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Title: Florida Entomologist
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Creator: Florida Entomological Society
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Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1973
Copyright Date: 1917
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Insects -- Periodicals
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The


FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

Volume 56, No. 3 September 1973


CONTENTS
Page
DELONG, D. M., AND C. C. THAMBIMUTTU-Three Closely Related
New Genera and Five New Species of Short-Winged Chilean Leafhoppers
(H om opera: Cicadellidae) ....................... .............................. ...... .......... 165
MUMA, M. M. Comparison of Ground Surface Spiders in Four
Central Florida E ecosystem s .............................................. .......................... 173
GREER, N. I., AND J. F. BUTLER-Comparisons of Horn Fly Devel-
opment in Manure of Five Animal Species....... .....-....... ...........- .......-.... 197
JACKSON, J. F.-Mimicry of Trigona Bees by a Reduviid (Hemiptera) from
British Honduras ..........- ........ ............----... 200
REID, J. C., AND G. L. GREENE-The Soybean Looper: Pupal Weight,
Development time, and Consumption of Soybean Foliage .............................. 203
JOHNSON, C.-Variability, Distribution, and Taxonomy of Calopteryx
dimidiata (Zygoptera: Calopterygidae) ................... ....... ....................... 207
GREENBAUM, H. N.-New Host and Distribution Records for Winnemana
argei and Its Parasite Closterocerus winnemanae (Hymenoptera: Eulo-
phidae) ................... ...............-.......... .......... 223
BUTLER, J. F.-Rabon for Hog Louse Control in Florida ............-............ ... 227
RESH, V. H., AND F. H. WHITAKER-Records of Hippoboscid Flies and
Other Ectoparasites from Cattle Egrets in Puerto Rico ............................. 233
STEGMAIER, C. E., JR.-Colonization of the Puncturevine Stem Weevil,
Microlarinus lypriformis (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) with Notes on
Parasitism in South Florida .................................... .. ............ 235
GREER, N. I., M. J. JANES, AND D. W. BEARDSLEY-Toxicity of
Crotoxyphos Insecticide to Brahman Calves and Brahman and Cross-
bred Yearling Steers ... ........- ...- ...- .. ... ............. .. .... 243
WRIGHT, C. G., AND H. C. McDANIEL-Further Evaluation of the
Abundance and Habitat of Five Species of Cockroaches on a Permanent
Military Base ............................... ..- ......... 251
GREENE, G. L.-Biological Studies of a Predator, Sycanus indagator
I. Life History and Feeding Habits .............................................. .... 255
WILLIAMS, R. N., J. R. PANAIA, D. GALLO, AND W. H. WHIT-
COMB-Fire Ants Attacked by Phorid Flies ............. ............... ............. 259
Notices to Members .... ........................... 202, 234, 241, 250
B ook R review .... .............. ........... ......... ............. ...... ...... ................. .... .... ....... 258



Published by The Florida Entomological Society









THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
OFFICERS FOR 1972-73
President _.--..........-...................................----- ----.--.A. B. Selhime
Vice-President --..--.......................................................... G. Genung
Secretary-....-...............---......... ... ................. ........... ...- ..-...F. W M ead
Treasurer -..........-.......-...............................................E....D. E. Short
C. S. Lofgren
R. M. Baranowski
Other Members of Executive Committee..... W. B. Gresham, Jr.
H. D. Bowman
J. R. Strayer

Publications Committee
Editor..............................--........................... S. H Kerr
Associate Editors................................R. E. Woodruff
R. C. Wilkinson
H. V. Weems, Jr.
Business Manager-..............................- D. E. Short
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST is issued quarterly-March, June, Septem-
ber, and December. Subscription price to non-members $7.50 per year in
advance; $2.00 per copy. Entered as second class matter at the post office
at Gainesville, Florida.
Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be. sent to the Editor,
Entomology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville. Subscriptions
and orders for back numbers are handled by the Business Manager, Box
12425, University Station, Gainesville, Florida 32601. The Secretary can
be reached at the same address.
When preparing manuscripts, authors should consult Style Manual for
Biological Journals, 2nd Edition (American Institute of Biological Sciences,
Washington, D. C., 1964). For form of literature citations, see recent
issues of THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST. Further, authors are re-
ferred to "Suggestions for preparation of manuscripts for THE FLORIDA
ENTOMOLOGIST." Fla. Ent. 48 (2): 145-146. 1965.
The page charge is $5.00, partial pages proportionally. One page of
figures and/or tables is allowed free. An additional one-fourth page of fig-
ures and/or tables is allowed free for each printed page beyond the fourth
printed page. Authors will be charged $2.50 for each one-fourth page or
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may have his manuscript published as soon as it has been reviewed and
edited by paying the full costs of publication ($15-25 per printed page).
Such manuscripts are published in addition to (rather than instead of)
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received for corrections.
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This issue mailed November 9, 1973












THREE CLOSELY RELATED NEW GENERA AND
FIVE NEW SPECIES OF SHORT-WINGED CHILEAN
LEAFHOPPERS (HOMOPTERA:CICADELLIDAE)'

DWIGHT M. DELONG AND CUTHBERT C. THAMBIMUTTU
Department of Entomology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210

ABSTRACT
Three new genera (Kramerana, Virganana, and Aequcephalus) of the
subfamily Deltocephalinae and 5 new species (Kramerana linnavuorii n.sp.,
K. mella n.sp., Virganana herbida n.sp. V. maculata n.sp., and Aequcephalus
gramineus n.sp.), all from Chile, are described and illustrated.

Recent collections made in Chile during 1967 and 1968 have revealed 5 new
species apparently belonging to 3 closely related new genera of Del-
tocephalinae. All have short forewings which possess the normal venation
only at the basal portion of the forewing. There appear to be many cross
veinlets in what would normally be the claval area. All of the specimens
appear to be similar in general appearance but the crown, postclypeus, and the
marginal area between them is quite different in those belonging to the
different genera. In Kramerana the crown is wider than long, and the margin
is angled and thick. In Virganana the crown is wider than long, the margin is
angled and thin, but not foliaceous. In Aequcephalus the crown is longer than
wide, concave, and the margin is thin and foliaceous. The connective in each of
these genera is Y-shaped and is articulated with the aedeagus. They are not
closely related to any described genera. In form and appearance the species of
Kramerana resemble specimens of Lonatura to which they are probably
related. Kramerana differs from Lonatura and related genera by the position
of the ocelli and the large paired processes which arise from the phragma in
specimens of Kramerana. Species of all 3 genera occur upon grasses and are
found in meadows where sheep and cattle are grazing. All types are in the
DeLong collection.
Genus Kramerana DeLong and Thambimuttu, NEW GENUS
Crown produced, bluntly angled, slightly wider than median length, con-
vexly rounded, rounding to margin, each side. Ocelli on upper portion of
anterior margin and a little nearer to proximal eye than to apex. Face con-
vexly rounded between antennae, sloping to an angled but thick margined
apex. Forewings short with normal venation of basal portion of wing appear-
ing reticulately veined. Clypeus short and broad, almost as broad as long.
Pronotum more than 3 times as broad as long.
Type-species: Kramerana linnavuorii new species

Kramerana linnavuorii DeLong & Thambimuttu, NEW SPECIES
(Fig. 1-9)
Length of male 5 mm, female unknown. Crown bluntly angled, slightly
wider between eyes at base than median length. Crown acutely angled with


'This work was supported by The Ohio State University Development Fund.










The Florida Entomologist


Fig. 1-9. Kramerana linnavuorii n.sp. 1) head,.pronotum and scutellum,
dorsally. 2) same, laterally. 3) style, ventrally. 4) plate, ventrally. 5) aedeagus,
ventrally. 6) aedeagus, dorsolaterally. 7) phragmal process, dorsally. 8)
pygofer, ventrally. 9) connective, ventrally.


Vol. 56, No. 3









DeLong and Thambimuttu: New Cicadellidae from Chile 167

front, margin not thin or foliaceous. Color: crown with a dark brown line
extending between the eyes just above margin. A pair of apical, proximal,
short, narrow, brown lines, one-fourth length of crown. A median brown
longitudinal line on basal half. Crown irregularly mottled with brown pig-
ment. Face pale yellow with pieces of broad black arcs on upper portion,
forming a complete black margin beneath the pale yellow marginal band.
Pronotum appearing longitudinally striped due to arrangement of brown
pigment markings. A median, longitudinal, yellowish band one-fifth width of
pronotum is margined by narrow irregular lines of brown pigment. Markings
on scutellum, a continuation of pronotal markings. Forewings brown with
reticulate veins, mostly white. Exposed abdomen with alternate longitudinal
stripes of brown and yellow.
Male genitalia with plates twice as long as broad, apices rounded. Style
with the narrow apical process as long as basal portion. Aedeagal shaft short,
as broad as long, with a V-shaped notch separating apex into 2 short, trian-
gular, sharp-pointed tips. A narrow crescent portion, attached to the phragma,
bears 2 elongate, curved, blade-like structures which are pointed and exceed
the shaft in length. Connective long; basal half branched. Pygofer with a short,
triangular, pointed spine on dorsobasal margin.
Holotype male: Salta de Laja, Chile, 21-XII-1967 (D. M. DeLong). Para-
types: 3 males same data as holotype.
We take pleasure in naming this genus and species for James P. Kramer of
the U. S. National Museum and Rauno Linnavuori of Raisio, Finland, 2
prominent, well known world homopterists.

Kramerana mella DeLong & Thambimuttu, NEW SPECIES
(Fig. 10-14)

Length of male 4 mm, female unknown. Crown a little wider between eyes
at base than median length. Color: pale yellow with few irregular markings of
slightly darker yellow pigment. Forewings pale yellow, veins white. Exposed
abdomen with faint brown, longitudinal markings. Face pale brown with
darker brown markings.
Male genitalia with plates twice as long as wide, apices rounded. Style with
narrow apical process one-third length of style, apex slightly enlarged, pointed
apical tooth on outer margin. Aedeagal shaft rather long, slender, apex
enlarged, bifid, bearing a short triangular process on each side. Phragma
bearing a pair of short, broad, leaf-like processes which curve dorsally and are
pointed on dorsoapical margin.
Holotype male: Angol, Malleco Prov., Chile, 23-XII-1967 (D. M. DeLong
and T. Cekalovic). Paratypes: 4 males same data as holotype.
These short-winged specimens superficially resemble specimens of
Amphipygia but are entirely different morphologically. They were collected
from short pasture grasses.

Genus Virganana DeLong and Thambimuttu, NEW GENUS
Related to Kramerana but with margin of crown thin, not foliaceous.
Crown strongly produced, rounded anteriorly, slightly wider than median
length, flat, concave on anterior portion, depressed near anterior margin,
forming a slight heel just above margin. Postclypeus gradually sloping from









The Florida Entomologist


Fig. 10-14. Kramerana mella n.sp. 10) aedeagus, ventrally. 11) aedeagus,
laterally. 12) plate, ventrally. 13) style, ventrally. 14) apex of style (enlarged),
lateroventrally. Fig. 15-17. Aequcephalus gramineus n.sp. 15) female seventh
sternum. 16) head, pronotum, scutellum, dorsally. 17) same, laterally.


Vol. 56, No. 3


168









DeLong and Thambimuttu: New Cicadellidae from Chile 169

clypeus to margin of crown. Ocelli on upper portion of anterior margin, one
third the distance from each eye to apex of crown. Pronotum two and one half
times as wide as long. Scutellum twice as long, venation composed of normal
basal venation of forewing only. Abdomen mostly exposed, tapered.
Type-species: Virganana herbida new species.

Virganana herbida DeLong & Thambimuttu, NEW SPECIES
(Fig. 18-26)
Length of male 4 mm, female 4.7 mm. Crown produced, rounded, a little
wider between eyes at base than median length. Color: crown pale yellow with
a pair of proximal, elongate spots at apex, a small median spot near these and
a median spot near base. Pronotum with faint, pale brown elongate markings
and a small median brown spot. Forewings yellow, veins white, and a small
round, brown spot on apex of each. Abdomen with elongate brown pigment
lines, appearing longitudinally striped. Face pale yellow, with portions of pale
brown arcs on upper third.
Male genitalia with plates as broad as long, apices broad, truncate. Style
with apical half a narrow process, as long as basal portion, with a pointed
tooth on outer margin at apex. Aedeagal shaft elongate, curved, apical portion
narrow tapered to a pointed apex, with a pair of short subapical teeth at
five-sixth length of shaft. The phragma bears a pair of long curved, blade-like
processes which are narrow and pointed at apex; although not longer than
shaft they extend beyond the apex of the curved shaft. Connective long,
slightly bifid at basal end, pygofer narrow and blunt at apex.
Female genitalia with lateral angles of seventh sternum strongly produced,
rounded to posterior margin which slopes strongly cephalad to excavated
median third. This portion of the posterior margin is about half the length of
segment and is slightly concave each side of a rounded, slightly produced,
median lobe. The entire sunken portion is broadly margined with black.
Holotype male: Angol, Malleco Prov., Chile, 23-XII-1967 (D. M. DeLong
and T. Cekalovic). Allotype female: same data as holotype. Paratypes: 9
males, 8 females same data as holotype.

Virganana maculata DeLong & Thambimuttu, NEW SPECIES
(Fig. 27-31)
Length of male 3.5 mm, female 4.5 mm. Similar in form to V. herbida, but
with different color markings and genital structures. Color: generally yellow,
crown with a dark brown elongate spot each side of apex and a brown median
spot just basad to the 2 apical spots; 3 brown spots on basal portion, a larger
median spot and 2 smaller lateral spots also present. Pronotum with brown
median line and elongate spot on caudal portion. Scutellum unmarked.
Forewings yellow with dark brown spots between the veins and reticulate
veinlets. Abdomen with dark brown, wavy, longitudinal lines enclosing alter-
nate longitudinal stripes of pale brown and white; median longitudinal band
white and divided.
Male genitalia with plates one-third longer than wide, apex pointed on
inner margin. Style with tip of apical portion blunt, apex-appearing broadened
in lateral view. Aedeagus with shaft narrow and curved at apex, gonopore
opening on ventral margin at apex. Phragma giving rise to pair of long, slender,
curved processes. Connective Y-shaped. Pygofer narrowed, blunt at apex.









The Florida Entomologist


626


Fig. 18-26. Virganana herbida n.sp. 18) head, pronotum, scutellum, dor-
sally. 19) same, laterally. 20) style, ventrally. 21) apex of style (enlarged),
laterally. 22) female seventh sternum. 23) base of connective, ventrally. 24)
plate, ventrally. 25) aedeagus and connective, laterally. 26) apex of aedeagal
shaft, dorsally.


Vol. 56, No. 3









DeLong and Thambimuttu: New Cicadellidae from Chile 171


Fig. 27-31. Virganana maculata n.sp. 27) style, ventrally. 28) apex of style,
laterally. 29) plate, ventrally. 30) aedeagus and connective, laterally. 31) apex
of aedeagal shaft, laterodorsally.

Female genitalia with lateral angles of seventh sternum produced, bluntly
angled, between which the posterior margin is broadly, concavely excavated,
almost half distance to base. The excavated posterior margin with a broad,
slightly produced, median lobe, almost one-third width of segment.
Holotype male: Contulo, Arauco Prov., Chile, 22-23-XII 1967 (D. M.
DeLong and T. Cekalovic). Allotype female and 3 male paratypes same data
as holotype.
This species can be distinguished from V. herbida by the brown coloration,
the longer more pointed plates, the broader apex of style, the more apical










The Florida Entomologist


gonopore opening on aedeagal shaft, and the narrower paired processes of the
phragma.

Genus Aequcephalus DeLong & Thambimuttu, NEW GENUS
Related to Virganana but with crown produced, thin and foliaceous,
almost one-third longer at middle than basal width between eyes; apex
narrowly rounded; concave on upper anterior portion; anterior margin
slightly keeled dorsally; lateral margins appearing slightly concave. Ocelli on
upper margin, one-third distance from proximal eye to apex. Postclypeus
forming a flat foliaceous margin at apex. Pronotum two and one half times as
broad as long. Scutellum small, more than half as wide as pronotum, twice as
wide as long. Forewings short, almost as long as broad, with venation normal
at basal portion of forewing; forewings covering only basal portion of ab-
domen.
Type-species: Aequcephalus gramineus n.sp.

Aequcephalus gramineus DeLong and Thambimuttu, NEW SPECIES
(Fig. 15-17)
Length of female 5 mm, male unknown. Crown almost one-third longer
than width at base, strongly produced, margin rounded apically, disc concave.
Postclypeus flat, margin of crown thin, foliaceous. Forewings short, almost as
wide as long, exposing almost entire abdomen. Color: crown yellow, an elon-
gate black spot each side of apex; central longitudinal line and faint elongate
longitudinal lines brown. Pronotum and scutellum yellow with portions of
central longitudinal brown lines. Forewings yellow, a brown spot near middle
and 2 brown spots near apex of each wing. Abdomen with black, median,
longitudinal line and brown pigment in pattern of longitudinal lines.
Postclypeus with 3 broad, black arcs beneath margin.
Female genitalia with lateral margins of seventh sternum produced to
form narrowly rounded lateral angles, between which the posterior margin is
abruptly sunken half way to base and is slightly roundedly notched each side
of a broadly rounded, slightly produced, median lobe.
Holotype female: Padre Hurtado (19 km. W.), P. Santiago, Chile, 14-
X-1967, (L. & C. W. O'Brien).


LITERATURE CITED

Linnavuori, R. 1959. Revision of the Neotropical Deltocephalinae and some
related subfamilies (Homoptera). Ann. Zool. Soc. Zool. Bot. Fennicae
"Vanamo" 20(1):1-370.

Oman, P. W. 1949. The Nearctic leafhoppers (Homoptera:Cicadellidae); A
generic classification and check list. Mem. Ent. Soc. Wash. 3:1-253.


The Florida Entomologist 56(3) 1973


172


Vol. 56, No. 3












COMPARISON OF GROUND SURFACE SPIDERS IN
FOUR CENTRAL FLORIDA ECOSYSTEMS'

MARTIN H. MUMA2
University of Florida Agricultural Research and Education Center,
Lake Alfred, Florida3

ABSTRACT
Ground surface spider populations were studied using can traps for 3-1/2
years on sand-pine dunes, pine flat-woods, citrus groves, and residential areas
in central Florida. Twenty-three prevalent (0.5 or more percent of total
population) species involving, primarily, 6 prevalent (5.0 or more percent of
total population) families occurred in distinctive, specifically different,
ground surface spider populations in each ecosystem. The sand-pine dune
population was 53% lycosid, 19% gnaphosid, and 18% salticid; the pine flat-
woods, 64% lycosid, 21% salticid, and 5% linyphiid; the residential area, 54%
lycosid, 23% theridiid, and 16% linyphiid; and the citrus grove, 38% clubionid,
19% theridiid, 18% lycosid, and 11% linyphiid. The population in the citrus
grove was also only 1/3 as large as those of the other ecosystems. Most of the
differences among the populations of the sand-pine dunes, pine flat-woods,
and residential areas seemed to be the result of ecologically-equivalent species
replacement, but the strikingly different citrus grove population could be the
result of repeated soil surface disturbance during cover crop cultivation.

Many authors have either studied spider populations, or have evaluated
the spiders of general faunal populations in certain plant associations, suc-
cessions, or strata. Notable among these are Shelford (1913), Sanders and
Shelford (1922), Weese (1924), Elliott (1930), Lowrie (1942, 1948, 1968),
Truman (1942), Fautin (1946), Jones (1946), Gibson (1947), Muma and Muma
(1949), Barnes (1953), Barnes and Barnes (1954, 1955), Chew (1961), Duffey
(1962), and Peck (1966). Except for a few generalized observations, simul-
taneous, quantitative, comparative analyses of spider populations in different
ecosystems have been neglected. However, Whitcomb et al. (1963) compared
the ground stratum spider populations of an Arkansas pasture and an ad-
jacent cotton field by using a modification of the pitfall trap employed by
Hensley et al. (1961), and Duffey (1962) compared the spider fauna of 3
different plant associations, Brachypodium pinnatum (L.) Beauv., Festuca
rubra L., and Camptothecium lutescens.
The present study was designed to compare the ground surface inhabiting
spiders in 2 common, natural ecosystems and 2 common, artificial ecosystems
in central Florida. The primary purpose of the study was to determine if
differences would occur in the ground surface spider population when the
natural plant communities of a sand-pine dune and a pine flat-woods were
removed to produce either a citrus grove or a residential area.

'Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 4828, and Contribution No. 266
Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Con-
sumer Services, Gainesville, Florida 32601.
2Entomologist Emeritus, University of Florida, and Research Associate, Florida State Collection
of Arthropods, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agricul-
ture and Consumer Services, Gainesville 32601.
3Present address: P. 0. Box 2020, Silver City, New Mexico 88061.










The Florida Entomologist


METHODS

Barnes and Barnes (1955) have demonstrated the stability of the spider
population of the abstract plant community, so only one biogeocoenose of
each type was selected as a study area.
The sand-pine dune selected was on the west side of Florida State Road
540, about 6 miles south of Winter Haven. Dominant plants included sand
pine, Pinus clausa Vasey, scrub oak, Quercus ilicifolia Wang, and turkey oak,
Q. laevis Walt., associated with saw palmetto, Serenoa repens (Bartr.),
prickly-pear, Opuntia sp., and several arid tolerant native grasses. Although
the dune originally covered an area of 30 to 40 acres, encroachment by a citrus
grove, a sand-pit, and a campground reduced the acreage of the typical plant
association to somewhat less than 10 acres. Sampling was initiated on the
dune 31 May 1967 and was discontinued 10 October 1970.
The pine flat-woods was on the north side of Florida State Road 17 about
12 miles north of Lake Alfred. Dominant plants included slash pine, Pinus
elliotti Engelm., long-leaf pine, Pinus palustris Miller, and wax myrtle,
Myrica cerifera L. associated with saw palmetto, S. repens, and several water
tolerant forbs and grasses. Although adjacent pasturage of undetermined
acreage also supported the typical plant association, the undisturbed sample
area approximated only 20 acres. Sampling was initiated in the flat-woods 9
October 1968 and was discontinued 10 October 1970.
The citrus grove selected was at the University of Florida Agricultural
Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred. The dominant plant was sweet
orange, Citrus sinensis Osbeck, (Valencia), associated with a typical cover
crop of spanish needle, Bidens pilosa L., sand bur, Cenchrus spp., ber-
mudagrass, Cynodon dactylon (L.), and miscellaneous other disturbance
tolerant herbs. Although the grove approximated only 5' acres, it was con-
tiguous along its northern and eastern margins with extensive high sandy
groveland. Sampling was initiated in the grove 9 May 1967 and discontinued
10 October 1970.
The residential area selected was the city of Winter Haven, Florida with
collection sites in the suburban communities of Lake Shipp Heights, Eloise
Woods, and Lake Elbert Hills. Lake Shipp Heights was developed in a pine
flat-woods, the other 2 sites on sand hills bordering lakes. Dominant plants
were grapefruit trees, Citrus paradise Macf., laurel oak, Quercus laurifolia
'Michaux, various landscape shrubs, and lawn grasses associated with distur-
bance tolerant herbs. Although the sample area involved only 3 residential
yards the contiguous urban development encompassed several hundred acres.
Sampling was initiated in the residential area 17 May 1967 and discontinued
10 October 1970.
Can traps, often referred to as pitfall traps or alcohol pitfalls, were the only
collecting devices used. The trap was designed for the study and was a proto-
type of that reported by Muma (1970). It consisted of an opened 1-lb coffee can
nested in an unsealed 1-qt fruit juice can. The center of the plastic coffee can
lid was cut out leaving a plastic rim with a 9.5 cm opening; the plastic rim
served as a sealing gasket between the outside of the coffee can and the inside
of the juice can. To "set" the trap, the juice can was buried in the ground with
the top flush with the soil surface; a 1-in. depth of a 50-50 mixture of 95%
ethanol and ethylene glycol (commercial antifreeze) was poured into the
coffee can which was then inserted into the buried juice can and a 1-ft2 of 1.2


Vol. 56, No. 3










Muma: Ground Surface Spiders in Four Ecosystems


cm plywood with 1.9 cm legs was placed over the nested cans as a rain-debris
shield and secured with a brick, stone, or log.
Four randomly placed can traps were operated continuously for the dura-
tion of the study in each ecosystem. Traps were visited every 14 days, because
observations indicated that the trap preservative should be renewed at 2 to 3
week intervals to prevent specimen decomposition. At each visit, the inner
trap-can was replaced with a can containing renewed preservative. Spiders
were strained from the preservative in the laboratory with a fine-mesh tea
strainer and stored in 95% ethanol prior to identification and enumeration.
The trap-preservative was renewed by filtering through cotton, reconstituting
to volume with 95% ethanol, and storing for 2 weeks in large flasks to permit
settling of near-colloidal soil and organic matter particles.
Most spider specimens were identified by the author. However, Dr. Karl J.
Stone made some preliminary identifications, and special problem specimens
were identified by Dr. Willis J. Gertsch, Dr. H. K. Wallace, Dr. H. W. Levi, and
Dr. Jonathan Reiskind. Original sorting of spiders from other animals was
made by Dr. Karl J. Stone and Mrs. Helen Louise Greene. Mrs. Greene also
sexed, counted, and labeled most of the specimens and tabulated the data for
analyses.
Only mature spiders were identified to species. Although many genera and
species of spiders can be authoritatively identified in the immature stages at
the present time, others cannot, so for the purposes of this study immatures
were identified only to family. Some (135) newly hatched or very immature
spiderlings defied positive identification even to family. A few mature spiders
in families and genera presently being revised or lacking present day authori-
ties were identified only to genera. Five mature linyphiids could not be posi-
tively placed even in a genus.
A spider family was considered prevalent if it comprised 5% or more of the
total number of trapped specimens. A species was considered prevalent if it
comprised 1/2 of 1% or more of the total number of trapped specimens.
The number of recorded specimens for the pine flat-woods was adjusted to
more nearly conform with the numbers produced by the longer sampling
periods in the other ecosystems. This adjustment involved the addition of
approximately 1/3 of the total collected specimens of a prevalent family or
species from the pine flatwoods proportionately to each pertinent category
(Tables 2, 3, 4).

RESULTS
The accumulated number of trapped specimens is recorded for the 4
ecosystems in Table 1. Altogether 6,307 specimens representing 22 spider
families and 126 species were collected from the 4 ecosystems: 2,147 specimens
representing 15 families and 62 species were taken from the sand-pine dune;
1,540 specimens representing 15 families and 55 species from the pine flat-
woods; 1,922 specimens representing 19 families and 54 species from the urban
development; and 708 specimens representing 18 families and 46 species from
the citrus grove.
The most notable difference observed among the trapped ground surface
spider populations of the 4 ecosystems was that of gross magnitude. The total
population trapped in the citrus grove was only 1/3 of that trapped in either
the natural or residential ecosystems (Tables 1, 2).











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Another difference that existed among the trapped ground surface spiders
of the 4 ecosystems was that of population composition. On the sand-pine
dune, 3 families comprised 90% of the total population with 53% lycosids, 19%
gnaphosids, and 18% salticids. In the pine flat-woods, 3 families comprised 90%
of the total population with 64% lycosids, 21% salticids, and 5% linyphiids. In
the residential area, 3 families comprised 93% of the total population with 54%
lycosids, 23% theridiids, and 16% linyphiids. In the citrus grove, 4 families
comprised only 86% of the total population with 38% clubionids, 19%
theridiids, 18% lycosids, and 11% linyphiids (Table 2).
Composition differences also existed at the species level among the
prevalents (Table 2).
No species of Theridiidae was prevalent either on the sand-pine dune or in
the pine flat-woods. Steatoda erigoniformis (0. P. Cambridge) was prevalent
in the citrus grove and relatively common in the residential area. Theridion
antonii Keyserling was prevalent in the residential area and common in the
citrus grove.
No species of Linyphiidae was prevalent either on the sand-pine dune or in
the citrus grove. Eperigone banksi Ivie and Barrows was prevalent in the
residential area, and common in the citrus grove. Erigone autumnalis Emer-
ton was prevalent in both the pine flat-woods and residential area but was
much more abundant in the latter ecosystem. This species was also relatively
common on the sand-pine dune and in the citrus grove.
No species of Lycosidae was prevalent in the citrus grove although Par-
dosa longispinata Tullgren and Schizocosa incerta Bryant were collected
regularly. Lycosa parthenus Chamberlin and S. incerta were prevalent on the
sand-pine dune with the latter species by far the most abundant. Lycosa lenta
Hentz, Pirata suwaneus Gertsch, P. longispinata, and Sosippus floridanus
Simon were prevalent in the pine flat-woods, with the latter 2 species most
abundant. Lycosa acompa Chamberlin, Lycosa helluo Walckenaer, P. lon-
gispinata, and P. suwaneus were prevalent in the residential area with the
latter species strikingly more abundant. Only P. longispinata and P.
suwaneus were prevalent in more than one ecosystem.
Among the Gnaphosidae, Callilepis imbecilla Keyserling, Cesonia
bilineata Hentz, and Zelotes n. sp. were all prevalent on the sand-pine dune.
Drassyllus n. sp. was common in the citrus grove and residential area, but was
not prevalent in any of the 4 ecosystems.
Among the Clubionidae, no species was prevalent either in the pine flat-
woods or residential area. Castianeira n. sp. was prevalent on the sand-pine
dune and regularly collected in the pine flat-woods. Castianeira floridana
Banks and Meriola decepta floridana Chamberlin and Ivie were prevalent in
the citrus grove, and regularly collected in the residential area. The latter
species was the most abundant prevalent in the citrus grove.
No species of Salticidae was prevalent in either the citrus grove or the
residential area. Habrocestum acerbum Peckham was prevalent on the sand-
pine dune and in the pine flat-woods. Metacyrba taeniola (Hentz) was com-
mon both on the sand-pine dune and in the pine flat-woods but was not
prevalent in either ecosystem.
In addition to the population differences observed among the 4 ecosystems,
2 differences were noted among other factors. Prevalent ground surface
inhabiting spiders were more abundant in 1969 and 1970 than in 1967 and 1968;
greatest numbers were collected in 1969, least in 1967 (Table 3). Also, most


187











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prevalents attained peaks of adult population in summer or early fall,
although some species matured in other seasons (Table 4). The immature
population peaks of all family prevalents occurred into the late fall and early
winter.
DISCUSSION
The efficiency and usefulness of can traps in evaluating arthropod
populations has been questioned recently by Mitchell (1963), Greenslade
(1963), Muma (1970), and Hayes (1970). Each of these workers have pointed
out inadequacies of can traps owing to differences in specific behavior,
temperature and humidity differentials, daily rhythms, differential activity
between the sexes, and predation within the traps. There can be no question
but that can traps cannot be adequately used for short term population
analyses. It also seems improbable that "dry" can traps will produce useful
population data, particularly of voracious climbing predators such as spiders.
On the other hand, the trapping and removal of spiders from spider popula-
tions over an extended period of time by can traps containing a killing and
preserving agent seems to produce repeatable ecological data. The only above
cited inadequacy that applies to arachnid data collected from such can traps is
that of differential activity between males and females. Since mature male
spiders spend much of their adult lives in search of mates they are much more
susceptible to trapping. This inherent behavior precludes the use of can traps
in determination of sex ratios.
Since the recorded population differences, except for those between the 2
natural ecosystems, and those imposed by season or year may have been the
result of human manipulation, it is important that they be discussed and if
possible explained.
Barnes and Barnes (1955) have demonstrated that the spider population of
a concrete plant community of broomsedge did not differ significantly from
the spider population of the abstract plant community of broomsedge over a
4-state area. It is, therefore, reasonable to assume that the same would be true
for the ground surface spider populations of the 4 studied ecosystems. In the
following paragraphs, differences will be discussed as they apply to the abs-
tract plant and animal communities.
First, what factor or factors related to citrus culture might depress the
total ground surface spider population of citrus groves to only 1/3 that of the
other ecosystems? The most logical explanation for such a phenomenon
would seem to be that some grove operation eliminates or alters either the
abundance or the kind of arthropod prey of ground surface inhabiting spiders.
Since citrus grove soils are subjected to regular disturbance during cover crop
cultivation, fertilization, irrigation, pest control operations, frost protection,
and fruit picking, it is possible that such disturbance is the major population
depressing factor. On the other hand, residential areas also are subjected to
disturbance including shrubbery bed cultivation, lawn mowing, grass and
shrub fertilization and irrigation, and regular trampling but did not have
reduced ground surface spider populations. However, the major portion of the
soil surface around residences is maintained in lawn grasses whereas the
plowing, disking, and chopping of the citrus grove .cover crop produces a bare
soil surface under and between the trees for long periods of time which must
alter arthropod populations. It is also possible that "run-off' from regular
citrus pesticide treatments is toxic to ground surface inhabiting spiders. On


192


Vol. 56, No. 3










Muma: Ground Surface Spiders in Four Ecosystems


the other hand, Whitcomb et al. (1963) found strikingly larger populations of
ground stratum spiders in a cultivated, presumably sprayed or dusted cotton
field than in an adjacent pasture. However, despite this conflicting evidence, it
is possible that repeated insecticide, acaricide, and fungicide applications
could be a factor in reducing ground surface spider populations.
Another possible reason for the reduced population in citrus groves is the
maintenance of a grove as a discrete forest-like monoculture. However, careful
examination of data collected by Elliott (1930), Gibson (1942), Lowrie (1948),
Muma and Muma (1949), Barnes (1953), and Peck (1966) indicates that
forest-like vegetational associations support more species of spiders and larger
populations than non-forest plant communities. Furthermore, there is no
published evidence that natural mixed communities support larger numbers
of spiders than pure or nearly pure stands of single plant species.
A third explanation for the depression of the ground surface, citrus grove,
spider population is the possibility that some inherent factor or factors make
citrus trees repellent either to certain ground surface inhabiting spiders or to
the natural prey of such spiders. However, no reliable data are available either
to support or to reject such a supposition.
With the exception of the low lycosid population in citrus groves,
differences in the composition of the 4 populations are easily explained.
Sand-pine dunes in Florida represent locally xeric conditions and support
xeric plant associations. The lycosid and gnaphosid dune prevalents are xeric
forms that are found almost exclusively on sand-pine dunes. The single
clubionid dune prevalent also occurs predominately under xeric conditions.
The single salticid dune prevalent, H. acerbum, apparently cannot tolerate
soil surface disturbance. It was found almost exclusively in the 2 natural
ecosystems where it was prevalent. The isolated dune prevalent, Oonops
floridanus (Chamberlin and Ivie), is a secretive spider that lives in relatively
thick leaf litter.
Pine flat-woods in Florida occur on poorly drained soils that maintain high
to swampy moisture levels and support hydrophilic plant associations. The
flat-woods lycosid prevalents which comprised the major portion of the flat-
woods population were species normally found on swamp land or along the
margins of streams and lakes. Two species, P. longispinata and P. suwaneus,
were also prevalent in residential areas, but this is not an anomaly since lawns
and shrubs are frequently irrigated. As noted above, the single flat-woods
salticid prevalent, H. acerbum, apparently does not tolerate even minimal soil
surface disturbance since it is found almost exclusively in the 2 natural
ecosystems. The only flat-woods linyphiid prevalent, E. autumnalis, ap-
parently requires relatively moist conditions and adequate web building sites
since it was also prevalent in residential areas. The 2 isolated flat-woods
prevalents, Dictyna micro (Chamberlin and Ivie) and 0. floridanus, are
secretive spiders that live in relatively thick leaf litter.
The composition of the soil surface spider population in central Florida
residential areas seems to be the result of a series of factors that may or may
not be interdependent. Two of the 4 residential area lycosid prevalents, P.
longispinata and P. suwaneus, are apparently maintained by the frequent
irrigation of lawns and shrubbery since they are water-loving species. The
other 2 lycosid prevalents, L. acompa and L. helluo, are found almost
exclusively in residential areas and may be either grassland forms that can
tolerate lawn disturbance or species that prefer moist but not swampy condi-










The Florida Entomologist


tions since they are absent from or rare in the other 3 ecosystems. Prevalence
of ground surface inhabiting theridiids and linyphiids in residential areas is
readily explained by the presence of adequate moisture, an increased number
of web-building sites, and the increased number of tiny insects attracted to
artificial light. Lack of arid conditions seemingly precludes the more abundant
xeric gnaphosids from residential areas, and soil surface disturbance even
though minimal may eliminate prevalent salticids.
As indicated above, the reduced lycosid population in citrus groves is
somewhat anomalous. It is possible the pesticide explanation postulated
above for the reduced total ground surface spider population in citrus groves
could also apply to the Lycosidae. However, such an explanation would
require the further assumption that the insecticides, acaricides, and fungicides
used to control citrus pests might be toxic to lycosids but not to clubionids.
This does not seem likely. It is far more probable that repeated ground cover
cultivations and possibly pesticide treatments either alter the abundance of or
eliminate from the cover crop the lycosid prey, primarily Lepidoptera and
Coleoptera, reported by Whitcomb et al. (1967). Prevalence of theridiids and
linyphiids in citrus groves may be explained by the improved moisture condi-
tions produced by irrigation and the increased number of web-building sites.
The greater availability of small litter-inhabiting prey in the normally thin
layer of citrus litter could be responsible for the striking prevalence of
moderate-sized clubinoids in citrus groves. On the other hand, according to the
data on the yearly abundance of ground surface spider prevalents, 2 of the 3
species involved, C. floridana and M. d. floridana, did not become common
until 1970. This indicates that weather conditions in 1969 and 1970 may have
been favorable to the development of clubionid populations on a host availa-
ble in citrus litter but not present in either sand-pine dune or pine flat-woods
litter. Low populations of prevalent gnaphosids in citrus groves are readily
explained by the lack of xeric conditions; the absence of salticids by repeated
disturbance of the soil surface.
Variations in annual populations of spiders, or any other animals for that
matter, usually may be explained by above or below average temperatures,
above or below average moisture, abundance or paucity of food supply and
abundance or paucity of natural enemies such as predators, parasites, or
pathogens. The differences in the annual populations of ground surface
spiders in the 4 central Florida ecosystems studied here may have been due to
the moisture conditions that prevailed during 1969 and 1970. However, it
should be pointed out that the moisture condition may have acted both
directly upon the spiders and/or indirectly by increasing the arthropod fauna
and thereby the food supply. Another factor that may have contributed to the
variation obtained is that of unequal sampling periods. Samples were taken
only the last 8 months in 1967 and the first 9 months in 1970. However, during
both years samples were taken during the period of greatest seasonal spider
abundance, so any error contributed by the discrepancy was probably minor.
If samples had been taken during the first 4 months of 1967, a few more
additional specimens of the minor prevalents, L. acompa, L. parthenus, C.
bilineata, and Castianeira n. sp., might have been collected, but certainly not
enough more to significantly alter their status or the total population. The
same treatment applies to the last 3 months of 1970 Wherein only C. bilineata
might have been affected.
Variations in the seasonal abundance of animals, on either a general or


Vol. 56, No. 3










Muma: Ground Surface Spiders in Four Ecosystems


specific level, usually involves either the inherent life cycle or the interaction
of temperature, moisture, and food supply on the inherent life cycle. Most
spiders complete a life cycle within 1 year. Maturity and breeding usually
occur during the spring, summer, or early fall and most species live through
the winter as immatures. This inherent phenomenon explains the late fall and
early winter abundance of immature spiders. A few species, such as C.
bilineata and Castianeira n. sp., mature in the fall and live through the winter
as adults, causing their abundance to appear bimodal on a 2-dimensional
graph or table. Also a few species, such as L. acompa and L. parthenus, mature
in the winter, which also produces an apparent off-season abundance. Some
spiders live more than 1 year. Adults of such species may be collected during
any month of the year, but maturity and breeding usually produce a seasonal
peak abundance of the species. Other spiders, especially small leaf-litter
inhabiting species, live in a temperature-buffered environment, and although
they may be short-lived can produce seasonal population data similar to that
of long-lived species.
CONCLUSIONS
The primary conclusion that can be drawn from the presented data and
discussion is that ground surface spider populations of citrus groves and
residential areas do differ strikingly from the populations that occur on un-
disturbed sand-pine dunes and pine flat-woods.
A secondary conclusion is that the differences in magnitude and composi-
tion that exist among the ground surface spider populations of sand-pine
dunes, pine flat-woods, and residential areas may be less important since most
of the variation seems to be the result of ecologically equivalent species
replacement.
The final conclusion is that the significant difference between the ground
surface spider population of citrus groves and those of the other studied
ecosystems may be the result of factors related to citrus culture, and that the
most important of these factors could be soil surface disturbance caused by
frequent cover crop cultivation.
LITERATURE CITED
Barnes, Robert D. 1953. The ecological distribution of spiders in non-forest
maritime communities at Beaufort, North Carolina. Ecol. Monog.
23:315-337.

Barnes, Betty Martin, and Robert D. Barnes. 1954. The ecology of the spiders
of maritime drift lines. Ecology 35(1):25-35.

Barnes, Robert D., and Betty Martin Barnes. 1955. The spider population of
the broomsedge community in the southeastern Piedmont. Ecology
36(4):658-666.

Chew, Robert M. 1961. Ecology of the spiders of a desert community. J. New
York Ent. Soc. 49:5-41.

Duffey, E. 1962. A population of spiders in limestone grassland. J. Animal Ecol.
31:571-599.

Elliott, F. R. 1930. An ecological study of the spiders of the beech-maple forest.
Ohio Monog. 31(1):1-22.









The Florida Entomologist


Fautin, R. W. 1946. Biotic communities of the northern desert shrub biome in
western Utah. Ecol. Monog. 16:251-310.
Gibson, W. W. 1947. An ecological study of the spiders of a river terrace forest
in western Tennessee. Ohio J. Sci. 47:38-44.

Greenslade, P. J. M. 1964. Pitfall trapping as a method for studying popula-
tions of Carabidae (Coleoptera). J. Animal Ecol. 33:301-310.

Hayes, W. B. 1970. The accuracy of pitfall trapping for the sand-beach isopod,
Tylospunctatus. Ecology 51(3):514-516.
Hensley, S. D., W. H. Long, L. R. Roddy, W. J. McCormick, and E. J.
Concienne. 1961. Effects of insecticides on the predaceous arthropod
fauna of Louisiana sugar cane fields. J. Econ. Ent. 54:146-149.

Jones, Sarah E. 1943. Variations in abundance of certain invertebrates in
William Trelease Woods, 1933-1938. Amer. Midi. Nat. 35(1):172-192.

Lowrie, Donald C. 1942. The ecology of the spiders of the xeric dunelands of
the Chicago area. Bull. Chicago. Acad. Sci. 6(9):161-189.

Lowrie, Donald C. 1948. The ecological succession of spiders of the Chicago
area dunes. Ecology 29(3):334-351.

Lowrie, Donald C. 1968. The spiders of the herbaceous stratum of the Jackson
Hole region of Wyoming. Northwest Sci. 42(3):89-100.

Mitchell, B. 1963. Ecology of two carabid beetles, Bembidion lampres
(Herbst.) and Trechus quadristriatus (Schrank). II J. Animal Ecol.
32:377-392.
Muma, Martin H. 1970. An improved can trap. Notes Arachnol. S.W. 1:16-18.

Muma, Martin H., and Katharine E. Muma. 1949. Studies on a population of
prairie spiders. Ecology 30(4):485-503.

Peck, William B. 1966. The population composition of a spider community in
west central Missouri. Midl. Nat. 76(1):151-168.

Sanders, N. J., and J. E. Shelford. 1922. A quantitative and seasonal study of
a pine dune animal community. Ecology 3(4):306-320.

Shelford, J. E. 1913. Animal communities in temperate North America. Geogr.
Soc. Chicago Bull. 5, xiii, 368 p.

Weese, A. 0. 1924. Animal ecology of an Illinois elm-maple forest. Illinois Biol.
Monog. 9(1):345-438.
Whitcomb, W. H., Harriet Exline, and Maxine Hite. 1963. Comparison of
spider populations of ground stratum in an Arkansas pasture and ad-
jacent cultivated field. Arkansas Acad. Sci. Proc. 17.

Whitcomb, W. H., J. M. R. Hite, and R. R. Eason. 1967. Wolf and lynx spider
life histories. Univ. of Arkansas, Div. Agr., Dep. Ent. Mimeo. Rep. to
Nat. Sci. Found. 142 p.


The Florida Entomologist 56(3) 1973


Vol. 56, No. 3













COMPARISONS OF HORN FLY' DEVELOPMENT IN
MANURE OF FIVE ANIMAL SPECIES2

N. I. GREER AND J. F. BUTLER

Department of Entomology and Nematology
University of Florida, Gainesville

ABSTRACT

Standard horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.), rearing medium was com-
pared with manure of cattle, bison, sheep, horse, and swine for production of
viable horn flies. Horn flies developed to adults on all media except swine
manure. Field observations showed adult horn flies on horses, sheep, and bison
as well as cattle. No natural horn fly development was found in horse manure.


The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus), is an obligate ectoparasite
of cattle (Bruce 1964, McLintock and Depner 1954). Bruce (1964) observed
that adult horn flies chiefly attacked cattle but it was not uncommon for the
flies to parasitize sheep. Occasionally horn flies were observed on goats, horses,
mules, dogs, and rarely will horn flies attack man. Oviposition takes place
exclusively in fresh cattle droppings (Bruce 1964) with larval development
only in cattle dung (McLintock and Depner 1954). The horn fly is not known
to develop in any other natural medium (Bruce 1964).
Since horn fly adults will parasitize hosts other than cattle, gravid females
may lay eggs in the manure of these hosts. If natural development occurs here
it would greatly complicate control and potential area removal of horn flies.
Because of this possibility and a lack of research in this area, laboratory and
field studies were conducted to determine if horse, bison, sheep, and swine
manure could serve as a medium for rearing horn fly larval stages to viable
adults.

METHODS AND MATERIALS
Horn fly eggs were obtained from a laboratory colony that was established
from pupae obtained from Kerrville (ARS, USDA, Kerrville, Texas). The
adults were maintained on bovine blood from a slaughterhouse. Sodium ci-
trate (7 g/1800 ml) was used as an anticoagulant and the antibiotics
kanamycin sulfate (1 g/1800 ml) and mycostatin (500,000 units/1800 ml) were
used as preservatives.
The standard larval medium, a modification of the Kerrville rearing
medium (Harris et al. 1967), consisted of a dry mix (246 g sugar cane pulp, 48 g
wheat flour, 36 g fish meal, 6 g sodium bicarbonate, 20 g alfalfa meal), cattle
manure, and distilled water mixed in a ratio of 2:3:5 by weight.
Horn fly larval development in horse, sheep, bison, swine, and cattle
manure was compared with development in the standard larval rearing
medium. One hundred grams of each test material was placed in aluminum foil
cups (8 cm diam by 4 cm). Fifty eggs were added to each cup, for each test

'Haematobia irritans (L), (Diptera:Muscidae).
2Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 4821.










The Florida Entomologist


material. Six replications were used in the experiment. On day 7, the pupae
were collected by water floatation, air dryed, counted, and placed in
aluminum screen cages (9 cm diam by 10 cm). Adults were fed twice daily on 3
cm2, blood saturated cellucotton pads covered with gauze. The larvae were
maintained at 250C and 60-70% RH. Adults were maintained at 32C and
70-80% RH.
Horse manure was removed from the field after 1 day of exposure to
determine natural fly breeding activity. Three manure samples were placed
under emergence cones and the arthropods present were allowed to emerge for
a 3-week period.
Field observations of female horn flies ovipositing on fresh horse and cattle
manure were made. The horn fly populations on cattle and horses were
counted. Analysis of variance was used to determine significant differences in
development on the larval media.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Results are shown in Table 1. Pupal survival in cattle manure was 31%.
Horn flies developed to the pupal stage in feces of bison, sheep, horse, and the
standard laboratory medium. Significantly (p <0.1) more adults were reared
from feces of sheep, bison, horse, cattle, and laboratory media than from swine
feces. No larvae developed to pupae in swine manure. Data on the percent
eclosion showed that bison, sheep, and horse manure were excellent media for
development. The adults reared from the laboratory medium, and cattle,
sheep, horse, and bison feces produced viable eggs. No significant differences in
fly larval development among manure of cattle, sheep, bison, and horse, and
laboratory medium was demonstrated.
These data indicated that horn flies in the laboratory can complete their
larval life in the manure of bison, sheep or horse in addition to cattle manure.
In field observations adult horn flies were found in low numbers on sheep,
horse, and bison. Counts were made only on horses and cattle. The numbers of
flies averaged 44 per side on horses and 261 per side on cattle. Observations on
fresh droppings were made only for horses with no horn fly activity observed
around the droppings. Emergence studies were made only for horse manure
exposed to natural fly breeding activity in the field with no horn fly emergence


TABLE 1. HORN FLY, Haematobia irritans (L.), DEVELOPMENT IN
MANURE FROM 5 SPECIES OF HOSTS (6 REPLICATIONS).

Total no. % successfully Total no. % successfully
Medium pupae pupating adults closing*
Standard
Medium 169 56.3 128 42.7
Bisom 172 57.3 157 52.3
Sheep 144 48.0 143 47.7
Horse 134 44.7 113 37.7
Cattle 105 35.0 .94 31.3
Swine 0 0. 0 0

Significant differences (p <.01) shown only between swine and the other media tested.


Vol. 56, No. 3







Greer and Butler: Horn Fly Development


at the breeding site. Even though there appears to be a potential for expansion
of the horn flies' biological niche, behavioral factors apparently prevent
females from laying eggs on horse manure.

LITERATURE CITED
Bruce, W. G. 1964. The history and biology of the horn fly, Haematobia
irritans (Linnaeus); with comments on control. N. C. Exp. Sta. Tech.
Bull. 157, 33p.
Harris, R. L., E. Frazar, and P. D. Grossman. 1967. Artificial media for
rearing larvae of horn flies. J. Econ. Entomol. 60:891-892.
McLintock, J., and K. R. Depner. 1954. A review of the life history and habits
of the horn fly Siphona irritans (L.) (Diptera:Muscidae). Can. En-
tomol. 86:20-23.
The Florida Entomologist 56(3) 1973


NT


NG


FOR ALL PURPOSES


Carefully Executed


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STORTER PRINTING COMPANY

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MIMICRY OF TRIGONA BEES BY A REDUVIID
(HEMIPTERA) FROM BRITISH HONDURAS

JAMES F. JACKSON

Department of Zoology, University of Florida, Gainesville

ABSTRACT

The reduviid Notocyrtus vesiculosus Stal mimics workers of the
meliponine bee Trigona fulviventris Guerin both structurally and in colora-
tion. It frequents flowers visited by the bee, but the function of the mimicry is
unknown.


The frequency of elaborate modifications of the pronotum in the reduviid
subfamily Harpactorinae has been noted (Miller 1956), but their functions
remain obscure. It is suggested here that the expanded pronotum of Notocyr-
tus vesiculosus Stal contributes to its mimicry of meliponine bees of the genus
Trigona. Observations of the mimic and its model were made 20-30 December
1972, near Blancaneaux Lodge 15 km north of Augustine, Cayo District,
British Honduras.
The model is the worker of Trigona fulviventris Guerin, which is 6.5-7.0
mm in length. The head, thorax, and legs are black; the antennae and eyes are
dark-brown. The abdomen is orange-yellow. The wings are transparent but
slightly tinted with sepia. The head is large and is slightly wider than the
thorax in the transverse axis. The hind tibia, particularly the distal portion, is
greatly enlarged and flattened.
Imagos of Notocyrtus vesiculosus are 8.5-9.5 mm long, with males being
smaller than females. When viewed from more than a few centimeters away,
they strongly resemble Trigona fulviventris (Fig. 1). The mimicry is achieved
both by structural modifications and by similarity in coloration. The head is
small and partly hidden beneath the enormously expanded pronotum that
doubles the depth of the thoracic region. In the anterior-posterior axis, the
pronotum extends forward over the posterior third of the head and backward
over the entire thorax and the anterior third of the abdomen. The pronotal
excrescence is hollow and relatively thin-walled. Being black, it effectively
suggests the head and thorax of T. fulviventris. The proximal two-thirds of the
hind tibia is enlarged, flattened, and densely clothed with short black hairs.
This modification and the black to dark-brown color of the legs contributes to
the mimetic resemblance. The abdomen is the same shade of yellow as that of
T. fulviventris. A row of 3 white spots runs along each side of the abdomen. The
spots are external to the cuticle and are made of secreted material. They may
function in the mimicry by suggesting the glare spots of reflected sunlight
often seen on the abdomen of the bee. The wings of N. vesiculosus are trans-
parent with a sepia tint. Another point of resemblance between the model and
mimic is the matte surface of the thorax and legs that is caused in both species
by an abundance of small hairs.
Species of Notocyrtus often vary geographically in coloration (Champion
1901). This may be a result of mimicking different Trigona species in different
localities. Such geographic variation in mimetic characters and models is well










Jackson: Mimicry of Trigona by a Reduviid


Fig. 1-A. Trigona fulviventris worker. B. Notocyrtus vesiculosus.


established in lepidopteran mimics (Ford 1936). Schwarz (1948) cited mimicry
of meliponine bees by neotropical cerambicid beetles and syrphid flies.
Notocyrtus vesiculosus was most commonly found (13 of 15 individuals) on
the melastome shrub Clidemia rubra Mart., and both courtship and egg-lay-
ing were observed on this plant. The sedentary images typically rest on or
below a leaf or along a stem near the flowers. When approached quickly, they
move slowly to the opposite side of the stem or leaf. If touched, the images
sometimes produce a buzz with the wings; if harassed, they take flight which is
rapid and strong. The flowers of C. rubra are sessile and axillary and are
produced for several months in winter and spring. Imagos and nymphs were
seen to insert their rostra into both open and immature flowers. Imagos that
had been kept without food for several days became active when C. rubra
flowers were placed in their container and quickly inserted their rostra into
them. Trigona fulviventris workers visit C. rubra flowers regularly and were
seen to crawl near N. vesiculosus images without eliciting a response from
them. No N. vesiculosus were seen with prey, so whether the reduviid uses C.
rubra only as a direct food source or also as a base for predation is unknown.
Without such knowledge it is impossible even to speculate whether the
mimicry is Batesian or aggressive, or whether it functions in both ways.


4mm










The Florida Entomologist


Thanks are extended to Drs. F. Mead and S. Hubbell for aid with iden-
tifications.


LITERATURE CITED

Champion, G. C. 1901. Biologia Centrali-Americana. Insecta, Hemiptera-
Heteroptera. Vol. 2.

Ford, E. B. 1936. The genetics of Papilio dardanus Brown (Lep.). Trans. Ent.
Soc. London. 85:435-466.

Miller, N. C. 1956. The biology of the Heteroptera. Leonard Hill, London.

Schwarz, H. F. 1948. Stingless bees (Meliponidae) of the Western Hemisphere.
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 90:1-546.

The Florida Entomologist 56(3) 1973











ENTOMOLOGY IN ACTION

Members needing audio-visual material to aid in giving talks on en-
tomology to students and organizations may borrow free a display of 72 color,
2 x 2 slides with a script. Write for reservations giving date and alternate date
to Secretary, Florida Entomological Society (i.e., Frank Mead), P. O. Box
12425, Gainesville, Florida 32601.


Vol. 56, No. 3












THE SOYBEAN LOOPER1: PUPAL WEIGHT, DEVELOPMENT
TIME, AND CONSUMPTION OF SOYBEAN FOLIAGE2

J. C. REID AND G. L. GREENE

University of Florida Agricultural Research & Education Center,
Quincy, Florida 32351

ABSTRACT

Pseudoplusia includes (Walker) reared singly on soybean leaflets at
29.4+1.50C consumed 81.96 cm2 of leaflet area. Approximately 97% of the
consumption occurred during the last 3 stadia. Development time from
eclosion to pupation was 13.74 days. Mean pupal weights for larvae reared in
the laboratory on leaves or artificial diet were less than those of field collected
larvae.


The soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includes (Walker), is an important
defoliator of soybeans, Glycine max (L) Merrill, for which control measures
are applied during most seasons in the Southeastern United States. The
optimum times to use control measures are questionable, and an attempt is
being made to establish economic thresholds. One approach has been to
mechanically remove preset amounts of leaf area from soybean plants and
measure yield reductions (Todd and Morgan 1972, Turnipseed 1972). Their
data indicate that 33% of the foliage can be removed before blooming without
reducing yield. Another approach which is currently underway at Tifton,
Georgia, and Gainesville and Quincy, Florida by Jim Todd, John Strayer, and
the junior author, is to place given numbers of insects on plants to remove
given amounts of leaf area. This method closely approaches natural condi-
tions, but has disadvantages as a means of calculating defoliation on a per
larva basis because of larval mortality, the presence of other defoliators, and
the difficulty in accurately measuring foliage losses when leaves are partly
eaten. However, leaf area loss is natural as compared to artificial, mechanical
removal.
We measured the area of excised foliage consumed by P. includes reared
in the laboratory to obtain an estimate of defoliation on a per larva basis and
to avoid some of the uncertainty associated with field methods.


METHODS
Fully expanded, undamaged leaflets were removed from field grown
"Bragg" variety soybeans during a 3-week period following first bloom. The
leaflets were kept fresh in closed plastic bags and used within 2 hr of excision.
Single leaflets were placed on double sheets of moist filter paper in 2.5 X 11 cm
diam plastic petri dishes. Larvae were obtained from the laboratory colony of
P. includes at Quincy. Eggs laid on paper towels were maintained at
approximately 24C and larvae were transferred from the towels to the dishes


'Pseudoplusia includes (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).
'Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 4799.










204 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 56, No. 3

within 3 hr of eclosion. Test larvae were held at a constant 29.4 + 1.50C and 14
hr photophase.
Larvae were reared 1/dish in 2 replications. Each replication began with 40
larvae and data are from 27 and 35, those that completed development. Near
the end of each stadium, dishes were inspected approximately every 6 hr and
larvae in the premolt stage were transferred to a fresh dish. At pupation,
larvae were transferred to dishes containing a dry sheet of filter paper and
were weighed 24 hr after pupation. Field-collected and media-reared prepupal
larvae were also kept in similar dishes and weighed 24 hr after pupation.
Area of foliage consumed was measured by the dot-grid method described
by Benjamin et al. (1968). Because of the small area of leaflet consumed in the
1st and 2nd stadia, the mean of 4 measurements taken on each leaflet was
calculated for the larvae during these stadia.

RESULTS
Data from the 2 groups were combined because there were no significant
differences in cm2 of foliage consumed between replications of larvae for any of
the stadia or for the total feeding period (Table 1). Mean consumption during
the entire larval period was 81.96 cm2 of which slightly less than 3.3% of the
consumption was by the first 3 stadia. Thus, the mean consumption of 79.18
cm2 for the last 3 stadia was not significantly different from that during the
entire larval period. Mean increases in consumption from stadium to stadium
showed no regular pattern of progression. All but 2 of the larvae increased
their consumption at every successive stadium. The ranges indicated that
during every stadium the leaf area consumed by some of the larvae was less
than that consumed by others during the previous stadium. Variation in
consumption between individual larvae was high in both replications. It is
likely that some of the variation resulted from differences in thickness
between leaflets and between different regions of the same leaflet. However,
size differences between larvae of the same age and stadia were also noticeable.
Stadia durations are based on time from eclosion to some undetermined
point in the premolt stage for the first instars, and from premolt to premolt for
subsequent instars (Table 2). Hence the estimated duration for first instar
larvae is biased on the low side, and means for the later stadia approximate
actual duration to within + 6 hr. A mean period of 25.4 hr for spinning the
cocoon and prior to pupation was determined from observations of 10 larvae.
Durations of stadia were similar in both replications. Mean duration from
eclosion to pupation was 13.74 days at 29.40C. Mitchell (1967) reported larval
developmental periods of 29.64 and 19.63 days for P. includes on artificial diet
at 70 and 80F; larvae reared on soybeans in the field developed in 19.94 days
and pupae developed in 6.64 days compared to 6.91 at 80F. Mitchell's data
suggest that media and leaf fed larvae developed at similar rates, yet at
Quincy, development on artificial diet was slower than on fresh excised foliage.
An expected developmental period of approximately 14.5 days was obtained
by linear extrapolation of these data to 29.40C. There are good agreements
with Mitchell's (1967) data for the proportion of the larval period spent in each
stadium. Mean pupal weights at 24 + 8 hr after pupation were not significantly
different between the 2 replications. However, larvae from natural popula-
tions, feeding on the field growing plants which provided the excised foliage for
the lab reared groups, developed into heavier pupae than did larvae reared in











Reid and Greene: Soybean Looper Development


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TABLE 3. PUPAL WEIGHTS OF Pseudoplusia includes, 24- 8 HR AFTER
PUPATION.

Diet No. Pupae Mean Weight (mg) Standard deviation
Excised foliage* 49 193.4 23.5
Media 137 183.8 38.1
Field Plant 18 214.7 28.6
Canerday & Arant 100 265.0
(1967)

* Leaves were removed from the same field plants used to feed larvae in the field.

the laboratory on excised foliage or artificial diet (Table 3). These weights
were considerably less than the 245 mg reported by Mitchell (1967), or the 265
mg pupae reported by Canerday and Arant (1967) who used the artificial diet
of Shorey and Hale (1965) which is similar to the diet used during our studies.
Pupae weighed within 2 hr after pupating averaged 183 mg when held in dry
containers and 206 in wet containers. The same pupae weighed 24 hr later were
171 and 200 mg and lost 25.6 mg in dry containers and 14.6 mg when held on
wet filter paper for 120 hr after pupating. Loss of weight during the pupal stage
does not explain the lower weights during our study compared to previous
reports.
Larvae reared 5 to a dish consumed considerably less foliage than larvae
reared singly. This observation merits further study to learn the actual con-
sumption and to observe behavioral differences.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We sincerely thank Mrs. C. S. Melvin for valuable assistance in the
laboratory.

LITERATURE CITED
Benjamin, D. M., G. H. Freeman, and E. S. Brown. 1968. The determination of
irregularly-shaped areas of leaves destroyed by chewing insects. Ann.
Appl. Biol. 61:13-17.

Canerday, T. Don, and F. S. Arant. 1967. Biology of Pseudoplusia includes
and notes on biology of Trichoplusia ni, Rachiplusia ou and Au-
tographa biloba. J. Econ. Entomol. 60:870-871.

Mitchell, E. R. 1967. Life history of Pseudoplusia includes (Walker)
(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J. Georgia Entomol. Soc. 2:53-57.

Shorey, H. H., and R. I. Hale. 1965. Mass-rearing of the larvae of nine noctuid
species on a simple artificial medium. J. Econ. Entomol. 58:522-524.

Todd, James W., and Loy W. Morgan. 1972. Effects of hand defoliation on
yield and seed weight of soybeans. J. Econ. Entomol. 65:567-570.

Turnipseed, Sam G. 1972. Response of soybeans to foliage losses in South
Carolina. J. Econ. Entomol. 65:224-229.


The Florida Entomologist 56(3) 1973


206


Vol. 56, No. 3











VARIABILITY, DISTRIBUTION AND TAXONOMY OF
CALOPTERYX DIMIDIATA
(ZYGOPTERA: CALOPTERYGIDAE)

CLIFFORD JOHNSON'

Department of Zoology, University of Florida, Gainesville

ABSTRACT

This study reviews the taxonomic instability of the names Calopteryx
apicalis Burmeister and C. dimidiata Burmeister. The data support Hagen's
early revision where he recognized only one species with the name C.
dimidiata. A complete synonymy appears followed by criteria for distin-
guishing the species from other Western Hemisphere congenerics, an in-
terpretation of the unstable nomenclatural usage, and summary of distribu-
tion by county for each state. An analysis of variability through the species
range finds spring adults to be typically larger in wing, leg, and body
characters than summer and fall specimens from the same regions. A possible
explanation is advanced based on larval growth periods. Wing color patterns,
female stigma size, and female morphs have little to no seasonal variation and
occur in geographical dines.


This study reviews the taxonomic validity of Calopteryx dimidiata Bur-
meister and its seasonal and geographical variability. Damselflies of the genus
Calopteryx are large, colorful forms occurring only in the Northern
Hemisphere and having stream to riverine habitat preferences. Three species
occur in portions of both Canada and the United States, and 2 additional
species (including C. dimidiata) exist in the eastern U. S.
Differences in body proportions and wing patterns lead Burmeister (1839)
to describe 2 taxa, C. apicalis and C. dimidiata. Subsequent writers varied in
recognizing one or both of these species, and some authors following the
conspecific interpretation used both names at different times. This situation
contrasts with a rather stable taxonomy for North American Zygoptera and is
particularly undesirable as calopterygids appear increasingly in ecological and
ethological studies.
Small samples having limited geographic representation handicapped
earlier efforts to resolve the problem. Material for this study (634 specimens)
came from several sources acknowledged below, and represents most of the
geographic range.

DIAGNOSIS AND TAXONOMIC BACKGROUND
Data given here support Hagen's (1889) conclusion that C. apicalis and C.
dimidiata are conspecific. The following synonymy adopts this interpretation.
Citations in the synonymy appear with complete title and source under
Literature Cited.


'Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Bureau of Entomology, Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville 32601.









The Florida Entomologist


Calopteryx dimidiata Burmeister
Calopteryx apicalis Burmeister, 1839, p. 827 (types, male and female:
Philadelphia, Penn.; Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard); Walker, 1853 (Br. Mus.
list); Selys, 1853, 1854 (male, female descr., syn.); Hagen, 1861, 1875 (distr.);
Banks, 1892 (distr.); Calvert, 1898, (study of types); Calvert, 1903 (distr.);
Needham, 1903 (distr.); Calvert, 1909a, 1909b (distr.); Williamson, 1934 (distr.,
sp. apicale); Montgomery, 1940 (distr., sp. apicale); Donnelly, 1961 (distr.);
Paulson, 1966 (distr.); Beatty, etc., 1969 (distr.).
Calopteryx dimidiata Burmeister, 1839, p. 829 (type female: "Kentucki";
Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard); Rambur, 1842 (descr.); Walker, 1853 (Br. Mus.
list); Selys, 1853, 1854 (male, female descr., syn.); Hagen, 1861, 1874, 1875
(distr.); Hagen, 1889 (revis.); Banks, 1892 (distr.); Calvert, 1898 (study of
types); Williamson, 1900 (descr., distr.); Calvert, 1901 (distr.); Muttkowski.
1908 (distr., in error); Needham, 1928 (distr., error in part, sp. dimidiatum);
Montgomery, 1933 (distr., sp. dimidiatum); Williamson, 1934 (distr.); Roback
and Westfall, 1967 (distr., larva); Montgomery, 1967 (distr.); Goodwin, 1968
(distr.); Johnson and Westfall, 1970 (key, distr.); Resner, 1970 (quotes Bur-
meister's 1839 local.); Johnson, 1972, (key, distr.).
Calopteryx cognata Rambur, 1842, p. 222 (type female: "1'Amerique septen-
trionale"; loc. type ?); Selys, 1853 (syn.).
Calopteryx syriaca Rambur, 1842, p. 223 (type male: "Liban"; loc. type ?);
Selys, 1854 (syn.).
Calopteryx dimidiata apicalis Burmeister; Hagen, 1889 (revis.); Calvert, 1890
(distr.); Calvert, 1893 (descr., distr.); Kellicott, 1894 (distr., in error); Calvert,
1895 (distr.); Williamson, 1900 (distr.); Calvert, 1905 (distr.); Byers, 1927
(quotes erroneous distr.); Kormondy, 1958 (corrects distr.).
Agrion apicalis (Burmeister); Kirby, 1890 (cat., distr.); all following authors
spelled the specific name apicale; Needham and Heywood, 1929 (key, descr.,
distr.); Montgomery, 1933 (distr.); Brimley, 1938 (distr.); Beatty, 1946 (distr.).
Agrion dimidiata (Burmeister); Kirby, 1890 (cat., distr.); all following
authors spelled the specific name dimidiatum; Muttkowski, 1910 (cat., distr.);
H. Garman, 1924 (quotes Burmeister's 1839 local.); Needham and Heywood,
1929 (key, descr., distr.); Byers, 1930 (key, descr., distr.); Byers, 1931a,b
(distr.); Brimley, 1938 (distr.); Davis and Fluno, 1938 (distr.); Ferguson, 1942
(distr.); Wright, 1943 (distr.); Wright, 1946 (larva descr.); Needham, 1946
(distr.); Bick, 1957 (distr.); Trogdon, 1961 (distr.)
Agrion dimidiatum apicale (Burmeister); Muttkowski, 1910 (cat., distr.);
Howe, 1917-1921 (distr.); P. Garman, 1927 (descr.).
Calopteryx dimidiata dimidiata (Burmeister); Kormondy, 1958 (distr., notes,
author's name erroneously presented).
The following diagnosis, distinguishing C. dimidiata from its 4 nearctic
congeners, rests largely on color pattern and wing shape. Mate recognition in
Calopteryx derives largely from behavior while structural differences in male
abdominal appendages and genitalia are slight.
Males: Apical black bands on all wings terminating in essentially straight
borders across wing distal to nodus, rarely differing more than 2 mm in length
between fore and hindwings (measured on wing's longitudinal axis). Poorly-
defined bands in northern general specimens. Sternum abdominal segment 10
black, not white or cream-colored.


Vol. 56, No. 3










Johnson: Calopteryx dimidiata: Taxonomy and Distribution 209

Females: Hyaline wings lacking dark apical bands, or bands, if present, like
male or on hindwings only. Wings wide about mid-length, rounded in outline,
length equals width X 4 or less. Labrum and labium dark (metallic black, blue
or green, not pale-cream color). Stigma absent or exceeds 2 mm in length.
The only taxa possibly confused with C. dimidiata are C. aequibilis and C.
amata, and their full descriptions appear in Walker (1953).
Difficulties in separating the 2 taxa, C. apicalis and C. dimidiata may have
occurred only 3 years after Burmeister's 1839 descriptions. Rambur (1842)
completely omitted, without explanation, C. apicalis from his treatment of
neuropterous insects. Possibly, C. apicalis specimens were not available;
however, he did describe 2 new taxa, C. cognata and C. syrica, synonymized 12
years later with C. dimidiata by Selys. Selys (1853, 1854) recognized both C.
apicalis and C. dimidiata; however, he found no distinct differences and
remarked of C. dimidiata, "Cette espece est tres-voisine de l'apicalis..."
Hagen (1889) revised the North American Calopteryx, concluding C.
apicalis and C. dimidiata were conspecific and treated C. apicalis as "...
dimidiata race apicalis." Later writers interpreted the revision as recognizing
a subspecies, C. d. apicalis; however, the nominal subspecies name, C. d.
dimidiata appeared only once (Kormondy, 1958). Hagen (1889) gave shorter
body and abdominal lengths and wing expanse in C. dimidiata apicalis and
allocated the name to northern colonies (Pennsylvania and Massachusetts).
P. P. Calvert noted on his personal copy of Hagen's paper that Philip Laurent
contributed part of the C. dimidiata sample from material collected during
March in Florida, and also noted the published measurements as larger than
the actual specimens.
Universal acceptance of Hagen's revision extended 11 years (Calvert 1890,
1893; Kellicott, 1894: Calvert 1895; Williamson 1900). Odonatologists in the
subsequent era encountered several questions; namely, why Hagen chose
dimidiata in deference to apicalis having page precedence, was Hagen's
conclusion of conspecificity correct, and what response was preferable to the
generic change from Calopteryx to Agrion proposed in 1890 by Kirby. Hagen's
(1889) paper was the first revision affecting the species name, thereby giving
him first-reviser prerogative of choice. Hagen gave no reason for using
dimidiata and 3 possible explanations exist. He possibly interpreted Rambur's
work of 1842 as a revision where only C. dimidiata appeared. In 1861, Hagen's
Synopsis of North American Neuroptera misquoted Burmeister's page
number from 829 to 826, thus giving dimidiata page precedence. The same
mistake reappeared in his 1889 paper. Calvert's (1898) study of Burmeister's
types revealed the mistake was also on the type label. The attention Hagen
paid to page precedence is unknown. Hagen was surely aware of changes
proposed for Kirby's 1890 catalog when writing his 1889 revision, and his
choice of dimidiata was possibly to avoid later problems of homonymy (L. K.
Gloyd, per. com. 1972). Thomas Say (1840) described, among many species, a
coenagrionid damselfly as Agrion apicalis, now known as Argia apicalis
(Say). Using the name dimidiata avoided homonyms when applying the genus
Agrion to calopterygid-type Zygoptera. Odonatologists, including Hagen,
used 1839 for Say's publication, the same year as Burmeister's descriptions;
however, Say's official publication date for taxonomic priorities is 5 May 1840
(Nolan 1913). In any event, Hagen's revision leaves the name dimidiata for
writers following the conspecific interpretation.
The latter interpretation was slipping by 1903. Needham (1903) and Cal-










The Florida Entomologist


vert (1903, 1909a, 1909b) were again using apicalis as the species name for
northern specimens; however, Calvert (1905) also used C. d. apicalis in this
interval. Calvert apparently had reservations on the correct interpretation
but never explained his doubts in print. Needham's position is unclear as he
never used trinominals for any species. Specific recognition for northern
populations continued, including Needham and Heywood (1929), Mont-
gomery (1933), Donnelly (1961), and Beatty, et al. (1969). Paulson (1966) used
apicalis for Florida material but favored Burmeister's original page
precedence. The biological basis for these interpretations never accompanied
published data. Only Williamson (1934) and Montgomery (1940) commented
that one species probably existed but did not have sufficient material to
resolve the question. Montgomery (1940) allocated the name apicalis to
colonies north of the Chesapeake Bay area.
The first American writer following Kirby's generic change was
Muttkowski (1910) in his Catalogue of the Odonata of North America where
he also accepted Hagen's revision. The use of Agrion dominated North
American papers following 1910 and received impetus when Needham and
Heywood (1929) adopted the genus for the "Handbook of North American
Dragonflies." The review of the Agrion-Calopteryx problem by Montgomery
(1954) reversed opinions, and only 2 titles used Agrion for dimidiata sub-
sequently.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION
The distribution for C. dimidiata appears below by county for each state,
and Fig. 1 graphically illustrates the pattern using one symbol per county.
Where data permit, symbols are on collection sites, and otherwise appear in
the center of the county. Literature, personal communications and collec-
tion(s) documenting distributions accompany each county in the following
list. Collections cited carry the following abbreviations: CJ Coll.-author's
coll., G.H.B. Coll.-G.H. Bick's Coll., J.A.L. Coll.-J.A. Louton's Coll., R.McM.
Coll.-R. McManaway's Coll., Will. Coll.-Williamson's Coll. (University of
Michigan), FSCA-Florida State Coll. of Arthropods, PASC-Philadelphia
Academy of Science Coll. All acceptable distribution records appear from the
above synonymy.
Alabama: Baldwin and Covington counties. Wright (1943); FSCA.
Delaware: Sussex County. L.P. Kelsey (per. com. 1972); PASC. Calvert
(1890) initially reported the species from Delaware without specific locality
data.
Florida: Alachua, Bradford, Calhoun, Clay, Duval, Escambia, Franklin,
Gadsden, Highlands, Hillsboro, Jefferson, Lake, Levy, Liberty, Leon,
Madison, Okaloosa, Orange, Putnam, Santa Rosa, Seminole, Wakulla, and
Walton counties. Hagen (1861, 1875, 1889); Byers (1930, 1931a); Davis and
Fluno (1938); Wright (1946); Needham (1940); Roback and Westfall (1967);
Johnson and Westfall (1970); CJ Coll.; FSCA.
Georgia: Bartow, Bibb, Brantley, Burke, Coffee, Colquitt, Decatur,
Gwinnett, Jefferson, Lee, Lowndes, Pierce, Ware, and Wayne counties.
Williamson (1934); CJ Coll.; FSCA. Hagen (1861) initially reported the species
from Georgia without specific locality data.
Kentucky: Burmeister (1839) described the species from a female specimen
listed for "Kentucki." All subsequent writers listing Kentucky in the species'


Vol. 56, N~o. 3









Johnson: Calopteryx dimidiata: Taxonomy and Distribution 211


Fig. 1. Distributional pattern of Calopteryx dimidiata. See text for
locality details.

distribution trace back to Burmeister; however, other specimens are unknown
from the state. At least one other species listed for Kentucky by Burmeister
has never again appeared in collections from the state (Gloyd, 1968). Locality
data available to Burmeister was meager and his C. dimidiata type was
possibly not from present-day Kentucky.
Louisiana: Beauregard, Rapides, St. Helena, St. Tammany, Union, Ver-
non, and Washington parrishes. Bick (1957); J.A.L. Coll.
Maryland: Prince Georges County. Donnelly (1961).
Massachusetts: Middlesex, Norfolk, and Plymouth counties. Howe (1917);
Hagen (1889); PASC. Hagen (1861) initially listed the species from Mas-
sachusetts without specific locality data.
Michigan: Kellicott (1894) reported C. dimidiata from Michigan. Byers
(1927) and Needham and Heywood (1929) followed Kellicott's report. Kor-
mondy (1958), although unable to locate Kellicott's specimens, concluded the









The Florida Entomologist


record was a misdetermination for C. aequabilis. He based his conclusion
largely on the known geographic range of C. dimidiata. I agree with Kor-
mondy's interpretation.
Mississippi: Harrison, Marion, and Stone counties. G.H.B. Coll.; R.McM.
Coll.
New Jersey: Atlantic, Burlington, Gloucester, Mercer, Ocean, Salem, and
Warren counties. Calvert (1903, 1909a); Montgomery (1933); Roback and
Westfall (1967); H. B. White (per. com. 1972); PASC; Will. Coll.
New York: Monroe and Westchester counties. Calvert (1895). Needham
(1928) listed a single specimen from Rochester in the northwestern sector of
the state. Needham's specimen cannot be located. Other records for the
species lie east of the Appalachian Mountains, excepting the single Tennessee
record. I suggest that the Rochester record is an error of the same nature or an
unlikely accident. Calvert (1893) initially reported the species for New York
without locality data.
North Carolina: Madison, McDowell, Moore, Transylvania, and Robeson
counties. Byers (1931b); Brimley (1938); FSCA; Will. Coll.
Pennsylvania: Montgomery and Lancaster counties. Selys (1854); Hagen
(1861, 1875, 1889); Calvert (1893, 1909b); Beatty etc. (1969); PASC.
Rhode Island: Washington County. J. K. Waage (per. com. 1972); CJ Coll.
South Carolina: Aiken, Allandale, Calhoun, Chesterfield, Florence,
Greenville, Oconee, Orangeburg, and Pickens counties. Montgomery (1940);
Roback and Westfall (1967); Will. Coll.; FSCA.
Tennessee: Monroe County. Trogdon (1961); Goodwin (1968).
Texas: Hardin and San Jacinto counties. Ferguson (1942); Johnson (1972);
T. Donnelly (per. com. 1969).
Virginia: Fairfax and Powhatan counties. Donnelly (1961); Hoffman (per.
cor. 1972).
Wisconsin: Muttkowski (1908) reported C. dimidiata from Wisconsin;
however, he omitted reference to the state 2 years later (Muttkowski 1910),
and other authors ignored the report. I assume the 1908 reference was in error.
The adult flight season through this range progressively shortens to the
north. Dates for New Jersey are 28 May to 25 August. All northeastern records
fall into this interval. Dates for south Florida are 7 March to 24 October,
although sight records extend this range from 26 February to 5 November, and
the flight season probably extends year-around for mild winters. A 3-month
interval in the northern habitats compares typically with approximately 8
months in south Florida. The data suggest intervening sites have intermediate
intervals.
The distributional pattern in Fig. 1 reveals essentially a coastal plain
species. Inland colonies north of the Chesapeake Bay area are apparently rare.
The Pennsylvania specimens constitute Burmeister's 1839 types of C. apicalis
and a few additional specimens taken prior to 1900. Beatty etc. (1969) referred
to a Pennsylvania specimen as a "... one time occurrence." Needham (1903)
stated that it is only found at ... lower altitudes in the southern parts..."
referring to New York. Howe (1917-1921) described the species as "rare" in
Massachusetts; however, other coastal colonies are more abundant. Calvert
(1909a) found it "not rare" in New Jersey, and Waage (per. com. 1972)
collected 70 individuals on 10 August 1972, in Rhode Island without making
"... a dent in the population...."
Southern colonies have a wider distribution correlating with more exten-


Vol. 56, No. 3


212









Johnson: Calopteryx dimidiata: Taxonomy and Distribution 213

sive coastal plain conditions. The apparent distributional hiatus seen in Fig. 1
about Virginia and northern parts of North Carolina is possibly real as dis-
cussed below. The geographical comparison of variability recognizes a north
and south Florida. For this study, Levy and Lake counties are the southern-
most north Florida and northernmost south Florida counties respectively.
Calvert (1890) reported a single male specimen determined as C. dimidiata
apicalis from Honduras. He received the specimen from R. Uhler who in turn
received it from J. L. Le Conte. Calvert (1901-1908) included the species in the
Central American Fauna on the basis of the same specimen, this time naming
it C. dimidiata. No other Calopteryx specimens have appeared south of Texas,
and C. dimidiata's westernmost records are in east Texas where it is ap-
parently uncommon. The questionable specimen is currently not in the
Philadelphia Academy Series for the species, although other specimens
collected in that era remain. I suggest an accidental mislabeling accounts for
the Honduras record.

VARIABILITY

Analyzed characters are apical wing band length/wing length ratios and
forewing, abdominal segment 7, left third tibia, and wing stigma length
measured parallel to the anterior wing margin. Inaccurate measurements of
whole abdomens result from contraction and expansion of nonsclerotized
parts and folded, twisted segments. Forewing, abdominal, and tibial
characters appear below only as wing, abdominal, and tibial lengths. Stigmas
occur only in females. Comparisons appear also for male abdominal append-
ages and female morphs. Vernier caliper measurements provided linear
dimensions to the nearest tenth of a millimeter. Abdominal appendage lengths
utilized ocular-micrometer conversions into millimeters.
Conditions for differential growth rates clearly exist within the elongate,
coastal plain distribution of Fig. 1. The north-south arrangement of states
provides units, where specimens permit, for subdividing the sample
geographically and recognizing a north and south Florida as given above.
Seasonal subdivision of each state's sample consists of specimens taken during
(1) May and earlier, (2) June and July, and (3) August and later. Seasonal
trend comparisons utilized within-state samples having an N -9; however,
this approach requires lumping data from the states of North and South
Carolina.
The total sample consists of 387 males and 247 females, with the values for
states being: Rhode Island, 45 males, 30 females; New Jersey, 27 males, 29
females; the Carolinas, 35 males, 32 females; Georgia, 69 males, 29 females;
north Florida, 186 males, 115 females; south Florida, 18 males, 6 females.
Seven females and 6 males do not appear in the statistical analysis due to
incomplete seasofial data or single state records (Alabama, Delaware,
Louisiana, Massachusetts, Mississippi, and Pennsylvania), and every
specimen did not contribute data for every structure due to occasional
breakage. Standard deviations and standard errors appear for samples with
N> 10. Fig. 2 follows the example in Hubbs and Hubbs (1953).
Examination bf Table 1 and Fig. 2 reveals generally smaller wing
characters in New Jersey and Rhode Island samples compared with southern
material. Statistical significance exists between some extreme means;
however, means from geographically intervening samples have intermediate









The Florida Entomologist


TABLE 1.


A NORTH-SOUTH ARRANGEMENT OF STATISTICS FOR FOREWING
LENGTH IN Calopteryx dimidiata. SEASONAL SUBDIVISION
OF SAMPLES SHOW MATERIAL TAKEN IN MAY AND EARLIER,
S. MAY; IN JUNE AND JULY AS SUCH; AND IN AUGUST
AND LATER, AUGUST . ; 0 R, OBSERVED RANGE; X, MEAN;
SE, STANDARD ERROR OF THE MEAN; N, SAMPLE SIZE.


Males Females
Locality 0 R X2SEx SD N OR X2SEX SD N


Rhode Island
10 August
New Jersey
. May
June, July
August..
South-North
Carolina
. May
June, July
August..
Georgia
. May
June, July
August..
North Florida
... May
June, July
August..


24.5-27.4 25.9.3 .89 45 25.3-27.7 26.8.3 .96 30


27.3-27.4
25.4-28.2
23.8-26.9


27.3-30.3
24.9-31.9
25.9-30.5

29.1-31.3
28.0-31.1
26.4-27.4

26.3-31.9
26.4-32.3
25.6-30.0


27.3
26.5+.5
25.2


2
.93 16
9


28.7.4 .84
28.11.7 2.63
27.9.9 1.53


30.1-.3
29.4 + .6
27.0-.3

29.9.4
28.5 .9
27.4.5


South Florida
. May 25.8-30.1 28.3:
June, July
August.. 24.0-25.7 24.9


.75
1.04
.50


1.44 44
1.73 14
1.14 128


+.7 1.23 1


26.2-29.4 27.4-.5 .94 14
23.6-27.8 26.1-.7 1.32 15


29.2-31.1
26.6-31.8
25.2-31.8


30.2.4
29.8
30.0-.3


.63 15
5
.52 12


29.1-31.5 31.1
32.0
25.1-28.2 27.3.3


29.1-32.5
25.4-31.9
27.0-29.7


30.7
28.5
28.3-.4


9
7
.73 99


12 28.9
27.1
6 25.9-27.4 26.6


values reducing taxonomic meaning. Seasonal variation likewise reveals con-
siderable character overlap from north to south. The trend and pattern of
variation for wing characters correlated very closely with abdominal and
tibial lengths.
These characters are larger in spring specimens for a given state and appear
to decrease in size through the remaining season. The magnitude of seasonal
variation within a state approaches or exceeds geographical difference. For
example, means of north Florida wing length differ seasonally by 2.5 mm, and
the August means of north Florida and New Jersey differ by only 2.2 mm
(Table 1). Both season and geography appear correlated to wing, abdominal,
and tibial lengths. The apical band/wing ratios (males, Fig. 2) show less
seasonal effect; however, the differences are geographically discordant. For
example, the coefficient of difference (C. D. of Mayr 1969) for Fig. 2 data
between New Jersey (June, July) material and Rhode Island (August) is 1.60
and the C. D.'s between the New Jersey (June, July) sample and similar


Vol. 56, No. 3








Johnson: Calopteryx dimidiata: Taxonomy and Distribution 215

APICAL BAND/FOREWING LENGTH RATIO DATA
IN CALOPTERYX DIMIDIATA


1




__L_


RHODE ISLAND; AUG. (45)

NEW JERSEY;---MAY (2)

NEW JERSEY;JUNE 8 JULY (16)

NEW JERSEY;AUG.--- (9)


7 N.8 S. CAROLINA;---MAY(14)


F-EW

7-r


N.& S. CAROLINA;JUNE JULY (10)

N.& S. CAROLINA;AUG.---(I I)


IGEORGIA;--- MAY (18)


riizL

7-]l


IiIL1


GEORGIA;JUNE8 JULY (12)

GEORGIA; AUG.---(39)

N.FLORIDA; ---MAY (44)

N.FLORIDA; JUNE 8JULY(14)


N. FLORIDA; AUG.-- (128)


S. FLORIDA;--- MAY (12)

S. FLORIDA; AUG.---(6)


.120 .140 .160 .180 .200


.220 .240 .260 .280 .300 .320 .340
MM.


Fig. 2. Geographical variation in apical band/forewing length ratios in mm
of Calopteryx dimidiata males. Black triangles give means. In each sample,
horizontal line, clear bar and black bar indicate the range and 1 Standard
deviation and 2 standard errors of the mean on each side of the mean, respec-
tively.


'A


I r


I









The Florida Entomologist


samples of the Carolinas, Georgia, and north Florida are 0.30, 1.23, and 1.80
respectively. The Rhode Island colony, geographically close, differs more from
New Jersey than the more distant Georgia sample. Stigma length (females)
revealed no seasonal trend. A geographical dine exists with small northern
and large southern stigmas. The FW stigma mean lengths in mm + 2 standard
errors per state were Rhode Island, 1.1+_0.2; Carolinas, 1.3+0.2; Georgia,
1.8+0.2; north Florida, 1.9+0.1; south Florida, 2.2. Sample sizes per state
appear above. The HW stigmas follow a similar pattern, being slightly smaller
than their companion FW stigmas.
Females may have clear wings devoid of apical bands, heteromorphs, or
resemble males with similar, fully-developed apical bands, andromorphs. An
intermediate phase exists in some females having apical bands only on
hindwings with forewings clear or with only a faint deposition of pigment.
Johnson and Westfall (1970) and Johnson (1972) illustrated these patterns.
Fig. 5C of the former paper shows a nonbanded forewing photo erroneously
placed as a hindwing. The frequency of heteromorphs drops consistently from
approximately 93 to less than 1.0% moving from Rhode Island south to north
Florida (Table 2). Frequency of the intermediate phase peaks in Georgia at
44.8%; southward, north Florida has only 20.0, and the Carolinas and New
Jersey to the north have 18.4 and 10.3%, respectively (Table 2).
Fig. 3 shows dorsal and lateral views of appendages from a Delaware male
in A and B, and similar views of a Florida male, C and D. Differences between
appendages have not been quantified; however, note the downward-curved
apical end of the superior appendage in lateral view, B, as compared to the
stockier appendage in D having a straighter dorsal margin. In dorsal views,
note the medial, angulate shoulders on bases of inferior appendages of C and
their absence in A. The apically curved superiors typify all males I have seen


TABLE 2. A NORTH-SOUTH ARRANGEMENT OF MORPH FREQUENCIES IN
FEMALE Calopteryx dimidiata.

Numbers
Percent
Andromorphic Heteromorphic heteromorphic**
FW-HW ONLY HW
LOCALITY BANDS BANDS
Rhode Island 2* 28 93.3
New Jersey 3* 26 89.6
Delaware 3
North-South
Carolina 3 6 23 71.9
Georgia 15 13 1 3.4
Louisiana 1
Mississippi 1
North Florida 88 23 4 0.87
South Florida 6
* Very pale pigment development.
**Sample : 6


216


Vol. 56, No. 3









Johnson: Calopteryx dimidiata: Taxonomy and Distribution 217


Fig. 3. Dorsal (A,C) and lateral (B,D) views of abdominal appendages of a
Delaware (Sussex Co.) male (A,B) and a Florida (Bradford Co.) male (C,D).

from north of the Carolinas. The slender, concave inferiors characterize
northern males; however, occasional southern males from scattered localities
tend toward this condition. The medial shoulder of the inferiors, seen from
dorsal view, varies in contour; yet, the shoulder occurs in all southern males.
Northern males may have equally-developed shoulders or they appear smaller
or absent as in Fig. 3A.

DISCUSSION
Variability of body proportions reveals geographical dines largely
modified by seasonal effects, or discordant patterns. The female morphs,
perhaps considered most distinct by Burmeister in delineating C. apicalis and
C. dimidiata, occur in a geographical dine. Differences in male appendages are
minor or inconsistent without significant taxonomic meaning. These obser-
vations allow recognition of only one species by morphological criteria and
extent of character overlap gives no objective basis for subspecies by the 75%
concept (Mayr 1969).









The Florida Entomologist


The seasonal trend to smaller size parallels data reported for stoneflies
(Khoo 1964), and may have a similar explanation. Large spring specimens
presumably reflect a longer growth period in the larval instars. As the season
progresses and temperatures rise, shorter growth intervals between instars
occur, culminating in smaller late summer and fall adults. Life cycles of C.
dimidiata are probably similar to other Calopteryx, having at least a 1-year
period (Buchholtz 1951). The single C. dimidiata larval sample available
(March, Alachua Co., Florida) is distinctly heterogeneous in body lengths,
indicating a lack of synchronization by the initial emergence in April.
Presumably the larger instars emerge as spring adults having completed larval
growth through the past fall and winter, and the smaller instars emerge into
late summer and fall adults following a relatively shorter interval of growth.
Smaller sizes seen in south Florida specimens (Table 1) may result from the
area's longer growth period. Suspension of growth by low temperature is
probably infrequent, and late-season effects of northern colonies may occur
most of the year in south Florida. A different form of seasonal variation
appears in the apical band/FW length ratios of samples from the Carolinas
and Georgia (Fig. 1). These differences disrupt the north to south increase of
the ratio, and this character involves extent of pigment deposition rather than
morphological structure.
The distribution in Fig. 1 suggests a hiatus in northern North Carolina and
southern Virginia. Efforts to locate specimens from collections in this region
failed, and sites immediately to the north in Virginia represent only one male
each. Coastal Plain species in other groups frequently extend northward only
to this area; for example, note distribution maps for amphibians, water snakes,
turtles etc. in Conant (1958). C. Gilbert and F. Thompson (per. com. 1972)
state that similar patterns occur in fish and freshwater gastropods respec-
tively. The lack of specimens may represent a real hiatus in the species
distribution. Calopteryx adults have a strong tendency to remain close to
parental streams (Zahner 1960; Klotzli 1971; Heymer 1972; Waage 1972). A
distributional hiatus or intervening area of low density as in Fig. 1 could
reduce gene exchange between northern and southern components to near
zero. This apparent allopatry may offer an opportunity for studying initial
stages of speciation in damselflies.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The following individuals arranged for specimen loans and/or provided
distribution data: L. P. Kelsey, University of Delaware; I. J. Cantrall and L.
K. Gloyd, (E. B. Williamson Coll.) University of Michigan; S. S. Roback,
Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences; Jonathan Waage, Brown
University; Richard Hoffman, Radford College; G. H. Bick, St. Mary's
College; J. A. Louton, Louisiana State University; B. E. Montgomery, West
Lafayette, Indiana; H. B. White, Newark, Delaware; T. W. Donnelly,
Binghamton, N. Y. This study would have been impossible without their
collective assistance.

LITERATURE CITED

Banks, N. 1892. A synopsis, catalogue, and bibliography of the neuropteroid
insects of temperate North America. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 19:327-373.


Vol. 56, No. 3









Johnson: Calopteryx dimidiata: Taxonomy and Distribution 219

Beatty, G. H. III. 1946. Dragonflies (Odonata) collected in Pennsylvania and
New Jersey in 1945. Ent. News 57:1-10, 50-56, 76-81, 104-111.

Beatty, G. H., A. F. Beatty,'and C. N. Shiffer. 1969. A survey of the Odonata of
central Pennsylvania. Proc. Pa. Acad. Sci. 43:127-136.

Bick, G. H. 1957. The Odonata of Louisiana. Tulane Stud. Zool. 5:71-135.

Brimley, C. S. 1938. The Insects of North Carolina. Div. Ent., N. C. Dep. Agri.
560 p; Odonata, p. 36-42.

Buchholtz, C. 1951. Untersuchungen an der Libellen-Gattung Calopteryx-
Leach unter besonderer Beriicksichtigung ethologischer Fragen. Z.
Tierpsychol. 8:273-293.

Burmeister, H. 1839. Handbuch der Entomologie. Zweiter Bande.
Berlin:Theod. Chr. Friedr. Enslin. xii + 757-1050 p.

Byers, C. F. 1927. An annotated list of the Odonata of Michigan. Occ. Pap.
Mus. Zool., Univ. Mich. 183:1-16.

Byers, C. F. 1930. A contribution to the knowledge of Florida Odonata. Univ.
Fla. Pub. Biol. Sci. Ser. 1:1-327.

Byers, C. F. 1931a. Florida Dragonflies. Florida Nat. 4:25-30.

Byers, C. F. 1931b. Dixie dragonflies collected during the summer of 1930
(Odonata). Ent. News 42:113-119.

Calvert, P. P. 1890. Additional Notes on Some North American Odonata. Ent.
News 1:73-74.

Calvert, P. P. 1893. Catalogue of the Odonata-Dragonflies of the vicinity of
Philadelphia, with an introduction to the study of this group of insects.
Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 20:152a-272.

Calvert, P. P. 1895. The Odonata of New York State. J. New York Ent. Soc.
3:39-48.

Calvert, P. P. 1898. Burmeister's types of Odonata. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc.
25:27-104.

Calvert, P. P. 1901-1908. Odonata. In: Biologia Centrali-Americana, vol. 50:
Neuroptera. xxx + 420 p.

Calvert, P. P. 1903. Additions to the Odonata of New Jersey, with descriptions
of two new species. Ent. News 14:33-41.

Calvert, P. P. 1905. Fauna of New England. 6. List of the Odonata. Occ. Pap.
Boston Soc. Nat. History 7:1-43.

Calvert, P. P. 1909a. The Insects of New Jersey. Order Odonata. Ann. Rep.
New Jersey State Mus. 1909:73-82.

Calvert, P. P. 1909b. Doings of Societies. Ent. News 20:185-186.









The Florida Entomologist


Conant, R. 1958. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians of the United States
and Canada east of the 100th meridian. Houghton Mifflin Co. Riverside
Press, Cambridge. xviii + 366 p.

Davis, E. M., and J. A. Fluno. 1938. Odonata at Winter Park, Florida. Ent.
News 49:44-47.

Donnelly, T. W. 1961. The Odonata of Washington, D. C., and vicinity. Proc.
Ent. Soc. Wash. 63:1-13.

Ferguson, A. 1942. Scattered records of Texas and Louisiana Odonata with
additional notes on the Odonata of Dallas County, Texas. Field and
Laboratory 10:145-149.

Garman, H. 1924. Odonata from Kentucky. Ent. News 35:285-288.
Garman, P. 1927. The Odonata or dragonflies of Connecticut, 331 p. Part 5 in
Guide to the insects of Connecticut. Conn. Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey
Bull. 39.

Gloyd, L. K. 1968. The union of Argia fumipennis (Burmeister, 1839) with
Argia violacea (Hagen, 1861), and the recognition of three subspecies
(Odonata). Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool., Univ. Mich. 658:1-6.

Goodwin, J. T. 1968. Additions to the list of Odonata from Tennessee. J. Tenn.
Acad. Sci. 43:27.

Hagen, H. A. 1861. Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America. Washing-
ton, Smithsonian Miscel. Collections. xvii + 347 p.

Hagen, H. A. 1874. The odonate fauna of Georgia, from original drawings now
in possession of Dr. J. Le Conte, and in the British Museum. Proc.
Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 16:425-441.

Hagen, H. A. 1875. Synopsis of the Odonata of America. Proc. Boston Soc.
Nat. Hist. 18:20-96.

Hagen, H. A. 1889. Synopsis of the Odonata of North America. No. 1. Psyche
5:241-250.
Heymer, A. 1972. Comportements social et territorial des Calopterygidae
(Odon. Zygoptera). Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 8:3-53.

Howe, R. H. 1917-1921. Manual of the Odonata of New England, II. Mem.
Thoreau Mus. Nat. Hist. p. 1-138.

Hubbs, C. L. and C. Hubbs. 1953. An improved graphical analysis and com-
parison of series of samples. Syst. Zool. 2:49-57.

Johnson, C. 1972. The damselflies (Zygoptera) of Texas. Bull. Fla. State Mus.,
Biol. Sci. 16:55-128.

Johnson, C., and M. J. Westfall, Jr. 1970. Diagnostic keys and notes on the
damselflies (Zygoptera) of Florida. Bull. Fla. State Mus. 15:45-89.

Kellicott, D. S. 1894. A list of Dragonflies from Corunna, Michigan. Can. Ent.
26:345-347.


220


Vol. 56, No. 3









Johnson: Calopteryx dimidiata: Taxonomy and Distribution 221

Khoo, S. G. 1964. Studies on the biology of Capnia bifrons (Newman) and
notes on the diapause in the nymphs of this species. Gewass. Abwdss.
34:23-30.
Kirby, W. F. 1890. A synonymic catalogue of Neuroptera Odonata, or
dragonflies, with an appendix of fossil species. London: Gurney and
Jackson. ix + 202 p.
Klotzli, A. M. 1971. Zur Revierstetigteit von Calopteryx virgo (L.) Mitt.
schweiz, ent. Ges. 43:240-248.

Kormondy, E. J. 1958. Catalogue of the Odonata of Michigan. Miscel. Pub.
Mus. Zool., Univ. Mich. 104:1-43.

Mayr, E. 1969. Principles of systematic zoology. McGraw-Hill, N. Y. xiv+
428 p.

Montgomery, B. E. 1933. Notes on some New Jersey dragonflies (Odonata).
Ent. News 44:40-44.

Montgomery, B. E. 1940. The Odonata of South Carolina. Elisha Mitchell Sci.
Soc. 56:283-301.
Montgomery, B. E. 1967. Geographical distribution of the Odonata of the
North Central States. Proc. N. C. Branch Ent. Soc. Amer. 22:212-219.

Muttkowski, R. A. 1908. Review of the dragonflies of Wisconsin. Bull. Wis-
consin Nat. Hist. Soc. 6:57-126.

Muttkowski, R. A. 1910. Catalog of the Odonata of North America. Bull. Pub.
Mus., Milwaukee 1:1-207.

Needham, J. G. 1903. Aquatic insects in New York State. Part 3. Life histories
of Odonata, Suborder Zygoptera, Damsel Flies. Bull. N. Y. State Mus.
68:218-279.

Needham, J. G. 1928. A list of insects of New York. Order Odonata. Cornell
Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta. Mem. 101:45-56.

Needham, J. G. 1946. Some dragonflies of early spring in South Florida. Fla.
Ent. 28:42-47.
Needham, J. G., and H. Heywood. 1929. A handbook of the dragonflies of
North America. Springfield, Ill. viii + 378 p.

Nolan, E. J. (Editor). 1913. An index to the scientific contents of the journal
and proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.
1812-1912. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci. xiv + 1419 p.

Paulson, D. R. 1966. The Dragonflies (Odonata:Anisoptera) of Southern
Florida. Unpub. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Miami, Coral
Gables, Fla. viii + 603 p.

Rambur, P. 1842. Histoire natural des insects. Nevropteres. Paris: Libraire
Encyclopedique de Roret. xvii + 534 p.

Resner, P. L. 1970. An annotated check list of the dragonflies and damselflies
(Odonata) of Kentucky. Trans. Kentucky Acad. Sci. 3:32-44.









The Florida Entomologist


Roback, S. S., and M. J. Westfall, Jr. 1967. New records of Odonata nymphs
from the United States and Canada with water quality data. Trans.
Amer. Ent. Soc. 93:101-124.

Say, T. 1840. Descriptions of North American neuropterous insects and ob-
servations on some already described. J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 8:9-46.

Selys Longchamps, Le Baron Edmond De. 1853. Synopsis des Calopterygines.
Brussells, Hayez. 73 p.

Selys Longchamps, Le Baron Edmond De. 1854. Monographie des
Calopterygines. Mem. Soc. roy. des Sciences de Liege. Brussells and
Leipzig. xii + 291 p.

Trogdon, R. P. 1961. A survey of the adult Odonata of Tennessee. Unpublished
Ph.D. Diss., Univ. of Tennessee. 1961.

Waage, J. K. 1972. Longevity and mobility of adult Calopteryx maculata
(Beauvois, 1805) (Zygoptera: Calopterygidae). Odonatologica
1:155-162.

Walker, E. M. 1953. The Odonata of Canada and Alaska. Vol. 1. Univ. Toronto
Press, Toronto. xi + 292 p.

Walker, F. 1853. Catalogue of the specimens of neuropterous insects in the
collection of the British Museum. Part 4 (Odonata, Calopteryginae).
London. p. 586-658.

Williamson, E. B. 1900. The dragonflies of Indiana. Rep. Indiana State
Geologist. p. 233-333, index and glossary, p. 1003-1010.

Williamson, E. B. 1934. Dragonflies collected in Kentucky, Tennessee, North
and South Carolina, and Georgia in 1931. Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool., Univ.
Mich. 288:1-20.
Wright, M. 1943. Dragonflies collected in the vicinity of Florala, Alabama.
Fla. Ent. 26:30-31; 49-51.

Wright, M. 1946. A description of the nymph of Agrion dimidiatum (Bur-
meister). J. Tenn. Acad. Sci. 21:336-338.

Zahner, R. 1960. Uber die Bindung der Mitteleuropaischen Calopteryx-arten
(Odonata: Zygoptera) an den Lebensraum des strdmenden Wassers. II.
Der Anteil der Imagines an der Biotopbindung. Int. Rev. Hydrobiol.
45:101-123.
ADDENDA
The following data, received subsequent to writing the above paper, significantly
enhances the distribution of Calopteryx dimidiata in Mississippi and North Carolina.
Mississippi: Amite, Forrest, George, Hancock, Jackson, Jefferson Davis, Lamar, Pearl
River, Perry, and Pike counties. W. Mauffrey Collection.
North Carolina: Alamance, Anson, Bladen, Brunswick, Cabarrus, Carteret, Columbus,
Craven, Cumberland, Duplin, Durham, Edgecombe, Franklin, Halifax, Harnett, Hen-
derson, Hertford, Hoke, Johnston, Jones, Lee, Mecklenburg, Montgomery, Nash,
Northampton, Onslow, Orange, Pender, Randolph, Richmond, Rockingham, Sampson,
Scotland, Wake, Warren, Wilkes, Wilson and Yadkin counties. D. Cuyler Collection and
notes.
The Florida Entomologist 56(3) 1973


Vol. 56, No. 3












NEW HOST AND DISTRIBUTION RECORDS FOR
WINNEMANA ARGEI AND ITS PARASITE
CLOSTEROCERUS WINNEMANAE
(HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE)1

HAROLD N. GREENBAUM

Department of Entomology and Nematology
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

ABSTRACT

Winnemana argei Crawford was reared from Arge abdominalis (Leach)
eggs from Columbia County, Florida, extending the distribution of W. argei
into Florida and adding a new host. Closterocerus winnemanae Crawford, a
parasite of W. argei, was reared from eggs of the Arge scapularis (Klug)
complex from Alachua County, Florida, extending the distribution of C. win-
nemanae into Florida and adding another new host for W. argei.


Several adults of Winnemana argei Crawford (Eulophidae:Tetras-
tichinae) were reared from eggs of Arge abdominalis (Leach) (Argidae:Ar-
ginae) oviposited in Rhododendron canescens (Michaux) leaves in May 1972
in Columbia County, Florida. This establishes both a new host record and a
new distribution record for W. argei. It was first reared from eggs of Arge
pectoralis (Leach) collected at Plummer's Island, Maryland in the early 1900's
(Crawford 1911) and it was previously known only from that locality
(Muesebeck et al. 1951). Crawford described the genus as monotypic, W. argei
being the only representative species, and he distinguished it from other
genera in the Tetrastichinae by its 2-segmented antennal funicle.
W. argei is generally black, abdomen brown, scape black, pedicel brown at
base and pale at apex, balance of antennae yellow mixed with brown. Coxae
black, as are the basal two-thirds to three-fourths of the femora, the
remainder of the legs yellow. Face with 3 pale green marks (Fig. 1) not men-
tioned in original description: one arising between bases of antennae and
ending in shape of a mallet at median ocellus; other 2 lying perpendicular to
first just above bases of antennae, arising adjacent to first and ending at inner
margins of compound eyes. Pale green spot also present beneath base of each
antenna. Compound eyes red. Length ca. 1.0 mm.
Several adults of Closterocerus winnemanae Crawford (Eulophidae:En-
tedontinae) were reared from eggs of Arge scapularis (Klug) oviposited in
Ulmus americana L. in June. 1972 in Alachua County, Florida. C.
Winnemanae has been recorded as a parasite of W. argei (Muesebeck et al.
1951), suggesting that W. argei is also a parasite of A. scapularis and possibly
other species of Arge2. C. winnemanae was previously recorded only from the
type-locality (Plummer's Island, Maryland) as indicated in the original


'Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 4806.
2Subsequent to this paper being accepted for publication, Winnemana argei was reared from
Arge scapularis from Gainesville, Alachua County, Florida on 14 March 1973. This further supports
that A. scapularis is a host of W. argei.








The Florida Entomologist


vo 2
Fig. 1. Frontal view of head of Winnemana argei (female) showing facial
marks (pale green).
Fig. 2. Fore-wing of Closterocerus winnemanae showing banding.

description where it was reared from A. pectoralis eggs along with W. argei
(Crawford 1912).
C. winnemanae is metallic blue-green on vertex of head and dorsum of
body, with black band mid-dorsal on mesonotum, and black blotch covering
most of dorsum of abdomen. Mesopleurae black, and venter of body blackish
purple. Each fore-wing has 2 black transverse bands (Fig. 2): 1 at level of
stigma and 1 at apical margin. Infuscation present about midway along the
fore-wings, appearing as partial band on some specimens. Legs black, with
tarsi, except terminal segment and basal half of hind tarsi, white. Compound
eyes red. Length ca. 1.2 mm.
The specimens of both species were determined by the author and verified
by B. D. Burks (Systematic Entomology Laboratory, ARS, Washington,
D.C.). Specimens were deposited in the collection of the U. S. National
Museum, The Florida State Collection of Arthropods (Gainesville), and the
personal collection of the author.


224


Vol. 56, No. 3










Greenbaum: New Records for Winnemana argei 225

LITERATURE CITED

Crawford, J. C. 1911. Descriptions of new Hymenoptera. 1. Proc. U. S. Nat.
Mus. 39:620.

Crawford, J. C. 1912. Descriptions of new Hymenoptera. 5. Proc. U. S. Nat.
Mus. 43:176.

Muesebeck, C. F. W., K. V. Krombein, H. K. Townes et al. 1951. Hymenoptera
of America north of Mexico: synoptic catalog. USDA Monogr. No. 2.

The Florida Entomologist 56(3) 1973












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RABON FOR HOG LOUSE' CONTROL IN FLORIDA2,3

J. F. BUTLER

Department of Entomology and Nematology
University of Florida, Gainesville

ABSTRACT

Effective control of the hog louse Haematopinus suis (L.), winter popula-
tions was achieved with Rabon [2-chloro-1-(2, 4, 5-tri = chlorophenyl) vinyl
dimethyl phosphate] WP and EC at 0.25, 0.35 and 0.50%, and lindane 0.06%
EC. Rabon 3% dust was less effective. Rabon WDS at 0.25% gave near 100%
control of summer louse populations. No detectable residues (at 0.02 ppme
sensitivity level) of Rabon or its metabolite SD 13462 were found in tissue of
animals treated with Rabon.


The hog louse, Haematopinus suis (L.), is an important ectoparasite on
swine in Florida. Louse populations start increasing rapidly in late October
and remain as egg producing populations into June. Louse economic damage
to swine is caused by lowered weight gain (Johnson 1961). High louse popula-
tions on swine are usually seen in the winter; however, off season or over-
summering lice maintain breeding numbers for the fall increases.
The loss of previously effective control measures and the need to develop
reduced dosage rates of safe, suitable compounds for livestock is a continual
one (Graham and Harris 1966). Insecticide control of hog lice was achieved by
other workers with ground treatments of ronnel and dimethoate (McGregor
and Grey 1963, Johnson 1961) and on-animal treatments of malathion
(Johnson 1958), chlorfenvinphas, carbaryl, crotoxyphos, methoxychlor, and
Dilan (Roberts 1965). Current Florida recommendations are given by Strayer
and Butler (1972).
RabonT residue analysis of treated animals was evaluated under Texas
conditions (Ivey et al. 1971). Some unexplainable residues were seen under
their conditions, making it necessary to evaluate Rabon on swine in Florida.
An experiment was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of Rabon [2-
chloro-l-(2, 4, 5-tri= chlorophenyl) vinyl dimethyl phosphate] at several
dosage levels and formulations to determine its value in hog louse control as
compared to lindane and untreated checks.

METHODS AND MATERIALS
Winter hog louse treatments were made on 9 infested herds containing 172
animals. Two treatments were made at about 2 week intervals. Animals used
were from 3 locations in Suwannee County, Florida. Animal sex and size
varied with location.
Pretreatment counts were made on the day of or day before treatment.
Posttreatment I counts were made prior to the second treatment. Posttreat-

'Anoplura: Haematopinidae, Haematopinus suis (L.)
Fla. Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 4825.
3This research was supported in part by a grant by Shell Chemical Company.










The Florida Entomologist


ment II counts were taken 12-14 days after the last treatment. Individual
animals were held for counting or counted while standing. One half of the
animal was examined for lice with a distinction made between adult, nymph,
and egg stages. The final count was doubled to account for the complete
animal. With very high populations, lice were counted only up to 100.
Summer louse experiments were in Alachua County, Florida. Rabon water
dispersable spray (WDS) as a 0.25% spray was tested under Florida summer
conditions. Winter treatment spray concentrations and formulations used
were Rabon emulsifiable concentrate (EC) and wettable powder (WP) at 0.25,
0.35, and 0.50%; Rabon 3% dust; and lindane EC 0.06%. A Bean" hydraulic
sprayer, was used to apply 0.9-1.8 liters of spray per animal at 7.03 kg/cm2,
wetting the animal to run off of material. Individual animal replications were
used in each treatment. Analysis of 5 hog louse counts was made on winter
treatments and 8 on summer treatments. Analysis of variance and partition of
the degrees of freedom were used to determine differences between treatments
and check.
Swine tissue was taken for residue analysis. Shoats (45.36 kg-81.65 kg) were
treated with a 0.5% Rabon EC (240 g/liter EC) spray to complete coverage and
wetness on 2/6/69 and 2/18/69 for a total of two applications. These shoats
were slaughtered on 2/19, 2/21, or 2/25/69, and samples of muscle, liver,
kidney, renal fat, subcutaneous fat, and mental fat taken for analysis.
Analyses were made in cooperation with Shell Chemical Co. according to their
method PMS-G-905A/68 at Shell Chemical Company, Agricultural
Chemicals Division, Pesticide Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey.


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Winter hog louse treatments of Rabon at 0.25%, 0.35% and 0.5% as both
WP and EC gave 100% control of H. suis (p <.01) with 2 applications 15 days
apart (Table 1). The lindane EC 0.06% spray treated group had 1 animal with
nymphs present on the final count, but no significant differences were shown
between lindane and the Rabon EC or WP. Rabon 3% dust had all louse stages
present on the final count but at significantly (p <.01) reduced levels. Louse
control with Rabon 3% dust was not effective.
Summer hog louse populations on the check herd (Table 2) indicated that
populations continue reproduction, with nymphs and eggs present throughout
June and July. Numbers of lice do decrease during late July. Two insecticide
treatments at intervals of 17 days gave complete removal (p. <.05) of H. suis
on all replications except for 1 animal (Table 2). This louse may have been
transferred by contact from an untreated check animal as the herds were
separated only by a fence. Summer as well as winter treatments seem to
require 2 treatments at 2 week intervals for effective control.
Residue analyses of samples taken from animals treated with Rabon 0.5%
EC are given in Table 3. No residues exceeded the sensitivity of the test (0.02
ppmc) in any of the tissue samples or time periods after treatment of either
Rabon or its breakdown product SD 13462.
The low dosage levels of 0.25% EC, WP, or WDS were effective in con-
trolling summer and winter lice and should be the dosage level of choice under
Florida conditions. Rabon WP and EC and lindane 0.06% EC were more
effective than Rabon 3% dust. No detectable residues were found in animals


Vol. 56, No. 3












Butler: Rabon for Hog Louse Control


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The Florida Entomologist


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232 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 56, No. 3

treated with Rabon 0.5% EC in contrast to residues in animals at 1 day
posttreatment shown by Ivey et al. (1971).
These data indicate that Rabon is a safe and effective insecticide for louse
control on swine in Florida.


Literature CITED

Graham, O. H., and R. L. Harris. 1966. Recent developments in the control of
some arthropods of public health and veterinary importance. Bull.
Entomol. Soc. Amer. 12:319-325.

Ivey, M. C., J. L. Eschle, and B. F. Hogan. 1971. Residues of Rabon in body
tissue of pigs treated for control of hog lice. J. Econ. Entomol.
64:320-322.

Johnson, W. T. 1958. Tests with malathion for hog lice control. J. Econ.
Entomol. 51:255-256.

Johnson, W. T. 1961. Hog louse control by ground treatment. J. Econ. En-
tomol. 54:821.

McGregor, W. S., and H. E. Grey. 1963. Korlan insecticide granules for control
of hog lice. Down to Earth 19:2-3.

Roberts, R. H. 1965. Studies on the control of the hog louse Haematopinus
suis. J. Econ. Entomol. 58:378-379.

Strayer, J. R., and J. F. Butler. 1972. External parasite control for livestock.
Univ. Fla. Exp. Sta. Circ. 354, 23 p.

The Florida Entomologist 56(3) 1973












RECORDS OF HIPPOBOSCID FLIES AND OTHER
ECTOPARASITES FROM CATTLE EGRETS
IN PUERTO RICO'

VINCENT H. RESH AND FRED H. WHITTAKER

Department of Biology, University of Louisville
Louisville, Kentucky 40208

ABSTRACT
Hippoboscids, Ornithoica confluenta (Say) and Lynchia albipennis (Say),
mallophagans, Ciconiphilus decimfasciatus (Boisduval and Lacordaire) and
Ardeicola gaibagla Ansari, and the rhinonipsid mite, Neonipsus bubulci
Zumpt and Tell, were collected from cattle egrets in Puerto Rico. Ectoparasite
infestations of cattle egrets were higher than previously reported.


An examination of parasites of the cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) from several
localities in Puerto Rico resulted in new distribution records for hippoboscid
and mallophagan parasites. The internal parasites of the birds examined in
this study have been reported by Whittaker et al. (1971).
The hippoboscids collected from cattle egrets were Ornithoica confluenta
(Say), the lesser wading bird fly, from La Parguera, Puerto Rico '(17 May 1970,
190 specimens), and Palma, P. R. (13 May 1970, 2 specimens), and Lynchia
albipennis (Say) from La Parguera, P. R. (17 May 1970, 1 specimen).
Descriptions and keys to these species are reported by Bequaert (1954-1956).
The mallophagans collected from cattle egrets included Ciconiphilus
decimfasciatus (Boisduval and Lacordaire) from La Parguera, P. R. (17 May
1970, 58 specimens), and Palma, P. R. (13 May 1970, 1 specimen), and Ar-
deicola gaibagla Ansari from La Parguera, P. R. (17 May 1970, 4 specimens).
In addition to soil mites and an unidentified feather mite nymph, 17
specimens of a rhinonipsid, Neonipsus bubulci Zumpt and Tell, were collected
13 May 1970 from Isabella, P. R.
Funderberg et al. (1968) reported 0. confluenta and L. albipennis from
cattle egrets in Central Florida and remarked that the occurrence of ec-
toparasites on these birds was rare. In Puerto Rico, over two-thirds of the birds
examined had hippoboscid parasites, with as many as 39 flies on a single bird.
Likewise, over half the cattle egrets examined had mallophagan parasites.
This report is only the third record of 0. confluenta and the second record
of L. albipennis from cattle egrets for the new world (Bequaert, personal
communication). Funderburg et al. (1968) included an earlier record from
Venezuela for 0. confluenta.
I thank Dr. Roger D. Price, University of Minnesota and Dr. Warren
Atyeo, University of.Georgia, for mallophagan and mite identifications. This
study was supported by funds from the Arts and Sciences Research Commit-
tee of the University of Louisville.


'Contribution No. 159 (New Series) from the Department of Biology, University of Louisville.









The Florida Entomologist


LITERATURE CITED

Bequaert, J. C. 1954-1956. The Hippoboscidae or louse-flies (Diptera) of
mammals and birds. Part 2. Taxonomy, evolution and revision of
American genera and species. Entomologica Americana, Vol. 34-36
(new series), p. 1-611.

Funderburg, J. B., M. L. Gilbert, and E. L. Bostelman. 1968. Hippoboscid flies
from cattle egrets in central Florida. Quart. J. Fla. Acad. Sci.
31:141-142.

Whittaker, F. H., G. D. Schmidt, and J. Garcia Diaz. 1970. Helminth parasites
of the cattle egret in Puerto Rico. Proc. Helm. Soc. Wash. 38:262.

The Florida Entomologist 56(3) 1973














BRAZIL ENTOMOLOGY MEETING

The "Sociedade Entomol6gica do Brasil" held its first meeting at "The
Federal University of Vicosa, Minas Gerais during the week July 2-7, 1973.
The meeting was well attended by entomologists from all parts of Brazil:
One hundred and thirteen papers were presented on current research projects
in the following areas: Acarology (2); Cotton (8); Cacao (5); Coffee (16);
Horticultural Plants (15); Leafcutting ants (5); Stored Products (5); Pastures
(5); Soybeans (2); Insect Biology (6); Biological Control (8); Apiculture (5);
Insect Vectors (6); Taxonomy (4); Sugarcane (7); Forest Entomology (3);
Rice (1); Grain Sorghum (1); Wheat (1); and Insect Ecology (8).
The next meeting of the society is scheduled to be held in Pelotas, Rio
Grande do Sul in February 1975.
Volume 1 of the new society publication, "Anais da Sociedade En-
tomol6gica do Brasil" is now available. It can be obtained through mem-
bership in the society which is open to all interested entomologists.
For information on membership write to Dr. Roger N. Williams, Foreign
Liaison Delegate, Sociedade Entomol6gica do Brasil, American Con.Gen/Sao
Paulo, APO New York 09676. Beginning in 1974 write to Dr. Williams at his
new address: Department of Entomology, Ohio Agricultural and Research
Development Center, Wooster, Ohio, 44691.


234


Vol. 56, No. 3












COLONIZATION OF THE PUNCTUREVINE
STEM WEEVIL, MICROLARINUS LYPRIFORMIS
(COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) WITH
NOTES ON PARASITISM IN SOUTH FLORIDA'

CARL E. STEGMAIER, JR.2

11335 N. W. 59th Avenue, Hialeah, Florida 33012

ABSTRACT

Microlarinus lypriformis (Wollaston), the puncturevine stem weevil, was
discovered at Miami, Florida, on 28 December 1971, infesting the stems of
Tribulus cistoides L. Gonatocerus brunneus Girault and Polynema sp.
(Mymaridae) were reared from the eggs of Microlarinus lypriformis while
Euderus sp. (Eulophidae), and Neocatolaccus tylodermae (Ashmead)
(Pteromalidae) were reared from the immatures of the puncturevine stem
weevil. Neocatolaccus tylodermae was reared several times from the punc-
turevine stem weevil, indicating that it is a major parasite of the weevil in
south Florida. The rearing of the mymarid, Gonatocerus brunneus, from the
eggs of M. lypriformis established the first confirmed host record for the
species as well as a new distributional record for the species. The discovery of
the puncturevine stem weevil in Florida was a new distributional record for
the species; previously, the weevil was not known east of the Mississippi River.


The puncturevine stem weevil, Microlarinus lypriformis (Wollaston), was
found by me at the Miami International Airport, Miami, Florida, 28 Dec. 1971,
infesting stems (Fig. 7) of bur-nut or Jamaica feverplant (Fig. 4), Tribulus
cistoides L. M. lypriformis was determined by Rose Ella Warner, Systematic
Entomology Laboratory, USDA.
The colonization of M. lypriformis in the Miami area was the result of an
accidental introduction. It could have established itself through commerce,
for example, with horse feed accompanying horses from western United States
consigned to race at one of the various race tracks in the greater Miami area.
The weevil may have reached the Miami International Airport aboard an
aircraft as a stowaway insect from St. Kitts or Nevis in the West Indies. I am
prone to believe that the weevil managed to reach here during World War II as
a stowaway insect from the Mediterranean region aboard an aircraft.
The puncturevine stem weevil (Fig. 1, 2, 3), a beneficial insect, is indigenous
to the Near East, India, and throughout the Mediterranean region (Andres
and Angalet 1963). Huffaker et al. (1961) reported importations of it into
California for the biological control of Tribulus terrestris (L.). Andres and
Angalet (1963) reported introductions of the species into the states of
Washington, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and Colorado. The puncturevine stem
weevil has been introduced into the Hawaiian Islands (Davis and Krauss 1966)
and into the islands of St. Kitts and Nevis in the West Indies (Bennett 1968).

'Contribution No. 265, Bureau of Entomology, Florida Department of Agriculture and Con-
sumer Services, Gainesville, Fla. 32601.
2Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Fla. Dep. Agr. and Cons. Serv.,
Gainesville.









The Florida Entomologist


I"


Fig. 1. Larva of Microlarinus lypriformis (Wollaston).
Fig. 2. Pupa of Microlarinus lypriformis.
Fig. 3. Two adults of Microlarinus lypriformis.
Fig. 4. The 5-segmented fruit of Tribulus cistoides L., typical of the
species. A. Ventral view. B. Dorsal view.
Fig. 5. A highly magnified macro-photograph of a male specimen of the
pteromalid, Neocatolaccus tylodermae (Ashmead).
Fig. 6. A female adult of Neocatolaccus tylodermae which is parasitic on
the immatures of M. lypriformis.
Fig. 7. An infested stem of the bur-nut or Jamaica feverplant containing a
dead weevil, M. lypriformis.

Tribulus cistoides L., a native of subtropical and tropical America, occurs
in the West Indies, Mexico, Central and South America, and southeastern
United States where it is found in hammocks and waste areas along the
coastal plain from Georgia south to Florida and west to Texas (Small 1933).
Shortly after my initial discovery of M. lypriformis, I received a request
from Kenneth E. Frick, Southern Weed Science Research Laboratory, ARS,


236


Vol. 56, No. 3










Stegmaier: Microlarinus lypriformis in Florida


USDA, Stoneville, Miss., to rear some 500 adults for introduction into Mis-
sissippi. Later after mass rearing there, these weevils would be released along
the Gulf Coast of Mississippi for biological control of Tribulus terrestris (L.).
Stems of defoliated T. cistoides were cut into 12-in. lengths and placed into
several wide-mouthed glass containers, along with notations of collection
data, and covered with fine mesh cloth secured with rubber bands. After 2
days, I noted the emergence of several tiny hymenopterous egg parasites and
adults of some larger Chalcidoidea. The parasites continued to emerge daily
and this made the hearings of the requested adult weevils increasingly dif-
ficult.
Three small shipments of 125 adult weevils were forwarded to K. Frick,
under permit; however, upon receiving the last shipment, he asked that I
terminate further consignments as he had difficulty supplying puncturevine
plants for the weevils at his station.
Two major studies concerning the parasite-complex of Microlarinus
lypriformis and the puncturevine seed weevil, M. lareynii (Jacquelin du Val)
have been published. One was by Angalet and Andres (1965) on their parasites
in India, southern France, and southern Italy; the other one was by Goeden
and Ricker (1970) on the indigenous Chalcidoidea of southern California that
attack these weevils. Goeden and Ricker conducted their studies in 5 plant
climate zones; one important primary and solitary ectoparasite of the punc-
turevine stem weevil was a pteromalid, Neocatolaccus tylodermae (Ashmead).
Goeden and Ricker reported rearing this species from the immatures of M.
lypriformis in California. I have reared N. tylodermae from the weevil in south
Florida, and since N. tylodermae occurs as a major parasite of M. lypriformis
in both California and Florida, it cannot be concluded on this basis that the
puncturevine stem weevil was introduced from California into Florida. Burks,
in Krombein and Burks (1967), reported Florida as but one of the states in
which N. tylodermae is known to occur.
Infestations of the puncturevine stem weevil occur throughout the entire
year in subtropical Florida; however, the parasite factor may possibly change
with reference to the growing sites of T. cistoides. The months of the year may
have some effect on the type of parasites associated with the weevil in south
Florida. A single rearing of Euderus sp. was recorded by me on 15 April 1972;
no other collections of this species were recorded during this study. The single
rearing of this species suggests that accidental parasitism took place; perhaps,
the weevils in this case served as an alternate host. More research on the
parasite-complex of M. lypriformis is needed in south Florida to determine
why Euderus sp. was reared only once from the puncturevine stem weevil.
The purpose of this paper, in part, is to report on the parasite-complex of
Microlarinus lypriformis from south Florida and to give a brief report on the
whole problem of the Tribulus-Microlarinus relationship.
HYMENOPTERA
EULOPHIDAE
Euderus sp., 6 males, 2 females, det. B. D. Burks.
Dates collected: 15 IV 72.
Locality and distribution: Miami, Florida.
Comments: A species of Euderus (Fig. 11) was reared from the larvae of M.
lypriformis in south Florida. A species of Euderus was reared in
California, during October, from Microlarinus lypriformis (Goeden and
Ricker 1970).









238 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 56, No. 3









8 9 d






















Fig. 10. An egg parasite, Gonatocerus brunneus Girault. This female was
reared from the eggs of Microlarinus lypriformis.
.10 .V-;: ^ .'^










Fig. 8. A female specimen of Eupelmus.
Fig. 9. A male specimen of Eupelmus.
Fig. 10. An egg parasite, Gonatocerus brunneus Girault. This female was
reared from the eggs of Microlarinus lypriformis.
Fig. 11. A male specimen of Euderus which was reared from a larva of
Microlarinus lypriformis.
Fig. 12. A. Lateral view of a female egg parasite, Polynema sp. B. Two
adults of Polynema sp. which were reared from the eggs of Microlarinus
lypriformis.

EUPELMIDAE
Eupelmus sp., 2 males, 3 females, det. B. D. Burks.
Dates collected: 15 IV 72; 28 V 72.
Locality and distribution: Miami, Florida.
Comments: A species of Eupelmus (Fig. 8, Fig. 9) was reared from the
immatures of M. lypriformis. Angalet and Andres (1965) reported
rearing Eupelmus atropurpureus (Dalman) from M. lareynii and M.
lypriformis in France. Davis and Krauss (1966) reported rearing
Eupelmus cushmani (Crawford) from M. lypriformis in Hawaii, while
Eupelmus cushmani was reported as a parasite of M. lypriformis in St.
Kitts and Nevis in the West Indies (Bennett 1968).










Stegmaier: Microlarinus lypriformis in Florida


MYMARIDAE
Gonatocerus brunneus Girault, 22 males, 35 females, det. B. D. Burks.
Dates collected: 2-, 6-, 26-III-72; 15-, 28-IV-72.
Locality and distribution: Miami, Florida; Illinois.
Comments: Gonatocerus brunneus (Fig. 10) is an egg parasite. Peck, in
Muesebeck et al. (1951), recorded the species from ?Aphispomi (Deg.)
in Illinois, and Peck listed G. maevius Girault as a synonym of G.
brunneus. The record of G. brunneus from M. lypriformis is the first
confirmed host record for the species as well as a new distributional
record.

Polynema sp., 3 males, 38 females, det. B. D. Burks.
Dates collected: 4; 26-III-72; 15-, 28-IV-72.
Locality and distribution: Miami, Florida.
Comments: Polynema sp. (Fig. 12) is another egg parasite of M. lypriformis.
My rearing records indicated a ratio of 1 male to 12 & 2/3rds females
during March and April 1972. Patasson sp., another mymarid parasite,
was reported from M. lypriformis from southern France and southern
Italy (Angalet and Andres 1965).

PTEROMALIDAE
Neocatolaccus tylodermae (Ashmead), 41 males, 32 females, det. B. D. Burks.
Dates collected: 23-II-72; 4-, 6-, 11-, 26-, 30-III-72; 15-IV-72; 17-V-
72; 1-VI-72.
Locality and distribution: New Hampshire south to Florida, west to
Michigan, Illinois, Kansas, and Arizona, Burks, in Krombein and Burks
(1967). Arizona (Butler 1965). California (Goeden and Ricker 1970).
Florida, C. Stegmaier.
Comments: Goeden and Ricker (1970) reported N. tylodermae (Fig. 5, Fig.
6) as a primary solitary ectoparasite of larvae and pupae of M.
lypriformis in southern California. Peck, in Muesebeck et al. (1951),
reported other host-insects as follows: Cylindrocopturus longulus
(Lec.); Lixus musculus Say; L. parcus Lec.; L. scrobicollis Boh.;
Trichobaris texana Lec.; Tyloderma foveolata Say; and larva ex stem
of Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Burks, in Krombein and Burks (1967),
reported the species from Onychobaris subtonsa Lec. All 5 genera cited
are curculionids, and from all the literature reviewed it seems that N.
tylodermae is confined to weevil hosts.

SCELIONIDAE
Telenomus sp., one reared adult, det. P. M. Marsh.
Dates collected: 26-III-72.
Locality and distribution. Miami, Florida.
Comments: Marsh (personal communication 1972) stated that Telenomus
sp. is an egg parasite of insects; however, the author was unable to
establish whether or not the species parasitized the eggs of the punc-
turevine stem weevil. Askew (1971) reported that members of the
family Scelionidae oviposit and complete their development in eggs of
insects. Askew stated that scelionids often require freshly laid insect









The Florida Entomologist


eggs for the subsequent development of their brood. Angalet and
Andres (1965) reported rearing a species of Telenomus from
Microlarinus lareynii in India.
Dr. Burks (personal communication, 1 Feb. 1973) stated that since he
determined my reared species of Euderus, Yoshimoto in Canada had
published' a revision of the genus Euderus. Dr. Burks stated that he sub-
sequently checked on the specimens of Euderus retained at the Systematic
Entomology Laboratory; however, my hearings did not key out to a given
species and thus remain Euderus sp.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I acknowledge and express my sincere appreciation to Rose Ella Warner,
B. D. Burks, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, ARS, USDA, and K. E.
Frick, Southern Weed Science Research Laboratory, ARS, USDA, Stoneville,
Miss., for their comments and constructive criticisms in the preparation of this
manuscript, and for the insect determinations cited in this paper.
Especially, I would like to express my thanks to Kenneth E. Frick for his
special comments on the various aspects of the puncturevine stem weevil
research during the course of this study and for providing me with the valuable
literature needed to make this paper possible.
Thanks are due P. M. Marsh, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA,
for his determination of Telenomus sp. cited in the text.


LITERATURE CITED

Andres, L. A., and G. W. Angalet. 1963. Notes on the ecology and host
specificity of Microlarinus lareynii and M. lypriformis (Coleoptera:
Curculionidae) and the biological control of puncturevine, Tribulus
terrestris. J. Econ. Ent. 56:33-40.

Angalet, G. W., and L. A. Andres. 1965. Parasites of two weevils, Microlarinus
lareynii and M. lypriformis that feed on the puncturevine, Tribulus
terrestris L. J. Econ. Ent. 58:1167-8.

Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic insects. Heinemann. London. 316 p.

Bennett, F. D. 1968. Progress report on current biological control projects in
St. Kitts and Nevis. June 1968. West Indian Sta. Commonwealth Inst.
Biol. Control. 4 p.

Burks, B. D. in Krombein, K. V., and B. D. Burks. 1967. Hymenoptera of
America north of Mexico. Synoptic Catalog. USDA Monogr. No. 2, 2nd
Suppl., p. 213-282.

Butler, G. W. 1965. Progress report on the biological control of puncturevine
with weevils. Univ. Arizona Agr. Exp. Sta. Report on Turfgrass. Res.
No. 230:17-20.

Davis, C. J., and N. L. H. Krauss. 1966. Recent introductions for biological
control. Proc. Hawaiian Ent. Soc. 19:201-7.


240


Vol. 56, No. 3









Stegmaier: Microlarinus lypriformis in Florida


Goeden, R. D., and D. W. Ricker. 1970. Parasitism of introduced puncturevine
weevils by indigenous Chalcidoidea in southern California. J. Econ.
Ent. 63:827-31.

Huffaker, C. B., D. W. Ricker, and C. E. Kennett. 1961. Biological control of
puncture vine with imported weevils. California Agr. 15(2):11-12.

Peck, in Muesebeck, C. F. W., K. V. Krombein, and H. K. Townes. 1951.
Hymenoptera of America north of Mexico. Synoptic Catalog. USDA
Monogr. No. 2, p. 410-594.

Small, J. K. 1933. Manual of southeastern flora. Chapel Hill, Univ. N. C. Press.
1554 p.

The Florida Entomologist 56(3) 1973




















NEW VOLUME OF ARTHROPODS
OF FLORIDA

Agromyzidae of Florida with a supplement on species from the Caribbean, by
Dr. Kenneth A. Spencer and Carl E. Stegmaier, Jr. (Arthropods of Florida
and neighboring land areas, Volume 7) is available for distribution. This 205
page bulletin is a comprehensive treatment of the leaf-, stem-, and seed-min-
ing agromyzid flies of Florida and the West Indies. It is well illustrated,
contains diagnostic keys for identification, distribution maps, host plant data,
notes on biology, and a fairly extensive list of other references treating the
Agromyzidae. A price of $3.00 per copy has been set by the Director of the
Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services. Address orders to the Publications Office, Division of Plant Industry,
P. O. Box 1269, Gainesville, Florida 32601.










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TOXICITY OF CROTOXYPHOS INSECTICIDE
TO BRAHMAN CALVES AND BRAHMAN
AND CROSSBRED YEARLING STEERS1

N. I. GREER,2 M. J. JANES,3 AND D. W. BEARDSLEY3


ABSTRACT

Crotoxyphos (Ciodrin"T) insecticide was applied to Brahman calves and
Brahman and crossbred (Hereford-Angus) steers to determine its effect on
blood cholinesterase. Brahman calves treated with 946 ml of 1% crotoxyphos
spray showed inhibition in whole blood and red cell cholinesterase (p <.01).
Two out of 4 calves exhibited severe toxicosis and 1 developed skin lesions.
Brahman calves treated with 946 ml of 0.5% crotoxyphos spray or 3% cro-
toxyphos dust showed cholinesterase inhibition (p <.01) but no observed
toxicosis. Whole blood and red cell cholinesterase of Brahman and crossbred
steers were inhibited (p <.01) when treated with 1.9 1 of 0.5% crotoxyphos
spray per head at weekly intervals for 11 weeks. Brahman animals had a
greater (p .01) inhibition than crossbred steers. The 3% crotoxyphos dust
offered as free-choice in a self-applicating dust bag produced no cholinesterase
inhibition in Brahman and crossbred steers; 2.7 kg of dust were depleted from
the dust bag during the 11-week period.

Crotoxyphos (CiodrinTm) is commercially available for horn fly control,
but application to Brahman cattle and calves of any breed under 6 months of
age is restricted by label. Weidenbach and Younger (1962) showed that a 2%
crotoxyphos spray produced diarrhea and muscular weakness in 7 of 11 dairy
calves for 10 to 16 days post-treatment. Palmer and Danz (1964) found that
Brahman and Brahman-cross cattle developed toxicosis and blood
cholinesterase depression to a 1% crotoxyphos spray, or 20 mg/kg orally of
chlorfenvinphos. Palmer (1965) later found that Brahman bulls 1 to 1 1/2
years old when treated with 0.25% dioxathion spray had a greater
cholinesterase depression than did Brahman or Hereford heifers of equivalent
age. Palmer (1971) determined that 13.2% famfur (30 ml/90.0 kg of 13.2%
concentrate) produced more cholinesterase depression and toxicosis of Brah-
man cattle than in Hereford cattle.
Because of favorable research findings and the developing commercial use
of self application dust bags for horn fly control in Florida, the present study
was initiated to determine the relative safety of dusts as compared to spray
applications of crotoxyphos to Brahman and crossbred beef animals.

METHODS AND MATERIALS
The study was conducted at the Agricultural Research and Education
Center, Belle Glade, April-September, 1968. Animal toxicosis was determined
by clinical symptoms of organophosphate poisoning and by inhibition of

'Fla. Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 4831. This research was supported in
part by a grant by Shell Chemical Company.
'Department of Entomology and Nematology, Gainesville.
3Agricultural Research and Education Center, Belle Glade.









The Florida Entomologist


whole blood and red cell cholinesterase activity. Clinical symptoms of or-
ganophosphate toxicosis used included dyspnea, constriction of pupils
myosiss), diarrhea, profuse salivation, stiffness, inability to stand, and clonic
convulsions.
Blood samples were collected in 10 ml heparinized tubes, with 15 gauge
California bleeding needles used for jugular veinpuncture. Red cell
cholinesterase activity was determined by the method of Michel (1949). Whole
blood cholinesterase activity was determined by modification of this method
by substituting whole blood for red cells as reported by Younger and Radeleff
(1964). Whole blood and red cell data were subjected to analysis of variance,
and differences among treatment means were detected by Duncan's multiple
range test. Shell Chemical Company supplied crotoxyphos as CiodrinTM
emulsifiable concentrate (132 g/l) and 3% CiodrinTM Livestock Dusting
Powder.
Brahman Calf Study-Fifteen 4 month-old Brahman steers weighing an
average of 122 kg were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups, and each group
was confined during a 21-day test period to a separate sheltered pen with a
concrete floor. The experimental groups were: (1) an untreated group, (2) a 3%
crotoxyphos dust group, (3) a 0.5% crotoxyphos spray group, and (4) a 1%
crotoxyphos spray group. The untreated group contained 3 calves; all other
groups consisted of 4 calves. The 3% crotoxyphos dust was hand-applied at the
rate of 57 g per head per day. The spray was applied to each calf individually
by use of a small compressed-air hand sprayer. The calves were sprayed
weekly with 946 ml per head.
Brahman and Crossbred Steer Study-Fifteen yearling Brahman steers
and 15 yearling crossbred (Hereford-Angus) steers were assigned to 1 of 3
experimental groups: (1) an untreated group, (2) a spray group, or (3) a dust
group. Each group contained 5 Brahman and 5 crossbred steers, and were
grazed on separated St. Augustinegrass pastures. Steers in group 2 were
sprayed as a group once weekly for 11 weeks with 0.5% crotoxyphos spray
applied through a #0815 Tee Jet nozzle with an 86' spray angle. The yearling
steers were sprayed with approximately 1.9 liters of 0.5% crotoxyphos per
animal at a pressure of 14.06 kg/cm2. The 3% crotoxyphos dust was provided
free choice in a self-applicating dust bag.

RESULTS

Brahman Calf Study-The first application of 1% crotoxyphos spray to 4
Brahman calves resulted in 1 animal developing mild toxicosis 15 min after
treatment. Symptoms included increased salivation and myosis. By the sixth
day this animal had severe hair loss on the tailhead, rump, thigh, and twist.
Also this animal had burned scabby lesions on both sides of the neck which
extended to the dewlap. Some hair loss was observed on the other 3 animals
treated with 1% crotoxyphos spray.
The second application of 1% crotoxyphos spray resulted in a moderately
acute toxicosis of the same calf that suffered mild toxicosis after the first
spraying. The animal was unable to walk or stand 45 min after treatment.
Symptoms included clonic convulsions, profuse salivation, general incoor-
dination, dyspnea, myosis, and lachrymation. The animal was then given
atropine sulfate, the recommended treatment for organophosphate poisoning,
at the rate of 30 mg/45 kg body weight. Within 1 hr after injection, the calf had


Vol. 56, No. 3








Greer et al.: Crotoxyphos toxicity to Brahman Cattle 245

sufficiently recovered to walk, but with much difficulty. Another calf in this
group developed mild toxicosis. Mild clonic convulsions were noted
approximately 1 hr after treatment. Four hours later, the symptoms had
disappeared.
The 2 calves that had previously developed toxicosis to 1% crotoxyphos
spray had an acute reaction 15 min after the third spraying. Severe muscle
twitching, incoordination, increased salivation, and the inability to stand were
observed 20 min after treatment. These 2 calves were treated with atropine
sulfate, but the incoordination of these animals persisted for 36 hr. The other
2 animals that were exposed to the 1% spray did not develop toxicosis or skin
irritation. The 3% crotoxyphos dust and the 0.5% crotoxyphos spray did not
produce toxicosis, dermal lesions, or hair loss.


UNTREATED
--------- 3% DUST DAILY
-- -0.5% SPRAY WEEKLY
1.00 -- 1% SPRAY WEEKLY


I


/


0 7 1 4


DAY
Fig. 1. Whole blood cholinesterase activity of Brahman calves exposed to
crotoxyphos spray and dust treatments. Spray treatments were applied on
days 0, 7, and 14.










The Florida Entomologist


Crotoxyphos application inhibited whole blood cholinesterase in all treat-
ed animals (Fig. 1). Whole blood cholinesterase activity for the untreated
animals was significantly (p<.01) higher than that of any of the treated
groups. The whole blood cholinesterase activity of the 0.5% spray was sig-
nificantly (p <.01) higher than the 1% spray group and the activity of the 3%
dust group was significantly (p <.01) higher than that of either spray group.
Red cell cholinesterase activity was also inhibited in treated animals (Fig.
2). The treated groups were characterized by significant (p<.01) red cell
cholinesterase inhibition but with high variation. The 1% spray produced the
greatest (p <.01) red cell cholinesterase inhibition.


1.00





.80


.60





.40


UNTREATED
--------- -3% DUST DAILY
-- 0.5% SPRAY WEEKLY
-- 1% SPRAY WEEKLY


7 14


DAY

Fig. 2. Red cell cholinesterase activity of Brahman calves exposed to cro-
toxyphos spray and dust treatments. Spray treatments were applied on days 0,
7, and 14.


246


Vol. 56, No. 3










Greer et al.: Crotoxyphos toxicity to Brahman Cattle 247


- S----i


UNTREATED
3% DUST BAG
0.5% SPRAY WEEKLY


0 1


3 5 7 9 11


WEEK
Fig. 3. Whole blood cholinesterase activity of Brahman and crossbred
yearling steers exposed to crotoxyphos spray and dust treatments.


Brahman and Crossbred Steer Study-The first application of 0.5% cro-
toxyphos spray to yearling Brahman and crossbred steers produced mild
toxicosis in 1 of the 5 Brahman steers. Symptoms were observed approxi-
mately 30 min after the spray application and included mild muscle twitch-
ing, increased salivation, and staggering. All symptoms disappeared 1 hr
after onset. There were no other symptoms of organophosphate intoxication


1.20





1.00






.80









The Florida Entomologist


WEEK
Fig. 4. Red cell cholinesterase activity of Brahman and crossbred yearling
steers exposed to crotoxyphos spray and dust treatments.
observed in this animal after subsequent treatments with 0.5% crotoxy-
phos spray. The 3% dust animals were not visibly affected during the study; 2.7
kg of dust were depleted from the dust bag used by this group during the 11-
week study.
The 0.5% spray caused a significant (p <.01) inhibition of whole blood or
red cell cholinesterase when compared to the untreated animals; there was no
significant (p>.05) difference between the dust and the untreated animals


Vol. 56, No. 3


248








.60





.50





.40


UNTREATED
--------- 3% DUST BAG
- -- 0.5% SPRAY WEEKLY


0 1


3 5 7 9










Greer et al.: Crotoxyphos toxicity to Brahman Cattle 249

(Fig. 3, 4). Further analysis revealed that Brahman animals treated with a
0.5% crotoxyphos spray had significantly (p <.01) lower whole blood and red
cell cholinesterase activity than cross bred animals on the same treatment
(Fig. 5-whole blood) confirming differences in susceptibility to certain or-
ganophosphates as reported by Palmer and Danz (1964), Palmer (1965), and
Palmer (1971).


1.20





1.00





.80


CROSSBRED STEERS
- -- BRAHMAN STEERS


3 5 7 9


0 1


WEEK

Fig. 5. Whole blood cholinesterase activity of Brahman yearling steers and
crossbred yearling steers treated with 0.5% crotoxyphos spray.









The Florida Entomologist


LITERATURE CITED

Michel, H. 0. 1949. An electrometric method for the determination of red
blood cell and plasma cholinesterase activity. J. Lab. and Clin. Med.
34:1564-1568.

Palmer, J. S. 1965. Observations of Brahman and Hereford cattle sprayed
with dioxathion. J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc. 146:221-223.

Palmer, J. S. 1971. Toxicity of famfur to young Brahman heifers and bulls. J.
Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc. 159:1263-1265.

Palmer, J. S., and J. W. Danz. 1964. Tolerance of Brahman cattle to organic
phosphorus insecticides. J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc. 144:143-145.

Weidenbach, C. P., and R. L. Younger. 1962. The toxicity of dimethyl 2-
(alpha-methylbenzyloxycarbonyl)-l-methylvinyl phosphate (Shell
Compound 4294) to livestock. J. Econ. Entomol. 55:793.

Younger, R. L., and R. D. Radeleff. 1964. Use of pyridine-2-aldoxime
methochloride in the treatment of organic phosphorus compound
poisoning in livestock. Amer. J. Vet. Res. 25:981-987.

The Florida Entomologist 56(3) 1973



















FISHING WITH NATURAL INSECTS

A limited number of copies of Fishing with Natural Insects by Alvah
Peterson are stillavailable. Price $6.00 each. Send order to The Florida En-
tomological Society, P. O. Box 12425, University Station, Gainesville, Florida
32601.


250


Vol. 56, No. 3












FURTHER EVALUATION OF THE ABUNDANCE
AND HABITAT OF FIVE SPECIES OF
COCKROACHES ON A PERMANENT
MILITARY BASE'

C. G. WRIGHT2 and H. C. MCDANIEL3

ABSTRACT

The occurrence of cockroach species by building type at a military in-
stallation, Fort Bragg, N. C., was recorded for a 4-year period. German
cockroaches, Blattella gernianica (L.), were sighted most frequently. Other
cockroach species sighted were American, Periplaneta americana (L.); orien-
tal, Blatta orientalis L.; brown-banded, Supella longipalpa (F.); and
smokybrown, P. fuliginosa (Serville). Cockroaches were observed most often
in housing, with successively fewer sightings in food-preparation-service,
store, and miscellaneous buildings. Peak German cockroach sightings oc-
curred June through October. American cockroach sightings peaked in June
and smokybrowns were observed only in the fall.


The relative importance of cockroach species in the continental United
States was discussed by Mampe (1972). Mallis (1964) and Wright (1965 a,b)
named cockroach species found in civilian buildings. Information on the
identification and occurrence of cockroaches by month and building type at a
military installation was reported by Wright and McDaniel (1969). Observa-
tions have been continued and this paper presents comparative data for a 2nd
4-year period on the same military base.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
The techniques of Wright and McDaniel (1969) were used to obtain and
categorize the data. The basis for the data were sightings of living cockroaches
at places where requests for control were made. Cockroaches were identified to
species and listed by building type and month. Buildings were assigned to 1 of
4 major categories: (1) housing, (2) food-preparation-service, (3) store, and (4)
miscellaneous. Examples of buildings assigned to each major category are: (1)
housing-buildings where people reside at least overnight; (2) food-prepara-
tion-service-buildings where food is prepared or served, other than private
residences; (3) store-commissary and post exchange; and (4) miscellaneous-
-all buildings not placed in the other 3 categories. Results were compiled
monthly.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Monthly data on cockroach species sighted for two 4-year periods are
compared in Fig. 1. The 1st 4-year period was reported by Wright and

'Orthoptera: Blattellidae and Blattidae.
'Associate Professor of Entomology, North Carolina Agricultural-Experiment Station, Raleigh,
27607.
3Insect and Rodent Control Foreman, Entomology Services, Post Engineers, Fort Bragg, N. C.,
28307.









The Florida Entomologist


[ Smokybrown Cockroach


Vol. 56, No. 3


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8 33 e e~e


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0.0[

1.0

0.5 -


Oriental Cockroach



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O 30
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z 20
10-
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150-

S140- German Cockroach
o
I
I 130-
120-

U. I10-
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90
o 80
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70
S 60-

50-
S-o- Ist. 4-Year Period

d 40- -*- 2nd. 4-Year Period
I I I I I 1 I I I I I
2 z m r >- 2 j a. > )
-: UL- ( n S 4 (O 0 z 0

Fig. 1. Number of times cockroaches were observed by month during two
4-year periods, 1964-68, 1968-1972.


252











Wright and McDaniel: Cockroach Habitats and Abundance 253


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The Florida Entomologist


McDaniel (1969). German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), were ob-
served more frequently during the 2nd 4-year period than during the 1st
period. American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.), were again the
2nd most abundant species and were more abundant during the 1st 6 months
of the year in the 2nd period than during the earlier period. Oriental, Blatta
orientalis L.; brownbanded, Supella longipalpa (F.); and smokybrown, P.
fuliginosa (Serville), cockroach sightings were comparable for the two 4-year
periods.
Total cockroach sightings increased during the 2nd 4-year period.
However, there was no difference in percent by species. German cockroaches
were sighted twice as often in housing as in food-preparation-service areas,
and they were seldom observed in stores and miscellaneous buildings (Table
1). During the 1st 4-year period German cockroaches were sighted 3 times as
often in housing as in food-preparation areas. American cockroaches occurred
almost 3 times as often in housing as in miscellaneous buildings during the 2nd
period and twice as often in the 1st period. There was little change in sightings
by building type for the other species, except that the smokybrowns were
observed in a warehouse and 2 sanitary-sewer access shafts.
This survey, as did the earlier survey (Wright and McDaniel 1969), showed
that German cockroaches were the most common species, with American,
brownbanded, oriental, and smokybrown cockroaches occurring in descending
frequency. Again, German cockroaches were most abundant in late summer
and fall months. All cockroach species, except the fall-occurring smokybrown
cockroaches, were sighted at all seasons. It also showed that housing facilities
were preferred by most cockroaches, with food-preparation buildings, mis-
cellaneous buildings, and stores being inhabited in descending frequency.


LITERATURE CITED

Mallis, A. 1964. Cockroaches, p. 171-72. In Handbook of Pest Control. Mac-
Nair-Dorland Co., New York. 1158 p.

Mampe, C. D. 1972. The relative importance of household insects in the
continental United States. Pest Contr. 40:24, 26-27, 38.

Wright, C. G. 1965a. A survey of cockroach species found in some North
Carolina apartment projects. Pest Contr. 33:14-15.

Wright, C. G. 1965b. Identification and occurrence of cockroaches in dwellings
and business establishments in North Carolina. J. Econ. Ent.
58:1032-33.

Wright, G. C., and H. C. McDaniel. 1969. Abundance and habitat of five
species of cockroaches on a permanent military base. J. Econ. Ent.
62:277-78.


The Florida Entomologist 56(3) 1973


Vol. 56, No. 3


254











BIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF A PREDATOR
SYCANUS INDAGATOR1

I. LIFE HISTORY AND FEEDING HABITS2

G. L. GREENE

University of Florida
Agricultural Research and Education Center
Quincy, Fla. 32351

ABSTRACT

Sycanus indagator Stil eggs held at 72-780F hatched 18 days after being
laid and nymphal development averaged 82 days. Starvation of newly hatched
nymphs for 8 days and adults for 21 days resulted in death or no egg produc-
tion. Nymphs fed on several insect species, but cannibalism was uncommon.
Larvae of Pseudoplusia includes (Walker) were quickly paralyzed after beak
penetration by the nymphal or adult predator.


The use of imported predators to reduce pest populations is well
documented and in some cases has been very successful (DeBach 1971). One
method of utilization of an imported predator would be to mass-release in-
dividuals ready to feed when the pest populations surpass economic damage
levels (Ridgway and Jones 1969).
Bugs were reared in the laboratory to study their biology and to determine
if Sycanus indagator Stal could be used for control of the soybean looper,
Pseudoplusia includes (Walker).

METHODS
Nymphs were reared in pint and half-pint pasteboard cartons and were fed
looper larvae. The top was covered with a glass petri dish allowing light to
enter the carton and permitting behavioral observations. Each carton con-
tained from 1 to 50 individuals.
Development from egg to adult was investigated in several environmental
temperature regimes with 1 nymph/container. One group was reared in the
laboratory where the temperature ranged between 72 and 78F while another
group was held in a constant 840F chamber. A third group of 10 nymphs was
held in a temperature chamber with a daily range from 42 to 650F, rising
2F/hr for 12 hr and falling 2F/hrfor 12 hr. A second chamber was set for 44
and 780F rising'30F/hr for 12 hr and falling 3F/hr for 12 hr.
Egg development was studied in the laboratory and field at Quincy. Eggs
were transferred to the field the morning after they were laid, and were
checked daily for hatch and survival. Companion egg masses were held in the
laboratory.
After looper larvae were introduced into rearing containers, the loopers'

'Hemiptera: Reduviidae.
2Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 4865.









The Florida Entomologist


feeding behavior was observed. Varying numbers of bugs of each instar were
observed feeding at several different times. Starvation tests consisted of
holding 4 to 12 nymphs per replication until 1 of the group died. Nymphs were
held 1/glass vial in each of 3 replications following death of 1 nymph for each
replication. The living individuals were given larvae to feed on and the
predators' survival or reproduction was recorded.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Individuals held at 840F required 98.9 days from eclosion to the adult molt
(Table 1). Nymphs held in the laboratory with the temperature varying
between 720 and 780F matured in 82 days, 17 days less than the 840 group. The
principal difference was that the 5th stadium lasted 48.6 days at 840 compared
to 24.8 days in the laboratory. The last stadium in the 44-780 chamber was 97
days, 4 times longer than the previous stage, and twice as long as at 840. Adults
held at 840F and at 72-780F laid eggs 5 days after the last molt. Egg hatch
occurred after 17.8 days at 72-78F and 10 days at 840F. Incubation took 15-22
days in the field on soybean plants during August 1971 at Quincy. The air
temperature during that time ranged from 66 to 930 and averaged 79.50 in a
weather shelter. Ten nymphs held in a 42-650F chamber lived 25-29 days and
did not molt or grow even though they did feed on 23 small larvae. Eggs did not
hatch at those temperatures. Nymphs held at 44 to 780F had good survival
and passed the first 4 stages in 23 to 25 days each (Table 1).
Nymphs reared in 12 pint, round, pasteboard containers developed faster
and grew larger when several were kept together in comparison to solitary
nymphs. The groups of nymphs molted sooner than the single nymphs and
when fed appeared more aggressive. Cannibalism was uncommon when
nymphs of a similar age were kept together. Only twice was cannibalism
observed; starved adults were feeding on a weakened companion. Groups
reared in /2 pint cartons for 18 months showed very little evidence of mortality
due to cannibalism in the laboratory.

TABLE 1. DEVELOPMENT OF Sycanus indagator HELD INDIVIDUALLY IN
THE LABORATORY AT 72* TO 780 F AND IN TEMPERATURE
CHAMBERS DURING 1971 AT QUINCY, FLORIDA.

Life No. days to complete life stage at indicated temperature
Stage* 72-78 F 84"F 44-78"F

Egg 17.8 10.0 -
1 13.4 10.9 23
2 12.2 12.8 25
3 16.3 12.0 24
4 15.3 14.6 24
5 24.8 48.6 97

Nymphal 82.0 98.9 193
development

* The 72-78F test began with 17 individuals of which 5 molted to healthy adults. In the
840F and 44-78* chamber, 10 nymphs were used and only 1 died, during the 8rd stage.


Vol. .56, No. 3









Greene: Sycanus indigator: Life History and Feeding


Feeding bugs attacked larvae by penetrating the exoskeleton with their
beak. Larger larvae were attacked in the middle of the back. After penetration,
the predator remained motionless for 1 to 3 min. until the larvae stopped
moving. Prey did not resume activity once they became motionless. Moving
hosts were more often attacked than were still larvae.
The first nymph to attack would immobilize the larvae, then more would
join to feed. A last-stage soybean looper larva was often fed on by 4 to 10
nymphs at one time. They lined up around the larvae and were inactive while
feeding except when disturbed. This would last for several minutes to over an
hour.
An important consideration for the success of a predator is the starvation
period it can withstand. Starvation time was considered as the number of days
until ca. 50% died. Four adults died 21 days after starvation began, and the
remaining 3 died within 28 days, even though they were being fed larvae. No
eggs were produced by the adults that had been starved 21 days and then fed.
Eight newly-hatched nymphs were held without food for 8 days when 4 died.
The remaining 4 were given larvae, but none fed. They died on the 9th day.
Feeding preference studies in the laboratory using larvae of the Mexican
bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, an armyworm, Prodenia or-
nithogalli Guen&e, southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula Linn, cabbage
looper, Trichoplusia ni Hiibner, and an unidentified tent caterpillar indicated
a slight preference for the larvae with fewer spines. Feeding on adult Mexican
bean beetles and stinkbugs was observed in the laboratory. Nymphs feeding on
1 species continued to feed on that species when given a choice, but there was
little problem getting them to change food hosts following total replacement
of the host species. It seemed probable that host specificity would not limit
them to a single species in the field.
Molting was observed several times and took ca. 20 min. If the nymphs
were forced to move during ecdysis they often had deformed appendages after
molting. Last-stage nymphs did not feed for several days before molting, in
some cases up to 10 days. Freshly molted individuals were bright orange to red
and became red and black within an hour.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The stock culture of S. indicator was supplied by W. H. Whitcomb who
obtained them from J. W. Lewis, Coastal Plains Experiment Station, USDA,
Tifton, Georgia. The culture was imported from India by the Parasite In-
troduction Center, Moorestown, N. J.


LITERATURE CITED

DeBach, Paul. 1971. The use of imported natural enemies in insect pest
management ecology. Proc. Tall Timbers Conf. Ecol. Animal Contr. by
Hab. Manage. 3:211-233.

Ridgway, R. L., and S. L. Jones. 1969. Inundative release of Chrysopa carnea
for control of Heliothis on cotton. J. Econ. Ent. 62:177-180.


The Florida Entomologist 56(3) 1973


257











BOOK REVIEW


AN INDEX TO THE DESCRIBED LIFE HISTORIES, EARLY STAGES AND HOSTS OF
THE MACROLEPIDOPTERA OF THE CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES AND
CANADA. Harrison Morton Tietz. 1972. Published by A. C. Allyn for the Allyn
Museum of Entomology, Sarasota, Fla. 1041 p. in 2 volumes. $25.00 (Dis-
tributed by Entomological Reprint Specialists, P. O. Box 77971, Dockweiler
Station, Los Angeles, California 90007.)

This monumental compilation by the late H. M. Tietz is the first available
bibliography to cover hosts and life histories of all the macrolepidoptera north
of Mexico since the publication of Henry Edwards' "Bibliographical catalogue
of the described transformation of North American Lepidoptera" in Bulletin
(35) of the U. S. National Museum in 1889.
There are really 2 important parts to this index. The first is the listing of
species of macrolepidoptera in alphabetical order without regard to families.
The species name is followed by the describer's name, the genus, and the
family after which synonyms and described forms or abbreviations are listed.
This is followed by a life history section in which references concerning that
species are listed with information on what each reference contains (i.e. larva,
pupa, life history, etc.), and then food plants are listed.
The other major part is the list of plants alphabetically by genus followed
by the common name. Macrolepidoptera recorded from that host are then
arranged alphabetically by species within families.
Other sections cover the works consulted, common names of plants, com-
mon names of insects, zoological hosts, and indefinite designations (i.e. dead
leaves, ferns, grasses, vegetables, etc.) and synonyms of plant names.
Although the arrangement of information leaves much to be desired, and
there are some errors and omissions, overall, this index will be a real boon to
anyone working with immatures, food plants, and biologies of
macrolepidoptera. It is unfortunate that nearly a quarter of a century has
gone by between the completion of the work in 1950 and its publication. Mr.
Allyn is to be commended for assuring publication of this index which every
Lepidopterist, amateur and professional alike, should have on his bookshelf.
DALE H. HABECK
Dep. of Entomology & Nematology
Univ. of Florida, Gainesville




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