Title: Florida Entomologist
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00131
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Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1974
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Volume 57, No. 4 December, 1974


EDWARDS. G. B J F CnRROLL. AND W. H. WHITCOMB-Stoidis aurata (Araneac:
Sui/n, idr)..-1 Spidr Predator f .Anth, 3.37
SABRO-'K)I. C W -Eugaurax setigena I Dptera:Chloropidae) .4 StNe t.m Miner
in I arty-r Hyuainth .347
Tsl l. P T. P.. rND W. L. PETERs-Enmbronr Development, Early Instar .Mlr
ph/oliog, aind Behatrtor ,If Tortopus incertus (Ephemerroptera: Pnlymitar-
cidae> .349
WEST. R. P.. AND M. SHEPAKD-.- Modified Cone Emergence Trap with In
rreuised (C'npabuhilte. fir Pecan IWer'tl.s 357
WILLIAMS. D F., AND L. C. KUITERT-Di.spersriin and Poipulatron Densitnes of the
Et (;Gnat Hippelares puslo 361
MotKFORD, E. L.-Trichadenotecnuin circularoides (Psocnptera. PsocidaeJ In
Southeastern United States. with Notes un Its Reproduction and Imma.
lure Stages 369
BURDITT. A. K.. JR.-Furtor., A.-ffctinng Rtle o: .Lo ss of Trinedlure Used to Bait
Ti apas fr Fruit F/rt.s in Flori',lt 371
KHALAF, K. T.-Nonair epir W1hea t Germn Diet for Meglopyge opercularis (Lepi-
doptera: Alegalop.gzdue i 377
MITCHELL, E. R.. W. W. COPELAND. AND F C. TING L--Paramstes of ilth Breeding
Diptera in Pottltr' HI,use., tn .rorth ( central Flo,rla 383
MUMA. M. H -Solpugid P.pirlntirn.. in Srulhi ttetrni .Neu A\le..tco 385
ULAGARA.J. S. M.-Per.%Mtinte rof Ruiirphrph,,run in Desert Locul,. Schistocerca
gregaria (Orthoptera A crididuel 393
MUCHIMORE, W. B.-PseudosCnrpions Fromn Fiiridai. :1. Epactiochernes. A Newu
Genus Brased upon Chelanops tumidus Bani, (Chermntidae) ,397
HABECK, D. H.-Arzama densa A- a P r o/ Do4ishn 4019
REINERT. J. A., AND N. L WOODir'L-Philt .Aplhl (',mtr,../ ,an .Mltivan Dwiurf
Coconut Palnm 411
F'w. S. L.-Liriomyza mundja in,/ Pri-trll: .1r-rr ridIt~ rn Incl- IGrort, Ith Rerii
litlor.. 415
Sr iv nafti Aotes 346. .3x1. 41.18. 41-. 41
ih1tirv1r1 1 J 1 it' 1//',,, 419
Book Review. 396
Notices to Membetr............... ........................ ............... 368, 410
Index to V olum e 5 7 ..... ....... ...... ... .. ........ ..... .... .... .. .... ........ ... ... ..... ..... 421

Published by The Florida Entomological Society



P resident .... .... ..................... ................... .............. R M B aranow ski
Vice-President ..................................... ........ ..................... ...... H V W eem s, Jr.
Secretary .............................. ........... ....... ......... ....... ........... F. W M ead
Treasurer .............. ...... .................. ....... ......... D. E. Short

W. G. Genung
Other Members of Executive Committee ...... G. Eden
D. E. Weidhaas
H. D. Bowman
J. R. Strayer


E d ito r ................................................................... ................. .............. S H K err
Associate Editors ............................... R. E. Woodruff
J. E. Lloyd
H. V. Weems, Jr.
Business M anager................ ......... ............................ ......... ... D E Short

THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST is issued quarterly-March, June, September, and
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This issue mailed November 29, 1974

The Florida Entomologist



Department of Entomology and Nematology
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611

Stoidis aurata (Hentz), a salticid spider occurring in a variety of leaf litter
habitats, was observed in the field attacking ant workers. In the laboratory it
fed on 21 of 23 ant species offered, representing 17 genera in 5 subfamilies. S.
aurata had difficulty in overcoming workers of genera Aphaenogaster,
Crematogaster, Tetramorium, and Formica, and did not consistently attack
the larger individuals of Pogonomyrmex badius (Latreille), Camponotus ab-
dominalis floridanus (Buckley), or the workers of Odontomachus ruginodis
(Wheeler). The hard exoskeletons of Cyphomyrmex rimosus minutus Mayr
and Trachymyrmex septentrionalis (McCook) apparently protected the
workers of these 2 species from capture by S. aurata. The spider attacked from
directly in front of the ant 91% of the time; 77% of these captures were made by
grasping the ant by the dorsum of the alitrunk. No other salticid was observed,
either in the field or the laboratory, to feed on ant workers, even though
individuals of 20 other salticids were tested under similar conditions. Two
species of jumping spider, Plexippus paykulli (Audouin) and Thiodina sylvana
(Hentz), were observed feeding on alate ants.

Spiders have been overlooked as predators of ants even though ant workers
are the greatest available energy source to some spider species; investigation
of this predation is needed in both terrestrial and arboreal habitats. Repeated
observations and notations on such spiders as Achaearanea tepidariorum (C.
L. Koch) feeding on the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, in
laboratory ant cultures, underline the importance of such research. The spider
Stoidis aurata (Hentz) (Fig. 1), a small (4-5mm) salticid commonly found in
shaded, leaf litter habitats in Florida and neighboring states, was observed on
several occasions feeding on ant workers of the genera Aphaenogaster and
Crematogaster. Organized research on this spider as an ant predator was
That a cursorial spider would feed on a wide variety of unrelated ants is not
unexpected. Most salticid spiders patrol either plant foliage or soil surface in
search of prey and undoubtedly come in contact with many ant workers.
Defenses against such predators as spiders differ with each ant subfamily and
even from species to species. Ponerine, myrmicine, and pseudomyrmicine
worker ants characteristically possess a protective sting apparatus. The
morphology of the sting mechanism and the use of the sting in given situations
varies from 1 ant species to another. Dolichoderine and formicine ants do not
sting but depend on toxin exuded from the tips of their abdomens and the use
of their mandibles. Structure and function of the poison apparatus of ants
have been discussed by Hermann (1969), Blum and Hermann (1969), and

'Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, Journal Series No. 5390.


Vol. 57, No. 4

The Florida Entomologist

Fig. 1. Stoidis aurata female with captured Solenopsis invicta worker.

others. The toxicity of ant poison to spiders is unknown, but the poison of
several ant species tested is toxic to many other arthropods (Blum et al. 1958,
Blum and Callahan 1960). Many species of ants possess powerful mandibles
with which they can maintain a vise-like grip on their foes. Appendages of
many arthropods are often either severed by ant bites or pulled from the body.
Records of spiders consistently feeding on ants, other than alate forms, are
few. Weber (1957) mentioned Triaeris patellaris Bryant (Oonopidae) at-
tacking Cyphomyrmex costatus Mann. Oecobius annulipes Lucas
(Oecobiidae) was reported by Glatz (1967) to feed mostly on Plagiolepis
pygmaea Latreille under natural conditions and on Lasius flavus Fabricius in
the laboratory. Hoelldobler (1970) reported Steotoda fulva (Keyserling),
family Theridiidae, feeding on the harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius (La-
treille). Whitcomb (1974) observed an unidentified species of wolf spider
(Lycosidae) in the Mato Grosso of Brazil lined up at night along foraging trails
of Atta spp., feeding on passing workers. Recent field work on fire ants
Solenopsis invicta and S. geminata (Fabricius) (Whitcomb, unpublished da-
ta) has brought attention to several other spiders in the families Theridiidae,
Gnaphosidae, and Thomisidae that captured ants.
No previous records of Stoidis aurata or any other species of Salticidae

Vol. 57, No. 4

i :~a-

li~;FSi;~L '

Edwards et al.: A Spider Predator of Ants

that fed on ant workers were encountered. Several members of this family are
ant mimics, yet have never been observed to feed on ants (J. Reiskind, per-
sonal communication). Salticids of the genus Cotinusa have been observed in
an apparent symbiotic relationship with the dolichoderine ant Tapinoma
melanocephalum (Fabricius) in the West Indies (Shepard and Gibson 1972).

All of the spiders and most of the ants used for testing were collected from
various leaf litter or adjacent habitats in the vicinity of Gainesville, Florida.
The ant species Xenomyrmex stolli floridanus Emery was collected in Collier
Co., Fla.
In the laboratory, single spiders were caged in 60 x 15 mm plastic petri
dishes. A total of 20 individuals of Stoidis aurata was used, 12 females and 8
males. Second larval instars of cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hubner), were
used to sustain the spiders before the experiment was initiated. The spiders
were given only water for the 3 days prior to testing. This length of time proved
to be intermediate between satiation and starvation for an average spider of
this species. In an earlier experiment with 12 specimens, the spiders began
showing distinctly shrunken abdomens indicating starvation in about 6-7
A single worker ant was placed into the petri dish with the spider and the
resulting confrontation observed as long as necessary, in most cases 15-60 sec.
Twenty-three species of ants in 17 genera representing 5 subfamilies were
chosen so that we could observe the reaction of the spider to the various
offensive and defensive weapons used by the ants. In all cases, major workers
were tested and, where appropriate, minor workers were also used.
Each of the 2 female spiders was offered 4 ant workers, 1 at a time. Each of
2 male spiders was offered 3 ants similarly. This was repeated for all 23 species
of ants. Each encounter was discontinued after 15 min if the spider had not
captured the ant. The spiders were chosen at random, omitting individuals
already used.
Additional spiders of the appropriate sex were used, if necessary, to
complete 14 encounters. These were necessary in any 1 of the following si-
tuations: 1) the spider became disoriented because of removal of test ant, 2)
the spider became satiated, 3) the spider was affected by ant poison, 4) the
spider would not attack the ant because it apparently was too large, too fast,
or for unknown reasons.
Other salticid species tested were individuals belonging to 13 genera and 20
species. Each spider was caged in a 60 x 15 mm or 100 x 15 mm plastic petri
dish, depending upon the size of the spider. Each spider was offered consecu-
tively major workers of Pheidole dentata Mayr and Solenopsis invicta, with
the exception of the smallest species such as a Habrocestum sp. female which
were offered Xenomyrmex stolli floridanus and minor workers of Pheidole
morrisi Forel. Preliminary diet was not as strictly observed as in Stoidis
aurata, but the spiders had not been fed for at least 2 days.

A synopsis of the results is reported in Table 1. Of the 23 species tested 10
species were captured in at least 13 out of 14 encounters; 16 species were taken
in at least 50% of the encounters. Four species were taken 4 to 6 times. An

The Florida Entomologist


o. of N No. attacked:
No. of suc-_______
spiders cessful cap- from
Ant species tested Size tested esfl cap- from by fro
Ant/spider m tures in 14 n front &
(minimum attempts in alitrunk by
2 9,2 t c) front a


ruginodis (Wheeler)


brunneus (F. Smith)


ashmeadi Emery

A. floridana
M. R. Smith

A. lamellidens

A. tennesseensis

Crematogaster clara

C. verminulata Emery

Cyphomyrmex rimosus
minutus Mayr

Monomorium viridum

Pheidole dentata

Ph. morrisi Forel

Pogonomyrmex badius

>> 6 1* **

< 4 14

S 5 8* **

5 7* **

= 6 2*

< 6 8*

< 4 0

1< 5 13

0 1 0

11 13 10

8 6 6

7 5 5

2 2 2

8 6 6

0 0 0

12 11 10

5 4 2

Vol. 57, No. 4

5 6

Edwards et al.: A Spider Predator of Ants


Ant species tested

No. of
Size tested
Ant/spider (minimum

No. of suc-
cessful cap-
tures in 14

No. attacked:

from b from
in by front &
nt alitrunk by

Solenopsis geminata

S. invicta Buren

guineense (Fabricius)


Xenomyrmex stolli
floridanus Emery


(M. R. Smith)

S 6 13

< 4 14

4 14

< 6 14

12 11 9

13 13 12

7 7 7

0 0 0

14 4 4

13 12 12


Camponotus abdominalis
floridanus (Buckley)

Formica pallidefulva

Paratrechina longicornis

6 6* **

>> 5 4***

< 4 14

2 3 0

4 3 3

14 13 13

Prenolepis imparis

< 4 14 13 10
203 184 159

*Only 1 or no successful male attacks or males did not attack.
**At least one case where spider was repulsed by ant during 1st attack, but ant was injured and
spider returned to feed upon it.

Odontomachus ruginodis worker was taken only once. Stoidis aurata was
unable to capture either of the 2 ants tested of the tribe Attini. With the
exception of the fungus-growing ants, whether or not the ants were taken
appeared to depend mostly on the size of the ant relative to the size of the


The Florida Entomologist

spider. The smaller ants, such as Pheidole dentata, Ph. morrisi, and Para-
trechina longicornis (Latreille), were quickly attacked and killed. The ants
struggled but were too small to endanger the spider and soon succumbed to
the spider's venom. Generally the spiders would exhibit little extra precaution
when attacking the smaller ants but would carefully stalk larger ants. The
very small ant Xenomyrmex stolli floridanus was the only ant usually cap-
tured by the head. Other ant species were captured by the dorsum of the
alitrunk 159 (78%) of a total of 203 captures (Fig. 2). Frontal attacks occurred
in 184 (91%) of all captures. During frontal attacks, capture was by the
alitrunk 141 times (77%) (70% of all captures). To attain a frontal position the
spider would circle the ant until the spider was properly aligned. On several

Fig. 2. Typical capture of ant by a frontal attack of Stoidis aurata.

occasions the spider could not align directly in front on the same plane as the
ant because of the shape of the dish. In these instances the spider began its
attack from the side or an oblique angle, jumped, turned in mid-air, and
landed, simultaneously grasping the dorsum of the ant's alitrunk. Capture by
the alitrunk made it difficult or impossible for the ant to defend itself. This
capture behavior is similar to that observed by the senior author for other
salticids but is apparently more closely adhered to by Stoidis aurata than by
many salticid species. It is more similar to the behavior reported by Bristowe
(1958) for Segestria florentina (Rossi) of the family Segestriidae and various
crab spiders (Thomisidae) when capturing such insects as honeybees. The
larger ants attempted to reach the spider to bite and sting or spray, but the
spider used its first pair of legs to counter the thrust of mandibles or gaster. For
more moderate-sized ants, the spider would raise its legs out of the ants' reach,
but for small ants the spider's front legs were often used to aid in the capture
by holding or turning the ant into proper position for grasping with the
chelicerae. The capturing techniques for the larger ants, such as Camponotus
abdominalis floridanus (Buckley) and Formica pallidefulva Latreille, were
also used for less robust but elongate ants such as species of Aphaenogaster.
Workers of Solenopsis (fire ants) were captured without difficulty, the spider
grasping the ants by the dorsum of the head or alitrunk. No ant species
grasped by the propodeum was able to defend itself.
Ants were sometimes able to defend themselves if captured by the head or
pronotum. One of the most successful of these was Crematogaster clara Mayr,

Vol. 57, No. 4


Edwards et al.: A Spider Predator of Ants

which has the ability to flex its gaster upward and forward to apply a poison
exuded from its modified sting (Buren 1958), providing a defensive advantage
when attacked from the front by a spider (Fig. 3.). If the poison was success-
fully applied, the spider would immediately release its hold and back away;
after observing the ant for a moment, the spider would leave, often rubbing the
mouthparts or a leg against the substrate as if to rub off the poison. Three
male spiders and 1 female spider reacted similarly and would no longer attack
this ant species. The female spider attacked and killed 2 workers of Prenolepis
imparis (Say), an ant the same size as C. clara, while a live C. clara worker
was still in the dish with the spider. While this is a small sample (4), it may
indicate a "learning" experience by the spider. Even though this may be
viewed with skepticism, it is noteworthy that Reed et al. (1969) and Reed et al.
(1970) have found experience can affect later behavior in the orb weavers
Argiope aurantia (Lucas) and Araneus diadematus (Clerck). Crematogaster
vermiculata Emery used the same defense as C. clara, although C. ver-
miculata was not as successful in defending itself. One Monomorium viridum
Brown worker also defended itself in a manner similar to the Crematogaster

Fig. 3. Defense of Crematogaster clara against a frontal attack by Stoidis
aurata. Drawing of C. clara adapted from Wilson (1958).

Four species of Aphaenogaster-A. ashmeadi Emery, A. floridana M. R.
Smith, A. lamellidens Mayr, and A. tennesseensis (Mayr)-were fairly suc-
cessful in defending themselves. These ants are about twice the size of the
Crematogaster species and are about equal in size to the spiders. Their type of
defense is similar to that of Crematogaster, as Aphaenogaster spp. also apply
poison exuded from their sting, but the gaster is thrust beneath the alitrunk or
to the side and forward. They were very effective in defending themselves
against male spiders, with only 2 successful captures in 24 encounters, and
approximate the maximum size ant that a male spider would attack. However,
the only Aphaenogaster species which was able to defend itself consistently
against female spiders was A. lamellidens, which appeared to have a more
effective poison.


The Florida Entomologist

Another ant in the size range of Aphaenogaster spp., Tetramorium
guineense (Fabricius), was not attacked by male spiders. Again female spiders
had little trouble with 1 exception, the lone fatality of a spider in 322 en-
counters. A worker T. guineense was able to use its mandibles to grasp the
spider's palp and then sting the spider, after which the spider died.
On the other hand, several ant species which caused the spider to release its
hold were injured by the bite and succumbed to the spider's venom in 3-5 min,
after which the spider returned to the ant in 3-15 min and began feeding upon
it. These ant species were generally large and soft-bodied and included the 4
Aphaenogaster species tested, Camponotus abdominalis floridanus, Formica
pallidefulva, and the single worker of Odontomachus ruginodis (Wheeler)
that was captured. Since they were confined together, the spider could by
chance encounter the disabled ant again, but spiders are not usually
scavengers. In fact, in the majority of instances of this type, it was apparent
that the spider was watching the ant and was waiting for it to become im-
mobile before beginning to feed.
Formica pallidefulva is an ant somewhat larger than the spider and was
one of the most difficult for the spider to overcome. When grasped by the
thorax, the ant bent its gaster underneath and forward quickly enough to
spray poison on the spider's mouthparts, resulting in a reaction essentially
similar to but even more effective than that exhibited by spiders repelled by
Crematogaster clara. Another factor in the spider's inability to capture F.
pallidefulva was that the ant moved too rapidly around the petri dish for the
spider to be able to stalk it. The few workers captured had stopped to groom
themselves. This speed factor may be important with salticids because of their
method of hunting. Drees (1952) reported that another jumping spider, Sal-
ticus scenicus (Clerck), also apparently had a preference for prey which moved
in a particular range of speed. At the other extreme, Stoidis aurata often took
longer than usual in noticing and capturing the small, slow-moving
Monomorium viridum.
In 2 species of ants, Cyphomyrmex rimosus minutus Mayr and
Trachymyrmex septentrionalis (McCook), the workers were uninjured by
spider attacks, apparently because the spiders could not penetrate the hard
exoskeletons of the ants. The workers of these 2 species were not aggressive;
when attacked, they would appress their appendages to their bodies and
remain motionless. However, a dealate queen of T. septentrionalis apparently
did not have the same protection and was captured.
Individual spiders were sometimes observed to kill 6-8 ants in 2-3 hr. A
large ant, such as Camponotus abdominalis floridanus, could satiate a Stoidis
aurata female for as long as 2 days.
Some insight into prey preference was gained by introducing a second
instar larva of the cabbage looper and a major worker of Pheidole dentata
simultaneously into a petri dish with a male spider. The spider immediately
attacked the ant and killed it. The ant was removed before it could be con-
sumed. The spider then twice attacked the looper but released it unharmed
each time. The ant was placed back into the dish; the spider went directly to
the ant and began feeding upon it. Similar results were observed in 7 other
The 20 other species of salticids tested refused to accept worker ants. These
jumping spiders could generally be divided into 2 groups, 1) those which
assumed a defensive posture and retreated from the ant, and 2) those which


Vol. 57, No. 4

Edwards et al.: A Spider Predator of Ants

paid little or no attention to the ant. In the former group were Hentzia
grenada (Peckham) male, H. palmarum (Hentz) female, male, Metacyrba
floridana Gertsch female, male, M. undata (DeGeer) female, Metaphidippus
galathea (Walckenaer) female, and Sarinda hentzi (Banks) immature. The
latter group included Eris marginatus (Walckenaer) male, Marpissa sulcosa
Barnes male, Menemerus bivittatus (Du Four) female, Peckhamia picata
(Hentz) male, Pellenes sp. 1 female, Pellenes sp. 2 immature, Plexippus
paykulli (Audouin) female, Phidippus audax (Hentz) female, male, P. clarus
Keyserling female, P. otiosus (Hentz) male, P. regius C. L. Koch female, male,
P. whitmani (Peckham) female, and Thiodina sylvana (Hentz) female, male.
A very small Habrocestum sp. female attacked workers of Xenomyrmex stolli
floridanus and minor workers of Pheidole morrisi but immediately released
them. A Plexippus paykulli female killed and ate an adult winged male of
Camponotus abdominalis floridanus. A Thiodina sylvana female was ob-
served in the field feeding on an alate male of another Camponotus sp.
These 20 salticid species were selected at random and tested only in the
laboratory; Stoidis aurata was observed first in the field feeding on ant
workers and then tested thoroughly in the laboratory. Possibly there are other
salticids which feed on ant workers, but these will most likely be found by
careful observations in a variety of natural habitats: this feeding will then
need to be verified in the laboratory. It is also possible that any spider species
exerting an important influence on a worker ant population could be quite
specialized. On the other hand, our experience has been that the capture of
alate ants is much more general, not only among salticids, but among other
spiders as well.

We would like to thank J. B. Randall for the illustrations.


Blum, M. S., and P. S. Callahan. 1969. Chemical and biological properties of
the venom of the imported fire ant (Solenopsis saevissima var. richteri
Forel) and the isolation of the insecticidal component. XI. Int. Kongr.
F. Ent. Wien 1960, Verh. B. III:290-293.
Blum, M. S., J. R. Walker, P. S. Callahan, and A. F. Novak. 1958. Chemical,
insecticidal, and antibiotic properties of fire ant venom. Science
Blum, M. S., and H. R. Hermann. 1969. The hymenopterous poison gland.
Probable functions of the main glandular elements. J. Ga. Ent. Soc.
Bristowe, W. S. 1958. The world of spiders. Collings, London. 304 p.
Buren, W. F. 1958. A review of the species of Crematogaster sensu strict, in
North America (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Part I. J. N. Y. Ent. Soc.
Drees, 0. 1952. Untersuchungen uber die angeborenen Verbraltensweisen bei
springspinnen (Salticidae). Z. Tierpsychol. 9:167-173.
Glatz, L. 1967. Zur Biologie und Morpholige von Oecobius annulipes Lucas
(Araneae, Oecobiiae). Z. Morph. Tiere 61:185-214.
Hermann, H. R. 1969. The hymenopterous poison apparatus: Evolutionary
trends in three closely related subfamilies of ants. (Hymenoptera:
Formicidae). J. Ga. Ent. Soc. 4:123-141.


346 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 57, No. 4

Hoelldobler, B. 1969. Steotoda fulva (Theridiidae), a spider that feeds on
harvester ants. Psyche. 77(2):202-208.
Reed, C. F., P. M. Witt, and M. R. Scarboro. 1969. The orb web during the life
ofArgiope aurantia (Lucas). Developmental Psychobiol. 2(2):120-129.
Reed, C. F., P. M. Witt, M. B. Scarboro, and D. B. Peakall. 1970. Experience
and the orb web. Developmental Psychobiol. 3(4):251-265.
Shepard, M., and F. Gibson. 1972. Spider-ant symbiosis: Cotinusa spp.
(Araneida: Salticidae) and Tapinoma melanocephalum
(Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Can. Ent. 104:1951-1954.
Weber, N. A. 1957. Fungus-growing ants and their fungi: Cyphomyrmex cos-
tatus. Ecology. 38:480-494.
Whitcomb, W. H. 1974. Natural populations of entomophagous arthropods
and their effect on the agroecosystem. Miss. Symp. Biological Control
(in press).
Wilson, E. 0. 1968. The insect societies. Belknap Press. Cambridge, Mass. p.

The Florida Entomologist



Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service,
United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.'


Eugaurax setigena Sabrosky (Diptera: Chloropidae), a new stem miner in
water hyacinth, is described.

Recent interest in the biological control of weeds has included attention to
the aquatic weed Eichhornia, or water hyacinth. In the course of investiga-
tions, Dr. Fred D. Bennett of the Commonwealth Institute of Biological
Control, Curepe, Trinidad, reared a stem miner that is an undescribed species
of the chloropid genus Eugaurax. I am indebted to Dr. Bennett for the
material and for permission to deposit the holotype in the U. S. National
Museum of Natural History.
The new species was included in my key (1950, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 40:184)
to the species of Eugaurax as "sp." on the basis of the distinctive character of
2 rows of strong black bristles on each cheek, and thus the key needs no
revision as far as it goes. The material available at that time was inadequate
for further description. In the light of the present series, however, it now
appears that 2 or possibly 3 species are characterized by the strong black cheek
bristles, and that only 1 of the earlier specimens is referable to the presently
described species. The other still await adequate material.
Little is known of the food habits of the species of Eugaurax, and there are
also relatively few specimens in collections. Four examples of Eugaurax
floridensis Malloch before me were reared by Stuart Neff in October and
November 1961 in Princess Anne County, Va., "ex Sagittaria falcata", and a
series of the E. quadrilineata complex from Spring Lake, Fla., 3 March 1930 is
labeled "ex egg plant". Further details are lacking for both hearings.

Eugaurax setigena, new species
(Fig. 1, 2)
Yellow, the mesonotum posteriorly with 4 black stripes, and 2 rows of
black bristles along lower margin of cheek.
Male, female.-Predominantly yellow, marked with black to brownish
black as follows: Slender distal portion of arista, ocellar spot, moderately
broad central area of occiput, posterior portions of 4 mesonotal stripes (Fig. 1),
polished postnotum, a small spot in each anterolateral corner of abdominal
tergum 1+2, broad basal bands on terga 3 to 5, and all bristles.
Eyes hairy; frons slightly longer, ca. 1.25 times, than wide, its width at

'Mailing address: c/o U. S. National Museum, Washington, D.C. 20560.

Vol. 57, No. 4


The Florida Entomologist

vertex 1.3 times width of eye and ca. 0.40 times width of head; frontal triangle
equilateral, half the length of frons and not touching eyes at vertex, thinly
tomentose and subshining; height of cheek ca. 0.2 height of eye and half or less
the breadth of 3rd antennal segment, lower cheek margin with 2 rows of
strong, straight, black bristles, 5 or 6 in each row, the rows converging
anteriorly (Fig. 2); 3rd antennal segment comparatively large, reniform; arista
distinctly pubescent; inner and outer vertical and postvertical bristles
especially strong, black and distinct; ocellar bristles well developed but brown
and less distinct; a row of hair-like orbitals on each side of frons, 4-6 pairs
especially prominent.


Fig. 1-2. Eugaurax setigena Sabrosky: 1. mesonotal pattern; 2. cheek
and bristles.

Mesonotum subshining, thinly tomentose, mesonotal stripes abbreviated
to a row of 4 oval spots between wing bases, the mesal pair smaller than outer;
mesonotum and scutellum beset with numerous straight and stout black
bristles characteristic of Eugaurax, including several on anterior slope mesad
of each humerus, 12 or more humerals, 2 presuturals, a number of no-
topleurals, 2 postalars, 2 irregular prescutellar rows across posterior slope of
mesonotum, and 2 irregular rows of marginal scutellars. Venation normal for

Length, 1.75-2 mm.

Holotype, female, and 1 male, 3 female paratypes, Georgetown, Guyana,
February 1968, reared from stem miners in Eichhornia paniculata (Spreng.)
Solms (F. D. Bennett); 1 male, 1 female paratype, same data as holotype
except stem miner in Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms; 1 female paratype,
Brokopondo, Surinam, February 1968, stem miner in E. crassipes (F. D.
Bennett); 1 male paratype, intercepted at Miami, Fla., on plane from
Barranquilla, Colombia, 15 March 1944 (W. W. Wirth). Type No. 73094 in the
U. S. National Museum of Natural History, paratypes in same collection or
returned to the collector.

Vol. 57, No. 4


Vol. 57, No. 4 The Florida Entomologist 349



Florida A & M University, Tallahassee, Florida 32307


The chorion of the egg of Tortopus incertus (Traver) was studied with the
scanning electron microscope. Embryonic development at various tempera-
tures was observed externally. Anatrepsis was blocked at 13.650 + 1 C. Eggs
kept at 19.450 + 1 and 23.0' + 10 C hatched after 33 and 41 days respectively.
Mandibular tusks were present in the fully developed embryos. The
morphology of the first and second nymphal instars was given; the cleaning
and burrowing behavior of the first nymphal instars were described. First
nymphal instars have a decided preference for burrowing in mud substrate
over sand.

Nymphs of the burrowing mayfly Tortopus incertus (Traver) occur in
interconnecting U-shaped burrows in clay banks of many streams and rivers in
the Nearctic region. Scott, Berner and Hirsch (1959) studied the nymphal
biology of this species. This paper reports the study of the various embryonic
stages of T. incertus as seen externally through the chorion, the effect of
different temperatures on embryogenesis, and the morphology and behavior
of the early postembryonic instars.


We collected eggs for this study from female images 21 and 28 August 1971,
from the Apalachicola River near Bristol on Hwy 20, Liberty County, Florida.
Female images collected at mercury vapor lamp deposited their eggs into cups
of river water. Comparatively fewer male images appeared at the light trap,
and it is possible that some females were unmated. The actual mating
behavior of T. incertus is unknown at the present time. We transferred the
eggs into watch glasses filled with distilled water and kept the eggs at 3
different temperatures: 13.650 + 1 C, 19.45 + 1 C, and 23.00 +10 C. The
water was changed daily, and the eggs were observed daily for the first 15 days
of the study and then at 2 day intervals. We dissected the eggs from their
adhesive coverings in 80% alcohol and transferred them directly into a drop of
xylene-free balsam dissolved in cellosolve (ethylene glycol mono ethyl ether).
Staining of the embryo is unnecessary since it has a reddish-brown coloration
that readily allows differentiation. Some early stages of embryogeny cannot
be studied by external observation, but a major part of the embryonic
development can be seen as the chorion is relatively transparent.

'Supported by a grant from the Cooperative State Research Service, U.S.D.A., P.L. 86-106, to
Florida A & M University, William L. Peters, Principal Investigator.
Present address: Environmental Sciences Division, Environmental Science and Engineering,
Inc., P. O. Box 13454 University Station, Gainesville, Florida 32601.

The Florida Entomologist


The egg of T. incertus is bowl-shaped; it has the appearance of "a sphere
which has had one side pushed in." (Koss 1968). Each female imago produces
700-1,200 eggs, depending upon her size, and eggs range in size from 0.45-0.50
mm diam. An adhesive coat covers each egg, and the chorion is transparent
and evenly punctated. Fig. 1 and 2 are scanning electron micrographs of the
chorion taken at magnifications of 4000X and 15,000X respectively. Each pit
has an average diameter of about 3/i, and the area in the pit is highly

Fig. 1-2. Scanning electron micrographs of the chorion of T. incertus.
1-4000 X; 2-15,000 X.

Eggs of T. incertus have a highly variable rate of development; therefore,
the ages (in days) given are only approximated. The following description
applies to those eggs that were kept at the temperature of 19.45' + 1 C. At the
beginning of development the egg appeared to be a mass of yolky substance
enclosed in the chorion. On about the 8th day, large yolk cells could be
observed externally. Since no sectioning was made, it was not possible to
observe the formation of the blastoderm and the differentiation of the ventral
plate. It is possible that by the 8th day the ventral plate was already formed,
as the development of an opening on the posterior surface of the cell mass
leading into a cavity (the amniotic pore and cavity) occurred on the 12th day.
Embryogeny of T. incertus is of the invaginated type, and has been similarly
reported for Ephemera strigata Eaton [Ephemeridae] by Ando and Kawana
(1956), and for Baetis vernus Curtis and B. rhodani (Pictet) [Baetidae] by
Bohle (1969). In this type of development, the germ band is invaginated into
the yolk except in the protocephalic region. Anatrepsis or the segmentation of

Vol. 57, No. 4


Tsui: Tortopus incertus Development and Behavior

*iri- 1is


^ ;
*^l r



Fig. 3-5. Photographs of T. incertus embryo (arrow indicates the direction
in which the embryo is moving). 3-Early katatrepsis; 4-late katatrepsis;
5-post-katatrepsis. PP = posterior pole, YC = yolk cell, ab = abdominal seg-
ment, at= antenna, c=cercus, cl= cephalic lobe, o= ocellus, th=thoracic

The Florida Entomologist

the germ band proceeded inside the yolk and occurred between the 12th and
the 15th day. At the terminal stage of anatrepsis, the cephalic lobe and the
antennary segment protruded out of the yolk cells at the posterior pole of the
egg. Following anatrepsis the embryo entered the katatrepsis stage. This
involved the evagination of the embryo from the yolk mass and revolution of
the embryo from the posterior pole to the anterior pole (Fig. 3, 4). Most of the
embryos completed katatrepsis between the 15th and the 21st day of
development (Fig. 5). Once the embryo had reorientated, it began to grow, and
the various gnathocephalic and thoracic appendages became fully differen-
tiated. At the same time the amount of yolky material gradually decreased.
On about the 27th to 29th day most of the embryos were well developed (Fig.
6). Anteriorly, the head was well differentiated and the antennae, rudiments
of the compound eyes, and 3 ocelli were visible. The ocelli were larger than the
undeveloped compound eyes, whitish at the lower portions, and black at the
upper portions. Beneath the median ocellus the egg burster could be recog-
nized easily by its brownish color. The mandibular tusks were present at this
stage; they were 0.11-0.13 mm long and about 0.03 mm wide at the base. In the
thoracic region, the legs were developed with smooth and curved tarsal claws
that measured 0.11-0.12 mm, and the abdominal segments and the 3 terminal
filaments were developed.


Fig. 6. A 28th day embryo of T. incertus (eb = egg burster, mt = mandibular

In 2 separate experiments at the same temperature (19.450 + 1 C) the eggs
began to hatch on the 33rd day. We did not observe eclosion. In a fully
developed egg a preformed line of weakness in the form of a semicircle was
visible at the anterior end (Fig. 7). Eclosion probably occurred by breaking this

Fig. 7. Egg shell of T. incertus after eclosion.

Vol. 57, No. 4


Tsui: Tortopus incertus Development and Behavior

line of weakness with the help of the egg burster. We mounted a prelarval cast
skin, which is a fine embryonic cuticle enclosing the embryo, on a slide, in
water, and studied it under a phase-contrast microscope. The structure of the
egg burster is shown in Fig. 8, 9, and 10. It is a knife-like structure about 36ji
long. There are 10 lateral projections along the sides and it has a V-shaped
cross section at the larger apical end. The cutting edge of the egg burster is
highly serrated.

Fig. 8-10. Structure of the egg burster. 8-Anterior view; 9-lateral view;
10-apical cross section, enlarged twice.

Eggs kept at 13.65 +10 C did not undergo anatrepsis, and the amniotic
pore and cavity were not observed. The low temperature blocked
morphogenesis and caused quiescence. In 2 experiments, eggs kept in this
temperature for 20 and 40 days were subsequently transferred to a water bath
of higher temperature (19.450 +10 C), where they continued to undergo nor-
mal development and later hatched to healthy first nymphal instars. Eggs
kept at the room temperature (23.00 + 1 C) developed more slowly than those
at 19.45' +10 C. At this temperature morphogensis was slightly retarded. The
first instars closed after 41 days of incubation.
Following are descriptions of the first and second instar nymphs of T.
First Nymphal Instars. (Fig. 11-13, 15): Body campodeiform, length
0.98-1.01 mm; width of head 0.16-0.18 mm. Head (Fig. 15): prognathous,
opaque white, a little triangular, slightly concave medially. Compound eyes
black, relatively undeveloped. Three ocelli present, black. Antennae (Fig. 15):
a little longer than head, 5 segmented, segment 3 equal to segments 1 and 2
combined. Mandibular tusks present (Fig. 15); length 0.18 mm, maximum
width 0.05 mm, anterior inner margin with 2 hairs. Thorax: opaque white, 3
thoracic segments rectangular, length of meso and metathorax equal, length
of prothoracic segment shorter. Legs (Fig. 11-13): opaque, all with long,
moderately curved tarsal claws, without denticles. Fore tarsi comparatively


The Florida Entomologist

Fig. 11-13. Tarsi and tarsal claws of the first instar nymph. 11-Fore;
12-middle; 13-hind.

dilated. Abdomen: 10 visible segments, gills absent. Three caudal filaments, 5
visible segments, median filament longer than cerci.
Second Nymphal Instars. (Fig. 14, 16): Body campodeiform, length 1.3-1.4
mm; width of head 0.21-0.23 mm. Head (Fig. 16): opaque white; more square.
Compound eyes and ocelli similar to first instars. Antennae (Fig. 16): a little
longer than head, 6 segmented. Mandibular tusks (Fig. 16): longer than first
instars, length 0.28 mm, maximum width 0.13 mm. Thorax similar to first
instars. Legs similar to first instars except fore tarsi (Fig. 14). Abdomen:
abdominal gills 2-7 present, filamentous, length 0.08-0.10 mm. Caudal
filaments longer than first instars, 6 segmented.


Fig. 14. Fore tarsus and tarsal claw of the second instar nymph.

The early appearance of the mandibular tusks in T. incertus as compared
to other burrowing mayflies, is of particular interest. Neave (1932) found that
the mandibular tusks were absent in the first nymphal instars of Hexagenia
limbata occulata Walker (Ephemeridae) and that the mandibular tusks
began to develop in Ephemera-species when they reached a body length of 2.50
mm. Ide (1935a) showed that the first nymphal instars of Ephemera simulans
Walker did not have mandibular tusks. From Ide's illustrations, the man-
dibular tusks were seen only as tubercles in the 7th instars. Similarly, Ide
(1935b) reported the absence of mandibular tusks for the first nymphal instars

Vol. 57, No. 4

Tsui: Tortopus incertus Development and Behavior

Fig. 15-16. Dorsal view of the nymphal head (left half). 15-First instar;
16-second instar.

of Ephoron leukon Williamson (Polymitarcidae) and Potamanthus rufus Argo
(Potamanthide). Ando & Kawana (1956) in their study of the embryology of
Ephemera strigata also provided a description of the first and second instar
nymphs, and again the mandibular tusks were absent. Britt (1962) reported
the absence of mandibular tusks in the first and second instars of Ephoron
album (Say) but in the fifth instars, the mandibular tusks extended 0.067 mm
beyond the rostrum. In the present study we observed that the mandibular
tusks were already formed in the late embryo; they measured 0.18 mm and
0.28 mm in length in the first and second instars respectively. From an evolu-
tionary standpoint, the early development of the mandibular tusks is regarded
as embryonization. Observations made on the behavior of the first instars
showed that the early appearance of the mandibular tusks are of great use to
the nymphs in performing their cleaning, digging, and burrowing.
First and second instars are active swimmers, and we frequently observed
them cleaning their caudal filaments. While lying on their backs they caught
the basal portion of the caudal filaments between their mandibular tusks,
then they straightened out pulling the filaments through the mouthparts.
When nymphs were placed in a petri dish with fine mud from their natural
habitat, the significance of this cleaning behavior became evident. Unless
frequently cleaned, the caudal filaments entangled in a slime-like film on the
mud substrate which impeded swimming activity.
When provided with a fine mud substrate, these early instars burrowed
into it. The fore legs dug into the mud while the mandibular tusks pushed the
mud away. Digging ceased when the entire body minus the caudal filaments
was buried.

356 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 57, No. 4

N r of Number of nymphs Number of nymphs Nymphs on
Trial No. umbr o recovered from recovered from
nymphs used mud sand side of chamber

1 20 14 4 2
2 14 12 2 0
3 14 8 6 0
Total 48 34 12 2

*Substrate preference, based on Mann-Whitney U Test, was statistically significant, p=0.05.

To determine substrate preference, we made a small choice chamber (4 cm
diam) by spreading a thin layer of mud 1 cm thick in half of the petri dish and
a layer of sand (particle size 380-490p) in the other half. First instars were
introduced into the middle of the chamber, left for 20-25 min, and recovered.
In each trial, fresh nymphs were used. The results of this experiment is
represented in Table 1. It can be seen that a greater percentage of nymphs
were recovered from the mud substrate; therefore, the first instar nymphs
appear to have a preference for the mud substrate.


The authors express their appreciation to Paul H. Carlson for his help in
collecting the eggs for this study. We would also like to thank Janice G. Peters
for reconstructing the figure of the egg burster, and help in the production of
this paper.


Ando, H., and T. Kawana. 1956. Embryology of mayfly (Ephemera strigata
Eaton) as studied by external observation. Kontyf 24:224-232.
Bohle, H. W. 1969. Untersuchungen iiber die Embryonalentwicklung und die
embryonale Diapause bei Baetis vernus Curtis und Baetis rhodani
(Pictet) (Baetidae, Ephemeroptera). Zool. Jb. Anat. Bd. 86, S:493-575.
Britt, N. W. 1962. Biology of two species of Lake Erie mayflies, Ephoron
album (Say) and Ephemera simulans Walker. 2# Ohio Biol. Surv.
Ide, F. P. 1935a. Post embryological development of Ephemeroptera
(Mayflies). External characters only. Canad. J. Res. 12:433-478.
Ide, F. P. 1935b. Life history notes on Ephoron, Potamanthus, Leptophlebia
and Blasturus with descriptions (Ephemeroptera). Canad. Ent.
Koss, R. W. 1968. Morphology and taxonomic use of Ephemeroptera eggs.
Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 61:696-721.
Neave, F. 1932. A study of the May Flies (Hexagenia) of Lake Winnipeg.
Contr. Canad. Biol. Fish. 7(15):179-201.
Scott, D. C., L. Berner, and A. Hirsch. 1959. The nymph of the mayfly genus
Tortopus (Ephemeroptera: Polymitarcidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer.
Smith, O. R. 1935. The eggs and egg-laying habits of North American mayflies,
p. 67-89. In Needham, Traver, and Hsu, The biology of mayflies with a
systematic account of North American species. Comstock Pub. Co.,

The Florida Entomologist



Department of Entomology and Economic Zoology,
Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29631


A cone emergence trap for the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), was
constructed of hardware cloth with a Leggett trap top attached to the apex of
the cone. This modification enabled the trap to sample pecan weevils emerging
beneath it as well as those which crawl up the outside of the cone. With use of
pheromones, the trap's efficiency could be further increased. The trap was as
efficient as the presently used cone traps and collected over 9 times as many
weevils during peak emergence than did cone emergence traps without the
Leggett top modification. This modified trap also detected weevil emergence
later in the season.

Several methods have been developed to monitor the emergence of adult
pecan weevils, Curculio caryae (Horn) (Raney and Eikenbary 1969, Nash and
Thomas 1972, Polles and Payne 1973). A method most often used by
researchers is a cone emergence trap modified by Raney and Eikenbary (1969)
from the pink bollworm emergence trap (Shiller 1946). This screen cone was
supported by wooden laths with a mason jar mounted at the apex. Inherent
weaknesses in this trap were overcome by Polles and Payne (1972) by
increasing the trap's radius to form a flair to be anchored under soil, and
increasing the strength of the cone's apex by inserting a polyethylene funnel.
Because pecan weevils exhibit a strong negative geotactic response, earlier
cone traps collected only those weevils which emerged beneath them. This
present design was developed to collect weevils which not only emerged
beneath the trap but also those which crawled up the outside of the trap.

The cone traps were the same size as those designed by Raney and Eiken-
bary (1969) but were constructed of 1/8-in. mesh hardware cloth instead of
screen wire which negated the use of supporting wooden laths (Fig. 1). Also,
the stiff hardware cloth could be fashioned in such a manner at the top so that
a plastic funnel was not necessary. The apex of the cone was shaped to form a
hole of approximately V2-in. The top, screen-cone portion of a Leggett trap
(Leggett and Cross 1971) for the boll weevil, Anthonomusgrandis (Boheman),
was placed on the hardware cloth cone and secured by paper clips. Adequate
space was allowed for pecan weevils to crawl up the outside of the cone under
the Leggett cone and into the plastic box at the apex (Fig. 1). This was
accomplished by inserting plastic straws under the Leggett cone to act as

'Technical contribution number 1133 published by permission of the Director, South Carolina
Agricultural Experiment Station.

Vol. 57, No. 4


The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 57, No. 4



;- .


k. -i


Fig. 1. Modified cone emergence trap constructed of hardware cloth with a
Leggett trap top.

spacers. The traps were secured to the ground by breaking the soil around the
circumference of the trap, pushing its base into the soft soil, and inserting
three 9-in. nails through the base of the trap. The soft soil was then firmly
packed to prevent emerging weevils from escaping under the base.
Comparisons were made using 4 replicates each of the following types of
traps: 1) improved trap of Polles and Payne (1972), 2) the hardware cloth trap
with a Leggett top, and 3) the hardware cloth trap with a jar top. Six weevils (3
males, 3 females) were introduced into each trap and the numbers of weevils

A .l .

. A. --WFW .- 1A&F

West and Shepard: Cone Trap for Pecan Weevils

finding their way to the top of each trap were recorded from 4 Sept. to 8 Sept.
1973. This comparison was made to insure that weevils could not find their
way out from beneath the Leggett top and further to observe the overall
trapping efficiency of each type of trap.
In other field studies conducted in a large orchard at St. Mathews, S. C., 2
types of cone traps were compared; the hardware cloth trap with a Leggett top
and the same type of trap except with a jar top. Five of each type of cone trap
were randomly placed under each of 6 trees. Traps under the 12 trees were
checked twice weekly from 30 July to 7 Sept. 1973, during which time peak
emergence of weevils occurred; then weekly thereafter for a total of 15
sampling dates.
A notable advantage of the hardware cloth trap with a Leggett top was the
strong hardware cloth which eliminated the need for supporting laths. The
rigid cone was capable of withstanding severe elements such as high winds.
Cost of construction of the trap was comparable to that of the earlier emer-
gence traps and time required for construction was substantially decreased.
The most significant advantage was the Leggett top modification. The overall
efficiency in detecting emerging weevils was increased because it captured
weevils emerging from the soil beneath the cone and those from outside the
trap which crawled up the sides of the cone. The added capability of being able
to monitor weevils emerging from the soil as well as those which were present
in other parts of the orchard may reduce the number of traps required to
detect weevil emergence.
Comparison of 3 types of cone traps revealed that the cone trap with the
Leggett top was as efficient as the other traps in collecting and holding pecan
weevils. The cone trap with a Leggett top collected an average of 4.25 weevils
4 days after introducing 6 into each trap as did cones with jar tops. Cone traps
with plastic funnels collected only 1.25 weevils per trap after the same time
period. Further, these tests and other laboratory observations revealed that
the weevils had some difficulty in negotiating the smooth inside surface of the
plastic funnel which was used in the cone trap modification by Polles and
Payne (1972).
Based on season averages from 30 July to 28 Sept. 1973, the hardware cloth
trap with a Leggett top collected an average of ca. 3 times as many weevils as
did the same trap with a jar top. Although both kinds of traps detected
seasonal trends, at peak emergence (29 Aug. 1973) the cone-Leggett traps
collected 128 weevils compared to 14 by the cone traps with jar tops. Also, the
cone-Leggett traps were able to detect weevil populations later in the season
than cone-jar traps. The difference in mean numbers collected by the cone-
Leggett trap was significant at the 0.01 level. The overall coefficient of
variability was slightly lower for the cone-Leggett trap based on total trap
catches for the season.
Survey and detection methods for pecan weevil emergence are essential to
making wise treatment decisions. The addition of a pheromone to this present
cone trap modification could attract and collect weevils from other areas in
the pecan orchard. This could greatly refine detection of seasonal emergence
of pecan weevils by strategically placing only a few traps in areas with a
history of high weevil infestations.


The Florida Entomologist

The assistance of Mr. Randy McWhorter is greatly appreciated. We are
grateful to Mr. Tom Harmon, St. Mathews, South Carolina, for the use of his
pecan orchard.

Leggett, J. E., and W. H. Cross. 1971. A new trap for capturing boll weevils.
USDA Coop. Econ. Insect Rep. 21:773-74.
Nash, R. F., and C. A. Thomas. 1972. Adult pecan weevil emergence in the
upper coastal plains of South Carolina. J. Econ. Ent. 65:908.
Polles, S. G., and J. A. Payne. 1972. An improved emergence trap for adult
pecan weevils. J. Econ. Ent. 65:1529.
Polles, S. G., andJ. A. Payne. 1973. Techniques for timing spray application to
control the pecan weevil. Proceedings of the 66th annual convention of
the S. E. Pecan Growers Association. p. 101-8.
Raney, H. G., and R. D. Eikenbary. 1969. A simplified trap for collecting adult
pecan weevils. J. Econ. Ent. 62:722-3.
Shiller, I. 1946. A hibernation cage for the pink bollworm. USDA, Bur. Ent.
Plant Quar. ET-226. 6 p.


Specialezing in Boo is and pudticEtions

Storter Printing Co.


Vol. 57, No. 4

Vol. 57, No. 4 The Florida Entomologist 361



Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611


Fluorescent dust was used to mark field-collected, field-collected and
sterilized, and laboratory-reared Hippelates pusio Loew adults for dispersal
studies. The dispersion of the field-collected adults was much greater than
that of the laboratory-reared gnats. The average dispersal distance of field-
collected and sterilized gnats was slightly greater than the non-sterilized field
gnats, thus sterilization did not appear to affect dispersion. The farthest
distance of dispersal was 1106 m (1 gnat), while the longest interval following
release that a marked gnat was collected was 10 days.
During a 2 year period, the months of June through August yielded the
highest field populations, with peaks occurring during July. The population
density of H. pusio calculated for a 213.3 ha (527 acres) partially wooded farm
was approximately 2 to 5 thousand per 0.4 ha (acre) or a total of 1 to 3 million

In some localities of the southeastern United States the eye gnat Hip-
pelates pusio Loew, presents a severe problem in agricultural areas, inrural
cities, and around recreational and tourist sites. This pest can be very annoy-
ing to both man and domestic animals. Because it is attracted to sores, cuts,
secretions, and natural orifices of man and animals, eye gnats act as
mechanical carriers of some etiological agents, (Bassett 1967 and 1970, Dow
and Hines 1957, Roberts 1968, Saunders 1940).
Presently there are no control measures which are effective for long periods
against the eye gnat. Aerial spraying and fogging give only temporary relief.
Applying soil larvicides is expensive since the areas needing treatment are
usually very large. One method which may give control is to combine pes-
ticides or chemosterilants with potent attractants and to treat natural
populations before they reach pestiferous levels. A combination of the above
methods might suppress eye gnat populations to tolerable levels.
Dow and Hutson (1958) measured adult H. pusio populations in
southwestern Georgia. Dow (1959) tagged field eye gnats with radioactive
phosphorus, P32, and found they migrated into a rural community 1/2 1 mile
away on the day of release. Mulla and March (1959) reporting on the flight
range, dispersal patterns and population densities of H. collusor (Townsend)
in California, stated that dispersal occurred both upwind and downwind with

'Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 5394. Supported in part by Grant
No. 12-14-1008023(33), Agr. Res. Serv., USDA.
'Present Address: West Florida Arthropod Research Laboratory, P. O. Box 2326, Panama City,
Florida 32401.
'4732 St. Clair Ave., Cleveland, Ohio 44103.
'Laboratory strain of Hippelates pusio was obtained from USDA Man and Animals Laboratory,
Gainesville, Florida 32601.

The Florida Entomologist

the greatest distance traveled, 4.3 miles, with the wind. They estimated the
population density at 3 to 5 thousand gnats per acre. Axtell and Edwards
(1970) sampled seasonal populations of Hippelates gnats in North Carolina
and found that H. pusio was most abundant during July through October.
Before control programs of any type can be initiated it is essential to
determine such factors as dispersion and population levels of the target insect.
The purpose of this study was twofold. First, to determine the differences,
if any, between the dispersion of laboratory-reared, field-collected and
sterilized, and untreated field-collected eye gnats. Second, to estimate the
population densities and peaks of H. pusio in a selected area.

DISPERSION-The adult eye gnats used in all releases were marked with
"Day Glo" daylight fluorescent pigments (Switzer Brothers Inc.).3 The colors
used were rocket red (A-13), horizon blue (A-19), and saturn yellow (A-17).
Tests indicated that 0.05 g was the optimum amount of fluorescent dust
needed for marking 1,000 gnats in a dusting container. The dusting containers
were prepared by placing the dust in a 2 qt, standard-mouth mason jar and
rotating the jar until the dust was evenly dispersed on the inside. The eye
gnats were anesthetized with CO, and placed in the jar. The mason jar was
then slowly rotated 4 to 5 revolutions. This method is similar to the one used
on face flies by Turner and Gerhardt (1965). Eye gnats marked with the
fluorescent dust lived an average of 16 days while unmarked controls averaged
19 days. Laboratory-reared gnats marked with the dust lived an average of 45
days, while unmarked laboratory controls averaged 43 days. The marked eye
gnats were held for 6 hr for mortality checks. Mortality prior to releases never
exceeded 7%. The eye gnats were sterilized by placing anesthetized and dusted
eye gnats in a container and covering them with tepa-treated polystyrene
foam strands. Upon recovery the gnats crawled upward through the foam
strands picking up a sterilizing dose of the chemosterilant (Williams and
Kuitert 1971). Three independent releases, each containing approximately
12,000 marked eye gnats, were made using the following strains: (1) field-
collected gnats, (2) laboratory-reared (F-139)4 gnats, and (3) chemosterilized
field-collected gnats.
Marked eye gnats were transported to the release site at the University of
Florida Horticulture Farm 10 miles N. W. of Gainesville. This site consisted of
213.3 ha (527 acres) of which 105.2 (260) were under cultivation and the
remainder was wooded with deciduous and pine trees (Fig. 1). The entire area
was surrounded by tall, dense stands of trees. The release program was carried
out from June through August 1968. All eye gnats were released on a Monday
at 3:00 PM. Wind direction, velocity, and air temperature (12 in. above
ground) were recorded at the point of release. Also, the mean relative
humidity during the first week of each release was recorded for the general
The 37 trapping sites were located so that the majority were in cultivated
areas. Traps used in all tests were of the glass-funnel, plastic cylinder type and
a mixture of putrefying shrimp and distilled water was used as the attractant
(Ruff 1967). All traps were set with the attractant prior to each release and the
attractant was replenished every 3rd day. Plastic collection cylinders on the
traps were changed daily for 2 weeks following each release. All collections
were examined with an ultraviolet light for marked gnats.

Vol. 57, No. 4

X release site
0 empty traps
W l'P., unmarked gnats
Af..r ;V - *marked field-collected gnats
I A..A... D4V markedd sterilized field-collected gnats
I iqr"4 q *i v v r
S,-.A-- ..... ,, A marked laboratory gnats
--L ,, t- ri -" J1t ,.-. C L'", .' ,
,. - .. .. . *;, . - .. .,- .. ,
,'.' *^ .'- *-*^ '" ,-.. ." ;,a ;.,-

-I T&OL A4Lt '

-'A .- .-- ,=-. ^. 't,,;.. ., ,-;.
1^;' "'- ;-^ -' '." ji. : i .... l ^., .^ -;^' -:-._ ,, .. .. ..:, *

Ia -';' "-:* .. .. *-- -,' ',- '- --.(' '-.
"A 'prpet n

1 .B. Ile..t., e., t:-
"."1 -". : = J : .. -' -.-.-- C ". '
:.'i :, ,'U-- : -* ... "i .. -" -'-.1:' -'- i'- -,
S6-;-.^.,. .'--- - L'- "i : ""- ,': - " "

sterilized-, fiel d lle adl- to-" H. pus-o .2 hr following
Field road

_permanent stream
:::::::.::::::,:,,:r:.'-:.--. r :: :-- : -I:-: :! ...1: :: : cultivated area
_--j i I J, 'I . ..

.. .. I..t:,4:.'t ,,," pine tree stand,. ,
Fig. 1. Map of test area indicating dispersal patterns of field-collected,
rele 'ase.

N 660 ft. 1320 feet

.,: ." 3 2 -Y ~ woodland area
property line
paved road
field road
permanent stream

: ::: :::::..... ::::::::::::::::::::::::: c ultivated a rea
!, u 1 .1 1 % -A',." pine tree stand

Fig. 1. Map of test area indicating dispersal patterns of field-collected,
sterilized field-collected, and laboratory reared H. pusio 24 hr following

The Florida Entomologist

POPULATION DENSITIES-The population densities of field adult eye gnats
were measured over a 2 year period. The traps and attractant used were the
same as in the dispersal study. Traps were usually set on Monday, collected
daily Tuesday through Friday, and generally were not collected over the
Collection cylinders were returned to the laboratory and eye gnats were
identified, counted, and sexed. During peak population periods, only random
samples of 100 gnats were sexed. Collections greater than 1,000 were estimated
by counting aliquot fractions.
Traps were usually operated for 2 weeks in each month; however, during
the winter months few traps were operated, since eye gnat densities were
extremely low. During the summer, 37 traps were in operation each day.
The number of released and recaptured marked and unmarked eye gnats
was used to estimate population densities. Calculations were made by the
Lincoln index (Le Cren 1965) in which the total population is equal to the
number of marked individuals multiplied by the number of individuals
recaptured, divided by the number of marked individuals recaptured. These
estimations were based on some assumptions such as no migration in and out
of the area sampled and little or no mortality of released eye gnats; however,
many assumptions must be made in all capture-recapture methods of es-
timating population parameters (Southwood 1966) and this study was no
DISPERSION-The results of the dispersal studies are summarized in Table
1. In the first release (6/24/68), 12,000 field-collected eye gnats were marked
with rocket red Day-Glo dust. The released gnats lingered for a few minutes
and then readily dispersed upwind and downwind over the entire cultivated
area. The mean distance of dispersal was approximately 266 m (875 ft). Of the
37 traps that were set, 22 collected marked gnats during the 24 hr following the
release (Fig. 1). Traps collecting marked gnats 48 hr after the release declined
to 10; however, dispersion over the farm was still widespread. Marked eye
gnats were not collected in any traps 4 days or more after release even though
traps were operated for a total of 11 days. The total number of gnats (marked
and unmarked) collected during the entire 11 day period was 23,860. Of this
total, 116 were marked gnats.
In the second release (7/15/68), 12,000 3-to 5-day old laboratory (F-139)
gnats were marked with horizon blue Day-Glo dust. Since 95% of all field-
collected adults were females, this sex ratio was used for this release. The
release was made following rain showers. It was difficult to get the marked eye
gnats to leave the cages and as soon as this was accomplished, the gnats began
landing on the ground, vegetation, and also on personnel at the release site.
The mean distance of dispersal was approximately 134 m (440 ft). During the
24 hr following the release, marked laboratory eye gnats were collected in only
3 of the 37 traps (Fig. 1). Marked gnats were collected in 7 traps after 48 hr;
however, 3 days following the release, marked laboratory gnats were no longer
collected. The total collected for this 11 day period was 35,795 eye gnats with
only 17 marked gnats recaptured. The dispersion shown by these gnats was
definitely inferior to that displayed by the wild strains. The fact that it had
previously rained probably had little or no effect on the dispersion since other
laboratory gnats released on clear days reacted similarly to those in this

Vol. 57, No. 4

Williams and Kuitert: Eye Gnat Densities 365


z c
0 0


z 2o t



E -

0 S co M co

S ^:

The Florida Entomologist

The third release (7/29/68), like the second, was also made following rain
showers. The majority of eye gnats lingered only for a few seconds and then
dispersed in all directions. Some of the gnats flew only about 3 m before
landing on the ground. Marked sterilized eye gnats dispersed rapidly over the
general area. The mean distance of dispersal was 279 m (919 ft). Also, during
this period 12 of the 37 traps collected marked gnats (Fig. 1). Only 4 traps
collected marked gnats after 48 hr; however, 1 marked gnat from this release
was collected 10 days later, a fact that did not occur in the first and second
releases. The total number of eye gnats collected during 11 days was 20,272. Of
this number, 63 were marked eye gnats.
Dispersion of untreated field-collected eye gnats was farther and recapture
was greater than either sterilized field-collected or laboratory-reared strains.
The release involving laboratory-reared (F-139) eye gnats resulted in little
dispersion throughout the test. These gnats were recaptured in much smaller
numbers than the other 2 groups. The poor dispersion, few numbers recap-
tured, and the failure of the laboratory strain of eye gnats to fly from the
release cages indicated limited use in field experiments. When tepa-sterilized,
field-collected eye gnats were released, 1 gnat was collected 10 days following
the date of release, whereas untreated field-collected gnats were not collected
beyond 4 days following release. Also, 4 days after the untreated field-
collected gnats were released, a total of 11 marked gnats was recaptured. For
the same period following the release of the sterilized field-collected gnats, 7
marked gnats were recaptured. This small difference indicates that the lon-
gevity of these eye gnats was not shortened as a result of their sterilization.
Finally, the mean dispersal distance of the sterilized field-collected gnats was
slightly greater than the non-sterilized field-collected and more than 2 times
greater than the laboratory-reared strain.
POPULATION DENSITIES-A total of 320,252 field eye gnats was collected
from April 1967 to April 1969 and H. pusio comprised 96% of all species.
Our data apply principally to female H. pusio eye gnats since H. pusio
collections consisted of 95.3% females and only 4.7% males.
The highest densities of eye gnats, 380 per trap per day in 1967 and 785 per
trap per day in 1968, occurred during the month of July (Fig. 2). Apparently, 2
peaks occurred in 1967 and 3 in 1968. The major population peak of H. pusio is
mid-summer (July).
Although both laboratory-reared and field-collected adults were released,
it seemed reasonable to assume that the data for the non-sterilized field-
collected adults would give the most accurate estimate for wild populations in
the area surveyed. The results (Table 2) are given for 4 different time periods
(24, 48, 72, and 96 hr). The largest percent of marked gnats was recaptured
during the 24 hr period following release. Although the calculated total
population of gnats during this period was smaller than during the other time
periods, the percent recapture of marked gnats was much greater and thus
probably reflects a more accurate estimate.
When the overall results using the Lincoln index as a means of estimation
are observed, the total population of eye gnats for 213.3 ha (527 acres) was 1 to
3 million, with a density of 2 to 5 thousand gnats per 0.4 ha (acre). However, it
should be repeated that only 105.2 ha (260 acres) of the study area were under
cultivation, the remaining portion being in woodland. Eye gnats did not occur
in large numbers in the heavily wooded areas, thus the density of gnats per
hectare more than doubles (5 to 11 thousand) when 105.2 instead of 213.3 ha is
considered to be the preferred habitat.


Vol. 57, No. 4

Williams and Kuitert: Eye Gnat Densities 367







1967 19 68 1969
Fig. 2. Population fluctuations of the eye gnat H. pusio collected in 37
baited traps at a horticulture farm in Florida during a 2 year period.


Axtell, R. C., and T. D. Edwards. 1970. Seasonal population of Hippelates
gnats (Diptera: Chloropidae) in North Carolina. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer.
Bassett, D. C. J. 1967. Hippelates flies and acute nephritis. The Lancet. 1:503.
Bassett, D. C. J. 1970. Hippelates flies and streptococcal skin infection in
Trinidad. Trans. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 64:138-47.
Dow, R. P., and V. D. Hines. 1957. Conjunctivitis in southwest Georgia. Pub.
Health Rep. 72:441-48.
Dow, R. P., and G. A. Hutson. 1958. The measurement of adult populations of
the eye gnat, Hippelatespusio. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 51:351-60.
Dow, R. P. 1959. Dispersal of adult Hippelates pusio, the eye gnat. Ann. Ent.
Soc. Amer. 52:372-81.
Le Cren, E. D. 1965. A note on the history of mark-recapture population
estimates. J. Anim. Ecol. 34:453-54.
Mulla, M. S., and R. B. March. 1959. Flight range, dispersal patterns and
population density of the eye gnat, Hippelates collusor. Ann. Ent. Soc.
Amer. 52:641-46.
Roberts, R. H. 1968. A feeding association between Hippelates (Diptera:
Chloropidae) and Tabanidae on cattle: its possible role in transmission
of Anaplasmosis. Mosquito News 28:236-37.

The Florida Entomologist



Hours Total collection Marked Calulated Gats
Hours of gnats from gnats recaptured Calculated Gnats
following total per
lowing traps capturing
release marked individuals total No. % population* ha (acre)

24 8,599 69 .58 1,495,578 1148.5 (2,838)
48 4,455 18 .15 2,970,000 2280.9 (5,636)
72 2,596 18 .15 1,730,667 1329.0 (3,284)
96 2,459 11 .09 2,682,545 2059.9 (5,090)

MEAN 2,219,673 1704.6 (4,212)

*Calculated using the Lincoln index.

Ruff, J. P. 1967. Study of attractants and traps for eye gnats (Hippelatespusio
Loew). Unpublished M.S. thesis. University of Florida, Gainesville.
Sanders, D. A. 1940. Musca domestic and Hippelates flies-vectors of bovine
mastitis. Science. 92:286.
Southwood, T. R. E. 1966. Ecological methods with particular reference to the
study of insect populations. Meuthuen and Co., Ltd., London 391p.
Turner, E. C., Jr., and R. R. Gerhardt. 1965. A material for rapid marking of
face flies for dispersal studies. J. Econ. Ent. 58:584-85.
Williams, D. F., and L. C. Kuitert. 1971. Sterilization of Hippelatespusio with
Tepa and Metepa. J. Econ. Ent. 64:448-50.


At the annual meeting of the Florida Entomological Society held in
Orlando in September 1974, the membership voted to increase page charges in
The Florida Entomologist to $10.00 per page. These charges are waived for
members who do not have institutional or grant support. The increased charge
will become effective with the first 1975 issue.
At the same meeting the dues and subscription prices were changed. Dues
for active members will be $10.00 per year; for students dues remain $2.00 per
year; and institutional subscriptions will go to $15.00 per year.


Vol. 57, No. 4

The Florida Entomologist



Department of Biological Sciences,
Illinois State University, Normal, Illinois 61761


Trichadenotecnum circularoides Badonnel, described from Angola, is
recorded for the first time from the United States. Records are presented from
Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina. Thelytokous
parthenogenesis is demonstrated for the species. The egg and nymph are

Trichadenotecnum circularoides Badonnel was first described from the
Dundo region of Angola (Badonnel 1955:229). In October 1952, I found it
breeding on the outer wall of a building at the University of Florida, Gaines-
ville. Subsequently, I have found it at several other Florida localities and at
localities near the coast in Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina, and
I have received specimens from Athens, Georgia.
RECORDS-Florida: Alachua Co.: Cross Creek Hammock, 15 Nov. 1952,
beating red maples (Acer rubrum) along creek, 1 female; Gainesville, 8 Oct.
1952, on outer north wall of building, 21 females, 4 ny.; 24 Oct. and 22 Nov.
1953, on outer north wall of building, 14 females; Hendry Co.: Clewiston, 16-17
April 1954, on Ficus trunks in palm-Ficus hammock, 15 females, 4 ny.; Leon
Co.: 6 mi. S. Tallahassee on Highway 369, 25 Oct. 1973, beating turkey oak
(Quercus laevis) and live oak (Q. virginiana) in sand scrub, 1 female. Georgia:
Camden Co.: Crooked River State Park, 16 Oct. 1973, beating scrub live oak
(Quercus geminata) and long-leaf pine (Pinus australis) 2 females, 2 ny.;
Clarke Co.: Athens, 17 Sept. and 11 Oct. 1973, in nests of Euplilis wasps, 16
females, coll. R. & J. Matthews and C. Kislow. North Carolina: Dare Co.:
Buxton (Cape Hatteras), 23 Sept. 1973, beating trees and shrubs in forest, 1
female; New Hanover Co.: Masonboro State Park, 28 Sept. 1973, beating
mostly turkey oak and scrub live oak; 1 female; Pender Co.: 15 mi. W. Wil-
mington on Highway 17, 27 Sept. 1973, beating oaks and bay shrubs with much
Spanish moss, 2 females. South Carolina: Berkeley Co.: Bonneau, 3 Oct. 1973,
beating pine and hardwoods branches, 1 female; Charleston Co.: Sewee
Campgrounds near Awendaw, 1 Oct. 1973, beating branches in hardwoods-
pine forest, 1 female. Except where indicated otherwise, I collected the
specimens listed above.
PARTHENOGENESIS-Of 79 adults that have been collected in the field (76
in above records, three from Angola), all are females. These data suggested the
possibility of parthenogenesis. In October 1973, I took a single female alive for

'Contribution No. 307. Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department
of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, Florida 32602. ,
'Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Fla. Dep. Agr. and Cons. Serv.,
Gainesville, Florida.

Vol. 57, No. 4

The Florida Entomologist

culturing at Crooked River State Park, Georgia. Sixteen offspring of this
female reached adulthood, and all were females. These females oviposited
primarily in late November and December 1973 (the culture was then at
Illinois State University, Normal). These eggs began to hatch in early January
1974. No data were kept on percent hatch, but it appeared to be high, and the
resulting nymphs were vigorous. Some of them reached adulthood by early
February. Thus, thelytoky was demonstrated for the species.
IMMATURE STAGES-Eggs in culture are laid singly on exposed bark sur-
faces. Each egg is covered with a coat of fine debris particles of the same color
as surrounding crustose lichens. The chorion under the debris coat is dark
brown. The debris coat reaches beyond the egg, itself, covering a small region
of surrounding bark. Length measurements for 10 eggs (in mm with an error of
+0.0046 mm) showed a range of 0.33-0.44, a mean of 0.38, and a standard
deviation of 0.033.
Nymphs show the distinctive head markings of the adult: (1) a brown band
through the postclypeus from side to side, continuing laterally through each
compound eye and nearly to the posterior head margin and continuing
anteriorly in the middle of the postclypeus to its anterior margin and on
through the anteclypeus, (2) a brown line across the gena below the antennal
attachment. Most of the remainder of the head is creamy white. The dorsal
surfaces of head, thorax, and abdomen of the nymph, including compound
eyes and wing pads, are densely beset with gland hairs. The metatergum near
its posterior border bears a small rounded tubercle to each side of the midline.
The nymph of T. unum Sommerman has a similar pair of tubercles, but they
are pointed and adjoin each other on the midline (personal observation). The
antennae are relatively short for nymphs of this genus. Even on nymphs with
long wing pads, indicating a late instar, the antennae are not longer than
three-fourths of the body length. Nymphs in culture generally have a sparse
covering of faecal material on their upper surfaces.


Badonnel, A. 1955. Psocopteres de l'Angola. Diamang Pub. Cult. 26:1-267.

Vol. 57, No. 4

The Florida Entomologist



Subtropical Horticulture Research Unit,
Agr. Res. Serv., USDA, Miami, Florida 33158


Tests were made to determine the rate of loss of trimedlure (g/wick per
week) impregnated on cotton dental wicks (3/4 x 1 inch or 3/8 X 2 inch) and
exposed in plastic fruit fly traps in central Florida. The rate of loss from wicks
placed on the sunny side of trees was significantly greater than that from
wicks placed on the shady side. However, the rate of loss from the 2 sizes of
wicks on the sunny side of trees were not significantly different. The 2-in.
wicks held less lure and had to be retreated with attractant more often than
the 1-in. wicks. Temperature was the most important factor influencing the
rate of loss of trimedlure.

The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is one of the
most serious pests of fruit in the world. Therefore, continuous survey and
detection programs operated jointly by USDA and State regulatory agencies
are maintained in Florida, Texas, California, and Arizona to detect any in-
cipient infestations. Also, the USDA conducts a continuing research program
in Hawaii to find more effective attractants for use by these regulatory agen-
cies. This research has produced several attractants for Mediterranean fruit
flies including angelica seed oil (Steiner et al. 1957), siglure (Gertler et al.
1958), medlure, and trimedlure (UOP Chemical Co., East Rutherford, N. J.)
(Beroza et al. 1961). Trimedlure has now been used as the attractant for the
Mediterranean fruit fly in the Florida survey and detection programs for over
10 years.
The infestations of Mediterranean fruit flies in Florida in 1962 and 1963
were detected by the USDA and the Florida Division of Plant Industry
inspectors in Dade and Broward counties by using procedures worked out in
Hawaii (Anonymous 1967) where the fly is always present. Once the infesta-
tion had been found, additional traps were placed in adjacent and surrounding
areas so the infestation could be delineated. During the critical periods of
eradication, these traps were examined twice a week though, routinely, they
are serviced at 2-week intervals, year-round. However, problems were en-
countered in survey and detection at that time which indicated that addi-
tional information was needed concerning the factors affecting the use of
trimedlure in Florida.
At the suggestion of L. F. Steiner, an experiment was made in July 1962, to
determine the rate of loss of trimedlure (loss per wick per week) at Orlando, in

'Diptera: Tephritidae.
'Received for publication 17 May 1974.
3Mention of a proprietary product in this paper does not constitute an endorsement of this
product by the USDA.

Vol. 57, No. 4

The Florida Entomologist

central Florida. Subsequent investigations were made in Hawaii to establish
the factors that influence the length of attraction of trimedlure.

For the test in 1962, plastic traps (Steiner 1957) were placed in 5 orange
trees, 2 calamondin trees, a grapefruit tree, and a white sapote tree and on the
roof of the headhouse. Three traps, 2 with 3/4 in. diam x 1 in. long wicks
(Richmond Co., 111 Hawthorne Lane, Charlotte, N. C.) and one with a 3/8 in.
diam x 2 in. long wick, (Johnson & Johnson Co., New Brunswick, N. J.) were
placed in each tree. The traps with the 1-in. wick were arranged so that one
was on the northeast side of each tree in the shade and the other was hung
from a branch on either the southwest or west side of the tree. The trap with
the 2-in. wick was placed adjacent to the trap on the southwest or west side of
the tree. Also, 1 trap with the 1-in. wick on the headhouse roof was shaded by
a piece of plywood, but the 2 other traps there (1 with each size wick) were
adjacent to it in the sun. Thermocouples were placed in the 3 traps on the
headhouse roof. (Since Mediterranean fruit flies had not been found in survey
and detection traps in Orlando, no toxicant was used in the traps.)
The wicks were prepared for treatment by spreading an open paper clip
around each one so they could be handled without touching the wick itself.
Also, they were placed in the traps in a position that facilitated removal for
weighing and prevented them from contacting the side of the trap. Each wick
was weighed before and after it was first saturated with trimedlure (27 July
1962) and at intervals thereafter until the experiment was terminated.
Trimedlure was added to all wicks on 7 September, 19 October, and 30
November, and to the 2-in. wicks on 24 August, 21 September, and 9 November
1962. The exposure of the wicks was terminated 1 February 1963. Then the
wicks were weighed to estimate the amount of lure remaining, and were sent to
Honolulu. There, they were placed in an outdoor olfactometer containing
Mediterranean fruit flies along with a similar wick that had been freshly
treated with trimedlure. The number of flies attracted to each wick was
determined. (This could not be done in Florida where the Mediterranean fruit
fly was not endemic.)
Fig. 1 shows the average weekly loss of trimedlure by weight from dental
cotton wicks exposed in paired plastic traps (replicated 10 times) during the
late summer and fall 1962 and the triweekly loss during the winter months.
There was generally no significant difference in the weekly loss of trimedlure
from the 2-in. wicks compared with the adjacent 1-in. wicks. This result was
somewhat surprising because the 1-in. wicks have 30% more surface area, and
especially since Keiser (Nakagawa et al. 1971) subsequently found that the
rate of volatilization was a function of the surface area of the wick. However,
the 1-in. wicks did hold about 60% more trimedlure than the 2-in. wicks (Table
1). As a result, the 1-in. wicks were retreated at 6-week intervals during the
summer and fall; the 2-in. wicks were retreated at 2 to 4-week intervals.
(During December and January, the wicks were not retreated so the supply of
lure on the 2-in. wicks was nearly exhausted.)
The 1-in. wicks that were located in traps on the sunny, southwest side of
trees lost significantly more attractant than similar wicks in traps located on
the shady, northeast side (Fig. 1). However, all the trees were defoliated after

Vol. 57, No. 4

Burditt: Trimedlure Rate of Loss




/ /
s6.0. /
E /
1 4.0- ---- 3/8x2' sun
3/4 x I"-sun.,
2.0 -- 3/4 x l"-shade

0 i 1'
Auq Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan

Fig. 1. Cumulative loss of trimedlure (g/wick) from impregnated wicks in
plastic traps.

a severe freeze in mid-December 1962. As a result, there were no differences in
loss of lure from late December to the time when the experiment was ter-
The data showed a wide variation in loss of attractant from one week to the
next. A number of factors, temperature, wind velocity, shade, and humidity,
influenced the loss of trimedlure. For example, from 27 July, to 21 September,
the daily temperature in traps ranged from 22 to 450 C in the sun and 22 to 400
C in the shade. From then until 19 October, the temperature in traps ranged
from 17 to 400 in the sun and 17 to 350 in the shade. During the late fall and
winter, temperature appeared to be the most significant factor since there was
a direct relationship between the number of hours that the temperature
exceeded 150 C and the rate of loss (the daytime temperature generally
reached 30 to 350; however, night temperatures frequently dropped to
between 3 and 10 and, on one occasion, dropped to -60 C).
The results of the olfactometer test in Honolulu (Table 2) showed that all
of the 1-in. wicks retained sufficient trimedlure to attract as many Medi-
terranean fruit flies as the standard. Also, all 2-in. wicks containing about 0.4
g or more of trimedlure caught as many flies as the standard wicks. In con-
trast, 2 of the 2-in. wicks retained only a trace of trimedlure and were only
slightly attractive.
Table 3 shows significant differences in the total loss of lure (by weight)
from traps placed in the nine trees and on the roof, but these differences were
not consistent for the different size wicks and the shady or sunny side of the


The Florida Entomologist


Size and location of wicks
Date 3/8 x 2 in. 3/4 x 1 in. 3/4 x 1 in.
in in in
Sun Sun Shade

Jul 27* 4.11** 6.70 6.85
Aug 24 2.87 --- ---
Sep 7 1.22 3.86 2.90
Sep 21 1.68 --- ---
Oct 19 2.78 4.25 3.22
Nov 9 1.22 --- ---
Nov 30 1.35 2.72 1.90
Total 15.23 17.53 14.86

*Initial quantity of trimedlure required to saturate wicks.
*Average amount applied to each wick; 10 replicates.

trees. There was more variation in loss from wicks on the shady side than from
comparable wicks on the sunny side, apparently because of the influence of
tree canopy on the amount of shade. Thus, traps in the shaded part of trees


Trimedlure left on wicks (g)* Attractancy**
Tree and
Trap 3/8x2 in. 3/4 x 1 in. 3/4 x 1 in. 3/8 x 2 in. 3/4 in. 3/4x in.
location in in in in in in
Sun Sun Shade Sun Sun Shade

Orange (East) 0.40 2.77 3.42 275 300 400
Orange (West) 0.86 2.97 3.30 300 400 300
Orange (Road) 0.18 2.26 2.84 175 350 375
Orange (South) 0.13 1.54 1.52 100 350 375
Orange (Gate) 0.06 1.03 2.52 20 350 300
Grapefruit 0.35 2.29 2.64 225 400 400
(large) 0.37 2.64 3.34 275 400 400
(small) 0.07 2.73 1.91 170 400 300
Sapote 0.00 -- 2.36 -- -- 350
Building roof 0.03 0.81 1.67 25 375 350

*Weight determined prior to shipment of wicks to Hawaii.
**Estimated number of Mediterranean fruit flies attracted to wicks. Traps containing freshly
treated 3/4 x 1-in. wicks caught 300-400 flies and 3/8 x 2-in. wicks caught 300 flies. (Evaluated by
D. Miyashita, Hawaii Fruit Flies Investigations Laboratory).

Vol. 57, No. 4

Burditt: Trimedlure Rate of Loss

with a sparse canopy (one of the orange trees [south] and the sapote and small
calamondin) had a higher rate of loss than did those in orange trees (east and
west) on the shady side of the building with an over canopy of pine trees.
The subsequent studies in Hawaii (Nakagawa et al. 1971) indicated that a
high concentration of trimedlure in traps was repellent to Mediterranean fruit
flies. However, in these tests the high concentration was achieved by using a
3/8 in. x 6 in. wick; the low concentration was produced by using a 3/8 in. x
1/2 in. wick. As a result, the catch of flies in traps containing the shorter wicks
declined rapidly after 4-5 weeks, and the supply of lure was exhausted by 7
weeks. They did not measure the amount of lure dispensed from each wick
during the test, but if the rate of volatilization was a function of surface area,
the long (6-in.) wicks should have dispensed 9 times as much trimedlure as the
short (1/2-in.) wick.
The data from the later tests in Hawaii therefore do not agree with the
results of the test in Florida. These data indicated that the rate of evaporation
(grams per wick per week) from the 3/8 x 2-in. and 3/4 X 1-in. wicks was not
significantly different, even though there was a difference of 30% in calculated
surface area. Differences in the fiber content of the 2 sizes of wicks could have
affected volatilization since the wicks came from different sources. Also,
Steiner (personal communication) indicated that sunlight (temperature),
wind, altitude, and humidity may influence the rate.


Weight of Trimedlure (g) lost from wicks*

Tree 3/8x 2 in. 3/4 1 in. 3/4 x1 in.
in in in
Sun Sun Shade

Orange (East) 12.05 d e 13.07 b 9.69 e
Orange (West) 11.51 e 13.04 b 9.77 e
Orange (Road) 13.20 c d e 15.12 b 10.99 d
Orange (South) 15.20 c 14.61 b 14.04 b
Orange (Gate) 17.47 b 17.44 a 11.21 d
Grapefruit 12.36 d e 12.58 b 12.16 c d
Calamondin (Large) 14.10 c d 12.97 b 9.81 e
Calamondin (Small) 14.93 c 14.66 b 13.60 b
Sapote 19.11 a**b 18.34 at 13.12 b c
Building roof 20.02 a 18.37 a 18.75 a

*Weights within each column followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 0.05
probability level (Duncan's multiple range test). Total exposure period from 27 July 1962 to 1 Feb.
**Estimated after 30 Nov.
tEstimated after 19 Oct.

In the survey and detection work of regulatory agencies in Florida, there
has been a need to extend the effective period of attraction of fruit fly traps to

The Florida Entomologist

reduce the chance of complete loss of attractiveness between servicings. The
present study showed that the 3/8 x 2-in. wicks used by regulatory agencies in
Florida (Anonymous 1967) had adequate capacity to remain effective for 3-4
weeks during the summer and fall in Central Florida compared with the 5-7
weeks the 3/4 x 1-in. wicks remained attractive. (During the winter, the 2-in.
wicks were effective without retreatment for 6-9 weeks.) Also, the period of
attraction of wicks containing trimedlure could be extended by placing the
traps in a shady location, though the rate of evaporation in winter might need
to be increased by placing the traps on the sunny side of trees. In survey and
detection operations, the 3/4 x 1-in. wick would require retreatment less
Since 1971 (C. H. Gaddis, USDA, APHIS, Winter Haven, Fla. personal
communication), regulatory agencies have been using either a 3/8 X 1-in. or
(currently) a 3/8 x 1-1/2-in. wick on a 6-week schedule. Data reported in this
paper show that if such traps should be overdue for service or exposed to
unusual conditions, the trimedlure on such wicks could become exhausted
before being retreated on such a schedule.

We express thanks to J. C. Haley and J. A. West, APHIS, for assistance in
obtaining the materials used in this test and to L. F. Steiner and D. Miyashita
for testing the wicks in Hawaii.


Anonymous. 1967. Fruit Fly Detection Memorandum No. 1, Winter Haven,
Fla. USDA and Fla. Dep. Agri., Div. of Pl. Ind.
Beroza, M., N. Green, S. I. Gertler, L. F. Steiner, and D. H. Miyashita. 1961.
New Attractants for the Mediterranean Fruit Fly. J. Agr. Food Chem.
Gertler, S. I., L. F. Steiner, W. C. Mitchell, and W. C. Barthel. 1958. Esters of
6-methyl-3-cyclohexene-l-carboxylic acid as attractants for Medi-
terranean fruit fly. J. Agr. Food Chem. 6:592-594.
Nakagawa, S., R. T. Cunningham, and T. Urago. 1971. The repellent effect of
high trimedlure concentrations in plastic traps to Mediterranean fruit
fly in Hawaii. J. Econ. Ent. 64:762-763.
Steiner, L. F. 1957. Low cost plastic fruit fly trap. J. Econ. Ent. 50:508-509.
Steiner, L. F., D. H. Miyashita, and L. D. Christenson. 1957. Angelica oils as
Mediterranean fruit fly lures. J. Econ. Ent. 50:505.


Vol. 57, No. 4

The Florida Entomologist



Loyola University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118


A nonaseptic, wheat germ, agar-based diet has been developed for rearing
the puss caterpillar, Megalopyge opercularis Abbot and Smith.

Megalopyge opercularis Abbot and Smith is commonly known as the puss
caterpillar. Its distribution extends from Maryland to Mexico (McGovern et
al. 1961). The caterpillars are capable of inflicting painful stings, causing
dermatitis and sometimes systemic reactions sufficiently severe to require
Very little is known about the biology of this important species. Even such
basic information as the number of larval instars, time of pupation within the
cocoon, etc., is uncertain or unknown. This lack of information is the result of
the difficulty in rearing this species. Attempts to rear them on foliage have not
been successful (Bishopp 1923, McGovern et al. 1961). Micks (1956) reported
some success when using yaupon leaves. While yaupon has the advantage over
elm, silver maple, etc. of not wilting or drying quickly, in our experience we
find it is still unsatisfactory, and the caterpillar is, therefore, still developing
under stress. The sedentary habits of the caterpillar do not permit the suc-
cessful rearing on foliage, even when yaupon leaves are used. The leaves dry
quickly, but often the larvae stay on without attempting to move to fresh
leaves, thereby entering into a state of depression eventually ending in death.
Such behavior is not anticipated to affect their rearing as much when an
artificial diet is used. This is that prompted the author to search for an
artificial diet.
A widely used artificial diet in rearing insects is the wheat germ diet, and
investigators, working with different species, have developed various
modifications of this medium.

ADULT EMERGENCE TUB-This container is a 3 gal ice cream tub (Fig. 1),
screened by ninon held in place with segments of tape. The tub is lined with
slightly overlapping strips of paper towel, about 13 cm wide, held in place by
tape at the top. Cocoons are incubated in this tub, and the adult on emergence
will settle on the strips of paper towel or on the ninon.
The newly emerged adult is carried on its paper or ninon support to the
mating and oviposition tub. This tub is the same in all details as the emergence
chamber. The strip of paper towel supporting the adult is taped to the inside of
the new chamber. If the adult was attached to the ninon top of the emergence
chamber, the ninon carrying the adult is placed on top of the mating chamber


Vol. 57, No. 4

The Florida Entomologist

Fig. 1. Adult emergence, mating, and oviposition tub (left), and rearing
carton (right).

and used as a screen. In each tub 1 female and 1 or 2 males are confined. The
adult almost always stays motionless during the day, even when its support is
moved, and requires no food or water. After mating, the eggs are laid the
following night on the ninon and the paper strips.
INCUBATION CHAMBER-The egg patches can be left in place in the mating
and oviposition tub for 6 days (to near hatching), and are then transferred
directly to the rearing carton. However, if the climate is too hot and dry, the
segment of paper towel (or ninon) carrying the egg patch is cut and taped
inside an empty jar or beaker. The latter is placed in a screened (with ninon)
battery jar and a wet paper towel is placed on top of the screen during the hot
part of the day. The eggs are held here for 6 days; then the segment is taped on
the inside of a rearing carton containing the diet.
REARING CARTONS-The most suitable container for the present diet is an
ice cream carton (Fig. 1), No. 2186-SE, 16 oz., squat container, untreated, with
a tablid (American Can Company, Dixie Products, Easton, Pennsylvania).
This allows free gaseous exchange and absorbs excess moisture, therefore
allowing no condensation.
Access of light is provided by cutting a rectangular window 7 x 2 cm in the
side of the carton. This is screened by ninon on the outside, fixed in place by
tape on the inside to prevent the tiny larvae from getting trapped in the seams.

Vol. 57, No. 4

Khalaf: Artificial Diet for Puss Caterpillar

When mature, the larvae spin their cocoons on the wall or inside the lid. On
the renewal of food, the segment of the carton containing the cocoon is cut
carefully and transferred into the "emergence tub".
TRANSFERRING LARVAE-In transferring the larvae to a fresh diet, a larva
if moving, is gently brushed onto the new diet with a fine camel-hair brush.
Otherwise, to avoid handling injuries, the old food is cut around the larva and
both are laid on the fresh food. Usually the larva leaves the old food, which is
picked out. During this process, with older larvae, the fecal pellets are also
brushed out.

Megalopyge opercularis.

Component Amount

Mixture I
Wheat germ premix (special wheat germ 14 g
diet for insects-Vanderzant-Adkisson)*
Sorbic acid* 0.05 g
Methyl paraben* 0.1 g
Formaldehyde 0.05 ml
4 M KOH 0.4 ml
Raw linseed oil 0.2 ml
Cholesterol* 0.03 g
Distilled water 25 ml
Mixture II
Agar (granulated) 1.5 g
Distilled water 35 ml
Vitamin premix (Vanderzant modification 1.5 g
vitamin mixture for insect diet)*
Aureomycin* 0.015 g
Kanamycin sulfate (powder) 0.01 g

*Obtainable from Nutritional Biochemical Corporation.

DIET COMPONENTS-The components of the artificial medium with the
amounts used are listed in Table 1. Most of them are secured from Nutritional
Biochemical Corporation except the linseed oil (from Curtin Scientific Com-
pany), the agar (Difco Bacto-Agar), and Kanamycin, potency 780 Mcg/Mg
(from Bristol Laboratories). The potency of Aureomycin (Chlorotetracycline
Hcl) is 912 Mcg/Mg.
The wheat germ premix contains wheat germ, casein, sugar, Wesson salt
mixture, and alphacel. In this project a "new modified" premix is used which
contains in addition, linseed oil 0.2% and cholesterol 0.05%. The ratios of
linseed oil and cholesterol contained in this premix are a small fraction of the
usual amounts required by insects, especially Megalopyge opercularis.
Therefore, additional amounts of these 2 components are added to make the
present formula. A minimum amount of water should be used. The proper

The Florida Entomologist

amount can be determined by observing the specified carton 1 or 2 days after
pouring the final diet. No moisture or stain should show on the outside of the
carton around the area where the food is located. In a uniform, homogenous
wheat germ premix and pure agar the amount of water needed should be fixed.
Not more than 30 ml is required for Mixture I. A total of about 60 ml should be
sufficient if the mixing process goes steadily, without unnecessary delay.
The inhibitors and antibiotics used gave excellent results. There was no
indication of yeast, mold, or bacterial colonies in the diet, despite the fact that
no autoclaving, sterilization, or even detergents were used throughout the
project. Utensils and glassware were washed freely with tap water and left to
dry on paper toweling.
In this diet, a full use is made of the available premixes, with no additional
undefined meal or leaf extract being included in the formula.
MIXING OF DIET COMPONENTS-Mixture I is prepared by adding its com-
ponents in the order listed in Table 1 to the required amount of distilled water
in a beaker. Continuous mixing with an electric or powerful magnetic stirrer is
Mixture II is prepared by gradually adding the agar to the distilled water in
a smaller beaker, with continuous stirring. The mixture then is heated on a hot
plate until it starts boiling at the surface. Throughout heating, the solution
must be stirred slowly, especially at the bottom, to avoid burning. As soon as
the mixture is brought to a boil, it is removed from the heater and allowed to
cool gradually to a temperature around 520C, with continuous stirring. The
exact temperature depends on the temperature of the surroundings. The lower
the cooling point, the better the diet will be.
Mixture II is then poured into Mixture I, mixed vigorously for a few
seconds, then the vitamins, aureomycin, and Kanamycin are added promptly,
followed by vigorous stirring for some seconds. The final diet is promptly
poured into the rearing carton. There should be no delay, as the diet tends to
gel quickly. The final product is sufficient for one 16 oz carton. The carton is
left uncapped for 1 hr after which it is ready for receiving the larvae.

Colonies of this species can easily be started by collecting cocoons which
are common on various kinds of trees. However, for testing the present diet, it
was possible to collect a male and a female resting next to each other on an elm
tree. These were confined in the laboratory in a mating and oviposition tub. In
the laboratory the windows were kept open all the time, and conditions were
somewhat similar to the external environment. Eggs were laid, then hatched
on 13 October 1972. Throughout development, they were offered only the
present diet. Development in cold weather was very slow. Cocoon formation
took place between 27 January 1973 and 11 March 1973. The larval stage
lasted .3.5-5 months. Many of the reared adults laid fertile eggs. Also, 2 small
trees were inoculated with some of these second generation eggs and resulted
in healthy larvae, cocoons, and adults.
REARING OTHER INSECTS-This formula was tested on the saddleback
caterpillars, Sibine stimulea (Clemens). Young larvae collected in the field
developed quickly, forming cocoons. The diet was also utilized by older salt-
marsh caterpillars, Estigmene acrea (Drury), that were collected from the

Vol. 57, No. 4

Khalaf: Artificial Diet for Puss Caterpillar

Acknowledgment is due to Bristol Laboratories, Syracuse, New York for
supplying the Kanamycin needed for this project. This research received
support from the Academic Grant Fund of Loyola University.


Bishopp, F. C. 1923. The puss caterpillar and the effects of its sting on man.
USDA. Dep. Circ. 288:1-14.
McGovern, J. P., G. D. Barkin, T. R. McElhenney, and R. Wende. 1961.
Megalopyge opercularis, observations of its life history, natural history
of its sting in man, and report of an epidemic. J. Amer. Med. Ass.
Micks, D. W. 1956. Laboratory rearing of puss caterpillar with notes on in-
cidence of parasitism. J. Econ. Ent. 49:37-39.

conducting field experiments on flashing behavior of fireflies involving the identification
of all individuals seen flashing in a grassy grove (U. of Fla. Campus), 3 Photuris "sp. D"
(new, unnamed sp., Lampyridae) were found with pseudoscorpions clinging to their legs
by 1 pedipalp. All the pseudoscorpions were female Paratemnus elongatus (Banks)
(Atemnidae). This is the first record of pseudoscorpion phoresy on fireflies and also the
first record of phoresy by a species of Paratemnus.
Specifics: female, 30 cm above ground on grass, a single pseudoscorpion attached to
hind tibia, 9 June 1974; female, 35 cm above ground on grass, 3 pseudoscorpions attached
to hind tibiae, 12 June 1974; male, on ground, 2 pseudoscorpions on each hind tibia, 1 on
mesofemur, 12 June 1974. Twenty or more perched, flashing fireflies of 3 Photuris species
were examined on each of 13 evenings between 25 May and 19 June; approximately
one-fifth of the individuals were Photuris D. There was no evidence of mechanical
damage to the fireflies; and during the 3 or 4 days that 2 fireflies were observed in the
laboratory, their guests continued to hold on by the pedipalp and the fireflies continued
in apparent good health.
The restricted period of observed phoresy reported here suggests that Paratemnus
elongatus, like some other species, may have a "certain time during the summer" when
this behavior is displayed (P. Weygoldt, The biology ofpseudoscorpions, 1969, p. 116).
It appears doubtful that the fireflies with more than 1 rider could have flown. When
phoresy involves species that differ in size by as little as these two, the hosts probably
suffer appreciable loss of energy and mobility, and in cases of multiple riders, perhaps
total genetic death (fail to reproduce). If the significance of the phenomenon to the
pseudoscorpions is dispersal, then selection should strongly favor the development in
pseudoscorpions of signals or other behavior that would prevent multiple attachment; if
the firefly with 5 riders couldn't fly, then the pseudoscorpions were phoretic failures. It
has been suggested (Muchmore, 1971, Proc. Roch. Acad. Sci., 12:95) that transportation
is only an incidental part of this phenomenon, the real basis of which is predation. More
observations are required.-J. E. Lloyd, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611, and W.
B. Muchmore, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, 14627.


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to you and nature






The Florida Entomologist



Insect Attractants, Behavior and Basic Biology
Research Laboratory, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA
Gainesville, Florida 32604


Collections of puparia of synanthropic Diptera in poultry houses in north
central Florida in 1973 revealed that 5 species of parasitic Hymenoptera in 3
families attack the pupal stage of the most common pest species, Musca
domestic L. A 6th species, Trichopria n. sp., was collected only from pupae of
the soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.).

Interest in programs involving the release of parasites against pest insects
in poultry houses in north central Florida stimulated us to search for native
parasitic fauna in this region. Collections of fly puparia were therefore made
weekly or bi-weekly (April-October 1973) from various sites within poultry
houses on 3 farms in Union County near Lake Butler, Fla. One farm had
earlier (before November 1971) been exposed to releases of parasites (Spalan-
gia endius Walker and Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Saunders); one was
just initiating a parasite release program for fly control; and one had never
been treated by releasing parasites.
Samples of manure and sand (1/2 liter ea.) were collected at random from
at least 14 locations on each farm on each date. Puparia were picked out of the
samples, segregated according to broad classifications, and held at ca. 260C
and 50% RH for emergence of adult flies or parasites. Identifications of the
adult flies and preliminary identifications of parasites were made by H. V.
Weems and E. E. Grissell, Florida Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville.
Identification of parasite species were verified by E. F. Legner, University of
California, Riverside and P. M. Marsh and B. D. Burks, Systematic En-
tomology Laboratory, ARS, USDA, Washington, D. C. Fly species included
the little house fly, Fannia canicularis (L.), the house fly, Musca domestic L.,
the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), a soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.),
Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann), and a few unidentified specimens of Sar-
cophagidae and Calliphoridae. The house fly was by far the most common
species collected at each of the 3 farms.
Six parasite species in 4 families emerged from the puparia (Table 1). All
were found at each of the 3 locations including the farm where parasites had
not been released. Thus these insects probably occur naturally in north
central Florida. Among the 6 species recorded, M. raptor, S. endius, and S.
cameroni were most common. These 3 species are also commonly found at-
tacking filth-breeding flies in poultry operations in southern California
(Legner 1966). Aphaereta muesebecki was previously known only from Mis-
The soldier fly parasite, Trichopria, is as yet undescribed. Legner (1966)
cites Trichopria n. sp. as a pupal parasite of the house fly, little house fly, and

Vol. 57, No. 4

The Florida Entomologist


BUTLER, FLA. 1973.

Host species parasitized
Parasite species
House fly Little house fly Soldier fly

Muscidifurax raptor X X
Aphaereta musebecki
Marsh X X
Spalangia cameroni
Perkins X X
Spalangia endius X X
Spalangia nigra
Latreille X
Trichopria n. sp. X

stable fly, but our Trichopria was reared only from soldier fly pupae. Also, we
were unsuccessful in inducing the Florida Trichopria to attack house fly
larvae and pupae in the laboratory. This Trichopria is therefore probably not
a parasite of the house fly and is apparently a different species than that
reported by Legner (1966).
Our discovery of naturally occurring parasite species of house flies in
Florida is encouraging for investigators attempting biological control of flies
in poultry operations through inundative releases primarily of S. endius and
M. raptor. With proper management, however, it may be possible to increase
the numbers of the naturally occurring parasites to the point that they will
have a significant effect on the control of house flies in poultry houses.


Legner, E. F. 1966. Parasites of the house fly and other filth-breeding Diptera
in Southern California. J. Econ. Ent. 59:999-1001.

Vol. 57, No. 4

The Florida Entomologist



Silver City, New Mexico


Solpugid populations in southwestern New Mexico, were evaluated by can
traps and miscellaneous collecting. Present data indicate that populations are
2 to 4 times larger in the arid-grassland than in the pinyon-juniper life zone.
Within the 2 life zones, they vary in size from year to year and locality to
locality. Flooding and over grazing appear to be 2 factors involved in such
variation. Eremobates spp. predominately inhabit the arid-grassland but can
and do invade and live in the pinyon-juniper life zone and may also invade the
montane zone. Ten species occur in the region. Three, Eremobates hessei
(Roewer), E. n. sp. (palpisetulosus-group), and E. pallipes (Say), are common;
1, Eremorhax n. sp. (magnus-group), is relatively common; 2, Hemerotrecha
fruitana Muma and Ammotrechula peninsulana (Banks), are uncommon;
and 3, Eremochelis sp. (imperialis-group), Hemerotrecha sp. (banksi-group),
and Hemerotrecha marathon Muma, are rare. Eremochelis bilobatus
(Muma) also occurs in the area but its population cannot be evaluated with
present methods.

This investigation of solpugid populations in southwestern New Mexico
was conducted utilizing can-traps provided with a liquid killing-preserving
agent. Most other attempts to evaluate populations in North America (Muma
1963, Allred and Muma 1971, Brookhart 1972) have relied principally on dry
can-traps, a questionable method owing to the ability of solpugids to climb
smooth vertical surfaces with their adhesive palpal organs. Muma (in press A)
reported on solpugids collected by selective searching and incandescent
night-lighting in the San Simon valley of southeastern Arizona and
southwestern New Mexico. These latter data are reasonably credible and are
utilized herein for comparative and supplementary purposes.
A review of the world-wide literature on these arachnids indicates that no
effort has been made, to date, to numerically describe solpugid populations on
other continents. C. F. R. Roewer (1934), R. F. Lawrence (1936), C. de Mello-
Leitao (1938) and J. L. Cloudsley-Thompson (1961) have reported casually on
the abundance and relative abundance of solpugids. Their observations in-
dicate that solpugids are abundant aridland arachnids in certain areas and at
certain times. This condition has been quantitatively verified in North
America by Muma (1963) and Brookhart (1972), even though the sampling

'Contribution No. 298, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department
of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, Florida 32601.
2Western New Mexico University Research Contribution No. 327.
"Entomologist Emeritus, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Research Associate, Florida
State Collection of Arthropods, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, Florida and Western New Mexico
University, Silver City, New Mexico.

Vol. 57, No. 4

The Florida Entomologist

technique used by these authors can be demonstrated to be inconsistent and
It should be pointed out here that I am aware of the numerous objections
that have been raised against the use of can-traps for the accumulation of
quantitative data. Most such objections have been directed toward the short
term use of dry can-traps, and many of the objections are themselves untested
for validity; these objections are summarized by Southwood (1966) and
Turnbull (1973). Results of an investigation into the validity of killing-
preserving can-traps, operated throughout the year are presently being
evaluated statistically on per-trap, per-sample, and per-year bases for
stability in the mean number of cursorial arachnids collected. When this study
is completed it is possible that some of the results presented and discussed
below will become suspect, but it is believed that any suspicion will be only
relative to minor comparisons.
The studies reported here were initiated April 1972 and terminated
December 1973 to determine the level and specific make-up of solpugid
populations in the pinyon-juniper and arid-grassland life zones of southern
Grant County and northern Luna and Hidalgo Counties in southwestern New

Two study-areas were set up in each of the 2 life-zones under investigation.
The Silver City, New Mexico study-area was located about 11/2 miles north of
the town in the foothills of the Pinos Altos Mountains. Topographically the
area was situated in a narrow valley between 2 stony-ridges at 6200 ft eleva-
tion; the soil was predominately a sandy-clay alluvium containing numerous
rocks deposited by 2 intermittent streams. At one time the area was used as
cattle pasturage but during the past 5 years was protected from grazing. The
plant association was dominated by junipers, Juniperus monosperma (En-
gelm.) Sarg. and J. deppeana Steud., and pinyon, Pinus edulis Engelm., with
a scattering of soapweed, Yucca elata Engelm., squaw bush, Rhus trilobata
Nutt., scrub live oak, Quercus turbinella Greene, cacti, Opuntiaphaeacantha
Engelm. and 0. spinosior (Engelm. and Bigel) Toumey, and along the margins
of the streams box elder, Acer negundo L. Seasonally, the abundant herbs
were Astragalus spp., Lepidium spp., Aster spp., Senecio spp., Evolvulus spp.
and prickly-poppy Argemone platyceras Link and Otto. Dominant grasses
included blue grama, Bouteloua gracilis (H. B. K.) Lag., side oats grama,
Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr., vine-mesquite, Panicum obtusum H.
B. K., and ring-grass, Muhlenbergia torreyi (Kunth.) Hitchc.
The Burro Mountain companion study-area was located about 20 miles
southwest of Silver City along U. S. highway 90. Topographically the area was
a cup-shaped valley bordered on the north, east, and west by stony ridges; the
soil was a sandy-clay to clayey-sand alluvium containing many rocks
deposited by numerous small dry-washes at 6300 ft elevation. The area has
been heavily grazed by commercial cattle. The plant association was
dominated by junipers, J. monosperma and J. deppeana, pinyon, P. edulis,
Gambels oak, Q. gambelii Nutt., and bear grass, Nolina microcarpa Wats.,
with a scattering of soapweed, Y. elata and Y. schotti Engelm., and cacti, 0.
phaeacantha and 0. spinosior. Abundant herbs included Astragalus spp.,
Evolvulus spp., Senecio spp., and A. platyceras. Dominant grasses were blue
grama and side oats grama.

Vol. 57, No. 4

Muma: Solpugids of Southwestern New Mexico

The Lordsburg study-area was located on the Burro Mountain bajada
between the Burro and Peloncillo Mountains about 10 miles north of Lords-
burg, New Mexico and about 1 mile west of U. S. highway 90. Topographically
the area involved a low-rounded, northeast to southwest ridge between dry-
washes at 4300 ft elevation; the soil was a sandy-clay alluvium containing a
few gravelly rocks. The area has been heavily grazed by commercial cattle.
The plant association is dominated by soapweed, Y. elata, and joint-fir,
Ephedra trifurca Torr., with a scattering of cacti, 0. phaeacantha and 0.
spinosior, and Ceanothus Greggii Gray. Gutierrezia spp. were the most
abundant herbs although Lepidium spp. and Evolvulus spp. were common
during the late spring and early summer. Dominant grasses were fluff-grass,
Tridens pulchellus (H. B. K.) Hitchc., and 2 species of 3-awn grass, Aristida.
The Hurley, New Mexico companion study-area was located about 14
miles southeast of the town on the southeast corner of the intersection of U. S.
highway 180 and N. M. highway 61. Topographically the area involved the
gently-southwesterly-sloping bajada of the foothills of the Cook Mountains at
4800 ft elevation; the soil was a sandy-clay alluvium containing many small
gravelly rocks. The area has been heavily grazed by commercial cattle and
apparently is sporadically flooded by late summer rains. Although the area
has been cleared recently of thorny-shrubs and large herbs by bulldozing, the
association was still dominated by Y. elata, all-thorn, Koeberlinia spinosa
Zucc., mesquite, Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) D. C., and joint-fir. By far the
most abundant herbs in the area were Gutierrezia spp. Dominant grasses were
tobosa, Hilaria mutica (Buckl.) Benth., and burro grass, Scleropogon
brevifolius Phil.
Can-traps provided with a killing-preserving medium comprised of a 50-50
mixture of 70% iso-propyl alcohol and commercial ethylene glycol were the
principal collecting devices utilized during the study. These traps were
proposed by Muma (1970) and reported on by Muma (in press A, B).
Ten traps were set in each study area; 5 in a north-south transect at about
10 m intervals and 5 in an east-west transect at similar intervals. Traps were
visited every 2 weeks from 1 April 1972 to 1 December 1973, the specimens
screened from the medium, and the medium reconstituted with a 75-25 mix-
ture of alcohol-glycol. Specimens were sorted, counted, and identified in the
Early instar immatures, primarily those with 3 pairs of malleoli, were
identified only to family. Middle instar immatures were identified to genus.
Late instar immatures also were identified only to genus but if the genus
proved to be represented in the area by a single species they were later
relegated to that species.
At each sample time, in each study-area and prior to 10:00 AM ground
surface debris such as boards, rocks, yucca-logs, and cow-pies was turned and
examined for solpugids. Collected specimens were not included in quantitative
data but were utilized either to validate trap catches or to supplement known
recorded species. At the Silver City study-area, solpugids collected at night
lights, in buildings, and in supplemental traps were utilized in the same

All of the primary quantitative results are summarized in Table 1. Per-
tinent primary information contained in the table include the gross magni-

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 57, No. 4










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Muma: Solpugids of Southwestern New Mexico 389

tude of solpugid populations on each study-area, during each year and in each
life zone. With certain reservations, the specific make-up and gross popula-
tions of common species on each study-area, during each year and in each life
zone may also be considered pertinent.
Secondary or supplemental data obtained during the investigation are
contained in the following statements.
No rainfall recording equipment was available during the study, and rain-
fall data available from the U. S. Weather Bureau has not yet been published
for 1973. Despite this lack, it is known from local observations and records,
that 1970, 1971, and 1972 were below normal to dry years and 1973 was an
above normal wet year. This rainfall pattern was evident in normal to sparse
plant growth in the late summer and fall of 1972 and in abundant verdant
plant growth in the spring and summer of 1973 on all study-areas. Unseasonal,
unusually heavy rains caused occasional trap-flooding on all study-areas but
on the Hurley area filled about half of the traps with water during 2 sample
periods, 1 in the fall of 1972 and 1 in the spring of 1973. This water apparently
was flood-water, since all traps were provided with a rain shield.
Supplemental solpugid specimens collected under ground surface debris in
most instances confirmed trap records as to species incidence, species abun-
dance, and seasonal occurrence of species in each of the study-areas. The only
exceptions occurred on the Silver City study-area where 2 females of
Eremochelis bilobatus (Muma) and 1 female of Eremobates hessei (Roewer)
were recorded under debris, but these species were not taken in the study
Specimens collected at night-lights, in buildings and in supplemental traps
on the Silver City study-area in most cases validated trap records. However, 3
males of E. bilobatus were taken at lights and in buildings, and 1 female of
Hemerotrecha sp. (banksi-group) was collected in a supplemental trap.
The following are additional species records. Specimens of Eremorhax n.
sp. (magnus-group), and Ammotrechula peninsulana (Banks) were collected
at 5000 ft altitude in a mesquite thicket on the western slope of the Burro
Mountains north of Lordsburg; specimens of Eremorhax n. sp. (magnus-
group), Eremobates n. sp. (palpisetulosus-group), Eremobates hessei,
Eremochelis bilobatus, and 1 female of Hemerotrecha marathon Muma were
collected at 4700 ft altitude in a creosote bush, Larrea tridentata (D. C.)
Caville, thicket on the western slope of the Cook Mountains southeast of


The results obtained during this investigation indicate that solpugid
populations in southwestern New Mexico are much larger in the arid-
grassland between 3000 and 5000 ft altitude. Gross population levels in the
grassland were recorded at 2 to 4 times the magnitude of those in the pinyon-
juniper life zone. This supports the questionable findings of Muma (1963) and
Brookhart (1972) in Nevada and Colorado respectively. There is also some
indication of a locale to locale and year to year variation. Lowest populations
occurred in the Silver City study-area. Since this area was the only area not
recently heavily grazed, it is possible that Brookhart (1972) was correct in
relating high populations of Eremobates pallipes (Say) to over-grazed pas-
turage. The markedly lower solpugid populations recorded in 1973 in the
present study could have been caused by the excessive rainfall experienced in

The Florida Entomologist

late 1972 and early 1973. There are no experimental data to corroborate this
suspicion, but the Hurley study-area supported the largest solpugid popula-
tion in 1972, following 2 dry years, and suffered the greatest (73.2%) decrease in
population following intermittent flooding. This is indicative that rainfall was
an important, if not the controlling factor.
The quantitative and supplemental data also indicate that the genus
Eremobates Banks in southwestern New Mexico predominately inhabits the
arid-grassland with certain species capable of living in the higher elevations of
the pinyon-juniper life zone. Adults of E. n. sp. (palpisetulosus-group) and E.
pallipes were equally as abundant in the pinyon-juniper zone (35 specimens)
as in the arid grassland (43 specimens) but immatures of the genus, unques-
tionably those of the 2 species, barely equalled the adults in numbers at the
higher elevation (36 specimens), whereas immature Eremobates were twice as
abundant (175 specimens) as the adults of the 3 species collected in the arid
grassland (81 specimens). E.' hessei was recorded exclusively from the arid-
grassland by the quantitative data but 2 females recorded by supplementary
data indicate that the species does occasionally move out of the grassland.
Other genera of solpugids recorded during the study were not sufficiently
common to evaluate on a population basis. They are, however, by inference,
evaluated in the following paragraphs dealing with individual species.
Eremorhax n. sp. (magnus-group): This relatively common species ap-
parently matures during May and June. A total of 13 mature specimens was
taken, 4 in May, 7 in June, and 2 in July; 7 immatures were also collected. The
optimal habitat of'the species cannot be deduced from collected specimens; 4
were taken in the pinyon-juniper zone, 7 from brush-land, and 9 from arid-
grassland. J. O. Brookhart plans to describe the species in a projected review of
the species-group.
Eremobates hessei (Roewer): This common species matures during July
and August according to specimens recorded here, those recorded by Muma
(in press A) and previously unrecorded specimens from western Texas.
Biological and behavioral notes on this species have been recorded by Muma
(1966 A, B, C, D; 1967) under the junior synonym, E. nodularis Muma. The
species appears to be more restricted to an arid-grassland habitat than other
ecologically studied species of the genus.
Eremobates pallipes (Say): According to specimens recorded in the
present study and those recorded by Brookhart (1972) and Muma (in press A)
this common species matures in July and August. Muma (1966E, in press A)
recorded the same maturity time for the closely related Eremobates duran-
gonus Roewer. Although the optimal habitat of E. pallipes apparently is
heavily grazed arid-grassland pasturage, present data and Brookhart (1972),
the species can survive and live in the pinyon-juniper life zone and Brookhart
(1972) recorded specimens to 8,200 ft in the Wet Mountains of Colorado.
Further, it is apparently as mobile or as versatile as E. durangonus which has
been collected at 7,900 ft altitude in the Chiricahua Mountains of Arizona.
Eremobates n. sp. (palpisetulosus-group): This common, pale species is
morphologically closely related to E. palpisetulosus Fichter. It apparently
matures during April and May (present study, and Muma in press A), 1 to 2
months earlier than the latter species (Brookhart 1972, Muma in press A). The
optimal habitat probably is heavily grazed arid-grassland but since mature
specimens were equally as abundant in the pinyon-juniper life zone, and have
been collected in brush-land, further study is needed to verify this supposition.
The species will be described in an early taxonomic paper.

Vol. 57, No. 4


Muma: Solpugids of Southwestern New Mexico

Eremochelis bilobatus (Muma): Although insufficient adult specimens (9)
of this species were collected during the present study to permit population
analyses, previously published data are adequate. Brookhart (1972) stated
that 17 Colorado specimens almost always were trapped in areas of small
shrubs, and Muma (in press A) on the basis of 131 specimens reported that the
species inhabited thorn-thickets in the foot-hills of the Chiricahua Mountains
of Arizona. The quantitative data of these 2 authors indicate that the species
matures in June and July. During the present study all adult specimens were
collected in June, July, and August, and 7 of 9 were taken in pinyon-juniper or
brush-land. An aberration in the known ecological data for this species should
be mentioned and discussed here. Most of the recorded specimens are males, 12
of 17 from Colorado, 123 of 131 from Arizona, and 7 of 9 from New Mexico.
This preponderance of collected males over females suggests that the species
may not be a typical cursorial arachnid; it may be arboreal, an ambush-form
or subterranean with males leaving the normal habitat only to find females.
Biological notes on the species are cited by Muma (1966 A, C, D, and 1967).
Eremochelis sp. (imperialis-group): A single female collected in November
may be the female of E. rothi (Muma) which was described from Arizona.
Additional specimens and males will have to be collected before an evaluation
can be made.
Hemerotrecha fruitana Muma: All 6 adult specimens, 4 males and 2
females, of this distinctive uncommon species were collected in March, April,
and May in the pinyon-juniper life zone. This indicates that the species is
either a mountain or a pinyon-juniper life zone inhabitant. Further popula-
tion study is needed. Brookhart (1972) states that the species is montane.
Hemerotrecha marathon Muma: This species, recorded here from a single
female collected in June, was described from Texas. It is apparently rare in
southwestern New Mexico.
Hemerotrecha sp. (banksi-group): A single female collected in April in the
pinyon-juniper life zone has all of the characteristics of this group of the
genus. Most species of this unusual, diurnal group of solpugids mature in the
spring but the entire group is known only from the west coast, California,
Oregon, Washington, Nevada, and Idaho. This unique specimen will not be
additionally evaluated until more material has been collected.
Ammotrechula peninsulana (Banks): The 6 specimens, 3 males, 2 females
and 1 young of this uncommon recorded species are not adequate for popula-
tion analysis. However, Muma (in press A) recorded 17 males and 11 females
collected in June and July in the thorn-thickets of the Chiricahua Mountains
of Arizona. Combination of the 2 sets of data indicate that the species inhabits
the brush-land and pinyon-juniper life zone in the foot-hills of mountains.
Biological notes on the species are recorded by Muma (1966 C, 1966 D, 1967).


A 2-year study of solpugid populations in the arid-grassland and pinyon-
juniper life zones of southwestern New Mexico utilizing killing-preserving
can-traps for primary quantitative data and miscellaneous collecting for
supplemental data has produced results that permit the following
1. In this study, arid-grassland solpugid populations appear to be 2 to 4
times the magnitude of those in the pinyon-juniper life zone.

The Florida Entomologist

2. Solpugid populations vary in size from year to year and locality to
locality within the 2 life zones. Rainfall and heavy grazing appear to be 2 of the
factors involved in such variation.
3. Eremobates spp. predominately inhabit the arid-grassland but can and
do invade and live in the pinyon-juniper life zone and may also invade the
montane zone.
4. Three common, 1 relatively common, 2 uncommon and 3 rare species
occur in the region. Eremochelis bilobatus (Muma) also occurs in the region
but its population cannot presently be evaluated.


Allred, Dorald M., and Martin H. Muma. 1971. Solpugids of the National
Reactor Testing Station, Idaho. Great Basin Naturalist 31(3):164-168.
Brookhart, John 0. 1972. Solpugids (Arachnida) in Colorado. Southwestern
Naturalist 17(1):31-41.
Cloudsley-Thompson, J. L. 1961. Observations on the Natural History of the
"Camel-Spider", Galeodes arabs C. L. Koch (Solifugae:Galeodidae) in
the Sudan. The Ent. Monthly Mag. 97:145-152.
Lawrence, R. F. 1963. The Solifugae of South West Africa. Cimbebasia
Mello-Leitao, C. de. 1938. Solifugos de Argentina. Anales Museo Argentino de
Ciencias Naturales 40:1-32.
Muma, Martin H. 1963. Solpugida of the Nevada Test Site. Brigham Young
Univ. Sci. Bull. Biol. Ser. 3(2):1-13.
Muma, Martin H. 1966. A. Egg deposition and incubation for Eremobates
durangonus with notes on the eggs of other species of Eremobatidae
(Arachnida:Solpugida) Fla. Ent. 49:23-31.
Muma, Martin H. 1966B. Mating behavior in the solpugid genus Eremobates
Banks. Anim. Behav. 14(2-3):346-350.
Muma, Martin H. 1966C. Feeding behavior of North American Solpugida
(Arachnida). Fla. Ent. 49:199-216.
Muma, Martin H. 1966D. Burrowing habits of North American Solpugida
(Arachnida). Psyche 73(4):251-260.
Muma, Martin H. 1966E. The life cycle of Eremobates durangonus (Arach-
nida:Solpugida). Fla. Ent. 49:233-242.
Muma, Martin H. 1967. Basic behavior of North American Solpugids. Fla.
Ent. 50:115-123.
Muma, Martin H. 1970. An improved can-trap. Notes Arachologists of the
Southwest. 1:16-18.
Muma, Martin H. in press A. Maturity and reproductive isolation of common
solpugids in North American deserts. J. Arachnology.
Muma, Martin H. in press B. Two vernal ground-surface arachnid populations
in Tularosa Basin, New Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist.
Roewer, C. F. R. 1934. Solifugae, Palpigradi, In Bronn, H. G., Klassen und
Ordnungen des Tierreichs 5, div. 4, book 4:1-723.
Southwood, T. R. E. 1966. Ecological Methods with Particular Reference to
the Study of Insect Populations. London, Methuen 391 p.
Turnbull, A. L. 1973. Ecology of the True Spiders (Araneomorphae). Annu.
Rev. Ent. 18:305-348.

Vol. 57, No. 4

Vol. 57, No. 4 The Florida Entomologist 393




When female adult desert locusts, Schistocerca gregaria Forskal, ingested
1 mCi of carrier free radiophosphorus through cabbage leaves, the
radiophosphorus was detected in their eggs. The radioactivity persisted into
the fourth and fifth instar of first generation locusts. Biological half-life of
radiophosphorus in locust nymphs was 7.41 days.

Radionuclides have been successfully used for tagging a variety of insects
for ecological studies. The persistence of the radionuclides is an important
consideration in tagging insects, but has been studied very little in Orthoptera.
Fuller et al. (1954) found that the radioactivity persists throughout the
nymphal period in Camnulapellucida (Scudder) after feeding with 32P. Huque
(1962) reported the distribution of 32P in 3 species of grasshoppers, Melanoplus
spp. and Madeira cockroach, Leucophaea madeira (Fabricius). Even though
locusts have been labelled for ecological and physiological studies, persistence
of radionuclide has not been reported. Here I describe the persistence of
radiophosphorus in desert locusts, Schistocerca gregaria Forskal.

Adult desert locusts were maintained in a radiotracer laboratory as
described by Mehrotra and Rao (1966). Techniques for labelling the locusts
with radiophosphorus have been described elsewhere (Ulagaraj, 1970). All
experiments were conducted at 27 +2C and 70+-3% R.H. Five female adults,
labelled with 32P were allowed to mate with non-radioactive males. After
mating each radioactive female was transferred to a separate jar containing 15
cm of moist soil. Females were fed fresh, clean cabbage leaves daily; at this
time, jars were checked for signs of oviposition and egg pods in the soil. Egg
pods were carefully removed on the day they were oviposited and were assayed
for radioactivity with G. M. Counter (Phillips Model #4036). The egg pods
were then reburied in clean, moist soil. The nymphs which emerged from the
soil were assayed immediately for radioactivity and then once every 3 days till
they became adults. A special device was developed to hold the radioactive
nymphs under the end window ofG. M. tube (Ulagaraj, 1970). A control group
(n = 10) was maintained and observed separately. Exuviae of the first genera-
tion nymphs were collected and assayed for radioactivity.

'Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 5493.
'Desert Locust is not an approved common name by the Entomological Society of America;
however, it is often cited in literature.
:The data are from part of an M.Sc. thesis to the Post-Graduate School, Indian Agricultural
Research Institute, New Delhi, India 110012.
'Present address: Department of Entomology, University of Florida, Gainesville.

The Florida Entomologist


1.8 \ Y = 2.1286-0.0801 X
3 2
S1.6 r= 0'8825


< 1.0

r-t 0.8

o 0.6

z 0.4

: 0.2

0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Fig. 1. The radioactive decay of "'P in the nymphs of desert locust, S.
gregaria. Vertical lines show 2 SE on either side of the mean.

I found no behavioral differences between experimental and control
groups of locusts. Three females laid radioactive eggs. The radioactivity of the
egg pods (n=3) was 4881 cpm with a standard deviation (S.D.) of 1922 cpm.
Twenty-five nymphs emerged from the eggs; 9 completed their life cycle,
passing through 5 instars. The initial mean radioactivity and S.D. of the locust

Vol. 57, No. 4


Ulagaraj: Radiophorphorus Half-Life

nymphs was 160+25 cpm (Range: 128-194 cpm). The radioactivity was de-
tectable up to 28 days from the date of hatching. I observed no radioactivity in
1 nymph by the 16th day after hatching and subsequently 33% of the nymphs
lost their radioactivity on days 22 and 25, respectively. None was radioactive
after day 25. The decay of "32 in these nymphs is shown in Fig. 1. The effective
half-life was computed as described in Kloft and Ehrhardt (1962). The effec-
tive half-life, biological half-life, and elimination constants for the locust
nymphs were 4.88 days, 7.41 days, and 0.0935 respectively. Elimination of
radiophosphorus could occur through gut cuticle, malphigian tubules, and
saliva. No attempt was made to measure the elimination process except
through the exuviae. The mean and S.D. of the radioactivity of exuviae
(n = 29) were 3+2 cpm. I did not observe any radioactivity either in the fifth
instar exuviae or in the newly emerged adults. I compared the development
period (M+S.D.= 23+2 days) of the radioactive nymphs (n=9) with that of
the controls and found no significant difference (p = 0.01).

I thank the Government of Tamil Nadu (India) for awarding me the
graduate scholarship and Dr. K. M. Singh for advice. Appreciation is expressed
to Mr. G. R. Sethi for help. I thank Drs. J. E. Lloyd, H. L. Cromroy, and S.
Kerr (UF) for reviewing the manuscript.


Crossley, D. A., Jr., and M. E. Pryor. 1960. The uptake and elimination of
Cesium-137 by a grasshopper-Romalea microptera. Health Phys.
Fuller, R. A., P. W. Riegert, and J. W. T. Spinks. 1954. Persistence of
radioactivity in grasshopper (Acrididae) tagged with Phosphorus-32
Can. Ent. 86:201-203.
Huque, H. 1962. Studies on the persistence, decay and distribution of
radiophosphorus in grasshoppers and the madeira cockroach, p. 155-159
In Radioisotopes and ionizing radiations in Entomology. Proceedings
of a symposium, Bombay. 5-9 December 1960. IAEA, Vienna.
Kloft, W., and E. P. Ehrhardt. 1962. Studies of the assimilation and excretion
of labelled phosphate in aphids, p. 181-189 In Proceedings of a sym-
posium, Bombay. 5-9 December 1960. IAEA, Vienna.
Mehrotra, K. N., and P. J. Rao. 1966. Phagostimulants for locusts. Indian J.
Exp. Biol. 4:56-57.
Ulagaraj, S. M. 1970. Persistence of radioactivity in desert locust, Schis-
tocerca gregaria Forskal. M. Sc. Thesis. Post-Graduate School, Indian
Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012, India. 46p.

The Florida Entomologist


BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMATICS. Herbert H. Ross. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass.,
345 p., 1974. $12.95.

As a handbook of systematics or as a potential textbook for a course in
zoological systematics this book has but 1 competitor-Principles of
Systematic Zoology, by Ernst Mayr (McGraw-Hill, New York, 428 p. 1969.
$12.50). Each has its strong points and the two are complementary in some
respects. However, Ross' is more concisely and clearly written, more even-
handed in dealing with the philosophies of classification known as phenetics
and cladistics, and, of course, more up-to-date.
Ross touches only lightly the topics of zoological nomenclature and in-
traspecific variation and omits discussion of museum procedures and
taxonomic publication-subjects that Mayr deals with more extensively. On
the other hand Ross manages to merge effectively the systematics of plants
and microbes with that of animals. He smoothly treats in quick succession
organisms as diverse as trypanosomes, beetles, ferns, mules, and bacteria, and
successfully juggles 3 codes in his brief treatment of rules of nomenclature.
The most valuable part of Ross' book, in my opinion, is his thorough coverage
of techniques and principles of constructing phylogenies and of integrating
such phylogenies with geographical and ecological data.
Occasionally Ross' treatment of a subject is disappointing. For instance (p.
103), he accepts the idea of speciation by temporal isolation (i.e. allochronic
speciation) but gives no clue as to how such temporal isolation might
originate. Nor does he cite any reference to an animal example or to discus-
sions of the likelihood of temporal isolation being a cause rather than an effect
of speciation. In another instance he goes against widespread usage (and
creates a homonym!) in defining sibling species as sister species arising from
the same ancestral species rather than as species not diagnosed by conven-
tional methods (p. 97).
The book is well illustrated and has only an average number of
typographical errors. The index is brief but works. There is no glossary.
References cited include a few as recent as 1972.
To a commendable extent Ross realizes the 3 objectives he sets himself: (1)
to emphasize the scientific aspects of systematics, (2) to use examples from
animals, plants, and bacteria, and (3) to present the theory and practice of
systematics simply and clearly.
T. J. Walker
Department of Entomology
and Nematology
University of Florida

Vol. 57, No. 4

The Florida Entomologist



Department of Biology, University of Rochester,
Rochester, New York 14627


The genus Epactiochernes is defined, with Chelanops tumidus Banks,
from Florida, as the type species. Also placed in the genus are Chelanops tristis
Banks, from New England, and Epactiochernes insularum, new species, from
Puerto Rico, Cuba and Jamaica.

Since the detailed report by Hoff (1947), Chelanops tristis Banks (1891)
and Chelanops tumidus Banks (1895) have been assigned to the genus
Dinocheirus, mainly because of the occurrence of 4 setae in the cheliceral
flagellum and a tactile seta on the fourth pedal tarsus. As I have mentioned
elsewhere (1974a, 1974b), recent study has shown that these 2 species have
other characters which clearly set them apart from the species of Dinocheirus.
As far as I can discover, they can not be assigned properly to any other known
genus. Therefore, a new genus is defined to include the 2, as well as a new
species described below.
Epactiochernes, new genus
Type species: Chelanops tumidus Banks, 1895.

Diagnosis: A genus of the family Chernetidae. Only moderately heavily
sclerotized and, as a result, carapace and palps light brown and other parts
much paler. Carapace longer than broad; with 2 distinct transverse furrows
and 2 very faint eyespots. Tergites 1-10 and sternites 4-10 divided. Surfaces of
carapace, abdominal tergites and palps lightly granulate; pleural membranes
and interscutal membranes of abdomen heavily papillose. Vestitural setae of
dorsal surfaces usually terminally broadened and denticulate, most ventral
setae acuminate; setae of spiracular plates and anal plates acuminate;
eleventh tergite with 2, and eleventh sternite with 4, long, acuminate tactile
setae; carapace with about 60 setae; tergites with 8-12 setae per segment;
sternites 5-8 or 9 with many setae (up to 20 on sternite 5), having elevated
bases and characteristically arranged, with clusters at lateral and medial ends
of sternal halves. Cheliceral hand with 5 setae, all acuminate except sb, which
is finely denticulate terminally; flagellum of 4 setae, including 2 long ones
distally and 2 short ones proximally, all usually with some denticulation;

'Contribution No. 302, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department
of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, Florida 32602.
'Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Division of Plant Industry, Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville.


Vol. -57, No. 4

The Florida Entomologist

galea of female very well developed with about 6 prominent rami, that of male
as well or less well developed. Palps rather robust, palpal chela of male usually
stouter (sometimes markedly) than that of female; venom apparatus well
developed in movable chelal finger, vestigial in fixed finger; both fingers with
accessory teeth, male usually with more internal than external and female
usually with more external than internal; trichobothrium st of movable finger
closer to t than to sb and near middle of finger; trichobothrium ist of fixed
finger at or a little distal to level of est, both near middle of finger; tarsus of
each leg with an elevated slit sensillum on extensor margin near proximal end;
tarsus of leg III and IV with a long, erect, tactile seta just distad of middle of
segment; male anterior genital operculum with a loose cluster of about 15
setae, including 3 long, heavy ones medially, and posterior operculum with 2
small setae on either side beneath middle of anterior margin and about 15
larger setae on face; internal genitalia of male without obvious special fea-
tures; anterior operculum of female with a n -shaped group of about 15 setae
and posterior operculum with a single marginal row of 12-14 setae; female with
paired spermathecae in form of very delicate, short, narrow, gently curved
Etymology: The genus is named for the fact that its representatives are
usually found on the seashore (GR. epaktios).
Remarks: Representatives of Epactiochernes are superficially much like
those of Dinocheirus, in their general conformation, in the possession of 5
setae on the cheliceral hand and of 4 setae in the flagellum, and in the
occurrence of a long, acuminate tactile seta on the tarsus of the fourth leg. The
differences, though not spectacular, are, nevertheless, quite distinctive.
Firstly, the tarsal tactile seta in Dinocheirus is located some distance distad of
the middle of the segment and is distinctly oblique to the transverse axis,
inclined toward the tip of the leg, while that in Epactiochernes is barely distad
of the middle and very nearly perpendicular to the long axis of the tarsus. [No
doubt it was this character which led Beier (1932) to suggest that C. tristis
might belong in the genus Pselaphochernes.] Secondly, in Epactiochernes the
setae of sternites 5-8 or 9 are set in elevated bases and are more or less clustered
toward the lateral and medial ends of the sternal halves; this is not known to
occur in Dinocheirus. Thirdly, and perhaps most distinctive, the sper-
mathecae of the 2 are quite different, those of Dinocheirus being well
developed, long, looped tubules with expanded ends, while those of Epac-
tiochernes are delicate, short, and of uniform diameter throughout.
Some other Central and South American pseudoscorpions in my collection
share many of the characteristics of Epactiochernes but have peculiarities of
their own. They may prove to belong to some already named, but poorly
defined, genus or may represent yet another new one.

Epactiochernes tumidus (Banks), new combination
Fig. 1-11
Chelanops tumidus Banks, 1895, p. 7.
Dinocheirus tumidus: Beier, 1932, p. 139; Hoff, 1947, p. 529; 1958, p. 26;
Weygoldt, 1966, p. 462; 1969, p. 114.

Though the description of the male given by Hoff (1947) is quite detailed, it
seems advisable to give here a complete description of the species as now
known, because it is the type species of the new genus.


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Muchmore: New Pseudoscorpion Genus

Material examined: Lectotype male and 2 paratypes, male and female,
from Indian River Inlet, St. Lucie County, Florida [Museum of Comparative
Zoology, Harvard]; 1 male from beach, under board, Pepper Park, Fort Pierce,
St. Lucie County, on 10 May 1965, by L. L. Pechuman; 12 males and 4 females
from under boards at tide line, Fort Pierce, St. Lucie County, on 17 March
1958, by M. H. Muma; 1 female from Cocoa Beach, Brevard County, Florida,
on 23 February 1936; 7 males and 2 females from under wood at the drift line
on Big Pine Key, Monroe County, Florida, 30 December 1965, by P. Weygoldt;
24 males and 8 females in drift on beach at Beaufort, Carteret County, North
Carolina, March and April 1966, by P. Weygoldt.
Description of male (including lectotype and 8 mounted specimens
from St. Lucie County, Florida): Carapace, palps and tergites light red-
dish brown, other parts paler. Carapace a little longer than broad; with 2
distinct transverse furrows and 2 indistinct eyespots; surface nearly
smooth medially, but granulate toward the sides; with about 60 terminally
dentate, vestitural setae, of which 4 are at anterior margin and usually
8 at posterior margin. Tergites 1-10 and sternites 4-10 divided; surfaces of
tergites lightly granulate, of sternites smooth; interscutal and pleural
membranes strongly papillose; most dorsal setae terminally broadened
and denticulate, most ventral ones acuminate. Tergal chaetotaxy of lecto-
type 8:7:6:9:9:8:9:10:11:10:T6T:2; others similar but varied. Sternal chae-
totaxy of lectotype 15:(3)-2(3):(1)6(1):23:16:15:15:12:12: -T :2;others var-
14 T47
ied, usually with more setae on sternites 5 and 6; setae on anterior genital
operculum range 14-17, including usually 3 (rarely 4) longer and heavier
ones in the middle (Fig. 1); notable are the clusters of setae at lateral and
medial ends of each sternal half on segments 5-8 or 9 (Fig. 2); setae on
spiracular and anal plates acuminate. Internal genitalia of usual chernetid
type, well sclerotized and distinct. Coxal area generally typical.

1 -" ,

2 J


Fig. 1-3. Epactiochernes tumidus (Banks): 1. Genital opercula of male; 2.
Sternites of abdominal segments 4-9; 3. Cheliceral galea of male.



Fig. 4-10. Epactiochernes tumidus (Banks): 4. Dorsal view of right palp of
male; 5. Lateral view of left chela of male; 6. Lateral view of leg IV; 7. Genital
opercula of female; 8. Spermathecae of female; 9. Cheliceral galea of female;
10. Dorsal view of right palp of female.

Muchmore: New Pseudoscorpion Genus

/ /


Fig. 11. Epactiochernes tumidus (Banks): Lateral view of left chela of

Chelicera generally typical of the family; 0.35-0.40 as long as carapace;
hand with 5 setae, sb terminally denticulate, b and es acuminate; flagellum of
4 setae, 2 large distal and 2 small proximal, all denticulate; galea large, usually
with 6 prominent rami (Fig. 3).
Palp rather robust, with chelal hand usually much deeper than broad (Fig.
4 and 5); femur 2.3-2.6, tibia 2.0-2.15, and chela (without medical) 2.25-2.45
times as long as broad; hand (without pedicel) 1.00-1.10 times as long as deep;
movable finger 1.08-1.25 times as long as hand. Surfaces more or less
granulate, except chelal fingers; most setae terminally broadened and den-
ticulate. Trichobothria as indicated in Fig. 5. Fixed finger with 41-50 con-
tiguous, cusped marginal teeth, and 2-3 external and 3-6 internal accessory
teeth; movable finger with 42-50 similar marginal teeth, and 1-3 external and
3-5 internal accessory teeth; movable finger with well developed venedens and
venom duct, nodus ramosus proximal to trichobothrium t; terminal tooth of
fixed finger reduced and with vestigial venom duct.
Legs typical in form, rather slender; leg IV (Fig. 6) with entire femur
3.75-4.1 times as long as deep. Each tarsus with a prominent slit sensillum near
proximal end; subterminal tarsal setae curved, simple. Tactile seta on tarsus
of leg IV long, erect, and usually just distad of middle of segment.
Female (based on 5 mounted specimens from St. Lucie County, Florida):
Similar to male in most respects, but palpal chela clearly less robust. Genital
opercula as shown in Fig. 7; anterior operculum with 11-16 setae on face,
posterior operculum with 9-12 setae along margin. Spermathecae delicate and
often difficult to make out or lost entirely; as shown in Fig. 8. Cheliceral galea
only slightly better developed than in male (Fig. 9). Palp much as in male with
exception of chelal hand (Fig. 10 and 11); femur 2.35-2.6, tibia 2.0-2.22, and
chela (without pedicel) 2.5-2.7 times as long as broad; hand (without pedicel)
1.25-1.35 times as long as deep; movable finger 1.10-1.12 times as long as hand.
Fixed finger with 43-48 and movable finger with 42-48 marginal teeth; fixed
finger with 3-5 external and 1-2 internal, and movable finger with 3-6 external
and 1-3 internal accessory teeth.

The Florida Entomologist

Measurements (mm): Male (ranges for the 9 mounted specimens): Body
length 1.83-2.35. Carapace length 0.585-0.725. Chelicera 0.215-0.25 by 0.11-0.13.
Palpal trochanter 0.295-0.325 by 0.17-0.215; femur 0.48-0.585 by 0.19-0.245;
tibia 0.435-0.525 by 0.21-0.265; chela (without pedicel) 0.76-0.96 by 0.33-0.42;
hand (without pedicel) 0.38-0.465 by 0.355-0.46; pedicel about 0.075 long;
movable finger 0.42-0.52 long. Leg IV: entire femur 0.43-0.53 by 0.11-0.13; tibia
0.34-0.42 by 0.08-0.095; tarsus 0.295-0.36 by 0.06-0.065.
Female (ranges for the 5 mounted females): Body length 2.07-2.50.
Carapace length 0.66-0.71. Chelicera 0.23-0.25 by 0.11-0.125. Palpal trochanter
0.32-0.34 by 0.18-0.21; femur 0.48-0.55 by 0.20-0.23; tibia 0.445-0.52 by
0.215-0.25; chela (without pedicel) 0.79-0.93 by 0.29-0.355; hand (without
pedicel) 0.385-0.46 by 0.295-0.36; pedicel about 0.075 long; movable finger
0.435-0.52 long. Leg IV: entire femur 0.495-0.525 by 0.12-0.13; tibia 0.37-0.415
by 0.08-0.09; tarsus 0.31-0.35 by 0.06-0.065.
Remarks: It is obvious that there is considerable variation in the
measurements and proportions of the specimens described above, all from
beaches in St. Lucie County, Florida. Other specimens from Florida beaches,
notably from Big Pine Key, are generally similar in qualitative characters, but
on the average are slightly smaller and have less robust appendages. Also, the
specimens from Beaufort, North Carolina, are generally similar, but are
slightly larger and have less robust appendages. It is doubtful that these
differences are specific in nature; they probably only represent populational
variation and may largely disappear when greater numbers of specimens
become available for study.
All specimens considered above were found at the drift line on ocean
beaches. A few other specimens are at hand which are certainly congeneric
with the material of E. tumidus, but which show certain distinct differences
and which were collected away from the coast in Florida-from palmetto, on
bougainvillea, in pine compost, and in a McPhail trap in a sapodilla tree.
Because of the small numbers of specimens, it is impossible to decide at
present whether or not the morphological and ecological differences indicate
the presence of additional species.
It is interesting to note that among those specimens taken from beaches,
the cheliceral galea of males is nearly as large and complex as that of females.
On the other hand, in the 2 males taken on bougainvillea and from a McPhail
trap in a sapodilla tree (presumably not on a beach), the galea is much reduced
in length and in the number and size of rami present, as is usual in chernetids
(unfortunately, no females accompanied these males). It is generally accepted
that the galea is a spinneret from which the pseudoscorpion spins out the silk
used to fashion a protective chamber ("cocoon"). Such chambers are known to
be used by nymphs during molting and by adult females during brooding. The
reduced galea of most chernetid males may indicate that they seldom, if ever,
produce silken chambers; and so it may be with the male Epactiochernes
taken from trees. However, the well developed galeas of seashore males sug-
gest very strongly that these animals actively spin silk, possibly to make
chambers to protect them from the tides.
A puzzling sexual dimorphism may be seen in the distribution of accessory
teeth on the chelal fingers. In most males there are more internal (3-6) than
external (1-3) accessory teeth on each finger, while in most females the reverse
is true, that is, there are more external (3-6) than internal (1-3) accessory
teeth. I can think of no plausible explanation for this state of affairs.

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Muchmore: New Pseudoscorpion Genus

It should also be noted that Weygoldt has reported extensively on the
ecology and courtship and mating behavior of this species from North
Carolina, under the name of Dinocheirus tumidus (1966, 1969).

Epactiochernes tristis (Banks), new combination
Fig. 12
Chelanops tristis Banks, 1891, p. 163; 1895, p. 7.
Pselaphocernes(?) tristis: Beier, 1932, p. 134.
Dinocheirus tristis: Hoff, 1947, p. 532; 1958, p. 26; Weygoldt, 1966, p. 462; 1969,
p. 114.
Material examined: Lectotype male and 2 paratypes (2 males, 3 females)
"on the sea shore of Long Island" at Sea Cliff, Nassau County, New York,
June 1889 [Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard]; 1 female from Todd's
Point, Old Greenwich, Fairfield County, Connecticut, 28 August 1970, by C. H.
Alteri; 2 males, 2 females and 1 tritonymph from Cape Cod, Barnstable
County, Massachusetts, in July and August 1967-70, by W. J. Wall.


Fig. 12. Epactiochernes tristis (Banks). Lateral view
of left chela of male.

The description by Hoff (1947) is excellent in most respects and only needs
some supplementation.
Diagnosis: Similar to E. tumidus in most respects but on the average
smaller and with less robust palps.
Male: Carapace distinctly longer than broad, with 2 obvious transverse
furrows; vestitural setae total about 60-70, with 4 at anterior and 6-8 at
posterior margin. Tergal chaetotaxy of lectotype 8:9:9:12:12:12:12:12:15:-
12:T9T:2; others similar but varied. Sternal chaetotaxy of lectotype 15:-
(3)2-2(3):(1)9(1):27, 24:19:21:18:14: TT :2, anterior genital operculum with
17 T4T
3 long, heavy setae in center of 12 smaller ones; as in E. tumidus, setae on
sternal halves of segments 5 to 8 or 9 clustered at lateral and medial edges;
setae of spiracular and anal plates acuminate. Cheliceral hand with 5
setae; sb finely denticulate terminally, b and es acuminate. Dorsal aspect
of palp as shown by Hoff (1947, Fig. 31), lateral view shown here in Fig.
12. Hand of chela usually a little deeper than broad; femur 2.5-2.8, tibia
2.0-2.25, chela (without medical) 2.6-2.9 times as long as broad; hand (with-
out pedicel) 1.1-1.35 times as long as deep; movable finger 1.10-1.24 times
as long as hand. Fixed finger with 41-48 and movable finger with 42-48

The Florida Entomologist

marginal teeth; each finger with 2-4 external and 2-5 internal accessory
teeth. Leg IV with entire femur 3.8-4.3 times as long as deep; tarsus with
long, erect, tactile seta just distad of middle of segment.
Female: Quite similar to male but larger and with slightly more slender
appendages. Anterior genital operculum with 14-18 setae and posterior oper-
culum with 9-13 setae, arranged as in E. tumidus; spermathecae essentially as
shown for E. tumidus (Fig. 8). Cheliceral galea only slightly better developed
than that of male. Palpal femur 2.5-2.7, tibia 2.15-2.3, and chela (without
pedicel) 2.9-3.3 times as long as broad; hand (without pedicel) 1.45-1.6 times as
long as deep; movable finger 1.09-1.16 times as long as hand. Fixed chelal
finger with 43-50 and movable finger with 44-53 marginal teeth; both fingers
usually with 3-6 external and 1-2 internal accessory teeth.
Measurements (mm): Male (ranges for 5 specimens, including the lecto-
type): Body length 1.70-2.03. Carapace length 0.55-0.62. Palpal femur 0.41-0.52
by 0.16-0.19; tibia 0.365-0.47 by 0.185-0.21; chela (without pedicel) 0.70-0.875
by 0.24-0.33; hand (without pedicel) 0.35-0.43 by 0.265-0.36; movable finger
0.385-0.49 long. Leg IV: entire femur 0.37-0.46 by 0.09-0.12; tibia 0.285-0.36 by
0.07-0.08; tarsus 0.235-0.31 by 0.055-0.065.


Fig. 13-16. Epactiochernes insularum, new species: 13. Cheliceral galea of
holotype male; 14. Dorsal view of left palp of male; 15. Lateral view of right
chela of male; 16. Cheliceral galea of female.

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Muchmore: New Pseudoscorpion Genus

Female (ranges for 6 specimens): Body length 1.90-2.63. Carapace length
0.60-0.705. Palpal femur 0.46-0.555 by 0.17-0.21; tibia 0.435-0.49 by 0.19-0.22;
chela (without pedicel) 0.79-0.90 by 0.26-0.31; hand (without pedicel)
0.385-0.44 by 0.265-0.295; movable finger 0.445-0.50 long. Leg IV: entire femur
0.435-0.54 by 0.105-0.125; tibia 0.33-0.42 by 0.075-0.09; tarsus 0.30-0.36 by
Remarks: Epactiochernes tristis is quite similar to E. tumidus in most,
obvious respects, but it does appear to be different in its smaller average size
and less robust palps, particularly in the males. However, there still remains
the possibility that further study of Epactiochernes populations along the
Atlantic coast will prove that these 2 apparent species are, in fact, only 1.
The New England populations called tristis were probably established
originally by rafting northward along the coast from some more southerly
source (Lee 1972). Living as they do under and in driftwood at the tideline on
Atlantic Ocean beaches, individuals might relatively frequently be washed out
to sea by strong storms and hurricanes. Female pseudoscorpions in particular
might easily survive a long period at sea, for it is believed that females carrying
eggs or young retire to crevices, in which they surround themselves with
protective chambers of silk. Because the general trend of many Atlantic
storms and hurricanes and of the Gulf Stream is northward, it is quite con-
ceivable that such females (potential founders) would have been transported
many times from Florida or the West Indies to North Atlantic shores. In this
manner, a number of derivative populations might have been established, each
more or less isolated from the others because of the low vagility of the animals
under normal conditions. If this has happened over a long period of time, it
seems quite possible that some of the populations have developed into new
species (Carson 1970). Thus, E. tristis may well be specifically distinct from E.
tumidus even though the gross morphological differences do not appear great.
Epactiochernes insularum, new species
Fig. 13-16
Material: Holotype male (WM 927.01001) and paratype female from
Ahogado Key, Puerto Rico, 21 September 1965, by R. Levins and F. McKen-
zie; 2 tritonmymphs from same place on 17 December 1964 and 31 August
1966; 1 paratype male from Paradise Key, off Pinar del Rio, Cuba, 11 January,
1965, by R. Levins and G. Silva; 1 paratype male from Jackson Bay, Clarendon
Parish, Jamaica, 21 December 1972, by S. B. Peck.
Diagnosis: A small species of the genus, having length of palpal femur 0.46
mm or less, and with chela less robust than in E. tumidus.
Description of male: With the characters of the genus as outlined above.
Carapace and palps light reddish brown, other parts paler. Carapace distinctly
longer than broad; with 2 distinct transverse furrows and 2 very faint eye-
spots; surface definitely, but not heavily granulate; with about 60 terminally
broadened, dentate vestitural setae. Surfaces of abdominal tergites lightly
granulate, of sternites smooth; interscutal and pleural membranes strongly
papillose. Tergal chaetotaxy of holotype 9:9:7:8:9:10:9:11:8:10:T6T:2; sternal
2-2 TT
chaetotaxy 15:(3) 4 (3):(1)7(1):24:18:15:17:15:12:T T:2; paratypes similar
but varied; anterior genital operculum with 3 long, heavy setae in middle of 12
smaller ones; with characteristic grouping of setae medially and laterally on
each sternal half; setae of spiracular and anal places acuminate. Internal
genitalia apparently typical.

The Florida Entomologist

Chelicera slightly more than one-third as long as carapace; hand with 5
setae, sb finely denticulate terminally, b and es acuminate; flagellum of 4
setae, all denticulate; galea of holotype small, with few small spinules (Fig.
13); galea of paratype from Jamaica similar, but that of paratype from
Paradise Key larger and with longer rami, much as in female.
Palp moderately robust, with chelal hand slightly deeper than broad (Figs.
14 and 15). Femur 2.5-2.7, tibia 2.0-2.1, and chela (without pedicel) 2.55-2.7
times as long as broad; hand (without pedicel) 1.2 times as long as deep;
movable finger 1.15-1.17 times as long as hand. Surfaces generally rough,
distinctly granulate on trochanter and medial faces of femur, tibia and chelal
hand; most setae denticulate, many terminally broadened. Trichobothria
positioned as in Fig. 15. Fixed finger with 39-46 marginal teeth, and 1-3 exter-
nal and 4-6 internal accessory teeth; movable finger with 42-45 marginal, 3-4
external and 3 internal accessory teeth; only movable finger with well
developed venedens and venom duct, nodus ramosus just distal to level of
trichobothrium st; fixed finger with reduced terminal tooth and vestigial
venom duct.
Legs typical, rather slender; femur of leg IV 3.7-3.9 times as long as deep.
Tactile seta on tarsus of leg IV long, erect, about 0.6 length of segment from
proximal end.
Female: Quite similar to male in most general respects. Anterior genital
operculum with 15 setae on face, posterior operculum with 10 along margin.
Spermathecae delicate and difficult to make out, but apparently similar to
those of E. tumidus. Cheliceral galea larger and more branched than in holo-
type male (Fig. 16). Palp much as in male, except for less robust chelal hand;
femur 2.45, tibia 2.15, and chela (without pedicel) 2.75 times as long as broad;
hand (without pedicel) 1.4 times as long as deep, movable finger 1.12 times as
long as hand. Fixed finger with 44 marginal, and 5 external and 2 internal
accessory teeth; movable finger with 47 marginal, and 3 external and 1 inter-
nal accessory teeth.
Tritonymph: Much like the adults in general aspects, but with the usual
differences in size, proportions and chaetotaxy. Cheliceral galea relatively
large and well branched, as in female.
Measurements (mm): Male (ranges for the holotype and 2 paratypes):
Body length 1.71-1.80. Carapace length 0.55-0.58. Chelicera 0.20-0.215 by
0.095-0.105. Palpal trochanter 0.27-0.30 by 0.155-0.18; femur 0.435-0.46 by
0.165-0.185; tibia 0.40-0.415 by 0.19-0.21; chela (without pedicel) 0.71-0.785 by
0.26-0.295; hand (without pedicel) 0.35-0.39 by 0.295-0.33; movable finger
0.41-0.445 long. Leg IV: entire femur 0.39-0.435 by 0.105-0.115; tibia 0.30-0.35
by 0.075-0.08; tarsus 0.26-0.29 by 0.055-0.06.
Female: Body length 1.80. Carapace length 0.58. Chelicera 0.215 by 0.11.
Palpal trochanter 0.295 by 0.16; femur 0.445 by 0.18; tibia 0.41 by 0.19; chela
(without pedicel) 0.74 by 0.27; hand (without pedicel) 0.37 by 0.265; movable
finger 0.415 long. Leg IV: entire femur 0.42 by 0.105; tibia 0.34 by 0.075; tarsus
0.27 by 0.055.
Tritonymph: Body length 1.40-1.46. Carapace length 0.445-0.465. Palpal
femur 0.29-0.305 by 0.135; tibia 0.275-0.29 by 0.15; chela (without medical)
0.525-0.535 by 0.19-0.20; hand (without pedicel) 0.265 by 0.20-0.205; movable
finger 0.28 long.
Etymology: The species is named insularum in reference to its occurrence
on islands.

Vol. 57, No. 4

Muchmore: New Pseudoscorpion Genus

Remarks: Two females belonging to Epactiochernes are at hand from
Jefferson County, Florida. They are of the same size and proportions as the
female of E. insularum but appear to differ from this species in several re-
spects. Because they were found in litter away from the seashore and are
smaller than any known specimens of E. tumidus, they also appear to differ
from that species. For the present, therefore, they remain undetermined, until
further material becomes available for comparison.
It was noted above that certain male specimens otherwise generally similar
to E. tumidus have much reduced cheliceral galea. Similarly, the galeas are
reduced in the males of E. insularum from Ahogado Key and Jamaica, but not
in the male from Paradise Key. Unfortunately, no ecological data are availa-
ble for any of these specimens, so it is not known whether there is a correlation
between size of galea and the environment in which the creatures live. In this
case, all specimens have been considered conspecific because of the great
similarities in all other features; but it does remain possible that 2 separate
species are present.

Many thanks are due to those who made specimens available for study,
especially Drs. Peter Weygoldt, and Herbert Levi. The illustrations were ably
executed by Charlotte H. Alteri. This work was supported in part by a grant
(GB 37570) from the National Science Foundation.


Banks, N. 1891. Notes on North American Chernetidae. Can. Ent. 23:161-166.
Banks, N. 1895. Notes on the Pseudoscorpionida. J. New York Ent. Soc.
Beier, M. 1932. Pseudoscorpionidea. II. Subord. Cheliferinea. Tierreich
Carson, H. L. 1970. Chromosome tracers of the origin of species. Science
Hoff, C. C. 1947. The species of the pseudoscorpion genus Chelanops described
by Banks. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard 98:473-550.
Hoff, C. C. 1958. List of the pseudoscorpions of North America north of
Mexico. Amer. Mus. Novitates 1875:1-50.
Lee, V. F. 1972. Systematic studies of the littoral Chelonethida of Baja
California, Mexico. MS thesis, California State University, San Fran-
cisco: 1-118.
Muchmore, W. B. 1974a. Clarification of the genera Hesperochernes and
Dinocheirus (Pseudoscorpionida, Chernetidae). J. Arachnol. 2:(in
Muchmore, W. B. 1974b. The use of the spermathecae in the taxonomy of
chernetid pseudoscorpions. Proc. 6th Arachnological Congr. (in press).
Weygoldt, P. 1966. Mating behavior and spermatophore morphology in the
pseudoscorpion Dinocheirus tumidus Banks. Biol. Bull. 120:462-467.
Weygoldt, P. 1969. The biology of pseudoscorpions. Cambridge, Mass., Har-
vard Univ. Press. p. 1-145.

The Florida Entomologist

are numerous reports of predaceous vertebrates (particularly birds) quickly
finding localized concentrations of prey, but documentation of invertebrate
predators with such ability are difficult to find. While releasing marked
mosquitoes in August 1971, we observed a rapid accumulation of the large
'green darner' Anax junius (Drury) and witnessed selective feeding on this
man-made concentration of prey.
The observation site was a 5-acre old field (now mostly Baccharis and
guava) near the center of a heavily forested 100-acre island in the St. Johns
River marsh west of Vero Beach. A 7x 7x 7 ft screen cage containing ca.
800,000 2-3 day old Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) was centered in a
cleared area at the middle of the field and smaller cages containing a total of
ca. 300,000 newly-emerged mosquitoes were spaced around it (Ann. Ent. Soc.
Amer., 1972, 65:848). At sunset the tops of all cages were removed and some
mosquitoes in the big cage took flight during this disturbance. Lone
dragonflies were seen "cruising their beat" in the old field prior to this time
and a few (3-5) appeared over the big cage as soon as the top was removed.
Following the initial disturbance, only a few mosquitoes (mostly males)
remained in flight around the top edges of the cage but the "local" dragonflies
remained nearby, at times dipping into the cage to capture mosquitoes. As
darkness approached, increasing numbers took flight and large columnar
swarms of males formed above the 4 corners of the cage. During the twilight
period from 30 to 60 min after sunset almost all mosquitoes departed and
mating activity was easily observed against the moon-lit sky. During this
30-min period of mass exodus, the number of dragonflies attracted to the
release site continued to increase until 75-100 were rapidly circling 10-30 ft
above the cages, concentrating on the 4 dense swarms. On repeated occasions
the copulating pair disappeared from sight the instant a dragonfly passed the
same point. Mating pairs seemed to be selected out, possibly because they
presented a larger visual image. When mosquito activity started to decline
rapidly about 1 hr after sunset, the dragonflies began to scatter from the tight
circle in which they were concentrated and soon all had departed. Recently,
Laird (Mosquito News, 1973, 33:466) referred to old observations in which the
mere presence of dragonflies was said to cause biting females to disperse; we
saw no evidence of such behavior during these observations.
Some 20 years ago on Sanibel Island, Haeger made some additional obser-
vations on the feeding of a large crepuscular Aeshninae (species unknown).
During early twilight, dragonflies (first 1-2 and later 25-30) were feeding on the
A. taeniorhynchus attracted to the observer standing in a small Borrichia
glade. The dragonflies even picked those in the process of feeding or fully
engorged off his arms and clothes. Later when numerous male swarms formed
near the tips of the fronds of tall sabal palms nearby, these males too were
attacked. As soon as even a few males (8-10) began to regroup at a new site, the
dragonflies invaded and in seconds the swarm was dissipated. J. D. Edman and
J. S. Haeger, Fla. Med. Ent. Lab., Box 520, Vero Beach, Florida 32960.

'Supported by grants AI-06587 and AI-11201 from NIAID, U. S. Public Health Service.


Vol. 57, No. 4

Vol. 57, No. 4 The Florida Entomologist 409


Dep. of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Infestation of roots of dasheen Calocasia esculenta L. by larvae ofA rzama
densa in Florida make it imperative that this noctuid not be introduced into
other countries for biological control of water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes
(Mart.) Solms until biological and ecological studies are complete.

Larvae of Arzama densa Walker are commonly found feeding on water
hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms in southeastern United States.
The number of injured plants may exceed 50% at times in the field (Vogel and
Oliver 1969). Heavy losses to parasites, predators, and diseases apparently
prevent the insect from becoming more numerous and causing greater damage
to water hyacinth.

Fig. 1. Cross-section of dasheen root showing larval damage and empty
pupal skin.

pupal skin.

'Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.
'Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 5503.

The Florida Entomologist

Introduction of Arzama densa without its natural enemies into other
countries where water hyacinth is a problem has been suggested by numerous
investigators. The only other host reported for A. densa is pickerel weed
Pontederia cordata L. which apparently was the natural host before the
introduction of water hyacinth.
Arzama densa was collected and reared from dasheen, Calocasia es-
culenta (L.), growing in an experimental plot near Gainesville, Florida. The
larvae completely tunneled through the root rendering it unfit for use (Fig. 1).
(Up to 15% of the mother roots were infested.) Watson (1917) reported that
dasheen was attacked by the rotten wood caterpillar Scoleocampa liburna
(Geyer). It is probable that this was a misidentification of the larva and that
the actual insect was A. densa.
Arzama densa is either a highly variable species or represents a complex of
species. Until the biology of this group is completely determined, A. densa
should definitely not be introduced into other countries especially where
dasheen or similar root crops are important.


Vogel, E., and A. D. Oliver, Jr. 1969. Life History and some factors affecting
the population of Arzama densa in Louisiana. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer.
Watson, J. R. 1917. Florida truck and garden insects. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull.
134. 127 p.


The "Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil" will promote and sponsor the
2ND BRAZILIAN CONGRESS OF ENTOMOLOGY in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, 3-7
February 1975. The meeting will be held on the campus of the Faculty of
Agriculture (Eliseu Maciel) of the Federal University of Pelotas in this
southernmost state of Brazil.
The featured speaker of the Congress will be Dr. Kenneth L. Knight,
President of the Entomological Society of America and Head of the Depart-
ment of Entomology at North Carolina State University.
All phases of entomological research will be discussed at this meeting;
however, major emphasis is usually given to applied and basic entomology
concerned with tropical and subtropical crops grown in Brazil. This year,
owing to the close proximity of the meeting place to Uruguay, Argentina and
Paraguay, it is likely to take on a definite international flavor. The meeting is
open to all.
Most of the papers will be given in Portuguese, however, this should not be
an obstacle if you are interested in the entomological problems of Brazil.
Many of the members speak both English and Spanish and therefore, there
should be little problem in the exchange of ideas.
Inquiries on the Congress or membership in SEB should be directed to: Dr.
Pedrito Silva, President SEB, CEPLAC, Caixa Postal 7, Itabuna Bahia -
Brazil or Dr. Milton de Sousa Guerra, Vice President SEB, Fac. Agron. Eliseu
Maciel, Caixa Postal 767, Pelotas RS Brazil, or Dr. Roger N. Williams,
Foreign Liaison Delegate SEB, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development
Center, Wooster, Ohio 44691.

Vol. 57, No. 4

The Florida Entomologist



University of Florida, Agricultural Research Center,
Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33314


Seven insecticides (OrtheneT (O,S-Dimethyl acetylphosphoroamido-
thioate), carbofuran, dimethoate, disulfoton, methomyl, monocroto-
phos, and oxydemethonmethyl) applied as foliar sprays provided excellent
control of the palm aphid, Cerataphis variabilis H.R.L., on 'Malayan
Dwarf coconut palms, Cocus nucifera L. Dialifor gave only limited control.
As a soil drench only dimethoate gave satisfactory control at 2 weeks
post-treatment, but by 4 weeks Orthene, monocrotophos, and oxydemeton-
methyl also gave 100% control. When applied by soil drench, the insecticides
translocated very slowly to the spear leaves but provided excellent control on
the other leaves within 1 week.
Three species of coccinellidae, Cycloneda sanguine (L.), Hippodamia
convergens Guerin, and Olla abdominalis sobrina Csy., were observed as
predators of this aphid.

The palm aphid, Cerataphis variabilis H.R.L., is a pest of many palms and
often develops extremely high populations on the bud or spear leaf as well as
the 2 or 3 youngest leaves in a palm tree. Aphid populations on the 'Malayan
Dwarf coconut palm, Cocus nucifera L., which appears to be the aphids'
preferred host, are often so high that the spear leaf is completely covered by
aphids. Infestations of palm aphids reduce plant vigor by sucking out the
phloem contents (with feeding areas often yellowing and oozing sap). Sooty
mold accompanies an infestation, growing on honeydew given off by nymphs
and adults. Nursery palms heavily infested with aphids are often stunted and
may be several ft shorter than uninfested palms of the same age.
Control studies on this aphid were initiated since increasing numbers of the
'Malayan Dwarf which is resistant to lethal yellowing disease are being
planted to replace dying 'Jamaica Tall' coconut palms in South Florida.
C. variabilis was described by Hille Ris Lambers (1953) from C. nucifera,
and Denmark (1965) emphasized its importance on Florida palms. This insect
is considered to be the number 1 pest of the Dwarf variety.
A field nursery of 'Malayan Dwarf coconut palms ca. 18 months old was
selected for these tests. Palm aphids infested 38% of the trees which were ca.
1.5-2.5 m tall. Trees with heavy infestations were selected for study, and the
total aphid population per leaflet on the 3 heaviest infested leaflets was

'Homoptera: Aphididae.
2Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 5455.

Vol. 57, No. 4

The Florida Entomologist

counted per tree. Palms were then blocked according to mean leaflet popula-
tions, and insecticide treatments were randomized within blocks.
In Test 1, 8 insecticides (Table 1) were evaluated at rates of 1.2 g active per
liter (1 lb/100 gal) of water. Treatments were applied as foliar sprays with a
7.57 liter compressed air sprayer. Emphasis was placed on thorough coverage
of the spear leaf. Populations were re-examined at 4, 14, and 28 days post-
treatment using the same technique as above.
Test 2 involved 5 systemic insecticides applied as soil drenches. Four soil
cores (10.2 cm diam and ca. 15 cm deep) in a circle around the tree ca. 46 cm
from the base were removed. Insecticides at the rates given in Table 2 were
mixed with 7.57 liters of water and poured into the holes under each tree.
When the chemical had soaked away, it was flushed in with 7.57 liters of water.
Population counts were made weekly for 4 weeks. As 1 week post-treatment
counts showed most of the aphids were killed on all but the spear leaf, it was
substituted as 1 of the sampling sites for the duration of the test. Spear leaves
with populations greater than 500 aphids were recorded as 500.
Five replicates consisting of 1 palm each were used for each treatment.
Results were compared statistically by Duncan's multiple range tests.

SPRAYS* OF INSECTICIDES ON 24 JAN. 1974 (5 replicates).

Means** at days post-treatment
0 4 14 28

Dimethoate 2.67EC 200.8 0.Oa 0.Oa 0.Oa
Disulfoton 6L 199.8 0.Oa 0.Oa 0.Oa
Oxydemetonmethyl 2EC 197.8 3.6a- 0.Oa 0.Oa
Orthene 1.3S 201.2 1.8a 0.5a 0.Oa
Monocrotophos 5EC 194.6 1.9a 0.6a 0.Oa
Carbofuran 4F 200.0 1.9a 1.la 0.Oa
Methomyl 1.8L 199.8 0.Oa 0.Oa 4.7a
Dialifor 4EC 194.4 52.4b 142.0b 125.4b
Untreated Check 201.2 206.6c 214.4c 251.8c

*Rate was 1.2 g AI/liter (1 lb AI/100 gal) for each treatment.
**Means in a column not followed by the same letter are significantly different (P=0.01) by
Duncan's multiple range test.

Results of foliar treatments (Table 1) showed that all materials except
dialifor gave excellent control of the palm aphid by 4 days. Populations
became re-established on only 1 of the 5 methomyl treated trees by the 4th
week. Populations on untreated trees remained statistically greater than any
insecticide treated trees for 4 weeks.
Aphids on trees treated by soil drench (Table 2) were not killed as quickly
as by following foliar sprays. All aphids on the unfolded leaves were dead by 1
week; however, the populations on the spear leaves were left undisturbed on
all treated trees. Aphids on the spear leaves were satisfactorily controlled after

Vol. 57, No. 4

Reinert and Woodiel: Palm Aphid Control



Chemical AI/tree Means** at weeks post-treatment
(g) 0 1 2 3 4

Dimethoate 2.67EC 30 168.3 85.1ab 3.0a 0.0a 0.0a
Dimethoate 2.67EC 15 170.3 113.3ab 83.3bc 0.0a 0.Oa
Dimethoate 2.67EC 7.5 172.9 117.5ab 36.7ab 0.0a 0.Oa
Oxydemetonmethyl 2EC 15 202.7 53.3a 46.7ab 0.0a
Orthene 1.3S 15 186.9 96.7ab 87.4bc 18.3ab 0.0a
Monocrotophos 5EC 15 175.1 77.3ab 56.7ab 32.0b 0.0a
Carbofuran 4F 15 185.5 153.3b 166.7c 166.7c 162.7b
Untreated Check -- 185.9 227.8b 329.9d 336.9d 329.0c

*Populations in excess of 500 were recorded as 500.
**Means in a column not followed by the same letter are significantly different (P=0.05) by
Duncan's multiple range test.

2 weeks by the high rate of dimethoate and also on the lower half of the spear
leaf in several of the other treatments. Populations were completely
eliminated with dimethoate and oxydemetonmethyl by the 3rd week and also
by Orthene (O,S-Dimethyl acetylphosphoroamidothioate) and monocro-
tophos by the 4th week. Apparently carbofuran did not translocate into the
spear leaf of treated palms, as it never reduced the aphids on the spear leaf.
Carbofuran 162.7 b vs check 329.0 c indicates a significant reduction but not to
the degree of the other treatments.

Three species of coccinellidae, Cycloneda sanguine (L.), Hippodamia
contvergens Guerin, and Olla abdominalis sabrina Csy., were observed as
predators of the palm aphid. C. sanguine was most prevalent and appeared to
reduce aphid populations on some trees. Populations of from 2 to 10 larvae and
adult coccinellids/leaf were observed feeding on dense aphid populations.

We wish to sincerely thank Mr. Raymond D. Oglesby of Oglesby Nursery
Inc., Hollywood, for his kind cooperation in allowing us to use his field nursery
for these studies.


Denmark, H. A. 1965. The palm aphid, Cerataphis variabilis H.R.L. Fla. Dep.
Agr., Ent. Cir. No. 41. 1 p.
Hille Ris Lambers, D. 1953. Notes on aphids from Cocus nucifera. Agr. J.
(Suva, Fiji Islands) 24:1-3.

The Florida Entomologist

(Note). Many insecticides have been screened for mole cricket control
during the last 3 decades (D. E. Short, and D. P. Driggers. 1973. Fla. Ent.
56:19-23), but it is difficult to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides for these
subterranean crickets. After the insecticidal application, the dead or
moribund mole crickets on the surface of the soil have been counted to
evaluate the insecticides. Such counting procedure may be misleading. This
report describes observations on the effect of chemical baits on mole crickets,
and that the mortality occurs not only on the surface of the soil, but also
under the soil.
Three chemical baits3 were tested in a pasture for mole cricket control.
These treatments and control (no baits) were randomized and replicated 3
times. The baits were applied on 17 September 1972 after 3 days of irrigation.
The dead or moribund mole crickets on the surface of the soil were counted
before 7 AM for the next 4 days. The surviving population of mole crickets
(Scapteriscus acletus Rehn and Hebard, and S. vicinus Scudder) inside the soil
were assayed by drenching an area of 1 m2 in each plot (9 m2) with 1%
pyrethrum. The mole crickets that emerged from the soil within 15 min were
The effects of the 3 baits on mole crickets were not significantly different.
Each treatment had 2-3 dead mole crickets on the surface of the soil (i.e., 0.7 to
1.0/plot), but the control had none. Furthermore, there were 2-3 live mole
crickets (per 3 m2) in all the treatments and the control (i.e., 6-9/plot). The
question of whether some of the mole crickets killed by chemical baits die
under the soil was answered by pot experiments. Five percent choropyrifos
was applied to 4 outdoor pots (0.3 m diam) with wheat kernels as food. Each
pot had 2 large nymphs of S. vicinus. The bait (2.3 kg AI/h) was applied on the
surface of the pots and the 4th pot was the control. I found dead nymphs not
only on the surface (n= 3), but also underground (n= 3) and no mortality in
the control.
These data suggest that merely counting dead mole crickets on the surface
does not reveal the true efficacy of a bait. Sampling live mole crickets after the
experiments and measuring the surface burrows or mole cricket activity (D. H.
Habeck and L. C. Kuitert. 1964. Sunshine St. Agr. Rep. 9:11-12) are some
additional methods that could be used for evaluating chemicals for mole
crickets.-S. M. Ulagaraj, University of Florida, Entomology Department,
Gainesville, Florida 32611.

'Florida Agricultural Experimental Station Journal Series No. 5596.
21 thank Dr. T. J. Walker for help and for criticizing the manuscript. Appreciation is expressed to
Dr. J. Strayer for the supply of chemicals.
3Five percent Diazinon, trichorofon, and chloropyrifos baits were formulated by Southern Mill
Creek Co., at Tampa and applied at 1.7 kg active ingredient/hectare (AI/h).


Vol. 57, No. 4

The Florida Entomologist



University of Florida,
Agriculture Research and Education Center,
Bradenton, Florida 33505


Two insect growth regulators (IGR's), ZR-619 (ethyl n-methoxy-3,7,11-
trimethyl-(2E, 4E)-2,4-dodecadienethiolate), and ZR-777 (Prop-2 ynyl 3,7,11-
trimethyl-(2E, 4E)-dodecadienoate) were tested for control potential against
a dipterous leafminer, Liriomyza munda Frick, by treatment of puparia and
by treatment of soil where puparia form. Both IGR's separately and in com-
bination suppressed adult emergence by 16-23% when puparia were treated
and 10 to 14% when soil was treated. All treatments of IGR's reduced Opius
parasite emergence to 0% from levels as high as 27%. Use of the IGR's in this
manner was concluded to be of greater potential harm to biological control
agents than benefit to leafminer control.

A dipterous leafminer, Liriomyza munda Frick, commonly feeds on many
wild and cultivated plants and is frequently a serious pest of many vegetable
and ornamental crops grown on the west coast of Florida (Stegmaier 1966).
Populations appear to be regulated by climate and by several hymenopterous
parasites which are the chief natural enemies of the flies (Griffiths 1962). On
commercial crops natural population control must be augmented with
chemical insecticides because phytopathogenic organisms may enter the plant
through wounds made by the mining larvae.
Leafminers in tomato plants are often parasitized by wasps which inject
their egg into the maggot or inside its tunnel. Although 13 parasite species
were reared from L. munda in Texas (Harding 1965) and 6 species from L.
pictella (= L. munda) in California (Oatman 1965), only 5 species were reared
from the leafminer in Florida (Stegmaier 1966). Parasites reared from puparia
on the west coast area were identified as Opius sp. and Opius dimidiatis
(Ashmead), Braconidae.
Chemical toxicants are the major cause for parasite mortality in agricul-
tural areas (Wene 1965, Getzin 1960). Selective use of chemicals (Getzin 1960)
or use of non chemical, minimally toxic materials could result in conservation
of parasites and in leafminer population suppression through integrated ef-
forts. This report describes laboratory-scale evaluations of 2 insect growth
regulators (IGR's) against the leafminers.

The 2 insect growth regulators were ZR-619 (ethyl-11-methoxy-3,7,11-
trimethyl-(2E, 4E)-2,4-dodecadienethiolate) Ent. No. 70513; and ZR-777

'Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 5440.

Vol. 57, No. 4

The Florida Entomologist

(Prop-2-ynyl 3,7,11-trimethyl-(2E, 4E)-2,4-dodecadienoate) Ent. No. 70531.
These compounds, synthesized by Zoecon Research Laboratory, possess
juvenile hormone-like activity (Hendrick et al. 1973). Each was used at 1,250
ppm and dispersed by a CO, pressurized, stainless steel sprayer.
Leafminer puparia were obtained as follows: Field infested mature tomato
vines were cut at the soil level and placed in 25 gal plastic trash containers, 10
vines in each. The containers were inverted on a wooden rack ca. 4 in. above a
sheet of brown paper covered with a 1/16 in. deep layer of washed sand.
Mature larvae emerged from the tunnels, dropped onto the sand and formed
puparia. Puparia were collected daily from the sand, transferred to the
laboratory, and treated.
Two treatment methods were employed. The first method was a spray of
the IGR's applied to puparia placed in 4 groups on separate paper towels.
Controls were treated with deionized water. This experimental method was
repeated 4 times, each with 4 replications. The second method was a spray of
the IGR compounds to the sand and paper beneath the container of tomato
vines. The larvae dropped onto the IGR-treated sand after 24 hr. Puparia were
collected, separated, and placed in 2 in. diam plastic dishes 1 1/2 in. deep, then
held for emergence under laboratory conditions (78F, 50-70% RH). This
experimental method was repeated twice, each with 4 replications.

Data are reported only on puparia from larvae which emerged during the
first 4 days since the numbers recoverable from the vines diminished sub-
stantially after ca 4 days. In the first experimental method where puparia were
sprayed, total emergence from the control was 76%; 62% were flies, 14% were
parasites (Table 1). Adult fly emergence from the IGR treatments compared
to the control was significantly suppressed, 23% by ZR 619,17% by ZR 777, and
16% by the 2 materials combined (Table 1). Emergence of parasites was
suppressed 99 to 100% by the IGR's and only 3 wasps were recovered from 850
puparia. Suppression of fly emergence by 17, 16, and 23% seems less significant
when the loss of potential control by parasites (14%) is considered.
REGULATOR-treated puparia and sand.

Insect Growth Regulator No. puparia % Liriomyza % Parasites
(1,250 ppm) treated emerged emerged

Experimental Method 1 (puparia treated)
Check 294 62a* 14a*
ZR-619 293 39b Ob
ZR-777 292 45b lb
ZR-619 + ZR-777 285 46b Ob

Experimental Method 2 (Sand treated)
Check 30 70a* 27a*
ZR-619 20 60a Ob
ZR-777 54 56a Ob

*Values in each column for a given experiment not followed by the same letter are significantly
different at a 95% level of probability. Duncan's MRT.

Vol. 57, No. 4

Poe: Insect Mortality From Growth Regulators

The second experimental method, in which larvae formed puparia on
treated sand, gave data similar to those of the first experiment (Table 1).
Although the number of individuals recovered was small, the percent emer-
gence of adults in the control (97%) was greater than that in the first
experiment. This difference was due to greater recovery of parasites. Percent
emergence of flies from puparia formed on treated sand did not diminish
significantly. When ZR 777 was applied only a small difference in suppression
was noted between the treatment values obtained and the control when the 2
experiments are compared. But, for ZR 619 the difference was greater (23% in
Experimental Method 1 and 10% in Experimental Method 2). Even though
there was an observed difference in chemical suppression of leafminer emer-
gence (Method 1 compared to Method 2), the effect on parasite emergence was
the same: no parasites were recovered from puparia formed on IGR treated
sand. No data were obtained to indicate if such an effect persisted for more
than 24 hr. Parasite emergence was reduced from 14% to 0 or 1% when puparia
were treated (Experimental Method 1) and from 27% to 0% when puparia
formed on treated sand (Experimental Method 2).
The benefits of the use of these IGR materials in an integrated program for
control of dipterous leafminer when weighed against the loss sustained by
biological agents appear limited. Although no data were obtained for the
specific time or method of parasite mortality in this experiment, in a similar
experiment (Poe 1974) the tomato pinworm parasites Apanteles dignus
Musebeck and A. scutellaris Musebeck failed to form pupae and died as
prepupae within their cocoons.
It is imperative from this experiment and others (Poe 1974) that the use of
highly active juvenile hormone-like compounds in management studies must
be evaluated not only for their impact on the target species at various rates
and time intervals but also for the possibly much greater impact on natural


Getzin, L. W. 1960. Selective insecticides for vegetable leafminer control and
parasite survival. J. Econ. Ent. 53:872-875.
Oatman, E. A. 1960- Parasitism of overwintering pupae of the melon leaf-
miner, Liriomyza pictella. J. Econ. Ent. 53:682.
Poe, S. L. 1974. Emergence of Keiferia lycopersicella (Lepidoptera:
Gelechiidae) and Apanteles sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from
pupae and soil treated with insect growth regulators. Entomophaga (in
Stegmaier, C. E., Jr. 1966. Host plants and parasites of Liriomyza munda in
Florida (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Fla. Ent. 49:82-86.
Wene, G. P. 1955. Effect of some organic insecticides on the population levels
of the serpentine leafminer and its parasites. J. Econ. Ent. 48:596-7.
Griffiths, C. D. 1962. Breeding leafmining flies and their parasites. Ent. Record
Harding, J. A. 1965. Parasitism of the leafminer, Liriomyza munda, in the
winter garden area of Texas. J. Econ. Ent. 58:442-3.
Hendrick, C. A., G. B. Staal, and J. B. Siddall. 1973. Alkyl 3,7,11-
trimethyl-2,4-dodecadienoates, a new class of potent insect growth
regulators with juvenile hormone activity. J. Agr. Food Chem. 21:354-9.


The Florida Entomologist

Knowledge of the number of larval instars was required to help identify
which of these instars fed on different parts of the host plant, Pinus elliotti
Engelm., in Florida. Larvae were collected between August 1972 and October
1973 from Glades Co. and preserved in 70% ethanol. Individuals were posi-
tioned on a small mound of 10% boric acid ointment in a BPI watch glass
containing 70% ethanol, and maximum head widths were determined by
means of an ocular micrometer mounted in a binocular dissecting microscope
(40 X magnification).
Five major peaks were evident from data frequency distribution (Fig. 1),
means were calculated, and chi-square (Snedecor and Cochran 1967) was used
to compare the goodness of fit of the observed calculated means to the means
predicted by Dyar's rule (Psyche 5, 1890). Predicted means for the first 3 larval
instars were highly correlated with observed means (Table 1) and the 5 larval
instars found in R. subtropica conformed to Dyar's rule of geometric
progression. J. R. McGraw and R. C. Wilkinson, University of Florida,
Gainesville, 32611.

Width (mm)
Fig. 1. Distribution of R. subtropica larval
instar means above and ranges below.

head widths (n= 1,635) with

HEAD WIDTHS IN R. subtropica.

1 2 3 4* 5*

(widths in mm)

Observed x 0.260 0.345 0.489 0.721 1.044
Predicted x 0.237 0.344 0.498 0.721 1.044

*Dyar's ratio= 0.691; calc. 2=0.173 ( ~'Og 0.22) for instars 1-3.

Vol. 57, No. 4


John W. Wilson, Professor Emeritus of Entomology, University of Florida,
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, died June 20, 1974 at Orange City,
Florida. He was stricken while playing shuffleboard. He was interred in the
Villa Rica Cemetery following services in Villa Rica, Georgia.
Dr. Wilson was born at Villa Rica, Georgia, September 19, 1902, the son of
Ulla and Margaret Wilson. He attended the Carroll County, Georgia schools.
He received the B.S. degree from Clemson College, South Carolina in 1924; the
M.S. degree from North Carolina State College in 1926 and the Doctor of
Science degree from Harvard University in 1929.
During the summer of 1924, John worked with the Gypsy Moth Labora-
tory, Highlands, Massachusetts; the summers of 1925 and 1926 at the Cotton
Insects Investigations Laboratory in Florence, South Carolina and the
summer of 1928 with the Rockefeller Institute Laboratory in Princeton, New
Jersey. He joined the academic staff of the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station system in 1930. He served at the Main Station in Gainesville, the
Watermelon and Grape Laboratory in Leesburg, Strawberry Laboratory in
Plant City, Everglades Experiment Station in Belle Glade, and since 1947 at
the Central Florida Experiment Station in Sanford. In 1959 Dr. Wilson was
promoted to Entomologist in Charge of the Central Florida Station. He re-
tired in 1967.

The Florida Entomologist

John's initial responsibilities involved the biology and control of the Fern
Caterpillar, a serious pest of Asparagus plumosus fern. Following this he was
a productive researcher and responsible for many commercial insect control
practices on vegetables. He contributed much to the development of the
"worm-free" sweet corn and celery industries in Florida. He was the author or
co-author of more than 50 technical papers and bulletins appearing in the
"Journal of Economic Entomology" and publications of the Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Station. He co-authored a paper on the History of En-
tomology in Florida.
Dr. Wilson was active in the Florida Entomological Society and served as
its President in 1952 and as Business Manager-Treasurer from 1936-1942. In
1952 he was elected to the Executive Committee of the Cotton States Branch
of the American Association of Economic Entomologists. He was a member of
the Entomological Society of America and the Florida State Horticultural
Society. He was a member of the Sanford Kiwanis Club and an elder in the
Presbyterian Church. He was very active in promoting the development of
Florida Presbyterian College at St. Petersburg, Florida.
In June of 1942 he took a military leave of absence and served as a captain,
Sanitary Corps, in the U. S. Army Medical Department. From 1943-1945 he
was commanding officer of a Malaria Control Unit stationed in Chabua,
India. During late 1944 and 1945 this unit was responsible for all aerial
applications of insecticides for mosquito control in the CBI theatre including
the initial use of aerial applications of DDT.
Dr. Wilson married the former Mary Louise Noble in 1931, who survives
him. Also surviving are three daughters, nine grandchildren, two sisters and
three brothers.
Dr. Wilson was held in high esteem for his good judgement and qualities of
leadership. He set a high standard for hard work, exemplary personal habits
and devotion to family, associates, and the science of entomology.
L. C. Kuitert
Department of Entomology
and Nematology
University of Florida

Vol. 57, No. 4

Index to Volume 57



Aldabrinus, emended generic diag-
nosis, 1
aldabrinus, redescription, 1
floridanus, n. sp., 1
Allen, G. E., article by, 281, 327
Amblyseius oatmani, n. sp., 145
Amplinus bituberculosus, n. sp., 169
Anthonomus flavus, biology, 81
Aphis gossypii, Cucumis resistance
to, 195
Arzama densa, n. host, 409
Augochlora pura, aggregations, 189

Banks, W. A., article by, 155
Barrows, E. M., article by, 189
Baumhover, A. H., article by, 297
Bituberochernes, n. gen., 77
mumae, n. sp., 77
Blanton, F. S., article by, 23, 71
Blissus insularis, control, 275
Brower, J. H., article by, 91
Bruce, W. A., article by, 117, 161
Burditt, A. K., Jr., article by, 371
Burke, H. R., article by, 81
Butler, G. D., Jr., article by, 225

Calopteryx aequabilis, distribu-
tional records, 231
amata, distributional records, 231
angustipennis, distributional rec-
ords, 231
dimidiata, distribution supple-
ment, 231
maculata, distributional records,
Canerday, T. D., article by, 27
Cantelo, W. W., article by, 297
Cantu, E., article by, 287
Carabidae, fire effects on, 97
Carroll, J. F., article by, 155, 337
Cerataphis variabilis, control, 411
Ceratitis capitata, bait traps, 371
Chiu, Y. J., article by, 141, 155
Cleidogona bifurfa, n. sp., 169
Cochrane, A. H., article by, 127
Colobodesmus crucis, n. sp., 169

Copeland, W. W., article by, 383
Cornell, J. A., article by, 43, 303
Cromroy, H. L., article by, 43, 141,
269, 303
Cryptolestes pusillus, diets, 309
turcicus, diets, 309
Cucumis spp., resistance to Aphis
gossypii, 195
Cucurbita, resistance to pickle-
worm, 27
Culicoides edeni, n. sp., 23
parapiliferus, n. sp., 71
alexander, redescription, 71
francelmonti, n. sp., 127
pechumani, n. sp., 127

Curculio caryae, cone trap, 357
Cylindrogonus tumidus, n. sp., 169
Cyrtodesmus depressus, n. sp., 169
humerosus, n. sp., 169
lobatus, n. sp., 169

Denmark, H. A., article by, 145
Diaphania nitidalis, host resistance
to, 27
Dibrachyspelos, n. sp., 313
Dilbeck, J. D., article by, 27
Dioryctria abietella, feeding stimu-
lants, 65
Dybasis interamericana, n. sp., 169

Echmepteryx hageni, redescription,
young, n. sp., 255
intermedia, n. sp., 255
Edwards, G. B., article by, 337
Epactiochernes, n. gen., 397
tumidus, n. combination, 397
tristis, n. combination, 397
insularum, n. sp., 397
Eugaurax setigena, n. sp., 347

Fatzinger, C. W., article by, 65
Formica subserica, n. record, 115
Francoeur, A., article by, 115
Fye, R. L., article by, 136

Vol. 57, No. 4

The Florida Entomologist

Garcia, R. D., article by, 287
Gilbert, I. H., article by, 136
Gnathocerus maxillosus, radiosen-
sitivity, 91
Galumna nodulum, n. sp., 123
Goodenough, J. L., article by, 297
Graham, H. M., article by, 297
Greenbaum, H. N., article by, 104
Greene, G. L., article by, 33
Grissell, E. E., article by, 313
Gryllus assimilis, key to adults, 8
firmus, key to adults, 8
fultoni, key to adult, 8
ovisopis, n. sp., 13
key to adults, 8
rubens, key to adults, 8
Guerra, A. A., article by, 287

Habeck, D. H., article by, 195, 409
Harris, D. L., article by, 97
Heliothis virescens, sterilants, 287
Populations and hosts, 297
Hermetia illucens, parasite, 383
Herpetogramma phaeopteralis, con-
trol, 275
Hexodontia electa, n. sp., 169
Hippelatespusio, dispersion, 361

Johnson, C., article by, 231

Khalaf, K. T., article by, 377
Kimbrough, J. W., article by, 281
Kish, L. B., article by, 281
Knopf, K. W., article by, 149
Kuitert, L. C., article by, 281, 361

LaBrecque, G. C., article by, 151
Laelaps echidnina, IR detection by,
Attraction to host-emitted IR,
LeCato, G. L., article by, 309
Levy, R., article by, 43, 141, 155,
269, 303
Liriomyza munda, growth regula-
tor effects, 415
Loomis, H. F., article by, 169
Lutzomyia cirrata, n. sp., 321
Lygus hesperus, modeling develop-
ment, 225

MacCarter, L. E., article by, 195
Megalopyge opercularis, artificial
diet, 377
Mitchell, E. R., article by, 383
Mockford, E. L., article by, 355,
Morgan, P. B., article by, 136
Morrill, W. L., article by, 39
Muchmore, W. B., article by, 1, 77,
Muma, M. H., article by, 385
Musca domestic, muscalure at-
tractancy, 136
Insecticides for control, 151
Parasites, 383

Nemopalus nearcticus, n. sp., 109
Nevin, F. R., article by, 123
Nickle, D. A., article by, 8
Nyssodesmus luteolus, n. sp., 169
vialis, n. sp., 169

Odonata, marking technique, 149
Orthoporus nodosus, n. sp., 169
vialis, n. sp., 169

Peters, W. L., article by, 349
Plecia nearctica, associated fungi,
Poe, S. L., article by, 415
Pomonis, J. G., article by, 287
Porter, C. C., article by, 331
Proprioseiopis marginatus, n. sp.,
Porter, C. C., article by, 331
Pseudoplusia includes, predation
on, 33

Radiosensitivity of insects, 43
Radiation induced sterility, predic-
tors, 303
Raulston, J. R., article by, 297
Reinert, J. A., article by, 275, 411
Robinson, S. H., article by, 287

Saba, F., article by, 47
Sabrosky, C. W., article by, 347
Schistocerca gregaria, radiophos-
phorus half-life in, 393
Shepard, M., article by, 33, 249, 357
Silveira-Guido, A., article by, 327

Vol. 57, No. 4

Index to Volume 57

Snow, J. W., article by, 297
Solenopsis invicta, dispersal, 39
Half-life of cesium-134 in, 141
Bait toxicants for, 155
Element concentration in, 269
Solenopsis richteri, microsporida,
sp., microsporida, 327
Solpugidae, of S. W. New Mexico,
Soybean insects, sampling, 217
Sphaeriodesmus filamentosus, n.
sp., 169
Stegmaier, C. E., Jr., article by, 81
Stiretrus anchorago, biology, 249
Stoidis aurata, as ant predator, 337
Sycanus indagator, biology, 33

Talamancia, n. gen., 169
alba, n. sp., 169
Tetranychus tumidus, biology, 47
Thomas, J. A., article by, 151
Tingle, F. C., article by, 383
Todd, J. W., article by, 27
Tortopus incertus, biology, 349
Trachysphyrus weemsi, n. sp., 331
Trichadenotecnum circularoides, n.
record, 369

Trichomorpha esulcata, n. sp., 169
gracilis, n. sp., 169
Trimedlure, loss rate, 371
Tsui, P. T. P., article by, 349
Turnipseed, S. G., article by, 217

Ulagaraj, S. M., article by, 393

VanRinsvelt, H. A., article by, 269

Waddill, V., article by, 249
Walker, T. J., article by, 8, 13
Watson, F. L., article by, 225
West, R. P., article by, 357
Whitcomb, W. H., article by, 97,
Williams, D. F., article by, 361
Wilson, E. O., article by, 115
Wilson, H. G., article by, 151
Wirth, W. W., article by, 23, 71
Wolfenbarger, D. A., article by, 287
Woodiel, N. L., article by, 411

Xylea dodgei, n. sp., 104

Young, D. G., article by, 109, 321

Vol. 57, No. 4

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