming a nuisance or a pest species. It is true that this species is some-
times associated with an increase in aphid and mealybug populations, but
in no case has this been shown to be of economic importance. Indications
are that it may become an important predator of both pyralid and noctuid
larvae. Its aggressiveness toward native ants and other predators should
be carefully investigated before definite conclusions are drawn as to its
detrimental or beneficial effects on the various ecosystems.

LITERATURE CITED
Creighton, W. S. 1950. The ants of North America. Bull. Mus. Comp.
Zool. Harvard 104. 645 p.
Wheeler, W. M. 1910. Ants, their structure, development and behavior.
Columbia Univ. Press, New York. 663 p.
Wheeler, W. M., and I. W. Bailey. 1925. The feeding habits of Pseudo-
myrmine and other ants. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc., N. S., 22: 235-79.
The Florida Entomologist 55(1) 1972
















SUGGESTIONS FOR OFFICIAL SEAL

The Committee for Official Seal and Colors of The Florida Entomological
Society requests members and friends to submit drawings for an official seal
and to suggest official Society colors.
Guidlines:
1. Drawing(s) Not to exceed 8"x10"
2. Black and white line drawings
3. Should include the words, "Florida Entomological Society," and the
Society's founding date, "1917".
Drawings and suggested Society colors should be sent to: Edward P.
Merkel, 517 Craig Avenue, Lake City, Florida 32055 by 15 August 1972.
Drawings will be on display at the 1972 annual meeting.
Official seals of other entomological societies are illustrated in Downey,
and J. C., and J. M. Nelson 1968. '"Seals and Emblems of North American
Entomological Societies". Bull. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 14(4) :265-300.













34 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 55, No. 1

BOOK REVIEW
Entomological information storage and retrieval by Ross H. Arnett, Jr.
1970. Bio Rand Foundation, Inc., 1330 Dillon Heights Ave., Baltimore, Md.
21228. 210p.; cloth; $7.95.

The subject matter of the book is of primary interest to all entomologists
and librarians. It is unfortunate that there are so few courses on the
subject in most University curricula. Although publishing is a life or
death matter to a research entomologist, he rarely obtains direct training
which will assure quality research papers. The difficulties in determining
what research has already been done discourages many students from the
profession. This book will be of great assistance in both these regards.
Such a title cannot begin to convey the complexity of the subject matter.
It is also a rapidly changing area of study, in which computers and other
new equipment must provide assistance so that the entomologist can get on
with his research. The scope of the book is reflected in the chapter titles:
The informational problem; Information storage & retrieval systems
theory; Stored information; Original documents; Preparation of original
documents for information storage; Preparing documents for information
retrieval; Search resources; Abstracts and indexes; Synthesized informa-
tion; Popular literature; Societies, institutions, and personnel. It has an
excellent glossary of many terms new to entomologists and appendices con-
sisting of 1) bibliography of basic types of entomological literature; 2)
selected list of commercial publishers and dealers in entomological litera-
ture; 3) entomological equipment and supply companies; 4) major ento-
mological libraries of the U. S. and Canada.
No other book is available which covers this area of entomological ac-
tivity in an up-to-date manner and with numerous innovations. Such a
treatise must cover many topics briefly, but the reader is guided to the
source information for greater depth. Key items of each chapter are iso-
lated in eye-catching study blocks. Assignments, many of which are orig-
inal and stimulating, are provided for use in a course. There are many
optional assignments and investigations, making the book useful for semi-
nar-type courses or a 5-hour formal course. Review checklists at the end
of each chapter help to provide a check on the reader's understanding of the
text.
There are few mechanical errors (due to the skill with which Dr. Arnett
personally typed the composition for offset), and the general make-up is
well organized. The only wish I would make is that it might be twice its
length, in order to provide more detailed data such as the appendices and
for more of Arnett's innovative ideas. I recommend it for every entomolo-
gist, but especially as the text for a course which no entomology depart-
ment should be without.-R. E. Woodruff.














SEASONAL OCCURRENCE OF CLICK BEETLES
(COLEOPTERA:ELATERIDAE) IN THE EVERGLADES
AS MEASURED BY TWO TYPES OF TRAPS'

WILLIAM G. GENUNG
University of Florida,
Agricultural Research and Education Center,
Belle Glade, Florida
ABSTRACT
Adult elaterids showed specific responses to black light traps and
sticky traps during seasonal occurrence studies. Both types of traps are
therefore needed for broad spectrum studies of elaterid populations. Adult
populations increased in spring and early summer and declined sharply in
late summer and fall, somewhat earlier for Melanotus communis (Gyllen-
hal) than for Conoderus falli Lane and Glyphonyx bimarginatus Schaeffer.
Adult seasonal occurrence data could be of value in timing of cultural or
chemical control procedures for wireworms.

Wireworms are among the most pernicious of the insect pests of vege-
table and field crops in the Everglades. Wireworm control became the
object of intensive research after these organic soils were reclaimed for
agriculture (Lobdell 1936; Wilson 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1946; Hayslip
1943; Thames and Genung 1951; Thames 1953; Harris 1958, 1961, 1962,
1963, 1965; Harris and Genung 1966; Genung 1958, 1970). Their impor-
tance elsewhere in the state is attested by the work of Wolfenbarger
(1947, 1965), Dobrovsky (1954), Norris (1957), Baranowski (1964), Tap-
pan (1966), and Workman (1963). The most injurious species are the
corn wireworm, Melanotus communis (Gyllenhal), and the southern potato
wireworm, Conoderus falli Lane, while Glyphonyx bimarginatus Schaeffer
appears to be the most abundant species. Other species were very scarce
during the period of these observations.
Differences in responses of adult elaterids to trapping method were
noted by Harris (1965). Numbers of C. falli in catches on sticky traps
were not commensurate with otherwise observed wireworm abundance. On
the other hand, he observed that G. bimarginatus was not taken in black
light trap catches. The inadequacy of sticky traps and black light traps
for measuring populations of C. fall and G. bimarginatus respectively,
continued to be evident after the author assumed responsibility for wire-
worm research at the Everglades Experiment Station in 1965.
The present study was conducted to compare 2 trapping methods and
to determine if the data concerning these adult seasonal occurrences could
be practically related to wireworm control practices.

METHODS
The different trapping methods were compared simultaneously for sev-
eral seasons. Only 1 of each type of trap could be used at the same time.
The light trap was equipped with an F15 T8-B1 fluorescent lamp, placed

'University of Florida IFAS, Everglades Experiment Station, Journal
Series Number 3928.














The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 55, No. 1


I.












I,


90-

80o
Q
S70.
a.



W so
-60
I--

-.J
I--

W 40

o 30

z
20-

10-


M. communis: light trap

1966
--_ 1967
-.- 1968


N~


JUNE JULY


AUG. SEPT.
AUG. SEPT


Fig. 1-Numbers of M. communis adults taken by black light trap
for the indicated years and totalled for bi-weekly intervals.

at an elevation of about 8 ft, and had a walk-in type cage about 6 X 4 X 4
ft. The lamp was identical with that found by Day and Reid (1969) to be
the most successful in their extensive light trap studies of C. fall in the
Charleston, S. C. area. The sticky trap was comprised of 4 upright panels,
each panel was 3 X 1 1/2 ft and extended to a height of about 5 ft from
the ground. The wooden framework and 2 ft high legs were made of
2 in. X 2 in. material. The body of the panels was comprised of 3/8 in.
mesh wire hardware cloth which was coated on both sides with tree tangle-
foot as the adhesive agent. One panel or wing extended toward each of
the cardinal points of the compass.
The light trap was set at 5:00 PM each Monday and the task of separat-
ing and counting the insects commenced the next morning. The sticky
trap was checked weekly and the insects removed. The panels were
cleaned and the tanglefoot coating renewed as conditions required.
Both traps were in locations at the Agricultural Research and Educa-
tion Center, Belle Glade that were reasonably diversified, including prox-
imity to both large areas of undisturbed turf or grassland and to experi-
mental plot areas. Light trap data were recorded for 1966-1970. Sticky
trap data were for 1966-1969.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

It is obvious from the distribution of monthly occurrence that some
adults of each species are present and active at nearly all times. Presence
of a few very young larvae in the soil at all seasons tends to substantiate
this view. However, it is equally obvious that sustained and heavy emer-


/


APR. MAY


OCT.












Genung: Seasonal Occurrence of Click Beetles


M. communis: light trap
1969
__ 1970


I


A


I
I


APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT.
Fig. 2-Numbers of M. communis adults taken by black light trap for
the indicated years and totalled for bi-weekly intervals.

gence is mainly from April or May to September for M. communis (Fig.
1-3) and from May or June through October for C. falli (Fig. 4-5). Sus-
tained occurrence of G. bimarginatus usually ranged from April to No-
vember although it sometimes occurred continuously from February to
early November (Fig. 6-7).
Norris (1957) found that egg laying of C. falli at Hastings continued













The Florida Entomologist


0 50.
o
0-
a_ 20.

10.
cn
w


m 70

o 60.
d
z 50'


40-

30O

20-

10.


/i
/ \ M. communis: sticky trap
/ \
/ -\ 1968
/ \ 1969


r\
I\
I \
I \
I
I
I


I



I


1966

- 1967


I


AUG. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT.
Fig. 3-Numbers of M. communis adults taken by sticky trap for the
indicated years and totalled for bi-weekly intervals.

from late April to early November and that adults lived a maximum of
100 days. It is assumed that egg laying by old individuals was light. Wil-
son (1946) at Belle Glade reported that egg laying by M. communis oc-
curred mostly in May and June and that no eggs were deposited after the
last of August. Adults lived up to about 120 days. These observations
conform with the present seasonal occurrence study and are important to
its practical application. If the period of heavy oviposition greatly ex-
ceeded the seasonal occurrence, as indicated by trapping, control proce-
dures predicated on these trapping data would be considerably reduced in
usefulness.
Since the period of sustained emergence of click beetles should closely


Vol. 55, No. 1












Genung: Seasonal Occurrence of Click Beetles


C. fall: light trap
1966
1967
-.- 1968


I-I-r--


APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT.
Fig. 4-Numbers of C. falli adults taken by light trap for the indicated
years and totalled for bi-weekly intervals.


700-
o C. falli: light trap
c.600 1969 r
S -- 1970
500-

400- /
SI '

0 \ 200

100* \ \


APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT NOV.
Fig. 5-Numbers of C. falli adults taken by light trap for the indicated
years and totalled for bi-weekly intervals.

coincide with the period of heaviest oviposition of females it would ap-
pear that these data could be useful in regard to certain control practices
for wireworms and involving both chemical and cultural programs.
Relation to chemical control: Since young larvae are more delicate and
more susceptible to chemicals it would appear that application of soil in-
secticides in August, September, or October, after the heaviest emergence
is over, would be more effective than those made at a later date when a
large percentage of older, more robust larvae'are present.
Relation to cultural practices: (1) Clean summer fallow: maintenance
of a good clean summer fallow after the onset of sustained emergence dis-
courages the ovipositing females. In addition clean fallowing is a prac-
tice that reduces the number of wireworms, particularly during dry peri-
ods. It should be noted however that clean fallowing is otherwise a poor


0 50-

S40-
C,
390-
I-
w 20-

o 10-
d
z











The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 55, No. 1


40


1400-
1500-

1200-

0-O0
1100-

S 1000-
a.
S900-
800-
700.
I.-
i 600.
500.-

400-
0
Z 30.-


FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT.


Fig. 6-Numbers of G. bimarginatus adults taken
the indicated years and totalled for bi-weekly intervals.


by sticky trap for


soil conservation practice on organic soils as it tends to promote oxidation
and wind erosion. (2) Flooding: while effective against wireworms (Ge-
nung 1970) flooding also is beneficial in prolonging the productive life of
these organic soils which were formed under water. Flooding for wire-
worm control should be considered in relation to the main emergence
periods for adult elaterids-if water is removed from land before the
heavy emergence period is over and if weeds are permitted to grow there-


S G. bimarginatus: sticky trap
-- 1968
i -- 1969


G. bimarginatus: sticky trap

1966
1967











,A


200-
IO0-
100-


o 700
Ld
0_
a-
< 600

500
Un
L 400
-J
L 300
LiI
200


FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT.

Fig. 7-Numbers of G. bimarginatus adults taken by sticky trap for the
indicated years and totalled for bi-weekly intervals.










Genung: Seasonal Occurrence of Click Beetles


on, wireworm re-infestation can occur before planting. Therefore, fre-
quent disking should be done until planting or until the main adult elaterid
season is over. If the water is not removed from the land until October,
chances of serious economic re-infestation seem more remote regardless of
post flooding handling.

LITERATURE CITED
Baranowski, R. M. 1964. Systemic insecticides for control of insects at-
tacking potatoes. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 78:219-222.
Day, Augustine, and W. J. Reid, Jr. 1969. Response of southern potato
wireworm to light traps. J. Econ. Entomol. 62:314-318.
Dobrovsky, T. M. 1954. Laboratory observations on Conoderus vagus
Candeze (Coleoptera-Elateridae). Fla. Entomol. 37:123-131.
Genung, W. G. 1970. Flooding experiments for control of wireworms at-
tacking vegetable crops in the Everglades. Fla. Entomol. 53:55-63.
Genung, W. G. 1968. Ann. Rep. Univ. of Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. p. 158.
Harris. E. D., Jr. 1958. Massive insecticide seed treatment, wireworm con-
trol and sweet corn seedling emergence. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
71:41-43.
Harris, E. D., Jr. 1962. Ann. Rep. Univ. of Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. p. 244.
Harris, E. D., Jr. 1963. Ann. Rep. Univ. of Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. p. 247-248.
Harris, E. D., Jr. 1965. Ann. Rep. Univ. of Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. p. 273-
274.
Harris, E. D., Jr. 1965. Wireworm control on sweetcorn in organic soils.
Fla. Entomol. 48:207-211.
Harris, E. D., Jr., and W. G. Genung. 1966. Ann. Rep. Univ. of Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. p. 274.
Hayslip, N. C. 1943. Ann. Rep. Univ. of Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. p. 126.
Lobdell, R. N. 1963. Ann. Rep. Univ. of Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. p. 124.
Norris, Dale M. 1957. Bionomics of the southern potato wireworm Con-
oderus falli Lane. 1. life history in Fla. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
70:109-111.
Tappan, W. B. 1966. Insecticides tested for wireworm control on cigar-
wrapper tobacco. J. Econ. Entomol. 59:1161-1162.
Thames, W. H., Jr., and W. G. Genung. 1951. Ann. Rep. Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. p. 199-200.
Thames, W. H., Jr. 1953. Ann. Rep. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. p. 242-243.
Willson, J. W. 1939. Ann. Rep. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. p. 155.
Wilson, J. W. 1940. Ann. Rep. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. p. 171.
Wilson, J. W. 1941. Ann. Rep. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. p. 161-162.
Wilson, J. W. 1942. Ann. Rep. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. p. 160.
Wilson, J. W. 1946. Present status of the wireworm problems in south
Florida. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 59:103-106.
Wolfenbarger, D. 0. 1947. Wireworm control studies on the lower south-
eastern Fla. coast 1946-47 Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 60:116-121.
Wolfenbarger, D. 0. 1965. Wireworm control experiments on potatoes
and corn in south Florida. Fla. Entomol. 48:85-88.
Workman, R. B. 1963. Insecticide resistance tests for the southern potato
wireworm. J. Econ. Entomol. 56:419.


The Florida Entomologist 55(1) 1972













The Florida Entomologist


BOOK REVIEWS

Although there are many books on drawing and art, few of them are of
use in preparing illustrations for scientific publications. The following 3
books are reviewed to assist contributors in improving the technical as
well as the esthetic quality of their papers.

A handbook of biological illustration by Frances W. Zweifel. 1965. The
University of Chicago Press, 131 p., 62 fig., 514"x8", paper $1.95. (Phoenix
Science Series: PSS510).

Scientific illustration by Charles S. Papp. 1968. Wm. C. Brown Co., Du-
buque, Iowa, 318 p., 1650 illus., 8Y"x11", cloth $11.75

Basic drawing for biology students by Emil G. Bethke. 1969. C. C. Thomas
Publ. Co., Springfield, Ill., 100 p., 134 illus., 6%"x93%", cloth $7.00.

The order in which they are listed is also the order in which I recom-
mend them, although the first 2 are a "toss up." The Zweifel book is small,
but there is a wealth of concise information with selected examples. With
its low cost, it should be on the shelf of every author (alongside the Style
Manual for Biological Journals).

The sceond book is by Charles Papp, a coleopterist known to many of our
readers. It is highly recommended because of the great number of beautiful
examples of techniques, including many beetle drawings. The text is pri-
marily a series of explanations of the figures. Although the English is an
improvement over a 1963 edition, it is not up to the high quality of the illus-
trations. Papp is a "Scientific illustrator" which he distinguishes from an
"artist" who has greater freedom of expression.

The final book by Bethke is the most recent, and, for its small size, much
overpriced. The author-artist is an ophthalmologist who approaches draw-
ings more as a beginning art teacher might. Stress is placed on sketching,
proportion, and perspective. However, there are few finished examples and
none of fine detail like those in the 2 previous books.

Any approach to scientific illustration can be of value in certain situa-
tions. I would therefore suggest getting all the books and aids which the
author can afford. I believe that the first 2 books are as important to any-
one publishing papers with illustrations as a text is to a student. He can
always borrow a copy from the library, but he will miss a great deal if he
doesn't have his own copy. Every taxonomist should become familiar with
the basic techniques of illustration, and at least one book such as those re-
viewed above is indispensable. (R. E. Woodruff).


Vol. 55, No. 1















GAS STERILIZATION OF BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT
CONTAMINATED BY THE AMERICAN FOULBROOD
ORGANISM, BACILLUS LARVAE1

F. A. ROBINSON, K. L. SMITH, AND P. M. PACKARD

Department of Entomology and Nematology, and Department of Dairy
Science, University of Florida, and Division of Plant Industry, Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services,
Gainesville, Florida, respectively.
ABSTRACT

Ethylene-oxide sterilizing gas mixtures were effective in killing all
stages of the American foulbrood organism Bacillus larvae (White) in
contaminated bee equipment when used in a metal sterilizer in which tem-
peratures and gas concentration could be maintained at desired levels.
However, regardless of the duration of exposure and gas concentration,
some spores survived the treatment probably because of the natural re-
sistance of Bacillus spores plus the added protection afforded by coatings
of bees wax. Polyethylene films or bags were not satisfactory as con-
tainers because of their permeability to the gas mixtures particularly at
concentrations required to assure satisfactory reduction in bacterial counts.


American foulbrood, Bacillus larvae (White), a bacterial disease of
honey bee larvae, is a serious problem to beekeepers in all parts of the
United States and in most other countries of the world. In Florida, where
the incidence of the disease is usually less than 1%, it was necessary to
destroy 15,976 colonies of bees in the 10 year period from 1961-1970
(Packard 1970). At current prices the replacement cost and loss of in-
come from this number of colonies represents an annual loss of $75,000-
$100,000. Many attempts have been made to control this disease by various
methods of manipulation, such as shaking the bees on new combs, or
caging the queen, or dequeening infected colonies to stop brood rearing
(Phillips 1920). Chemical treatment with salicylic acid, phenol, formalde-
hyde, and lye have also been recommended for sterilizing contaminated
equipment (Sturtevant 1926). More recently the use of "disease resistant"
strains of bees and treatment of diseased colonies with various drugs have
been advocated. It was hoped that these methods would prove so effective
that it would no longer be necessary to destroy infected colonies by burn-
ing as is now required by law in many states. Unfortunately, most of
these measures were ineffective when used by the beekeeper under field
conditions, and with the exception of the treatment of colonies with sodium
sulfathiozole and terramyacin, these methods have been discarded. Even
the drug treatments have not been as effective as was hoped since Katznel-
son (1948) showed that the drugs do not kill the spore stage of B. larvae
but merely prevent vegetative growth. Presently the drugs are usually
recommended for use as a preventive treatment program combined with
destruction by burning of colonies that show visible disease symptoms.
Michael (1964) reported that all stages of the greater wax moth, Gal-
leria mellonella (Linnaeus), in honey combs and other bee equipment were

1Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 4051.













The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 55, No. 1


it.. -.A



















Fig. 1.-Only those combs showing the most severe symptoms of
American foulbrood disease were used in these tests. Note the 6 holes in
the upper right where samples were taken for bacterial counts.

killed after 30 min exposure, at room temperature, to a mixture of ethylene
oxide and "freon' gas. Michael also found that, after 18 hr exposure,
American foulbrood scales, pieces of comb containing scales in capped
and uncapped cells, and the spores of B. larvae on glass slides were steri-
lized when exposed to the ethylene oxide-"freon" gas mixture in sealed
plastic bags. This report stimulated interest among other researchers.
Presented here are results of our experiments to develop a practical
method of gas sterilization for decontaminating bee equipment.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
In the first test series brood combs showing symptoms of heavy infec-
tion by B. larvae (Fig. 1) were placed in large 6 mil polyethylene film bags.
The bags were heat sealed and a gas mixture consisting of 10% ethylene
oxide-90% carbon dioxide was introduced through a plastic hose attached
to the bag with plastic tape. The bags were inflated by introducing a
weighed quantity of gas, equal to the amount required to achieve a con-
centration of 250 mg/1 at the temperature prevailing at the time of treat-
ment. Although Richardson and Roth (1963) reported that polyethylene
film or vinyl coated nylon tarpaulins were suitable materials to use in the
fumigation of insect infested grains with ethylene oxide gas mixtures,
they were not adequate for maintaining the high gas concentrations nec-
essary to kill B. larvae spores because of the permeability of these ma-
terials to the gas. However, by using a technique where the regulator
valve on the gas cylinder was adjusted to allow a steady flow of gas suf-












Robinson: Sterilizing Beekeeping Equipment


ficient to maintain the original degree of inflation, it was possible to
maintain a reasonably uniform gas concentration inside the bags. Treat-
ments were continued for periods of 9 and 12 hr at temperatures between
22.00 and 32.0 C. Data from these tests are shown in Table 1.

TABLE 1. TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED BEE EQUIPMENT ENCLOSED IN 6-
MIL POLYETHYLENE FILM. A GAS MIXTURE CONTAINING 10%
ETHYLENE OXIDE AND 90% CARBON DIOXIDE WAS USED.
(INITIAL GAS CONCENTRATION CALCULATED TO BE 250 MG/1.)
Type of Duration of Temper- Bacterial count/g of sample Percent
sample treatment ature Pre- Post- reduction
(hr.) ( C) treatment treatment
Brood 9 25-30 3.9x105 5.4x103 98.6
Honey 9 4.7x104 1.3x104 72.3
Brood 9 1.9x103 1.6x100 97.0
Honey 12 1.2x104 1.5x104 none
Brood 12 22-26 1.2x103 1.5x101 98.8
Brood Honey 12 1.8x104 7.3x104 none
Brood Honey 12 29-32 8.1x105 1.0x105 87.7
Brood Honey 12 8.4x102 1.3x105 none
Honey 12 2.1x103 4.8x104 none
Honey 12 "2.9x104 7.2x104 none
Honey 12 27 2.9x103 5.8x104 none
Brood 12 1.3x106 1.1x101 99.9
Pollen 12 7.7x10' 7.0x100 90.9

In a second series of tests, a metal-lined wooden fumigation chamber
was used instead of the plastic bags to confine the gas. Although the
wooden fumigation box was not gas tight at elevated pressures, it pro-
vided better control of temperature during the treatments. The gas mix-
ture was changed to one containing 20% ethylene oxide and 80% carbon
dioxide. The lower vapor pressure of this mixture made it possible to
obtain higher gas concentrations with the same chamber pressure. Initially,
a quantity of gas equal to a concentration of 450 mg/1, was introduced
and the regulator was adjusted to maintain a slight flow to equal that lost
through leakage. The duration of treatments in this series was 15, 24, and
26 hr at temperatures ranging from 25.0 to 32.00 C. Data from these
tests are given in Table 2.
In a third series of tests a standard laboratory autoclave was used as
the treatment chamber, and a gas mixture containing 12% ethylene oxide
and 88% "freon-12" was used. The lower vapor pressure of this mix-
ture made it possible to achieve much higher gas concentration with no
increase in pressure. Circulating hot water was used to control the tem-
perature inside the chamber. After pre-heating to the desired tempera-
ture the chamber was loaded (Fig. 2) and sealed. The internal pressure
was reduced to-15 p.s.i., the gas mixture was introduced until a positive
pressure of 30 p.s.i. was reached, and the regulator valve was adjusted to
maintain this pressure. Initial gas concentrations were calculated to be
approximately 940 mg/1 and 880 mg/1 at 40.60 C and 50.0 C.













The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 55, No. 1


TABLE 2. TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED BEE EQUIPMENT IN METAL
LINED FUMIGATION CHAMBER. A GAS MIXTURE CONTAINING
20% ETHYLENE OXIDE AND 80% CARBON DIOXIDE WAS USED.
(INITIAL GAS CONCENTRATION CALCULATED TO BE 450 MG/1.)
Type of Duration of Temper- Bacterial count/g of sample Percent
sample treatment ature Pre- Post- reduction
(hr.) ( C) treatment treatment
Honey 15 25-29 1.3x105 1.4x104 89.2
Brood Honey 15 25-29 3.3x105 1.3x105 60.6
Pollen 15 25-29 1.1x105 8.1x101 99.9
Pollen 24 26 1.9x108 4.3x101 99.9
Brood Honey 24 26 1.0x102 3.0x101 70.0
Pollen 24 26 2.2x104 8.3x101 99.6
Pollen 26 32 5.6x102 1.2x101 99.8
Honey 26 32 3.1x102 3.0x101 90.3
Brood 26 32 1.5x104 1.1x102 99.3
Brood Honey 26 32 1.9x102 4.6x101 75.8
Brood Honey 26 32 2.2x101 3.8x101 none
Brood 26 32 3.9x104 4.1x101 99.9
Brood 26 32 8.0x10 7.6x100 90.5

In each treatment in this series 12 combs containing brood honey or
pollen (4 of each) were used at 2 temperature levels (40.6 and 50.0 C).
Exposures of 18 and 36 hr were made. The test was replicated once. Data
from these tests are given in Table 3.


Fig. 2.-Combs of diseased brood in place in the autoclave ready for
treatment. Note bands of indicator tape around the center of each frame.












Robinson: Sterilizing Beekeeping Equipment


Indicator tapes or sachets2 designed for use in ethylene oxide steriliza-
tion procedures were placed on the surface of the combs before treatment.
The color change of these sensors indicated that lethal conditions had
been achieved inside the chamber. However, since these indicators re-
sponded to conditions at the surface of the combs this did not necessarily
reflect the effectiveness of a treatment in killing B. larve spores that
might be protected by a covering of honey or bees wax.
The real effectiveness of a treatment was measured by comparing the
number of bacteria per gram of sample before and after treatment. Each
sample consisted of 6 one-half inch plugs cut from the combs with sterile
metal cutters. Samples were taken in duplicate from each comb, sealed in
plastic bags, and one of each pair was placed in the chamber and treated

TABLE 3. TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED BEE EQUIPMENT IN METAL
STERILIZER AT ABSOLUTE/PRESSURE OF 30 PSI. A GAS MIXTURE
CONTAINING 12% ETHYLENE OXIDE-88% FREON 12 WAS
USED. (INITIAL GAS CONCENTRATION 940 MG/1 AT 40.60 C AND
880 MG/1 AT 50.00 C)
Type of Duration of Temperature Bacterial count/g of samples* Percent
sample treatment ( C) Pre- Post- reduction
(hr.) treatment treatment
Pollen 18 30-40.6 2.2x103 4.4x101 98.0
Pollen 18 2.3x103 8.3x101 96.4
Pollen 18 31-50.0 5.1x103 3.3x101 94.7
Pollen 18 1.0x103 9.0x101 91.0
Pollen 36 30-40.6 1.7x103 2.7x101 98.4
Pollen 36 2.3x103 1.0x102 95.7
Pollen 36 34-50.0 2.5x103 5.2x101 97.9
Pollen 36 2.0x102 2.0x101 90.0
Honey 18 30-40.6 6.0x102 4.7x101 92.2
Honey 18 2.4x102 8.7x101 63.8
Honey 18 31-50.0 2.7x104 1.9x103 93.0
Honey 18 1.1x102 5.1x101 53.6
Honey 36 30-40.6 2.6x103 4.9x101 92.1
Honey 36 1.9x103 1.7x101 99.1
Honey 36 34-50.0 6.8x101 1.1x101 83.8
Honey 36 1.5x102 4.0x10 73.3
Brood 18 30-40.6 1.4x104 2.1x101 99.9
Brood 18 4.2x102 1.5x102 64.3
Brood 18 31-50.0 1.9x103 1.0x102 94.7
Brood 18 3.6x102 4.9x101 86.4
Brood 36 30-40.6 1.0x103 2.3x101 97.7
Brood 36 3.5x104 6.3x101 99.8
Brood 36 34-50.0 8.2x103 1.9x101 99.8
Brood 36 1.4x103 6.5x101 95.4
*Each figure represents the logarithmic average of the 4 replications used in each treatment.


2Tape was manufactured by the 3m Minnesota Mining & Manufactur-
ing Co., St. Paul, Minn., and the sachets furnished by Boots Pure Drug
Co. Ltd., Nottingham, England.













The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 55, No. 1


along with the combs. The other samples were stored at -28 C until
the treatments were completed.
Estimates of the bacterial counts in all samples were made by standard
plating procedures. After weighing, the sample material was aseptically
transferred to sterile Waring blender jars and 198 ml of sterile, buffered,
distilled water added. The samples were blended for 4 min and dilutions of
101, 100, 10-1, 10-2, 10-3, and 10 4 made from the blended material. After
placing appropriate amounts of the diluted material in petri dishes all
plates were poured with Brain Heart Infusion Agar fortified with 100
mg/1 of thiamine (Michael 1964). After the mixture solidified, the plates
were overlayed with a thin layer of agar to prevent spreaders from com-
pletely covering the plates, after which they were incubated at 32 C for
48 hr and the number of bacterial colonies counted. Since the presence of
anti-biotic drugs that might have been used by the beekeeper could pre-
vent bacterial growth, thus masking the true effect of a particular treat-
ment, inhibitor tests were made on a number of the samples. In these tests
the standard 1/2 inch paper disc technique was used with Bacillus subtilis
(ATCC #6633) as the test organism.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Although reduction in bacterial counts of more than 99.0% occurred
in a number of the samples, none of the treatments used in the first 2 series
of tests resulted in sterilization of any sample. The results, as shown in
Tables 1 and 2, do indicate that the type of sample had more effect on the
results obtained than did the variations in temperature and length of treat-
ments used in these series of tests. Generally, those samples which con-
tained brood or pollen responded best to treatment, while the samples
that contained honey usually had the least reduction in bacterial counts.
The combination of longer treatment and higher gas concentration did
result in more uniform test results, as only 1 of the 13 samples in the
second series showed no reduction in bacterial count compared to 6 of 13
samples in the first series.
The results of the third test series (Table 3) were much better than
the previous tests. All samples showed significant reductions in bacterial
count and in 17 of the 24 samples the reduction was greater than 90%.
However, there was too much variation within a treatment, particularly
in those samples containing honey, to make any conclusions as to the rela-
tive effectiveness of treatments at the different temperatures used. An
analysis of variance showed no significant differences due to any of the
interactions between time, temperature changes, and sample source, nor to
the different temperatures. However, the post-treatment counts were sig-
nificantly lower (P=0.01) when samples were exposed to the gas for 36 hr
as compared to 18 hr. The pre-treatment bacterial counts in brood and
pollen samples were higher than pre-treatment counts in the honey sam-
ples.
Following completion of the first 2 series of tests, the combs and other
equipment were destroyed by burning. The high bacterial counts in some
samples after treatment did not justify restocking and field testing of this
equipment, since Foote (1968) and Atkins et al. (1970) both reported a










Robinson: Sterilizing Beekeeping Equipment 49

significant degree of reoccurrence of American foulbrood disease in colo-
nies established on similarly treated equipment. However, the results from
the third test series were sufficiently good to warrant this additional test.
After the combs were aired for several days, field testing of the treated
equipment was initiated on 15 December 1967.
The treated combs were placed in 5-frame hives and a 2 lb package of
bees and laying queens introduced. Each nucleus consisted of 1 frame
each of pollen, honey, and old brood. In addition to the 32 nuclei estab-
lished on the treated combs, 8 others were made up with new frames and
foundation as check colonies to measure the normal incidence of disease in
the area.
Some difficulty was encountered in getting laying queens established,
and after 1 week it was necessary to introduce additional bees and a new
queen to 11 of the 40 colonies. Although it is possible that this problem
was related to traces of the sterilizing gas mixture in the combs, it was
probably due to the poor quality of bees and queens available at that time
of year as this problem occurred with the check colonies, too. Once the
laying queens were established, normal brood rearing activities began.
The worker bees showed no hesitancy in using the old honey and pollen
from the treated combs nor in preparing the empty cells for brood rearing.
However, they did exhibit a decided reluctance to remove the remains of
the old diseased brood. In most instances this old brood was not com-
pletely removed until all other available space had been used (Fig. 3).























Fig. 3.-Three months after the treated combs were restocked with
bees some of the old brood still remains.

Three months after the colonies were established, samples were taken
from 5 colonies in areas where some of the old brood remained. Micro-
scopic examination of these samples revealed the presence of both spores













The Florida Entomologist


and rods of B. larvae. Three weeks later spores, but no rod forms, were
still present in 4 of the colonies, and the other colony was free of all
traces of the disease organism. After another 4 weeks, or 4 1/2 months
after the colonies were established, no traces of old brood remained in any
colony and no spores or other traces of American foulbrood disease could
be found. The colonies appeared normal in all respects, and by 30 June
1967, they were all strong and filled with honey. The dramatic change in
the condition of the original combs is shown in Fig. 4, 6 months after re-
stocking with bees.



- 9P .. -^ ^

~~ -e .. .rrt-^*Ot^^e-1"'"' "a N


Fig. 4.-Six months after restocking all colonies were filled with honey
and healthy brood such as shown here.

In May 1968, 15 months after the colonies were established, all the
originally disease contaminated combs were combined into 6, two-story
colonies. These were moved to the Gainesville area where they have re-
mained under regular observation for more than 3 years with no sign of a
reoccurrence of the disease.
The results of these tests confirm that ethylene oxide gas mixtures are
effective in killing all stages of the American foulbrood organism, B.
larvae, under certain conditions. However, the erratic results, as shown
by the high rate of survival of the bacteria spores in a number of the
samples in the first 2 series of tests, make it doubtful that a reliable tech-
nique can be developed to permit the use of plastic bags, tarpaulins, or
other types of "makeshift" containers. The temperature limitations im-
posed by the fragile nature of the wax combs, plus the protective effect
afforded the bacillus spores by coatings of honey or wax require higher
concentrations of gas than can be achieved in anything other than a well
constructed fumigation chamber.
The possibility that large numbers of viable spores may be present


Vol. 55, No. 1









Robinson: Sterilizing Beekeeping Equipment


even after treatment, plus the reluctance of bees to remove the old dis-
eased brood, suggests that combs containing sizeable areas of diseased
brood should be destroyed instead of being treated. Only in rare instances
would a colony contain more than 3 or 4 such combs, which would be an
insignificant financial loss.

LITERATURE CITED
Atkins, Jr., E. L., L. D. Anderson, and E. A. Greywood. 1970. Research
on the effect of pesticides on honey bees-1968-69. Amer. Bee J.
110: 387-389.
Foote, Len. 1968. Ethylene oxide tests in California. Amer. Bee J.
108: 136-137.
Michael, A. S. 1964. Ethylene oxide. A fumigant for control of pests
and parasites of the honey bee. Gleanings in Bee Culture. 92:
102-104.
Katznelson, H. 1948. Sulfathiozole in relation to the organism Bacillus
larvae, agent of A. F. B. of bees. Gleanings in Bee Culture. 76:
140-141.
Packard, P. M. 1970. Annual report of the apiary section. Fla. Dep.
Agr. Div. Plant Ind. 28th Biennial Rep.: 20-24.
Phillips, E. F. 1920. Control of American Foulbrood. USDA Farmers
Bull. 1084: 10-12.
Richardson, H. H., and H. Roth. 1963. Ethylene oxide fumigants to elim-
inate quarantinable snails Cochlicella or Theba in cargo. J. Econ.
Entomol. 56: 836-839.
Sturtevant, A. P. 1926. The sterilization of American foulbrood combs.
USDA Cir. 284. 23 p.
The Florida Entomologist 55(1) 1972














The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 55, No. 1


BOOK REVIEW

Curculionidae Tribe Ophryastini of North America (Coleoptera) by David
G. Kissinger. Taxonomic Publications, S. Lancaster, Mass; 238 p., 14
Tables, 128 Figures; 1970.

In this monograph Kissinger continues his study of North American
weevils. The tribe Ophryastini contains 2 genera, Deracanthus and
Ophryastes. The former genus occurs in central Asia and Ophryastes,
containing 48 known species, is found mostly in the arid southwestern
part of the United States and Mexico. Two species range up through the
Rocky Mountains into Canada. Members of the genus are large wingless
beetles that feed on desert plants.
Kissinger presents a key to the species, followed by detailed descrip-
tions of each. Four of the 48 species are described as new. The figures
consist of photographs of mounted weevils and genitalia, line drawings,
and a series of maps showing the distribution of each species. The tables
contain measurements of 9 variables (e.g. length of rostrum, width of
frons, etc.) for males and females of each species. For each of these
9 variables, the means, standard deviations, and maximum and minimum
values are given.
Up to this point we have the traditional monograph. In the last 12
figures the author presents the results of applying statistical procedures
by means of computer programs to this data. First he applied a principal
component factor analysis to these 9 measurements made on both males
and females. This resulted in length of elytra, width of elytra, and the
maximum width of the pronotum accounting for most of the variance.
The disadvantage of this type of analysis was thereby demonstrated be-
cause significant taxonomic characteristics were not identified. Then he
made a multiple discriminant analysis to see, if by this method and using
the same 9 measurements, 1 species could be separated from another.
With minor exceptions, the discriminant function was able to assign in-
dividuals to the correct species with probabilities between .95 and 1.00.
However, it should be noted that he used species in this analysis that were
not closely related ones.
This monograph is up to Kissinger's usual excellent work. The com-
position of the work and its reproduction are very good. The statistical
analysis may be indicative of what we may expect in the future. Altogether
it is an excellent job.-N. M. Downie


BOOK REVIEW
The environmental destruction of south Florida edited by W. R.
McCluney. 1971. University of Miami Press, Drawer 9088, Coral Gables,
Florida, 33124. 134p.; 3 maps; paper; $1.95.
There is probably no area of comparable size in the U. S. which is more
likely to have its fauna and flora depleted than south Florida. This book
will help to call attention to this rapid destruction, but it is a far cry from
the great naturalist's books on the subject (e. g. W. S. Blatchley's In days
agone (1932) ; J. K. Small's From eden to sahara-Florida's tragedy
(1929), or Thomas Barbour's That vanishing eden-a naturalists Florida
(1945).
The most authoritative and redeeming part of the book is one of its 21
chapters by the indefatigable F. C. Craighead. Who among our readers
does not know his work with BSving on Coleoptera larvae or his thorough
book on the insect enemies of eastern forests? His first visit to south
Florida in 1918 enables him to discuss the area in perspective. He has
worked there for more than 15 years since his retirement and is fully
aware of man's role in destroying our subtropical environment, along with
its flora and fauna.-R. E. Woodruff.















TICKS COLLECTED FROM INDIAN RIVER COUNTY,
FLORIDA (ACARI: METASTIGMATA: IXODIDAE)

NIXON WILSON1 AND HERBERT W. KALE II2
Department of Biology, University of Northern Iowa,
Cedar Falls, Iowa 50613, and Entomological Research Center,
P. O. Box 520, Vero Beach, Florida 32960, respectively
ABSTRACT

Ten species of ticks (Ixodidae) were collected in Indian River County,
Florida: Amblyomma d(' ,,,i.ir Koch, A. maculatum Koch, A. tuberculatum
Marx, Dermacentor variabilis (Say), Haemaphysalis chordeilis (Packard),
H. leporispalustris (Packard), Ixodes brunneus Koch, I. cookei Packard,
I. minor Neumann, and I. scapularis Say. New tick-host associations re-
corded were: A. dissimile from Pituophis melanoleucus (Daudin), H. chor-
deilis from Toxostoma rufum (Linnaeus), I. minor from Neotoma flori-
dana (Ord) and Oryzomys palustris (Harlan), and I. scapularis from
Cryptotis parva (Say).


The following ticks were collected by members of the Entomological
Research Center, Division of Health, Florida Department of Health and
Rehabilitative Services. The 107 collections (1,408 specimens) included
most of the species of Ixodidae expected to occur in Indian River County,
Florida, and a majority of those considered to occur in the state. Only
Amblyomma dissimile was specifically recorded from Indian River County
previously, although several species may be indicated from this county on
the distribution maps in Bishopp and Trembley (1945).
Ticks were collected incidental to other research activities as time per-
mitted. The majority of records from Oslo refer to material collected at
the Entomological Research Center. Some of the records from Vero Beach
may be as far west as 5 km (Rahgeline Grove) and 13 km (Schwey Ham-
mock). When there are 2 collections with identical data the specimens for
each collection are separated by a semicolon and the data are listed once;
N and L stand for nymph and larva, respectively. The collector is listed
only when someone other than Kale. Most of the specimens are deposited
in the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville.

LIST OF SPECIES

Amblyomma dissimile Koch

Records. Oslo: 2 S S, 1 Y, 5 NN, Drymarchon corais (Boie) (Indigo
snake), 20.XII.1966; 16 8 S, 6 9 9, several Iguana iguana (Linnaeus)
(Iguana), 18.III.1969, A. Buckman; 15 S S, 1 9, several I. iguana, 25.
III.1969, AB; 1 3, 1 2, Elaphe obsoleta quadrivittata (Holbrook) (Yellow
rat snake), 2.IV.1969, AB; 2 9 9, 1 N, D. corais, 3.IV.1969, AB; 5 NN,
D. corals, 15.IV.1969; 3 3$ 1 9, D. corqis, 8.X.1969, HWK & AB; 1 9,

1Supported by University of Northern Iowa Foundation, summer 1971.
Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Bureau of
Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services, Gainesville, Florida 32601.
2Supported in part by National Institutes of Health Grant AI-06587
from National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, to the Florida
Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services.













54 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 55, No. 1

D. corals, 10.X.1969, AB; 2 S& 1 9, D. corals, 29.VI.1970; 8 8 3, 1 9,
D. corals, 21.XI.1970; 1 $, 2 9 9, D. corals, 26.1.1971, L. A. Webber &
E. Sherwood; 1 3, D. corals, 12.VII.1971. Vero Beach: 5 & S, Lampro-
peltis getulus (Linnaeus) (Kingsnake), 25.VII.1965, J. D. Edman; 8 S 8,
Pituophis melanoleucus (Daudin) (Pine snake), 14.X.1966; 1 S, P. mel-
anoleucus, V.1967; 2 & $, P. melanoleucus, 4.VI.1969, AB & LAW; 1 S,
1 9, D. corais, 22.X.1969; 2 & S, 1 9, 3 NN, E. obsoleta quadrivittata,
2.11.1970.
A. dissimile is a common tick of reptiles and amphibians in Central
and South America. In the United States specimens from 6 native hosts
were reported from 6 localities in Florida and 1 locality in Georgia
(Bequaert 1932, 1945; Carpenter et al. 1946; Taylor 1951). It is not rare
on snakes in Indian River County as we list 16 collections and 3 of those
previously published are from this county. Adult ticks were collected
from hosts every month except March, August, and September, and males
outnumbered females 3 to 1. Pituophis melanoleucus is the sixth native
snake from which it has been recorded in the United States.
In the above records we list 2 collections made from iguanas received
from Colombia by way of Miami. This tick is imported into the United
States on exotic reptiles much more frequently than indicated in the litera-
ture. We have seen material from Richmond, Indiana, and Ames and Des
Moines, Iowa, from Epicrates cenchria (Linnaeus) (Rainbow boa), Boa
constrictor Linnaeus (Boa constrictor), and Iguana iguana, respectively.
Snetsinger (1968) lists 8 records from Pennsylvania from exotic snakes
and lizards. It is doubtful if this species can exist in nature outside of
southern Florida or a similar climate, and we consider the 1 record from
southeastern Georgia by Carpenter et al. (1946) questionable, if from a
wild caught tortoise.

Amblyomma maculatum Koch

Record. Vero Beach: 1 3, Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Schreber) (Gray
fox), 1.IX.1967.
The Gulf Coast tick occurs throughout Florida and in coastal areas
of other Gulf and South Atlantic Coast states. Adults are found on many
types of large mammals and immature stages on birds and small mammals.
Many suitable hosts for all stages were examined in Indian River County,
but only 1 specimen was collected.

Amblyomma tuberculatum Marx

Records. Oslo: 2 & S, 1 9, Gopherus polyphemus (Daudin) (Gopher
tortoise), 15.VIII.1967, A. Buckman; 5 & 8, 2 9 9, G. polyphemus, 30.
VIII.1967, AB & R. Chauncey. Vero Beach: 2 S 12 NN, G. polyphemus,
9.VI.1965, J. D. Edman; 1 S, G. polyphemus, 4.V.1968, AB; 1 L, Turdus
migratorius Linnaeus (Robin), 7.1.1969; 2 8 8, G. polyphemus, 8.IX.1970.
The gopher tortoise tick is restricted to the range of that reptile. Adults
and nymphs are found on the gopher tortoise while larvae occur on mam-
mals and birds.

Dermacentor variabilis (Say)
Records. Indian River Shores: 22 NN, 56 LL, several Peromyscus gos-












Wilson: Ticks from Indian River County, Florida


sypinus (Le Conte) (Cotton mouse), 20.1.1969; 6 NN, 11 LL, Sigmodon
hispidus Say & Ord (Hispid cotton rat), 20.1.1969; 6 NN, 44 LL, several
P. gossypinus, 21.1.1969; 7 NN, 12 LL, several P. gossypinus, 22.1.1969; 6
NN, 18 LL, several P. gossypinus, 24.1.1969; 4 NN, 9 LL, several P. gos-
sypinus, 2.II.1969; 1 $, on clothing, 16.V.1969, A. Buckman; 1 N, Spilo-
gale putorius (Linnaeus) (Spotted skunk), 30.1.1970; 2 NN, 31 LL, P.
gossypinus, 5.II.1970. Oslo: 14 NN, 5 LL, pooled P. gossypinus and S.
hispidus, 16.1.1967; 2 NN, Oryzomys palustris (Harlan) (Marsh rice rat),
13.IV.1967; 1 N, P. gossypinus, 13.IV.1967; 1 N, Neotoma floridana (Ord)
(Eastern wood rat), 13.IV.1967; 4 NN, 68 LL, several S. hispidus, 24.X.
1967; 2 NN, 3 LL, N. floridana, 20-26.II.1968; 2 NN, N. floridana, 1.III.
1968, W. L. Bidlingmayer; 2 & S, 1 9, Didelphis marsupialis (Linnaeus)
(Opossum), 25.IX.1970, WLB; 3 S 8, 5 9 9, D. marsupialis, 14.X.1970, D.
Rocque. Vero Beach: 4 NN, 19 LL, P. gossypinus, 13.XII.1966; 3 NN,
9 LL, pooled S. hispidus and N. floridana, 13.XII.1966; 8 NN, 10 LL, sev-
eral P. gossypinus, 15-16.XII.1966; 16 NN, 2 LL, several S. hispidus, 15-
16.XII.1966; 1 S, 8.III.1967; 5 S& 2 9 9, Urocyon cinereoargenteus,
1.IX.1967; 2 NN, 1 L, P. gossypinus, 4.XII.1969; 13 NN, 44 LL, several
P. gossypinus, 2.III.1970; 7 NN, 9 LL, several P. gossypinus, 17.III.1970;
1 9, D. marsupialis, 16.XI.1970; 1 N, P. gossypinus, 17.XI.1970; 3 LL, P.
gossypinus, 19.XI.1970; 1 N, P. gossypinus, 20.XI.1970; 2 & $, 1 9, Pro-
cyon lotor (Linnaeus) (Raccoon), 20.XI.1970; 2 9 9, D. marsupialis, 2.
IV.1971; 4 $ o, 1 9, D. marsupialis, 27.IV.1971; 14 $ $, 5 9 9, D.
marsupialis, 14.V.1971; 6 3S, 1 9, D. marsupialis, 15.V.1971; 18 S S,
7 9 9, D. marsupialis, 16.V.1971; 1 N; 1 N, 5 LL, P. gossypinus, 17.V.
1971; 1 N, P. gossypinus, 19.V.1971; 8 & 5, 5 9 2; 1 3, D. marsu-
pialis, 20.V.1971; 2 S S, 1 9. D marsupialis, 21.V.1971. Winter Beach:
3 S 3, U. cinereoargenteus, 4.VII.1967, AB.
The American dog tick was the most frequently collected tick in Indian
River County and is probably the commonest tick occurring on wild mam-
mals throughout Florida.

Adults have been collected from hosts every month of the year in Flor-
ida (Bishopp and Smith 1938). We have records from Indian River County
for every month except December-February, June, and August for adults,
and June-September and November for immature stages.

Haemaphysalis chordeilis (Packard)

Records. Vero Beach: 1 N, Toxostoma rufum (Linnaeus) (Brown
thrasher), 31.V.1969. Winter Beach: 43 LL, 97 Agelaius phoeniceus (Lin-
naeus) (Redwinged blackbird), 15.XI.1968.

This is a widespread North American tick of birds which should occur
throughout Florida. In general it does not occur as frequently on birds
as does Haemaphysalis leporispalustris. This is the first record from
Toxostoma rufum.

Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard)

Records. Vero Beach: 12 NN, 233 LL, 13 Colinus virginianus (Lin-
naeus) (Bobwhite), 26.IX.1967; 5 NN, 39 LL, C. virginianus, 27.IX.1967;
5 NN, 173 LL, 17 C. virginianus, 29.IX.1967; 3 9 9, Sylvilagus palustris
(Bachman) (Marsh rabbit), 31.III.1971; 1 9, Sylvilagus floridanus (Allen)
(Eastern cottontail), 2.IV.1971; 2 9 9, S. palustris, 14.IV.1971; 1 9, S.
palustris, 27.IV.1971. Winter Beach: 5 NN, 58 LL, 97 Agelaius phoeniceus,
15.XI.1968.













56 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 55, No. 1

The rabbit tick ranges throughout the New World and occurs through-
out Florida. On birds only immature stages are found, sometimes in large
numbers.
Figures before the birds indicate the number examined and not neces-
sarily the number infested. The infestation from 97 Agelaius phoeniceus
was mixed with Haemaphysalis chordeilis.

Ixodes brunneus Koch

Record. Oslo: 1 9, Turdus migratorius, 12.1.1970.
This is a widely scattered, but not abundant, New World tick of birds,
in all stages. It should occur throughout Florida.

Ixodes cookei Packard

Records. All from Spilogale putorius. Indian River Shores: 6 NN,
2.II.1969; 7 NN; 20 NN, 5 LL, 30.1.1970.

This species occurs throughout the eastern and central United States,
largely on carnivores and Marmota monax (Linnaeus) (Woodchuck). In
the southern United States a great many of the records are from mustelids
but this is not so in other areas of its range. It should occur sparingly
throughout Florida.

Ixodes minor Neumann

Records. Indian River Shores: 1 L, several Peromyscus gossypinus,
20.1.1969. Oslo: 2 NN, pooled P. gossypinus and Sigmodon hispidus, 16.
III.1967; 1 N, Oryzomys palustris, 13.IV.1967; 6 $ 8, 7 9 9 (5 pairs in
copulo), Neotoma floridana, 18.VII.1967; 1 L, several S. hispidus, 24.X.1967;
3 NN, 1 L, N. floridana, 1.III.1968, W. L. Bidlingmayer. Vero Beach: 1 N,
P. gossypinus, 13.XII.1966; 1 N, 1 L, P. gossypinus, 15-16.XII.1966; 2 NN,
P. gossypinus, 14-16.III.1968; 2 LL, several P. gossypinus, 2.III.1970. Wa-
basso: 2 9 9, S. hispidus, 22.VI.1968, A. Buckman.

This is a Neotropical species, mainly of rodents, which reaches the
northern extent of its range in southern Georgia. Previous records for
Florida are from Levy and Palm Beach Counties, as Ixodes bishoppi
Smith and Gouck (Rogers 1953). It should occur throughout Florida.
Neotoma floridana and Oryzomys palustris are new hosts.

Ixodes scapularis Say

Records. Indian River Shores: 1 L, several Peromyscus gossypinus,
22.1.1969; 1 L, Cryptotis parva (Say) (Least shrew), 1.IV.1970, R. Chaun-
cey. Oslo: 1 S, 4 9 9 ; 2 9 9, Didelphis marsupialis, 21.X.1969; 3 9 9,
D. marsupialis, 2.II.1970; 4 LL, C. parva, 10.II.1970; 1 S, on clothing. 13.
II.1970; 2 9 9, D. marsupialis, 14.X.1970, D. Rocque; 1 8, 1 9, on cloth-
ing, 18.XI.1970, S. Sherwood. Vero Beach: 2 S 8, 1 9; 2 9 9, D. mar-
supialis, 17.XI.1970; 1 9, D. marsupialis, 18.XI.1970; 1 9, Procyon lotor,
20.XI.1970.

The black-legged tick is common throughout the southeastern and south
central United States with scattered records farther north. Adults gen-












Wilson: Ticks from Indian River County, Florida 57

erally occur on large mammals; the immature stages on lizards, birds, and
small mammals.
Didelphis marsupialis seemed to be infested more than other suitable
hosts which is contrary to findings in Georgia (Morlan 1952; Wilson and
Baker 1972). Females outnumbered males 3.4 to 1, a ratio similar to those
Rogers (1953) recorded for this species in Florida. Cryptotis parva is re-
corded as a host for the first time.

LITERATURE CITED

Bequaert, J. 1932. Amblyomma dissimile Koch, a tick indigenous to the
United States (Acarina: Ixodidae). Psyche 39: 45-47.
Bequaert, J. 1945. Further records of the snake tick, Amblyomma dis-
simile Koch, in Florida. Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 40: 129.
Bishoppp, F. C., and C. N. Smith. 1938. The American dog tick, eastern
carrier of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. USDA Circ. 478. 26 p.
Bishopp, F. C. and H. L. Trembley. 1945. Distribution and hosts of cer-
tain North American ticks. J. Parasitol. 31: 1-54.
Carpenter, S. J., R. W. Chamberlain, and L. Peeples. 1946. Tick collec-
tions at army installations in the Fourth Service Command.
Entomol. News 57: 71-76.
Morlan, H. B. 1952. Host relationships and seasonal abundance of some
southwest Georgia ectoparasites. Amer. Midl. Natur. 48: 74-93.
Rogers, A. J. 1953. A study of the ixodid ticks of northern Florida, in-
cluding the biology and life history of Ixodes scapularis Say (Ix-
odidae: Acarina). Ph.D. Thesis. Univ. Maryland. 176 p.
Snetsinger, R. 1968. Distribution of ticks and tick-borne diseases in
Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania State Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta. Prog. Rep.
288. 8 p.
Taylor, D. J. 1951. The distribution of ticks in Florida. M.S. Thesis.
Univ. Florida. 121 p.
Wilson, N., and W. W. Baker. 1972. Ticks of Georgia (Acarina: Metas-
tigmata). Tall Timbers Res. Sta. Bull. No. 10.
The Florida Entomologist 55(1) 1972












The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 55, No. 1


BOOK REVIEW
The serial literature of entomology; a descriptive study by Gloria M. Ham-
mack. 1970. Entomological Society of America. 85 p. Cloth $2.00.
Available from the Society, 4603 Calvert Rd., College Park, Md. 20740.
This volume is the result of grants to the Society from the National
Science Foundation and contracted with the Biological Sciences Communica-
tion Project of George Washington University Medical Center. Although
this list of periodicals or serials is more complete than any previously pub-
lished, it has many glaring omissions (e.g., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus.; Amer.
Mus. Novitates; Bull. Amer. Mus; Fieldiana). Many old and defunct
serials are missing, and only abbreviated information is given for defunct
ones that are included.
The list is primarily the core serial literature, generally that which
contains 25% or more articles relating to entomology. Titles are listed al-
phabetically by the first word of the title. Each entry contains where
known: address of sponsor or publisher; description and nature of contents;
language of text and summary or abstract; frequency; first year of publica-
tion (and last if ceased) ; major abstracting or indexing services covering
it; average percent of articles on entomology; cost per year; and circulation
figures.
The list is a useful bibliographic aid, but it appears to be much less
complete than a taxonomist would wish. Perhaps the rush to get it pub-
lished in time for the ESA meeting in Miami (Dec. 1970) was primarily
responsible for the incompleteness. The reviewer hopes that an early re-
vised edition will rectify the situation. (R. E. Woodruff)









PRINTING



FOR ALL PURPOSES


Carefully Executed Delivered on Time


STORTER PRINTING COMPANY


GAINESVILLE - - - - - - - FLORIDA















TOOL USING BEHAVIOR OF POGONOMYRMEX
BADIUS (HYMENOPTERA :FORMICIDAE)1
WENDELL L. MORRILL
Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601
ABSTRACT
Florida harvester ants, Pogonomyrmez badius, transported a honey
solution to their nest in saturated sand pellets which the ants formed.

An investigation of the food transporting behavior of the Florida har-
vester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius (Latrielle), undertaken during a field
study for a course in insect behavior2 revealed tool-using behavior that has
not been reported previously. I had placed a drop of honey on a filter
paper disc near a mound at midmorning when the ants had just begun to
forage. An ant found the honey, antennated it, and then moved to the
edge of the paper. There it began constructing small pellets of sand which
it placed on the honey, and in a few minutes the honey was covered with
over a dozen pellets of sand (Fig. 1). Then, the ant picked up a honey-
soaked pellet and carried it toward the next opening. I marked this ant
with a bit of yellow paint. The pellet was carried into the mound; the
ant then returned and took another pellet. After several trips other ants
joined the first and retrieved pellets of honey-soaked sand.


Fig. 1. Harvester ant piling sand pellets on a drop of honey. The
pellets will later be carried into the nest. The line represents about 5 mm.

1Fla. Agr. Exp. Station Journal Series No. 4062.
2I thank J. E. Lloyd and my fellow students for assistance during our
observations.













The Florida Entomologist


I then pressed a 3 dram vial into the ground so the open end was at
ground level. This was filled with a honey-water solution. Ants discov-
ered the solution and began to construct sand pellets from moist sand.
Pellets of sand and small sticks were dropped into the vial. The vial soon
over flowed, and the solution soaked into the surrounding sand. Then the
ants stopped dropping pellets into the vial and began retrieving honey-
soaked sand.
The foods normally harvested in this manner may possibly include
plant sap, fluids from ripe fruits, or body fluids from animals. This tool
making and usage is analogous to the chimpanzees' use of crumpled leaves
to soak up drinking water (Goodall 1964). Further studies of this be-
havior are planned.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I wish to thank J. E. Lloyd for assistance in preparation of this manu-
script and H. A. Denmark for identification of the ants.

LITERATURE CITED

Goodall, J. 1964. Tool-using and aimed throwing in a community of
free-living chimpanzees. Nature 201(4926): 1264-1266.

The Florida Entomologist 55(1) 1972


Vol. 55, No. 1















PHLEBOTOMINE SAND FLIES FROM TEXAS AND
FLORIDA (DIPTERA:PSYCHODIDAE)1

DAVID G. YOUNG

Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 326012

ABSTRACT

New distributional records and notes on the ecology of several species
of Lutzomyia sand flies are given. In Texas, L. anthophora (Addis) is
closely associated with the Neotoma woodrat. L. texana (Dampf) was
commonly taken in armadillo burrows. L. vexator occidentis (Fairchild
and Hertig) and L. cruciata (Coq.), a man-biter, were also collected in
Texas. L. cubensis (Fairchild and Trapido), previously known only from
Cuba, L. cruciata and L. vexator vexator (Coq.) are herein reported from
Florida.


During 1965 and part of 1966 I was able to make sporadic collections
of Lutzomyia (=Phlebotomus) sand flies in southern Texas. The follow-
ing observations are based on these collections, on recent field work in
Florida, and on specimens kindly made available to me by Dr. Alan Stone
of the U. S. National Museum and Drs. G. B. Fairchild and F. S. Blanton
of the Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida.
Six species of Lutzomyia are known to occur in Texas (Stone et al.
1965, Easton et al. 1968). These are: L. anthophora (Addis), L. californica
(Fairchild and Hertig), L. cruciata (Coq.) (=P. diabolicus Hall), L. op-
pidana (Dampf), L. texana (Dampf) and L. vexator (Coq.). Based on the
literature, L. shannoni (Dyar) appears to be the only sand fly reported
from Florida (Thurman et al., 1949).
L. anthophora was first discovered feeding on domestic rabbits in
Uvalde, Texas but the wild host(s) of this species was not determined
(Addis 1945a). On 20 November 1965, Mr. Chris Parrish and I collected
3 females and 1 male of this species in the den of a woodrat, Neotoma
micropus, at the edge of Lackland Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas.
A simple tube aspirator was used to capture the specimens. On 7 January
1966, I collected over 200 L. anthophora, about equally divided as to sex,
from 14 Neotoma dens along the Rio Grande, about 16 km east of Browns-
ville, Texas. Only those dens appearing to be occupied by woodrats har-
bored sand flies. One den yielded 37 females, 40 males and 20+ additional
sand flies which escaped capture. L. anthophora was also commonly
taken in Neotoma dens on the Welder Wildlife Refuge near Sinton, Texas
(San Patricio Co.) in December 1965 and in March, and May to August

'Fla. Agr. Exp. Station Journal Series No. 4103.
2Part of the work was done while the author was serving in the U. S.
Army at the Medical Field Service School, Brooke Army Medical Center,
Ft. Sam Houston, Texas. In addition to the persons mentioned in the text,
I wish to thank the following for providing advice and support during
the studies: Mr. Chris Parrish, Dr. Vernon J. Tipton, Mr. Charles Sutton,
Mr. Edward G. Campos, Mr. Heriberto A. Trevino and Dr. Wilford J.
Hanson.













The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 55, No. 1


1966. Although collections were not made each month during the year,
active adults are probably present throughout the year in southern Texas.
The association between L. anthophora and the woodrat is evidently
very close. Most of the recently engorged females having bright red ab-
domens were found in the soft, bird-like inner nest of the main Neotoma
den. Other specimens were found throughout the dens but in fewer num-
bers. Based on field and laboratory observations, Addis (1945a, b) noted
that L. anthophora females feed during the morning hours, many from
0800 to 1000 hours. This probably coincides with the time when the wood-
rat is inactive and readily available to the sand flies within the den. It
would be interesting to determine the role, if any, that L. anthophora
plays in the transmission of blood parasites or other endoparasites to
Neotoma.
Although several samples of soil and debris from a nest harboring
L. anthophora near Sinton failed to yield larvae, it seems likely that the
immature stages of L. anthophora undergo development within or under
the Neotoma den.
L. texana was described from specimens collected in the nest of a leaf
cutting ant, Atta texana (Buckley), in San Antonio, Texas. Eads et al.
(1965) failed to find L. texana in Atta nests in Brownsville, Texas, even
though adults were commonly taken in nearby light traps.
L. texana and its close neotropic relative, L. barrettoi (Mangabeira),
frequently inhabit mammal burrows, especially those dug by armadillos.
Except for September and October when collections were not made, L.
texana was recovered from armadillo burrows or CDC light traps (Sudia
and Chamberlain 1962) each month of the year on the Welder Wildlife
Refuge. One burrow, examined on 5 December 1965, yielded 32 males and
45 females of L. texana. After disturbing the sand flies within the bur-
rows with a long stick, they would fly to the entrance and could then be
easily captured with an aspirator. Burrow traps (Harwood and Halfhill
1960) were also successfully used in capturing this species.
I did not determine whether or not L. texana feeds on armadillos or is
simply using the burrow as a resting and/or breeding site. No recently
engorged specimens were collected even though the armadillo and sand
flies were occasionally seen together in the same burrow. In addition to
finding L. texana near Sinton, I have examined specimens from the follow-
ing Texas localities: 9 females, 6 males, Garner State Park (Uvalde Co.),
18 May 1965, in light trap, D. G. Y. coll; 4 females, 15 males (11 gravid),
Fredericksburg (Gillespie Co.), 1 July 1967, in light trap, F. S. Blanton
and H. Borchers colls; 9 males, 9 females, Aransas Refuge (Aransas
Co.), 22 April 1966, W. W. Wirth and R. H. Jones colls.
L. vexator was recovered from light traps at Garner State Park (2
males, 3 females, 18 May 1965) and at Fredericksburg (2 males, 1 female,
July 1968). These specimens agree closely with the holotype and allo-
type of L. vexator occidentis (Fairchild and Hertig)-the western sub-
species previously known from California, Washington State and southern
Alberta (Harwood 1965). I suspect that the L. vexator collected by Easton
et al. (1968) in West Texas may also be this subspecies.
Unlike the above 3 species, L. cruciata will bite man (Lindquist 1936).
Two females were taken in a human biting collection (2200 hours) at












Young: Sand Flies from Texas and Florida


Garner State Park on 17 May 1965. Two males and 12 females of this
species were also collected at the same time and place in CDC light traps.
In addition, I have examined L. cruciate, collected in light traps, from the
following localities: Texas-9 females, Camp Bullis (Bexar Co.), 16 June
1965, D. G. Y. coll; 1 male, 3 females, Fredericksburg (Gillespie Co.), 1
July 1967, F. S. Blanton and H. Borchers colls; 2 females, Lake Buchanan
(Llano Co.), 17 July 1966, D. G. Y. coll. Florida-3 females, 10 km NW
of Gainesville (Alachua Co.), 14 May 1963, F. S. Blanton coll; 1 female,
12 km NW of Gainesville, 9 August 1971, D. G. Y. coll.
The Florida specimens were collected in a rather wet, mixed hardwood
forest. L. shannoni (30 females, 8 May 1969) and vexator vexator (2
males, 1 female, 14 May 1963) were also taken in this same forest in light
traps.
Through the generosity of Dr. Alan Stone, I was able to study a num-
ber of unidentified Lutzomyia including a single female collected on Big
Pine Key (Monroe Co.), Florida on 16 January 1969 by Dr. A. B. Gurney.
Although a series of both sexes is not presently available, I tentatively
consider the specimen to be L. cubensis (Fairchild and Trapido, 1950)-a
species heretofore known only from Cuba. The Florida specimen com-
pares favorably with the allotype and female paratypes of L. cubensis.
Unlike females of the other known Lutzomyia occurring in the U. S.,
the female of L. cubensis has well developed spines on the pharynx. The
male is separated from the other U. S. species by the following combina-
tion of characters: style with 4 major spines; coxite without a basal tuft
of setae, its length about equal to that of the lateral lobe; palpal segments
1 and 2 longer than palp 3; cibarium with 6 or 7 short teeth; antennal
ascoids simple, without posterior spurs. Both sexes have been described
and illustrated by Fairchild and Trapido (1950).

LITERATURE CITED

Addis, C. J. 1945a. Phlebotomus (Dampfomyia) anthophorus, n. sp., and
Phlebotomus diabolicus Hall from Texas (Diptera: Psychodidae).
J. Parasitol. 31:119-127.
Addis, C. J. 1945b. Laboratory rearing and life cycle of Phlebotomus
(Dampfomyia) Anthophorus Addis (Diptera: Psychodidae). J.
Parasitol. 31:319-322.
Eads, R. B., H. A. Trevino, and E. G. Campos. 1965. Additional records
of Phlebotomus texanus. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 67:51-52.
Easton, E. R., M. A. Price, and 0. H. Graham. 1968. The collection of
biting flies in west Texas with malaise and animal-baited traps.
Mosquito News 28:265-269.
Fairchild, G. B., and H. Trapido. 1950. The West Indian species of Phle-
botomus (Dipt., Psychodidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 43:405-
417.
Harwood, R. F. 1965. Observations on distribution and biology of Phle-
botomus sand flies from northwestern North America (Diptera:
Psychodidae). Pan.-Pac. Entomol. 41:1-4.
Harwood, R. F., and J. E. Halfhill. 1960. Mammalian burrows and vege-
tation as summer resting sites of the mosquitoes Culex tarsalis
and Anopheles freeborni. Mosquito News 20:174-178.













The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 55, No. 1


Lindquist, A. W. 1936. Notes on the habits and biology of a sand fly,
Phlebotomus diabolicus Hall in southwestern Texas (Diptera: Psy-
chodidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 38:29-32.
Stone, A., C. W. Sabrosky, W. W. Wirth, R. H. Foote, and J. R. Coulson.
1965. A catalog of the Diptera of America north of Mexico. USDA
Handbook 276. 1696 p.
Sudia, W. D., and R. W. Chamberlain. 1962. Battery light trap, an im-
proved model. Mosquito News 22:126-129.
Thurman, D. C., J. A. Mulrennan, and E. B. Thurman. 1949. Occurrence
of Phlebotomus (Neophlebotomus) shannoni Dyar in Florida. J.
Parasitol. 35:199-200.

The Florida Entomologist 55(1) 1972




BOOK REVIEWS
The following 2 articles are extremely important to taxonomists wishing
to locate type specimens. The International Commission on Zoological No-
menclature has recommended that all type repositories have the obligation
of publishing their type holdings (recommendation 72D4). We would ap-
preciate knowing of other published type holdings which we will then list
in future issues of the Coleopterists Bulletin.
A Catalogue of Types of Coleoptera in the Canadian National Collection of
Insects by Raymond de Ruette, 1970. Mem. Ent. Soc. Canada 72:1-134.
This list includes all type specimens catalogued through 31 Dec. 1968.
There are 679 holotypes, 355 allotypes, 47 lectotypes, 2 neotypes; 211 species
are represented by syntypes and 1392 species by paratypes or paralecto-
types. The families are arranged alphabetically and there is an index to all
species names.
All species are cited alphabetically under the original combination, and
reference is made to the original description. All label data are listed for
holotypes, neotypes, lectotypes, and syntypes. For paratypes and paralecto-
types the number of specimens is listed with the state or provincial records
listed for Canada, U.S., and Mexico, but only by country for others. All
name changes known to the author are listed after each entry.
The Canadian National Collection is recognized world wide as one of the
major collections and type repositories. The Coleoptera portion has grown
from a 1960 estimate of 550,000 specimens in 1150 USNM drawers to the
present estimate of 1,200,000 specimens in 3500 USNM drawers.
Catalogue of the types in the Snow Entomological Museum. Part VI
(Coleoptera) by G. W. Byers and J. B. Karren. 1968. Univ. Kansas Sci.
Bull. 48(1) :1-20.
This list contains information on the types of 544 species and subspecies
as of 1967. Citations of original descriptions are given only for holotypes,
allotypes, syntypes, lectotypes, or neotypes, although paratypes are listed
under each species. No synonymy or reassignments are listed; only the
original combination is mentioned. Type localities are not listed. (R. E.
Woodruff)














OBSERVATIONS ON THE FORAGING BEHAVIOR OF THE
SOUTHERN HARVESTER ANT, POGONOMYRMEX
BADIUS1

DAVID A. NICKLE AND THOMAS M. NEAL
Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601

ABSTRACT
Field experiments with the southern harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius
(Latreille), showed individual differences in selective foraging of seeds
apparently in response to chemicals in the seeds.



Although selective foraging by individuals on the basis of chemicals has
been demonstrated for honeybees (Miiller 1882, von Frisch 1950), to our
knowledge similar findings have not been demonstrated for ants. During a
brief field study2 of foraging behavior of the southern harvester ant,
Pogonomyrmex badius (Latreille), we observed a previously unrecorded
division of labor based apparently upon different responses to chemicals in
the seeds.
Two ant colonies were observed in a turkey oak-long leaf pine sandhill
community in Gainesville, Florida on 2 mornings in early June, 1971.
About 1 ft. from the opening of each nest we placed a small pile of mixed
seeds of cultivated wheat and 4 local plants3 thought to be the forage for
these ants. Each colony was observed for more than 2 hr, and ants carry-
ing each seed type into the nest were marked with a different color of quick-
drying paint applied to the dorsum of the gaster.
For both colonies a total of 36 ants carried only wheat seeds (n=131)
into the nests; 29 carried only Bahiagrass seeds (n=78) ; and 7 carried only
broom sedge seeds (n=15)into the nests. The remaining seeds were either
not taken or deposited on the refuse pile. In only 4 instances did ants switch
from one seed type to another. In each case the switch-over occurred early
in the experiment, and once the change was made, the ant continued to
gather only the second seed type.
To determine whether physical or chemical properties of the seeds were
responsible for this behavior, wheat seeds were ground into small fragments
and placed on the pile of seeds. The fragments were immediately carried
into the nests by ants previously labelled as wheat seed carriers. Bahia-
grass and broom sedge seeds were then rubbed in the mortar in which the
wheat had been crushed and were placed on the pile. Although no ants
which had previously selected only Bahiagrass or broom sedge seeds

1Fla. Agr. Experiment Station Journal Series No. 4221.
2Observations were made during a field laboratory in a Graduate course
on insect behavior at the University of Florida.
3Wild blackberry (Rubus betulifolius Small), wire grass (Aristida strict
Michx.), Pensacola Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Fliigge), and broom
sedge (Andropogon elliottii Chapm.).













66 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 55, No. 1

gathered them, they were taken into the nests by wheat-labelled ants, sug-
gesting that the ants were responding to chemical factors in the seeds.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors wish to thank Dr. J. E. Lloyd for his encouragement and
advice in this project.

LITERATURE CITED

Frisch, K. V. 1950. Bees, their vision, chemical senses and language. Cor-
nell University. Ithaca, N. Y. 119 p.
Miller, H. 1882. Versuche iiber die Farbenliebhaberei der Honigbiene. Kos-
mos 12:273-299.
The Florida Entomologist 55(1)1972














DR. WILLIAM G. EDEN RECEIVES AWARD FROM THE
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY


Dr. William G. Eden
The man we honor today has earned many honors owing to the quality
and quantity of his work in entomology. He has served on numerous state
and national committees appointed by governments, scientific societies,
and universities. On several occasions he has been asked to represent the
University of Florida on international programs, such as chief of party
UF USAID Mission in South Vietnam. His service to agriculture is truly
international.
Our honoree was born and raised on a farm near Talladega, Alabama.
He received the B.S. and M.S. degrees from Auburn University in 1940
and 1947, respectively, and earned the Ph.D. degree at the University of














The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 55, No. 1


Illinois in 1950 with a major in Entomology. From 1940 to 1944 he served
as Assistant County Agent in Geneva County, Alabama. He entered the
U. S. Navy in 1944 and achieved the rank of Captain in the Medical Serv-
ice Corps.
He joined the faculty at Auburn University in 1948 as Assistant Ento-
mologist and Assistant Professor. He was promoted to the Associate rank
in 1950 and then to Professor in 1953. During his 20 years at Auburn he
published over 100 papers, mostly on economic entomology, and served as
counsellor and adviser to many quality students at the B.S., M.S., and
Ph.D. levels. He served a term on the Graduate Council at Auburn Uni-
versity and was elected to 2 terms on the city council of Auburn, Ala-
bama.
In 1965 he was appointed Chairman and Professor of the Department
of Entomology and Nematology of the University of Florida where he
has served with distinction. Under his leadership graduate enrollment has
increased from less than 20 students to close to 60 at present, and the
number of faculty with teaching responsibilities has nearly tripled. The
1970 American Council of Education evaluated this department with a
rating of Good. This was one of the few Departments of Entomology in
the United States to achieve this high rating and the only department of
the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida,
to do so.
The man we honor today has provided vital leadership in the coordina-
tion of state and federal entomological and nematological activities in
Florida. Scientists now work in teams rather than separately, over 80
professionals are available to guide graduate studies, and the quality of
graduate students has been steadily improved through careful selection of
applicants. Our honoree was named Professor of the Year in 1968 by the
Florida Chapter of Alpha Zeta, and in May 1971 he received an award as
Outstanding Administrator in the University of Florida's Institute of Food
and Agricultural Sciences.
He is an active member of the Baptist Church and has taught Sunday
School for 10 years. He is a Mason and an active member of Rotary In-
ternational. He is a member of the Entomological Society of America,
Society of Nematologists, Florida Entomological Society, Phi Kappa Phi,
Gamma Sigma Delta, Sigma Xi, Pi Chi Omega, and a Research Associate
of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods. He served as Chairman
of the Southeastern Branch of the Entomological Society of America in
1970-71. The Entomological Society of America, with over 6,000 members,
recognized his accomplishments and capabilities by naming him President-
Elect for 1971 and President for 1972. It is with much pride and pleasure
that we recognize Florida's Man Of The Year in Entomology-Dr. William
G. Eden. On behalf of The Florida Entomological Society we present
this plaque which reads, "FOR HIS UNSELFISH DEVOTION AND CONTRIBUTIONS
IN THE FIELD OF ENTOMOLOGY TO THE NATION, THE STATE, AND THE FLORIDA
SOCIETY."
Warren C. Adlerz
Philip S. Callahan
Frank A. Robinson
Howard V. Weems, Jr., Chairman




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