Volume 55, No. 4 December 1972
FAIRCHILD, G. B.-Notes on Neotropical Tabanidae (Dip-
tera) XIII. The Genus Diachlorus O. S. ....-........-..-....... 219
REINERT, J. A.-Control of the Southern Chinch Bug, Blis-
sus insularis, in South Florida ....................................---------------.... 231
STEGMAIER, C. E. JR.-Notes on Some Sarcophagidae (Dip-
tera) Reared from Snails (Mollusca) in Florida -..--...... 237
LAWRENCE, PAULINE O.-The Jamaican 'Orange Dog', Pap-
ilio andraemon, (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) ................ 243
NEAL, T. M., G. L. GREENE, F. W. MEAD, and W. H. WHIT-
COMB-Spanogonicus albofasciatus (Hemiptera: Miri-
dae): A Predator in Florida Soybeans -..-...........--------. 247
MOUND, L., and KELLIE O'NEILL-Neotropical Fungus-
Feeding Thysanoptera of the Genus Sedulothrips (Phal-
aeothripinae) .......................---.---------.........---------- 251
PHILLIS, W. A., III, and H. L. CROMROY-A Preliminary
Survey of Ectoparasitic Mites (Acari) of the House
Sparrow and Mockingbird in Florida ................---- ..........-. 258
LOOMIS, H. F.-Some Notes on the Milliped Family Paeromo-
pidae, with a Description of a New Species .....-....-..... 259
WOLFENBARGER, D. O.-Sorghum Midge Infestation Rela-
tionship with Distance from Field Margins .........--.... 263
HEPNER, L. W.-New Species of Erythroneura (Homoptera:
Cicadellidae) .----------... --..........-......--------------------. .267
STEGMAIER, C. E., JR.-Parasitic Hymenoptera Bred from
the Family Agromyzidae (Diptera) with Special Ref-
ference to South Florida .--.......-..--.-.............-----..---. 273
HERTEL, G. D.-Abnormalities of the Antennae, Elytra, and
Head Position in the Pales Weevil, Hylobius pales
(Coleoptera: Curculionidae) ............................................. 283
Index to Volum e 55 ..............-..................................................... 286
Notices to Members ..-----................... ....- -........... .......... 229, 242
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NOTES ON NEOTROPICAL TABANIDAE (DIPTERA)
XIII. THE GENUS DIACHLORUS O. S.1
G. B. FAIRCHILD
Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida, Gainesville. Florida
A key is given to the 23 species of Diachlorus O. S. (Diptera: Tabani-
dae). D. pechumani n. sp., D. xynus, n. sp., and D. aitkeni n. sp. are de-
scribed. The male of D. bicinctus is described, and taxonomic notes on
other species are given.
This genus of small but easily recognized biting flies was characterized
most recently by Fairchild (1969), and the species were listed with synon-
ymy and distribution (Fairchild 1971). The only key to the species, how-
ever, appeared over 40 years ago (Krober 1928) and was far from satis-
factory. Most of the species have been illustrated at various times, notably
by Lutz (1913) who figured 13 species in color, and Kr8ber (1928) who
gave rather rough figures of the head characters of 15 species.
It is the purpose of the present communication to furnish a key for the
determination of the known species, to describe 3 new species and the
hitherto unknown male of another, and to indulge in brief comments on
certain species of questionable status. I have available for this purpose
specimens of 16 of the 20 described species and have seen the type speci-
mens of all species.
It is to be noted that Kr8ber (1928) misidentified 2 species in his re-
view. His D. ochraceus Macq. is D. fuscistigma Lutz and his D. fuscistigma
Lutz is probably D. jobbinsi Fchld., though his figure of antennae is dis-
Key to Diachlorus females.
1. Subcallus bare and shiny. Largely shiny black species. Apical
dark wing patch a vertical band which leaves apex hyaline .............. 2
1.' Subcallus pollinose. Apical dark wing patch present, faint, or
absent; if outwardly dilute, then abdomen not largely black ............ 4
2. Subcallus with a median silvery pollinose streak. Fore tibiae
wholly black and black-haired. Subapical dark wing band nar-
rower, concave outwardly. Abdomen wholly shiny black, occa-
sionally with faint sparsely pale-haired median triangles on ter-
gites 2-5. (Northern S. America; Trinidad) ........... scutellatus Macq.
2.'. Subcallus entirely bare and shiny. Fore tibiae basally white and
white-haired. Subapical dark wing band straight or convex out-
wardly .............. ...-........ ...-.-. .............. ...... ............- ......... 3
3. Frons about 2.5 times as high as basal width. Abdomen with a
middorsal yellow integumental stripe, or vestige thereof. Tergites
2 and often 3 yellowish or brown laterally. Frontal callus, sub-
callus and palpi yellowish brown. All femora yellowish to brown,
1Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 4505.
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 55, No. 4
the hind pair often with subapical brown band. (Bahia to Mato
Grosso, Brazil) -...---...............---..--....-........------.....--..---- neivai Lutz
3.' Frons about 3.5 times as high as basal width, abdomen wholly
shiny black. Frontal callus black, subcallus black or brown, palpi
yellow to black, largely pale-haired. All femora black. (Para,
Brazil to E. Peru) ................................................................. xynus n. sp.
4. (1) Antennal scape longer than basal plate. Abdomen black, the
first two tergites with conspicuous white transverse bands. Meso-
notum black, shiny, with small pale triangles connected to the
yellow-haired notopleural lobes. Scutellum yellow pollinose and
yellow-haired. Wing with broad dark costal band to apex, a nar-
row dark band covering crossveins at ends of basal cells and
small clouds on fork of third vein. (N. E. South America) ...........
... ... ........ ............................................................... bicinctus F ab.
4.' Antennal scape shorter than basal plate. Abdomen rarely black;
if so, then otherwise marked. If wing with costal band, then lack-
ing band at ends of basal cells ---.....--- --------.......--.........-..... ...........---------- 5
5. Frons about 3.6 times as high as basal width, distinctly narrower
at vertex, the callus drop-shaped. Antennae unusually long and
slender, markedly longer than frons, the style as long or longer
than basal plate, the third segment about 3 times length of scape.
Abdomen dull yellowish with a pair of sublateral blackish stripes
covering tergites 2 to 6, the median yellowish stripe wider than
the black. Fore and hind legs mainly brown to black, mid legs
wholly pale. Apical wing spot dilute, brownish, often fading out
in cell 4th R (Brazil) .....................- ................................. bivittatus W ied.
5.' Without the above combination of characters .................................... 6
6. Frons narrower, over 3.5 times as high as basal width, generally
parallel sided or widened in the middle (rarely narrowed above) ...... 7
6.' Frons broader, not over about 2.5 times as high as basal width,
nearly always narrowed above .............................. ................................14
7. Mesonotum and scutellum essentially unicolorous, without promi-
nent stripes, both pollinose. Stigma dark brown to blackish ......,..... 8
7.' Mesonotum with a prominent pattern of dark shiny stripes, or dark
with pale pollinose stripes and margins. Scutellum shiny. Stigma
pale yellow. Apical spot intensely black, filling wing apex ............ 9
8. Median yellow-haired abdominal stripe broad, at least 1/3 width of
abdomen, often appearing as a series of broadly overlapping tri-
angles. Distal ends of basal cells distinctly brown-bordered and
often brown streaks in first basal and base of first posterior cells.
(N. Jersey U.S. to Costa Rica) ...................................... ferrugatus Fab.
8.' Median yellow-haired abdominal stripe narrow, often indistinct,
not over width of abdomen on tergites 2 to 4, occasionally
wider on posterior tergites. Wings without dark clouds except
apical patch. (Northern S. America) ........................ fuscistigma Lutz
9. (7) Black shiny areas of mesonotum do not include a pair of an-
terolateral oval spots above pronotal lobes. Median pale stripe
on mesonotum widened at level of wing insertions. Frons about
4.5 times as high as basal width. Scutellum yellow margined.
(Panama to Amazon basin) ................................................ curvipes Fab.
Fairchild: Neotropical Tabanidae
9.' Black shiny areas of mesonotum include a pair of antero-lateral
oval spots or streaks above pronotal lobes ......................................... 10
10. Abdomen with a pair of prominent black integumental dorso-
lateral stripes from first through third tergites; tergites 4 to 7
black with broad middorsal yellow-haired triangles. Apical wing
patch rather dilute, not obvious much posterior to vein M1. Frons
about 5 times as high as basal width. Scutellum black at base.
(E Peru) ....................................................................... pechum ani n. sp.
10.' Abdomen without prominent black integumental dorsolateral
stripes, at most with faint black spots on tergites 2 to 4, and
stronger spots on tergites 5-7 ............................................. .....---.. .. 11
11. Abdomen with faint blackish spots dorsolaterally on tergites 2 to
4, and small shiny black spots on tergites 5-7. A pair of diffuse
broad black-haired stripes extends from tergite 2 to 4, becoming
narrower posteriorly. Apical wing patch as in pechumani, but
frons slightly narrower and scutellum wholly yellow. (Para, Bra-
zil) ....................................................................................... aitkeni n. sp.
11.' Abdomen otherwise. Scutellum at least dark at base ......----....... 12
12. Median yellow stripe of mesonotum hair-fine, the antero-lateral
spots well separated from rest of dark pattern. Tergites 6 and
7 of abdomen sharply black and black-haired. Frons about 5 times
as high as basal width. Scutellum broadly yellow-margined.
(Costa Rica to Ecuador and Surinam)- ........................ jobbinsi Fchld.
12.' Antero-lateral spots not or barely separated from rest of dark
pattern ........................................................ .......................................... 13
13. Frons very narrow, about 7 times as high as basal width. Dark
mesonotal pattern extensive, the yellow pollinose areas reduced
to a fine median and a pair of broader dorso-lateral stripes, the
latter reaching only to level of wing insertions. Apical wing patch
extensive and intense, reaching along hind border to anal cell.
Scutellum wholly dark. (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) ........ varipes Rond.
13.' Frons broader, less than 5 times as high as basal width. Median
pollinose stripe of mesonotum absent, the antero-lateral stripes
broader, wing as in varipes. Scutellum dark or yellow-margined.
(E. Ecuador to Para, Brazil) ................................. nuneztovari Fchld.
14. (6) Abdomen with a large prominent black median integumental
spot on second tergite. Inner margin of dark apical wing patch
proximal to fork of third vein .--..--..... -..--.................---- ..--- 15
14.' Abdomen otherwise. Apical wing patch distal to fork of third
vein, often faint .......................................-.. .. .. .. ...... ....----- .... 16
15. Apical wing patch complete, extensive and intense, its proximal
border curved inward, nearly reaching end of discal cell. (Northern
S. Am erica) ....................... .... ............................... ...... podagricus Fab.
15.' Apical spot a broad vertical band, leaving apex of wing hyaline,
its proximal border straight. (South Central Brazil) .. fascipennis Lutz
16. Mesonotum dark with at most a slender median pale line and
margins and scutellum pale-haired. Abdomen with pale-haired hind
marginal bands widened into low median triangles .......................... 17
16.' Mesonotum with a pattern of dark shiny areas separated by 3
222 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 55, No. 4
pale pollinose stripes. Abdomen with a median pale-haired stripe
or series of connected triangles .................-................--- .................--- .. 18
17. Mesonotum with a slender pale-haired median stripe; sides, pos-
terior margin and scutellum also pale-haired. Abdomen largely
black, the hind margins of all tergites pale, yellow-haired and with
small median yellow-haired triangles. Sides of first 2 tergites with
yellowish patches. (Minas Gerais, Brazil) .................. altivagus Lutz
17.' Mesonotum without median stripe. Abdomen shining light
yellow-brown, with anterior parts of tergites darkened dorsolat-
erally. Hind margins of all tergites pale margined, with median
triangles and pale hairs. (Brazil) ..................................- glaber Wied.
18. Shiny black areas of undenuded mesonotum consisting of a pair
of inverted comma-shaped marks nearly meeting in median line
just anterior to scutellum. Abdomen light yellow on first 3 ter-
gites, the succeeding tergites each with a dorsolateral pair of black
patches on anterior border. Each tergite with a yellow-haired
median triangle reaching anterior border and broad yellow-haired
hind margins. Wings with but a faint trace of apical spot in
marginal and submarginal cells. (S. Central Brazil) ........
......................................................................im m aculatus W ied.
18.' Black pattern of mesonotum more extensive. Abdomen otherwise .. 19
19. Black mesonotal pattern consisting of 4 dorsal stripes, the outer
pair curved dorsad and joining before scutellum. Abdomen light
yellow-brown, tergite 2 with golden yellow midstripe, tergites 3 to
5 with a gradually darkening and more distinct dark midstripe,
and 3 to 6 with lateral brown streaks. Femora yellow, except tips
of fore and hind pair. Wing as in distinctus. (Bahia, Brazil) ......
-..-..-...--..---..- .......................---- ----- ........ affl ictus W ied.
19.' Abdomen without median dark stripe .......................................... 20
20. Abdomen with a broad diffuse middorsal yellow-haired stripe,
widening on posterior tergites. Apical wing spot dilute but well
defined, its proximal border sharp, straight, to fork of third vein.
Mesonotum on disk shiny black with 3 greyish pollinose stripes,
the margins and scutellum yellow-haired. Palpi dark brown to
blackish, shiny. (S. E. Brazil) .................................... distinctus Lutz
20.' Abdomen with a narrow, even yellow-haired middorsal stripe.
Apical wing spot dilute and diffuse, seldom reaching fork of third
vein. Median pale stripe of mesonotum broader than laterals, usu-
ally yellow-haired .................. .....--- ....------..---- ..----....... 21
21. All femora brown or blackish, at least darker than tibiae of mid
pair. Abdomen largely brown to blackish. (S. Brazil, Paraguay,
Argentina) ........................................ ......................... flavitaenia Lutz
21.' All femora yellow. Abdomen generally extensively yellow ........ 22
22. Abdomen yellow to yellowish brown, with a pair of diffuse dark
integumental spots on tergite 2, and tergites 4-6 generally
darkened. (S. Brazil, Bolivia, E. Ecuador) ................ bimaculatus Wied.
22.' Abdomen yellow, with more or less distinct dark patches or tri-
angles on extreme sides of tergites 4 to 6. (Venezuela, Ecuador,
Colom bia) .................... ............................ .................... anduzei Stone
Fairchild: Neotropical Tabanidae
Fig. 1. Diachlorus pechumani n. sp. 9 Frons, antenna, palpus. Holo-
Diachlorus pechumani n. sp.
A relatively large species with narrow frons, striped thorax, yellow
abdomen with a pair of dorsolateral black stripes and clear wings with
a well-marked apical spot.
Female. Length 9.5 mm., of wing 8.5 mm. Eyes bare. Frons, an-
tenna and palpus as figured. Frons light golden yellow pollinose, callus
black, minutely rugose, flattened above. Vertex with a black subshiny
patch, without tubercle or vestiges of ocelli. Subcallus shiny golden pol-
linose. Frontoclypeus inflated, black and shiny. Tentorial pits black and
shiny. Genae yellowish grey pollinose, beard sparse, yellowish. First and
second antennal segments dark yellow, pale yellow-haired. Third seg-
ment with plate and most of style yellow on inner aspect, outer aspect of
plate shows a broad black stripe and style is wholly black, as figured.
First palpal segment yellow, second black, subshiny, both wholly golden
yellow-haired. Proboscis black, the labella large and membranous.
Mesonotum black and shiny with yellow pollinose markings as follows:
a slender median stripe reaching scutellum, a pair of broader dorsolateral
stripes tapering out at or slightly before level of wing bases, each bearing
224 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 55, No. 4
a branch to the yellow and yellow pollinose notopleural lobes. Lateral
and posterior margins yellow pollinose. Scutellum dark at base, the mar-
gins broadly yellow. Mesonotum and scutellum with sparse golden hairs.
Pronotal lobes yellow. Mesopleuron and mesosternum black, the former
pearly pollinose, the latter grey pollinose. Fore coxae yellow, mid and
hind coxae partly brown. Fore femora yellow, blackish at apex, wholly
yellow-haired. Mid femora entirely yellow and yellow-haired. Hind fem-
ora mainly yellow and yellow-haired, but somewhat dusky and black-
haired on apical third. Fore tibiae somewhat inflated, black and black-
haired. Mid tibiae pale yellow, whitish yellow-haired. Hind tibiae basally
whitish, apically brown, yellowish-haired except for sparse black hairs on
outer aspect of terminal half. Fore tarsi black, mid and hind tarsi with
basitarsi whitish, remainder dark yellow. Wings with venation normal,
glass clear, the stigma yellowish, costal cell faintly yellow tinted, the
apex beyond fork of third vein with a brown cloud filling apex and ex-
tending in very dilute form as far as apex of third posterior cell.
Abdomen above yellow with 2 broad black dorsolateral stripes extend-
ing from first to middle of fourth tergite, fifth to seventh tergites with
broad black dorsolateral triangles, their apices close to hind margins of
segments. Hind margins of tergites 3 to 7 yellow. Extreme sides of ter-
gites 2-3 black, 1 wholly yellow, while on 4-7 the dorsolateral black ex-
tends to margin. The yellow median stripe is broad, fairly even on ter-
gites 1-3, but of contiguous triangles on remainder. Yellow areas are
yellow-haired, black areas black-haired, except that narrow lateral black
margins of tergites 2-3 are yellow haired. Pollinosity is evident and yel-
low on yellow parts, sparse or absent on black parts, so that these are
somewhat shiny. Beneath the abdomen is shiny, yellowish on first 2 seg-
ments, darkening to black on fourth and beyond, all sparsely yellow-haired.
Holotype 9, Quince Mil, Cuzco, Peru, 2450 ft elevation, 1-3 Sept. 1962.
L. E. Pefia coll. In Coll. L. L. Pechuman, for whom the species is. named.
Paratypes: 1 9, same data, in Coll. G. B. F. through courtesy of Dr.
Pechuman. 2 Y, same locality 13-31 Aug. 1962, 780 m. el. L. E. Pefia
coll. in Canadian National Collection.
This species is not similar to any other in the genus except aitkeni n.
sp. It combines features such as narrow frons and apical wing spot char-
acteristic of curvipes and related species, with black shiny palpi and
striped abdomen found in bimaculatus and bivittatus. It disagrees in sev-
eral respects with the brief description of Silvius nubipennis Rond., an un-
recognized name probably referable to Diachlorus and said to have been
collected on the Rio Napo, perhaps in modern Peru.
A single poorly preserved 9 from Iquitos, Peru, 27 March 1923, H.
Bassler coll. in the American Museum of Natural History, on loan through
Dr. C. B. Philip, seems to be a variant of this species. It is considerably
darker, the lateral dark abdominal stripes broader, reaching lateral borders
of tergites, and all femora extensively darkened. The head structures and
thoracic and wing patterns appear the same.
Diachlorus aitkeni n. sp.
A moderate-sized species with narrow frons, striped thorax, yellow
abdomen with small black spots dorsolaterally on posterior segments and
Fairchild: Neotropical Tabanidae 225
dorsolateral stripes of dark hair. Wings clear with small but distinct
apical black spot.
Female. Length 9 mm., of wing 7 mm. Eyes bare, the pattern in life
differing from curvipes by having an isolated dark tear-shaped mark in
middle of eye. Head structures as figured for D. pechumani except frons
slightly narrower, antennae and palpi slightly more slender. Coloration
of pollinose areas as in pechumani; callus and frontoclypeus shiny black,
as are tentorial pits. Genae grey, beard sparse, whitish. Antennae colored
as in pechumani. All of first and basal third of second palpal segment
yellow, remainder black, pollinose, largely pale-haired except at tip, which
Mesonotum as in pechumani except that black shiny areas less exten-
sive, the yellow pollinose areas broader, and scutellum wholly yellow.
Pleura as in pechumani. Legs as in pechumani, except hind femora
wholly yellow. Wings as in pechumani. Abdomen yellow, the extensive
black shiny stripes of pechumani represented by small dark spots dorso-
laterally on tergites 2-4, and large black shiny triangles on tergites 5-7.
Vestiture is of yellow hairs, except for broad diffuse dorsolateral stripes
of black hairs, broadest on tergite 2. There are also small black shiny
patches on lateral margins of tergite 5, while the black triangles on tergites
6 and 7 extend to the lateral margins. Beneath the abdomen is clear yel-
low and yellow-haired on sternites 2-5, 6 and 7 are dusky, largely black-
Holotype 9, A.P.E.G. Forest, Belem, ParA, Brazil, 3 Aug. 1970, T. H. G.
Aitken and Toda colls. Taken at midday at 10 ms in forest canopy.
Paratypes, 39 9, same locality and collectors, June (6), July (8), and
Aug. (9), 1970, all taken in forest canopy from 10 to 35 m above ground
Holotype and 9 paratypes to be deposited in U.S.N.M., remaining para-
types in Colls. T. H. G. Aitken, Canadian National Collection, L. L. Pechu-
man, C. B. Philip, and the author through courtesy of the collectors. Para-
types will also be deposited in Brazil by Dr. Aitken. Named in honor of
Dr. Thomas H. G. Aitken, who first noted its distinctiveness.
The paratypes range in size from 8 to 6.5 mm in wing length, while
the dorsolateral dark stripes may be slightly more marked than in the type
to barely evident.
This species is structurally almost indistinguishable from pechumani,
but is paler, lacking the prominent shiny black abdominal stripes of that
species. Further canopy collecting may show that it is but a geographic
race, but its appearance is so distinct, and the collecting localities are so
widely separated, that specific status seems warranted.
The appearance of a new species in a locality so well collected as Belem
seems due to its highly arboreal habits, although it is possible that speci-
mens have been previously taken but confused with curvipes, which it su-
perficially resembles. Dr. Aitken (in litt. 1970) noted that it was different
from curvipes in a number of respects, including eye pattern, and was
strictly arboreal, while curvipes was never taken in the canopy.
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 55, No. 4
Fig. 2. Diachlorus xynus n. sp. 9 Frons, antenna, palpus. Paratype.
Diachlorus xynus n. sp.
Female. Length 7 mm., of wing 6 mm. Frons, antennae and palpi as
figured. Very similar in appearance to D. scutellatus Macq. (Fig. 3) from
which it differs in slightly broader frons, more protuberant subcallus
which lacks the median strip of silvery pollinosity found in that species,
basally white fore tibiae and hind tibiae only slightly dusky at apex rather
than 1/3 to 1/2 black. The subapical dark wing band is also slightly wider.
From D. neivai Lutz xynus differs in slightly narrower frons, black femora,
and in lacking any trace of a middorsal yellowish abdominal stripe.
Holotype 9, Quincemil, Depto, Cuzco, Peru, 2450 ft elevation, Aug.
1962, L. E. Pena, coll. In Coll. L. L. Pechuman.
Paratypes, 27 9, same locality as holotype, Aug., Sept., 1962.; 1 9,
Finca Barbascal, Int. Meta, Colombia, Jan. 1965, J. Esslinger coll.; 1 9,
Surinam, Coppename, Kalebaskreek, attacking man, 25 Oct. 1945, D. C.
Geijskes coll.; 1 9, Belem, Park, Brazil, 25 Aug. 1968, IPEAN, in car,
Aitken and Toda colls. Paratypes in Canadian National Collection and in
collections of L. L. Pechuman, T. H. G. Aitken, C. B. Philip, and the author.
Fairchild: Neotropical Tabanidae
Fig. 3. Diachlorus scutellatus (Macq.) 9 Frons, antenna, palpus.
Dr. Aitken will also deposit paratypes in Brazil.
The Peruvian specimens are slightly larger with a stronger spot at end
of discal cell.
The almost completely intermediate structure and color of this species
between scutellatus and neivai raises questions as to the rank to be given
it. A paratype of neivai from Bahia, Brazil has the median abdominal
stripe reduced to a small pale integumental spot on tergite 2, though there
is a complete, though sparse, pale-haired stripe, while a specimen from
Matto Grosso has the stripe broad and conspicuous. It is therefore pos-
sible that xynus is a northern form or representative of neivai. The taking
of a long series of scutellatus in the forest canopy at Belem, Pars, by
Aitken and Toda indicates that both species occur in the same locality,
while the absence of xynus in canopy collections suggest that the two
species may be ecologically separated.
I have seen scutellatus from Guyana and Trinidad, and the type was
228 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 55, No. 4
from Cayenne. Dr. L. Tsacas kindly re-compared specimens of both spe-
cies with the type in Paris, and found it to agree with what is here called
scutellatus. The record of scutellatus from Peru in my catalogue (Fair-
child 1971) is erroneous, based on specimens of xynus.
Diachlorus bicinctus Fab.
Male. Color and pattern as in the female. Eyes bare, facets very
slightly larger in the middle of the eye, but eye not noticeably larger than
in female, nor any line of demarkation evident. Eyes separated by a
deep narrow groove bearing recumbent setae within. Frontal triangle ex-
tending about 1/3 distance from subcallus to vertex. Vertex with a small
hirsute tubercle extending to eye level. Palpi much as in female, but
shinier, more inflated and slightly shorter. Antennae slightly more slender
than in female. 2 8, Republiek, Suriname, Sept. 1963, D. C. Geijskes coll.
This species, in both sexes, is rather different from the remainder of the
genus, possibly due to its resemblance to a small Vespid wasp, but since
it is the type of the genus, separating it even at the subgeneric level would
unduly upset the nomenclature.
The bimaculatus group
The 5 nominal species belonging to this group, bimaculatus, afflictus,
flavitaenia, distinctus. and anduzei have been difficult to separate, and I
suspect that with ample material from a wider range of localities, some or
all may prove to be geographical races or even mere color varieties, as
seems to be the case with distinctus var catharinensis Lutz, omitted here
but discussed elsewhere (Fairchild 1961, p. 211). There are no firm struc-
tural differences, and I have had to use color characters, and those mostly
of degree, to separate them. Afflictus Wied from Bahia may be different,
as although I have seen the type, I have no specimens before me and too
inadequate notes on the type.
D. glaber Wied and D. altivagus Lutz
Kr6ber (1928) expressed doubt as to the distinctness of these 2 species,
although Lutz (1913) when describing altivagus maintained their distinct-
ness but failed to point out differences. I have seen the types of both, but
most negligently failed to draw altivagus, so am dependent on the figures
and descriptions in the literature to separate them. The matter is further
confused by the possibility that the lectotype of glaber in Frankfurt and
the specimen in Berlin, which I believe are the same species, represent a
species different from the one in Vienna. Krbber described both Frankfurt
and Vienna specimens, but probably figured the one in Vienna, as he be-
lieved the Frankfurt specimen to be general. His figure differs quite a little
from mine (Fairchild 1967) of the Berlin specimen, and his descriptions of
the 2 specimens he studied also differ in some details. In separating the
2 species in the key I have used Lutz description and figure of altivagus
and Kr6ber's (1928) description of the Frankfurt specimen of glaber.
Fairchild: Neotropical Tabanidae
Fairchild, G. B. 1961. The Adolpho Lutz collection of Tabanidae. 1. The
described genera and species, condition of the collection, and selec-
tion of lectotypes. Mem. Inst. Osw. Cruz, 59(2) : 185-250.
Fairchild, G. B. 1967. Notes on Neotropical Tabanidae. VII. The spe-
cies described by J. C. R. Wiedemann. Pacific Ins. 9(1) :82, Fig. 5.
Fairchild, G. B. 1969. Notes on Neotropical Tabanidae. XII. Classifica-
tion and distribution, with keys to genera and subgenera. Arq.
Zool. S. Paulo 17(4): 214.
Fairchild, G. B. 1971. A Catalogue of the Diptera of the Americas south
of the United States. Fasc. 28. Tabanidae, p. 51-53.
Krober, 0. 1928. Die amerikanischen Arten der Tabaniden-Subfamilie
Diachlorinae End. Arch. f. Schiffs-u. Tropen-Hyg. 32(2): 1-55,
Lutz, A. 1913. Tabanidas do Brazil e alguns Estados vizinhos. Mem.
Inst. Osw. Cruz, 5(2): 142-191, Pls. 12-13.
The Florida Entomologist 55(4) 1972
ENTOMOLOGY IN ACTION
Members needing audio-visual material to aid in giving talks on ento-
mology to students and organizations may borrow free a display of 72 color,
2x2 slides with a script. Write for reservations giving date and alternate
date to Secretary, Florida Entomological Society (i.e., Frank Mead), P. O.
Box 12425, Gainesville, Forida 32601.
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CONTROL OF THE SOUTHERN CHINCH BUG, BLISSUS
INSULARIS, IN SOUTH FLORIDA1
J. A. REINERT
University of Florida, Agricultural Research Center, Fort Lauderdale
Insecticide tests for the control of Blissus insularis Barber on St.
Augustinegrass were conducted in 1971. Akton@, 0-(2-chloro-l- (2,5-di-
chlorophenyl) vinyl) 0,0-diethyl phosphorothioate; propyl thiopyrophos-
phate; diazinon; chlorpyrifos; Dyfonate@, 0-ethyl S-phenyl ethylphos-
phonodithioate; ethion; and Nemacide, 0- (2,4-dichlorophenyl) 0,0-diethyl
phosphorothioate, gave the best control.
The southern chinch bug, Blissus insularis Barber, is the most serious
pest of St. Augustinegrass in Florida (Kerr 1966). B. insularis has con-
tinued to be the target of extensive chemical control programs since St.
Augustinegrass is so widely used in private and industrial landscapes in
the Southeast. Stringfellow (1967, 1968, 1969) evaluated several insecti-
cides against B. insularis. With the possibility of resistance to some of
the established insecticides, new materials should be found which are ef-
fective against this pest.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
For uniformity, test conditions were standardized as much as possible in
the 3 tests. Treatments were applied to 9.27 m2 (100 ft2) plots of St.
Augustinegrass heavily infested with B. insularis.
Chinch bug populations were sampled before insecticides were applied,
and 5 weekly post treatment counts were taken. Samples were made by
forcing a metal cylinder of 34.69 cm (equivalent to 1 ft2) into the turf,
filling it with water, and counting the bugs that surfaced in 8 min.
The plots were divided into 4 blocks, based on differing levels of infes-
tations, and treatments within each block were randomized. A total of 19
insecticides was applied at 29 rates. Formulations and rates are pre-
sented in Tables 1-3. Granular materials were dispersed with a hand
shaker and washed into the thatch with 6 gal of water per plot. Wettable
powders and emulsifiable materials were mixed with 2 gal of water and
applied with a sprinkler can. They were then washed in with 4 gal
of water per plot.
Chemical definitions of the proprietary compounds used in the tests
are as follows:
Actellic, 2-Diethylamino-6-methylpyrimidin-4-yl dimethyl phosphoro-
1Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 4427.
These investigations supported in part by Chevron, Mobil, Stauffer, and
3m Chemical Companies.
2Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida,
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 55, No. 4
TABLE 1. NUMBER* OF CHINCH BUGS PER FT2 BEFORE AND AT 5 WEEKLY
INCREMENTS FOLLOWING INSECTICIDAL TREATMENTS ON 29 MAY
AI/A treatmt. Means** at weeks posttreatment
Insecticide (lbs.) count 1 2 3 4 5
phate 1.1EC 7.33 86.8 8.8 1.3 0.3 0.8a 1.3a
Ethion 4EC 10 91.3 13.8 2.0 0.8 4.5a 1.3a
Bromophos 10G 10 86.5 42.0 27.8 16.0 5.3a 5.3a
Bux 10G 15 95.0 61.5 29.0 10.0 12.3a 29.5ab
Dyfonate 10G 3 82.5 24.3 25.8 44.8 49.3 b 50.0ab
Dyfonate 10G 2 84.8 77.3 56.3 69.5 67.8 b 56.0ab
Orthene 75 WP 10 89.8 65.3 49.8 58.8 81.3 b 100.0 b
Orthene 75 WP 5 85.3 64.3 90.3 68.0 100.0 b 100.0 b
Untreated Check 0 90.8 86.3 95.5 95.3 100.0 b 100.0 b
*Populations in excess of 100 chinch bugs were recorded as 100.
**Any 2 means in a column not followed by the same letter are significantly different
(P=.05) by Dunean's multiple range test.
Akton, 0- (2-chloro-1- (2,5-dichlorophenyl) vinyl) 0,0-diethyl phosphor-
Bux, m-(1-methylbutyl) phenyl methylcarbamate and m-(1-ethyl-
propyl) phenyl methylcarbamate
Mocap, 0-Ethyl S,S-dipropyl phosphorodithioate
Nemacide, 0- (2,4-dichlorophenyl) 0,0-diethyl phosphorothioate
Orthene@, 0-S-Dimethyl acetylphoramidothioate
Primicid, 2-Diethylamino-6-ethylprimidin-4-yl diethyl phosphoro-
Tirpate, 2,4-Dimethyl-1, 3-dithiolane-2-carboxaldehyde 0-(methyl-
Upjohn U-17004. 60%, 6-Chloro-3,4-xylyl methylcarbamate+40%, 2-
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
An abnormally dry season resulted in very high Blissus populations
throughout the summer. Kerr2 (personal communication) has estimated
that a population of 25-30 chinch bugs per ft2 are necessary to cause
damage to St. Augustinegrass under average conditions.
Results listed in Tables 1-3 show that Akton, propyl thiopyrophos-
phate, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, Dyfonate, ethion, and Nemacide pro-
vided at least 5 weeks of excellent control. Other materials which pro-
vided good control were Actellic, bromophos, carbophenothion, Primi-
cid, and propoxur.
Materials which provided control in these tests would probably provide
much longer control under field conditions where the entire area was
treated and no reinfesting population remained. These tests were de-
signed, however, to determine the maximum period of time that the in-
Reinert: Chinch Bug Control
10 00 km m
1660 C6 1
4 l CO
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lO t-0 tO ms
0000 00 L 0 1 CO Z 0
0 0 -40000
u uE-44 P E4 ,E-
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The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 55, No. 4
0 CO 0 0
k 0C 3C O QOCO 0O
w -4 CYD c N
r-I 0 r- r-
4 ? Y
0 0 4
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Reinert: Chinch Bug Control
secticide was actively killing or repelling Blissus which moved in from un-
treated adjacent plots.
Kerr, S. H. 1966. Biology of the lawn chinch bug Blissus insularis. Fla.
String fellow, T. L. 1967. Studies on turfgrass insect control in South
Florida. Fla. State Hort. Soc., Proc. 80-486-91.
String fellow, T. L. 1968. Studies on turfgrass insect control in South
Florida. Fla. State Hort. Soc., Proc. 81:447-54.
Stringfellow, T. L. 1969. Developments in Florida turfgrass insect con-
trol, 1969. Proc. Fla. Turf-Grass Manag. Conf. 17:94-100.
The Florida Entomologist 55(4) 1972
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Before using any pesticide, stop and read the label.
NOTES ON SOME SARCOPHAGIDAE (DIPTERA) REARED
FROM SNAILS (MOLLUSCA) IN FLORIDA'
CARL E. STEGMAIER, JR.2
11335 N.W. 59th Ave., Hialeah, Fla. 33012
Johnsonia elegans Coquillett (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), a parasitoid
fly, was reared for the first time from Succinea luteola Pilsbry, a terres-
trial snail. Helicobia rapax (Walker), Sarcodexia sternodontis Townsend,
and Sarcophaga bullata Parker were reared from dead aquatic snails,
Marisa cornuarietis (L.), at Miami, Florida.
During late 1970 and early 1971, I reared several species of Sarco-
phagidae from terrestrial and aquatic snails found in Miami, Florida.
Most of these flesh flies appeared to be saprophagous, but at least one,
Johnsonia elegans Coquillett, is a parasitoid. Besides reporting these
hearings and some new information on the biology of these species, I am
taking the occasion to review the rearing records of Sarcophagidae from
snails in Florida.
Helicobia morionella (Aldrich)
This species is distributed from North Carolina west to southern Cali-
fornia and south to the West Indies, Cuba, and Mexico (Downes 1965).
The fly is a general saprophage but also has been reared from snails.
Muma (1954, 1955) reported hearings of H. morionella (as Sarcophaga
morionella) from living, nearly mature, citrus tree snails, Drymaeus dor-
mani (Binney), in the Lake Alfred area of Florida. He found that a
single maggot could easily be seen feeding on snail tissue through the
transparent shell and that the pupation of the fly takes place within the
soil. Muma noted that infestations of the species in the citrus tree snail
occur from May through August and that the flies are less common than
Sarcodexia sternodontis, occurring in ratios of 1 to 5.
Helicobia rapax (Walker)
I reared 58 adult specimens from 23 dead aquatic snails, Marisa cornu-
arietis (L.) (Gastropoda: Pilidae), 24 January 1971, Miami, Florida. From
this single collection of snails, Sarcophaga bullata and Sarcodexia sterno-
dontis were reared also. Two days after the initial collection of the dead
snail infestations, larvae of the flies issued from the snails into the glass
rearing container. Pupation was delayed until the following day when soil
was placed for this purpose into tlhe rearing container.
1Contribution No. 233. Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant In-
dustry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gaines-
2Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Division
of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Serv-
The Florida Entomologist
Aldrich (1916) reported rearing the species from Polygyra thyroides
(Say) (Gastropoda: Polygyridae). He reported the species as Sarcophaga
(Helicobia) helicis Townsend. Aldrich also recorded the species from live
grasshoppers and from many kinds of live and dead insects. The species
is found from Quebec to southern California, Florida, and Mexico (Downes
Johnsonia elegans Coquillett
Johnsonia elegans was reported by Aldrich (1916) as follows: "on Suc-
cinea brevis on orange," Tampico, Mexico. Muma (1954, 1955) reported
rearing the species from the citrus tree snail, Drymaeus dormani, and ob-
served the parasitoid elegans parasitizing the living immatures when they
were 1/4 to % inch long. The parasitized snails always were observed
tightly attached to various substrates, and each snail contained a visible
larva or pupa which could be seen easily through the transparent shell.
Pupation of this fly occurs within the shell of the snail (Fig. 1). Melit-
tobia sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) parasitizes the pupae of J. elegans,
throughout the Lake Alfred area of Florida.
The author found a very heavy concentration of parasitized snails.
Succinea luteola Pilsbry (Gastropoda: Succinidae), Dodge Island, Miami,
Florida, 26 November 1970, in an area 200 X 35 ft. I was able to rear 6
specimens of J. elegans from a single collection of parasitoid snails. The
snails were found tightly fastened to dead ragweed stems and were usually
found from 1 to 3 ft above the ground surface. A small wasp (Hymenop-
tera) severely parasitized numerous J. elegans pupae. The wasp still re-
mains undetermined to genus or species.
I noted that in each case a septum covered the aperture of the snail
and thus sealed off the pupa from the external environment. The septum
is distinct from the black mass of dead snail tissue (Fig. 1.). Knutson,
Berg, and Foote (1967) discussed the septa formed in shells of their host
snails of 13 species of Pherbellia and Colobaea (Diptera: Sciomyzidae).
They found that the septum or coating material is produced by the Mal-
pighian tubules of the larvae just before pupation. I noted that the sep-
tum in the Succinea snail was a semi-frothy mass, was somewhat fragile,
and was usually ruptured by a small opening or hole. The small hole, in
some cases, may have been the emergence hole for some Hymenopterous
Each larva of J. elegans pupates with its anterior spiracles (Fig. 2)
directed toward the aperture of the shell. Before pupation, the larva
cleans out the interior of the host's shell by forcing uneaten snail tissue
back past its body to the exterior of the shell or past the aperture where it
may be seen as a black mass (Fig. 1).
The Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida De-
partment of Agriculture and Consumer Services has 3 collection records
for J. elegans, which are as follows: Redington Beach, Fla., Pinellas Co.,
4 Nov. 1964, coll. G. H. Raymond, in Steiner trap; Leesburg, Fla., Lake Co.,
7 Sept., 30 Aug. 1965, coll. C. L. Felshaw, 2 specimens from McPhail trap.
Vol. 55, No. 4
Stegmaier: Sarcophagids Reared from Snails
~< ` T
- I1-W ~ll71L\i-Zr~l-
Fig. 1. Two snails, Drymaeus dormani, each parasitized and containing
a pupa of Johnsonia elegans. Before pupation, each larva cleans the in-
terior of snail tissue forcing it past its body to form an accumulated black
mass on the exterior of the aperture to form the substrate attachment ma-
Fig. 2. A pupa of Johnsonia elegans, partially dissected from the
snail, Succinea luteola. Before pupation, the single larva reverses its po-
sition within the shell so that its anterior spiracles are directed toward
the aperture of the snail.
; - -
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 55, No. 4
Johnsonia sp. probably frontalis Aldrich
Muma (1954, 1955) reported hearings of this species from parasitized
Drymaeus dormani snails in the Lake Alfred area of Florida. This parasi-
toid infests living immature snails and pupates within the snail. Muma
also reported snail parasitism from May through August in somewhat lim-
Unknown species, possibly Johnsonia sp.
A single parasitized Succinea luteola floridana Pilsbry, swept from
weeds and grasses, Hialeah, Fla., Dade Co., 30 Apr. 1969, and unfortu-
nately, contained a parasitized pupa of a species resembling Johnsonia,
which could not be reared to adult.
Sarcodexia sternodontis Townsend
Dodge (1968) refers to the species as a facultative parasite because it
has been reared from various arthropods which suggest true parasitism.
However, this species has been reared on laboratory media. Dodge re-
ported hearings of S. sternodontis from beef, a field collected dead roach,
Polistes prepupa or pupa, sphecid mud dauber cell, and a caterpillar from
Barro Colorado Island, Canal Zone, Panama. Downes (1965) reported the
distribution of the species from Georgia south to Texas and Florida, West
Indies, Jamaica, and South America.
Greene (1925) reported rearing the species from Erinnyis allo L. in
Puerto Rico. Callan (1946) reported rearing the species (as Sarcophaga
lambens) from a South American bollworm, Sacadodes pyralis Dyar. Lopes
(1969) reported rearing the species, in Argentinia, from the following
Gastropoda: Bulimulidae: Plagiodentes meieri Weyrauch, P. multiplicatus
(Doering), Spixia juradoi Parodiz, and S. pseudosexdentatus Doering.
Muma (1954, 1955) reared the species (as Sarcophaga lambens) from liv-
ing, nearly mature, Drymaeus dormani. The species pupates in the soil.
Muma reported rearing Aphaereta auripes (Prov.) (Hymenoptera: Bra-
conidae) from pupae of S. sternodontis. Muesebeck (1951) reported sev-
eral Diptera hosts for A. auripes, including Sarcophaga l'herminieri
(Desv.) and S. rapax (Wlkr.).
Six adults of S. sternodontis were reared by the author from 23 dead
aquatic snails, Marisa cornuarietis, found parasitized along the banks of a
canal, Miami, Fla., 24 Jan. 1971.
Numerous collection records of S. sternodontis were given the author
by the Florida Department of Agriculture of captures plus various trap
records indicating a range from Jacksonville, Fla., southward to Plantation
Key, Fla. Three interesting records are as follows: Microcentrum rhombi-
folium (author not found) (Orthoptera: Tettigonidae), Gainesville, Flor-
ida, 30 Sept. 1957, coll. T. E. Cleveland, 1 reared adult; pupa under dead
fish, Marco Island, Fla., emerged 12 Nov. 1957, coll. R. E. Woodruff; on
Drymaeus dormani, Sumter, Fla., 21 July 1949, coll. J. T. Griffiths.
Sarcophaga bullata Parker
Parker (1916) reported hearings of this species from the head of a dead
calf while Greene (1925) reported rearing it from beef liver and meat.
Stegmaier: Sarcophagids Reared from Snails
Frings and Frings (1953) reported hearings of S. bullata from dog biscuits
and stated that the reared adults were short lived. Downes (1965) re-
ported the distribution from British Colombia to Quebec, and south-
ward to California and Florida. Greene (1925) and Sanjean (1957) il-
lustrated the larvae of S. bullata.
Six adult specimens of Sarcophaga bullata were reared by the author
from 23 dead aquatic snails, Marisa cornuarietis, Miami, Fla., 24 Jan. 1971.
This species was the last to emerge as adult flies from among the 3 species
of sarcophagid flies reared from the dead aquatic snails.
I wish to express my sincere appreciation to the following individuals
for their help in making this paper possible: Dr. Raymond J. Gagne, U. S.
Nat. Mus. Nat. Hist., for the determination of those Sarcophagidae reared
by the author; Dr. Martin H. Muma, Univ. of Fla., Citrus Exp. Sta., for
the loan of the snails, D. dormani, and for literature; Dr. W. J. Byas, U. S.
Nat. Mus. Nat. Hist., for the determination of the snail, Succinia luteola
floridana; Dr. J. Rosewater, U. S. Nat. Mus. Nat. Hist., for the determina-
tion of the snail, Marisa cornuarietis; Dr. F. Thompson, Univ. of Fla.,
Fla. State Mus., for the determination of Succinea luteola and Marisa
cornuarietis; Dr. H. V. Weems, Jr., Coordinator, Florida State Collection
of Arthropod Research Associates Program, for giving the author valuable
host data cited in this paper; and finally, I wish to thank the following
for their help with the critical review of this manuscript: Dr. R. J. Gagne
and Dr. Lloyd Knutson, U. S. Nat. Mus. Nat. Hist., and Dr. H. S. Lopes,
Academia Brasileira De Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.
Aldrich, J. M. 1916. Sarcophaga and allies in North America. Thomas
Say Found. La Fayette, Ind. 301 p.
Callan, E. M. 1946. A note on Sarcophaga lambens (Wied.), a parasite
of the South American bollworm, Sacadodes pyralis Dyar. Rev.
Entomol. 17: 474-75.
Dodge, H. R. 1968. The Sarcophagidae of Barro Colorado Island, Pan-
ama (Diptera). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 61: 421-50.
Downes, W. L., Jr. 1965. p. 933-61. In A catalog of the Diptera of
America north of Mexico. Stone, A., C. W. Sabrosky, W. W. Wirth,
R. H. Foote, and J. R. Coulson (eds.). USDA Handbook. 276.
Frings, H. and M. Frings. 1953. Dog biscuit as a larval medium for
Sarcophaga bullata. J. Econ. Entomol. 46: 183.
Greene, C. T. 1925. The puparia and larvae of sarcophagid flies. Proc.
U. S. Nat. Mus. 66(29): 1-26.
Knutson, L. V., A. D. Bratt, C. O. Berg, and B. A. Foote. 1967. Calcareous
septa formed in snail shells by larvae of snail-killing flies. Science
Lopes, H. S. 1969. Neotropical Sarcophagidae reared from Gastropoda
by Dr. W. Weyrauch (Diptera). Studia Entomol. 12: 133-60.
Muesebeck, C. F. W. 1951. p. 148. In Hymenoptera of America north of
The Florida Entomologist
Mexico. Muesbeck, C. F. W., K. V. Krombien, and H. K. Townes
(eds.) USDA Agr Monogr. No. 2. Synoptic Catalog. 1420 p.
Muma, M. H. 1954. Predators and parasites of the citrus tree snail.
Citrus Mag. June: 8-9.
Muma, M. H. 1955. Observations on the biology of the citrus tree snail.
Citrus Ind. Jan. 6-9, 21.
Parker, R. R. 1916. New species of New England Sarcophagidae. Can.
Entomol. 48: 359-64, 422-27.
Sanjean, J. 1957. Taxonomic studies of Sarcophaga larvae of New York
with notes on the adults. Ithaca. Cornell Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Mem. 349. 115 p.
The Florida Entomologist 55(4) 1972
AMATEUR ENTOMOLOGY CLUB
The Children's Museum in Jacksonville is interested in forming an
amateur entomology club for young people of the greater Jacksonville and
northern Florida region. They want it to be more than a classroom situa-
tion, and to include speakers, demonstrations, slide and film presentations,
work shops, field trips, and perhaps also a newsletter.
They would like to enlist support from our members and Society. You
can help in forming and working with the club, and also by bringing to
the museum's attention the names and addresses of the young people who
might be interested. Contact Mr. Stuart M. Fullerton, Curator of Natural
Sciences, Jacksonville Children's Museum, 1025 Gulf Life Drive, Jackson-
Vol. 55, No. 4
THE JAMAICAN 'ORANGE DOG', PAPILIO ANDRAEMON
PAULINE O. LAWRENCE1
Department of Zoology, University of the West Indies,
Kingston 7, Jamaica, W.I.2
Papilio andraemon Hiibner is a pest of citrus in Jamaica. The larvae
cause extensive damage to young citrus seedlings. Eggs are laid singly
on the abaxial surfaces of young leaves.
The life cycle is usually completed in 5-6 weeks at 28C and 75-- 2%
RH. There are 5 larval instars. Young larvae eat leaves of prickly ash
if this is the first and only food provided. If they are subsequently fed
with Citrus leaves, larvae avoid the prickly ash.
Unmated females live longer than males and mated females. The but-
terfly may be found at elevations exceeding 2,000 ft but is more numerous
in coastal areas of the island.
In a general review of the American papilios, Rothschild and Jordan
(1906) referred to Papilio andraemon Hiibner as being one of the 'fluted'
swallowtail butterflies originally described from specimens caught in Cuba.
Gundlach (1881) gave a detailed description of the immature stages of P.
The first record of the occurrence of this insect in Jamaica were by
Lewis (1945) but no description of either adults or immature stages was
given. Only 1 subspecies, P. andraemon andraemon, has been reported
from the island. This species is known in the Bahamas as P. andraemon
bonhotei Sharpe and in Great Cayman Island as P. andraemon tailor
The most accepted theory that has been put forward to explain the
sudden presence of the insect in Jamaica was by Farr (1967) who sug-
gested that the butterfly might have been transported here from Cuba by
the winds of a hurricane which occurred in 1944.
Before the arrival of P. andraemon, P. thoas L. and possibly P. cres-
phontes Cramer were the only citrus feeders. In Cuba, Zanthoxylum
caribaenum Lam. (prickly ash) and Piper peltatum (L.) constitute the
major food for the latter 2 species and Citrus is eaten only occasionally
(Bates 1935). Since Citrus was the only recorded food source for P. thoas
in Jamaica, it is possible that competition by the introduced P. andraemon
may have resulted in extreme reduction, if not extinction of P. thoas. This
theory is by no means adequately substantiated.
Species of Papilio have been dubbed 'orange dog' as a result of their
great attraction to Citrus ('Valencia' orange in particular), and the re-
1Presently with the Laboratory of Aquatic Entomology, Florida Agri-
cultural and Mechanical University, Tallahassee, Florida 32307, in a coop-
erative program with the University of Florida.
2This paper was part of a thesis presented to the Board of Examiners,
Department of Zoology, University of the West Indies, Jamaica in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the Bachelor of Science Degree.
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 55, No. 4
semblance between the characteristic white cephalic shield of the larvae
and the ears of a dog. This term is not indicative of a particular species
of Papilio because the gregarious P. anshisiades Esper is the 'orange dog'
of Trinidad (Kirkpatrick 1957) and British Honduras, while P. cresphontes
is the 'orange dog' of Florida. P. andraemon is a major pest of young
citrus plants in Jamaica. The lack of biological information on this spe-
cies and its possible economic importance prompted this investigation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Eggs and larvae were collected from citrus trees on the campus of the
University of the West Indies, Jamaica. The position of the eggs and
larvae on the leaves, and the species of citrus were recorded, as well as
the collection dates. In the laboratory, young shoots with eggs on them
were put in small vials with tap water until hatching was complete.
The larvae were reared in glass dishes 8 in. wide and 4 in. deep. First
and second instar larvae were fed young citrus leaves, while older larvae
were provided with less tender leaves. The stems of the shoots were
wrapped with wet paper towels or put in vials of water to retain fresh-
ness. The shoots were replaced on alternate mornings.
Observations were made every morning and evening for 3 months.
Moulted head capsules and larval skins were collected, labeled, and stored
in glass vials at room temperature to prevent shrinkage. The dates of
hatching, moulting, pupation, and emergence were recorded. Rearing was
done at 28oC and 752% RH. One hundred ninety-two individuals were
reared throughout the study. Newly-emerged adults were kept in a wire
screen field cage 10 X 4 ft.
Life Cycle: Oviposition occurred between 10:30 AM and noon. Eggs
were laid singly on the abaxial leaf surface. As many as 26 eggs were
laid within 1 hr by a single female.
Newly laid eggs were light green but became black in 5 days, when
hatching occurred. The larva ate its way out of the chorion, the re-
mainder of which was eaten after hatching. Hatching usually took place
between 11 PM and 1 AM. Within 1 hr the first instar larva commenced
feeding on the young citrus leaves.
In 4 days, the first instar larva spun a silken mat on the leaf surface
where it moulted. The second, third, and fourth stadia lasted 2, 3, and 4
days respectively. The new larvae ate their exuviae after each moult. The
fifth instar fed for 6 days, after which feeding ceased in preparation for
the pupal stage, which usually lasted 2 weeks but, in some cases, was as
long as 3 months. The entire life cycle, from egg to adult was usually 5-6
Distribution: P. andraemon has been observed in coastal regions of
Jamaica. The species is numerous in areas with moderate average yearly
temperatures like Kingston (28.8C) and Half Way Tree (27.7C). Bengry
(1950) has observed P. andraemon in the Cockpit Country which is at an
elevation of 2,453 ft.
Lawrence: Jamaican 'Orange Dog' 245
Food: The author observed that male and female papilios fed fre-
quently on flowers of the red Pentas. Observations made over a 1 week
period in a garden of red, white, and purple Pentas and zinnias, showed
that adults visited flowers of red Pentas 83.3% of the times. White and
purple varieties were visited occasionally. The immature stages feed on
citrus and prickly ash. First instar larvae were fed young leaves of prickly
ash which is a plant host of P. thoas and P. cresphontes in Cuba (Bates
Young larvae ate leaves of prickly ash if this was the first and only
food provided but if they were subsequently fed with citrus leaves, they
avoided the former. In the laboratory, no preference for any species of
citrus was observed. In the field however, the decreasing order of attrac-
tion appeared to be: orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck. 'Valencia' variety),
grapefruit (C. paradise Macf.), and lemon (C. limon Burm.). Egg laying
seemed to be influenced by availability of young shoots more than by the
species of citrus.
Life Span: Unmated females generally lived longer than males: the
mean life span of 20 unmated females was 11.4 days while that of 25 males
was 6.8 days. Mated females appeared to die earlier than unmated fe-
males: 8 unmated females released in a field cage 10 X 4 ft had a mean
life span of 13.8 days, while 4 other females lived for an average of 4 days
after mating. Two of this latter group died within 4, and 1 1/2 hr re-
spectively, of egg laying. As many as 50 eggs were laid by a female
within 1 1/2 hr.
Natural Enemies: No egg parasites were found. Larvae were attacked
by solitary wasps (Polistes sp.), spiders, and birds. Fourth and fifth in-
star larvae rarely fell prey to these enemies. Ants have been found in
pupal cases but there was no proof of predation. Young larvae resemble
lizard and bird droppings and this resemblance may reduce predation by
The frequent occurrence of this species along the coast of the island
indicates that citrus in these areas are most likely to suffer damage by the
foliage feeding larvae. Because adults feed on Pentas, these plants should
be cleared from the vicinity of newly-planted citrus nurseries or even from
older trees with new growth flushes, as the succulent leaves attract egg
The length of the life cycle indicates that at least 4 generations may be
expected each year.
I am indebted to Dr. John Parnell for his guidance and advice through-
out this study. I am also grateful to Messers Walter Van Whervin, and
Tom Turner for their interest and technical assistance in the identification
of specimens. Thanks are also due Dr. Thomas H. Farr of the Institute
of Jamaica for the loan of documents which were otherwise unavailable. I
am grateful to Dr. William L. Peters and Mr. Manuel Pescador of the Lab-
oratory of Aquatic Entomology, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical Uni-
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 55, No. 4
versity and Mr. Edward Farnworth of the University of Florida for their
constructive criticism of this manuscript. Thanks are also due Dr. Stratton
Kerr who encouraged and advised me on the preparation of this manu-
Avinoff, A., and N. Shoumatoff. 1951. Report of the Natural History
Society of Jamaica.
Bates, M. 1935. The butterflies of Cuba. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 78(2):
Bengry, J. 1950. Report of the Natural History Society of Jamaica.
Farr, T. 1967. Jamaica Journal. 1:20.
Gundlach, J. 1881. Contribuci6n a la Entomologii Cubana. Habana 445 p.
Kirkpatrick, T. W. 1957. Insect life in the tropics. Longmans, London,
Lewis, B. 1945. Report of the Natural History Society of Jamaica.
Rothschild, W., and K. Jordan. 1906. A revision of the American Papil-
ios. Novit. Zool. 13: 411-752.
The Florida Entomologist 55(4) 1972
SPANOGONICUS ALBOFASCIATUS (HEMIPTERA:
MIRIDAE) : A PREDATOR IN FLORIDA SOYBEANS12
T. M. NEAL,3 G. L. GREENE,4 F. W. MEAD5 and W. H. WHITCOMB3
The predaceous mirid Spanogonicus albofasciatus (Reuter) was col-
lected in northwestern Florida soybean fields during the summer of 1971.
It was most common on young soybean plants, and populations declined
rapidly as plants grew. Predation studies in the field indicated that S.
albofasciatus is apparently a predator of Heliothis zea (Boddie) and
Pseudoplusia includes (Walker) eggs.
During the summer of 1971, a black fleahopper, Spanogonicus albo-
fasciatus (Reuter), was found in northwestern Florida soybean fields. Al-
though present on many crop plants, S. albofasciatus apparently has not
previously been reported as a predator in soybean fields. This black flea-
hopper is widely distributed in the United States. In southern California
it was first reported on alfalfa (Van Duzee 1914). S. albofasciatus has
been cited as a pest of cotton seedlings, cucurbits, corn, alfalfa, and other
plants in an area extending from Arizona to North Carolina (Coop. Econ.
Insect Report). It was reported damaging golf greens in New York
(Knight 1941) and Missouri (Knight 1941, Satterthwait 1944) and car-
rots, beets, and chards in Hawaii (Holdaway 1944). S. albofasciatus was
found on grapes and coreopsis in Illinois (Knight 1941). Blatchley (1926)
reported it from Florida. Host plants in Arizona (Stoner 1965) included
31 species and 16 families. Telford et al. (1962) attributed square shed-
ding of slow-growing cotton varieties to the feeding of S. albofasciatus
adults and nymphs on the young foliage. Subsequently, Stoner and Bott-
ger (1965) found feeding damage by this black fleahopper to be negligible
and also showed it to be somewhat predatory. Butler and Stoner (1965)
published the life history of S. albofasciatus.
There is reason to believe that it may be predaceous on major crop
pests. Recently, laboratory studies (Butler 1965) have revealed S. albo-
fasciatus to be a potentially important predator of mites, bollworm eggs,
aphids, and lygus bugs. Closely related species have been reported feed-
ing on such diverse prey as moths, leafhoppers, and mites (Sweetman
1958, MacLellan 1962, Beingolea 1959). To determine its possible effect
on noctuid pests of soybeans, the seasonal abundance and predatory ac-
tivity of S. albofasciatus were observed at Quincy, Florida during 1971.
METHODS AND MATERIALS
Seasonal abundance of adult S. albofasciatus was determined from
1Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 4478.
2Contribution No. 230, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant In-
dustry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
3Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32601.
4Agricultural Research and Education Center, Quincy, Florida 32351.
5Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture, Gaines-
ville, Florida 32601.
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 55, No. 4
TABLE 1. NUMBER OF ADULT Spanogonicus albofasciatus COLLECTED IN
WEEKLY D-VAC SAMPLES DURING THE SUMMER OF 1971 IN
No. of adult specimens per acre
Sampling Date Bragg Plot Hampton Plots
June 26 480
July 1 170
29 10 240 480
Aug. 5 0 100 280
12 0 60 140
19 0 30 20
26 0 0 20
Sept. 2 0 0 0
specimen counts in field samples collected from late June until mid-
October. A 1 acre plot of 'Bragg' soybeans, planted 12 May, was sampled
from 26 June through 1 Oct. Beginning 28 July and terminating 15 Oct.,
two 1 acre plots of 'Hampton' soybeans, planted 22 June, were also
sampled. A D-vac insect sampler with a 34 in.2 cone opening and 2700
r.p.m. motor was used for all collection. A total of 1,298 ft of row was
sampled weekly in every plot.
Egg predation observations were begun 26 July and continued inter-
mittently through September. Laboratory-reared Heliothis zea (Boddie)
eggs were placed in all 3 of the above mentioned plots. The eggs were
transferred from paper towels to the leaf surface by using a camel's hair
brush dipped in egg albumen (Bell and Whitcomb 1964). The eggs were
checked periodically during the 24 hr. period following their placement in
During August, three 6 X 6 X 6 ft screen oviposition cages were placed
over soybeans in the field. Black fleahoppers within the cages were those
which occurred naturally on the soybean plants. Soybean looper, Pseudo-
plusia includes (Walker), adults were released inside the cages. The re-
sulting eggs, numbering 1 to 30 per plant, were observed for predatory ac-
tivity by S. albofasciatus. Three weeks after oviposition, fleahoppers in
the cages were counted.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
During the sampling period, populations of adult S. albofasciatus in
the early-planted 'Bragg' plot were highest on 26 June when 45 were col-
lected in 1 sample. This number represents a minimum population esti-
mate of 450 adults per acre. After this date numbers declined rapidly until
29 July, after which none were collected (Table 1). Sampling of the late
Neal et al.: Mirid Predator in Soybeans 249
planted 'Hampton' plots revealed high population levels in late July and
early August, followed by a rapid decline.
It should be noted that since the greatest numbers of fleahoppers were
collected on the initial day of sampling in all plots, it is probable that peak
populations occurred in the field prior to the initiation of sampling. The
soybean plants during this time were 8 in. tall or less.
The difference in dates of peak abundance of adult S. albofasciatus be-
tween the early and late planted plots suggests that there is some correla-
tion between the age of soybean plants and fleahopper abundance. There
could be several reasons for this. Perhaps only young soybean plants may
support prey species important to the survival of S. albofasciatus. An-
other possibility is that the fleahopper may be able to obtain plant juices
essential to its development from young soybeans, but not from older
ones. Also, older plants may harbor more natural enemies of S. albofasci-
atus. In addition, the microclimate around large soybean plants may be
unfavorable to these fleahoppers.
S. albofasciatus adults were observed feeding on bollworm eggs on 14
occasions between 26 July and 16 August in late planted plots. After 16
August no more fleahoppers were seen. In all but 1 instance, feeding
began after nightfall, sometimes continuing after daybreak. One indi-
vidual was observed continuously from 2 AM until 10 AM during which
time 14 H. zea eggs were consumed.
Within the cages, adult S. albofasciatus were observed feeding on
looper eggs and the fleahoppers gathered on leaves where the eggs were
most abundant. The number of soybean looper larvae in the cages was
approximately 1/10 as great as egg counts. Most of the reduction op-
peared to result from egg predation by fleahoppers. Three weeks follow-
ing oviposition by soybean looper moths, the number of S. albofasciatus
individuals in cages ranged from 5 to 13 per plant. This was much higher
than fleahopper populations outside of the cages and probably repre-
sented increases resulting from an abundant food supply, mechanical ex-
clusion of predators, and perhaps a more favorable microclimate.
Predation by S. albofasciatus may be 1 factor that limits populations
of noctuid moths such as Heliothis zea (Boddie), H. virescens (Fab.), Pseu-
doplusia includes (Walker), and Plathypena scabra (Fab.) which are
present early in the growing season. Recent research has shown that the
most serious pest of Florida soybeans, the velvetbean caterpillar, Anti-
carsia gemmatilis Hiibner, does not generally occur in heavy infestation
until mid-August in north Florida when effects of S. albofasciatus are
minimal or nonexistent. However, in early infestations of the velvetbean
caterpillar in south and central Florida S. albofasciatus may be of con-
Beingolea, G., O. D. 1959. Notas sobre la bionomica de aranas e insects
beneficos que ocurren en el cultivo de algodon. Rev. Peru Entomol.,
Sociedad Entomol. Agr. Peru 2(1): 36-44.
Bell, K. 0., and W. H. Whitcomb. 1964. Field studies on egg predators
of the bollworm, Heliothis zea (Boddie). Fla. Entomol. 47: 171-180.
The Florida Entomologist
Blatchley, W. S. 1926. Heteroptera or true bugs of Eastern North Amer-
ica with special reference to the faunas of Indiana and Florida. The
Nature Pub. Co. Indianapolis, Ind. 949 p.
Butler, G. D., Jr. 1965. Spanogonicus albofasciatus as an insect and mite
predator. J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 38: 70-75.
Butler, G. D., Jr. and A. Stoner. 1965. The biology of Spanogonicus al-
bofasciatus. J. Econ. Entomol. 58: 664-665.
Holdaway, F. G. 1944. Insects of vegetable crops in Hawaii today. Proc.
Entomol. Soc. Hawaii 12: 59-80.
Knight, H. K. 1941. The plant bugs or Miridae of Illinois. Ill. Natur.
Hist. Surv. Bull. 372: 50-51.
MacLellan, C. R. 1962. Mortality of codling moth eggs and young larvae
in an integrated control orchard. Can. Entomol. 94: 655-666.
Satterthwait, A. F. 1944. Leucopoecila albofasciata, a pest of golf
greens. J. Econ. Entomol. 37: 562.
Stoner, A. 1965. Host plants of Spanogonicus albofasciatus in Arizona.
J. Econ. Entomol. 58: 322-324.
Stoner, A., and G. T. Bottger. 1965. Spanogonicus albofasciatus and
Rhinacloa forticornis on cotton in Arizona. J. Econ. Entomol. 58:
Sweetman, H. L. 1958. Successful biological control against animals.
Proc. 10th Int. Congr. Entomol. 4: 449-460.
Telford, A. D., G. P. Wene, L. A. Carruth, and L. Hopkins. 1962. Arizona
cotton insects. Ariz. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. A-23: 38.
USDA, Agr. Res. Serv., Plant Pest Control Division. 1954 Coop. Econ.
Ins. Report 4(28): 632. 1955 Ibid. 5(24): 536. 1959a. Ibid. 9(11):
173. 1960a. Ibid. 10(22): 440. 1960b. Ibid. 10(37): 851. 1963 Ibid.
Van Duzee, E. P. 1914. A preliminary list of the Hemiptera of San
Diego County, California. Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. 2:31.
The Florida Entomologist 55(4) 1972
Vol. 55, No. 4
NEOTROPICAL FUNGUS-FEEDING THYSANOPTERA OF
THE GENUS SEDULOTHRIPS (PHLAEOTHRIPINAE)
LAURENCE MOUND AND KELLIE O'NEILL
British Museum (Natural History), London,
and Systematic Entomology Laboratory,
Agric. Res. Center (West), USDA, Beltsville, Md. 20705, respectively
The genus Sedulothrips is redefined, a key is provided for the separa-
tion of the species, and the morphological variation and biology of the
species are discussed. Only 2 species are recognized, vigilans (Hood) and
tristis Hood, and the other nominal species in the genus, (brevispinosus
Moulton, hubbelli Watson, insolens Bagnall, and quichua Hood), are
placed as synonyms of vigilans. More than 400 specimens collected be-
tween central Mexico and southern Brazil were studied.
Sedulothrips species are large black tubuliferous thrips which can be
beaten, sometimes in large numbers, from dead branches of trees or picked
from dense populations that may develop on newly felled logs and re-
cently dead tree trunks in the neotropics. Many tropical species of Tubu-
lifera can be collected from wood in the first stages of decay but the
length of time that newly-killed wood is suitable for a thrips habitat is
brief. Thrips are not usually found in wood that has rotted appreciably.
Some species feed on fungal spores (Megathripinae), but most species, in-
cluding those of Sedulothrips, apparently feed on fungal hyphae or more
probably the breakdown products associated with fungal growth. Very
little is known about the thrips method of feeding, but recent studies
(Mound 1971) have indicated that these insects have suctorial maxillary
stylets which probably are not used for scraping as several text books
Sedulothrips species are sometimes collected with species of Eupathi-
thrips and Macrophthalmothrips. All are associated with freshly dead
wood and have 2 unusual structural characteristics: the compound eyes
are hypertrophied and surround the antennae, and the mouth cone is ex-
ceedingly long, reaching across the prosternum. In Macrophthalmothrips
these characteristics are particularly well developed, the eyes being partly
holoptic and the mouth cone reaching the mesosternum. There is no evi-
dent adaptive significance in these characteristics, however, for they are
not shared with other species in the same habitat. Stannard (1957) dis-
cussed the relationships between these genera, and it seems possible that
they share a common ancestry with such genera as Neurothrips and
Acanthothrips. These also have rather large eyes with the postocular setae
placed closer together than is usual in Tubulifera. Sedulothrips and
Eupathithrips are particularly closely related, and E. atripes Hood is in-
termediate between them in having small cheek tubercles comparable in
size with the expanded setal bases on the cheeks of large specimens of S.
vigilans. If the same degree of variability exists in Eupathithrips as in
Sedulothrips there may be justification for combining the two.
Six nominal species have been referred to Sedulothrips but unfortu-
252 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 55, No. 4
nately, as with many other thysanopterous genera, little attempt has been
made to compare the nominal species with each other. The present au-
thors have studied type material of these species as well as series of speci-
mens which include both large and small individuals. As a result of this
study only 2 species can be recognized, vigilans and tristis, the other
nominal forms being regarded as synonymous with vigilans. This synon-
ymy exists because too few specimens were studied originally, insolens
and brevispinosus being based on unique, and vigilans on 1 male and 1
female. As with many other fungus-feeding Tubulifera, much of the ob-
served variation is intraspecific and related to overall body size (Mound
The material studied is mainly in the J. D. Hood collection at the U.S.
National Museum of Natural History (USNM) but some species are in
the British Museum (Natural History) (BMNH). The authors are grate-
ful to Mr. H. A. Denmark for the loan of J. R. Watson specimens from
the Florida State Arthropod Collection (FSAC), Division of Plant Indus-
try, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gaines-
ville; to Professor T. E. Moore for the loan of J. R. Watson specimens
from the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology (UMMZ), Ann
Arbor; and to Dr. P. H. Arnaud, Jr., for the loan of the type of brevispi-
nosus from the Moulton Collection in the California Academy of Sciences
(CAS), San Francisco.
Sedulothrips Bagnall, 1915: 503. Type-species S. insolens Bagnall,
designated by Moulton, 1933: 400.
Large black Phlaeothripinae with shaded wings and dark major setae.
Head elongate; eyes large, surrounding ocelli and bases of antennae,
nearly meeting posteriorly; postocular setae relatively close together;
cheeks with ventro-lateral setal bases slightly expanded and looking like
small tubercles in profile; maxillary stylets retracted nearly to compound
eyes, close together in middle of head (Fig. 1); mouth cone elongate,
reaching mesosternum. Antennae arising ventrally, 8- segmented; VII
and VIII closely united; III-V constricted apically; III and IV each with
3 sense cones and at least 1 truncate seta (Fig. 2). Pronotum with 5 pairs
of major setae; anterior margin deeply recessed to allow head to rotate
backwards, epimeral sutures complete; praepectal plates weakly sclero-
tised, elongate and reticulate; mesopraesternum entire, large, and boat
shaped. Mesonotum reticulate, midlateral setae well developed. Meta-
notum reticulate medially with 5 or more pairs of small pale setae. Fore-
tarsal tooth usually absent in both sexes (a minute fore-tarsal tooth is
present in 2 females from Peru). Fore femora swollen in large specimens,
setal bases on inner margin of fore tibiae and fore femora slightly ex-
panded. Forewing parallel sided with 4 sub-basal setae and 20-40 dupli-
cated cilia. Pelta triangular, posterior reticulations bear microtrichia.
Tergites II-VII with 2 pairs of major sigmoid wing-retaining setae and
2 to 6 pairs of accessory sigmoid setae; lateral setae on II-VI very stout
in large individuals, on IX long and slender; male with B2 on IX very
short and slender. Sternal marginal setae placed laterally; sternites II-III
Mound and O'Neill: Genus Sedulothrips
V ;. - r'. I
Fig. 1-2, Sedulothrips tristis Hood: 1. Head and pronotum, maxillary
stylets and mouth cone dotted; 2. Right antenna, segments III-VIII.
(Camera lucida drawing-Jennifer Palmer)
254 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 55, No. 4
and VI-VIII with 2 or more rows of accessory setae, IV and V unusually
short with 1 row of accessories in female; male without sternal glandular
areas. Tube relatively short, terminal setae longer than tube.
Key to the Species of Sedulothrips
1. Abdominal segments III-VIII with chalky white markings antero-
laterally; setae on tergite IX more than 2.0 times as long as the
tube; forewing with a pale area posterior to distal sub-basal
setae ...............................................-- -...... ......-................ vigilans (H ood)
1.' Abdominal segments uniformly dark, without chalky white mark-
ings; setae on tergite IX less than 1.75 times as long as the tube;
forewing dark behind distal sub-basal setae except around the
bases of the marginal cilia ..........................-................... tristis Hood
Sedulothrips vigilans (Hood)
Polyommatothrips vigilans Hood, 1913: 123-124.
Sedulothrips insolens Bagnall, 1915: 503. Syn. n.
Sedulothrips hubbelli Watson, 1923: 76-77. Syn. n.
Sedulothrips brevispinosus Moulton, 1933: 401-402. Syn. n.
Sedulothrips quichua Hood, 1938: 420-423. Syn. n.
The type-specimens of vigilans are unusual in having the antennae
and the fore-tibiae and tarsi yellowish. However, virtually all specimens
studied have dark legs and the antennal segments frequently have light
brown pedicels. The pale colour of the type specimens is probably due to
The unique holotype of insolens was listed by Mound (1968: 7) as ap-
parently lost, but this specimen is in the J. D. Hood material at the U.S.
National Museum. Bagnall stated that insolens differed from vigilans in
having abdominal segment 8 longer than the tube. This observation was
inaccurate, for tergite 8 of the insolens holotype is 205j, long and the
tube 240A. The forewings were stated by Bagnall to be "richer in colour
basally," but only 1 forewing is visible in the holotype and that part of
the base which can be seen is clear as in vigilans. The length of the pro-
notal setae and the sculpturing of the forewing discussed by Bagnall are
too variable to be used as specific criteria.
Watson described hubbelli by comparison with the descriptions of both
insolens and vigilans, but comparison of the type-specimens indicates that
all belong to one species. Differences in mounting cause variations such
as Watson mentioned in protrusion of the eyes, extension of the mouth
cone, and conspicuousness of the abdominal setae. Watson referred to
"about forty females and several males collected from rubber trees," but
he labeled several males as females and the proportion among the type-
specimens examined is 18 males to 16 females. Probably "rubber trees,"
as well as the terms that appear on the type labels, "strangling fig" and
"iguerro" (higuera?), refer to adventitiously-rooting Ficus species. Wat-
son and Hubbell (1924) published a list of Honduran thrips that gives
data for hubbelli conforming to the information on the type labels, "Tela
Division [of United Fruit Company railroad], Gua[i]mas District. May
Mound and O'Neill: Genus Sedulothrips 255
2, 3, 10. On branches of a strangling fig tree immediately after it was
felled and on bark and log of one felled two weeks previously." The data
of the LECTOTYPE designated here are given under Material Studied.
Moulton compared the unique specimen of brevispinosus with the de-
scription of insolens. He did not refer to the other species, and the dif-
ferences he gave for insolens are of no significance. The supposed differ-
ence in the relative lengths of abdomen 8 and the tube is based on Bagnall's
inaccurate statement about them. The antennal color and setal lengths
are related to age and body size, the holotype of brevispinosus being a
small specimen. Bournier (1970) redescribed "brevispinosus" from a
single female collected in French Guiana, but did not give any reason for
using that name. He omitted vigilans from the list of species in the genus.
Bournier also stated that the species is "certainly predaceous," but obser-
vations in Trinidad by Mound do not support this assertion.
When Hood described quichua he had types of vigilans and tristis but
only Moulton's description of brevispinosus. In mounted specimens the
arch of the head causes variation in the apparent distance between the
bases of the postocular setae, by which Hood distinguished brevispinosus.
This distance is about 1/5 the length of the head in undistorted specimens
and increases to more than 1/4 the length in flattened ones. The differ-
ences between quichua and vigilans discussed by Hood are all related to
body size. Large specimens have a longer head, longer antennae, and
stouter lateral abdominal setae than small specimens. Even more con-
fusing is the variation in the sculpture of the mesonotum. The mesonotal
reticles are simple in small specimens, but in large ones the walls of the
reticles bear numerous minute tubercles. Because these characters are con-
tinuous in the available series there is no reason for considering that the
specimens represent different species. Hood described 2 larvae which were
collected with 1 series of the type-specimens of quichua but it is not pos-
sible to be sure that these represent the same species as the adults because
of the number of tubuliferous species which live together on dead wood.
Both species of Sedulothrips have been collected together at the same site
in 3 different countries as detailed under tristis.
One series of specimens from northeast of Tingo Maria, Peru, includes
2 females each of which possesses a minute fore-tarsal tooth, although the
other 3 females and 1 male have unarmed tarsi. Another series taken at
the same locality 4 months later includes 4 females and 3 males which are
apparently typical vigilans, as well as 2 females and 2 males which are
extremely large with slightly longer and paler setae on the fore part of
the body. The last 4 specimens are regarded with some doubt as members
of the species vigilans.
MATERIAL STUDIED: 202 153 mostly collected on dead branches. Full
data are given here only for holotypes and lectotypes.
Holotype, 9, of vigilans, PANAMA, Canal Zone, Paraiso, sweeping, III
1912 (J. Zetek), USNM 71982; allotype, 8, collected with holotype.
Holotype, 9, of insolens, TRINIDAD (F. W. Urich), no further data,
Lectotype, 9, of hubbelli, HONDURAS, Tela, Guaimas Dist., Farm 20, on
bark of large Iguerro log in sun baked clearing, 5.3.23 (T. H. Hub-
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 55, No. 4
bell), with the number 155 on Watson's paratype label now emended
to read Lectotype, FSAC.
Holotype, 9, of brevispinosus, BRAZIL, no locality, July 1928 (0. Conde),
Moulton No. 3228, CAS.
Holotype, 9, of quichua, PERU (San Martin) Moyobamba, ca. 900 m.,
dead branches in jungle, 6 XII 1936 (F. Woytkowski), USNM 71984.
MEXICO: (San Luis Potosi) Tamazunchale, 13 Q 10, IV; USNM (19
HONDURAS, Guaimas District, Tela, 15 9 18 & 6 larvae, V; FSCA, UMMZ,
PANAMA: Barro Colorado Island, 21 9 14 $ 6 larvae, VI-VII; Guabito,
Bocas del Toro, 1 $, IV; Porto Bello, 49 5 VII; Chorrera, 19,
TRINIDAD: 48 9 29 5 27 larvae, II-IV, VI, & XI, USNM & BMNH.
SURINAM: 12 9 7 1 larva, VII, USNM (19 BMNH).
VENEZUELA: Miranda, Sierra del Arula, 3000', 1 9 3 larvae, USNM.
BRAZIL: (Para) Belterra, Fordlandia, Santarem, and Belem, 69 5S 2
larvae, VI-VIII; (Distrito Federal) 23 9 22 $ 5 larvae, V-VI; (Rio de
Janeiro) 59 2 V; (Sao Paulo) Itanhaem, Sao Carlos, and Fazenda
Salta, 89 2 1 larva, VI; (Santa Catarina) 39 2 II; (Parana)
19, IX; USNM (1 BMNH).
PERU: (Huanuco) Tingo Maria, 109 4o, I, V, & VII; (Junin) Sani
Beni, 99 7 VII-IX; (San Martin) Moyobamba and Rioja, 139
10 2 larvae (19 1 S BMNH).
Sedulothrips tristis Hood
Sedulothrips tristis Hood, 1933: 434.
This species is very similar to vigilans apart from the rather trivial
characters referred to in the key. The sculptured reticles on the meta-
notum of the type series are longer than is usual in vigilans, but the speci-
mens identified as tristis from Brazil and Peru, and listed below, have
equiangular reticulations. The head and tube of tristis are rather shorter
than those of vigilans, but in view of the variation in size of the latter
species these differences are of little use in identification. The 2 species
have been collected together at Rioja, Peru, at Sao Carlos and Belem,
Brazil, and in Panama. The lectotype of tristis was designated by O'Neill,
Arnaud and Lee (1971).
MATERIAL STUDIED: 34 9 17 S mostly collected from dead branches.
Lectotype, 9, PANAMA, Barro Colorado Island, on dead leaves and
branches of pomarosa (Eugenia jambos), 4 VII 1933 (J. D. Hood),
PANAMA: Barro Colorado Island, 9 9 8 8 7 larvae, VII-VIII; Porto Bello,
119 4 VII; Chorrera, 1 VIII; Juan Diaz, 19, I; Chapira, 39
3S, XII; USNM (19 1$ BMNH).
BRAZIL: (Para) Belem, 39 S1, VIII; (Sao Paulo) Sao Carlos, 29, VI;
USNM (19 BMNH).
PERU: (Huanuco) Tingo Maria, 29, XII; (Junin) Sani Beni, 19, VII;
(San Martin) Rioja, 19, XI; USNM (19 BMNH).
Mound and O'Neill: Genus Sedulothrips
Bagnall, R. S. 1915. On a collection of Thysanoptera from the West
Indies, with descriptions of new genera and species. J. Linn. Soc.
Zool. 32: 495-507.
Bournier, A. 1970. Thysanoptera recoltes en Guyane Francaise par la
mission du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Ann. Soc. En-
tomol. France (N.S.) 6: 577-580.
Hood, J. D. 1913. On a collection of Thysanoptera from Panama. Psyche
Hood, J. D. 1933. New Thysanoptera from Panama. J. N.Y. Entomol.
Soc. 41: 407-434.
Hood, J. D. 1938. Studies on Neotropical Thysanoptera VIII. Rev.
Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 9: 404-426.
Moulton, D. 1933. The Thysanoptera of South America (IV). Rev.
Entomol., Rio de Janeiro 3: 385-419.
Mound, L. A. 1968. A review of R. S. Bagnall's Thysanoptera collections.
Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Entomol.) Suppl. 11. 181 p.
Mound, L. A. 1971. The feeding apparatus of thrips. Bull. Entomol.
Res. 60: 547-548.
Mound, L. A. 1972. Tropical fungus feeding Thysanoptera of the genus
Macrophthalmothrips. J. Entomol. (B) 41: in press.
O'Neill, Kellie, Paul H. Arnaud, Jr., and Vincent Lee. 1971. Lectotype
designations for certain species of Thysanoptera described by J.
D. Hood. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 61: 24-26.
Stannard, L. J. 1957. The phylogeny and classification of the North
American genera of the suborder Tubulifera (Thysanoptera). Ill.
Biol. Monog. 25. 200 p.
Watson, J. R. 1923. Synopsis and catalog of the Thysanoptera of North
America. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. 168. 100 p.
Watson, J. R., and T. H. Hubbell. 1924. On a collection of Thysanoptera
from Honduras. Fla. Entomol. 7: 60-62.
The Florida Entomologist 55(4) 1972
A PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF ECTOPARASITIC MITES
(ACARI) OF THE HOUSE SPARROW AND
MOCKINGBIRD IN FLORIDA1
W. A. PHILLIS III AND H. L. CROMROY2
Department of Entomology-Nematology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601
Three species of ectoparasitic mites were collected from the nests of
the house sparrow and mockingbird in Gainesville, Florida. The predom-
inant species collected was Pellonyssus passeri Clark and Yunker.
A preliminary survey was undertaken to determine the nest-dwelling
acarine ectoparasites of 2 common Florida birds, the house sparrow, Pas-
ser domesticus, and the mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos. Ten house spar-
row nests and 5 nests of the mockingbird were collected in Gainesville,
Florida on the University of Florida campus. The nests were collected
when the immature birds left the nest since the peak in ectoparasitic pop-
ulations occurs at this time (Phillis 1972). The ectoparasitic mites were
extracted from the nests by using the Tullgren modification of the Berlese
funnel (Krantz 1970).
The only acarine ectoparasites inhabiting the nests belonged to the
family Macronyssidae (Mesostigmata). Two genera and 3 species of
macronyssid mites were found. The most common mite found was Pello-
nyssus passeri Clark and Yunker, which was collected in large numbers
from every nest. Two species of the genus Ornithonyssus, O. bursa (Ber-
lese) and 0. sylvarium (Canestrini and Fanzago), were also found in one
of the mockingbird nests.
It has been hypothesized by many authors that wild bird nests serve as
a source of mite infestation for domestic fowl and human habitations.
This would mean that birds like the house sparrow and mockingbird that
nest in close proximity to man may be of importance as a source of pos-
sible infestation. Most control practices are aimed at the species Der-
manyssus gallinae (Degeer) (Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae) the so-called
chicken mite and the genus Ornithonyssus. This would suggest that many
of the "chicken mites" in Florida may be Pellonyssus passeri at least dur-
ing the post-nesting phase of the wild bird's yearly cycle, and that more
research should be done to verify this.
Krantz, G. W. 1970. A manual of acarology. OSU bookstores; Corvallis,
Oregon. 335 p.
Phillis, W. A. 1972. Seasonal abundance of Dermanyssus hirundinis and
D. americanus (Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae) in nests of the house
sparrow. J. Med. Entomol. 9:111-2.
The Florida Entomologist 55(4) 1972
1Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 4504.
2This investigation was supported by Public Health Service Grant No.
T01-AI00383-03 from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Dis-
SOME NOTES ON THE MILLIPED FAMILY
PAEROMOPIDAE, WITH A DESCRIPTION
OF A NEW SPECIES'
H. F. LOOMIS
5355 S.W. 92 St., Miami, Florida 33156
Notes suggesting possible synonymy of several genera and species are
presented. A new species, Paeromopus ocellatus from California, is de-
scribed, figured, and included in a key with the other species.
This small family of northwestern millipeds consisted of 14 species,
of which 1 was doubtful, as given by Chamberlin and Hoffman (1958).
Three more subsequently were added. Of the 16 unquestioned species only
the 3 proposed by Karsch (1881), Brolemann (1922), and Verhoeff (1938),
have been fully described and figured. The remaining 13, all by R. V.
Chamberlin, generally were so briefly described, with only 7 illustrated,
that identifications usually are difficult, at best.
In reviewing the various descriptions, preparatory to naming a new
species in the type genus, it became apparent that the family is in great
need of careful study. For satisfactory results, examinations of Cham-
berlin's holotypes, topotypes, and greater numbers of specimens will be
necessary. This latter requirement may be difficult to overcome because
the records imply that specimens of most species were very limited in
numbers wherever collected, with distribution restricted to the type local-
ity, in many cases. Failure to find more specimens probably should be
attributed to rarity rather than size, for members of the family vary from
60 to 150 mm in length, the latter figure considerably exceeding that of
any other milliped in the continental United States. Unfortunately, ma-
terial for a proper study is not currently known to be available in collec-
tions, but observations herein may give aid and offer an incentive to a fu-
Klansolus socius Chamberlin (1941) does not appear to be different,
at least generically, from Paeromopus chamberlini Brolemann (1922),
which species Chamberlin (1949) made the type of the genus Atopolus.
Also in 1949, he placed his Californiulus vicinus (1943), which appears to
be very close to genotype C. dorsovittatus Verhoeff (1938), in his genus
Klansolus (1938), the genotype of which never has been illustrated. Cali-
forniulus yosemitensis Chamberlin (1941) may be involved in synonymy,
either by genus, species, or both, with Paeromopus chamberlini Brole-
mann, C. dorsovittatus Verhoeff, C. vicinus Chamberlin, or Klansolus socius
Chamberlin. It is also somewhat remarkable that, with close similarity
thus indicated, the only established species synonym is for Paeromopellus
sphinx Verhoeff (1938), placed under Paeromopus lysiopetalinus Karsch
1Contribution No. 236. Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant In-
dustry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gaines-
260 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 55, No. 4
Paeromopus Karsch 1881
Paeromopellus Verhoeff 1938.
The 1958 Checklist included 1 doubtful and 4 species considered valid
in this genus. Among the latter was P. pistus Chamberlin (1941),
founded without description other than body diameter, on illustrations he
originally attributed to the genotype, P. lysiopetalinus. P. angusticeps
(Wood 1864) was the doubtful species, but since the only specimen was a
female, no longer known to exist, and its description gives no adequate
characters for separation from the other species, it seems improper to re-
tain it among them.
In 1953, Chamberlin described and figured P. cavicolens without men-
tioning P. pistus, although undoubtedly its closest relative. In compar-
ing the gonopod illustrations of the 2 species, no striking differences are
evident, and it is suspected that cavicolens is a junior synonym of pistus,
but final judgement must await critical comparison of the cavicolens holo-
type with the original illustrations of pistus. With no diagnostic charac-
ters available for separation of these 2 species, the name cavicolens, sup-
ported by more data, has been used in the following key, instead of the
In 1951, after the manuscript of the Checklist was finished, Chamber-
lin described P. buttensis without illustration. It and a proposed new
species now are added to the recognizable taxa of the genus in the key.
Holotype of the new species is deposited in the milliped collection of the
National Museum of Natural History; the paratype is in the Florida State
Collection of Arthropods, in Gainesville.
Key to the species of Paeromopus
1. Posterior gonopod slender, gradually reduced in thickness from
base to apex ........................................................ ... eldoradus Chamberlin
1.' Posterior gonopod with basal portion thickened, upper portion
slender ................................-...-..- -.........-..... ...........-. ...-- ......-------- 2
2. Ocelli 30-31; anterior gonopod with a complicated structure near
base of the long, flagelliform, subterminal process ..................
................................................. ocellatus new species
2.' Ocelli fewer; structure near base of flagelliform process smaller,
m uch less com plicated ......................... ........ ........... ..................... 3
3. Structure at base of flagelliform process furcate, the proximal di-
vision with dentate margins ...................................... buttensis Chamberlin
3.' Structure at base of flagelliform process not furcate .......................... 4
4. Body 6.8-8 mm in diameter; segment 1 with longitudinal striae
restricted to lateral surfaces ................................ lysiopetalinus Karsch
4.' Body 6 mm in diameter; segment 1 with longitudinal striae
across posterior portion of dorsum .................. cavicolens Chamberlin
Paeromopus ocellatus new species
Holotype and another male from between Vallejo and Cordelia, Solano
Co., California, 4 January 1928, collected by O. F. Cook, who photo-
graphed 3 additional males whose whereabouts are not known.
Loomis: New Paeromopus Milliped
Fig. 1-5, Paeromopus ocellatus new species: 1. Ocelli adjacent to margin
of antennal socket; 2. Left anterior gonopod (anteromesal view); 3. Left
posterior gonopod (anterior view); 4. Left first male leg (slightly mesal-
anterior view); 5. Same (posterior view).
Diagnosis: Apparently most closely related to P. cavicolens Chamber-
lin (1941), but slightly larger; with more numerous ocelli; segment 1 not
striate behind, across dorsum; and with material differences of the gono-
Description: Both males dry and broken; 7-7.5 mm in diameter; 75 seg-
ments each; segments 6 and 7 slightly swollen, the latter widely open
below, its inner margin each side visibly much raised in lateral view.
Head with deep median furrow of vertex extending to near back margin
from a fine transverse stria connecting inner corner of eyes; surface be-
hind stria with dense, fine, longitudinal wrinkles to posterior margin;
median surface of clypeus progressively depressed from back to front; lat-
eral margin of head deeply and evenly concave, paralleling upper margin
of mandibulary stipes, the tentorial notch in it relatively small and lo-
cated immediately opposite middle of antennal socket; margin behind
notch produced downward and squarely angled at junction of stipes and
cardo. Eyes composed of 30-31 ocelli differing greatly in size (Fig. 1).
262 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 55, No. 4
Antennae with sensory area at distal end of joints 5 and 6; area on the
former much the largest; socket completely encircled by a sharply raised
rim, the socket followed by a deeply concave furrow extending below eye
to segment 1.
Segment 1 with lower sides smoothly and extensively curved inward
below; a narrow rim extends around lateral limits and up to behind an-
tennal furrow; longitudinal striae present in lower limits and for a short
distance up posterior surface but not across dorsum. Segment 2 with
striae restricted to lower half of body, extending higher on segment 3,
and beginning to cross dorsum on segment 4, after which they are con-
tinuous to penultimate segment. Last segment lacking striae; slightly
produced at apex. Striae of prozonites transverse, very faint on dorsum
but a little more evident elsewhere; interzonal furrow distinct across dor-
sum but much more deeply impressed below pores, especially on anterior
part of body.
Gonopods shown in Fig. 2 and 3; slender distal portion of posterior
gonopod spiculate from base to near apex; middle of sternum produced
into a slender, acute lobe.
First male leg shown in Fig. 4 and 5; second legs normal; ventral sur-
face of joints 4 and 5 of succeeding legs fully occupied by inflated pads
(deeply retracted in dry specimens); toward midbody the pads beneath
joint 4 become restricted to the distal end and later disappear; those of
joint 5 similarly become shorter after midbody and are lacking from last
few pairs of legs. Coxae of legs 4-7 with prominent, rounded, slightly pro-
jecting, setose, distomesal shoulders.
Brolemann, H. W. 1922. Notes on female paraiulids (Myriapoda), with
description of a new species. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 15:281-
Chamberlin, R. V. 1938. New diplopods. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington
Chamberlin, R. V. 1941. New American millipeds. Bull. Univ. Utah 31
(11) : 3-39.
Chamberlin, R. V. 1943. On some genera and species of American milli-
peds. Bull. Univ. Utah 34 (6): 3-20.
Chamberlin, R. V. 1949. American millipeds of the family Paeromopidae.
Chicago Acad. Sci. Nat. Hist. Misc., no. 2:1-6.
Chamberlin, R. V. 1953. Six new American millipeds, with notes on sev-
eral cave-dwelling species. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 66:67-72.
Chamberlin, R. V. 1954. Six new California millipeds. Proc. Biol. Soc.
Chamberlin, R. V., and R. L. Hofman. 1958. Checklist of the millipeds
of North America. U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 212:1-236.
Karsch, F. 1881. Neue Juliden des Berlinen-Museums, als Prodromus
einer Juliden monographie. Zeitschr. Naturw. 54:1-79.
Verhoeff, K. W. 1938. Californiulus n. g. und Paeromopellus n. g. verterer
einer neuem families der Symphyognatha-Arthrophora. Zool. Anz.
Wood, H. C. 1864. Descriptions of new species of North American Juli-
dae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 16:10-16.
The Florida Entomologist 55(4) 1972
SORGHUM MIDGE INFESTATION RELATIONSHIP
WITH DISTANCE FROM FIELD MARGIN1
D. O. WOLFENBARGER
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Research and Education Center, Homestead, Florida
Border effects were demonstrated for injury by the sorghum midge,
Contarinia sorghiella (Coquillet). Distinct and rather limited distance ef-
fects on yeild loss were observed within 30 m of an adjoining field which
had produced many midges. This suggests that border treatments with an
effective insecticide might be used to advantage and that more central parts
of a field could receive less insecticide.
Sorghum midge, Contarinia sorghiella (Coquillet), infestations are
very abundant in Florida during the summer rainy season. This insect
may be so abundant on grain sorghum that little grain is produced.
It is of interest and often of economic value to know the distances of
dispersion of an insect. Infested grains were found most abundant in field
margins nearest midge sources in mature grain sorghum fields and became
progressively less abundant as the distance increased from the margins
(Fig. 1). This provided an opportunity to obtain information on disper-
sion of the sorghum midge.
An older planting of grain sorghum in a field had produced an abun-
dant midge population at a time when a later planting adjacent in another
field was flowering. A field road 3 to 4 m wide separated the 2 fields. Both
were on level Rockdale soils common to the area; grain sorghum variety
When the younger field was nearly mature, samples of sorghum pan-
icles were plucked from plants growing at 0.9, 6.1, 12.2, 18.3, 24.4, 30.5,
36.6, 42.7, 48.8, 54.9 and 61.0 m from the margin nearest the older planting.
The number of filled and empty glumes in the samples was counted and
these figures were converted to percentage of glumes containing sound
grain. Data were taken from each of 8 rows at the indicated distances.
Data from 2 rows were pooled to 4 replications. Statistical analyses were
made and the results are summarized in Table 1.
Statistically significant differences were found between distance classes,
with samples taken at 18.3 m or more from the field margin having sig-
nificantly more sound grains than samples taken nearer the margin. These
results justified the use of a regression curve according to Wadley and
Wolfenbarger (1944). This curve defined the gradient of sound grain ex-
pected as related to distance from the field border. The curve was com-
puted according to the multiple regression and covariance method outlined
by Snedecor (1940, Chap. 13) and gave the following through a modified
semi-logarithmic formula: Expected % of grain = 63.1935 (log x) +40.9932
1Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 4396.
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 55, No. 4
0 0" 0 -
,* O e <
ft~r P o f
E a a s ft
0-4 2 *H
Wolfenbarger: Sorghum Midge Dispersion
Fig. 1. Sorghum midge infested grains of sorghum heads nearest the
margin of field, left, to heads almost non-infested at right, 100 ft or more
from the field margin.
(1/x)-24.8217. X refers to distance in meters from the margin of the field
to the sampling site. Computations gave an R2 value of 0.957 and a "t"
value 0.181, both of which are less than the 5% level and are considered
The lowest observed percentage of sorghum grain destroyed by the
midge was at 42.7 m and the highest at 0.9 m from the field margin. The
regression curve made the most rapid change at distances up to 18 m from
the margin and at greater distances approached a plateau suggesting that
midge incidence had become static.
These observations emphasize the importance of adjoining fields or
other areas serving as sources of pest insects. Protective measures ap-
plied to an 18 m border of the sorghum field would be expected to reduce
infestations on plants in the margin and perhaps throughout the field. Less
toxicant would have been used on the field border, at less cost to the pro-
ducer, and with less contamination of the sorghum, the atmosphere, and
Snedecor, George W. 1940. Statistical methods. Chap. 13. The Col-
legiate Press, Inc. Ames.
Wadley, F. M., and D. O. Wolfenbarger. 1944. Regression of insect den-
sity on distance from center of dispersion as shown by a study of
the smaller European elm bark beetle. J. Agr. Res. 69(7) :299-308.
The Florida Entomologist 55 (4) 1972
all your pest control
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NEW SPECIES OF ERYTHRONEURA
(HOMOPTERA: CICADELLIDAE) 1,
LEON W. HEPNER
Department of Entomology, Mississippi Agricultural and
Forestry Experiment Station, State College, MS 39762
Ten new species of Erythroneura of the Eratoneura subgenus are de-
scribed: combesi, teshi, guicei, alveyi, atkinsoni, byetsi, bainteri, micheneri,
beeri, and curtoides.
The subgenus Eratoneura maculataa group) of Erythroneura of eastern
North America contains about 300 species, mostly identified by differences
in the male genitalia. Host records are of greatest value during the sum-
mer months, after the leafhoppers migrate from the spring hosts and be-
fore they move to fall hosts in September and October, before entering
All specimens mentioned in this paper were collected by the author,
unless otherwise stated. Holotypes will be deposited in the collections of
the Illinois Natural History Survey.
Erythroneura combesi, new species
(Plate I, 1A-D)
Length 3mm, forewings spotted, apical black spot larger than average,
crown and pronotum with markings well separated.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view long and slender, apically roughened,
dorsal flange narrow; in posteroventral view narrow, roughened on apical
half, fairly broad lateral flanges on basal half. Pygofer hook slightly
shorter than pygofer in lateral view, with spine on dorsal margin of apex,
apex broadened and toothed; in dorsal view slightly sinuate, almost par-
allel margined to pointed apex. Foot of style similar to Erythroneura
manus, with very short points.
Holotype male: Noxubee Refuge, Noxubee County, Miss., 11 July 1962,
Glenn Wiygul, on Quercus lyrata Walter.
Differs from Erythroneura manus Beamer in the broader pygofer hook
base, much longer aedeagal shaft and larger lateral flanges. The host
plant is likely Q. lyrata, overcup oak.
Erythroneura teshi, new species
(Plate I, 2A-E)
Length 2.9mm; forewings with large spots, apical black spot very small
and lacking a costal dark spot.
1Supported by National Science Foundation grant number GB 6411.
2Publication No. 2284, Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experi-
ment Station, State College, MS 39762.
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 55, No. 4
11A rt) DC
P3E 2D 2C o
3. guicei 3B S3 D 3C
B? 4.alveyi 4C
5E 5B B 5D 5C -C
Plate I: 1) Erythroneura combesi; 2) E. teshi; 3) E. guicei; 4) E.
alveyi; 5) E. atkinsoni. A, aedeagus, lateral view; B, aedeagus, postero-
ventral view; C, pygofer and pygofer hook, lateral view; D, pygofer hook,
dorsal view; E, foot of style, lateral view. The pygofers and pygofer
hooks are drawn at half the magnification of the aedeagus and styles.
Aedeagal shaft long and slender in lateral view with a pair of apical
processes almost half length of shaft, in ventral view almost parallel
margined with apical processes sinuate and quite long; dorsal process
very small in both views. Pygofer hook somewhat shorter than pygofer,
almost straight in both views, sculptured on outer third. Foot of style
with projecting anterior point and fairly broad posterior point about one-
third length of foot.
Holotype male and 27 male paratypes: Allerton Park, Monticello, Piatt
Hepner: New Erythroneura
County, Ill., 26 Sept. 1960, H. B. Cunningham, on Ulmus rubra Muhlen-
berg. Additional male paratypes as follows: 1, State College, Oktibeha
County, Miss., 28 Jan. 1962; 1, Yellville, Marion County, Ark., 23 Aug.
1962; and 1, Siloam Springs, Brown Co., Ill., 29 April 1960, Ross and Cun-
Differs from Erythroneura maculata (Gillette) in the very long proc-
esses at apex of aedeagal shaft, longer pygofer hook and shorter pos-
terior point on foot of style. Although the long series was collected on
elm, the species more closely resembles some living on Rhus.
Erythroneura guicei, new species
(Plate I, 3A-E)
Length 3.1mm; forewings with large spots, apical black spot larger than
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view small and parallel margined, in postero-
ventral view with lateral flanges on basal half; dorsal process short,
barely width of lateral flanges in posteroventral view. Pygofer hook
about length of pygofer, sculptured on outer half, in lateral view sinuate
and evenly narrowed from base to apex; in dorsal view almost parallel
margined and evenly curved. Foot of style short with short anterior point,
posterior point about one-third length of foot.
Holotype male and 10 male paratypes; Amboy, Lee County, Ill., 27
Sept. 1956, Stannard and Ross on Quercus macrocarpa Michaux. Addi-
tional male paratypes as follows: 12, Carpentersville, Kane County, Ill.,
26 Sept. 1956, Stannard and Ross on Q. macrocarpa; 1, Casey, Clark
County, Ill., 24 Sept. 1953, Ross and Evers on Q. bicolor Willdenow; 2,
Oak Forest, Cook County, Ill., Sept. 1950, H. H. Ross on Q. macrocarpa;
1, Freeport, Stephenson County, Ill., 7 Sept. 1951, Mills and Ross on Q.
macrocarpa; and 1, Enfield, White County, 13 April 1960, Ross and Cun-
Differs from Erythroneura haysensis Hepner, another bur oak species
in having much shorter posterior points, a larger aedeagal shaft and a
shorter pygofer hook.
Erythroneura alveyi, new species
(Plate I, 4A-E)
Length 3mm; forewings with large spots, apical black spot average
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view with distinct dorsal flange, apically
roughened, in posteroventral view with lateral flanges along most of shaft;
dorsal process very short, but broad in posteroventral view. Pygofer
hook longer than pygofer, stalked, strongly sinuate in lateral view, less
so in dorsal view. Foot of style broad with short posterior point.
Holotype male: Starkville, Oktibbeha County, Miss., 10 Aug. 1962, on
Quercus stellata Wangenheim.
Differs from Erythroneura daltonorum Hepner in having a broader
foot of style and with stalked, sinuate pygofer hook.
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 55, No. 4
Plate II: 1) Erythroneura byersi; 2) E. bainteri; 3) E. micheneri; 4) E.
beeri; 5) E. curtoides. A, aedeagus lateral view; B, aedeagus postero-
ventral view; C, pygofer and pygofer hook, lateral view; D, pygofer, dor-
sal view and E, foot of style. The pygofers and pygofer hooks are drawn
at half the magnification of the others.
Erythroneura atkinsoni, new species
(Plate I, 5A-E)
Length 3mpm. The forewings are missing so color pattern is unknown.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view curved, parallel margined and apically
roughened, in posteroventral view with rough lateral flanges along entire
length of shaft; dorsal process very short, in posteroventral view
broadened apically. Pygofer hook slightly longer than pygofer, sinuate
in both views, more so in dorsal view, gradually narrowed from base to
Hepner: New Erythroneura
apex in lateral view. Foot of style with posterior point curved and about
one-third length of foot.
Holotype male; Starkville, Oktibbeha County, Miss., 10 Aug. 1962 on
Differs from Erythroneura freytagi Hepner in having a much broader
dorsal process on aedeagal shaft and a quite different foot of style.
Erythroneura byersi, new species
(Plate II, 1A-E)
Length 3 mm; wings spotted, apical black spot average size.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view small, slightly bulbous, dorsal flange
distinct, slightly roughened apically, in posteroventral view rough and
with lateral flanges only at base; dorsal process very short, but broad in
posteroventral view. Pygofer hook slightly longer than pygofer, slightly
sinuate in lateral view, more strongly sinuate and stalked in dorsal view.
Foot of style with posterior point about one-third length of foot.
Holotype male, Jefferson, Texas, 3 July 1962.
Differs from freytagi in having the rough aedeagal shaft, broad dorsal
process in posteroventral view and different foot of style.
Erythroneura bainteri, new species
(Plate II, 2A-E)
Length 3 mm; wings with large connected spots, apical black spot
larger than average.
Aedeagal shaft slightly curved, almost parallel margined, slightly
roughened apically, in posteroventral view with lateral flanges on basal
three-fourths of shaft, broadest basally; dorsal process very short, barely
broader than lateral flanges in posteroventral view. Pygofer hook longer
than pygofer, sculptured on apical third, slightly sinuate in both views.
Foot of style short with distinct anterior point and slender posterior
point almost half length of foot.
Holotype male, Enfield, Ill., 13 April 1960, Ross and Cunningham. Ad-
ditional male paratypes-5 from Carpenterville, Ill., 26 Sept. 1956, Stan-
nard and Ross on Quercus macrocarpa.
Differs from haysensis primarily in the shape of the foot of the style
and with larger aedeagal shaft with more extensive lateral flanges.
Erythroneura micheneri, new species
(Plate II, 3A-E)
Length 3 mm; wings with red band across middle of clavus and ad-
joining corium, apical black spot average size.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view bulbous, roughened and with a distinct
dorsal flange, in posteroventral view rough and with very small lateral
flanges near middle of shaft; dorsal process about half length of shaft,
extending dorsally near shaft, in posteroventral view broad laterally and
rounded apically. Pygofer hook slightly longer than truncate pygofer,
sculptured on apical two-thirds, gently sinuate in both views. Foot of
style slender and with straight, sharply pointed posterior point about half
length of foot.
272 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 55, No. 4
Holotype male, State College, Miss., 18 Feb. 1962. Additional male
paratypes from Illinois as follows: 1, Millcreek, 8 Feb. 1957, Ross and
Kramer; 1, Eddyville, Lusk Creek Canyon, 16 Sept. 1954, Mills and Ross on
Alnum rugosus; 1, Rocky Branch Creek, Oliver, 22 April 1949, Ross and
Stannard; 1, Giant City State Park, 14 Sept. 1954, Mills and Ross on Acer
saccharum; 1, Mt. Vernon, 21 Sept. 1960; 1, Fox Ridge State Park, 29 June
1947, Ross and Stannard and 1, Foley's Woods, Paris, 22 April 1949, Ross
Differs from univittata in having a long dorsal process, truncate pygo-
fer and longer posterior point on foot of style.
Erythroneura beeri, new species
(Plate II, 4A-E)
Length 3.3 mm; wings with broad markings, apical black spot smaller
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view long and slender, narrowed apically, in
posteroventral view with lateral flanges from base to apex; dorsal process
about half length of shaft, barely wider than lateral flanges in postero-
ventral view. Pygofer hook shorter than pygofer, sinuate and sculptured
on apical half in both views. Foot of style with posterior point about
one-fourth length of foot.
Holotype male and 7 male paratypes, Enfield, Ill., 13 April 1960, Ross
and Cunningham. Additional male paratypes as follows: 2, Gossete Ill.,
13 April 1960, Ross and Cunningham and 1, Grantsburg, Ill., 31 Aug. 1951,
Richards and Ross, Quercus palustris.
Differs from ferrosa in having a longer, more slender aedeagal shaft
with more extensive lateral flanges, and with a much longer dorsal process.
Erythroneura curtoides, new species
(Plate II, 5A-E)
Length 2.8 mm; wings spotted, apical black spot smaller than average.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view slender, parallel margined only slightly
roughened apically, in posteroventral view with lateral flanges along most
of shaft, broadest basally; dorsal process about two-fifths length of shaft,
broadened apically in posteroventral view. Pygofer hook about length of
pygofer, scarely curved in lateral view, slightly sinuate in dorsal view.
Foot of style slender with curved posterior point about one-third length
Holotype male, White Springs, Fla., 11 Dec. 1949, Stannard et at. and
1 male paratype, Santa Rosa Co., Fla., 11 Aug. 1955, F. W. Mead on Quer-
Differs from patriciae in having almost straight shorter pygofer hooks
and longer dorsal process on aedeagus.
The Florida Entomologist 55(4) 1972
PARASITIC HYMENOPTERA BRED FROM THE FAMILY
AGROMYZIDAE (DIPTERA) WITH SPECIAL
REFERENCE TO SOUTH FLORIDA'
CARL E. STEGMAIER, JR.2
11335 N. W. 59th Avenue, Hialeah, Florida 33012
Five families of hymenopterous parasites including 19 genera and 31
species were reared from the leafminer family Agromyzidae (Diptera)
during a survey for these leafminers especially from south Florida.
In early 1963, I commenced a survey for those agromyzid flies asso-
ciated with grasses, weeds, truck crops, ornamentals, shrubs, and trees of
south Florida. All agromyzid determinations were by Kenneth A. Spen-
cer of London, England. Unknown host plants were determined by the
late Erdman West, by D. B. Ward (both of the University of Florida), or
by Kenneth Langdon (Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of
During this period of intensive rearing of agromyzid adults from
their host plants, I was continually confronted with hymenopterous para-
sites which prevented some of my hearings of the desired Agromyzidae
adults. The parasites were associated with the immatures of these leaf-
miners and in some cases I had to repeat my hearings several times to ob-
tain the specific leafminer associated with a given host. To date, all of
the hymenopterous parasites have been determined by C. F. W. Muesebeck,
B. D. Burks, or P. M. Marsh (systematic entomologists, U. S. National
Museum). I would like to thank these entomologists for their help in
making this paper possible, as well as B. D. Burks and George C. Steyskal
for critically reviewing this manuscript.
Numerous references on the agromyzid parasites in Florida are re-
ported by Muesebeck et al. (1951), Krombein (1958), and by Krombein
and Burks (1967). Many of these references are not cited in this paper
as these were too many clarifications to be made especially in the genus
Liriomyza Mik. Further, numerous new agromyzid species described by K.
A. Spencer and currently being reported by Spencer and Stegmaier (in
press) contain data which are unpublished.
Agromyza pusilla (Meigen) is actually Liriomyza pusilla and this spe-
cies has been erroneously reported by several authors as the host for vari-
ous hymenopterous parasites. Liriomyza pusilla (Meigen), in part Stey-
skal (personal communication) reported that Liriomyza munda covers
most of the old records of L. pusilla (Stegmaier 1968b). Moreover, L.
pusilla is a European species and not known to be in the United States.
Much more intensive research is needed on the host plant range of the
Agromyzidae throughout the United States. Our basic knowledge of the
'Contribution No. 239, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant In-
dustry, Fla. Dep. Agr. and Cons. Serv., Gainesville, Fla. 32601.
2Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
274 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 55, No. 4
grass-infesting agromyzids in the United States and the associated para-
sites is extremely poor. When more intensive research on the host plant
range is conducted and when we have obtained a better knowledge of the
needed taxonomic clarifications, we will be able to develop a better under-
standing of the effective hymenopterous parasites associated with the
family Agromyzidae throughout the United States.
The purpose of this paper is to report on the known hymenopterous
parasites bred from determined Agromyzidae which were reared from
known host plants from Florida. All collections, except where noted, are
those of the author.
Studies on the parasites of the Liriomyza species have been reported
by Webster and Parks (1913), Crawford (1913), Gahan (1917), Tilden
(1950), Hills and Taylor (1950), Oatman (1959, 1960), and Harding (1965).
Cameron (1939) and Kulp (1968) reported on the Ilex associated Phyto-
myza spp., and some of their parasites. Griffiths (1956, 1964, 1966a, 1966b,
1967, 1968a, 1968b) reported on some braconid parasites of the Agromyzi-
dae in Europe. Some information on the parasites of the cambial miners
in the genera Phytobia and Dendromyza are reported by Barnes (1933),
Greene (1914), Hanson and Benjamin (1967), Kangas (1935), and Pitcher
Neopius cubitalis Fischer: 1 adult, det. C. F. W. Muesebeck. Reared
from Liriomyza sorosis (Williston) infesting Panicum sp., Hialeah, Fla.,
6 VI 66. Muesebeck et al. (1951) reported a rearing of Neopius carinati-
ceps Gahan from Agromyza sp., mines in Hordeum from North Dakota
and New Jersey.
Opius dimidiatus (Ashm.): 25 adults, det. C. F. W. Muesebeck. Reared
from Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), infesting celery leaves, Belle Glade,
Fla., 24 III 64, coll. E. D. Harris, Jr.; 5 adults, det. C. F. W. Muesebeck,
reared from L. trifolii infesting peas, Hialeah, Fla., 3 II 64; 4 adults, det.
C. F. W. Muesebeck, reared from L. trifolii infesting potato leaves, Belle
Glade, Fla., 24 III 64, coll. E. D. Harris, Jr.; 4 adults, det. C. F. W. Muese-
beck, reared from L. trifolii infesting leaves of Piriqueta caroliniana
(Walt.) Urban, Hialeah, Fla., 24 I 64.
Muesebeck et al. (1951) reported the distribution of 0. dimidiatus from
N. Y. to Fla., west to S. Dak., Utah, Calif., and the West Indies. He re-
ported the following insect hosts: L. munda Frick (as Agromyza pusilla),
Chlorops scutellata (Fall.) as A. scutellata, and Cerodontha (Cerodontha)
dorsalis (Loew). Muesebeck in Krombein (1958) recorded the species
from Texas and Muesebeck in Krombein and Burks (1967) reported the
species from L. munda. Kulp (1968) reported rearing the species from
Phytomyza opacae Kulp.
Opius spp.: det. C. F. W. Muesebeck, reared from Liriomyza trifolii,
Stegmaier (1966a); 7 adults, det. C. F. W. Muesebeck, reared from Phy-
tobia (Amauromyza) maculosa (Malloch), Coral Gables, Fla., 28 I 64; 2
adults, det. C. F. W. Muesebeck, reared from Phytobia (Calycomyza) n.
sp. infesting leaves of Solidago sp., Hialeah, Fla., 7 I 66; 1 adult, det. C.
F. W. Muesebeck, reared from Phytobia (Amauromyza) maculosa from
__ __ __
Stegmaier: Parasites of Agromyzidae
leaves of Erigeron strigosus Muhl., Hialeah, Fla., 28 II 66; Kulp (1968) re-
ported rearing Opius n. sp. from Phytomyza verticillatae Kulp; he re-
corded Opius striatriventris Gahan from Phytomyza opacae; and Cameron
(1939) reported rearing 0. ilicis Nixon from Phytomyza ilicis (Curt.).
Oenonogastra n. sp.: det. C. F. W. Muesebeck, 7 adults were reared
from Japanagromyza aequalis Spencer (Spencer 1966) infesting leaves of
Vigna repens Baker, Hialeah, Fla., 22 III 64. Muesebeck (personal cor-
respondence, 66-16067) indicated that the new species was forwarded to G.
T. Riegel who is revising the group.
Pnigalio spp.: Cameron (1939) recorded P. felti (Cwfd.) from Phyto-
myza ilicis Nixon; Kulp (1968) reported rearing P. felti from Phytomyza
verticillatae Kulp and Pnigalio guttiventris (Girault) from Phytomyza
ilicicola Loew and from Phytomyza opacae; Pnigalio proximus (Ashm.)
from Phytomyza ditmani Kulp (Kulp 1968); and Stegmaier (1967c) re-
ported rearing Pnigalio sp., from Liriomyza brassicae (Riley).
Diglyphus intermedius (Grlt.): Stegmaier (1971) reported rearing the
species from Phytomyza vomitoriae Kulp; Burks in Krombein and Burks
(1967) recorded the species from Liriomyza propepusilla Frost; however,
Spencer (1965) stated that this leafminer may be a synonym of Liriomyza
Diglyphus pulchripes (Cwfd.): 1 9, det. B. D. Burks, reared from L.
trifolii infesting leaves of Bidens pilosa L., Miami Springs, Fla., 26 III 63.
Diglyphus sp.: Stegmaier (1966a) reported rearing this species from
Tetrastichus marylandensis (Grlt.): 1 9, det. B. D. Burks, reared from
Melanagromyza minimoides Spencer from seed infestations of Melanthera
deltoidea Michx, Sanford, Fla., 29 I 64, coll. G. W. Desin; Peck in Muese-
beck et al. (1951) recorded the species from Mass., Md., D. C., Va., Mo.,
Tetrastichus sp.: 1 9, det. B. D. Burks, reared from an undetermined
agromyzid infesting Mikania batatifolia DC., Hialeah, Fla., 28 IX 63.
Diaulinopsis callichroma Cwfd.: Stegmaier (1966c, 1967a, 1967b, 1967c,
1967d) reported rearing this species from Liriomyza brassicae, Phytobia
(Amauromyza) maculosa, Liriomyza sorosis (Williston), Lirio-
myza schmidti (Aldrich), Phytobia (Calycomyza) malvae (Burgess), and
Phytobia (Calycomyza) ipomaeae Frost. Peck in Muesebeck et al. (1951)
recorded D. callichroma from Ind., Fla., Miss., and Arizona. He reported
the host insects as Chlorops scutellata Panzer (as Agromyza scutellata
Fall.), Calycomyza artemisiae (Khb.), Cerodontha (Cerodontha) dorsalis
Loew, and Liriomyza munda (as L. pusilla). Burks in Krombein and
Burks (1967) reported the species in Calif., Mexico, and the West Indies.
Zagrammosoma multilineatum (Ashm.): Stegmaier (1971) reported
rearing the species from Phytomyza vomitoriae. Peck in Muesebeck et al.
(1951) recorded the species from Md., D. C., S. C., W. Va., Fla., Ohio, Ind.,
La., and Ks. He reported the host insects as Agromyza parvicornis Loew,
L. munda (as A. pusilla), A. aquilegiae Hardy, and Chlorops scutellata
(as A. scutellata).
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 55, No. 4
Zagrammosoma spp.: 1 9, det. B. D. Burks, reared from Phytobia
(Calycomyza) hyptidis Spencer, Spencer and Stegmaier (in press) infest-
ing leaves of Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poir, Hialeah, Fla., 26 XI 63; Steg-
maier (1967d) reported rearing this from Phytobia (Calycomyza) ipo-
Mirzagrammosoma lineaticeps Girault: Stegmaier (1966a) reported
rearing this species from Liriomyza trifolii. Burks in Krombein and
Burks (1967) recorded the species from Fla., Central America, and the
West Indies. He reported Liriomyza archboldi Frost as host insect; how-
ever, the host plant for L. archboldi is not peas as stated by Frost (1962),
but rather Bidens pilosa L. (Spencer and Stegmaier in press).
Closterocerus cinctipennis Ashm.: Stegmaier (1966a, 1966b, 1966c, 1971)
reported rearing this parasite from Liriomyza trifolii, L. munda, L.
schmidti, and Phytomyza ilicicola Loew, respectively; Peck in Muesebeck
et al. (1951) recorded this parasite from Que., Conn., N. J., D. C., Fla.,
Mo., and from Iowa from cited insect hosts. Burks in Krombein and Burks
(1967) reported the parasite from Wisconsin.
Closterocerus tricinctus (Ashm.) : Peck in Muesebeck et al. (1951) re-
ported this parasite from Liriomyza melampyga (Loew) (as Agromyza
melampyga Loew), A. parvicornis, Phytomyza aquilegia Hardy, P. ilicis,
and P. obscurella Fall.; Burks in Krombein and Burks (1967) recorded the
species from Que., southward to Fla., west to Wisc., Iowa, and Mo. Kulp
(1968) reported the species from Phytomyza ditmani, P. ilicicola, P. ilicis,
P. opacae, and P. verticillatae; Stegmaier (1971) also reported rearing
the parasite from P. opacae.
Chrysocharis majoriani (Grlt.): Stegmaier (1966d, 1967b) reported
rearing this parasite from Liriomyza commelinae (Frost) and from Lirio-
myza sorosis respectively; 3 9, det. B. D. Burks, were reared from Phy-
tobia (Calycomyza) malvae, Miami, Fla., 15 VIII 63; Burks in Krombein
and Burks (1967) recorded the species from Fla., West Indies, Brazil, and
it was introduced into Hawaii for biological control purposes.
Chrysocharis spp.: Stegmaier (1966a, 1966b, 1966c, 1967a, 1967b, 1967d,
1971) reported this genus from L. trifolii, L. munda, L. schmidti, Phytobia
(Amauromyza) maculosa, L. sorosis, L. brassicae, Phytomyza vomitoriae,
Phytobia (Calycomyza) malvae and from Phytobia (Calycomyza) ipo-
Derostenus agromyzae Cwfd.: Stegmaier (1966a, 1967b) recorded rear-
ings of this parasite from Liriomyza trifolii and L. sorosis; 33 adults,
det. B. D. Burks, were reared from Phytobia (Calycomyza) sp. infesting
leaves of Mikania batatifolia, Hialeah, Fla., 28 IX 63; 1 9, det. B. D.
Burks, was reared from Agromyza proxima Spencer, infesting leaves of
Echinochloa walteri (Purch) Heller, Sweetwater, Fla., 24 VI 63 (Spencer
and Stegmaier in press); Burks in Krombein and Burks (1967) recorded
the distribution for this parasite as N. Y., south to Fla., west to N. Dak.
and Arizona; he includes Mantura floridana Cr. and Liriomyza sorosis as
Derostenus diastatae (How.): 12 adults, det. B. D. Burks, reared from
Agromyza proxima Spencer (Spencer and Stegmaier in press), Sweet-
water, Fla., 24 VII 63; Peck in Muesebeck et al. (1951) recorded the para-
site from Conn. to Fla., and Ks.; he reported the host insects as L. munda
Stegmaier: Parasites of Agromyzidae
(as A. pusilla), Chlorops scutellata (as Agromyza scutellata), Diastata
sp. mining corn ears; dipterous miner of Panicum dichotomiflorum Michx.,
and Fenusa pusilla (Klug.).
Derostenus variipes Cwfd.: Getzin (1960) reported this parasite as the
most important parasite of Liriomyza munda during 1958 and 1959 in
Texas; Peck in Muesebeck et al. (1951) reported the parasite from L.
munda (as A. pusilla) and Phytomyza aquilegia; Stegmaier (1966a,
1966c, 1967a) reported rearing the parasite from Liriomyza schmidti, L.
trifolii, and from Phytobia (Amauromyza) maculosa; Burks in Krombein
and Burks (1967) recorded the species from N. Y., south to Florida, west
to La. and Texas.
Derostenus spp.: Wene (1953, 1955) reported Derostenus sp. as the pri-
mary parasite of L. munda; Stegmaier (1966a, 1966b, 1967b, 1967d, 1971)
reported rearing this from L. trifolii, L. munda, Phytobia (Amauromyza)
maculosa, P. (Calycomyza) jucunda (Wulp), P. (C.) ambrosiae Frick, and
Pediobius lithocolletidis (Ashm.): Kulp (1968) reported rearing this
parasite from Phytomyza ilicicola, P. opacae, and P. verticillatae; Steg-
maier (1971) reported rearing the species from Phytomyza opacae; Burks
(1966) reported the species as a parasite of lepidopterous, dipterous,
and coleopterous leafminers.
Torymus sp.: 1 3, 1 9, det. B. D. Burks, reared from Melanagromyza
minimoides Spencer infesting seed heads of Melanthera deltoidea Michx.,
Sanford, Fla., 29 I 64, coll. G. W. Desin.
Halticoptera patellana (Dalman): Burks in Krombein and Burks (1967)
reported this species as Holarctic; Oatman (1959, 1960) recorded this
species as a dominant parasite of Liriomyza munda (as L. pictella
(Thomson); Stegmaier (1966a, 1966b) reported rearing this species from
L. trifolii and L. munda.
Halticoptera sp.: 1 9, det. B. D. Burks, was reared from Phytobia
(Calycomyza) sp. infesting leaves of Aster simmondsii Small, Hialeah,
Fla., 26 XI 63; 5 9, 1 8, det. B. D. Burks, were reared from Japanagro-
myza desmodivora Spencer infesting Desmodium tortuosum (SW.) DC.,
Miami, Fla., 17 X 63; Kulp (1968) reported rearing Halticoptera sp. from
Heteroschema punctata (Ashm.): 8 9, 6 8, det. B. D. Burks, were
reared from Melanagromyza minimoides infesting seed heads of Borrichia
frutescens (L.) DC., Miami, Fla., 3 III 66; 8 9, 2 S, det. B. D. Burks, were
reared from M. minimoides infesting the seed heads of Wedelia trilobata
Hitch., Miami, Fla., 14 XI 65; Stegmaier (1968a) reported rearing this
parasite from a tephritid, Paroxyna picciola (Bigot) and from Trupanea
actinobola (Loew), (Tephritidae); Steyskal (1972) reported rearing H.
punctata from seed heads of Bidens pilosa L., which contained infestations
of Paroxyna picciola and several other dipterous associates of Bidens.
Stegmaier (1968a) reported hearings of Heteroschema punctata from
278 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 55, No. 4
Ophiomyia sp. and from Melanagromyza sp.; Peck in Muesebeck et al.
(1951) recorded the parasite from Fla. and Ariz., he reported the follow-
ing as insect hosts of H. punctata: Paroxyna picciola and Melanagromyza
virens (as Agromyza virens Loew); Burks in Krombein and Burks (1967)
recorded the species from Miss., Mo. and the West Indies.
Heteroschema spp.: Stegmaier (1967b) reported rearing this from L.
sorosis; 1 2, det. B. D. Burks, was reared from Phytobia (Calycomyza)
mikaniae Spencer (Spencer and Stegmaier in press) infesting leaves of
Mikania batatifolia, Hialeah, Fla., 28 IX 63; 1 9, det. B. D. Burks, was
reared from a tephritid, Dyseuaresta mexicana (Wiedemann), det. R. H.
Foote, infesting seed heads of Melanthera deltoidea Michx., Miami, Fla., 29
IV 66; 2 adults, det. B. D. Burks, were reared from Liriomyza sorosis in-
festing leaves of Heliotropium curassavicum L., Miami, Fla., 8 VII 67.
Zatropsis sp.: 40 adults, det. B. D. Burks, were reared from Melanagro-
myza virens infesting stems of dog fennel, Eupatorium capillifolium, Hia-
leah, Fla., 7 VI 63. The only known host plants, confirmed to date for M.
virens are E. capillifolium and Heterotheca subaxillaris (Lam.) Britt. and
Rusby (Spencer and Stegmaier in press).
During October 1959 to March 1960, I was conducting hearings from
seed heads of Bidens pilosa L. The dipterous fauna were listed by Stey-
skal (1972) and one of the interesting pteromalids found in his hearings
was Colotrechnus ignotus Burks. He reported rearing 2 adults while I
reared 9 $ and 1 9. Burks in Krombein and Burks (1967) stated that
this parasite has been reared from seed heads of Bidens and other Composi-
tae; he cites no host for the parasite but recorded it from N. C., Fla.,
Okla., Tex., Ariz., and Calif. My findings, as well as those of Steyskal
(1972), indicate that the potential hosts for Colotrechnus ignotus may be
any one of the following: Tephritidae (Paroxyna picciola, Xanthaciura
insecta (Loew); Cecidomyiidae (Asphondylia bidens Johannsen); Drosoph-
ilidae, only (Cladochaeta nebulosa Coquillett) (Steyskal 1972); Agromy-
zidae (Melanagromyza bidentis Spencer, Melanagromyza floris Spencer
(Spencer and Stegmaier in press). The true host for C. ignotus remains
Other parasites found from the seed heads of Bidens pilosa during
October 1959 to March 1960 were: Pteromalidae (Halticoptera aenea
(Walk.) 1 8, 6 9; Heteroschema punctata (Ashm.) 11 9; Halticoptera
sp., 7 5, 1 ; Eulophidae; Tetrastichus sobrius Gahan, 1 9; and Tetrasti-
chus sp., 2 9; all of the above parasites were determined by Dr. B. D.
Burks and collections of these hearings were from Hialeah and Miami,
Florida). Steyskal (1972) reported rearing 20 Halticoptera sp.; 5 H.
punctata adults; 18 Tetrastichus sobrius Gahan and reported that this par-
asite has been reared from Asphondylia websteri Felt and from Trupanea
sp. in other plants; and Torymus anthomyiae (Ashm.). Steyskal (1972)
reported only 6 Melanagromyza sp., from the seed heads of Bidens pilosa,
and the author can only suggest that the Melanagromyza population re-
ported by him would have undoubtedly been much greater if it were not
for the limiting parasites found associated with the seed feeding agromy-
zids. More research is needed on the parasites associated with the Dip-
tera populations in the seed heads of Bidens and other Compositae
throughout the United States.
Stegmaier: Parasites of Agromyzidae
Eucoilidea longicornis Ashm.: 1 adult, det. B. D. Burks, reared from
Melanagromyza chaptaliae Spencer. Spencer (1966) reported this seed
feeding agromyzid from the seed heads of Chaptalia dentata (L.) Cass.,
from collections of the author, Homestead, Fla., 22 I 64. I found no other
insect associated with the seed heads of the sun bonnet and evidently this
is the first report of the host insect for Eucoilidea longicornis. Peck in
Muesebeck et al. (1951) cites a single male from Jacksonville, Fla., with-
out host data. The species was described in 1887.
Trybligrapha sp.: 3 9, det. B. D. Burks, reared from seed heads of
Wedelia trilobata Hitch., Miami, Fla., 14 XI 65. The host for this parasite
is Melanagromyza minima (Malloch) (Spencer and Stegmaier in press).
PARASITES LISTED BY AGROMYZID SPECIES
Agromyza parvicornis Loew. Eulophidae: Closterocerus tricinctus
(Ashm.); Zagrammosoma multilineatum (Ashm).
Agromyza proxima Spencer. Eulophidae: Derostenus agromyzae Cwfd.;
Derostenus diastatae (How.).
Cerodontha (Cerodontha) dorsalis (Loew). Braconidae: Opius dimidiatus
(Ashm.); Eulophidae: Diaulinopsis callichroma Cwfd.
Japanagromyza aequalis Spencer. Braconidae: Oenonogastra n. sp.
Japanagromyza desmodivora Spencer. Pteromalidae: Halticoptera sp.
Liriomyza brassicae (Riley). Eulophidae: Chrysocharis sp.; Diaulinopsis
callichroma; Pnigalio sp.
Liriomyza commelinae (Frost). Eulophidae: Chrysocharis majoriani
Liriomyza melampyga (Loew). Eulophidae: Closterocerus tricinctus.
Liriomyza munda Frick. Braconidae: Opius dimidiatus; Eulophidae: Chry-
socharis sp.; Closterocerus cinctipennis Ashm.; Derostenus diastatae
(How.); Derostenus sp.; Derostenus variipes Cwfd.; Diaulinopsis
callichroma; Diglyphus intermedius (Grlt.); Zagrammosoma multi-
lineatum (Ashm.); Pteromalidae: Halticoptera patellana (Dalman).
Liriomyza schmidti (Aldrich). Eulophidae: Chrysocharis sp.; Clostero-
cerus cinctipennis; Derostenus variipes Cwfd.; Diaulinopsis calli-
Liriomyza sorosis (Williston). Braconidae: Neopius cubitalis Fischer;
Eulophidae: Chrysocharis majoriani; Chrysocharis sp.; Derostenus
agromyzae Cwfd.; Diaulinopsis callichroma; Pteromalidae: Hetero-
Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess). Braconidae: Opius dimidiatus (Ashm.);
Opius sp.; Eulophidae: Chrysocharis sp.; Closterocerus cinctipennis;
Derostennus agromyzae; Derostenus sp.; Derostenus variipes; Digly-
phus intermedius (Grlt.); Diglyphus pulchripes (Cwfd.); Diglyphus
sp.; Mirzagrammosoma lineaticeps Grit.; Pteromalidae: Halticoptera
Melanagromyza chaptaliae Spencer. Cynipidae: Eucoilidea longicornis
Melanagromyza minima Malloch. Cynipidae: Trybligrapha sp.
Melanagromyza minimoides Spencer. Eulophidae: Tetrastichus marylan-
280 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 55, No. 4
densis (Grlt.); Torymidae: Torymus sp.; Pteromalidae: Hetero-
schema punctata (Ashm.).
Melanagromyza virens Loew. Pteromalidae: Heteroschema punctata; Za-
Phytobia (Amauromyza) maculosa (Malloch). Braconidae: Opius sp.;
Eulophidae: Chrysocharis sp.; Derostenus sp.; Derostenus variipes;
Phytobia (Calycomyza) ambrosiae Frick. Eulophidae: Derostenus sp.
Phytobia (Calycomyza) artemisiae (Khb.). Eulophidae: Diaulinopsis cal-
Phytobia (Calycomyza) hyptidis Spencer. Eulophidae: Zagrammosoma sp.
Phytobia (Calycomyza) ipomaeae Frost. Eulophidae: Chrysocharis sp.;
Diaulinopsis callichroma; Zagrammosoma sp.
Phytobia (Calycomyza) jucunda (Wulp). Eulophidae: Derostenus sp.
Phytobia (Calycomyza) malvae (Burgess). Eulophidae: Chrysocharis ma-
joriani; Chrysocharis sp.; Diaulinopsis callichroma.
Phytobia (Calycomyza) mikaniae Spencer. Pteromalidae: Heteroschema
Phytomyza aquilegia Hardy. Eulophidae: Closterocerus tricinctus; Deros-
tenus variipes; Zagrammosoma multilineatum.
Phytomyza ditmani Kulp. Eulophidae: Closterocerus tricinctus; Pnigalio
Phytomyza ilicicola Loew. Eulophidae: Closterocerus cinctipennis; Clos-
terocerus tricinctus; Pediobius lithocolletidis (Ashm.) ; Pnigalio gut-
tiventris (Grit.); Pteromalidae: Halticoptera sp.
Phytomyza ilicis (Curt.). Braconidae: Opius ilicis Nixon; Eulophidae:
Closterocerus tricinctus; Pnigalio felti (Cwfd.).
Phytomyza opacae Kulp. Braconidae: Opius dimidiatus (Ashm.); Opius
striatriventris Gahan; Eulophidae: Closterocerus tricinctus; Pedio-
bius lithocolletidis; Pnigalio guttiventris.
Phytomyza verticillatae Kulp. Braconidae: Opius n. sp.; Opius sp.; Eulo-
phidae: Closterocerus tricinctus; Pediobius lithocolletidis; Pnigalio
Phytomyza vomitoriae Kulp. Eulophidae: Chrysocharis sp.; Derostenus
Diglyphus sp.; Zagrammosoma multilineatum.
Barnes, H. F. 1933. A cambium miner of basket willows (Agromyzidae)
and its inquiline gall midge (Cecidomyiidae). Ann. App. Biol. 20:
Burks, B. D. 1966. The North American species of Pediobius Walker
(Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 66 (1):
Cameron, E. 1939. The holly leaf miner and its parasites. Bull. Entomol.
Res. 30: 173-208.
Crawford, J. C. 1913. Descriptions of new Hymenoptera. Proc. U. S.
Nat. Mus. 45: 241-60; 45: 309-17; 46: 343-52.
Frost, S. W. 1962. L. archboldi, a new species (Diptera-Agromyzidae).
Entomol. News. 73: 51-53.
Gahan, A. B. 1917. Descriptions of some new parasitic Hymenoptera.
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 53: 195-117.
Stegmaier: Parasites of Agromyzidae 281
Getzin, L. W 1960. Selective insecticides for vegetable leaf miner control
and parasite survival. J. Econ. Entomol. 53: 872-75.
Greene, C. T. 1914. The cambium miner in river birch. J. Agr. Res. 1:
Griffiths, G. C. W. 1956. Host records of Dacnusini (Hym. Braconidae)
from leaf mining Diptera. Entomol. Mon. Mag. 25-30.
Griffiths, G. C. W. 1964. The Alysiinae (Hym. Braconidae) parasites of
the Agromyzidae (Diptera). I General questions of taxonomy, bi-
ology and evolution. Beitr. Entomol. 14: 823-914.
Griffiths, G. C. W. 1966a. II The parasites of Agromyza Fallen. Beitr.
Entomol. 16: 551-605.
Griffiths, G. C. W. 1966b. III The parasites of Paraphytomyza Enderlein,
Phytaagromyza Hendel and Phytomyza Fall6n. Beitr. Entomol. 16:
Griffiths, G. C. W. 1967. IV The parasites of Hexomyza Enderlein, Me-
lanagromyza Hendel, Ophiomyia Brashinkov, and Napomyza West-
wood. Beitr. Entomol. 17: 653-696.
Griffiths, G. C. W. 1968a. V The parasites of Liriomyza Mik and certain
small genera of Phytomyzinae. Beitr. Entomol. 18: 5-62.
Griffiths, G. C. W. 1968b. VI The parasites of Cerodontha Rondani.
Beitr. Entomol. 18: 63-152.
Hanson, J. B., and D. M. Benjamin. 1967. Biology of Phytobia setosa,
a cambium miner of sugar maple. J. Econ. Entomol. 60: 1351-4.
Harding, J. A. 1965. Parasitism of the leaf miner, Liriomyza munda in
the Winter Garden Area of Texas. J. Econ. Entomol. 58: 442-43.
Hills, O. A., and E. G. Taylor. 1951. Parasitism of dipterous leaf miners
in Salt River Valley, Arizona. J. Econ. Entomol. 44: 759-62.
Krombein, K. V. 1958. Hymenoptera of America North of Mexico. Synop-
tic Catalog. USDA Monogr. No. 2. 1st Suppl. 305p.
Krombein, K. V., and B. D. Burks. 1967. Hymenoptera of America North
of Mexico. Synoptic Catalog. No. 2. 2nd. Suppl. 584p.
Kulp, L. A. 1968. The taxonomic status of the dipterous holly leaf
miners (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Univ. Md. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull.
Muesebeck, C. F. W., K. V. Krombein, and H. K. Townes. 1951. Hymen-
oDtera of America North of Mexico. Synoptic Catalog. USDA
Monogr. No. 2. 1420p.
Oatman, E. R. 1959. Natural control studies on the melon leafminer,
Liriomyza pictella (Thomson). J. Econ. Entomol. 52: 895-8.
Oatman, E. R. 1960. Parasitism of the overwintering pupae of the melon
leafminer, Liriomyza pictella. J. Econ. Entomol. 53: 682.
Pitcher, R. S. 1955. A further note on the cambium miner of Prunus spp.
(Dendromyza cerasiferae Kangas, Agromyzidae, Dipt.). Rep. E.
Malling Res. Sta. 1955: 139-40.
Spencer, K. A. 1965. A clarification of the status of Liriomyza trifolii
(Burgess) and some related species. (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Proc.
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 67 (1): 32-40.
Spencer, K. A. 1966. New and interesting Agromyzidae (Diptera) from
Florida. Stutt. Beitr. zur. Naturk. 158: 1-20.
Spencer, K. A., and C. E. Stegmaier, Jr. The Agromyzidae of Florida
with a supplement on the species from the Caribbean. In Arthro-
282 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 55, No. 4
pods of Florida and Neighboring Lands. 6: 1-6. Fla. Dep. Agr.
and Consumer Services. Div. Plant Industry (in press).
Stegmaier, C. E., Jr. 1966a. Host plants and parasites of Liriomyza tri-
folii in Florida (Diptera: Agromyzidae) Fla. Entomol. 49: 75-80.
Stegmaier, C. E., Jr. 1966b. Host plants and parasites of Liriomyza
munda in Florida (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Fla. Entomol. 49: 81-
Stegmaier, C. E., Jr. 1966c. Host plants and parasites of Liriomyza
schmidti in Florida (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Fla. Entomol. 49:
Stegmaier, C. E., Jr. 1966d. Liriomyza commelinae, a leaf miner on
Commelina in Florida (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Fla. Entomol. 49:
Stegmaier, C. E., Jr. 1967a. Some new host plant records and parasites
of Phytobia (Amauromyza) maculosa in Florida (Diptera: Agromy-
zidae). Fla. Entomol. 50: 99-101.
Stegmaier, C. E., Jr. 1967b. Notes on new host plant records and para-
sites of Liriomyza sorosis in Florida (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Fla.
Entomol. 50: 133-36.
Stegmaier, C. E., Jr. 1967c. Host plants of Liriomyza brassicae with rec-
ords of their parasites from south Florida (Diptera: Agromyzidae).
Fla. Entomol. 50: 257-61.
Stegmaier, C. E., Jr. 1967d. Notes on the biology and distribution of the
leaf-mining flies of the genus Phytobia Lioy, subgenus Calycomyza
Hendel (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Fla. Entomol. 50: 15-26.
Stegmaier, C. E., Jr. 1968a. Notes on the biology of Trupanea actinobola
(Diptera: Tephritidae). Fla. Entomol. 51: 95-9.
Stegmaier, C. E., Jr. 1968b. A review of recent literature on the host
plant range of the genus Liriomyza Mik (Diptera: Agromyzidae)
in the Continental United States and Hawaii, excluding Alaska.
Fla. Entomol. 51: 167-82.
Stegmaier, C. E., Jr. 1971. Parasites of Phytomyza vomitoriae and Phy-
tomyza ilicicola (Diptera: Agromyzidae) from Florida. Fla. En-
tomol. 54: 188-9.
Steyskal, G. C. 1972. The dipterous fauna of the heads of Bidens pilosa
re-examined. Fla. Entomol. 55: 87-8.
Tilden, J. W. 1950. Oviposition and behavior of Liriomyza pusilla
(Meigen). Pan. Pac. Entomol. 26 (3) : 119-21.
Webster, F. M., and T. H. Parks. 1913. The serpentine leaf miner. J.
Agr. Res. 1 (1) : 59-87.
Wene, G. P. 1953. Control of the serpentine leaf miner on peppers. J.
Econ. Entomol. 46: 789-93.
Wene, G. P. 1955. Effects of some organic insecticides on population
levels of the serpentine leaf miner and its parasites. J. Econ. En-
tomol. 48: 596-7.
The Florida Entomologist 55(4) 1972
ABNORMALITIES OF THE ANTENNAE, ELYTRA, AND
HEAD POSITION IN THE PALES WEEVIL, HYLOBIUS
PALES (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE)
G. D. HERTEL
USDA Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station,
Olustee, Florida 32072
The following abnormal conditions were observed in the adult pales
weevil, Hylobius pales (Herbst): branching antennae with multiple clavo-
lae; twisted and shortened elytra; head recessed into prothorax. None of
the matings between normal adults and those with twisted and shortened
elytra or between normal adults and those with head recessed into pro-
thorax were successful. Only normal offspring were produced in the F,
and F, progenies from matings between adults with branched antennae
and normal adults.
Although no abnormal morphological characters have been reported
for the pales weevil, Hylobius pales (Herbst), many have been reported
for the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman. The first visible
phenodeviant reported for the boll weevil was an abnormal antennal con-
dition in a lone male: the clavola of the left antenna was perfectly paired,
but the right antennal club was cleft (Thomas and Brazzel 1960). At-
tempts at crossing this individual with wild females were unsuccessful.
Bartlett (1964) later found 27 phenodeviants, of which only 2 were passed
on to later generations. One of these was a male whose head was recessed
into the prothorax with only the snout and deformed antennae protruding
(= bashful). He was crossed with a virgin wild female and no pheno-
deviants appeared in the F, generation, but, in the F2, 6 of 11 showed the
bashful character. Bartlett (1965) later found a recessive lethal mutation
in which the legs and elytra were twisted and shortened ( = gnarled).
Six pales weevil adults (4 9, 2 ) exhibiting the phenotypically simi-
lar bashful trait were collected in 1966 and 1967 (Fig. 1). Of these, 4
(3 9, 1 S) had been reared in the laboratory on pine bolts (Moore
1966), 1 9 had been reared on meridic diet (Thomas 1969), and 1 & was
collected in the field in eastern North Carolina. All were paired with
normal individuals of the opposite sex, but successful mating never oc-
curred. The adults showed a lack of coordination in 1 or both of their
anterior legs and never lived for more than 5 days.
Adults with gnarled elytra were collected in 1966 and 1967 in the field
near Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Four males and 2 9 were
collected from lab hearings on natural host material in 1967. One S had
forked antennae. These adults were mated to normal adults, but no mu-
tant offspring were observed.
Some of the weevils being reared on pine bolts were found to show
branching in one or both of the antennae (Fig. 2). Occasionally, all the
clubs appeared to be normal, but usually one of the clubs on the branched
side was lighter colored, immobile, and, apparently, not functional. Of the
17 specimens collected, 10 were males and 7 were females. Of these, 8 had
The Florida Entomologist
Fig. 1. Head of the pales weevil recessed into the prothorax.
Fig. 2. Branched antenna of the pales weevil.
deformations on the left side (5 8, 3 9), 6 had deformations on the right
side (4 3,2 9) and 3 had them on both sides (1 8, 2 9).
In addition to the weevils having the branched antennae on 1 or both
Vol. 55, No. 4
Hertel: Abnormalities in Pales Weevile
sides, 1 female had 3 branches off the pedicel, and each had a normal
clavola. In some cases, the pedicel was a single or bilobed stub. One fe-
male had 2 separate antennae (scape, pedicel, etc.) originating from the
base on 1 side and perfectly paired. All the specimens were either paired
with each other or with wild individuals to see if the characters would be
carried over in successive generations. Of the 198 F1 and 40 F2 offspring,
none were deformed.
Characters such as these, if genetically determined, can be important
because they may be used as markers for field testing of radiation or
chemically-induced sterility (Bartlett 1967), as inherited lethal characters
for possible genetic population controls where sterilization is not applic-
able because of loss of vigor (LaChance and Knipling 1962), or as genetic
markers which can be successfully used in resistance studies (Thomas and
Brazzel 1960). It is best in all cases that the character be associated with
I wish to thank Dr. H. A. Thomas, Southeastern Forest Experiment
Station, Forestry Sciences Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North
Carolina, for providing the photograph for Fig. 1 and collecting some of
Bartlett, A. C. 1964. Two confirmed mutations in the boll weevil. Ann.
Entomol. Soc. Amer. 57: 261-2.
Bartlett, A. C. 1965. New mutants. Tribolium Inform. Bull. 8: 40-1.
Bartlett, A. C. 1967. Genetic markers in the boll weevil. J. Hered. 58:
LaChance, L. E., and E. F. Knipling. 1962. Control of insect populations
through genetic manipulations. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 55:515-
Moore, G. E. 1966. A technique for rearing the pales weevil, Hylobius
pales (Herbst). Southeast. Forest Exp. Sta., U. S. Forest Serv. Res.
Note SE-66, 2 p.
Thomas, J. G., and J. R. Brazzel. 1960. An abnormal antennal condition
in a resistant strain of boll weevil. J. Econ. Entomol. 53: 688-9.
Thomas, H. A. 1969. A meridic diet and rearing technique for the pales
weevil larva. J. Econ. Entomol. 62: 1491-4.
The Florida Entomologist 55(4) 1972
Fig. 1. Head of the pales weevil recessed into the prothorax,
Fig. 2. Branched antenna of the pales weevil.