Title: Florida Entomologist
ALL VOLUMES CITATION DOWNLOADS THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00130
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1975
Copyright Date: 1917
 Subjects
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
 Notes
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00130
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

Downloads
Full Text







The


FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

Volume 58, No. 1 March, 1975



CONTENTS

Page
OSTMARK, H. E.-Banana Pests in the Genus Colaspis, Including Description of
a Neu, Species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) ... ... 1
LABRECQUE, G. C., AND D. E. WEIDHAAS-A method for determining the surviL'al
of Adult and Immature Stages in Populations of Stomoxys calcitrans (Dip-
tera: Muscidae) ...... 9
COLLINS, F. A., AND W. H. WHITCOsB--Natural Enemies of the White Peach
Scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagon (Homoptera: Coccidae) in Florida .. 15
FAIRCHILD, G. B.-The North American Species of Sivius ISilvius) Aleigen (Dip-
tera: Tabanidae) 23
BEAVERS, J. B., AND A. G. SELHIME-Further Attempts to Establish the Weevil
Egg Parasite. Tetrastichus haitiensis in Florida 29
DELONG, D. M., AND P. H. FREYTAC.-A Neu Genus Dumorpha AND New Species
of Gyponinae (Hom opera: Cicadellidav .. 33
FROST, S. W.-Third Supplement to Insects Taken in Light Traps at the Arch.
bold Biological Station. Highlands County, Florida 35
BUGBEE, R. E.-A New Species of Eurytoma (Hyinenoptera: Eurytomidae) Para
sitic on the Larva of Melanagromyza ruelhae (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in
Florida ... 43
GREENBAUM, H. N.-A Neu Species of Acantholyda From Florida, with Kevy to
the Adults and Larvae of Florida Species (Hvymenoptera: Pamphiliidae:
Cepholciinae) . 45
NEVIN, F. R.-Tu'o New Species of Onbatid .Mites of the Genus Peloribates
Berlese 1908 From Florida .. 53
BHATKAR, A. P., AND W. H. WHITCOMB-Rearing .nts in Glass Tubing . 59
Scientific Notes
CRAWFORD, R. L., AND J. B. ArkINSON-Fire Ants used in Skeletal Prepara-
tions .. 8
CHELLMAN, C. W., AND R. C. WILKINSON-Recent History of the Southern
Pine Beetle. Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.. (Col.: Scolvytdae) in Flor-
ida ...22
LLOYD. J. E.. AND A. E. PACE-Seasonality in Northern Field Crickets 28
Book Review 64
N notice to M em bers ........................................ ............ ............................. 42, 63


Published by The Florida Entomological Society


























THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY

OFFICERS FOR 1974-75

P resident........... ................................................... ..............R.. M B aranow ski
Vice-President .................................................. H V. W eem s, Jr.
Secretary ................................................................. .... ............... F. W M ead
T treasurer ................................................... ................ ....... .......... D E Sh ort


W. G. Genung
W. G. Eden
Other Members of Executive Committee ........ .de
D. E. Weidhaas
H. D. Bowman
J. R. Strayer


PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE

E d itor............................................................................. ............................ S H K err
A associate Editors ............................... .. ........................... R E. W oodruff
J. E. Lloyd
H. V. Weems, Jr.
B business M anager........................ .. .................. .... ...... .............. D E Short

THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST is issued quarterly-March, June, September, and
December. Subscription price to non-members $7.50 per year in advance; $2.00 per copy.
Entered as second class matter at the post office at Gainesville, Florida.
Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be sent to the Editor, Entomology
Department, University of Florida, Gainesville. Subscriptions and orders for back
numbers are handled by the Business Manager, Box 12425, University Station, Gaines-
ville, Florida 32601. The Secretary can be reached at the same address.
When preparing manuscripts, authors should consult "Instructions to Authors", Vol.
56, p. 364 (1973), and examine recent issues for details of form and style.
The page charge is $5.00 per page, partial pages proportionally. One page of tables is
allowed free in every article. Beyond this allowance, tabular matter in excess of 25% of
the printed article's length is charged at $10.00 per page, partial pages proportionally.
Reprints cost 2.54 per page for the first 1,500 pages and 14 per page thereafter. For
example, 200 reprints of a 3-page article total 600 pages; at 2.5 per page the charge
would be $15.00. The minimum reprint charge is $5.00. There are no free reprints of
articles of 1 page or longer. Twenty-five free reprints will be provided, if requested, of
partial page notes, book reviews, obituaries, etc. No covers for reprints will be provided.


This issue mailed March 28, 1975










The Florida Entomologist


BANANA PESTS IN THE GENUS COLASPIS,
INCLUDING DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES
(COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE)

H. EUGENE OSTMARK

United Brands Company,
La Lima, Honduras, Central America

ABSTRACT

Four species of Colaspis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) considered to be
established pests of banana fruit are redescribed and illustrated including a
new species. They are: gemellata Lefevre, ostmarki Blake, submetallica
Jacoby, and blakeae n. sp. A fifth, hypochlora Lef6vre is redescribed and
considered to be an occasional feeder on bananas.


From Mexico to Venezuela beetles in the genus Colaspis are occasional to
persistent feeders on young banana fruit and unfurled leaves. A literature
search for colaspis banana pests disclosed references only to C. hypochlora
Lefevre (Gowdey 1926, Salt 1928, Darlington 1929, Squire 1935, 1936, Cleare
1939, Anon. 1968) or Colaspis sp. (Anon. 1964). In addition, C. fulvotestacea
Lefevre was identified in 1959 from specimens collected from banana fruit in
Puerto Lim6n, Costa Rica (F. Lara, personal correspondence). Since life his-
tory accounts, particularly of larval habits, varied so much between publica-
tions, there was a strong likelihood that several species other than
"hypochlora" were involved.
My interest in colaspis beetles was triggered by an epidemic on banana
fruit in Changuinola, near Almirante, Panama, beginning in 1968 and even-
tually spreading over 2,000 ha. by 1973. In 1973 simultaneous outbreaks of
colaspis beetles in banana plantations near Santa Marta and Turbo, Colom-
bia, also caused severe losses of banana fruit.
Doris H. Blake, Smithsonian Institution, undertook the difficult task of
sorting out the Colaspis species considered to be established pests of bananas.
This involved inspecting specimens, including types, from French, British, and
United States Collections. During the course of these investigations Doris
Blake: 1) Described the Changuinola species, C. ostmarki, as new (Blake
1973). It was first identified as C. sp. near fulvotestacea Lef. and is the same as
the Puerto Lim6n species earlier identified as fulvotestacea; 2) Determined
the banana colaspis from Surinam and Guayana to be C. gemellata Lef6vre;
and 3) Found specimens from Sevilla, Colombia, collected by G. Salt who had
written the major biological paper on "C. hypochlora" (Salt 1928) and deter-
mined the species to be close to, but distinct from gemellata and hypochlora.

SPECIES INCLUDED
Four species of Colaspis may be considered persistent pests of banana
fruit: C. blakeae n. sp., C. gemellata Lef6vre, C. ostmarki Blake, and C.
submetallica Jacoby. Although C. hypochlora has been extensively reported
as a banana pest, most, if not all, observations were of the above species.
Actually, the smaller yellow-brown species of Colaspis from Mexico and


Vol. 58, No. 1










The Florida Entomologist


Central America are very similar and have been mostly identified as C.
hypochlora (Blake 1970). Colaspis hypochlora is common on plants near
banana plantations, but joins a number of other colaspis beetles in being only
occasional or accidental feeders on bananas. Since hypochlora has been so
extensively associated with bananas in the literature, it is included in the
following descriptions for comparison.


Colaspis blakeae Ostmark, new species
(Fig. 2C)
Length 5.1 to 5.9 mm, average: 5.5, sexes equal in length; elongate oblong
oval; yellow brown, less commonly reddish brown; edges of prothorax and
elytra, often prosternum and mesosternum, lustrous green; abdomen usually
brown; head brown, finely punctured, approximately 80% of females, 15% of
males with dark area along frontal suture, the dark area frequently with
metallic green spots; genae at base of antennae inflated, impuctate;
interocular space half width of head; front and clypeus finely punctate,
clypeus usually darker; mandibles large, black; antennae filiform; yellow
brown usually with 7th, half of 10th, and entire 11th (last) segments dark;
margins of pronotum green, rounded, not sinuate; finely, but not densely
punctate; pronotal punctures not pigmented or gemmate; scutellum
yellowish or reddish brown; elytra wider than prothorax and 3 times as long;
first 2 interspaces wider than others with single rows of coarse punctures
between, rest of interspaces irregularly varying in width, striae with punctures
varying from geminate to single and sometimes alternate; elytral punctures
sometimes faintly green, always highly pigmented; interspaces not highly
elevated, somewhat flattened; epipleura green.
TYPE: male, U.S.N.M. Type No. 72775 and 40 paratypes (20 males, 20
females).
TYPE LOCALITY: Santa Marta, COLOMBIA, 8-XII-73, W. E. Bolton, feeding
on banana fruit.
Other localities: PANAMA: Bocas del Toro, H. S. Barber and E. A. Schwarz;
Pueblo Nuevo, 8 km from Panama City, Papaya Plantation, VIII-1918, H.
Morrison. Gamboa, C. Z., VII-1918, E. F. Dietz and J. Zetek; Puerto Ar-
muelles, VII-1966, H. E. Ostmark. COLOMBIA: Sevilla, Normandia Farm, 30-
VI-26, J. R. Johnston; loc. cit., 1-IX-27, G. Salt; Rio Frio (Santa Marta), J. R.
Johnston.
Colaspis blakeae is closely related to hypochlora and gemellata. The
elytra of all 3 species appear striped to the naked eye. The aedeagi are dis-
similar, and there are subtle but distinct differences in the elytral interspaces
and striae. Generally, the pronotal and strial punctures of gemellata are
metallic green. The elytral punctures of blakeae are pigmented, only oc-
casionally showing a greenish glint; the pronotal punctures of blakeae are
neither pigmented nor gemmate. The interspaces of gemellata are
approximately the same width throughout, the punctures between in
geminate rows; the interspaces of blakeae are generally irregular in width and
punctures are in both single and geminate rows with some alternation in the
same stria. The margins of the pronotum of hypochlora are sinuous, while
those of gemellata and blakeae are rounded.
This species is named in honor of Doris H. Blake, in recognition of her years
of work on the genus Colaspis.


Vol. 58, No. 1









Ostmark: Colaspis Pests of Bananas


BIOLOGICAL NOTES
Colaspis blakeae is the infamous "morrocoya" beetle that has caused
severe losses of banana fruit in the Santa Marta-Sevilla region of northern
Colombia for over 70 years. Apparently, blakeae becomes abundant only
between August and November near the end of the rainy season. During the
December to March dry season adult beetles are scarce, and damage to fruit is
minimal or nonexistent.
Adult feeding on bananas is confined to fruit less than 40 days old and the
underside of the sheath of the guard leaf (capote) over the fruit bunch. Unlike
other Colaspis species, blakeae does not feed on new unfurled leaves (can-
delas), and populations cannot be estimated by leaf damage. Random collec-
tions indicate a 1:1 sex ratio.
Larvae apparently feed on roots of the grass, "paja panela", Paspalum
conjugatum (Salt 1928).

Colaspis gemellata Lef6vre
(Fig. 2A)
Colaspis gemellata Lefevre (1885)
Maecolaspis musae Bechyne (1950)
Length 4.5 to 5.5 mm, elongate oblong oval; dark brown, pronotum usually
darker than elytra; edges of prothorax and elytra, prosternum, mesosternum
and abdomen lustrous green; head brown with coarse gemmate punctures on
front; genae at base of antennae elevated, impunctate; interocular space more
than half width of head; front coarsely, clypeus finely punctured, usually
darker; mandibles large, black; antennae filiform, yellow brown, usually with
7th, half of 10th and entire 11th (last) segments dark; margins of pronotum
green, rounded, not sinuate, surface moderately coarsely, but not densely
punctate, pronotal punctures gemmate; scutellum dark brown with greenish
sheen. Elytra wider than prothorax and 3.5 times as long, interspaces of
almost equal width throughout length, strial punctures gemmate and usually
in regular geminate rows; first 2 interspaces not noticeably wider than
others; interspaces not highly elevated; epipleura green.
The differences between gemellata and the closely related blakeae and
hypochlora have been discussed under blakeae.
Adults of gemellata feed on banana fruit, bracts, and candelas and are
considered a major pest of bananas. Adults also feed on okra, Hibiscus es-
culentus. Larval hosts and habits are unknown.
COLLECTION LOCALITIES: Surinam (Dutch Guiana), Guyana (Brit.
Guiana), Colombia, Peru, Bolivia.

Colaspis ostmarki Blake (1973)
(Fig. 1 A-E)
Colaspis ostmarki was described in detail by Blake (1973). Adults feed on
young banana fruit, bracts, and candelas; larvae on banana rootlets. The only
serious damage is to the fruit; the leaf-feeding habit is useful to entomologists
in locating and estimating populations of this beetle, since feeding holes on the
unfurled leaves leave distinctive patterns on the right hand blade of the leaf
looking upward. The adult beetles are present in banana plantations all year,
possibly because the affected areas in Changuinola, PanamA and Puerto
Lim6n, Costa Rica have no well-defined dry and rainy seasons.









The Florida Entomologist


Females of ostmarki average larger than males. Lengths of a series of 52
females ranged from 5.7 to 7.3 mm (ave. 6.4); 32 males from 5.1 to 6.5 mm (ave.
5.7). A random collection of beetles from fruit disclosed a sex ratio of 2 females
to 1 male.




A B


Fig. 1: Banana colaspis pests in fulvotestacea group. A. Colaspis ostmarki,
female; B. ostmarki, male; C. Top view aedeagus; D. Side view aedeagus; E.
Head ostmarki; F. Head submetallica; G. submetallica, male.


Vol. 58, No. 1


~t~









Ostmark: Colaspis Pests of Bananas


Colaspis submetallica Jacoby (1881)
(Fig. 1 F-G)
Length 5.0 to 7.3 mm, females larger; elongate oblong oval; light brown to
almost black, dorsum with shining greenish sheen in most specimens; sterna
and abdomen light to dark brown; head brown, sunken rows of punctures
extending from top of eyes to apex of frons; some specimens show at least a
trace of metallic green on the sunken rows or epicranial suture; frons and
clypeus coarsely punctured, clypeus usually darker; genae at base of mandi-
bles inflated, impunctate; interocular space less than half width of head;
mandibles black; antennae filiform, yellow-brown, 7th segment dark, some-
times 11th (last) segment slightly darker; margin of pronotum shining me-
tallic green; sinuate; surface finely but not densely punctate; scutellum
brown; elytra wider than prothorax and 3 times as long, a transverse depres-
sion below basal umbones; sides of elytra green near base; costae developed in
female especially near sides at base, much less so in male; elytra strial punc-
tures in single rows at base becoming confused below basal umbones, con-
tinuing as mainly geminate rows becoming single near apex.
Colaspis submetallica is one of the fulvotestacea group characterized by a
distinct depression behind the elytral shoulders and depressed rows of punc-
tures extending from the eyes to the frontal tubercules on the face (Fig. 1E &
F). Most specimens appear brown to black with a greenish sheen. Some lack
the greenish sheen, closely resembling ostmarki and fulvotestacea, but the
head of submetallica is more densely punctate and elytral punctures are
coarser. Also submetallica lacks the sulci found on the front of the head of
most ostmarki. The greenish sheen on the depressed rows of punctures above
the frons and on the epicranial suture is apparently sex associated; over 90% of
the females and only 20% of the males show the greenish color.
As in ostmarki the females average larger; the lengths of 13 males ranged
between 5.0 and 5.8 mm (ave. 5.4); 29 females between 5.0 and 7.3 mm (ave.
5.8). The sex ratio is approximately 2 females to 1 male.
Most host records of submetallica list cacao, Theobroma cacao, but this
beetle has also been a pest of bananas in the Turbo, Colombia and Machala,
Ecuador area for years, especially in the vicinity of cacao plantations.
COLLECTION LOCALITIES: Guatemala: Cayuge, Alta Verapaz, Izabel. Cos-
ta Rica: Puntarenas, San Carlos Panama: Trinidad River, Parai~o, Waldeck,
Porto Bello, Cabema, Gatun, Tabernella, Barro Colorado Is., Corozal, Caio
Saddle, Gatun Lake, Bohio. Colombia: Turbo. Belize: River Sarstoon.
Ecuador: Machala.

Colaspis hypochlora Lefevre (1878)
(Fig. 2B)
Length 5.0 to 6.0 mm, ave. 5.4, sexes equal in length; elongate oblong oval;
yellow brown to reddish brown; edges of pronotum brown occasionally with
greenish sheen; edges of elytra greenish near base only; stern and abdomen
dark brown; exocoxal area of prosternum dark brown, frequently with me-
tallic green lustre; episternum light brown; head brown, finely punctured;
genae at base of mandibles slightly inflated or flat, impunctate; interocular
space slightly more than half width of head; front and clypeus punctate,
clypeus usually concolorous with front; mandibles large, black; antennae
filiform, yellow brown, usually with 7th, 10th, and 11th (last) segments dark;









The Florida Entomologist


_ A


Fig. 2: Banana colaspis pests. A. Colaspis gemellata, male; B. hypochlora,
male; C. blakeae, male, n. sp.; D. Head of gemellata; E. Head of hypochlora;
F. Head of blakeae.

margins of pronotum sinuate; surface finely, but not densely punctate,
pronotal punctures not pigmented or gemmate; scutellum brown; elytra wider
than prothorax and 3 times as long; first 2 interspaces wider than 3rd,
approximately equal to others; strial punctures highly pigmented not gem-
mate; costae not highly elevated, flattened, epipleura green.
The differences between hypochlora, gemellata, and blakeae have been
discussed under blakeae. The sinuous pronotal margins, the flattened genal


Vol. 58, No. 1


96 ~P'









Ostmark: Colaspis Pests of Bananas


area near the mandibles, and the dark brown exocoxal area of hypochlora are
the best distinguishing features. The elytra of hypochlora appear more dis-
tinctly striped under low magnification because of the highly pigmented ely-
tral punctures.
The ubiquitous hypochlora has been misidentified as the pest of many
plants, including bananas. I feel that all biological accounts involving this
species must be considered suspect, pending further work. Adults of
hypochlora have definitely been collected in Honduras from at least 7 plant
species including bananas: Desmodium affine, Ipomoea sp., Urera elata,
Arachis hypogaea (peanut), Cissus sicyoides, Hamelia patens, Musa sp.
Colaspis hypochlora is frequently found feeding on banana candelas in
newly planted plantations in PanamA and may be considered at least an
occasional feeder on banana fruit.
COLLECTION LOCALITIES: Misidentifications have been so common that
collection records are largely valueless; this (or similar) species have been
reported from Mexico to Venezuela.
Other Colaspis spp. reported as collected from "bananas" are: confusa
Bowditch (Trinidad); freyi Bechyne (Costa Rica); lebasi Lef. (a metallic green
species, common on banana leaves only, whose larvae feed on roots of the
grass, Paspalum conjugatum) (Costa Rica, Panama). Of the more than 230
species of Colaspis in Central and South America, there are undoubtedly
many others that are also occasional or accidental feeders on bananas.

METHODS
Adults were collected from beetle-damaged banana fruit less than 40 days
old by carefully fitting a large plastic bag over the hanging fruit, then
vigorously shaking the enclosed bunch. Banana colaspis beetles habitually
drop from their hiding places on bracts and young fingers when disturbed. This
technique, developed by C. S. Stephens, United Brands Company, is very
effective in collecting these otherwise elusive beetles.
Beetles were sexed by examining the terminal abdominal segment.
Females have a rounded abdomen with a notch in the terminal segment; the
male abdomen is narrower with no notch (Salt 1928). Also the first tarsal
segment of pro- and mesothoracic legs of males is wider than that of females.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Many persons assisted in the collection of data of hosts, specimens, and
biology: C. Evers, D. L. Richardson, W. E. Bolton, C. S. Stephens, G. C.
Millensted, E. W. Price, United Brands Co.; I. Fong Poen, Surinam; Mselle.
Nicole Berti, Paris Museum; Sharon Shute, British Museum (Natural His-
tory); and Janice White, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Mass. The
following assisted in the editing: R. H. Stover, W. G. C. Forsyth, and W. T. van
Diepen, United Brands Co.; R. E. White, U.S.D.A. This paper could not have
been written without the assistance of Doris H. Blake, Smithsonian Institu-
tion.

LITERATURE CITED

ANONYMOUS. 1964. Control del coquito Colaspis del cambur. Not. Agr. Serv.
Shell Agr. 32:125-126.








The Florida Entomologist


ANONYMOUS. 1968. Jaarverslag 1967. Mededeling Landbouwproefstation
Surinam. no. 43:106-108.
BECHYNE, J. 1950. Notes sur les Eumolpides de l'Amerique du Sud. Ann. &
Mag. Nat. Hist. (Ser. 12) 3(25):70-85.
BLAKE, D. H. 1970. Some new chrysomelid beetles from Cuba. Casopis
Morauskeho Musea; Acta Musei Moraviae 60:115-126.
BLAKE, D. H. 1973. Colaspis fulvotestacea Lefevre and its close relatives
(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington 75:84-88.
CLEARE, L. D. 1939. Report on the entomological division for the year 1937.
Div. Rep. Dep. Agr. Brit. Guiana 1937. p. 85-88. Georgetown.
DARLINGTON, JR., P. J. 1929. The Colombia banana-scarring beetle. Unit.
Fruit Co. Res. Rep. Circ. 8:1-6.
GOWDEY, C. C. 1926. The banana fruit-scarring beetle, Colaspis hypochlora
Lef. Bull. Ent. Res. 17:137.
JACOBY, M. 1881. Biologia Centrali Americana 6:140-141, pt. 1.
LEFEVRE, E. 1878. Voyage de M. E. Steinheil a la Nouvelle Grenada. Eumol-
pides. Mitth. Miinchen Ent. Ver. 2:112-133.
LEFEVRE, E. 1885. Memoires de la Societe Royale des Sciences de Liege.
(Second Series) 11:33.
SALT, G. 1928. A study of Colaspis hypochlora Lefevre. Bull. Ent. Res.
19:295-308.
SQUIRE, F. A. 1935. Annual report of the entomological division for 1934. Div.
Rep. Dep. Agr. Brit. Guiana 1934. p. 121-124.
SQUIRE, F. A. 1936. Recent entomological investigations II. Agr. J. Brit.
Guiana 7:21-26.








FIRE ANTS USED IN SKELETAL PREPARATIONS-
(Note). Dermestid beetles are often used as skeletal cleaning agents though
often they prove difficult to keep and are sometimes slow workers. We have
used the imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren (Formicidae, Myr-
micinae) to clean skeletons and skulls of mammals and birds and have found
them to be fast, effective, and with no maintenance problems, though most
effective in the warmer months.
Fresh specimens, skinned and eviscerated, are placed in wooden boxes,
29 x 25 x 15 cm with wire mesh tops and bottoms. The boxes are mounted on 30
cm legs and are placed over an ant mound with one or two of the legs
penetrating the mound. The ants swarm up the legs, find the specimens in the
box and proceed to strip the tissue from the bones. The wire mesh prevents the
removal of small bones and the legs prevent the ants from building the mound
over the materials to be cleaned. After cleaning, the specimens are allowed to
dry for 3 or 4 days before being sealed up. Seven to 8 skulls or 1 skeleton of a
Sigmodon-sized animal can be thoroughly cleaned in 1 day by a single mound.
Old, dried skulls can be cleaned after smearing the dried tissue with honey.
While the ant we used has a range limited to the Southeastern United
States, perhaps other ant species in different localities could be used as well.
We thank P. E. Jinright for the initial suggestion of the method and A.
Bhatkar for determining the ant species. Robert L. Crawford, and James B.
Atkinson, Tall Timbers Research Station, Rt. 1, Box 160, Tallahassee, Fla.
32303.


Vol. 58, No. 1









The Florida Entomologist


A METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE
SURVIVAL OF ADULT AND IMMATURE STAGES
IN POPULATIONS OF STOMOXYS CALCITRANS
(DIPTERA: MUSCIDAE)

G. C. LABRECQUE AND D. E. WEIDHAAS

Insects Affecting Man Research Laboratory,
Agr. Res. Serv., USDA, Gainesville, Florida 32604

ABSTRACT

The ovipositional patterns of female stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans L.,
determined in the laboratory were used to correlate the daily oviposition rate
to daily adult loss rate. The daily loss rate of a field population could be
obtained by determining the ovipositional pattern of a random sample of
field-collected females. The relationship between the loss rates of adults and
immature stages and the oviposition patterns affect the potential population
growth.


The dynamics of an insect population, i.e., its rate of change over time, is
governed by environmental factors that act individually or together to affect
the development, survival, and behavior of the various stages of the insect. It
thereby determines the reproductive rate and the increase or decrease from 1
generation (period of time) to the next. One could thus conclude that complete
understanding of the dynamics of populations would depend on a quantitative
knowledge of the interactions between a multitude of environmental factors
and the various stages of insects in the total population, a project of such
complexity as to suggest that a thorough understanding of the dynamics of a
population would require almost unimaginable research time. However, one
can study parameters of populations such as development, survival, oviposi-
tion, and behavior, and population dynamics can be defined with these
parameters with a less than complete knowledge of the individual environ-
mental factors and interactions. For example, Weidhaas and LaBrecque
(1970), Weidhaas et al. (1972), Rai et al. (1973), Smittle et al. (1973), and
Rajagopalan et al. (1972) utilized induced sterility, genotypes, radioactive
isotopes, and fluorescent dyes as markers to determine an insect population's
reproductive rate, daily adult loss rate, absorption rate of introduced muta-
tions, and dispersal. Also, morphological and physiological features such as
gonadal development, wing breakdown, or growth layers have been used as
determinants (Adams 1974, Morgan 1973, Rockstein 1966, Schlein and Gratz
1972).
Thus we need to develop simple but reliable methods of quantitating the
population parameters of natural populations so they can be used in con-
structing models of population dynamics. Such models would be useful in
determining the feasibility of new or integrated approaches to insect control as
well as improving existing methods.
A simple model of population dynamics relates survival and the develop-
ment of the insect in the stages or forms in which it exists with ovipositional
patterns and growth of the population over time. With an insect such as the
stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans L., the population dynamics can be considered


Vol. 58, No. 1










The Florida Entomologist


the net result of the survival and reproduction of the adult forms and survival
of the immature stages. Knowledge of these parameters would permit the
construction of a model of population dynamics.
In the present paper, we report a simplified method that may be practica-
ble for estimating the average daily adult female loss rates. In addition, we
illustrate the usefulness of simplified models of population dynamics and
demonstrate their use in extending certain population parameters on the basis
of other parameters.


ESTIMATING ADULT SURVIVAL RATES
A population of adult insects consists essentially of a group whose survival
and growth is a function of the number, frequency, and severity of favorable or
adverse environmental factors. The patterns of survival of adults in the field
are difficult to obtain, poorly understood, and quite variable; also, the survival
of adult forms in the laboratory cannot be considered representative of sur-
vival in the field. As a result, the patterns of adult survival in nature have been
considered in terms of the average daily loss rates; this loss rate pattern
assumes that the daily disappearance in numbers is considered to be
independent of age, and all age groups are considered to decrease at about the
same rate. Thus, the daily loss rate is an exponential function in which the
decrease in numbers from one age group to the next is explained by the
number dying or emigrating minus the number of new adults entering the
population. When a population is stable, the daily emergence or immigration
of adults equals the adult loss rate and emigration, and the rate of increase
(RI) is taken to be 1-fold. If the number of replacements exceeds the loss, the
increase is greater than 1X; if loss exceeds replacement, the rate of increase is
less than 1. Therefore, when an established field population is stable (RI = 1),
the number per age group in the population can be obtained by applying the
daily loss rate to the daily replacement. For example, a population with 1,000
female flies emerging daily that is influenced by factors which produce a 20%
daily loss rate will be composed of 4,993 females and an equal number of males
after 28 days (Table 1). At this rate, 3,952 females (total for day 0 through 6, or
79%) are only 1 wk old or less, and about 95% are less than 2 wk old.
We have thus reasoned that a relationship exists between the average daily
oviposition rate and the average daily loss rate of an established population.
Then we should be able to determine the average daily loss rate from the
average daily oviposition. In our laboratory studies, stable flies do not nor-
mally oviposit in a given cycle. Nevertheless, the average daily oviposition rate
should still indicate the age distribution of a population. We therefore con-
fined a newly-emerged female with 2 males for 29 consecutive days. Blood was
available at all times, fresh oviposition medium was offered daily, and the
numbers of ovipositions and eggs per oviposition were recorded. No oviposition
occurred until the 4th day when only 4% of the females laid eggs. Thereafter,
the percentage ovipositing on each day ranged from 8 to 81% (Table 2). If we
consider the ovipositional pattern of these females to represent the oviposition
expected from females of different ages, we can relate average daily oviposi-
tion to average daily survival as illustrated in Table 1. In other words, a daily
oviposition rate (percent ovipositions) of 13% (674 X 100/4,993) correlates with
a daily loss rate (average mortality) of 20% (Fig. 1). Then we calculated the
average daily oviposition rate corresponding to the various daily loss rates.


Vol. 58, No. I











LaBrecque and Weidhaas: Survival of Stomoxys


TABLE 1.


AG'E DISTRIBUTION AND EGG PRODUCTION FOR ADULT FEMALES
THAT HAVE A DAILY LOSS RATE OF 20%.


No. of
live No. of females Total no.**
Day females ovipositing* eggs laid P, X m,


0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
Totals


1,000
800
640
512
410
328
262
210
168
134
107
86
69
55
44
35
28
23
18
14
12
9
7
6
5
4
3
2
2
4,993


0
0
0
0
1,040
1,352
3,300
3,686
2,464
2,065
4,650
2,337
2,703
1,152
1,881
864
546
533
246
418
51
80
78
104
78
33
41
12
0
29,714


0
0
0
0
2.985
2.388
1.907
1.529
1.223
.975
.779
.626
.502
.400
.320
.255
.204
.167
.131
.102
.087
.066
.051
.044
.036
.029
.022
.015
.015
14.858


*Based on percentage figures given in Table 2.
**Based on number of eggs per oviposition given in Table 2.


The regression line obtained by plotting daily oviposition rates against daily
loss rates (Fig. 1) resembles a parabola defined by the following equation:
Y = k, + kX + k:,X2
where Y = daily loss rate (%)
X = daily ovipositional rate (%)
k, = 41.501
k.,,= -1.841
k, = 0.021
The daily loss rate of a population can then be determined from a random
collection of female flies by segregating them individually and holding them
for 24 hr to establish the percentage oviposition. Of course, values for the
constants (k) should be developed for the temperatures to which the popula-
tions are to be exposed. Also blood meals must be available to the females










40


............ y = k+ k2x + k3

Calculated from laboratory
35 m data






30






25




2 0

20
0
-J




15 \





10
5 \













10 20 30 40
Percent Ovipositing

Fig. 1. Daily loss rate of a population as determined from the percent of
females ovipositing daily.
Q \















oecn Ovpoitn
Fig 1.Diyls aeo ouain sdtrie rmtepreto
femals ovposiing aily










LaBrecque and Weidhaas: Survival of Stomoxys


TABLE 2.


DAILY FREQUENCY OF OVIPOSITION AND NUMBER OF EGGS LAID
BY FEMALES CAGED IN THE LABORATORY AT 260C AND 45% RH.


No. of
No. of % eggs per
Day females ovipositing oviposition

0 24 0
1 24 0
2 24 0
3 24 0
4 24 4 65
5 24 8 52
6 24 25 50
7 24 46 38
8 24 46 32
9 23 44 35
10 23 70 62
11 23 48 57
12 23 74 53
13 21 43 48
14 20 75 57
15 20 50 48
16 20 50 39
17 19 58 41
18 18 33 41
19 16 81 38
20 16 25 17
21 14 50 16
22 10 40 26
23 7 71 26
24 7 43 39
25 6 33 33
26 6 33 41
27 5 20 12
28 5 20 10
29 5 0

daily, and the emergence rate of adult females must be described as an average
value over a period of 2 wk or more.

INTERRELATIONSHIP OF POPULATION PARAMETERS
Once an ovipositional pattern has been established for the stable fly that is
characteristic of the conditions to which it is exposed and the average daily
loss rates have been established, it should be possible to calculate the loss rate
for the immature stages and to develop a simplified model of dynamics of the
population. The only other factor that could be needed is the rate of increase
of the population, which can be obtained from population density curves.
The loss rate of the immature stages could be estimated as follows:
RI= [2,x ]Si
2









The Florida Entomologist


where RI = the population's rate of increase
px = probability of adult female survival at time X
mx = the number of eggs during time X
Si = survival in immature stages
However, since the loss rate can be obtained simply by subtracting the
survival rates from 1, so the formula can also be written:
RI = [2(1-LA) x-](1-L,)
where L, = the average daily loss rate for adult females
Li = loss rate for immatures
Thus the loss rate of the immature stages can be calculated from the
results based on the example presented in Table 1 in a stable population, and
the following formula.
L, = 1- 1
Z(I-L,)X -
L, = 0.933
Or more simply from Table 1, we can consider that 1,000 females emerging
daily result in 29,714 eggs laid per day when the population has stabilized.
Thus, the immature loss rate is simply 1-(2,000/29.714), or 0.933, when a
population is stable.
We can thus relate the loss rates of adult females and immatures and the
ovipositional patterns to changes in population density and can thereby un-
derstand the dynamics of populations as they occur in the field. Moreover,
with sufficient research to establish the development times of the various
immature stages and the egg-laying patterns at different temperatures, we
could construct more complex models that describe the dynamics of the
population from day to day, from month to month, or from season to season.
LITERATURE CITED
ADAMS, T. S. 1974. The role of juvenile hormone in housefly ovarian follicle
morphogenesis. J. Insect Physiol. 20:263-276.
MORGAN, P. B. 1973. Effect of aging and population density on wing frag-
mentation in house flies. J. Econ. Ent. 66:993-995.
RAI, K. S., K. K. GROVER, and S. G. SUGUNA. 1973. Genetic manipulation of
Aedes aegypti: Incorporation and maintenance of a genetic marker and
a chromosomal translocation in natural populations. Bull. Wld. Hlth.
Org. 48:49-56.
RAJAGOPALAN, P. K., M. YASUNO, AND G. C. LABRECQUE. 1972. Dispersal and
survival in the field of chemosterilized, irradiated and cytoplasmic
incompatible males of Culex fatigans. WHO/VBC/72.353. pp. 1-10.
ROCKSTEIN, M. 1966. Biology of aging in insects, pp. 43-61. In P. L. Krohn
(Ed.) Topics in Biology of Aging. John Wiley and Sons, N. Y.
SCHLEIN, J., and N. G. GRATZ. 1972. Age determination of some flies and
mosquitoes by daily growth layers of skeletal apodemes. Bull. Wld.
Hlth. Org. 41:71-76.
SMITTLE, B. J., R. E. LOWE, H. R. FORD, and D. E. WEIDHAAS. 1973. Tech-
niques for 32P labelling and assay of egg rafts from field collected Culex
pipiens quinquefasciatus Say. Mosq. News 33:215-220.
WEIDHAAS, D. E., and G. C. LABRECQUE. 1970. Studies on the population
dynamics of the house fly Musca domestic L. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org.
43:721-725.
WEIDHAAS, D. E., G. C. LABRECQUE, C. S. LOFGREN, and C. H. SCHMIDT. 1972.
Insect sterility in population dynamics research. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org.
47:309-315.


Vol. 58, No. 1









The Florida Entomologist


NATURAL ENEMIES OF THE WHITE
PEACH SCALE, PSEUDA ULACASPIS PENTAGON
(HOMOPTERA: COCCIDAE), IN FLORIDA'


F. A. COLLINS AND W. H. WHITCOMB

Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida


ABSTRACT

Natural enemies of the white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagon
(Targioni), were collected in 10 Florida counties from November 1973 to May
1974. Seven predaceous species, 4 parasitic species, and 4 hyperparasitic
species were found. The predominant species collected were a Coccinellid,
Lindorus lophanthae (Blaisdell), a Cecidomyiid, Dentifibula viburni (Felt),
and the Eulophid Prospaltella berlesei (Howard). Low populations of natural
enemies of white peach scale in commercial peach orchards contrasted with
higher populations in other habitats indicating that present orchard pest
management practices may interfere with establishment of natural enemies.



The white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagon (Targioni), is a cos-
mopolitan insect (Anonymous 1955) which originated in China or Japan
(Gossard 1902). It has been the object of biological control programs in
Europe, South America, Bermuda, and the United States with highly variable
results (Howard 1916, Bennett and Hughes 1959, Clausen 1956).
The white peach scale was first found destructive in Italy in 1886. Five
years later the pest was so injurious to mulberry trees used for producing silk
that a law was passed compelling tree owners to combat the scale
mechanically and chemically. The rapid increase of the scale did not diminish,
however, until 1906 when the parasite Prospaltella berlesei (Howard) was
imported from the U. S. and Japan and released throughout the country
(Howard 1912). By 1914 Italy's white peach scale problem was under control
(Howard 1916). During the 1950's, reports of a resurgence of white peach scale
on mulberry and peach appeared in Italy and France (Monti 1956, Benassy
1958). Both authors asserted that the use of organic insecticides which were
harmful to natural enemies contributed to the new outbreaks. Other factors
found limiting parasitism were direct sunlight (Benassy 1957) and cold
weather (Benassy 1958). Subsequently, the effects of insecticides on white
peach scale and its parasite were studied in order to design an integrated
control program for peach orchards (Benassy and Bianchi 1957; Benassy,
Bianchi, and Milaire 1961; Kiroglu and Benassy 1970).
The white peach scale is called oleander scale in Bermuda where it severely
damaged oleanders in 1920. After an extensive insecticidal spray program, 3
parasites were released: Prospaltella diaspidicola (Silvestri), P. berlesei, and


'Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 5560.


Vol. 58, No. 1









The Florida Entomologist


Aphytis diaspidis (Howard). A. diaspidis was the only species that became
established. Since this time it has provided good control of oleander scale
under most conditions. In 1956, when oleander scale began to increase due to
interference by the Argentine ant, Iridomyrmex humilis (Mayr), more releases
of P. berlesei were made. Over 100,000 adults were liberated over a 12-month
period, but no recoveries were made in spite of the fact that conditions were
apparently favorable and the parasite was easily reared on Bermuda oleander
scale on potatoes in the laboratory (Simmonds 1958). It is possible that the
oleander inhibits the development of P. berlesei.
In the southeastern United States white peach scale has been a common
injurious pest of peaches since 1889. During the early 1900's it destroyed many
peach orchards including one with 10,000 trees in south Georgia (Gossard
1902). Today it is a major pest in Florida's 6,000 acres of peaches (D. W.
Buchanan, personal communication). Good control of white peach scale can
be obtained by applying diazinon or ethion plus oil during peak crawler
periods (Kuitert 1967), but the inability of some growers to determine the
proper time to spray leads to an excess number of applications without
adequate results. Also the wide host range of white peach scale enables it to
survive nearby and continue to reinfest orchards.
While the control of white peach scale by its natural enemies has been
shown to be important in some countries, no intensive survey of its natural
enemies had been conducted in the southeastern United States. The present
study was made to provide data on the species and the distribution of preda-
tors and parasites of white peach scale in Florida. This information is needed
to determine if introductions of natural enemies would be justified.


METHODS

White peach scale was collected at 28 sites including fencerows, orchards,
woods, and dooryards in 10 of the counties between Pensacola and Tampa.
Two counties, Gadsden in the panhandle and Alachua in north central
Florida, were sampled extensively. The hosts were: privet (Ligustrum
sinense), mulberry (Morus rubra), paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera),
peach (Prunus persica), catalpa (Catalpa bignonioides) and chinaberry
(Melia azedarach). Collections were made from November 1973 to May 1974.
The junior author's 7 years of experience observing white peach scale in
Florida provided background information.
Visible predators were removed from white peach scale infested plants in
the field. Branches were brought to the laboratory in order to observe and
collect any minute predators present. The branches were then held in
darkened plastic boxes equipped with emergence vials for 30 days. Parasites
were periodically washed from trash inside the boxes and vials to be counted
and identified.
Determinations were made by the following taxonomists: G. W. Dekle
(scales), H. A. Denmark (mites and thrips), and E. E. Grissell hymenopterouss
parasites) of the Division of Plant Industry, Fla. Dep. of Agr. and Consumer
Services; C. A. Tauber (chrysopids) of Cornell University; G. Gordh
hymenopterouss parasites) of the Univ. of Calif., Riverside; and R. Gordon
(beetles) and R. J. Gagne (cecidomyiids) of the Systematic Entomology Lab.,
USDA, Beltsville, Md.


Vol. 58, No. 1









Collins: Natural Enemies of White Peach Scale


PREDATORS
The following arthropods were found feeding on white peach scale:

Chilocorus stigma (Say) Coleoptera Coccinellidae
Lindorus lophanthae (Blaisdell) Coleoptera Coccinellidae
Microweisea coccidivora (Ashmead) Coleoptera Coccinellidae
Cybocephalus nr. nigritulus (LeConte) Coleoptera Cybocephalidae
Chrysopa rufilabris (Burmeister) Neuroptera Chrysopidae
Dentifibula viburni (Felt) Diptera Cecidomyiidae
Hemisarcoptes malus (Shimer) Acarina Hemisarcoptidae

Two of these, C. stigma and L. lophanthae, have prior records as white peach
scale predators in Florida (Hughes 1960). The other species are new additions
to a state list of the predators of this scale. Only 3 of the predators, C. stigma,
L. lophanthae, and D. viburni, appeared to be of any importance in controlling
white peach scale populations.
Lindorus lophanthae was the only common, widespread predator. It was
found mainly in orchards and on roadsides on ornamentals. At 3 locations (on
catalpa, chinaberry, and privet) larvae and adults were populous enough to
severely reduce scale infestations. At 4 other places (3 peach orchards and 1
chinaberry tree) just a few of the beetles were present. Another Coccinellid,
Chilocorus stigma, sometimes coexisted with L. lophanthae in smaller
numbers. The junior author found it more numerous in previous years. Both
species chewed large, jagged holes in the wax armor and consumed all stages of
the scale.
The Cecidomyiid Dentifibula viburni was distributed throughout the areas
surveyed. Populations were very small in every place but one: a mixed hard-
woods hammock in Gainesville. Scale-infested mulberry and chinaberry limbs
from this location held many D. viburni larvae. More than 1,000 adults
emerged from one sample.
All stages of D. viburni were observed. The female adult would walk about
on a stem, dragging the tip of her abdomen, until a crevice was found where she
would lay 1 to 4 eggs in 1 to 2 min. The hollow beneath an uplifted scale armor
or a notch in the bark were typical oviposition sites though eggs were also
observed on smooth bark away from scales. Larvae were seen attached to the
female scale body, on the dorsal or ventral side or adjacent to it, with
mouthparts hooked into the scale. On some branches as many as 3 or 4 larvae
were attached to the body of a female scale. The larva would construct a thin,
white, papery puparium and expel a single, brown, spherical fecal pellet prior
to pupation. The puparia were found beneath scale shields which were either
cleaned out or still contained a dead, shriveled scale body. Occasionally, a
puparium was found beside a scale mummy which had been parasitized by
Prospaltella berlesei, indicating that the larva moves around beneath the
scale mass.
The remaining 4 predators, C. nr. nigritulus, H. malus, M. coccidivora, and
C. rufilabris, were so few and scattered that their importance in the control of
white peach scale is considered to be minor.
Several predators, whose feeding habits could not be determined, were
frequently observed living within dense white peach scale colonies. These
included a thrips, Karnyothrips flavipes (Jones), a tydeid mite, Lorryia nr.
cooremani (Baker), and 2 cheyletid mites, Hemicheyletia scutellata (DeLeon)
and Hemicheyletia wellsi (Baker). The thrips was found beneath shields of










The Florida Entomologist


white peach scale in 5 Gainesville locations. It has previously been recorded
preying on scales in 4 genera, 2 of which are in the Diaspididae (Lewis 1973).
This suggests that K. flavipes feeds on white peach scale in the Gainesville
area.

PARASITIC HYMENOPTERA

Prior to this survey, 4 species of parasitic Hymenoptera were reported
reared from white peach scale in Florida. Prospaltella berlesei (Howard) and
Aspidiotiphagus citrinus (Crawford) were found to be primary parasites of
this scale (Hughes 1960). Hughes showed Thysanus flavopalliatus (Ashmead)
to be a hyperparasite of P. berlesei on white peach scale and assumed a 4th
species, Ablerus clisiocampae (Ashmead), to be hyperparasitic also.
In the present survey, the following 9 species of parasitic Hymenoptera
were found associated with infestations of white peach scale:

Species Host Family

Aphytis nr. proclia (Walker) white peach scale Eulophidae
Aspidiotiphagus citrinus white peach scale Eulophidae
(Crawford)
Aspidiotiphagus lounsburyi2 white peach scale Eulophidae
(Berlese & Paoli)
Prospaltella berlesei (Howard) white peach scale Eulophidae
Ablerus americanus (Girault) primary parasites Eulophidae
Ablerus clisiocampae primary parasites Eulophidae
(Ashmead)
Marietta carnesi (Howard) primary parasites Eulophidae
Thysanus flavopalliatus primary parasites Thysanidae
(Ashmead)
Aphanogmus n. sp.3 Dentifibula viburni Ceraphronidae
(Felt)

P. berlesei was the most common and most effective parasite. It was found
in every area and was the most numerous species in most samples. More than
100 adults emerged from each of 4 samples; 1 of these produced about 1,000
adults. Parasitism rates varied considerably from one location to another. A
count of 500 females on 5 branches from a catalpa grove gave the following
parasitism rates for each branch: 89, 65, 61, 60, and 12%.
P. berlesei, an endoparasite, attacks mainly female scales and makes an
even, circular hole in the wax shield and mummy. It apparently reproduces
parthenogenetically, as males of the species are unknown. On chinaberry,
paper mulberry, and peach trees in undisturbed areas it reduces white peach
scale infestations to levels which cause only minor damage. On the same trees
in fencerows, yards and orchards its rate of parasitism is smaller, and damage
due to white peach scale is generally heavier.


2According to G. Gordh (Div. Bio. Cont., Univ. Calif., Riverside), the name Aspidiotiphagus
lounsburyi may represent a complex of sibling species. The name Prospaltella berlesei may be
incorrectly applied at present. Since both names have been repeatedly used in the literature for
discussions of Florida scale parasites, we will continue to use them as a matter of expediency. We
recognize and accept the responsibility for this point of view.
3Identified by C. F. W. Muesebeck (United States National Museum, Natural History, Wash.,
D.C.).


Vol. 58, No. 1









Collins: Natural Enemies of White Peach Scale


Peach trees can be used as an indicator of the absence of control by P.
berlesei in managed areas as the trees are easily killed by white peach scale. On
abandoned peach trees, scale populations are low, evidence of P. berlesei
parasitism is extensive, and scale-caused damage is minor, though the trees
inevitably decline from peach borers and other pests. In maintained orchards
the opposite is true: white peach scale damage is often serious, healthy scale
populations are obvious, and parasitism is slight. This was found to be true in
over 100 plantings examined in 8 counties. Any significant control exerted in
such orchards is due to winter kill or insecticides.
The ectoparasite Aphytis nr. proclia was often found parasitizing females
of white peach scale on chinaberry near Tallahassee and Tampa. It sometimes
exceeded P. berlesei populations, but its numbers were never very large as it
was found only where P. berlesei parasitism was either very low or absent. A.
nr. proclia was rarely found in other areas of the state indicating it does not
disperse as easily as P. berlesei.
Aspidiotiphagus citrinus and A. lounsburyi were limited in distribution
and only a few adults were reared in most cases. One exception occurred when
350 A. citrinus parasites emerged from scales collected on mulberry in a
wooded area. All other hearings of either species numbered less than 25 adults
per sample. A. citrinus was confined to Alachua and Baker Counties, while
A. lounsburyi was found occasionally in nearly every region. Both are
endoparasites smaller in size than P. berlesei.
Low numbers of 1 or more of the hyperparasitic species were found in
nearly every sample. Thysanus flavopalliatus and Marietta carnesi were the
most common hyperparasites and were widely distributed. The numbers of
hyperparasites did not vary with host populations in a density-dependent
manner. Fewer than 15 hyperparasites emerged from all but 2 of the samples
with no correlative increase as primary parasites increased. In the largest
collection of more than 1,000 primary parasites, only 24 hyperparasites were
present. The data obtained in this survey were not complete enough to es-
timate the effects of hyperparasitism or to clarify the host relationships of the
hyperparasites.
During the present study, T. flavopalliatus adults were dissected from
inside white peach scale mummies. In 1960, Hughes photographed T.
flavopalliatus larvae attacking pupae of P. berlesei inside white peach scale.
This chalcid has also been reported parasitizing Prospaltella aurantii (Muma
1959) and Comperiella bifasciata (DeBach 1953).
In a host study (Uematsu 1972), M. carnesi was determined to be a "direct
secondary parasite" as defined by Flanders (1963). All of the primary parasites
tested as hosts by Uematsu, Comperiella bifasciata, Aspidiotiphagus citrinus,
2 species of Aphytis, and 2 species of Prospaltella, were attacked by M.
carnesi. Consequently, it is possible all 4 of the primary parasites of white
peach scale in Florida are parasitized by M. carnesi, but proof is lacking.
Few adults of the 2 species ofAblerus were found. A. clisocampae has been
reported as a hyperparasite of Prospaltella aurantii on Florida red scale
(Muma 1959). Prior to this survey, A. americanus had not been reported
anywhere since 1916 when it was first described by Girault.
An adult and 2 pupae of the Ceraphronid wasp, Aphanogmus n. sp., were
found within cocoons constructed by Cecidomyiid, Dentifibula viburni (Felt),
beneath the wax shields of white peach scale females. Beside each of the
specimens was a single, large, brown, spherical fecal pellet. The 2 pupae were










The Florida Entomologist


reared to adults and placed with the 3rd adult in the Florida State Collection
of Arthropods.

DISCUSSION
The predator, L. lophanthae, and the parasite, P. berlesei, appear to be
effective natural enemies of white peach scale in undisturbed habitats like
roadsides, vacant lots, neglected orchards, and woods. The predator is not
found in some deep woods locations where the parasite is active and the
parasite is not as well established as the predator in open areas such as fence
rows and managed orchards; but, in most instances, both species will be found
significantly reducing white peach scale infestations. In commercial peach
orchards, however, their effect is minimal. Current Florida peach insect
recommendations advise 6 applications of parathion, guthion, or Imidan
(0,0-dimethyl S-phthalimidomethyl phosphorodithioate) against Cono-
trachelus nenuphar (Herbst), Lygus lineolari (P. de B.), Nezara viridula (L.),
and Pseudaulacaspis pentagon (Targioni-Tozzeth) from early March to mid
May (French 1974). Research indicates that both P. berlesei and L.
lophanthae are unable to survive continual applications of such or-
ganophosphorus compounds (Benassy and Bianchi 1957, Benassy, Bianchi
and Milaire 1961, Kiroglu and Benassy 1970, Harries and Valcarce 1955). This
year these compounds have not been sprayed due to the absence of a peach
crop (insufficient chilling hours) and L. lophanthae has been more numerous
in orchards with a corresponding decrease in white peach scale.
As long as the indigenous natural enemies of white peach scale are
excluded from Florida orchards by extensive applications of or-
ganophosphorous compounds, it would be futile to introduce parasites and
predators. A successful program for the biological control of white peach scale
will depend on the development of a. complete pest management system
incorporating selective insecticides, pest surveys, and careful timing of all
insecticide applications. Furthermore, a better understanding of the life cycles
of such pests as the plum curculio is needed.

LITERATURE CITED

ANONYMOUS. 1955. Distribution maps of insect pests. Series A. Map 58.
Pseudaulacaspis pentagon (Targ.). London: Commonwealth Insti-
tute of Entomology.
BENASSY, C. 1957. Influence du facteur "exposition" sur la r6partition des
microhymenopteres parasites de Coccoidea-Diaspididae. En-
tomophaga 2:283-291.
BENASSY, C. 1958. Prospaltella berlesei How. (Hym. Aphelinidae) et son
efficacite pratique en France vis-A-vis de Pseudaulacaspis pentagon
Targ. (Hom. Diaspidinae). Entomophaga 3:67-70.
BENASSY, C., and H. BIANCHI. 1957. Incidence des traitements insecticides sur
les parasites de coccides. Action des traitements "d'hiver" centre
Pseudaulacaspis pentagon Targ., sur son parasite specifique: Pros-
paltella berlesei How. Phytiatrie-Phytopharmacie. 6:136-141.
BENASSY, C., H. BIANCHI, and H. MILAIRE. 1961. Effect of insecticide treat-
ments on the parasites of Coccids: the action of "summer treatments"
against Pseudaulacaspis pentagon Targ. on its specific parasite:
Prospaltella berlesei How. [In French] Phytiatrie-Phytopharmacie.
10:119-129.


Vol. 58, No. 1









Collins: Natural Enemies of White Peach Scale


BENNETT, F. D., and I. W. HUGHES. 1959. Biological control of insect pests in
Bermuda. Bull. Ent. Res. 50:423-436.
CLAUSEN, C. P. 1956. Biological control of insect pests in the continental
United States. USDA Tech. Bull. 1139. 151 p.
DEBACH, P. 1953. Thysanus flavopalliatus (Ashm.) parasitic on Comperiella
bifasciata How. in California red scale. J. Econ. Ent. 46:112.
FLANDERS, S. E. 1963. Hyperparasitism, a mutualistic phenomenon. Can. Ent.
95:716-720.
FRENCH, W. J. 1974. Revised commercial peach insect and disease recom-
mendations. Monticello, Fla., A.R.C. Mimeo report BB. 7 p.
GOSSARD, H. A. 1902. Two peach scales. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 61:492-498.
HARRIES, F. H., and A. C. VALCARCE. 1955. Laboratory tests of the effect of
insecticides on some beneficial insects. J. Econ. Ent. 48:614.
HOWARD, L. O. 1912. The activity of Prospaltella berlesei Howard against
Diaspispentagona Targ. in Italy. J. Econ. Ent. 5:325-328.
HOWARD, L. 0. 1916. Further notes on Prospaltella berlesei. J. Econ. Ent.
9:179-188.
HUGHES, I. W. 1960. Host relationship and natural enemies of white peach
scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagon (Targ.), (Homoptera, Coccoidea).
Unpublished master's thesis. Univ. of Fla. 69 p.
KIROGLU, H., and C. BENASSY. 1970. Essai de mise au point d'un programme
de lutte integr4e en vergers de pkchers: note sur la repercussion en
laboratoire des traitements sur Prospaltella berlesei How., parasite
sp6cifique de Pseudaulacaspispentagona Targ. Rev. Zool. Agr. Pathol.
Veg. 69:45-53.
KUITERT, L. C. 1967. Observations of the biology, bionomics and control of
white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspispentagona (Targ.). Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 80:376-381.
LEWIS, T. 1973. Thrips, their biology, ecology, and economic importance.
Academic Press, London. 394 p.
MONTI, L. 1956. Richerche etologiche su due coccidi diaspini: Diaspis pen-
tagona Trag. e Mytilococcus ulmi L., nella region Romagnola. Boll. 1st
Entomol. Bologna 21:141-165.
MUMA, M. H. 1959. Natural control of Florida red scale on citrus in Florida by
predators and parasites. J. Econ. Ent. 52:577-586.
SIMMONDS, F. J. 1958. The oleander scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagon Targ.
(Homoptera, Coccidae) in Bermuda. Bull. Dep. Agr. Bermuda 31. 44 p.
UEMATSU, H. 1972. Studies on Marietta carnesi (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)
a hyperparasite of diaspini scales (Hymenoptera: Diaspididae). Jap. J.
Appl. Ent. Zool. 16:187-192.










The Florida Entomologist


RECENT HISTORY OF THE SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE,
DENDROCTONUS FRONTALIS ZIMM., (COL.: SCOLY-
TIDAE) IN FLORIDA-(Note). D. frontalis is considered to be the most
destructive bark beetle of pines throughout much of the SE United States,
and losses associated with infestations of this beetle during Fiscal Year 1974
have been estimated to total more than 162 million b.f. (U.S. Forest Serv.
Spec. Report, July 1974). Reports and historic records show that destructive
epidemics have occurred periodically from Maryland to Texas since the late
1800's, but comparatively few outbreaks have occurred and none has persisted
in Florida. The most susceptible host types in the South are loblolly pine,
Pinus taeda L., and shortleaf pine, P. echinata Mill., although other southern
Pinus spp. are attacked.
During the summer of 1947, an epidemic outbreak occurred 10 miles SE of
Ocala (Marion Co.) in the Ochlawaha River Valley, where about 1,000 acres of
loblolly pine was infested and an estimated 5 million board ft of sawlogs plus a
large quantity of pulpwood-size and smaller trees were killed. Reported as
predisposing factors were a severe drought from 1943-45 and 2 forest fires.
During 1952, relatively small spot-kills of loblolly pine were detected on the
Apalachicola National Forest (Liberty Co.) in the Ochlockonee River Valley.
During the fall of 1972,4 small spot-kills involving 2 acres of loblolly pine were
detected near Laurel Hill and Milligan (Okaloosa Co.). An outbreak during
the early fall of 1973 involving about 25 acres of overmature shortleaf pine was
located just N. of Tallahassee (Leon Co.), where an estimated volume of 55
thousand board ft of sawtimber was salvaged. A spot-kill of 7 shortleaf pines
was also located 2 miles S of this outbreak in urban Tallahassee during the
following spring of 1974.
An infestation involving 250 acres of timber was detected during November
1974 in the Alaqua Creek valley on Eglin Air Force Base (Walton Co.) in which
loblolly pine was again the preferred host, although spruce, P. glabra Walt.,
slash, P. elliottii Engelm., longleaf, P. palustris Mill., and sand, P. clausa
(Chapm.) Vasey, pines were also attacked. Suspected factors contributing to
this outbreak were tree crowding, overmaturity, and drought. A total of 1.75
million board ft of sawtimber and 550 cords of wood were marked for salvage
to help terminate the outbreak.
We suggest that a primary factor in limiting recent outbreaks of the
southern pine beetle in Florida is that they occur in the susceptible host types
of loblolly and shortleaf pines, 2 types which total 379 thousand acres in the
state (loc. cit.). By contrast, large epidemic outbreaks have built up from
1972-4 in neighboring Georgia, with a total of 6.8 million acres of these 2
susceptible types (ibid.). A 2nd possible factor limiting the size and duration of
infestations in Florida may be the occurrence of relatively high temperatures
(ca. 300C) during much of the long growing season. Moore (Environ. Ent., Feb.
1973) demonstrated that beetles inoculated with 3 entomogenous fungi died
much sooner at 300C than at lower temperatures. A 3rd factor may be the
relative resistance of slash and longleaf pines (2 major timber species in
Florida) to southern pine beetle attacks. Paradoxically, research in Florida
can perhaps yield more information on factors limiting southern beetle
populations than research conducted elsewhere. C. W. Chellman, Fla. Div. of
Forestry, Tallahassee, and R. C. Wilkinson, Univ. Fla. Dept. of Entomology
and Nematology, Gainesville.


Vol. 58, No. 1









The Florida Entomologist


THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES
OF SIL VIUS (SIL VIUS) MEIGEN
(DIPTERA: TABANIDAE)'

G. B. FAIRCHILD2

Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611

ABSTRACT

An isolated eastern population of Silvius (Silvius) gigantulus Loew is
described as weemsi n. ssp. and a key to and figures of the 3 Nearctic taxa of
Silvius (Silvius) are presented.


The genus Silvius was established by Meigen in 1820 for the Palearctic
Tabanus vituli Fabricius 1805, later shown to be a synonym of the earlier
Silvius alpinus (Scopoli) 1763, (Chvdla and Lyneborg 1970). At one time many
species from all parts of the world were included in the genus, but now it is
restricted to a relatively small number of northern hemisphere species, and
has been split into 5 subgenera. Only the nominate subgenus is considered
here. This consists of about 15 Palearctic and Oriental species and 2 Nearctic
species, to which is added the new taxon described below.
The 3 Nearctic taxa are very similar in appearance, as are a number of the
Palearctic species, so it seems useful to present here figures and key to the
Nearctic forms before describing the new subspecies.

KEY TO FEMALES
1. Frontal callus small, less than 1/2 width of frons. Fronto-
clypeus and genae entirely pollinose. Abdomen with a broad
dark integumental stripe or series of spots overlaid by con-
spicuous middorsal pale pollinose and pale-haired middorsal
triangles on tergites 1 to 6 nearly width of their respective
segm ents ..............................................................................m icrocep halus
1'. Frontal callus larger, over 1/2 width of frons: Fronto-clypeus
and genae with bare shiny areas. Abdomen without marked
pale pollinose m iddorsal triangles ................................................... ........ 2
2. Fronto-clypeus and genae with large bare areas. Ocellar tu-
bercle extensively bare and shiny. Palpi somewhat inflated
basally. Abdomen yellow in ground color, largely dark haired,
with or without small dull yellow median triangular hair
patches and dark integumental patches on first 3 tergites, the
thorax contrastingly dark in ground color, yellow to steel
grey pollinose ............................................................................. gigantulus
2'. Fronto-clypeus and genae with small bare areas, largely con-
fined to the sutures between clypeus and genae. Palpi not
inflated basally. Abdomen brown in ground color, with an


'Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 5502.
2Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville.


Vol. 58, No. 1










The Florida Entomologist


elongate black integumental triangle from first to third ter-
gites, black haired and with faint dull yellow median hair tri-
angles on tergites 2 to 5 or 6, the thorax not much darker,
brown pollinose ................................................. ..... gigantulus weem si


Silvius (Silvius) microcephalus Wehr
Fig. 1
1922, Univ. Stud., Univ. Nebraska, 22(3-4):109-110, female, Ute Creek,
Costilla Co., Colorado. Brennan, 1935, Bull. Univ. Kansas 36(8):254-255,
female, male, Colorado. Mt. Home Lake, Fort Garland, 8300 ft. July 1932;
Riley, August 1890. Pechuman 1938, Can. Ent. 52:170, female, in key only.
Philip 1947, Amer. Midl. Nat. 37(2):267; 1965, Cat. Dipt. N. Amer., p. 323. Type
Univ. Nebraska, paratype Ohio State Univ.





/ /T/









Fig. 1. Silvius microcephalus Wehr. Female paratype. Frons, antenna,
palpus.

The species has been adequately described by Wehr (1922) and redescribed
by Brennan (1935) who also described the male, and should be recognizable
from the key and figure given here. Brennan (loc. cit.) says the male is easily
associated by abdominal pattern and lack of facial bare areas. His male
appears to have been the specimen from Ft. Garland, Colo. listed above. I have
seen the paratype studied by Brennan through courtesy of Dr. C. A.
Triplehorn of Ohio State University, who also loaned another specimen,
lacking 1 wing and the distal half of the other, labelled Bailey, Colo., Aug.
1890, probably the same specimen reported by Brennan as "Riley, Aug. 1890."
The paratype bears an additional label reading "Sago Flats, R. W. Dawson
coll." The holotype is said to be in the University of Nebraska, but owing to
their standing policy against lending types, neither Brennan nor I have seen it.


Silvius (Silvius) gigantulus (Loew)
Fig. 2
Chrysops gigantulus Loew 1872, Dipt. Amer. Sept. Ind., Cent. 10. Berlin
Ent. Ztschr 16:57, female, California. Type M.C.Z.
Silviusgigantulus Osten Sacken 1877, Western Dipt., p. 215. Brennan 1935,


Vol. 58, No. 1









Fairchild: North American Silvius


OO









Fig. 2. Silvius gigantulus Loew. Female. China Flat, Eldorado Co., Calif.
Frons, fronto-clypeus, antenna, palpus.

Bull. Univ. Kansas 36(8):352, P1. 35, Fig. 89. Philip 1947, Amer. Midl. Nat.
37(2):266. Full synonymy; 1965, Cat. N. Amer. Dipt., p. 323.
Silvius trifolium Osten Sacken 1875, Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 2:395,
female, Vancouver Id., B.C. Lectotype M.C.Z.
This species is readily separated on the characters in the key. It is
widespread in the west, though apparently seldom abundant, and quite
variable in color. The thorax may be steel gray, yellow, or brownish pollinose,
and the abdomen clear yellow to almost brown, with or without a variable
amount of integumental black on first 2 or 3 tergites.
S. (S.) gigantulus is reported by Philip (1965) from British Columbia east to
Nebraska, south to California and New Mexico. I have studied specimens of
both sexes from B. C., Ore., and Calif., those from the first 2 localities being
darkest and closest to ssp. weemsi in color. The degree of bareness of fronto-
clypeus varies from patches on each side to nearly total, but is always more
extensive than in weemsi.

Silvius gigantulus weemsi n. ssp.
Fig. 3
Female length 10 mm, of wing 10 mm. Eyes bare, the color not recorded.
Head structures as figured. Frons, fronto-clypeus, and genae pale yellowish
brown, the sparse beard yellowish. Bare areas of face black above tentorial
pits, yellow below. Antennae with first 2 segments yellow, the third dull










The Florida Entomologist


orange, darkening to black at tip of basal plate and style. Palpi dark orange,
yellow pollinose, with a few dark hairs. Proboscis wholly membranous, longer
than palpi though shorter than head height, brown.
Mesonotum brown in ground color, brown pollinose, faintly striped, beset
with short dull yellow hairs. Scutellum and pleura concolorous, slightly
grayer posteriorly. Legs including coxae dark yellow, the joints or articula-
tions between all leg segments blackish, and apical halves of fore tibiae and
fore tarsi dusky, though hardly bicolored. Wings faintly brownish, the costal
cell orange, the veins brown, and a short appendix at fork of third vein.
Abdomen dull orange brown in ground color, but slightly paler than
thorax, with a black median integumental triangle, its base on first tergite, its
apex in middle of third tergite. Whole abdomen pale brown pollinose, black
haired, except for small sparse median tufts of dull yellow hairs on hind
margins of tergites 1 to 5 or 6, and on posterolateral margins of tergites 4 and
5. Beneath the abdomen is the same color as dorsally, largely black haired, but
with a few yellow hairs on the hind margins of all sternites. There may be also
a small dusky median integumental spot on the fore border of tergite 4.
Male unknown.
Holotype. West Virginia, Pocahontas Co., Monongahela National Forest,
Cranberry Glades, 3400 ft elev., 12 Aug. 1972, Malaise trap. H. V. Weems, Jr.
coll. In F.S.C.A.
Paratypes. 7 females, same data as holotype. In F.S.C.A. and Colls. of L. L.
Pechuman and C. B. Philip. These paratypes vary very little, only the
development of the dark integumental marking on abdomen being confined to
first 2 tergites in 2 specimens. One female, Gibsonia, Aleghany Co., Penna., 17


(Ph






rI~ /'


Fig. 3. Silvius gigantulus weemsi n. ssp. Female holotype. Frons, fronto-
clypeus, antenna, palpus.


Vol. 58, No. 1









Fairchild: North American Silvius


Aug. 1962, G. E. Wallace coll. The abdomen crushed, but head characters
agree with holotype.
This subspecies is only separable with certainty from gigantulus by the
reduced bare areas on the face and more slender palpi. In general it is darker
and more brownish than gigantulus, but the latter is rather variable in this
respect, some specimens being as dark as weemsi. It represents a disjunct
population, possibly a remnant of a preglacial continuous population. The
locality is a relict bog, with sphagnum and other boreal plants, at a high
elevation in extreme southern West Virginia. No ecological information on the
Penna. paratype is available.
An additional female sent by L. L. Pechuman has the characters of the
subspecies, except for being lighter in color. It bears only a small printed
"N.Y." label, and is excluded from the paratype series for lack of definite
locality data.


LITERATURE CITED

BRENNAN, J. M. 1935. The Pangoniinae of Nearctic America (Dipt.:Taban.)
Bull. Univ. Kansas 36(8):249-401 [Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 22(13):249-
401].
CHVALA, M., and LYNEBORG, L. 1970. A revision of Palearctic Tabanidae
described by J. C. Fabricius. J. Med. Ent. 7(5):543-555.
PHILIP, C. B. In STONE, A. et al. 1965. A Catalogue of the Diptera of America
north of Mexico. Agr. Res. Serv. USDA. (Tabanidae) p. 319-342.











The night comes on; but soon did night display
More wonders than it veiled: innumerous tribes
From the wood-cover swarmed, and darkness made
Their beauties visible; one while they streamed
A bright blue radiance upon flowers which closed
Their gorgeous colours from the eye of day;
Now motionless and dark eluded search,
Self shrouded; and anon, starring the sky,
Rose like a shower of fire.
Robert Southey













FASCOJ


you'll find
all your pest control
needs under
the dependable
FASCO label...


Nematocides
Fumigation Covers
Soil Fungicides
and Insecticides
Foliar Fungicides
and Insecticides
Bulb, Tuber and Rizome
Fungicides and Dips
Herbicides


Delivered when you need them from one of
our warehouses that's near you.

O.m KERR-MCGEE CHEMICAL CORP
POST OFFICE BOX 4459 JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA 32201









The Florida Entomologist


FURTHER ATTEMPTS TO ESTABLISH
THE WEEVIL EGG PARASITE,
TETRASTICHUS HAITIENSIS IN FLORIDA

J. B. BEAVERS AND A. G. SELHIME

Horticultural Research Laboratory,
Agr. Res. Serv., USDA, Orlando, FL 32803

ABSTRACT

In a further attempt to establish Tetrastichus haitiensis Gahan, an egg
parasite of the weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.), releases of laboratory
reared stock were made during 1970 and 1971 at Apopka and West Palm
Beach, Florida. Recovery efforts made periodically during 1970-73 failed to
provide evidence of establishment.


Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.), a curculionid pest of citrus and sugarcane in
the West Indies, was first reported attacking citrus near Apopka, Florida, in
1964. By 1968, a quarantine area comprising ca. 2,500 acres of citrus had been
established (Woodruff 1964, 1968). Expansion of the infested area and control
measures undertaken by regulatory agencies were reported by Selhime and
Beavers (1972). One of the biological control measures attempted has been the
propagation and release of an exotic egg parasite, Tetrastichus haitiensis
Gahan, collected in Puerto Rico and released at selected sites near Apopka
(Sutton et al. 1972). Although recovery of 2 adult parasites from a weevil egg
mass was reported (Sutton et al. 1972), the report did not represent positive
establishment of T. haitiensis because it was made so soon after the parasites
were released in 1969.
The present paper reports further attempts to establish T. haitiensis as a
biological control agent for D. abbreviatus in an untreated citrus grove near
Apopka and in a grove near West Palm Beach that was heavily infested with
Pachnaeus litus (Germar), a citrus root weevil present in Florida. This second
grove had been the site of an earlier attempt to establish T. haitiensis. In 1969,
ca. 6,000 adult parasites were released in another area of this grove during
September and November (R. A. Sutton, unpublished data). Seven weevil egg
masses were recovered 11 November 1969; only 1 of these was parasitized and
it contained only 4 T. haitiensis all of which failed to emerge. Two other
recovery attempts were made in August and October 1970, but no parasitized
egg masses were recovered. The parasites were identified by B. D. Burks,
Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, USDA,
Washington, D. C.

METHODS AND MATERIALS
The rearing procedure described by Sutton et al. (1972) was modified to a
less time-consuming technique by attaching wax paper strips 15 x 2 cm to the
tops of cages in which field-collected adults were held (Wolcott 1933). The
weevils oviposited between the strips which were removed daily. After the
paper strips were separated to expose the egg masses, they were attached to 13
x 35-cm cards which were formed into 9-cm-diam cylinders. Then the cards


Vol. 58, No. 1









The Florida Entomologist


were placed inside an 11 x 13-cm plastic container with adult parasites and
held 1-2 days. After the egg masses had thus been exposed to the ovipositing
parasites, the eggs were transferred to another container with an inverted
funnel attached to the top. The outer surface of this container and the funnel
were painted black because parasites exhibit photopositive behavior. The
emerging parasites were collected in a clear 25-dram plastic vial attached to
the stem of the inverted funnel. They could either be released at preselected
sites or used to replenish the laboratory colony.
During 1970, ca. 4,000 parasites were released periodically (August-Oc-
tober) in the untreated grove near Apopka. (None of these parasites had
previously oviposited.) In 1971, ca. 2,000 parasites were released (June-
November) in the citrus grove near West Palm Beach which had a heavy
infestation of P. litus. This grove was under a chemical control program for
other pests.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
During 1970, 56 weevil egg masses were collected at the release site near
Apopka. Nine adult T. haitiensis emerged from 1 of the masses that was
collected 1 October 1970. In 1971, 1972, and 1973, 65, 53, and 25 egg masses
respectively were recovered, but none were parasitized.
During 1971, 8 releases were made in the West Palm Beach grove 20 June
to 11 November, a total of ca. 2,000 parasites. Adult P. litus and weevil egg
masses were collected at the time of each release except on 28 October; thus,
host eggs were present at each release period.
Beginning January and continuing through December 1972, monthly
collections of egg masses were made from the release site. Adult P. litus and
egg masses were collected each month except in September. A total of 82 egg
masses and 95 adult weevils were collected. No T. haitiensis were recovered,
but almost all egg masses were parasitized by Brachyufens (= ufens) osborni
(Dozier), a parasite of P. litus eggs previously reported present in Florida
(Baranowski 1960). During 1973, 13 egg masses and 14 adults were collected in
May and November. No T. haitiensis were recovered.
The recoveries of T. haitiensis reported here from Apopka cannot be
considered to constitute establishment of this parasite in Florida since they
were made shortly after release, as was also the previous instance in December
1969 when 2 T. haitiensis were recovered (Sutton et al. 1969). Thus T. hai-
tiensis apparently has not become established in Florida.
Two possible reasons for the failures to establish T. haitiensis in Florida
might be the cold winter temperatures at Apopka during which adult weevils
have not been found and a possible lack of correlation between the life cycles
of T. haitiensis and D. abbreviatus in Florida. Wolcott (1936) reported T.
haitiensis as being most abundant during late spring but scarce during au-
tumn and winter in Puerto Rico. In Apopka, most adult weevils, and
presumably most egg masses, are present August-November. Also competition
between B. osborni and T. haitiensis at West Palm Beach may be a factor that
precludes establishment. However, this grove was being treated with insec-
ticides, which may also be detrimental to the parasite (the one recovery made
there was of unemerged dead adults). Nevertheless, inundative or
supplementary releases of T. haitiensis during periods of peak populations of
adult D. abbreviatus might give some measure of control in the infested area.
As noted, B. osborni has been recovered from weevil egg masses in West


Vol. 58, No. I









Beavers and Selhime: Releases of Egg Parasite


Palm Beach; it has also been recovered occasionally in the Apopka area.
However, other species of citrus root weevils are present at Apopka, notably
Pantomorus cervinus (Boheman) and Pachnaeus opalus (Olivier), and it is
not known whether these eggs containing B. osborni were D. abbreviatus or
another species, due to the similarity of the egg masses. Nevertheless, in May
1972, ca. 200 B. osborni collected at West Palm Beach were released in the
Apopka test grove; no parasitized egg masses have yet been recovered.


LITERATURE CITED

BARANOWSKI, R. M. 1960. Notes on a parasite of the citrus root weevil Pach-
naeus litus (Germ.). Fla. Ent. 43:197.
SELHIME, A. G., AND J. B. BEAVERS. 1972. A new weevil pest of Florida citrus.
Citrus Industry 53(1):4-5.
SUTTON, R. A., A. G. SELHIME, AND W. MCCLOUD. 1972. Colonization and
release of Tetrastichus haitiensis as a biological control agent for citrus
root weevils. J. Econ. Ent. 65:184-185.
WOLCOTT, G. N. 1933. Otiorhynchids oviposit between paper. J. Econ. Ent.
26:1172-1173.
WOLCOTT, G. N. 1936. The life history of Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) at Rio
Piedras, Puerto Rico. J. Agr. Univ. Puerto Rico 20(4):883-914.
WOODRUFF, R. E. 1964. A Puerto Rican weevil new to the United States
(Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Fla. Dep. Agr., Div. Plant Ind., Ent. Circ.
30:1-2.
WOODRUFF, R. E. 1968. The present status of a West Indian weevil (Diaprepes
abbreviata (L.)) in Florida (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Fla. Dept.
Agr., Div. Plant Ind. Ent. Circ. 77:1-4.











SEASONALITY IN NORTHERN FIELD CRICKETS-
(Note). Gryllus veletis and G. pennsylvanicus, the northern spring and fall
field crickets, respectively, are reproductively active during different seasons.
Though similar or identical in much of their behavior (including male calling
song), morphology, and ecology, they differ in their stage of winter diapause:
pennsylvanicus diapauses as an egg and veletis as a late-instar nymph. This
species-pair has figured prominently in a theory of sympatric speciation (R. D.
Alexander and R. S. Bigelow, Evolution, 1960, 14:334; R. D. Alexander, Quart.
Rev. Biol., 1968, 43:1). In the field, calling pennsylvanicus males appear
between mid-July and early August, near the end of or shortly after the calling
season of veletis males. Seasonal overlap is very slight at any latitude, and is
less extensive and slightly later at more northerly localities (R. D. Alexander
and G. H. Meral, Ohio J. Sci., 1967, 67:200). This note presents the first
extensive seasonal data for these crickets for a locality other than Ann Arbor,
Michigan. (Cont'd. next page)










32 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 58, No. 1

During the summers of 1971 and 1972 the Biology of Insects classes at the
University of Michigan Biological Station, Pellston, monitored singing male
crickets on the campus during "cricket walks": (ca. 0.5 mi. along campus
streets and paths) taken at various times including late morning, late after-
noon, and after sunset. Density of crickets was low, with an estimated
maximum of 6 or fewer adult males per acre. The position of each singing male
was noted on a campus map so that previously-located singers could be
listened for carefully during each census. During both years the number of
singing crickets was at a low between 27 July and 5 August (Fig. 1): this
apparently indicates the transition between veletis and pennsylvanicus. The
slow 1972pennsylvanicus increase may have been caused by the occurrence of
unseasonably low temperatures at that time; the rapid increase in calling of
1971 pennsylvanicus population is similar to that noted by Alexander and
Meral ibidd).
The time of transition at Pellston appears to be the same as for Ann Arbor,
Michigan, ca 230 mi. to the south. To a certain extent this identity may be due
to chance since calling males were heard at sites within 5 miles of the study
area during its seasonal low. It is common among some insects, such as fireflies
and crickets (T. Walker, pers. comm.), for individual demes within a greater
local population to be out of seasonal phase by a few to several days. J. E.
Lloyd, and A. E. Pace, Univ. of Michigan Biol. Sta., Pellston; Univ. of Florida,
Gainesville 32611 (JEL); and Bell Museum of Natural History, Univ. of
Minnesota, Minneapolis 55455 (AEP).



A 1971 A
S1972

15




A
0 9 10








10 15 20 25 31 5 10 15

JULY AUGUST

Field cricket seasonality: G. veletis stops and G. pennsylvanicus begins
calling at the end of July. Line shows apparent population change for 1971.









The Florida Entomologist


A NEW GENUS DUMORPHA
AND NEW SPECIES OF GYPONINAE
(HOMOPTERA:CICADELLIDAE)'

DWIGHT M. DELONG AND PAUL H. FREYTAG

The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio;
The University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, respectively


ABSTRACT

A new genus Dumorpha with the type-species D. dedeca n. sp. from
Venezuela are described.


In 1972 we published a key to the genera of the World Gyponinae. A new
genus Dumorpha not included in the key and the type-species D. dedeca n. sp.
are described in the following pages. In appearance Dumorpha resembles
Gypona, but it bears aedeagal parameres. Although it has a crown with a thin
margin, it probably is related to Ponana and Polana.

Genus Dumorpha DeLong & Freytag, new genus
Crown broadly rounded, two-thirds as long at middle as basal width
between eyes, striae transverse; anterior margin thin, foliaceous. Ocelli large,
closer to anterior than posterior margin and closer to proximal eye than to
median line. Forewings with normal venation. Aedeagus with paired
parameres.
Type-species: Dumorpha dedeca n. sp.
In form and general appearance Dumorpha resembles Gypona, but
aedeagal parameres are not known to occur in any described species of
Gypona. Also the striae are transverse as in Ponana and Polana, but
Dumorpha has a definite thin margin not found in these 2 genera.

Dumorpha dedeca DeLong & Freytag, n. sp.
(Fig. 1-5)
Length: male 7.5 mm, female 8.5 mm. Crown broadly rounded, two-thirds
as long at middle as basal width between eyes with margin thin and foliaceous.
Postclypeus depressed beneath anterior margin of crown. Ocelli nearer
anterior than posterior margin of crown and nearer eyes than median line.
Color: Crown yellow with a small black spot just in front of each ocellus
and a small black spot behind each ocellus near basal margin of crown.
Pronotum yellow with numerous brown punctate spots on median and
posterior portions. Scutellum yellow with a small brown spot in each basal
angle. Forewings yellow with 3 pairs of small brown spots along commissure,
(median pair a little larger) a brown spot at each end of discal cell, several
spots along costa, and small flecks of brown throughout.

'This work was sponsored by The Ohio State University Development Fund. Accepted for
publication.


Vol. 58, No. 1









The Florida Entomologist


4






Fig. 1-5. Dumorpha dedeca n. sp. 1) aedeagus, ventrally, 2) aedeagus,
laterally, 3) style, laterally, 4) plate, ventrally, 5) pygofer, laterally.

Male genitalia: Plates 4 times as long as median width, apex narrow,
rounded. Style with blade slender, broadened on dorsal margin at two-thirds
its length, than narrowed, curved dorsally, with a rounded apex bearing a
tooth on basal margin. Aedeagus with shaft thin, curved dorsally, with a blunt
median apex, with lateral portions extending beyond median portion bifur-
curate and pointed at apices; parameres arising from base extending to apex of
shaft, broadened subapically, with apices narrowed, pointed.
Female genitalia: Seventh sternum with lateral angles rounded to a trun-
cate posterior margin which is then slightly, roundedly notched at middle.
Holotype male: Caracas, Venezuela, VIII-IX-1949, A. Mirsa. Allotype
female: Same data as holotype. Paratypes: 3 males, same as holotype; 2
females, El Valle, D. F., Venezuela, G. Vivas-Berthier; 1 female, Pernambuca,
Bonita Prov., Brazil, 2-1-1883; 1 female, same except 8-VII-1880. Holotype,
allotype and paratypes in U.S.N.M. Collection, and 1 male, 1 female paratype
in the DeLong Collection.


LITERATURE CITED

DELONG, D. M., AND P. H. FREYTAG. 1972. Key to the Gyponinae. A key to the
known genera and descriptions of five new genera. J. Kans. Ent. Soc.
45:218-235.


Vol. 58, No. 1









The Florida Entomologist


THIRD SUPPLEMENT TO INSECTS
TAKEN IN LIGHT TRAPS AT THE
ARCHBOLD BIOLOGICAL STATION,
HIGHLANDS COUNTY, FLORIDA
S. W. FROST
Frost Entomological Museum,
The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802

ABSTRACT
Over 400 new records of species taken in light traps at the Archbold
Biological Station have been obtained since the previous lists (Frost 1964,
1966, 1969). These include 38 new records for Florida, 17 new species and many
host records especially in the Lepidoptera and the Agromyzidae.

There has been a slight change in the plant association especially near
where the light traps have been operated during the past 14 years. In the fall of
1970, a large vegetable garden was discontinued in this area and planted with
a mixture of seed consisting of brown top and proso millet, combine peas,
sorghum, and sesame. Some notable changes in insect catches in light traps
resulted. Prior to 1970, the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus),
a pest of Cruciferae, was trapped in very large numbers. Since 1970, only a few
have been taken. Adults of the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania
(Cramer), were common at light traps, and the larvae caused serious damage
to beet leaves. Since 1970 very few of these moths were taken in light traps.
Numerous butterflies, generally not strongly attracted to light, were common
visitors to sesame flowers and a few were taken in light traps.
Several groups which were not previously studied, such as the
Coniopterygidae, Carabidae (Brachinus), and the Agromyzidae, have been
identified by specialists and are added to this list.
Methods of entry and abbreviations are the same as those used by Frost
(1964). New abbreviations include: AWK, Wyatt collection, Field Museum,
Chicago, Illinois; DHJF, Division of Health, Jacksonville, Florida; SI,
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.; UR, University Rochester; YU,
Yale University; ZMHF, Zoological Museum, Helsinki, Finland.
The majority of the material has been placed in the Frost Entomological
Museum, The Pennsylvania State University; some to the insect collection,
Archbold Biological Station; many in the Florida State Collection of
Arthropods, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services, Gainesville, Florida; and a few have been retained by
C. P. Kimball.

LIST OF INSECTS'
ORTHOPTERA Cryptotermes sp. 4/4, 5.2
Gryllus firmus Scudd. 11, 12, 1, 2, 3, 4, SC Incistermes snyderi (Light) 4/8, 4/24
Delete Gryllus rubens Scudd. 1964 Rhinotermitidae
Delete Acheta assimilis Fab. 1969 Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) 1/21, 2/10
ISOPTERA (D. R. Smith, SI.) Reticulitermes virginicus (Banks)
Kalotermitidae
'Recently described species not appearing on previous lists by Frost (1964, 1966, 1969) are
indicated by an asterisk preceding the specific name.


Vol. 58, No. 1










The Florida Entomologist


NEUROPTERA
Ascalaphidae (P. A. Adams, UC)
Ameraptus sp. 5/23
Ululodes floridanus Banks 5/23
Ululodes senax (Wlk.) 5/21, 6/1
Myrmelionidae (P. A. Adams, UC)
Brachynemurus longicaudus Burm. 5/27
Chrysopidae (P. A. Adams UC)
Abachrysa eureka Banks 5/3, 5/24
Chrysopa intima Mclachlan 5/21
Coniopterygidae (M. Meinander, ZMHF)
*Coniopteryx diversicornis Meinander
4/5, 4/21, 4/27 Paratypes
*Coniopteryx simplicior Meinander 5/3
SC, Paratypes
Coniopteryx westwoodi Fitch 8/10
Parasemidalis fuscipennis (Reuter) 4/8
Semidalis vicina (Hagen) 3/5 SC
ODONATA (G. H. Beatty, State College,
Pa.)
Argia fumipennis atra Gloyd. 4/10,4/22
Celithemis eponina Drury 4/23
Enallagma cardenium Selys 1/22
Erythemis simplicicollis Say 4/13
Lestes [vidua] Hagen 4/29
Pachydiplax longipennis Burm. reported
1964, 96 specimens taken April, May
1970
PSOCOPTERA (E. L. Mockford, ISNU)
Aaroniella achrrysa (Banks) 4/24 rare
Caecilius africanus Ribaga 2/18, 2.21,
2/24,4,4/12
*Caecilius indicator Mock. 2/27, 4/7,
4/13, 4/19
Hemipsocus chloroticus (Hagen) 1/3, 1/10
not previously taken in the field in
Florida
Lachesilla viezeli Somm. 12/20, 1/24, 1/31
*Peripsocus alachuae Mock. 2/21, 3/13
Psocidus insulanus (Chapm.) 1/15
Psocidus sp. 1/10 to 2/3
Psocus leidyi Aaron 1964 reported in error
as new to the U. S., only new to Florida
Trichadenotecumpardus Bord. 1/3
THYSANOPTERA (L. Stannard, INHS)
Hoplandrothrips sp. 2/17 rare
HOMOPTERA
Membracidae (R. C. Froeschner, SI)
Ophiderma definite Woodruff 3/10
Smilia fasciata A.&S. 3/19
*Telamona archboldi Froeschner 4/20
new species
Telamona unicolor Fitch 3/24
Psyllidae (L. M. Russell, USDA)
Trioza diospyri (Ashm.) 2/1, 2/13, 4/28
Aphididae (J. O. Pepper, PSU)


Vol. 58, No. 1


Aphis coreopsidis Thoms. 11/22, 11/27,
12/6, 12/30
Aphis gossypii Glover 2/30, 4/13, also
taken on Bryophyllum and Bidens
Cinara watsoni Tissot 3/29
Eriosoma americana Riley 1/24
Eulachnus rileyi Williams 1/1, 2/28, 12/20
Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas 12/26,
3/30
Derbidae (J. P. Kramer, SI)
Otiocerus degeerii Kby. 4/11
HEMIPTERA
Pentatomidae (R. C. Froeschner, SI)
Brochymena arborea (Say) 5/3
Coreidae
Zicca taeniola (Dallas) 5/12, 12/2
Lygaeidae
Peritrechus paludemaris Barber 2/27, 3/4
Anthocoridae
Orius insidiosus (Say) 11/18
Orius pumilio (Champ.) 11/20, 3/4, also
on elderberry flowers
Reduviidae (R. C. Froeschner, SI)
Empicoris orthoneuron (McAt. & Mall.)
4/3, 4/12
Teleorhinus floridanus Knight 4/17, 4/25,
5/5
Nabidae
Nabis alternatus Parsh. 1/4
Pleidae
Neoplea harnedi (Drake) 1/1
COLEOPTERA
Carabidae (H. Dietrich, CU)
Acupalpus pauperculus Dej. 2/28, 3/3
Brachinus (T. L. Erwin, SI)
*Brachinus adustipennis Erwin 3/7, 3/11,
4/4,4/28
Brachinus alternans Dej. 1/4 to 4/29 SC
Brachinus conformis Dej. 3/25, 3/33, 4/3,
4/4,4/5
Brachinus kansanus Lec. 3/31
Brachinus medius Harris 3/2, 3/27, 4/3,
4/4, 4/29,4/30 SC
Brachinus neglectus Lec. 3/3, 3/29
Brachinus oxygonus Chaud. March and
April SC
Brachinus quadripennis Dej. 1/31 to 5/1
SC
Brachinus rugipennis Chaud. 11/27, 1/5
Brachinus sublaevis Chaud. 2/17,4/29 SC
Brachinus deyrollii Laf., B. fumans Fab.,
and B. pulchellus Blatch. delete from
1964 list. All material has been reworked
by T. L. Erwin, 1970.
Bradycellus tantillus (Dej.) 1/16, 3/3 SC
(det. H. Dietrich, CU).
Pasimachus sublaevis Bleauv. 4/29










Frost: Insects Taken in Light Traps


Tachys obliquus Casey 1/6, 3/3
Dytiscidae (H. Dietrich, CU)
Anodocheilus exiguus (AubB,) 1/1
Bidessus pullus floridanus Fall. 1/1
Cybister occidentalis Aube. two Mollusca,
Larvapex fuscus Adams, attached to
the elytra of this beetle (J. R. Rosewater
SI).
Hydrophilidae (H. Dietrich, CU)
Chaetarthriapallida (Lec.) 12/27
Paracymus reductus (Fall.) 12/27
Staphylinidae
Creophilus villosus (Grav.) 11/18
Histeridae (R. L. Wenzel, CNHM)
Euspilotus assimilis Payk. 11/18, also
taken on dead opposum
Euspilotus conformis Lec. 11/18
Euspilotusplacidus Er. 4/29
Saprinus pennsylvanicus Payk. 4/14
Melyridae (J. N. Knull, OSU)
Anthocomus bipunctata Harrer 3/2, An
introduced species, first record for Fla.
Lampyridae (J. E. Lloyd, UF)
Photinus sp A 4/29
Photurus lineaticollis (Mots.) group 4/30
Photurus sp. GR 3/31
Pyractomena angulata (Say) 4/22
Cleridae (J. N. Knull, OSU)
Cymatodera inornata Say 5/3
Euglenidae
Elonus basalis (Lec.) 5/23
Zonantes signatus (Hald.) 3/8
Elateridae (J. N. Knull, OSU)
Anchastus binus (Say) 5/5
Conoderus difformis Fall. as C. falli Lec.
in 1964
Conoderusperversus Brown 5/15, 5/19
Conoderus sulfuralis (Lec.) 3/37
Conoderus vespertinus (Fab.) 5/15,
5/19.5/28
Dicrepidius corvinus Cand. 5/15
Esthesopus bicolor Horn 5/19
Helodidae (H. Dietrich, CU)
Cyphon perplexus Blatch. 3/8
Nitidulidae (H. Dietrich, CU)
Cychramus adustus Er. 3/4
Erotylidae (H. Dietrich)
Megalodacne fasciata (Fab.) 4/13
Lathridiidae (H. Dietrich)
Melanopthalma distinguenda Cor. 3/3
Cryptophagidae (H. Dietrich)
Cryptophilus sp. 3/2
Tenebrionidae (H. Dietrich, CU)
Epitragodes tomentosus (Lec.) 3/27
Salpingidae
Mycterus scaber Hald. One specimen
taken by J. G. Needham


Melandryidae (H. Dietrich)
Canifa pallipes (Melsh.) 2/29, 3/13, 3/14,
3/29,4/19, 4/21 SC
Anobiidae (H. Dietrich, CU)
Caenocara sp 3/13
Ernobius granulatus Lec. 3/13, 11/7
Xyletinus mucoreus Lec. 4/3.4/4
Scarabaeidae (0. L. Cartwright, SI)
Onthophagus tuberculifrons Harold 4/21
Cerambycidae (J. N. Knull, OSU)
Euryptera lateralis (Oliv.) 4/29
Stenodontes dasytomus (Say) 2/23
Chrysomelidae (H. Dietrich, CU)
Altica litigata Fall 2/25
Bassareus clathratus (Melsh.) 3/12, 4/5
Blepharida dorothea Mignot 12-31 to
4/28, also feeding on sumac and
Brazilian pepper.
Blepharida rhois Forst. delete from 1966
list.
Colaspis favosa Say 12/7
Cryptocephalus notatus Fab. 3/7, 4/6
Griburius equestris (Oliv.) 4/17
Lactica tibialis (Oliv.) 12.17
Oedionychis flavida Horn 2/20
Oedionychis sp. 1/10
Chalepus scapularis (Oliv.) on 1964 list,
later reared as leaf miner on Des-
modium.
Mylabridae (J. M. Kingsolver, SI)
Megacerus discoideus (Say) One
specimen in SI.
Curculionidae
Derelomus basalis Lec. on 1964 list. later
found feeding abundantly on the
flowers of paw paw and elderberry.
Scolytidae (S. L. Wood BYU)
Cnesinus strigicollis (Lec.) 4/5, 4/8
Hylastes salebrosus Eichof. 3/6, 3/24, 4/7
Xyleborus pini Eichof. 1/30
Bostrichiidae (S. L. Wood, BYU)
Prostophanus punctatus (Say) 3/3, 3/6,
3/12
STREPSIPTERA (T. J. Spilman, SI)
Elenchus koebeli (Pierce) 11/6, 12/8, 2/27,
3/4,3/8,4/10
Triozocera texana (Pierce) 3/8
LEPIDOPTERA (C. P. Kimball, with addi-
tions from Lepidoptera of Florida 1965).
Arctiidae
Apantesis doris (Boisdv.) 2/3
Crambidia uniforms Dyar 2/20
Cycnia inopinatus (H. Edw.) 1/25, 2/16
Estigmene congrua (Wlk.) 3/25
Estigmene prima (Slosson) 1/10, 2/3, 3/3
Utetheisa ornatrix Linn. Jan. YU
Noctuidae










The Florida Entomologist


Acontiinae
Cobubatha quadrifera (Zell.) March
Eublemma cinnamomea (H-S.) Dec.,
Jan., YU
Fruva fasciatella (Grote) April YU, June
AKW, July Klots AMNH
Heliocontia apicella (Grote) 4/3
Sigela penumbrata Hulst 1/18
Spragueia dama (Gn.) Sept., AMNH
Tarachidia erastriodes (Gn.) 1/31, 2/12
Heliothiinae
Schinia gloriosa (Stecker) Sept., Oct., YU
Schinia marginata (Haw.) 1/23, 1/27
Schinia nubila (Stecker) Sept., YU
Schinia nundina (Drury) 11/23
Schinia sordida Smith Sept., Pease YU
Hadeninae
Polia carbonifera Hamp. 2/16, 2/22, 2/24
Cuculliinae
Psaphida resumes viridescens (Wlk.)
3/12
Amphipyrinae
Arzama densa Wlk. 3/23, June AKW
Balsa labecula (Grote) 3/29, most
northern record for Florida
Dipterygia patina (Harvey) Feb.
Magusa orbifera (Wlk.) 3/1, 4/1
Phosphila miselioides (Gn.) April YU
Phosphila turbulenta Hbn. 1/30
Plusiinae
Pseudoplusia includes (Wlk.) 2/22
Catocalinae
Caenurgina crassiusculus Haw. 1/30
Caenurgina erechtea Cramer 4/28
Catocala amica (Hbn.) 5/14
Catocala gracilis Edw. 5/1
Catocala ilia (Cramer) 4/21
Catocala similis Edw. 4/24, 4/28
Cutina albopunctella Wlk. June AKW
Zale fictilis (Gn.) Sept. Nov. YU
Hypeninae
Gabara distema (Grote) April, May YU
Hemeroplanis scopulaepes (Haw.) 4/28
Metalectra quadrisignata (Wlk.) Sept.
YU
Ophiuche abjuralis (Wlk.) Dec. YU
Ophiuche degasalis (Wlk.) 11/24
Phyprosopus callitrichoides Grote Feb.
March.
Raparna melanospila (Gn.) 4/4
Rivulinae
Prosoparia perfuscaria Grote April CU
Rivula pusilla Moesc. April CU
Herminiinae
Epizeuxis diminuendis B. & M. 4/3
Renia larvalis Grote 1/23
Renia sobrialis (Wlk.) 1/23


Vol. 58, No. 1


Erebiinae on 1964 list, several species list-
ed under Catocalinae
Anomis illita Gn. Dec. YU
Coenipeta bibitrix (Hbn.) 1/24
Ephyrodes cacata Gn. Oct. YU
Gonodonta unica Neum. 3/24, 12/24 not
previously recorded from central or
northern Florida.
Hypocala andremona (Cramer) 5/10 also
reared from leaves of persimmon
Massala obvertens (Wlk.) May YU
Noropsis hieroglyphica (Cramer) Sept.
YU
Panopoda carlicosta combinata (Wlk.)
3/30, 4/8,4/9
Panopoda carneicosta unicolonus ? 3/23
Synedoida grandirena (Haw.) 3/21
Notodontidae
Cerura scitiscripta Wlk. Aug. YU
Datana integerrima G. & R. Sept. YU
Datana major G. & R. 4/10
Datana modest Beut. Aug. Sept. YU
Fentonia marthesia (Cramer) Jan. March
YU
Heterocampa manteo Dbld. Sept YU
Liparidae
Olene atomaria parallel (G.&R.)
Hemerocampa plagiata (Wlk.) Jan. YU
Lasiocampidae
Tolype minta Dyar 11, 12, 1, 2, 3, VC
Limacodidae
Limacodes rectilinea latomia Harvey
1/22, 4/23
Monoleuca erectifascia Dyar June
AKW
Monoleuca semifascia (Wlk.) July YU
Sibine stimulea (Clem.) 4/5, June YU
Slossonella tenebrosa Dyar 4/5
Geometridae
Ennominae
Anacamptodes humaria (Gn.) Aug. YU
Apicia fundaria Gn. March, Sept. YU
Epimecis detexta (Wlk.) 6/24
Episemasia morbosa Hulst 1/20, March
CU
Euchlaena astylusaria (Wlk.) March YU
Itame gausaparia (Grote) 2/24, 3/8, 4/7,
4/28
Itame inextricata (Wlk.) 4/10, 4/22, 4/24,
4/28
Itame latiferrugata brunneata (Pack.)
3/19
Lychnosea intermicata (Wlk.) 4/30, also
4/25 Needham CU
Nepheloleuca floridata (Grote) 12/25
Pseudoboarmia umbrosaria (Hbn.) on











Frost: Insects Taken in Light Traps


1964 list later reared from the leaves of
turkey oak.
Semiothisa aequiferaria (Wlk.) Dec.
AMNH
Semiothisa gnophosaria (Gn.) June AKW
Semiothisa punctolineata (Pack.) June
AKW, Aug. YU
Sphacelodes vulneraria (Hubn.) Sept. 2
Pease YU
Geometrinae
Chlorochlamys paularia (Mosch.) Dec
YU
Nemoria bifiliata (Wlk.) 1/11 to 4/1
*Nemoria outana Ferguson 1/5, 2/1, 4/7
Racheospila abdominaria B. & McD.
delete from 1964 list.
Larentinae
Camptolina stellata (Gn.) 4/30
Eupitheciajejunata McD. 2/21,3/15,3/19
Lygris gracilineata Gn. 1/29, 4/19
Sterrhinae
Cosymbia myrtaria ignotaria (Wlk.) 3/19
Metasiopsis balistaria (Gn.) 1/20
Metasiopsis ossularia (Geyer) June
AKW, July, Dec. CU
Metasiopsis peralbata Pack. June AKW
Scopula indoctaria (Wlk.) April CU
Scopula obluridata (Hulst) 1/17, 1/22
Scopula plantagenaria (Hulst) June
AKW
Sterrha retracteria (Wlk.) July AMNH
Pyralidae
Glaphyrinae
Dicymolomiajulianalis (Wlk.) 3/7
Glaphyria basiflavalis (B. & McD.) 3/31
Pyraustinae
Condylorrhiza vestigialis tristealis Wlk.
12/22, first record for Florida
Desmia funeralis (Hbn.) 2/20, 4/23, 4/24
Diastictis argyralis Hbn. 3/2
Diastictis hologuinalis Munroe 2/25
Diathrausta harliquinalis lauta Munroe
April Needham CU, July CHC Sept.
Pease YU
Eurrhyparodes lygdamis Druce 4/1
Geshna cannalis (Quaintance) 2/26, Dec.
YU
Geshna primordialis Dyar 3/4
Hedylepta indicate (Fab.) April YU
Loxostege helvialis Wlk. 4/5,4/6, 4/8, 5/5,
5/23
*Loxostege neoheluialis Capps 4/5, 4/6,
4/9, 4/18, 5/5, 5/23 paratypes
Marasmia trapezalis (Gn.) 4/21
Pachyzancla theseusalis (Wlk.) 3/26,
4/20, 5/3, 5/4, also reared as leaf folder
on royal and cinnamon fern


Palpita flegia (Cramer) 1/16
Pterygisus stenialis (Gn.) 3/31
Pilemia periusalis (Wlk.) Jan. Dec. YU
Pilocrocis ramentalis Lederer April YU
Ostrinia penitalis (Grote) 3/14
Trischistognatha palindialis (Gn.) 3/4
Udea rubigalis (Gn.) 5/4
Sylepta silicalis (Gn.) Sept. YU
Tholeria pyraustalis Dyar Dec. 19-25
Pease YU
Nymphulinae
Chrysendeton kimballi Lange Sept. YU
Chrysendeton medicinalis (Grote) March,
April, Nov., Dec. CU
* Undulambia polystichalis Capps 12/12
Scopariinae
Eudonia strigalis (Dyar) 2/16
Pyralinae
Omphalocera munroei Martin 4/21
Omphalocera dentosa Grote Aug. Sept.
YU
Chrysauginae
Tetraschistiis leucogramma Hamp. 5/3
Tosale oviplagalis (Wlk.) 3/28
Schoebiinae
Patissaflavifascialis B. & McD. Nov. Dec.
CU
Patissa sordidalis B. & McD. April, Aug.,
Sept., YU
Patissa xantholeucalis (Gn.) June AKW
Rupela segrega Hein. 5/21, 5/23, 5/24
Rupela tinctella (Wlk.) April, Sept. YU
Schoenobius sordidellus (Zinck.) Jan.
Scirpophaga repugnatalis (Wlk.) Oct. YU
Ancylomiinae
Eugrotea incertella (Zinck.) June AKW
Prionapteryx nebulifera Stephens May,
Evans
Crambiinae
Crambus tripsacas Dyar 4/6 Pease, YU
Diatraea evanescens Dyar Aug. YU
Eoreuma densella (Zell.) 3/6, 3/21
Platytes acerata Dyar, March YU
Epipaschiinae
Epipaschia superatalis Clem. Sept.
Tetralopha slossoni (Hulst) March, Dec.
YU
Galleriinae
Galleria mellonella (Linn.) March, April,
Aug. CPK
Phycitidae
Acrobasis vaccinii Riley Feb. Pease YU
Anerastia ella (Hulst) 3/2, 4/21
Homoesoma electellum (Hulst) 1/29, 2/5
Honora mellinella Grote 1/4
Moodna ostrinella (Clem.) on 1964 list,
subsequently reared from acorns










The Florida Entomologist


Ollia parvella Dyar 3/6 Needham CU
Palatka nymphaeella (Hulst) 4/10
Salebria nubiferella Rag. 2/25
Sarasota plumigerella Hulst 3/21, 4/2
Needham CU
Pterophoridae
Platyptilia edwardsii Fish Dec. YU
Platyptilia pusillidactyla (Wlk.) Dec. YU
Pselnophorus belfragei (Fish) April, Jan.
Dec. YU
Oidaematophorus lacteodactylus
(Chamb.) March, Dec. YU
Trichoptilus defectalis (Wlk.) May YU
Olethreutidae
Olethreutinae
Endothenia daeckeana Kearf. Dec. Pease
YU
Episimus argutanus (Clem.) 2/25
Lobesia liriodendrana (Kearf.) 4/10
Oleuthreutes osmundana Fern. 4/23, also
reared as leaf roller on royal and cin-
namon fern.
Eucosminae
Ancylis divisana (Wlk.) 12/28, 3/14, 3/24,
4/9
Eucosma vandana Kearf. 3/26 YU
Strepsicrates smithiana indentana
(Dyar) on 1964 list subsequently reared
as a leaf roller from guava.
Laspeyresiinae
Gymnandrosoma desotanum Heinr. June
AKW
Gymnandrosoma punctidiscanum Dyar
2/17, 4/14
Laspeyresia sp. 1 Kimball near gal-
laesaliciana (Riley) 2/7, 2/16, 2/19,
3/4
Laspeyresia sp. 2 Kimball 2/4, 3/28
Melissopus latiferreanus (Walsh.) June
AKW
Satronia tantilla Heinr. 12/28
Tortricidae
Archipinae
Archips georgianus (Wlk.) 4/4
Archips obsoletana Wlk. 1/23
Argyrotaenia ivana (Fern.) 3/3, 4/1
Sparganothisinae
Coelostathma discopunctana Clem. 4/8
Platynota rostrana (Wlk.) on 1964 list,
later reared as leaf roller on Quercus
laevis
Platynota stultana (Walsh.) 2/18, 3/6, 5/7
Sparganothis carvre (Rob.) July
AMNH
Sparganothis distinct (Walshm.) 3/7,
3/19,4/9
Sparganothis karacana (Kearf.) 5/21,
Needham CU


Vol. 58, No. 1


Sparganothis taracana Kearf. Dec. CU
Phaloniidae
Carolella bimaculana (Rob.) 3/4 CU
Carolella erigeronana (Riley) March YU,
July AMNH
Phalonia angulatana (Rob.) March CU
Phalonia subolivacea (Walshm.) March
CU
Cosmopterygidae
Cosmopteryx abdita Hodges 3/21, 4/4,
RWH CU
Cosmopteryx damnosa Hodges 3/27
RWH
Cosmopteryx delicatella (Wlshm.) 3/27
RWH
Cosmopteryx ebriola Hodges 3/27, 4/4
RWH
Cosmopteryx scirpicola Hodges 3/27
RWH
Eteobalea sexnotella (Chamb.) 3/4
March, April RWH
Melanocinclis lineigera Hodges March
RWH
Triclonella determinatella (Zell.) 1/18
Walshiidae
Perimede falcata Braun 3/29 RWH
Momphidae
Homaledra heptathalama Busck March,
also reared from palmetto
Homaledra sabalella (Chamb.) 2/3,
3/9/3/10 also reared from palmetto
Mompha bottimeri Busck 12/28, 1/21,
3/31
Gelechiidae
Aristotelia rubidella (Clem.) March CU
Chionodes maculimarginella (Clem.) 4/2
Needham CU
Compsolechia coverdalella (Kearf.) 5/8
Dichomeris ligulella Hbn. 2/7
Exoteleia pinifoliella Chamb. 1/22, 2/3,
2/12, 5/2
Fascista quinella (Zell.) 12/10, 12/24
Glyphidocera floridanella Busck March
CU
Trichotaphe trinotella Busck 1/1, Pease
YU
Oecophoridae
Psilocorsis caryae Clarke 3/3/30, 3/31
Psilocorsis quercicella Clem. 2/4
Psilocorsis reflexella Clem. 3/7
Inga cretacea (Zell.) 4/14, 4/17
Stenomidae
Setiostoma xanthobasis Zell. 3/10
Glyphipterygidae
Glyphipteryx sp. 1/10, 4/24, 4/29
Aegeriidae
Synanthedon acerni Clem. 3/21










Frost: Insects Taken in Light Traps


Synanthedon sapygaeformis floridensis
(Grote) 1/10, 2/26 also reared from
woody galls on scrub oak produced by
Callirhytes batatoides Wlshm.
Gracilariidae
Lithocolletis quercivorella Chamb. 11/17,
11/23, 11/28, a blotch miner on Xolisma
and Quercus
Acrolophidae
Acrolophus arcanellus (Clem.) Aug.,
Sept. YU
Acrolophus piger (Dyar) July 15 to 31,
Klots AMNH
Acrolophus propinquus (Walsh.) 4/2, 4.4,
4/5,5/11, 5/12
Acrolophus texanellus (Chamb.) 4/29
Nepticulidae
Ectoedemia obrutella (Zell.) 4/9, 4/24
Prodoxidae
Prodoxus quinquepunctella (Chamb.)
March, April CU
Hesperiidae (F. Fee, PSU)
Atalopedes campestris (Boisdv.) 1/31, 3/7
Erynnis brizo (B. & L) 4/17
Erynnisjuvenalis Fab. 3/7
Euphyes vestris (Boisdv.) delete from 1964
list
Hylephila phyleus (Drury) 2/12
Lerema accius H. & S. 1/27, 2/9
Polites themistoceles (Latr.) 3/24, a com-
mon species but taken only once.
Thorybespylades (Scudd.) 3/11
Lycaenidae (F. Fee, PSU)
Euristrymon favonius A-S. 5/5
Panthiades m-album Bd. 2/3, 2/23, 4/12
Strymon martialis (H-S.) delete from 1964
list.
DIPTERA
Tipulidae (C. P. Alexander)
Nephrotoma ferruginea suturalis (Loew)
4/15
Culicidae (J. W. Knight, DHJF)
Culex restuans Theob. 2/4
Cecidomyiidae (R. T. Gagn6, SI)
Asphondylia sp reported 1964, also reared
from galls on Ambrosia artemesiifolia
Stratiomyiidae (H. V. Weems, FDA)
Sargus fasciatus (Fab.) 4/4
Sargus lucens Loew delete from 1969 list
Tabanidae (L. L. Pechuman, CU)
Chrysops hinei Daecke 11/10
Chrysopspudicus OS. 4/5, 4/8
Empididae (D. D. Wilder, PSU)
*Syneches frosti Wilder 2/8, 2/9, 3/10
Syneches simplex Wlk. 2/8, 2/11, 3/10
Asilidae (H. V. Weems, FDA)
Efferia interrupta (Macq.) 4/9


Bombyliidae (H. V. Weems, FDA)
Poecilognathus punctipennis Wlk. 4/22
Syrphidae (H. V. Weems, FDA)
Baccha clavata (Fab.) 12/14
Conopidae (H. V. Weems, FDA)
Physocephala tibialis (Say) 1/1
Pyrgotidae
Pyrgota filiosa Loew delete from 1964 list
Sphecomyiella maculipennis (Macq.) 2/28
to 3/24
Tephritidae (C. C. Steyskal, SI)
Acidogona melanura (Loew) 4/16
Dioxyna picciola (Bigot) recorded 1964,
also reared from seeds Bidens pilosa
*Myoleja rhino Steyskal 2/24, 3/9, 3/18,
4.2 paratypes
Lauxaniidae (C. W. Sabrosky, SI)
Poecilominettia valida (Wlk.) 2/8, 2/16,
3/15, 3/28, 4/7 C
Sciomyzidae (C. W. Sabrosky, SI)
Pherebellia grisescens (Meig), 3/28
Micropezidae
Taeniaptera trivittata Macq 3/27, 4/13,
4/29, 5/8 C
Agromyzidae Since the papers by Frost
1964, 1966, and 1969, Dr. Kenneth A.
Spencer has studied the Florida
Agromyzidae in considerable detail
making some changes necessary: 4
species, Liriomyza eupatorii (Kaltb.),
Liriomyza sorosis (Will.), Melanagro-
myza mallochi (Hend.), and Calyco-
myza verbenae Heringshould be dropped
from previous lists.
Amauromyza maculosa (Mall.) listed
under Phytobia 1964, has subsequently
been reared from blotch mines in the
leaves of Baccharis, Emile, Erechtites,
and Gaberia. Several larvae feed within
a single mine.
Calycomyza ambrosiae Frick 3/1, making
small blotch mines on Ambrosia ar-
timesifolia.
*Calycomyza crotolarvora Spencer 3/8,
making linear mines on Crotolaria sp.
Calycomyza jucunda VdW. 4/24, making
blotch mines on Bidens pilosa
Calycomyza lantanae Frick 3/5, 5/30,
12/30 blotch mines on Lantana camera
Calycomyza malvae (Burgess) 3/6
linear mines on Urena lobata
Calycomyza majuscula Frick 2/15, first
record for Florida
*Calycomyza sidae Spencer 4/3, 4/20
*Cerodontha frosti Spencer Holotype
11/28










The Florida Entomologist


Haplomyza minute (Frost) 3/28, 5/11, a
linear-blotch mine on Amaranthus
Liriomyza commelinae Frost 1/3, 2/6,
2/12, 2/21, C, a linear miner on Com-
melina elegans.
Liriomyza marginalis (Mall.) 11/9, 1/12
Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) 3/4, 4/9, 4/11
*Melanagromyza caribbea Spencer 1/23
Paradise Key, Fla.
*Melanagromyza floridensis Spencer
11/9, 11/10, 11/20, 1/11
*Melanagromyza floris Spencer 1/9
Nemorimyza posticata (Meig.) 3/29, 4/7,
Large blotch mines on Baccharis
halimifolia.
Phytomyza ilicicola Lw. 4/4, 4/5, 12/24,
small blotch mines on Ilex cassinae.
Phytomyza opacae Kulp. 4/3, linear
mines on Illex opaca.

HYMENOPTERA
Tenthredinidae
Metallus rhoweri (MacG.) 2/6, 2/8, 3/1,


Vol. 58, No. 1


3/2 also reared from blotch mines on
blackberry leaves.
Schizocerella pilicornis (Holmg.) reared
from blotch mines on leaves of purslane,
not blackberry as stated 1969
Braconidae
Agathis crassicornis (Mues.) 3/16, 3/25
Agathis spiracularis (Mues.) 1/4
Agathis texanus (Cress.) parasite of leaf
crumpler Pachyzancla thesausalis 11,
17, 12/5
Vespidae
Vespula maculifrons (Buy.) 11/7, 11/24 C
Scoliidae (K. V. Krombein, SI)
Campsomeris plumipes fossulana (Fab.)
1/28,1/31,2/1,2/24,3/10,3/23
PSEUDOSCORPIONIDA (W. B. Muchmore
UR)
Lamprochernes 3/16, an undescribed
species.
Parachelifer superbus Hoff. 3/4
Ocalachelifer cribatus Chamb.
Parachernes latimanus Banks 1/30, 3/2


LITERATURE CITED

ERWIN, T. L. 1970. A classification of the bombardier beetles and a taxonomic
revision of the North and Middle American species (Carabidae;
Brachinida). Quaest. Ent. 6(1):5-219.
FROST, S. W. 1964. Insects taken in light traps at the Archbold Biological
Station, Highlands County, Florida. Fla. Ent. 47:129-161.
FROST, S. W. 1966. Additions to Florida insects taken in light traps. Fla. Ent.
49:243-251.
FROST, S. W. 1969. Supplement to Florida insects taken in light traps. Fla. Ent.
52:91-101.
KIMBALL, C. P. 1965. Lepidoptera of Florida. Fla. Dep. Agr. Arthropods of
Florida and neighboring land areas. 1:1-363.
SPENCER, K. A. 1973. Agromyzidae of Florida. Fla. Dep. Agr. Arthropods of
Florida and neighboring land areas. 7:1-205.
MEINANDER, M. 1972. A revision of the family Coniopterygidae (Planipennia).
Soc. Pro Fauna et Flora Fennica, Acta Zoologica Fennica 136:1-357.






ANNUAL MEETING

The Florida Entomological Society annual meeting will convene in
Gainesville, Florida, at 1:30 PM, Wednesday, September 3, and will adjourn at
noon, Friday, September 5. The Gainesville Hilton is the meeting site, and a
barbeque has been planned in lieu of the regular banquet. The bull session is
scheduled Wednesday evening.










The Florida Entomologist


A NEW SPECIES OF EURYTOMA
(HYMENOPTERA: EURYTOMIDAE)
PARASITIC ON THE LARVA OF
MELANAGROMYZA RUELLIAE
(DIPTERA: AGROMYZIDAE) IN FLORIDA

ROBERT E. BUGBEE

Allegheny College, Meadville, PA 16335

ABSTRACT

Eurytoma stegmaieri reared from the larvae of Melanagromyza ruelliae in
seed pods of Ruellia brittoniana in Florida is described.


The specimens on which the new species is based were sent to me by Carl E.
Stegmaier, Jr. of Hialeah, Florida. The description is published so that the new
name may be used in his paper dealing with the array of insects associated
with Ruellia brittoniana, and is named in honor of Mr. Stegmaier.

Eurytoma stegmaieri n. sp.
(Fig. 1, 2)
Female. Length 2.3 mm average 2.4 (2.3-2.5). Color black except for orange
yellow legs and scape, white tarsi and pale yellow wing veins. Abdomen plump;
length 1.2 mm (1.1-1.4); wide 6th tergum 2x width of 5th; sculpturing limited
to lower, lateral, anterior 1/2 of surface of 6th tergum; ninth tergum averages
0.12 mm (0.10-0.12) in length. Internal genitalia with narrow and black dorsal
valves for horizontal length that bend dorsally, anteriorly, along with ventral
valves at right angle to horizontal axis; acute angle formed by hypotenuse and
horizontal axis of genitalia averages 380 (35o-40); length of genitalia averages
1.1 mm and height 0.72 mm (0.70-0.75). Propodeum broad and shallowly
concave; no median furrow but in top center 2 rectangular depressions with
shiny surfaces; rest of surface finely punctate. Antennae filiform; first seg-
ment of flagellum slightly longer than pedicle and itself longer than wide;
segments 2-5 progressively shorter so that 4 and 5 are square; terminal unit of
3 fused segments. Wing veins pale yellow and marginal and postmarginal
linear; marginal averages 0.27 mm (0.25-0.30) and postmarginal 0.15 mm (0.17;
0.15-0.20).
Male. Length 2.1 mm (1.9; 1.7-2.1). Color as in female. Antenna flagellum of 5
pedicellate, longer than wide, equal in length, dorsally raised segments and a
terminus of 2 fused units. Wing veins light brown, marginal 0.27 mm (0.25;
0.20-0.27) and post marginal 0.17 mm (0.15-0.17) in length.
Types. Holotype female, allotype and 3 female and 4 male paratypes from
Hialeah, Florida. Collected 9 January 1973 by C. E. Stegmaier, Jr. One female
paratype, same locality, collected 16 July 1972 by Stegmaier. Holotype and
allotype in the National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D. C.
Paratypes Bur. Ent., Div. Plant Industry, Gainesville, Florida, and Bugbee
coll., Meadville, Pa.
Host. Bred from larvae of Melanagromyza ruelliae Spencer in seed pods of
Ruellia brittoniana Leonard.


Vol. 58, No. 1









The Florida Entomologist


2
Fig. 1-2, Eurytoma stegmaieri. 1. Female abdomen, lateral view, 30 X.
6 = 6th tergum, 9 = 9th tergum continued anteriorily as dorsal valves of geni-
talia. 2. Female genitalia, lateral view, 30 x.


Remarks. Eurytoma stegmaieri would run to E. seminis Bugbee in the Key to
Females of the genus Eurytoma Bugbee 1967. It differs, however, from seminis
in the wider sixth abdominal tergum, which is 2 x the width of the fifth instead
of 1.2 x width of the fifth tergum. It might also be confused with the recently
described E. penuria, Bugbee 1973, but the orange yellow color of the legs and
scape in contrast to bright yellow; the longer ninth tergum averaging 0.12 mm
in contrast to 0.05 mm and the narrow dorsal valves in contrast to the wide
dorsal valves of E. penuria female genitalia, will distinguish the new species.


LITERATURE CITED

BUGBEE, R. E. 1967. Revision of the chalcid wasps of the genus Eurytoma in
America north of Mexico. Proc. U. S. Nat. Museum. 118:433-552.
BUGBEE, R. E. 1973. New species of the genus Eurytoma from the United
States and Canada (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae). J. Ga. Ent. Soc.
8(1):11-15.


Vol. 58, No. 1










The Florida Entomologist


A NEW SPECIES OF A CANTHOLYDA
FROM FLORIDA, WITH KEYS TO THE
ADULTS AND LARVAE OF FLORIDA SPECIES'
(HYMENOPTERA: PAMPHILIIDAE: CEPHALCIINAE)

HAROLD N. GREENBAUM2

Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611

ABSTRACT

The new species, Acantholyda floridana, is described from Florida, and
keys to the adults and larvae of the Florida species of Acantholyda are
presented.


Two species of Acantholyda A. Costa have been reported from Florida: A.
(Acantholyda) apicalis (Westwood) by Middlekauff (1958) and A. (Itycorsia)
circumcincta (Klug) by Chellman (1969). Middlekauff (1958) indicated that A.
(A.) tesselata (Klug) was found in Florida, but gave no Florida records. I have
seen no specimens of A. tesselata from Florida. Small specimens of A. apicalis
might be confused with A. tesselata, but A. apicalis flies in March and April
while A. tesselata flies from July to September. A third species is described
below.
Larvae of Acantholyda are solitary or gregarious feeders on various species
of conifers. The 3 species known in Florida feed on needles of Pinus spp. (pines)
and are univoltine, with spring development. Known hosts for Florida species
include P. elliottii Engelm. (slash pine), P. taeda L. (loblolly pine) and P.
clausa (Chapm. ex Engelm.) Vasey (sand pine).
The genus Acantholyda is divided into 2 subgenera: 1) Acantholyda, which
lacks the genal carina and has a short stump of a free vein at the lower apical
corner of the anal cell of the front wings; and 2) Itycorsia Konow, which has
the genal carina and lacks the stump of a free vein. The new species described
below belongs to the subgenus Itycorsia.

GENUS Acantholyda (SYNOPSIS)
Adult: Vertical furrows of head indistinct or absent. Antenna long, se-
taceous, with 26-40 segments, cylindrical in both sexes; third segment
subequal to or slightly longer than scape. Anterior tibia with a pre-apical spur.
Tarsal claw with a small inner tooth situated a short distance from apical
tooth. Vein Sc, present in front wing. Female with abdominal sternite 7
divided on meson by a subtriangular depression, and saw sheath concealed.
Lancet (Fig. 3) with a large deep radix, 2 long, mesal, pendulous, plumose
projections, and shallow annuli. Male harpes long and slender.
Larva: Labrum rounded at apex or very shallowly roundly notched (Fig.
12). Epipharynx with 3-5 lateral submarginal setae in a row and 2 mesal setae
on either side of the midline (the apical mesal seta close to margin) (Fig. 12).

'Fla. Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 5472.
'Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville.


Vol. 58, No. I










The Florida Entomologist


Fig. 1-4. Female genitalia, A. floridana; 1, saw sheath; 2, left lance; 3, left
lancet; 4, apex of right lancet, showing annuli.


Vol. 58, No. 1









Greenbaum: Acantholyda floridana, n. sp.


Mandible with 2 closely-appressed, blunt apical teeth, the outer one on the left
mandible reduced and with both outer ones sometimes cleft; mesal ridges of
left mandible without teeth (Fig. 5, 6). Lacinia of maxilla with 4-6 long, thick
setae and a small horn on apical surface near mesal edge (Fig. 8). Mesal dorsal
projection of abdominal tergum 10 short, laterally compressed, subrectan-
gular when viewed from lateral aspect, slightly projecting anteriorly or
projecting to an elongate point (Fig. 10) but never sinuate. Segment 2 of
subanal appendage longer than 0.67 of length of segment 3, and segment 1 1-2
times longer than segment 2 (Fig. 7).

Acantholyda (Itycorsia) floridana GREENBAUM, NEW SPECIES
Female: Length: 17 mm. Head and thorax ferrugineous with the following
parts yellow: a small spot at upper corners of compound eyes; posterior angles
of pronotum narrowly extending about 0.33 the distance along posterior
margin; a spot at lower angles of pronotum; tegulae; posterior 0.75 of mesos-
cutellum, upper margins of mesepisternum except sometimes mesally; lateral
face of metepisternum; a mesal spot on metepimeron. The following parts of
head and thorax are black: a spot surrounding each ocellus, sometimes form-
ing a loop between lateral ocelli and beneath median ocellus; oral margin of
malar space; antennal sclerites; mandibles except at base and dentes; extreme
anterior and posterior margins of pronotum except at posterior angles where
black forms an oblong spot anterior to yellow area; area around mesoscu-
tellum and post-tergite; metascutellum; cenchri; anterior margin of
propleurae; prosternum; sometimes a spot on upper angle of mesepisternum
mesally in yellow area; upper angle of mesepimeron; most of metepimeron
except mesal yellow spot. Abdomen black with the following parts yellow:
lateral margins of tergites narrowly; epipleurites 2-7 except a small mesal
black blotch; apical 0.50 of epipleurite 8; most of sternites except basal 0.33
and apical 0.33 (except mesally) of sternites 2-3, a basal band on subsequent
sternites, and an apical band on sternite 7 which are black. Antennae and
mouthparts black except stipes which is ferrugineous. Legs black with coxae
(except extreme base and apex), basal 0.50 or less of front femora, basal 0.67 or
less of middle femora, and all but apical 0.20 of hind femora ferrugineous; hind
coxae with yellow apical spot on anterior face. Wings infuscated deep amber,
becoming hyaline on basal third; venation and stigma brown. Saw sheath
black.
Head slightly wider than high when viewed from anterior aspect, about
twice as wide as deep when viewed from dorsal aspect. Distance between
compound eyes at base more than twice the length of compound eye. Head
distinctly punctate with para-antennal fields, occiput and genae impunctate,
shiny, without setae. Genal carina present. Vertical furrows and median linear
furrow indistinct. Clypeus moderately elevated, adjoining frontal crest which
bears a median hump between the antennal bases. Thorax impunctate, shiny,
except following areas; prescutum with 3 punctures on posterior angles on
either side of median furrow; a "T"-shaped area of dense punctures on each
mesoscutal lobe, extending from notauli to ridge above axillary depressions;
several punctures on mesoscutellum; propleurae; mesopleurae except just
above pectal sutures; lateral portions of pectus. Saw sheath (Fig. 1) short,
subtruncate at apex, forming an acute ventral triangular lobe, usually con-
cealed by epipleurite 9; lateral surface depressed mesally, with a subdorsal,
heavily-sclerotized, scopa-like flange extending most of dorsal length of








The Florida Entomologist


5 6










^ 8 a (" 1 9 10










II p 12 13




Fig. 5-13. Larval structures, A. floridana: 5, right mandible, mesal aspect;
6, left mandible, mesal aspect; 7, left subanal appendage; 8, right maxilla,
anterior aspect; 9, left maxilla and labium, posterior aspect; 10, mesal dorsal
projection; 11, spiracle, abdominal segment 3; 12, labrum-epipharynx; 13, left
antenna.


Vol. 58, No. 1









Greenbaum: Acantholyda floridana, n. sp.


sheath; apex deeper than base, strongly sloping basally, separated from body
of sheath by a wide submembraneous area paralleled basally by a groove, and
with a scopa. Lance (Fig. 2) moderately decurved, densely setaceous on upper
basal slope of dorsal subbasal rise, the rise terminating in a sharp point; dorsal
margin nearly straight, irregular; ventral margin weakly concave, with a basal
notch; surface with 11 annuli curving distally, the basal annuli more so, the
apical 4 annuli more heavily sclerotized than the rest. Lancet (Fig. 3, 4) long,
wider mesally than either basally or apically, with ventral membraneous
densely-setaceous flange, with first tufted projection longer than second, and
with 10 annuli widely separated, sinuate, sloping distally (more so on basal
annuli), without dorsal alispiculae, and separated indistinctly ventrally: an-
nulus 1 sloping distally at about a 40 angle to horizontal, strongly sinuate;
annulus 2 sloping distally at about an 800 angle to horizontal, less sinuate;
annulus 3 nearly perpendicular to horizontal, less sinuate than annulus 2.
Apical 6 annuli subvertical, distinct, more closely spaced, more heavily
sclerotized, subequal in length except apical 2 annuli which form caps,
complete to ventral margin of lancet where each forms a distinct tooth. Radix
of lancet large, wide, broadly rounded ventrally, densely covered with thick
black setae, with only lateral surface sclerotized, and with mesal longitudinal
heavily-sclerotized tractial extension, bilobed on ventral edge, extending
across lateral surface of radix along ventral edge of sclerotized area.
Male: Unknown.
Larva: Larvae of anAcantholyda sp. (probably floridana) have been collected
from slash and sand pines in northern Florida; they are described here.
Length: 24.5 mm (female). Head capsule width: 2.5 mm (female). Sub-
cylindrical, rounded dorsally, flattened ventrally, "S"-shaped. Head capsule
approximately round when viewed from anterior aspect.
Body green (pale yellow in preserved specimens). Head capsule, including
labrum, ferrugineous, except clypeus which is creamish white, and genal
carina and apex and dentes of mandibles which are black. Other mouthparts
green (pale yellow) with sclerotized portions amber, except basal third to half
of segment 1 and all of following segments of both maxillary and labial palpi
which are black (Fig. 8, 9). Antennal segments sclerotized black on basal 0.67
or more (Fig. 13). Cervical plates amber, with sclerotization extending across
surpedal lobes of all thoracic legs. Prothoracic shields amber: a large, wide,
mid-dorsal one covering most of dorsum except a pale line along midline; a
lateral, suboval one on lateral part of prothorax immediately below dorsal
shield; and a small suboval one immediately anterior to prothoracic spiracle.
Spiracles dark brown; wings amber (Fig. 11), sometimes indistinct. Abdominal
tergum 10 with a large, irregular, indistinct, light amber patch on each side in
lateral depressions, and with a small, indistinct, light amber patch surround-
ing mesal dorsal projection. Abdominal sternum 10 with an indistinct, light
amber patch covering apical 0.67 of last annulus. Suranal and subanal ridges
pale amber. Thoracic legs dark brown on outer surface, with coxae and some-
times tarsi pale, and tibiae entirely black. Subanal appendages black with
basal segment amber, becoming darker at apex (Fig. 7).
Frons with 2 mesal setae, 1 on each side of midline, and 5 lateral setae on
either side of midline, all adjacent to frontal suture: 3 next to vertical portion,
1 at the bend, and 1 next to the sloping portion. Clypeus with 3 setae on either
side of the midline. Labrum with 8-10 setae on either side, and 4-6 setae at
apical margin on either side of midline (Fig. 12). Epipharynx with a vertical









The Florida Entomologist


row of 3 short setae near the lateral margin and a subapical vertical row of 2
short setae on either side of midline (Fig. 12). Mandibles with 2 outer setae in
paler area, with dentition as follows (Fig. 5, 6): right mandible with 2 short
pointed apical dentes ridged along inner side to beyond middle of mandible
and depressed between ridges, and with 2 rounded lateral dentes flattened on
inner side (Fig. 5); left mandible with 2 short pointed apical dentes ridged
along inner side nearly to middle of mandible and depressed between ridges,
sometimes with a small subapical tooth on anterior shoulder of first dente, and
with 1 rounded lateral dente (Fig. 6). Lacinia of maxilla with a row of 5-6 long
stout setae, and a short straight horn at inner posterior angle on apical surface
(Fig. 8); galea with 8-10 short setae on posterior surface (Fig. 9); stipes with 1
upper and 3 lower setae; second segment of maxillary palp with 2 setae.
Submentum of labium with 2 setae and 1 sensillum on either side of midline
(Fig. 9); mentum with 3 setae on either side; ligula broadly rounded. Antennae
setaceous (Fig. 13): segment 1 wider than long with a small oval sensory area
on inner dorsal surface meeting ends with a second narrower sensory area on
inner mesal surface; segment 2 nearly as long as segments 3 and 4 combined,
and lacking a sensory area; segments 3 and 5 subequal in length; segments 4, 6
and 7 subequal in length. Dorsal annuli 1 (sparsely), 2 and 3 of abdominal
segments 1-9 setiferous, setae minute; annulus 4 devoid of setae. Mesal dorsal
projection short, subquadrate when viewed from lateral aspect, with anterior
angle elongated to a point (Fig. 10). Subanal appendages with segment 1 as
long as segments 2 and 3 combined, and with segment 2 slightly shorter than
segment 3 (Fig. 7).
Holotype female: Florida: Alachua Co., Gainesville, W. of Sta. Farm, 3-
V-1914, taken from chinquepin, in the Florida State Collection of Arthropods,
Gainesville.
Paratype: Florida: Alachua Co., 3-V-1953, H. A. Denmark (1 female, U. S.
National Museum, Washington, D. C.).
Larval records: Florida: Baker Co., Olustee, 14-V-1971, W. Peters, Pinus
clausa (Chapm.) Vasey (2 larvae, Florida State Collection of Arthropods), ex
sand pine (2 larvae, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, USDA, Olustee,
Fla.); Union Co., 12-V-1973, G. D. Hertel, ex Pinus elliottii var. elliottii En-
gelm. (2 larvae, author's collection), nr. Lake Butler, 12-V-1972, G. D. Hertel,
ex slash pine, GDH-72-281 (2 larvae, G. D. Hertel collection).
Distribution: Known only from northern Florida; it probably occurs
throughout north and north central Florida and southeastern Georgia,
wherever typical slash pine is found.
Host: Larvae have been collected mainly from Pinus elliottii var. elliottii
Engelm. (typical slash pine) with 1 record from P. clausa (Chapm. ex Engelm.)
Vasey (sand pine), which may represent a secondary host or a misidentifica-
tion.
Biology: The biology ofA. floridana has not been worked out; however, I have
attempted to rear larvae. Mature larvae, collected on 12-V-1973 (Union Co.,
Fla.) on typical slash pine, built pupation chambers in tissue moisture blotters
at the bottom of rearing cups by 18-V-1973. A single prepupa developed pupal
compound eyes visible beneath the head capsule by mid-January; however,
the prepupa failed to pupate and was dead by 28-II-1974. From this informa-
tion and adult and larval collection dates, the following can be said about the
biology: adults emerge from about mid-April to about the end of the first week
in May, mate, and then the female lays solitary eggs attached to pine needles.


Vol. 58, No. 1









Greenbaum: Acantholyda floridana, n. sp.


The eggs hatch and the newly-eclosed larva pulls the needles around it into a
bundle held together with silk, adding more needles and expanding the bundle
as the larva grows. Larvae feed until mid-May at which time they drop from
the bundle and burrow into the ground to pupate. A chamber is formed in the
soil in which the larva becomes a prepupa which overwinters. Mature larvae
do not molt before entering the ground. Pupation occurs in early to mid-April.
This biology is typical for species of Pamphiliidae, except some species oviposit
more than 1 egg at an oviposition site thus producing larvae which feed
gregariously.
Discussion: Females of this species may be recognized by their large size,
ferrugineous head and thorax with a yellow spot at the upper inner corner of
each compound eye and yellow posterior 0.75 of the mesoscutellum, black
abdominal dorsum with only the lateral margins narrowly yellow, yellow
abdominal venter with a narrow black basal band on each segment and an
apical one on sternites 2-3, ferrugineous hind femora with apical 0.20 black,
amber infuscated wings becoming hyaline basally, and lancet which lacks
alispiculae on the dorsal margin of the basal annuli (Fig. 4). It is similar to A.
ochrocera (Norton), found in northeastern North America, to which it keys in
Middlekauffs (1958) key; it differs from A. ochrocera in having the head and
thorax ferrugineous without lighter yellow para-antennal fields and black
mesoscutal lobes, the mesoscutellum yellow, the antennae entirely black
(scape, pedicel, and basal flagellar segments brownish-yellow in A. ochrocera),
and the abdominal venter yellow with basal black bands (brownish-yellow
without basal black bands and with the apex black in A. ochrocera). This is
the second species of the subgenus Itycorsia to be reported from Florida, and
the second species known to feed on typical slash pine (the other species on
slash pine is A. (A.) apicalis).


KEYS TO SPECIES OF Acantholyda IN FLORIDA
The following keys are intended only for identification of adults and larvae
of the 3 species found on pines in Florida. Adult specimens, not fitting
characters in the key to adults, should be referred to Middlekauff's (1958) key
to adults. Larvae not fitting the characters in the key to larvae are uniden-
tifiable unless they are associated with adults.

KEY TO ADULTS

1. Last abdominal sternite divided by a sheath (females) ....................... 2
1'. Last abdom inal sternite entire (m ales) ............................ ................... 4
2(1). Genal carina absent (subgenus Acantholyda); head and
thorax black marked with yellow; clypeus yellow; meso-
scutum with 2 posterior yellow spots on either side of meso-
scutellum; abdomen ferrugineous above, with tergites 7-9
(sometimes tergite 6) broadly black ....................... apicalis (Westwood)
2'. Genal carina present (subgenus Itycorsia) ......... .................................. 3
3(2'). Head and thorax mostly ferrugineous; hind femora ferru-
gineous; abdominal sternites broadly banded yellow apically
....... ........................... . ................... floridana Greenbaum n. sp.
3'. Head and thorax marked black with white; hind femora
black with apical 0.25-0.33 yellow; abdominal sternites each










The Florida Entomologist


with a narrow transverse yellow mark near the posterior
m argin ............................. ............................................. circum cincta (K lug)
4(1'). Genal carina absent (subgenus Acantholyda); head and
thorax black marked with yellow; clypeus yellow; coxae and
femora black above and yellow below ................ apicalis (Westwood)
4'. Genal carina present (subgenus Itycorsia)3; head and thorax
black marked with white; clypeus black sometimes with a
pair of white spots on either side; coxae and femora black
with the apices partially to entirely white ..............circumcincta (Klug)


KEY TO LARVAE

1. Head capsule with distinct patches of brown pigment scat-
tered over most of its surface, and with 2 large brown oval
spots on frontal area; large larvae, up to 22 mm long, on
Pinus taeda, P. elliottii, solitary .......................... apicalis (Westwood)
1'. Head capsule solidly amber, without 2 large brown oval
spots on frontal area; small to large larvae ........................................... 2
2(1'). Prothoracic shields distinctly pigmented dark brown to black;
patches of abdominal tergum 10 distinct, amber; small larvae,
up to 12-14 mm long, on Pinus clausa, gregarious-..............
........ ............ ................................... ...........................circum cincta (K lug)
2'. Prothoracic shields indistinctly pigmented amber; patches of
abdominal tergum 10 indistinct, light amber; large larvae,
up to 24-25 mm long; on Pinus elliottii, P. clausa, solitary
................................................ ................. floridana G reenbaum n. sp.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


I wish to thank H. V. Weems, Jr. (Curator, Florida State Collection of
Arthropods) and G. D. Hertel (Southeastern Forest Experiment Station,
USDA, Olustee, Fla.) for loan of specimens. I also wish to extend my deep
appreciation to D. H. Habeck (Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida) and E. E. Grissell (Florida State Collection of
Arthropods) for their advice and suggestions.


LITERATURE CITED

CHELLMAN, C. W. 1969. Record of Acantholyda circumcincta (Hymenoptera:
Pamphiliidae) in Florida. Fla. Ent. 52:51.
MIDDLEKAUFF, W. W. 1958. The North American sawflies of the genera
Acantholyda, Cephalcia, and Neurotoma (Hymenoptera,
Pamphiliidae). Univ. Calif. Pub. Ent. 14(2):51-174.



3Males of A. floridana are unknown; they will key out here but will probably not fit the
characterization of males of A. circumcincta.


Vol. 58, No. I










53 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 58, No. 1

TWO NEW SPECIES OF
ORIBATID MITES OF THE GENUS
PELORIBATES BERLESE 1908 FROM FLORIDA

F. REESE NEVIN

Department of Biological Sciences, State University of New York,
College of Arts and Science, Plattsburgh, New York 12901

ABSTRACT

Two species of Peloribates are described from Florida, P. tillandsius from
Spanish moss and P. floridensis "from leaves and pine needles." P. tillandsius
is characterized by blunt notogastral setae, short sensilli with broad heads and
pocked surfaces of the integument of the rostrum and the dorsal anterior
surface of the pteromorphs; P. floridensis by the subequal filiform notogastral
setae of 0.092mm length and a slightly poxed integument of the dorsum of the
rostrum and the pteromorphs.


The genus Peloribates was established by Berlese in 1908. He had described
the type species as Oribatespeloptoides from Brazil in 1888. Willman (1935) in
describing Peloribates europaeus gave several of the generic characters for
Peloribates. Roughly translated these are: short pteromorphs truncate in
front; lamellae far to the side and extending half the length of the
propodosoma; tectopedium 1 very narrow; sensillus far to the side and with a
narrow head; the hysterosoma strongly arched and with 14 pairs of notogas-
tral setae. Further characters are: 5 pairs of genital setae; 1 to 3 pairs of
aggenital setae; 2 pairs of anals; 3 pairs of adanals; and 4 pairs of sacculi on the
notogaster. The tarsi are tridactylous and the mandibles normal.

Peloribates tellandsius n. sp. (Fig. 1-3)
Size.-Mean for 11 specimens-L. 0.409mm. Range 0.37-0.44mm.

W. 0.286mm. Range 0.24-0.32mm.

Shape.-Bluntly pointed anteriorly with notogaster rounded posteriorly.
Color.-yellowish-brown.
Integument.-The integument over the rostrum and the dorsal anterior sur-
face of the pteromorphs is distinctly pocked.
Prodorsum.-The prodorsum is broadly cone-shaped. The interlamellar,
lamellar and rostral setae are long, pointed and barbed. The interlamellar
setae are held nearly upright. Each seta is longer than the space between the
bases of the setae. Length of interlamellar setae is 0.116mm; the distance
between the bases of the interlamellars is 0.08mm. The lamellar setae are
0.10mm in length; the rostral setae 0.06mm. The lamellars extend dorsal to
and anteriorly beyond the rostral setae, but do not overlap one another. The
rostral setae bend in a curve in front of the rostrum and extend for more than
a third of their length beyond the tip of the rostrum.
The head of the sensillus is slightly shorter than the stalk, 0.024mm to
0.020mm; the width is 0.012mm. In some specimens the head of the sensillus










The Florida Entomologist


0. 02MA mm


Fig. 1. Peloribates tillandsius n. sp.: Dorsal view.


appears as long as broad. The head bears 12 rows of minute spines.
Notogaster.-The sutura dorsosejugalis is complete. There are 14 pairs of
blunt or spatulate, barbed setae of approximately the same length (0.08mm)
with 5 pairs anterior to the im pori, 1 pair near the level of the pori and 8 pairs
posterior to it. There are 4 pairs of sacculi: S, anterior and lateral to 1m, S,
anterior to Ip, S, near the base of h,, and S:, between the bases of h, and h-.


Vol. 58, No. 1










Nevin: Two New Peloribates


ad lb
dl o3 la
/ V t \ ad \ T ga
i ad


2a








3

Fig. 2-3. Peloribates tillandsius n. sp.: 2. Anal region; 3. Epimeral and
genital regions.

Ventral region.-The genital field appears almost circular. The genital plates
are 0.050mm-0.056mm wide at the anterior end and 0.04mm at the posterior
end. The plates are 0.05mm in length.
The arrangement of the setae in the epimeral region is indicated in Fig. 3.
There are 2 pairs of anal setae, the posterior pair close to the posterior margin
of each anal plate. Ad, is minute and anteriolateral to the anal plate.
Legs.-The legs were not studied in detail. All tarsi are tridactylous with claws
subequal, the middle claw being slightly heavier.
Material studied.-12 adult specimens from Spanish moss, Tillandsia us-
neoides shipped with oranges from Mt. Dora, Florida to C. A. Smith, Ithaca,
New York. The moss was placed in funnels on 11 December 1940. (Nevin Coll.
No. 160). Balsam mounts were made in 1941.
Holotype, and paratypes.-Slides 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7 to be deposited in the Florida
State Collection of arthropods, Gainesville, Florida. Paratypes.-Slides 2, 5, 8,
9, and 10 to be deposited in the New York State Museum, Albany, New York.
Remarks.-The head of the sensillus of P. tillandsius resembles that of P.
fragilis Hammer (1967) from New Zealand. The stalk of the sensillus is shorter
in P. tillandsius; P. fragilis is larger (0.51mm). I have found no description of
species of Peloribates in which the notogastral setae are not pointed, but
believe that this feature alone is insufficient for the erection of a new genus.

Peloribates floridensis n. sp. (Fig. 4)
Color.-Yellowish-brown
Size.-L. 0.44mm. W. 0.29mm.
Shape.-Rounded posteriorly, bluntly pointed anteriorly.
Integument.-Indistinctly pocked over the rostrum and the anterio-dorsal
surface of the pteromorphs.
Prodorsum.-The rostrum is broadly triangular, bluntly pointed in front.
Interlamellar, lamallar and rostral setae are pointed and are barbed to their
bases, the barbs being more distinct at the apices of the setae. The in-
bases, the barbs being more distinct at the apices of the setae. The in-










The Florida Entomologist


Fig. 4. Peloribates floridensis n. sp.: Dorsal view.


terlamellars and the lamellars are approximately the same length, measured
as 0.11mm and 0.12mm respectively although the lamellars appear longer. The
interlamellars are erect projecting anteriorly and curving toward the midline
at their tips. Their origin is about the width of the base of the seta anterior to
the sutura dorsosejugalis. The interlamellar space is 0.09mm. The lamellar
setae extend beyond the tip of the rostrum. They do not overlap one another.


Vol. 58, No. 1









Nevin: Two New Peloribates


The rostral setae are 0.06mm long, curve inward in front of the rostrum, but do
not touch one another.
The sensillus extends upward and laterad, then posteriorly and lateral over
the anterio-lateral tips of the pteromorphs. The head is about the width of the
stalk and bears 5 rows of spines. The stalk is also spined or barbed, but the
spines are less distinct than on the head of the sensillus.
Notogaster.-The sutura dorsosejugalis is complete. The notogaster bears 14
pairs of barbed filiform setae. They vary only slightly in length at various
points on the notogaster with a mean length of 0.092mm and a range 0.085-
0.10mm. The spines at the apices of the notogastral setae are coarser and
longer than those at the bases of the setae. All notogastral setae are pointed.
There are 2 pairs of Sa saccular openings in addition to S,, S, and S3.
The ptermorphs measure L. 0.112 by W. 0.056mm.
Ventral region.-Genital setae 5 pairs, the 2 posterior pairs are close to the
posterior median border of the plates; there are 3 pairs of adanals, Ad, opposite
the middle of the posterior end of each plate, Ad, posterior and lateral to the
anal plate and Ad, lateral to the midpoint of the anal plate and posterior to
the slit pore, iad.
Legs.-The legs were not studied in detail. The middle claw is larger than the
other two.
Holotype.-One adult collected at Angel City, Merritt Island, Florida on 2
Nov. 1941 by E. W. Davis "from leaves and pine needles." Balsam mounts were
prepared by me in 1944. (Collection no.-Nevin 190). Holotype to be deposited
in the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville, Florida.
Remarks.-P. floridensis differs from P. tillandsius in having the notogastral
setae pointed and in possessing longer sensilli with a head only double the
thickness of its stalk. P. floridensis closely resembles P. longisetosus described
from Guatemala by Willmann (1931) and P. canadensis described by Hammer
(1952), but possesses no remnant of a translamella. P. floridensis possesses 5
pairs of sacculi; only 1 pair is shown in Willmann's drawings of P. longisetosus.
P. longisetosus measures 0.045-0.0465mm long and 0.315-0.330mm wide, so is a
larger species. The notogastral setae of P. floridensis are much shorter than
those of P. fragilis Hammer, 1967. They are also barbed to their tips, while in
P. fragilis they are "smooth for most of their length, and proximately very
finely barbed" (Hammer 1967). In P. magnisetosus Ramsay (Hammer 1967)
the notogastral setae vary in length and are faintly barbed. The stalks of the
sensilli of P. magnisetosus are much longer and the head is more pointed than
in P. floridensis. P. banksi (Ewing 1909) is a larger species with notogastral
setae of varying lengths.



LITERATURE CITED

BAKER, E. W., AND G. W. WHARTON. 1952. An introduction to Acarology. New
York: Macmillan.
BALOGH, J. 1972. The oribatid genera of the world. Hungary: Akad. Hiado.
BERLESE, A. 1888. Acari Austro-Americana. Bull. Soc. Ent. Ital 19:215, pl 13.
BERLESE, A. 1908. Elenco di generi e specie nueve di Acari. Redia 5.
EWING, H. E. 1907. New Oribatidae. Psyche 14:111-115, pl 3.
EWING, H. E. 1909. The Oribatoidea of Illinois. Bull. Ill. State Lab. of Nat.
Hist. 7(10):337-387, pl 33-35.








The Florida Entomologist


EWING, H. E. 1917. New Acarina Part 11-Descriptions of new species and
varieties from Iowa, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana and Ohio. Bull. Mus.
Nat. Hist 37:149-168, pl 1-8.
HAMMER, MARIE. 1952. Investigations on the Microfauna of Northern
Canada, Part 1 Oribatidae. Acta Artica. Fasc. 1V.
HAMMER, MARIE. 1967. Investigations on the oribatid fauna of New Zealand
Part 11-Biol. Skr. Dan. Vid. Selk. 15(4):123, pl 1-34.
JACOT, A. P. 1937. Journal of North American moss-mites. Jour. N. Y. Ent.
Soc. 45:353-376.
JACOT, A. P. 1939. New mites from the White Mountains. Occasional Papers of
Boston Soc. of Nat. Hist. 8:321-332.
WILLMANN, C. 1930. Neue oribatiden aus Guatemala. Zool. Anz. Leipzig
88(9/10):239-246, 9 fig.
WILLMANN, C. 1935. Faunistisch-Okologische studien im anningergebiet, 1V,
Die Milbenfaune, 1 Oribatei. Zool. Jahr. Abt. Syst., Oekol. und Geog.
Tierre, 66:331-344, fig. 14-25.











PRINTING



Specializing in B 0oois and 'cutlications




Storter Printing Co.

GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Vol. 58, No. 1










The Florida Entomologist


REARING ARBOREAL ANTS IN GLASS TUBING,'2,3

A. P. BHATKAR AND W. H. WHITCOMB
Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611

ABSTRACT

Glass tubing, 0.4-0.8cm ID, at times compartmented, served as nests for
rearing 13 species of arboreal ants of the genera Pseudomyrmex, Crema-
togaster, Leptothorax, Solenopsis, Camponotus, and Paratrechina. Methods
of colony procurement and establishment were perfected, including tech-
niques for controlling temperature, light, and humidity. Ants could be satis-
factorily marked for night observations by placing fluorescent paint on the
ants' dorsal areas and inspecting them with the aid of UV light.


With increased emphasis on the biology, ethology, and biomass studies of
ants, development of their rearing techniques has become important. Methods
of rearing terrestrial ants are more numerous in the literature (Andrews 1937,
Brian 1951, Ettershank 1965, Sweeney 1950, Wheeler 1910, Wilson 1962, etc.)
than those of arboreal ants. Natural nests of many arboreal species in the
myrmecophilouss" plants have been described by Wheeler (1910) and Sudd
(1967).
Carney (1970) maintained Camponotus herculeanus (L.), C. pennsyl-
vanicus (De Geer), and C. vicinus Mayr in pieces of nesting wood as well as
balsa-wood layers. Leuthold (1968) held colonies of Crematogaster ashmeadi
Mayr in hollow mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) twigs. Wilson (1971) men-
tioned holding Camponotus fraxinicola M. R. Smith in glass tubes, but did not
elaborate on the technique. Studies on the biomass of Pseudomyrmexpallidus
F. Smith colonizing Catalpa speciosa Warder ex Engelm twigs, and on the
confrontation behavior of this and other arboreal species, with the red im-
ported fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren, were made possible by the develop-
ment of simple, glass tube nests. Plastic, disposable micropipettes were also
tried because of their inexpensiveness, but the ants deserted them within a
month.
Glass tubing, 0.4 cm ID and 30 cm long, was suitable for the species of
Pseudomyrmecinae (P. pallidus, P. brunneus F. Smith, and P. mexicanus F.
Smith), Myrmecinae (Crematogaster minutissima Mayr, C. ashmeadi, C.
atkinsoni Wheeler, C. clara Mayr, Leptothorax curvispinosus Mayr, and
Solenopsis picta Emery) and small Formicinae (Camponotus impressus
(Roger) and Paratrechina spp.). Larger diameter tubing (0.6-0.8 cm) was
necessary for Camponotus floridanus (Buckley), C. sayi Emery, etc. The ants
could nest in short pieces of glass tubing (15 cm) closed at the lower end with
cotton wool, and narrowed slightly at the entrance by drawing out the tube
over a flame. The tubes were held vertical by casting liquid plastic (Castolite,
Cope Plastics, Inc., Godfrey, Ill.) around their bases in 395 ml (12 fluid oz.)
plastic tumblers.

'Partially supported by USDA, ARS Cooperative Agreement no. 12-14-10, 952(33).
'Partially supported by Tall Timbers Research, Inc.
"Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 5563.


Vol. 58, No. I






The Florida Entomologist


To simulate the natural nests of Pseudomyrmex spp., Crematogaster spp.,
Leptothorax curvispinosus, and Camponotus impressus (Fig. 1), the glass
tubes were subdivided into compartments by inserting 0.5 cm end pieces of
hollow Q-tip holders (Johnson and Johnson, New Brunswick, N. J.) 6 cm
apart. The upper end of each tube was narrowed to a passageway slightly
larger than the queen's thorax or abdomen by inserting a 2.5 cm piece of
hollow Q-tip holder (Fig. 2). This step was disregarded in making L. curvis-
pinosus nests since the workers of this species enclosed their nest opening with
loose pieces of cellulose from the reeds or soil particles that were provided.
Arboreal ants were collected by breaking and splitting open, dried twigs of
several soft, pithy plants (Eupatorium altissimum L., E. capillifolium (Lam.)


U


A


I)

U


N


Fig. 1. Sections of arboreal nests from Cephalanthus occidentalis twigs.
Cavities of Pseudomyrmex pallidus and brunneus are cigar-shaped and their
nest entrance is oblong (A); cavities of Camponotus impressus are cylindrical
and the nest entrance, circular (B); and cavities of Leptothorax are similar to
those of Crematogaster spp. but are provided with terminal exits through
frass (C).


Vol. 58, No. 1


" I









Bhatkar and Whitcomb: Rearing Ants


Small, Andropogon virginicus L.), shrubs (Cephalanthus occidentalis L.,
Rubus cuneifolius Pursh, R. trivialis Michaux, Rhus glabra L., Sambucus
canadensis L., Aralia spinosa L.), climbers (Vitis rotundifolia Michaux,
Smilax rotundifolia L., S. bonanox L., S. pumila Walter), and trees (Morus
rubra L, Magnolia grandiflora L., M. virginiana L., Carya glabra (Miller)
Sweet, C. tomentosa (Poiret) Nuttal, Catalpa speciosa Warder ex Engelm,
Quercus laurifolia Michaux, Q. nigra L., Q. virginiana Miller, Q. falcata
Michaux, Q. Marilandica Muenchh. Pinus glabra Walter, P. palustris Miller,
P. taeda L.).


oC


Fig. 2. Glass capillary nest (A) with RH control apparatus. (B) bottle with
salt solution; (C) connection to aquarium pump; (D) water capsule; (E) diet
dish; (F) insertion of RH sensor through neoprene tubing, collaring the cut
sections of A. Terminals of RH sensor are connected through a shunt, rectifier,
galvanometer, and a recorder (Rogers 1957) to measure humidity.










The Florida Entomologist


Twigs were observed for entrance holes then tapped with the blunt edge of
a knife to establish the presence of ants. Twigs inhabited by ants were
separated from living plant tissue and placed over large plastic dish pans. The
upper end of each twig was split in half and pulled apart. The ants and the
brood were dropped into the dish pan by tapping the split twig with a knife.

The rims of the plastic containers were dusted with talcum powder or
sprayed with Fluon GP-I (ICI America Inc., Stamford, Conn.) to confine the
ants to the containers. The colonies were left for 24 hr by which time the
workers piled their brood in a shaded part of the dish pan. When the glass
tubes were placed horizontally into a plastic dish pan, the species of Crema-
togaster colonized the tubes within 48 hr. In the cases of Pseudomyrmex spp.,
Camponotus impressus, Leptothorax curvispinosus, and Solenopsis picta, the
brood and ants were dropped into plastic tumblers containing vertical tubes.
Queens as well as workers crawled up the vertical tube, entered, and examined
the inside for 1-4 hr prior to colonizing them. In natural nests, such compart-
ments were cigar-shaped, 2-6.5 cm long, and were interconnected through
holes 1-2 times the width of the ant's width; only 1 or 2 ants could pass through
the passageways at a time. The smaller species were given access to water by
means of a 5.5 cm piece of hollow Q-tip holder, passed through the lid of a
snap-cap vial. The vial was filled with tap water or 5% honey solution. This
method prevented drowning of the foraging ants. The larger species were given
water in snap-cap vials with a ball of cotton wool immersed in it to prevent
drowning of the ants. Artificial diet (Bhatkar and Whitcomb 1966) was suc-
cessfully used for arboreal species. The tubes were covered with red cellophane
paper or a half sleeve of dark rubber tubing. Individual ants could be paint-
coded at their thoraces, petioles, and gasters with fluorescent colors (Day-Glo
colors, Switzer Brothers, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio) and their activity could be
observed with the aid of UV light in the dark. Brood raised from eggs under
partially lighted conditions developed into an F, generation that was
acclimated to indoor lighting. Such colonies were readily raised in lighted
rooms.

Insofar as possible, these studies were made at a constant temperature of
27 +3C and 60 +5% RH. Whenever indoor temperature suddenly dropped,
water vapor condensed on the inner wall of the glass tubes. Water condensa-
tion interfered with ant movement and facilitated fungal growth, leading to
larval mortality. Humidity inside the nests was corrected by maintaining the
tubes vertically over different concentrations of salt solutions in a chamber. A
fine gauze enclosure at the lower end of each tube allowed the humidity to
change while the ant colonies were held inside. For preparing humidity
chambers, readers should refer to Winston and Bates (1960). A small-sized
modification of a Dunmore electrical hygrometer was used to measure RH up
to 95%. Essentially the instrument consisted of 2 electrodes made of copper
wires and a porcelain bead (0.2-0.3 cm diam) holding the tungsten filament in
the electrical lamp. One side of the bead and the copper wire endings were
sanded to a flat surface and coated with a thin layer of 0.02-1.2% (W/V)
lithium chloride solution. Electric circuit and other construction of the in-
strument was similar to the one used by Rogers (1957). The sensing element
was caged with a fine gauze before it was inserted into the nests. A small
aquarium pump was used to create air currents and to equate RH inside the
glass tubes (Fig. 2).


Vol. 58, No. 1










Bhatkar and Whitcomb: Rearing Ants


The ability to rear arboreal ants in glass tubing opens new vistas both in
mass rearing and behavioral research. Species confrontation, microclimate,
life history, queen production, and pheremone effects of arboreal ants can now
be more easily observed.


LITERATURE CITED

ANDREWS, E. A. 1937. Some aids to the study of mound building ants, p.
510-512 In J. G. Needham (ed), Culture Methods for Invertebrate
Animals. Dover Publications, Inc., N. Y.
BRIAN, M. V. 1951. Ant culture for laboratory experiment. Ent. Mon. Mag.
12:134-136.
CARNEY, W. P. 1970. Laboratory maintenance of carpenter ants. Ann. Ent.
Soc. Amer. 63:332-334.
ETTERSHANK, G. 1965. A new modular design artificial ant nest. Turtox News
43:42-43.
LUTHOLD, R. H. 1968. Recruitment to food in the ant Crematogaster ash-
meadi. Psyche. 75:334-350.
ROGERS, M. N. 1957. A small electric hygrometer for micro-climate
measurements. Plant Dis. Rep. 41(10):897-902.
SUDD, J. H. 1967. Nests of ants., p. 50-74 In An Introduction to Behavior of
Ants. St. Marlin Press, New York.
SWEENEY, R. C. H. 1950. Some new formicaria and other practical aids to the
study of ant colonies. Ent. Mon. Mag. 86:110-116.
WHEELER, W. M. 1910. Ant nests, p. 207-224; Relations of ants to vascular
plants, p. 294-317 In Ants, their Structure, Development and Behavior.
Columbia Univ. Press, N. Y.
WILSON, E. 0. 1962. Chemical communication among workers of the fire ant
Solenopsis saevissima (Fr. Smith): 1. The organization of mass-forag-
ing. Anim. Behav. 10:134-147.
WILSON, E. 0. 1971. Caste: Ants, p. 150-161 In The Insect Societies. Belknap
Press of Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge.
WINSTON, P. W., AND D. H. BATES. 1960. Saturated solutions for the control of
humidity in biological research. Ecology. 41:232-237.










CHANGE IN WAIVERS OF PAGE CHARGES

To the responses we have made to meet the present financial pinch (see Vol. 57
p. 368), The Publications Committee must now add a change in policy on
waivers of publication charges. Effective with the June 1975 issue, members
who are not institutionally or grant supported can be given a waiver of only
50% of publication costs. The request for such a waiver should be made to the
Editor at the time the manuscript is submitted. Non-members cannot be
granted waivers.










The Florida Entomologist


BOOK REVIEW

Insects In Flight. W. Nachtigall. 1974. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York,
153p. $13.95. (originally published in German, 1968; translated by H. Oldroyd,
R. H. Abbott, and M. B. Thorson). This book includes almost everything you
wanted to know about insect flight but weren't sure where to ask, and it does
it in a fashion that is understandable to college undergraduates, old professors,
and capable high school students. It is organized into 44 essays or capsule
chapters on a wide range of subjects: sail butterflies gliding on the seashore;
the wonderful substance resilin; a catapult launch is nothing remarkable for
the fly; one two-hundreths of a second in the life of a bluebottle; how the wing
beats generate aerodynamic forces; sense organs are the insect's flight control
instruments; what controls the muscle twitches? Or! $30,000 worth of elec-
tronics; the precision mechanism that drives the wings; fuels for insect flight;
how do pigmy insects fly? There are chapters dealing with fundamental insect
biology that give the non-entomologist some background: the external and
internal structure of an insect; the importance of classification; the form and
construction of the wings of insects: glistening scales and glassy membranes;
migratory flight of locusts and butterflies; how foraging bees find their way
back to the hive: an exercise in direction-finding and aerial navigation; insects
walk on 6 legs. These also make it possible for the book to be used as a text
around which an insect natural history course could be built. And there are
chapters that relate and analogize insectan and human flight: comparison
between insect and human flight; painstaking experiments mean safe aircraft.
Nachtigall writes as the participant in the study of insect flight, not as an
interested or mercenary literary. He discusses from personal experience the
construction and operation of the gadgetry that is necessary for precision
measurement of aerodynamic forces and for recording wing movements on
film. (The complexity of this preparation is sufficient to turn one to
blacklights and taxonomy). With its homey style ("Is our 'wonder insect' thus
no better than an old postcard and a couple of paperclips? We shall see!"),
general readability, and high informational content this book should be on
library shelves in schools and entomological sanctuaries everywhere. I
challenge anyone to read it without getting the urge to glue a fly to
something-the better to know it. Teachers of basic biology and entomology,
and perhaps aerospace engineering, can get a number of lectures and lab
exercises from the book.
I wish that Nachtigall had discussed why "Nature, on the other hand,
knows nothing of revolution round a shaft .. .", and . the beating of wings
(is) the only feasible flight mechanism for animals." In sum, good content,
format, figures, photos, binding, few errors, and a good investment for time
and coin.
James E. Lloyd
The University of Florida
Gainesville 32611


Vol. 58, No. 1




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs