Title: Florida Entomologist
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Title: Florida Entomologist
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Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1975
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
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Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
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Volume 58, No. 2 June, 1975


S..AT ER. J. A.- The Pachygrnthnae of the West Indies. with the Description of a
New Species of Pachygrontha from Cuba (Hemiptera:Lygaeidae) 65
on Founding Queens of Solenopsis invicta b- Workers o/ Conomyrma in-
sana 75
MUMA, M. H.-Spiders in Florida Citrus Groves 83
WESTFALL, M. J., JR.-A New Species of Gomphus from Arkansas (Odonata-
Gomphidae) 91
OCONWOLLI, E. O.. AND D. H. HABECK-Comparntire Li'feHistories of Three
Mocis spp. in Florido (Lepidoptera Noctudael 97
TENNESSEN. K. .J.-Description of the Nymph of Somatochlora provocans
Calvert (Odonata:Cordhuldae) .. 105
HUBBARD, M. D.-The Genus Asthenopodes L'mer and Its Tipe Species (Ephem-
eroptera Polvtnitarcidae) 111
SMITH, C. M., H. N. PITRE, AND W. E. KNiCHT-Evaluation of Crimson Clover
Seed Damage b% the C(loter Head Weevil 113
DU N K LE. S. W.-New Records ol North .4 mrt an .4 nsopterus Dragonlies 117
Dr. John .4. Mu/rennan Receres .Award from the Florida Entomological
Society 121
Minutes of the 57th A nnuol Meeting of The Florida Entomological Society 125
Scientifr Notes
BUSCHMAN, L. L., AND L. C. KU'ITERT-E.Ltraction of Lovebug Eggs from
Soil. 911
WOLFENBARGER. D. A., AND E. C.NTti-Enhanced To.\icitl of Carbar/l when
Combined uith S\nergist.s Against Larvae of the Bullworm and the To
but co Budw'rvnr 1)J3
Book Reviews. 96, 120

Published by The Florida Entomological Society



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This issue mailed July 24, 1975

The Florida Entomologist



Systematic and Evolutionary Biology Section,
University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut


A striking new species of Pachygrontha is described from Cuba, compact
Distant is returned to Pachygrontha, Uhler's (1894) record of P. oedancalodes
from Grenada is referred to P. compact, and host plant, habitat and West
Indian distributional data are given for all species.

The Pachygronthinae fauna of the West Indies is now known to include 7
species contained in 2 genera. While both tribes of Pachygronthinae are
represented in both the Nearctic and Neotropical regions, no members of the
grass feeding tribe Teracriini have apparently reached the West Indies.
The first pachygronthine to be reported from the West Indies was
Oedancala cubana described by Stal (1874) from Cuba. Uhler (1893) reported
Pachygrontha longiceps from St. Vincent and Uhler (1894) listed 3 species of
Pachygrontha from Grenada (oedancalodes Stal, bimaculata Distant, lon-
giceps Stal). Van Duzee (1907) reported 0. bimaculata from Jamaica, and
Heidemann and Osborn (1917) 0. crassimana from the Isle of Pines. In 1923
Barber published the first of his numerous contributions on the hemipterous
fauna of the Antilles and described, as new, Pachygrontha parvula from Mona
Island. In 1939 he reported 0. bimaculata from Puerto Rico, Cuba, Dominica
(not the Dominican Republic as indicated by Slater 1955) and Grenada.
Barber (1947) reported 0. bimaculata from Puerto Rico, and 0. crassimana
and P. longiceps from Cuba. Slater (1955) revised the subfamily on a world
basis. He transferred Uhler's 1893 and 1894 records of P. longiceps from St.
Vincent and Grenada to a new species, P. saileri, reported P. compact from
Grenada, and 0. crassimana from the Leeward Islands and 0. bimaculata
from Hispaniola. Slater (1956) synonymized Barber's P. parvula with P.
compact Distant. Scudder (1958) reported 0. crassimana from the
Caymans; Barber and Ashlock (1960) listed it from the Bahamas. Alayo (1973)
recently reviewed the Cuban fauna and transferred Pachygrontha compact
to Oedancala.
The present paper describes a striking new species of Pachygrontha from
Cuba, returns compact Distant to Pachygrontha, refers Uhler's (1894) record
of P. oedancalodes from Grenada to P. compact, and gives host plant,
habitat, and West Indian distributional data for all species.
Present zoogeographic information indicates that Pachygrontha compac-
ta and P. longiceps have reached the West Indies from Central America, P.

'This work was supported in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation.

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

The Florida Entomologist

saileri and probably 0. bimaculata from South America. 0. crassimana may
well have reached the Antilles from North America.
All of the above species are widespread in the Neotropics and seem
unquestionably to have reached the Antilles by overwater transport. It is thus
quite surprising to find an endemic species in each genus on Cuba. The
presence of 0. cubana is perhaps not unusually surprising, as it is related to
crassimana and may have differentiated relatively recently. However, the
presence of Pachygrontha singularis n. sp. is quite another matter, as this
species is not closely related to any of the other Western Hemisphere species of
Pachygrontha. Schuchert (1935) believed that there were land connections
between the Greater Antilles and Central America several times in the Ter-
tiary and as late as the Upper Miocene. This has been vigorously debated
subsequently (see Darlington 1938, 1957). I see no reason to believe that the
entire pachygronthine fauna could not have reached the West Indies over
water, but it is important to realize that Schuchert's (1935) interpretation
leaves the southeastern part of Cuba above water in the Upper Oligocene,
Lower-Middle Miocene, and Upper Pliocene-Pleistocene when the rest of the
West Indies was submerged. This may well account for the presence on Cuba
of the only endemic pachygronthines found anywhere on the islands, and, in
the case of singularis, raises the possibility that this species reached Cuba very
Keys to the West Indian genera and species may be found in Slater (1955),
and synonyms and references to the individual species in Slater (1964).

Pachygrontha singularis Slater, new species
(Fig. 1)
General coloration pale testaceous, a prominent black longitudinal vitta
present laterally on pronotum just within pale lateral edge; punctures on
either side of pronotal midline darkened to form a pair of interrupted stripes,
these complete on inner margin of calli; scutellar punctures black with a
raised anteriorly bifurcate pale laevigate elevation; hemelytra with punctures
brown, a prominent black spot present midway along apical corial margin and
a smaller black spot present at corial apex; membrane hyaline; venter tes-
taceous; head dark brown to blackish and a black longitudinal stripe running
through middle of thoracic pleura and abdomen; antennae chiefly pale tes-
taceous, 1st segment darkened on swollen distal 0.2, 2nd segment becoming
dusky at distal end; 3rd segment chiefly fuscous, indistinctly paler distally,
4th segment uniformly dark brown; femora and fore tibiae with numerous
dark brown spots present, femora nearly uniformly dark brown ventrally, fore
femoral spines black tipped, distal ends of all tibiae dark brown as are distal 0.2
of 1st tarsal segment, distal end of 2nd and apical half of 3rd; pronotum
lacking a distinctly laevigate median elevated line.
Head acuminate, tylus extending anteriorly onto basal 0.25 of 1st antennal
segment, jugal carinae slightly bent laterad on posterior 0.5, eyes rounded, set
slightly away from antero-lateral pronotal angles; head length 1.282, width
1.04; interocular space .70; pronotum elongate, moderately impressed at
transverse impression which is present at posterior 0.33 of pronotum, area
across calli convex; pronotum length 1.38, width 1.42; scutellum with a rather

'All measurements are in millimeters.

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

Slater: A New Pachygrontha

deeply excavated basal area, median elevation bifurcate anteriorly, laevigate,
scutellum length 1.02, width .68; hemelytra with lateral corial margins nearly
straight to level of apex of scutellum then gently convex to apex; membrane
extending well onto 7th abdominal tergum, length claval commissure .60;
distance apex clavus-apex corium 1.44; distance apex corium-apex abdomen
1.74; abdomen with apex strongly acutely produced into a terminal point; fore
femora moderately incrassate, armed below with 4 major spines, 2 small spines
distad of distal major spine and 2 between next proximal major spines, then a
single major spine, no minor spine between 2 proximal major spines; labium
short, extending well between fore coxae, at most slightly attaining anterior


'/ .K
1 4 .
" **Ti







Fig. 1. Pachygrontha singularis Slater, new species, holotype, dorsal view.

The Florida Entomologist

end of mesosternum, 1st segment not extending caudad of antenniferous
tubercles, labial segment length (III & IV from paratype) I .52, II .60, III .50,
IV .52; antennal segment length I 2.70, II 1.70, III 1.40, IV .88; total length
Holotype: CUBA: Prov. Pinar del Rio, San Diego de los Banos, 200 m,
8-III-1966 (F. Gregor); [Brno Museum, Czechoslovakia].
Paratype: 1 (same data as holotype) [J. A. Slater collection].
This species is not closely related to any other species of Pachygrontha in
the Western Hemisphere. It will not key well through Slater (1955), as the
distance from the apex of the clavus to the apex of the corium is subequal to
the length of the pronotum and thus the species does not segregate well at
couplet 1 for it is considerably more than 6mm long. This species seems to me
to have considerable potential phylogenetic importance in establishing the
derivation of the genus Oedancala from an ancestral Pachygrontha stock
similar to oedancalodes and compact. These latter species, because of their
small short stubby bodies, superficially resemble species of Oedancala more
closely than they do other species of Pachygrontha. This has led some authors
to place these small species of Pachygrontha in Oedancala. Ayalo (1973)
recently moved compact to the genus Oedancala on the basis of its habitus,
without apparently being convinced by my discussion (Slater 1955) where I
demonstrated the affinities with Pachygrontha. P. singularis is intermediate
in habitus, and I believe it further substantiates my position in placing
oedancalodes and compact in Pachygrontha.
The isolated nature of this species is further evidenced by the difficulty one
encounters in relating it to any of the Eastern Hemisphere groups of
Pachygrontha. It does have the excavated scutellar base of the antennata
group but otherwise does not appear to be closely related to it. In habitus it
has some resemblance to P. walker. Slater (1955) hypothesized that oedan-
cala was derived from a Pachygrontha ancestor similar to oedancalodes. I
still consider this to be true and this species to further substantiate this. In my
former paper I suggested that Western Hemisphere Pachygrontha may have
reached the area at 2 widely separated periods. At that time continental drift
theory had not come into general acceptance, and it is possible that my
interpretation of this as being through Beringia is incorrect. However it still
seems to me that 2 quite separate introductions of Pachygrontha stocks
occurred in the Western Hemisphere, and that P. singularis is representative
of the older of the 2. It shows greater differentiation from Eastern Hemisphere
forms and may lead directly or indirectly to the evolution of a derived genus.
The species is unusual morphologically in the sharply pointed and
produced apex of the abdomen. The paratype is submacropterous in that,
while the clavus and the corium .are fully developed and separate, the
membrane is considerably reduced and reaches only midway over the fifth
abdominal tergum. While wing polymorphism is quite common in the related
tribe Teracriini it is almost unknown in the tribe Pachygronthini. It will be
very valuable to know more of the distribution and habitat relationships of
this remarkable insect.

Pachygrontha compact Distant
This is the smallest and, in the West Indies, most widespread species of
Pachygrontha. It is readily recognizable, in addition to the small size (4.0 to
4.8), by the uniformly pale third antennal segment.

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

Slater: A New Pachygrontha

We found this species commonly along the west coast of Dominica (near
Pointe Michel) in June 1971, where adults and nymphs occurred on the seed
heads of Cyperus planifolius L. C. Rich. The plants were growing on nearly
vertical, barren, xeric, rock outcroppings. Specimens were taken on the same
host in a quite different mesic habitat on Dominica near the Layou River in
the understory of coconut plantations. Slater (1966) reported compact from
Costa Rica on Scirpus sp. and described the nymphs.
Alayo (1973) placed compact in Oedancala apparently because the
general habitus appeared to him to more closely resemble Cuban species of
Oedancala than Pachygrontha. Slater (1955:84-85) discussed the generic
position of compact and oedancalodes in detail and indicated that while
Oedancala species may well be derived from an ancestor similar to compact,
the latter should be placed in Pachygrontha. My 1955 conclusion is
strengthened after studying the new Cuban species Pachygrontha singularis.
Alayo (1973) also seems to question the correctness of my (Slater 1956)
placement of Pachygrontha parvula Barber as a junior synonym of P. com-
pacta, stating that only a study of the types can confirm this decision. I have
studied both "types" and reaffirm the synonymy. I also discussed the status of
parvula and compact with the describer of parvula, the late H. G. Barber,
who agreed with the synonymy.
Uhler (1894) reported 3 specimens of Pachygrontha oedancalodes Stal
from Granville, Grenada. One female of this series is in the British Museum
(Natural History) and is a typical compact. Presumably Uhler's other
specimens were also compact, as oedancalodes is not otherwise known from
the West Indies. Our party was able to take compact but not oedancalodes in
Grenada in 1973.
West Indian records: GRENADA: Granville (Windward side) (H. H. Smith)
(Uhler 1894); Point Saline, St. George Parish, 18-VI-1973 (Slater et al.).
DOMINICA: Layou River, Cocoa Center, 24-VI-1971 (Slater, Baranowski,
Harrington); Layou River, Clarkehall Estate, 24-VI-1971 (Slater,
Baranowski, Harrington); Pointe Michel, 23-VI-1971 (Slater, Baranowski,
Harrington). MONA ISLAND: (type of Pachygrontha parvula) (Barber 1923).
CUBA: Soledad, Cienfuegos (Alayo 1973). HISPANIOLA: 5 mi. W. Sanchez,
Samones Prov., Republica Dominicana, 16-VIII-1967 (J. C. Schaffner).
JAMAICA: Cockpit, Clarendon Parish, 9-XII-1970 (Slater & Baranowski).

Pachygrontha longiceps Stal
This is a large, elongate, slender species that is readily recognizable by the
pair of dark brown spots along each apical corial margin and the pale white
distal half of the third antennal segment.
P. longiceps occurs in Central America and northern South America.
Barber (1947) and Alayo (1973) previously reported it from Cuba. On 2 July
1971 a series of adults was taken near Linstead, Jamaica on a large sedge
(Scleria sp.) growing in dense shade in broken second growth forest adjacent
to an orange plantation.
The presence of longiceps on 2 islands of the Greater Antilles together with
the lack of records from the Lesser Antilles is indicative of a Central American
derivation. This is in contrast to the derivation of P. saileri, the other large,
elongate species of Pachygrontha that occurs in the West Indies, which ap-
pears to have dispersed into the Lesser Antilles from northern South America.

The Florida Entomologist

Uhler's (1893 and 1894) records from St. Vincent and Grenada are referable to
saileri Slater.
West Indian records: CUBA: Guaro, Ote. (Barber 1947); Gran Piedra, Ote.
(Alayo 1973). JAMAICA: Linstead, St. Catherine Parish, 2-VII-1971 (Slater,
Baranowski, Harrington); Faiths Pen, St. Ann Parish, 3-VII-1971 (Slater,
Harrington, Baranowski).

Pachygrontha saileri Slater
Prior to the present description of singularis, this species and longiceps
Stal were the only large elongate species of Pachygrontha known from the
West Indies. P. saileri is readily recognizable by the lack of a conspicuous dark
color spot at the apex of the corium, the unicolorous pale yellowish antennae,
and the strongly, laterally bent, jugal carinae; it is also a more robust, heavy
bodied species than is longiceps.
This species is closely related to the South American minarum (L. & S.)
and indeed may well prove eventually to represent a subspecies. In any event
saileri certainly is a South American element in the West Indian fauna. It
extends northward in the Lesser Antilles at least to Dominica.
P. saileri was described by Slater (1955) from Grenada and subsequently
reported by Slater (1966) from Trinidad, Surinam, and Guyana. Uhler's (1893,
1894) records of longiceps from Grenada and St. Vincent are all referable to
saileri and in part constitute its type series.
On 24 June 1971 the author took a series of adults and nymphs breeding on
a large sedge Scleria melaleuca Schl. & Champ. in Dominica. The plants were
growing on a steep hillside south of the mouth of the Layou River. The habitat
was an overgrown clearing surrounded by 'broken second growth forest.
Scleria is a tall, rank sedge that does not seem to be present along roadsides, in
plantation understories, or adjacent to beaches.
Uhler (1894) noted that on Grenada saileri (as longiceps) was swept from
weedy places near a stream and on herbage in open and marshy places, so it
apparently is not restricted to woodland habitats.
West Indian records: GRENADA: Uhler's (1894) records of longiceps from
Grenada belong here. The Balthazar material constitutes the type material of
saileri; Balthazar (windward side), Mount Gay Estate (leeward side); Ven-
dome Estate (leeward side); ST. VINCENT: Uhler (1893) (as longiceps without
definite locality); ST. LUCIA: Union, Castries 17-IX-19 (J. C. Bradley);
DOMINICA: 1 mi. S. Layou River Mouth 24-VI-1971 (Slater, Baranowski,

Oedancala cubana Stal
This is one of the largest and is the most elongate species of Oedancala. It
is readily recognizable by the very elongate first antennal segment and the
non-spotted apical corial margin. As noted by Slater (1955) the sexes are
strongly dimorphic in antennal length, males having much longer antennae
than females. In contrast to most pachygronthines, males generally are larger
and more robust. Slater (1966) described the fifth instar nymph.
0. cubana is essentially endemic to Cuba and the Isle of Pines and ap-
parently is relatively common. I have recently examined authentic specimens
from Big Pine Key, Florida. Uhler (1876) reported cubana from the southern
United States. Subsequent authors (including myself) have referred this

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

Slater: A New Pachygrontha

record to 0. crassimana. Such action is probably correct, but the discovery of
true cubana in the Florida Keys makes it possible that Uhler actually did
examine specimens from the U. S.
West Indian records: CUBA: reported by Barber (1947) from Santiago de
las Vegas, Hav.; Benavides; Sta. Tomas Las V.; Palmira Las V.; Guaimaro,
Cam.; Ct. Jaronu, Cam.; C. Baragua, Cam.; Seboruco, Ote.; Rio Toa, Baracoa,
Ote.; Jarahueca, Ote.; Guaro, Ote.; Nagua, Ote.; Central, E. Palma, Ote.;
Santiago de Cuba, Ote.; Hoyo Colorado, Hay.; Soledad, Las V. By Slater
(1955) from Upper Yara Valley; San Bias; Cienga de Zapota; Buenos Aires
(Trinidad Mts.); Guantanamo. Alayo (1973) stated that it occurs throughout
Cuba and reported it from Guana (P. Rio) and Soledad, Cienfuegos L.V.
Additional records: St. Antonio de las Vegas, 100-150 m. 22-XI-1965, Prov.
Habana (Jar Prokop) (Brno Museum); Cabanas P. d R, 5-18-IX-13; Bafos de
Ciego.; Montero, S. Clara, 30 km. W. Cienfuegas 14-X-1917; Sta. Clara Las
Villas, 18-V-1971 (L. Gruner) (JAS).
ISLE OF PINES: reported by Barber (1947) without definite locality, by
Slater (1955) from Columbia and McKinley and by Slater (1966) from Santa

Oedancala crassimana (Fabricius)

This species and bimaculata Distant closely resemble each other in habi-
tus, although they are unquestionably distinct species. Other than the male
genitalia (see Slater 1955), the most reliable character that distinguishes
crassimana from bimaculata is the distinct pubescence mesally as well as
laterally on the vertex, whereas crassimana is glabrous on the vertex mesad of
the ocelli except for a small seta arising from each puncture. Once this
character is understood, discrimination is no problem. 0. crassimana has
much thicker, heavier antennae than bimaculata and usually possesses a
complete white or yellow median longitudinal vitta on the anterior pronotal
lobe. The interocular/width pronotum ratio that I used previously (Slater
1955) to separate the 2 species has also proven reliable for West Indian
material seen since then, although (as might be expected from ratios that
approach one another so closely) an occasional specimen will be difficult to
place on this criterion alone. The following Table shows a series of ratios of
these characters for West Indian and Floridian material.

cala SPP.

Species N Mean Ratios Locality

crassimana 5 2.9 2.7-3.1 Florida
crassimana 7 3.0 2.8-3.2 Cuba
crassimana 2 2.9 2.8-3.0 Jamaica
crassimana 1 2.8 Puerto Rico

bimaculata 8 2.5 2.3-2.66 Hispaniola
bimaculata 1 2.5 Grenada

The Florida Entomologist

While there are a number of characters that are coordinate in West Indian
and continental crassimana populations the dark spot along the apical corial
margin is almost invariably present (99%) in Floridian and Gulf Coast
populations and is absent in the majority of specimens from the Greater
Antilles (both specimens from Jamaica, 5 of 7 from Cuba and very faint in the
other 2). This difference will probably prove to be of subspecific importance.
The female from Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, reported by Barber (1939) and
Slater (1955) as bimaculata, is perplexing and may be a hybrid. It has the
pronotal/interocular ratio and glabrous mesal vertex area and acuminate
head of crassimana but the spotted apical corial margin and the thin anten-
nae characteristic of bimaculata. I believe that until an adequate Puerto
Rican sample, including males, can be examined this specimen should be
tentatively referred to crassimana.
At Runaway Beach, Jamaica adults and nymphs were taken on Cladium
jamaicense Crantz, a large sedge, growing in a damp sandy area near the
West Indian records: CUBA; Vifiales; Pen. de Guanahacabibes; Buenos
Aires, (Trinidad Mts.); Jaronu; Camaguey; C. Baragua; Central E. Palma;
Moa (Barber 1947); Baragua (Slater 1955); San Carlos Estate, Guantanamo;
Guane N. of Vifiales; S. Pinar del Rio (Slater 1956); Guanimar; larguna de
Blanquizal (Alayo 1973). ISLE OF PINES: Heideman & Osborn (1917); Barber
(1947); Alayo (1973) JAMAICA: Runaway Bay, St. Ann Parish 3-VII-1971
(Slater, Baranowski, Harrington) GRAND CAYMAN ISLAND: Scudder (1958);
Slater (1966). LEEWARD ISLANDS: B.W.I. (Slater 1955).

Oedancala bimaculata Distant
The relationship of this species to crassimana is discussed above. 0.
bimaculata is actually much more difficult to separate, on external features,
from 0. notata Stal, a species which has not yet been taken in the West Indies.
In addition to genitalia differences (see Slater 1955) the presence of distinct
pubescence mesally on the vertex in bimaculata is diagnostic. The glabrous
mesal area of the head in notata contrasts strikingly with the dense lateral
pubescence. The pronotal width/interocular ratio will usually also separate
the 2, but the differences are not great and cannot be relied on alone for a given
West Indian records: GRENADA: Mount Gay Estate (Leeward side) (Uhler
1894); HISPANIOLA: San Christobal, Dominican Republic (Slater 1955);
Mirebalais, Haiti, 8-VIII-1931 (J. G. Myers); JAMAICA: Richmond Hill, 12-
IV-1906 (Van Duzee 1907); CUBA: Barber (1939) without definite locality;
Camaguey; Nagua, Ote. (Barber 1947); Guanimar, Hab. (Alayo 1973);
DOMINICA: Barber (1939). ISLE OF PINES: Barber (1947).

My appreciation is extended to the following: Dr. G. G. E. Scudder
(University of British Columbia) for forwarding the specimens of
Pachygrontha singularis to me for study; to Dr. R. M. Baranowski (Univer-
sity of Florida, Homestead), my colleague on several trips to the West Indies,
for aid in field work, processing of material, and financial arrangements; to
Mrs. Jane Harrington (University of Connecticut) for aid in field work on
Dominica and Jamaica; and to Mrs. Veronica Picchi and Mrs. Flavia

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

Slater: A New Pachygrontha

O'Rourke for field assistance on Grenada and St. Vincent. Records from these
last 2 islands cited as "Slater et al." pertains to material collected by the party
of Baranowski, O'Rourke, Picchi, and Slater.
Appreciation is also extended to the Drake Fund of the National Museum
of Natural History and to the Research Foundations of the University of
Florida and the University of Connecticut for financial assistance to aid field
work in the West Indies; to Mrs. Kathleen Schmidt (University of Connec-
ticut) for execution of the Figure and to Mrs. Darleen Wilcox and Mrs.
Elizabeth Slater (University of Connecticut) for assistance in the preparation
of the manuscript.


ALAYO, P. 1973. Los Hemipteros de Cuba Parte XI. Familia Lygaeidae.
Torreia (N.S.) 25:1-67.
BARBER, H. G. 1923. A preliminary report on the Hemiptera-Heteroptera of
Porto Rico collected by the American Museum of Natural History.
Amer. Mus. Novitates 75:1-13.
BARBER, H. G. 1939. Insects of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands.
Hemiptera-Heteroptera (excepting the Miridae and Corixidae). New
York Acad. Sci.; Sci. Surv. Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands
BARBER, H. G. 1947. The family Lygaeidae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera) of the
island of Cuba and the Isle of Pines. Mem. Soc. Cubana Hist. Nat.
BARBER, H. G., and P. D. ASHLOCK. 1960. The Lygaeidae of the Van Voast-
American Museum of Natural History expedition to the Bahama
Islands 1953. Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington 62:117-124.
DARLINGTON, P. J., JR. 1938. The origin of the fauna of the Greater Antilles,
with discussion of dispersal of animals over water and through the air.
Quart. Rev. Biol. 23:1-26.
DARLINGTON, P. J., JR. 1957. Zoogeography: The geographical distribution of
animals. J. Wiley & Sons, New York.
HEIDEMANN, 0., and H. OSBORN. 1917. Rhynchota of the Isle of Pines. Ann.
Carneg. Mus. 11:346-355.
SCHUCHERT, C. 1935. Historical geology of the Antillean-Caribbean region of
lands bordering the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. John Wiley
& Sons, New York.
SCUDDER, G. G. E. 1958. Results of the Oxford University Cayman Islands
biological expedition of 1938: Lygaeidae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera).
Ent. Mon. Mag. 94:145-150.
SLATER, J. A. 1955. A revision of the subfamily Pachygronthinae of the World
(Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). Philippine J. Sci. 84(1):1-160; 4 pl.
SLATER, J. A. 1956. Neotropical Pachygronthinae in the American Museum of
Natural History (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). Amer. Mus. Novitates
SLATER, J. A. 1964. A Catalogue of the Lygaeidae of the World. 2 vol. Univer-
sity of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut. 1668 p.
SLATER, J. A. 1966. A further contribution to our knowledge of the
Pachygronthinae (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). Jour. Ent. Soc. Queensland
STAL, C. 1874. Enumeratio Hemipterorum pt. 4. K. Svenska VetenskAkad.
Handl. 12(1):1-186.

The Florida Entomologist

UHLER, P. R. 1876. List of Hemiptera of the region west of the Mississippi
River, including those collected during the Hayden explorations of
1873. Bull. U. S. Geol. Geog. Surv. Terr. 1:269-361.
UHLER, P. R. 1893. A list of the Hemiptera-Heteroptera collected in the island
of St. Vincent by Mr. Herbert H. Smith; with descriptions of new
genera and species. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1893:705-719.
UHLER, P. R. 1894. On the Hemiptera-Heteroptera of the island of Grenada,
West Indies. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1894:167-224.
VAN DUZEE, E. P. 1907. Notes on Jamaican Hemiptera. Bull. Buffalo Soc.
Natur. Sci. 8:5:1-79.


Specializing in BookI and cf'bl'ications

Storter Printing Co.


Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975


/ rP


'FLA -


75 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975



Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611


Solenopsis invicta Buren founding queens are especially vulnerable to
predation during and following the nuptial flight. Conomyrma insana
(Buckley) workers are effective predators of the queens in some areas of
northern Florida. The respective behaviors that occurred during the confron-
tation of the 2 species were studied in the field in Jefferson, Leon, Madison,
and Gadsden counties of northern Florida from 1968 to 1973. Detection of a
founding queen alighting within a C. insana enclave by workers varied from a
few seconds to several minutes. The pressure of attack by the workers
increased with time. The founding queen's reactions to attack by C. insana
consisted of 5 basic responses: (1) escape, (2) concealment, (3) cessation of
movement, (4) mandibular defense, and (5) rapid flexing or shaking. Less than
3% of the queens observed alighting within a C. insana enclave were successful
in escaping predation. No S. invicta queens were found that survived preda-
tion by C. insana workers long enough to construct a brood chamber and
begin a new colony within an area occupied by C. insana.

The founding queens of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis inuicta
Buren, are especially exposed to predation during the period following the
nuptial flight and before entering the soil (Whitcomb et al. 1973). The major
predators at this point appear to be its own workers and those of other ant
species. Hung (1974), Markin et al. (1971), Whitcomb et al. (1972), and Whit-
comb et al. (1973) have reported the dolichoderine ant Conomyrma insana
(Buckley) as one of the more effective ant predators of the S. invicta founding
queens. Our observations indicate that these queens have a great deal of
difficulty in establishing where C. insana occur in north Florida. Although C.
insana is sporadic in distribution in this region, it may be an important factor
in limiting local populations of the red imported fire ant.
Competition for preferred nesting sites and foraging territories appears to
be the major factor determining the distribution of many formicine species
(Bhatkar et al. 1972, Leston 1973, Van Pelt 1966). Nowhere is this more true
than in the aggression of the formicine species toward founding queens.
Predation on founding queens alighting in a territory dominated by a given
ant species would reduce or eliminate future competition for available
resources in favor of the dominant species. Carroll and Janzen (1973) stated
that founding queens were usually killed by worker ants of the same or other
species. This strong statement is supported by research of several workers

'Hymenoptera: Formicidae.
'Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 5561.
'Partially supported by USDA, ARS Cooperative Agreement No. 12-14-100-10.952(33). Partially
supported by Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, Florida.

The Florida Entomologist

(Janzen 1967, Levieux 1971, Marikowsky 1961, Pontin 1960). Janzen (1973)
presented research on Pseudomyrmex ferruginia F. Smith and described in
detail how workers destroyed new queens of their own species. Hung (1974)
analyzed the refuse pile of a Conomyrma insana colony and reported the
recovery of discarded heads of the queens of 5 species of myrmecines, including
those of Solenopsis invicta queens.
The predator-prey relationship of the founding queens of Solenopsis in-
victa and Conomyrma insana workers is of special interest due to the ap-
parent complexity of the encounters leading to the death of the founding
queens or the rare successful escape from predation by the latter. The first
objective of the present research was to gain information on the general
behavior pattern of a dolichoderine ant worker attacking a myrmecine
founding queen. Furthermore, such data is needed on the predator-prey rela-
tionship of these 2 species, in particular, to evaluate the effectiveness of C.
insana as a predator and its potential in limiting the local increase of S.
invicta. Conversely, this information was collected to determine the ability of
S. invicta to survive within an area under these high stress conditions.

This research consisted of field observations of the behavior(s) of the
predator (C. insana workers) and prey (S. invicta founding queens) under
natural conditions. These events were observed in detail in Jefferson, Leon,
Madison, and Gadsden counties in northern Florida in areas where
Conomyrma insana nests were present. Of approximately 2,800 Solenopsis
invicta founding queens observed while under attack, 240 were watched from
the time they alighted until they were either destroyed by predators or es-
caped. When possible, the action was verbally described and recorded on tape
as it occurred. Most observations were made on bare ground, either on dirt
roadways or in fallow fields. Additional observations were made in mowed
fields with sparse vegetation cover. All observations were made during 6
successive years from 1968 to 1973. This report is based on observations of
queens which alighted naturally; information on queens which had been
captured and handled was discarded.
In 1972 we attempted to determine the effectiveness of predation by C.
insana. Nests of C. insana were examined and excavated to determine the
numbers of S. invicta queens taken as prey. In addition, five 3 x 8m plots were
randomly located in an open field. These plots were examined at 1/2 hr
intervals from 1400 to 1830 on the dates of heavy S. invicta nuptial flights.
Predation of S. invicta queens within these plots was noted and recorded. For
3 consecutive days following nuptial flight this field was searched for addi-
tional S. invicta females on the surface and for signs of brood chamber cons-

A summary of the responses of S. invicta queens to attacks) by C. insana
workers is shown in the flow diagram in Fig. 1. While the responses of the
queen to attack are varied, they can be separated into artificial categories
which recur frequently.
An abridged summary of a single attack sequence by C. insana workers on
1 S. invicta queen is presented in Table 1. This was taken from observations

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

Nickerson et al.: Predation on Fire Ant Queens


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The Florida Entomologist

made 21 June 1972 of a queen that had alighted at 1625. The nuptial flight
began after 2 days of intermittent storms resulting in 18 cm rainfall. The
temperature at 1414 was 350C and the wind velocity varied from 8 to 24 kmh.
The alates of S. invicta emerged from the mounds at 1331. The first queen
observed returning from the nuptial flight alighted at 1450.

Detection. When a S. invicta queen alighted in an area heavily populated by C.
insana, a period, varying from a few seconds to several minutes, elapsed prior
to initial contact by C. insana. During this period, if sufficient, the queen shed
her wings and commenced searching for a suitable site to construct the brood
chamber. Detection of the S. invicta queen by C. insana workers occurred any
time after the queen alighted, depending upon the immediate proximity of the
workers. The first contact with the queen was made by a single worker
approaching from the front or side with mandibles spread and maintaining
only momentary contact with the queen. It is probable that the queen was
marked with an identifying compound by the C. insana worker. Following

ma insana (Ci) ON A FOUNDING QUEEN OF Solenopsis invicta (Si)

time (min) Observations

0 Si alights, immediately moves under debris and into soil
4 Met by 1st Ci; duration of contact momentary. Si
movement rapid and erratic.
9 Si reverted to normal rate of movement.
13 Ci attacked (n = 2) and pursued (n = 1). Si hid under leaf.
20 Si left leaf. Ci attacked Si at base of wing (n= 1), head
(n = 1), and thorax (n = 1). Si fled.
21 Si has traveled 8.5 m from alighting point, wings intact.
30 Ci attacked (n= 1) Si at head. Si fled.
33 Ci attacked (n=9), Si shook Ci loose by rapidly flexing
34 Ci attacked (n= 4), Ci clinging to wing, Si shook Ci loose.
Si climbed blade of grass, attempted to fly, failed.
35 Ci pursuing (n=7), Ci attached (n=3) to Si. All Ci
dislodged from Si.
36 Ci clinging to thorax and wing (n = 2). Si dislodged Ci.
38 Ci attacked (n = 4), Si motionless (6 sec), fled. Ci pursued
and attacked (n= 2).
39 Ci pursuing (n = 7) and clinging to Si head (n = 1).
40 Si moving rapidly, attempting to break off wings. Ci
(n=3) pursuing and biting at legs and wings. Si flexed
abdomen rapidly, curled into "C" position and bit at Ci.
Si has traveled 16.8 m since alighting.

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

Nickerson et al.: Predation on Fire Ant Queens

41 Si knocked left forewing off. Ci cling to Si leg. Si bit and
killed Ci (n=l). Si now moving rapidly, Ci pursuing
(n = 9). Ci clinging (n = 3), Si shook all off, still moving
rapidly. Ci clinging (n=3) and pursuing (n=ll). Si
curled into "C" position and bit at Ci, then moved away
with Ci in pursuit (n = 14).
48 Si still moving with no pursuit.
50 Ci attack (n = 2) Si. Si shook off attack.
51 Si under leaf momentarily, then emerged.
52 Si attacked by Ci (n= 1). Si curled into "C" position and
bit Ci. Ci (n= 17) pursuing Si. Si shook off pursuit and
attack, moved under clod of soil.
53 Si emerged, immediately attacked by Ci (n= 1). Ci at-
tacked (n = 3). Si dislodged attackers. Ci clinging to wing.
Si climbed blade of grass, immediately descended with Ci
(n= 1) still clinging to wing.
54 Ci (n = 1) attacked Si at right metathoracic leg. Si curled
into "C" position and bit Ci, forcing it to release. Ci
(n = 2) attacked, forced away by Si.
55 Ci attacked (n = 2). Si curled into "C" position and bit at
Ci. Si moved with Ci still clinging to leg. Ci (n = 7) biting
and pursuing, Si flexing abdomen and thorax, intermixed
with assuming "C" position and biting.
58 Ci (n= 3) attacking Si. Si shook loose Ci. Additional Ci
(n = 8) attacked. Si dislodged all Ci by shaking and biting.
60 Si moved forward and went under a leaf.
61 Si emerged from under the leaf and was immediately
attacked by Ci (n = 1). Si curled into "C" position and bit
Ci until it left. Ci (n = 3) in pursuit of Si. Ci (n = 3) caught
Si. Si bit at Ci on leg. Additional Ci attacked (n= 9). Si
assumed "C" position and bit Ci clinging to leg but did
not dislodge.
63 Si moving with Ci clinging. Additional Ci in pursuit
(n = 7) and attacking (n = 15 + ) Si moving rapidly while
shaking and flexing body. Stopped, assumed "C" posi-
tion, bit and killed Ci (n= 1). Ci attacking (n= 4).
66 Ci (n =3) clinging to Si. Si dislodged Ci and moved for-
ward rapidly. Ci (n=4) pursuing, Ci (n=l) clinging to
leg. Si curled into "C" position and bit Ci.
68 Ci (n= 12) attacking. Si halted assumed "C" position, bit
Ci (n=l), now moving with Ci continuing attack. Si
biting at Ci killed 1.
72 Si nearly subdued (= taken as prey by Ci). Little res-
ponse to Ci and only feeble attempts to escape.
75 Ci have severed left prothoracic and both metathoracic
76 Ci have severed left mesothoracic leg.
77 All legs severed.
80 Ci moving appendageless Si to nest. Si alive and trying to
bite Ci. Distance from alighting point = 53 m.

The Florida Entomologist

attacks were not comparable to the initial attack in that subsequent attacks
were progressively more frequent and prolonged. In later attacks, the workers
remained attached to the queen until dislodged. In the first approach pene-
tration by the mandibles was never observed. The contact was made at any
portion of the body, although 1 observer reported that the first contact in-
volved the queen's head or propodeum in 82 of 97 observations.
During a short span of time following the initial contact the queen was
unmolested by C. insana workers. Again, the queen may attempt to remove
the wings (if not previously shed), but the usual reaction of the queen was to
flee from the point of attack. In most observed cases this was followed by a
halcyon period as evidenced by the less erratic and hurried rate of movement.
Subsequently, the queen would renew the search for a suitable location in
which to excavate the brood chamber.
Secondary Contacts. The time between first contact and subsequent attacks
varied from 15 sec to 35 min depending on the local population densities and
the degree of surface activity of C. insana. These secondary contacts differed
from the first encounter in several respects. The C. insana attacks were
progressively more frequent and prolonged; the workers tended to cling to the
queen until dislodged. Pursuit of the queen by workers also occurred, although
individual workers did not take part continuously. The intensity of pursuit
was again dependent upon the local density of C. insana. As the attack
progressed, the number of individuals of C. insana workers taking part
increased up to the time the queen was taken as prey.
Queen response to attack. The responses of the S. invicta founding queens to
the attack by the C. insana workers can be divided into 5 basic reactions: (1)
escape, (2) concealment, (3) cessation of all movement, (4) mandibular
defense, and (5) rapid flexing or shaking of the body. All or several of these
responses were utilized by the queens in attempting to avoid or fight off the
attack of C. insana workerss.
Escape attempts from the attack of C. insana workers occurred in 2 forms:
(1) flight and (2) surface movement. If a queen was attacked prior to shedding
of the wings, she could avoid predation by further flight. This was ac-
complished by less than 2% of the queens under observation. The queens, when
under attack, crawled up vegetation or any other available elevation in an
attempt to gain the height necessary to become airborne. Queens not under
attack were seldom observed by us to attempt flight after landing. The res-
ponse most often elicited by the attack of C. insana was attempted escape on
the ground surface. The distance covered varied with the topography,
presence of vegetation, or other natural barriers. The escaping queen usually
covered distances of 20 to 80 cm per min; some covered distances of 3 m or
more. This response was often temporarily successful in avoiding immediate
predation by C. insana workers.
While under attack or when unmolested by C. insana workers, the S.
invicta queens were continuously moving under twigs, leaves, or into soil
cracks. This appeared to be a concealment response, even though it may be
difficult to distinguish from the normal instinct of the queen to commence
construction of the brood chamber as soon as possible after landing. Hiding
was usually effective in momentarily avoiding predation. If the queen aban-
doned the protection of the leaf or twig, C. insana workers immediately
resumed their attack.
In further attempts to avoid predation, the queen often remained mo-

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

Nickerson et al.: Predation on Fire Ant Queens

tionless briefly (6-10 sec) when attacked or investigated by a C. insana worker;
afterwards, attempted escape or defense methods were used. In a number of
observed cases, the cessation of motion was temporarily successful as the C.
insana worker either did not commence further attack or broke off the attack
and left the vicinity of the female.
The queens also attempted to take a defensive stand against the attack of
the C. insana workers by aggressively biting. This was most often seen when
the S. invicta queen had failed to dislodge attacking workers and 1 or more had
seized an appendage. To effectively use the mandibles, the queen would lie on
either side and assume a "C" position with the tip of the abdomen curled
ventrally toward the mandibles. In this position, the S. invicta queen could
effectively use the mandibles for defense. On a number of occasions, a queen
severed an abdomen from a C. insana worker's thorax at the pedicel or
decapitated a worker hanging onto 1 of her legs. The worker's decapitated
head often remained attached to the seized appendage. This method of defense
was effective against an individual worker, although the queen could not
remain in the position long as it was vulnerable to further attack by other C.
insana workers.
The S. invicta queens frequently attempted to dislodge clinging C. insana
workers by rapid shaking or flexing of the abdomen. This was used by all
queens under attack by C. insana workers. The queen was always successful in
dislodging attacking workers by this means until she became exhausted or was
overcome by the mass attack of the C. insana. The founding queens of
Solenopsis invicta did not use or attempt to use the stinger as a defensive
means against the C. insana workers in any confrontation observed.
Predation and Disposal of Queens. When the queens were successfully
preyed upon by C. insana workers, the appendages were removed by a com-
bination of tugging and biting at the joints. Appendageless queens were
dragged, while still alive, to nests by the workers.
On the day following predation, bits of discarded body parts and heads of S.
invicta queens were found on the periphery of the C. insana nests. After a
major nuptial flight of 21 June 1972, a series of 24 nests were excavated on each
of 2 successive days. On the 1st day, live appendageless queens were found in
all nests. The fewest found in a single colony was 7 and the most was 18. A
total of 329 S. invicta queens was recovered from the C. insana nests. An
additional 83 queen heads were counted from the discarded debris and around
the colonies that were excavated. On the 2nd day, only 1 C. insana nest had
live appendageless S. invicta queens (n = 2).

Nests of C. insana tend to be concentrated in localized areas. The greater
the number of C. insana nests within the area, the more intense the attack on
fire ant queens. Mortality to the S. invicta queens did not depend on the
effectiveness of the bite or toxin of the individual workers, but rather on the
ability of C. insana to continue the attack until the S. invicta queens were
taken as prey. When the process was interrupted prior to removal of appen-
dages, the queen survived and laid eggs. However, where the process was
followed by us from beginning to end, only 6 queens out of 240 contacted by C.
insana workers managed to escape destruction by any means; 4 by flying
away from the C. insana area and 2 by escaping on the ground surface to
outside of the foraging range of C. insana.
In 1972, an effort to quantify predation by C. insana was made using five 3

The Florida Entomologist

x 8 m plots. On 9 May, a total of 613 postnuptial S. invicta queens was
counted in these plots; 60% of these were completely subdued by the C. insana
workers, 36.4% were under continuous attack, and 3.6% were momentarily
unmolested. The results of an additional survey on 21 June were nearly
identical. A total of 556 queens was noted; 61.3% completely subdued, 35.4%
under continuous attack, and 3.3% momentarily unmolested.
A field at the Tall Timbers Research Station was searched for S. invicta
queens for 3 successive days following a nuptial flight. On 10 May, 19 S. invicta
queens were being dragged to the C. insana colony by coordinated effort of
workers. Only 4 S. invicta queens were still under attack by C. insana. On 11
and 12 May, no live queens were found even though the area was extensively
searched. An identical search was conducted following the nuptial flight on 21
June. On 22 June, 24 S. invicta queens were found that had been subdued by C.
insana workers and were being taken into the colony. No queens were found
on 23 and 24 June within the C. insana enclave.

The authors are indebted to Dr. J. E. Lloyd for valuable suggestions.

CARLYSLE. 1972. Confrontation behavior between Lasius neoniger
(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the imported fire ant. Environ. Ent.
CARROLL, C. R., AND D. H. JANZEN. 1973. Ecology of foraging by ants. Ann.
Rev. Ecol. Syst. 4:231-57.
HUNG, A. C. F. 1974. Ants recovered from refuse pile of the pyramid ant
Conomyrma insana (Buckley) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Ann. Ent.
Soc. Amer. 67:522-3.
JANZEN, D. H. 1967. Interaction of the bull's-horn acacia (Acacia cornigera
L.) with an ant inhabitant (Pseudomyrmex ferruginea F. Smith) in
eastern Mexico. Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 47:96-110.
JANZEN, D. H. 1973. Evolution of polygynous obligate acacia-ants in western
Mexico. J. Anim. Ecol. 42:727-50.
LESTON, D. 1973. The ant mosaic-Tropical tree crops and the limiting of pests
and diseases. Pans. 19:311-41.
LEVIEUX, P. J. 1971. Mise en evidence de la structure des nids et de l'implan-
tation des zones de chasse de deux especes de Camponotus a l'aide de
radio-isotopes. Insectes Soc. 18:29-48.
MARIKOVSKY, P. I. 1961. Material on sexual biology of the ant Formica rufa L.
Insectes Soc. 8:23-30.
1971. Nuptial flight and flight ranges of the imported fire ant,
Solenopsis saevissima richteri (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Ga. Ent.
Soc. 6:145-56.
PONTIN, A. J. 1960. Field experiments on colony foundation by Lasius niger
(L.) and L. flavus (F.). Insectes Soc. 7:227-30.
VAN PELT, A. F. 1966. Activity and density of old-field ants of the Savannah
River Plant, South Carolina. J. Elisha Mitchell Scien. Soc. 82:35-43.
Preliminary studies on the ants of Florida soybean fields. Fla. Ent.
WHITCOMB, W. H., A. P. BHATKAR, AND J. C. NICKERSON. 1973. Predators of
Solenopsis invicta queens prior to successful colony establishment.
Environ. Ent. 2:1101-3.

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

83 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975


Agricultural Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred, Florida3

The author reports observations on spiders collected during 20 years of
ecological investigations of citrus pests. Primitive, haplogyne spiders were
represented by 5 species. Cribellate spiders were among the most abundant
in the citrus grove; 12 species were taken on the trees. They fed mostly on
midges, mosquitoes, and vinegar gnats. Five species of Gnaphosidae are
known from citrus litter; those of the genus Drassylus were the most com-
mon. Vagrant spiders of the closely related families of Anyphaenidae and
Clubionidae were at times quite common. The comb-footed spiders, family
Theridiidae, are well represented in Florida citrus groves; altogether, 19
species were recorded. The sheet-web weavers and dwarf spiders were
poorly represented; of the 18 orb weavers of the family Argiopidae now
known to occur in citrus, only 5 are common to abundant. Although wolf
spiders occur in commercial citrus groves, only 4 species have been taken in
sufficient number to be considered relatively common. Thomisidae, Hetero-
podidae, Ctenidae, and Oxyopidae are poorly represented. Salticids are not
particularly common; 9 species have been recorded.

This is a narrative report of ecological observations and data collected
during 20 years of entomological investigation into the ecological factors
that influence the control of injurious insects and mites that attack Florida
citrus. Therefore, the compilation and discussion of spiders associated with
Florida citrus trees is not exhaustive or even relatively complete.
Although several special biological and ecological studies were conducted
on spiders that inhabit citrus groves, most of the observations and many of
the specimens collected were incidental to University of Florida, Agricultural
Experiment Station project studies. For this reason, the following stratal
list of spiders associated with Florida citrus groves is unquestionably in-
complete. Many rare or uncommon species not listed will be collected from
citrus trees in the future. Further, several common spiders not listed or
discussed undoubtedly will be found in certain outlying citrus growing areas.
However, it is believed that the data (Table 1) cover most of the species
that have a potential for influencing Florida citrus ecosystems.
Primitive, haplogyne spiders, are represented in commercial Florida
groves by 5 species. None are sufficiently common to be more than of pass-
ing interest. It is possible that Scytodes fusca Walckenaer and several
species of Oonopidae are more common in unsprayed, uncultivated, "biologi-
cal control" groves maintaining deeper ground surface litter or duff (M. H.
Muma, unpublished data).
Cribellate spiders are common to abundant in Florida citrus groves. Al-

1Contribution No. 303. Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, Florida 32602.
2Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, Florida 32602.
Present address: Silver City, New Mexico 88061.

84 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975


Stratal Occurrence
Family, Ground Trunk Leaves
Genera, & Species & Litter & Limbs & Fruit
Filistata hibernalis Hentz X
Scytodes fusca Walckenaer X
Oonops floridanus Chamberlin and Ivie X
Opopaea brasima Chickering X X
Pholcus phalangioides (Fuesslin) X
Dictyna altamira Gertsch & Davis X
Dictyna annulipes Blackwall X
Dictyna capens Chamberlin X
Dictyna coweta Chamberlin & Gertsch X
Dictyna florens Ivie & Barrows X
Dictyna manitoba Ivie X
Dictyna roscida Hentz X
Dictyna spathula Gertsch & Davis X
Dictyna volucripes Keyserling X
Uloborus cinereus O.P. Cambridge X X
Uloborus glomosus Walckenaer X X
Dinopis spinosis Marx X
Anelosimus studiosus (Hentz) X
Argyrodes furcatus O.P. Cambridge X X
Argyrodes globosus Keyserling X X
Argyrodes nephile Taczanowski X X
Chrysso albomaculata O.P. Cambridge X
Chrysso clementinae (Petrunkevitch) X
Coleosoma acutiventer (Keyserling) X X
Coleosoma floridana Banks X
Latrodectus mactans (Fabricius) X X
Paidisca marxi (Crosby) X
Paratheridula perniciosa (Keyserling) X
Steatoda erigoniformis (O.P. Cambridge) X
Steatoda quadrimaculata (O.P.
Cambridge) X
Theridion antonii (Keyserling) X
Theridion flavonotatum Becker X X X
Theridion glaucescens Becker X X
Theridula opulenta (Walckenaer) X
Tidarren sisyphoides (Walckenaer) X

Muma: Spiders in Florida Citrus Groves

Stratal Occurrence
Family, Ground Trunk Leaves
Genera, & Species & Litter & Limbs & Fruit
Eperigone banksi Ivie & Barrows X
Eperigone inornata Ivie and Barrows X
Eperigone maculata Banks X
Eperigone serrata Ivie & Barrows X
Erigone autumnalis Emerton X X
Florinda coccinea (Hentz) X
Meioneta spp. (six, possibly some new) X
Walckenaera vigilax Blackwell X
Mysmena sp. (probably new) X
Mimetus notius Chamberlin X
Mimetus sp. (undetermined) X X
Acacesia hamata (Hentz) X
Acanthepeira stellata (Marx) X
Araneus cingulatus (Walckenaer) X
Araneus miniatus (Walckenaer) X
Argiope argentata (Fabricius) X
Argiope aurantia Lucas X
Argiope trifasciata (Forskal) X
Cyclosa sp. (nr. conica Pallas) X
Eustala anastera (Walckenaer) X
Gasteracantha cancriformis (Linneaus) X X
Leucauge venusta (Walckenaer) X
Mastophora archeri Gertsch X
Micrathena sagittata (Walckenaer) X
Neoscona spp. (two, possibly three species) X
Nephila clavipes (Linneaus) X
Tetragnatha limnocharis Seeley X X
Tetragnatha seneca Seeley X X
Verrucosa arenata (Walckenaer) X
Castianeira floridana Banks X
Castianeira n.sp. (longipalpus group) X
Meriola decepta floridana Chamberlin
& Ivie X
Trachelas laticeps Bryant X
Aysha gracilis (Hentz) X X X
Callilepis imbecilla Keyserling X
Drassyllus seminolus Chamberlin
& Gertsch X
Drassyllus n.sp. (nr. gymnosaphes
Chamberlin) X
Sergiolus decipiens Chamberlin X
Zelotes n.sp. X

86 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

Family, Ground Trunk Leaves
Genera, & Species & Litter & Limbs & Fruit
Lycosa lenta Hentz X
Pardosa pauxilla Montgomery X
Pardosa longispinata Tullgren X
Pirata appalacheus Gertsch X
Pirata suwaneus Gertsch X
Schizocosa incerta Bryant X
Oxyopes salticius (Hentz) X
Heteropoda venatoria Linneaus X X
Hentzia ambigua (Walckenaer) X
Icius sp. (spm. damaged) X
Metacyrba sp. (spm. young) X
Pellenes peregrinus Peckham X
Phidippus regius (C.L. Koch) X X
Phidippus otiosus (Hentz) X X
Plexippus paykulli (Audouin) X
Thiodina iniquies (Walckenaer) X X
Zygoballus bettini Peckham X
Totals 42 34 35
Grand Total= 91 (96-99 with confused forms)

though only 12 species have been collected, several of these may be the most
abundant spiders on the trees. Dictyna florens Ivie and Barrows, for in-
stance, is a common, widely distributed species that curls and webs outside
leaves on both orange and grapefruit trees. Grove food-habits investigations
have demonstrated that the species feeds primarily on midges, mosquitoes
and vinegar gnats. Furthermore the species is much more common on mar-
ginal trees adjoining lakes and swamps. Laboratory experiments designed
to force-feed spidermites and whiteflies to the species failed to demonstrate
ready acceptance of these injurious forms. At least 6 other species of
Dictyna have been collected from citrus leaves and 2 from citrus litter.
Uloborus glomosus Walckenaer and Uloborus cinereus O.P. Cambridge spin
their delicate, horizontally oriented, hackle-band orb webs between the
smaller limbs and twigs near the periphery of the tree, often among the
outer leaves of the canopy. Although both species may be found in the same
grove, there is a decided tendency for U. cinereus to be more common in
ridge and sand dune groves and for U. glomosus to be more abundant under
hammock and flat-woods conditions. Grove observations and web examina-
tions on these 2 spiders indicate that tiny midges, vinegar gnats, and white-
flies probably comprise their major diet.
Owing to their diurnally secretive and nocturnally active cursorial habits
very little is known about the wandering spiders of the family Gnaphosidae.
Five species are presently known from citrus litter. Collections to date in-

Muma: Spiders in Florida Citrus Groves

dicate that members of the genus Drassyllus may be the most common in
citrus litter (Muma 1973) but additional studies in unsprayed, uncultivated
groves are needed.
Vagrant spiders of the closely related families Anyphaenidae and Clubi-
onidae are at times quite common in Florida citrus groves. Five species
have been collected. The ubiquitous Aysha gracilis (Hentz) is quite appar-
ent on the trunk, limbs, leaves, and fruit during the late summer and early
fall, and is relatively common on the ground and in the litter during the same
seasons. Its apparent abundance on the trees should be viewed with sus-
picion. The spider is attacked by 1 or more species of parasitic fungi (prob-
ably Entomophthora or Beauveria) that turn the spider pale yellow to snow
white and fasten it to leaves, fruit, and limbs (Muma et al. 1961). These
strikingly visible spiders may bias observations. Although numerous living
specimens of A. gracilis have been observed on and collected from citrus
trees, feeding observations have been rare. One or 2 specimens were ob-
served carrying small phalaenids, and 1 was seen feeding on a dolichopodid.
The most abundant club-footed spider associated with citrus groves is
Meriola decepta floridana Chamberlin and Ivie. Since the species is primar-
ily a litter inhabiting form, nothing is known about its food habits. It is
known that it is not perennially abundant which suggests that its prey is
also variable in population and probably is not an important perennial pest
(Muma 1973).
The comb-footed spiders are well represented in Florida citrus groves.
Altogether 19 species have been recorded, 9 from the leaves and fruit, 7 from
the trunk and limbs, and 10 from the ground and litter. Among the leaves
the most obvious but not the most common, is the communal spider Anelosi-
mus studiosus (Hentz). The unsightly, tangled web of this species may en-
close from several leaves to a whole twig of the outer canopy. Dead leaves,
twigs, and the carcasses of numerous midges make the webs more strikingly
visible. From 1 to 4 mature spiders inhabit each web. No observations or
studies have been made on the food habits of this spider, but it is difficult to
avoid the conclusion that midges form a large part of its diet. Perhaps the
most common theridiid among the leaves is Theridula opulenta (Walcken-
aer). The small, delicate webs of the species are constructed on the lower
sides of curled or cupped leaves all the way from the water-sprouts near the
trunk to the outer leaves of the canopy. Tiny midges and adult whitefles
often are seen trapped in the webs and probably are the main staple of this
spider's diet. Chrysso albomaculata Cambridge and Coleosoma acutiventer
(Keyserling) also build their webs on the lower and sometimes upper sur-
faces of the leaves but are not as common on the trees as T. opulenta. The
most common large tangled-web weaver on Florida citrus trees is Tidarren
sisyphoides (Walckenaer). In certain groves almost every tree will have 1
or more of the loose tangled webs of this spider spanning the main forks of
the trunk and major limbs. The spider normally utilizes a dead, rolled leaf
hung in the web as a retreat and for egg deposition. Prey includes: moths,
flies, crickets, tree-crickets, bush-crickets, Chrysopa adults, and miscellaneous
other insects according to web surveys of mummies and entangled forms.
Theridion flavonotatum Becker and Theridion glaucescens Becker also build
their webs on the scaffolding and among the leaves of the tree but are not
nearly as common as T. sisyphoides. Among the theridiids that build their

88 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975/

webs in, on, or near the surface of the ground, Theridion antonii (Keyser-
ling), Steatoda erigoniformis (O.P. Cambridge), and Latrodectus mactans
(Fabricius) are the most common. T. antonii builds its small webs under
trash on the ground but also wanders readily in the environs. S. erigoni-
formis does not move about freely, but the species is so common that males
often may be seen walking over the soil surface. L. mactans most frequently
builds its webs under empty fertilizer sacks, boards, and other large debris
on the ground surface, but in groves supporting a moderate to heavy leaf-
pack, it may extend its web upward onto the trunk and lower scaffold limbs
of the citrus trees. The prey of T. antonii is unknown, but S. erigoniformis
probably feeds on ants as do its western ecological replacements (M. H.
Muma, unpublished data). The omnivorous food habits of L. mactans are
well authenticated by several workers (Kaston 1970, Thorpe and Woodson
1945). Before discussing the other families of grove inhabiting spiders,
mention should be made of the several species of Argyrodes that commen-
salize the webs of the large araneids. Only 3 species of these bizarre, quick-
silvered, comb-footed spiders have been recorded from citrus groves, but
several others probably occur there. They feed predominately on tiny in-
sects overlooked by the web builder. These include mosquitoes, midges,
vinegar gnats, and whiteflies. At times species of Argyrodes are abundant
in the webs of Argiope and Nephila.
The sheet-web weavers and dwarf spiders are poorly represented in
citrus groves. Certainly more than the 8 species recorded above eventually
will be collected from groves. On the other hand linyphiids are primarily
Nearctic and boreal and are poorly represented throughout Florida. Florinda
coccinea (Hentz) and Erigone autumnalis Emerton are found regularly on
the trees but are seldom abundant. The same is true of the 6 species of
Meioneta found in the ground surface litter (Muma 1973).
Pirate spiders, Mimetus spp., are rare on citrus. Only a few specimens
of 2 species have been recorded. The spiders are, of course, well known
spider cannibals.
Unquestionably the number of orb weavers of the family Araneidae will
be greatly expanded over those recorded here. Among the 18 species now
known to occur in the groves, only 5 are common to abundant, and it is
doubtful that this figure will be greatly increased. Acacesia hamata
(Walckenaer), Acanthepeira stellata (Marx), Argiope argentata (Fabrici-
is), Argiope aurantia Lucas, and Argiope trifasciata (Forskall) are all
margin inhabiting species and are found primarily at the edges of groves,
particularly along hedge and fence rows. A. argentata is found only in the
southern third of the state. Neoscona spp. occasionally build webs between
the trees near grove buildings. Araneus miniatus (Walckenaer) and
Araneus cingulata (Walckenaer) build their webs among the twigs and
leaves near the outer edge of the canopy. Eustala anastera (Walckenaer),
Leucauge venusta (Walckenaer) Micrathena sagittata (Walckenaer), and
Verrucosa arenata (Walckenaer) usually utilize the trunk and major scaf-
fold limbs for their web sites. Tetragnatha limnocharis Seeley and Tetrag-
natha seneca Seeley, often build closer to the leaf canopy. Gasteracantha
cancriformis (Linneaus) and Nephila clavipes (Linneaus), by far the most
common orb weavers in Florida citrus groves, build their characteristic
webs on tall weeds between the trees, under the trees, in the tops of the

__ __

_ ____

Muma: Spiders in Florida Citrus Groves

trees, and in the electrical wires above the trees. No food habits observa-
tions or studies have been conducted on the margin-inhabiting species in
citrus groves, but other workers have reported large flying insects, par-
ticularly grasshoppers as the favored food of the Argiopinae. A. miniatus
and A. cingulata webs collect numerous small moths, midges, and whiteflies,
which probably form the diet of the 2 species. By far the most abundant
scaffold-inhabiting spider is L. venusta. Midges, mosquitoes, moths, and
flies are most frequently found entangled in its web. The 2 small species of
Tetragnatha apparently capture and eat mosquitoes and midges. N.
clavipes, more commonly found in coastal, hammock and flatwood groves,
snares and feeds on large insects like butterflies, moths, bees, wasps, and
grasshoppers, leaving the smaller, trapped insects to its ubiquitous com-
mensals, Argyrodes spp. The spiny-bellied orb weaver, G. cancriformis is
abundant in citrus groves throughout the state. A single tree often may
support as many as 10 to 20 webs of adult females, and the immature webs
are often too numerous to count. All stadia except males have been ob-
served feeding on whiteflies, vinegar gnats and larger insects with the fe-
males, of course, being able to handle the larger prey (Muma 1971).
Although wolf spiders occur in commercial citrus groves, nocturnal
headlight collecting for them produces very few specimens, and can-trap
collecting verifies the head-light studies. Only 4 species-Pardosa pauxilla
Montgomery, Pardosa longispinata Tullgren, Pirata appalacheus Gertsch,
and Schizocosa incerta Bryant-have been taken in sufficient numbers even
to be considered relatively common. Most studies were conducted in well
cultivated groves, so it is probable that investigation of uncultivated or in-
frequently cultivated groves might uncover larger, more varied populations.
Wolf spider food habits are well known (Whitcomb et al. 1967).
Thomisidae, Heteropodidae, Ctenidae, and Oxyopidae are poorly repre-
sented on Florida citrus trees and most frequently by immatures, indicating
that they are transients. OcCasionally Heteropoda venatoria Linneaus will
be seen climbing or resting on tree trunks in the vicinity of grove buildings.
They are never common, as might be expected, since their prey are mainly
cockroaches and crickets.
Salticids also are not particularly common on or under the citrus trees.
However, 9 species have been recorded, and others probably will be col-
lected. Most jumping spiders probably will prove to be transients, but
Hentzia ambigua (Walckenaer), Phidippus regius C. L. Koch, and Thiodina
iniquies (Walckenaer) are collected regularly from the leaves and fruit
and are tree residents. Their foods habits have not been investigated.

KASTON, B. J. 1970. Comparative biology of American black widow spiders.
Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. 16(3):33-82.
MUMA, MARTIN H. 1971. Biological and behavioral notes on Gasteracantha
cancriformis (Arachnida: Araneidae) Fl. Ent. 54:345-51.
MUMA, MARTIN H. 1973. Comparison of ground surface spiders in four
central Florida ecosystems. Fla. Ent. 56:173-96.
An annotated list of predators and parasites associated with insects
and mites on Florida citrus. Univ. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 634:1-39.

The Florida Entomologist

THORPE, R. W., AND W. D. WOODSON. 1945. Black widow (America's most
Poisonous Spider). University North Car. Press, Chapel Hill. 222 p.
WHITCOMB, W. H., J. M. R. WHITE, AND R. R. EASON. 1967. Wolf and lynx
spider life histories. Univ. of Ark. Dep. Ent. Mimeo. Rep. to Nat.
Sci Found. p. 1-142.

following procedure used to extract eggs of Plecia nearctica Hardy (Dip-
tera: Bibionidae), the lovebug, from soil was developed by modifying
nematode extraction techniques (F. E. Cavenes and H. J. Jenson. 1955. Proc.
Helminthol. Soc. Wash. 22: 87-89; P. M. Miller. 1957. The Plant Disease
Reporter. 41:194). Soil core samples were taken with a 4 1/4 inch diam golf
hole former. A garden sprayer was used to wash the soil from the top 1 in.
of each core into a bucket. After settling momentarily, the water and
humus were decanted (leaving the sand) into a #10 sieve suspended over
a #200 sieve (U.S.S.-A.S.I.M. designations). The sieves were mounted in a
homemade apparatus (modified from D. E. Lawson and G. T. Weekman.
1966. J. Econ. Ent. 59:657-659) which rotated them slowly (40rpm) and
directed a fine spray on each sieve. This facilitated the flow of water
through the residue accumulating on the sieves. Sugar water (1 lb sugar/gal)
was used to wash the egg-containing residue on the lower screen into centri-
fuge tubes. This mixture was thoroughly stirred, then centrifuged for 1 min
at 7,000 rpm to concentrate the eggs in the supernatant. The supernatant
was then poured into a #325 sieve and washed with water. A small quantity
of this washed material was mixed with water and poured onto filter paper
in a 125 mm Buchner funnel. Even distribution of this material on the
paper was obtained: 1.) by placing a circle of #18 gauge screen under the
filter paper, and 2.) by vacuum filtration started after the water and resi-
due were added to the funnel. The residue on the filter paper was examined
with the aid of a binocular microscope for the jet-black, football-shaped
lovebug eggs. A wire grid was used to expedite counting. In a preliminary
experiment, by similar procedures, 331 eggs were recovered from 160 core
samples (20.9 eggs/ft2, s = 54.7) taken from a Bahiagrass (Paspalum sp.) pas-
ture near Gainesville, Florida that had a large adult lovebug population.
A few 1st instars were also recovered. Lawrent L. Buschman and Louis C.
Kuitert, University of Florida, Department of Entomology and Nema-
tology, Gainesville, Florida 32611.

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

The Florida Entomologist


Department of Entomology and Nematology
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611

Gomphus ozarkensis is described from Arkansas and compared with G.
crassus Hagen in detail. G. hybridus Williamson is removed from the
Arkansas state list.

In 1956, when I described Gomphus septima from Alabama I examined a
number of specimens from the states south of Kentucky that had been de-
termined by various workers as G. fraternus (Say), and found that all were
of other species. One male sent by George H. Beatty was from DeQueen,
Arkansas and had been collected by Alice Ferguson Beatty in 1952. It had
been identified as fraternus, but in a letter to Mr. Beatty in 1957, I wrote
that it was not that species, but possibly an undescribed species and more
like crassus Hagen. He wrote that I should describe it. This specimen was
somewhat general, with a wooden toothpick in the abdomen, the end of the
abdomen was compressed, and the tip of the penis missing. The terminal
abdominal appendages subsequently became broken in shipping. I asked
friends to try collecting more of them without success. Finally William F.
Mauffray gave me a male and 2 females which he collected in 1965. In spite
of the small sample, I have decided to present a description based on this
The Arkansas record of fraternus (Needham and Westfall 1955) was
based on a male and female published by Calvert (1901). These specimens
were in 1956 referred by me to hybridus Williamson chiefly on the basis of
the obscure dark area between the usual 2 lateral dark stripes of the thorax.
This character was considered to be quite distinctive in the south for
hybridus. After recognizing the importance of the characters of the penis
in this group (Westfall 1974), I reexamined the fragments of Calvert's 2
specimens. The penis and terminal abdominal appendages of the male (now
in alcohol and glycerine) and the subgenital plate of the female were in
good condition. These specimens are definitely of the new species here de-
scribed, so hybridus as based on them should be removed from the Arkansas
state list.
This new species, known only as yet from Arkansas, is named for the
famous Ozark Mountains in which the holotype male was collected. It be-
longs to the subgenus Gomphurus as treated by Needham and Westfall
(1955) and well defined by Walker (1958).

Gomphus ozarkensis Westfall, new species
HOLOTYPE MALE: General color dark brown to black, with pale green
areas, more yellow on swollen apical segments of abdomen.

'Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Journal Series No. 5772.
2Department of Zoology, University of Florida.

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

92 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

3 4

6a 6b

Fig. 1-6. Gomphus ozarkensis n. sp.: 1 and 2, dorsal and lateral views
of end of abdomen of male; 3. subgenital plate of female; 4. lateral view of
penis of male; 5. lateral view of right posterior hamule of male; 6a. dorsal
view of thorax with anterior end toward bottom of page; 6b. lateral view of

Head: Labium pale, border of median lobe darker. Tips of maxillae
dark brown. Face pale, with dark brown pits at ends of suture between
labrum and anteclypeus. Top of frons pale, a narrow broken line at its
base extending just anterior to antennae. Vertex brown, its elevated post-
ocellar ridge darker. Occiput pale, its crest slightly biconvex and bearing
brown pubescence.
Pronotum: Anterior lobe yellow in middle, brown laterally. Median lobe
pale with elevated areas near midline brown, and dark brown laterally above
prothoracic coxae and around prothoracic spiracle.
Synthorax: Middorsal carina and collar pale. Middorsal brown stripe
widened only slightly anteriorly, a little wider than pale area bordering it

Westfall: A New Species of Gomphus

on each side (Fig. 6a). Humeral suture overlaid with brown stripe com-
pletely fused with the brown antehumeral stripe to form very wide stripe
wider than light stripe on either side of it (Fig. 6b). First and second
lateral stripes complete, but darker below, and fused to form wide lateral
stripe, slightly lighter in middle. Mesepisternum partly pale. Metinfra-
episternum pale in its lower half. Coxa of third leg pale with brown streak
across its middle. Lower border of metepimeron suffused with light brown
anteriorly, and brown extending along crest above. Legs in general dark
brown. Tibiae wholly dark brown. Medial surface of prothoracic femora
light brown. Wings with costa yellow, venation brown to black, and stigma
light brown. Wing membrane with yellowish cast. No specific venational
characters noted.
Abdomen: Mostly dark brown. Dorsal pale band extends full length on
segments 1-7, becoming pointed at apices of posterior segments. A broad
yellow triangle at base of segment 8, extending about % its length. Seg-
ments 9 and 10 with dorsal band of yellow entire length, that on 9 about 4
times as wide as that on 10. Sides of 1 and 2, and about anterior 0.33 of 3
broadly pale upward to level of dorsal part of auricle. Segment 1 with dense
patch of dark hair just above level of auricle, also with shining black prom-
inence on posterior, margin of segment at lower edge of hairy patch.
Posterior edge of auricle bearing about 24 prickles. Segments 4-8 with
basal pale spots on sides, increasing from less than 0.2 length of segment 4
to 0.5 length of 8. Entire expanded ventral border of 9 yellow, this color
extending dorsally for distance equal to about 0.5 length of segment (Fig. 2).
Superior appendages dark brown, inferior light brown, becoming black at
extreme tips. Superiors about twice length of segment 10, and only slightly
longer than inferior. In lateral view superior appendages with a small
lateroventral tooth at little more than 0.66 the length from base (Fig. 2).
Dorsal side slightly convex in lateral view, turned up near apex. Inferior in
lateral view straight basally, but slightly upturned at apex. In dorsal view
branches of inferior project laterally beyond tips of superiors for distance
equal to about twice width of tips of branches. Posterior edge of inferior
appendage broadly concave (Fig. 1). Posterior hamules with shoulder
barely visible in lateral view, apex very sharply pointed and bent cephalad
(Fig. 5). Penis with peduncle rather tall, of cleft pyramidal type, its pos-
terior edge straight; projection from third segment (termed spine of penis
by Calvert in 1921 and prepuce by Walker in 1957) very stout, blunt-tipped,
and extending as far as base of flagella of fourth segment; third segment
on its opposite side at apex with 2 thin lobes projecting over base of fourth
segment; glans penis slightly enlarged near its apex where a small spine is
seen on upper surface (examining the insect with ventral side up). Here
it bends downward, is abruptly narrow and terminates in 2 long flagella
which are about 1.5 times length of fourth segment to upper tooth near apex
of glans (Fig. 4).
ALLOTYPE FEMALE: Coloration similar to male holotype. Dorsal yellow
marking on segment 9 obscure and on 10 broader and more diffuse than in
holotype male. Portion of eleventh segment appearing between appendages
is bright yellow. Hind margin of occiput a little less biconvex than in male,
nearly straight. An extremely small spine, easily overlooked, on ridge be-
tween the lateral ocellus and compound eye. Appendages about 1.25 times

The Florida Entomologist

length of segment 10. Subgenital plate (vulvar lamina) more than 1 as
long as segment 9 ventrally. Lateral margins almost parallel to tips which
are directed caudad. Plate divided medially for about 0.33 of length
(Fig. 3).
VARIATIONS: In the general male paratype the color pattern of the thorax
is very clear, but the dorsal yellow markings of abdominal segments 9 and
10 are not noticeable. All male and female specimens agree in the unusually
broad stripes at the humeral suture and on the side of the thorax. Calvert
(1901) noted that the hind margin of the occiput of his White River, Ar-
kansas "fraternus" female had a slight concavity at the middle, thus differ-
ing from his other true fraternus which had a convexity there. My paratype
female has the occiput slightly more concave at the middle than the allotype.
MEASUREMENTS (mm) : Holotype male: total length including appendages
52; abdomen 37.5; hind wing 29; hind femur 9.5. Allotype female: total
length 53; abdomen 37; hind wing 31.5; hind femur 10.5. Paratype male:
total length 50; abdomen 35; hind wing 29. Paratype female: total length
52; abdomen 37; hind wing 31.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED: Holotype male (No. 722), ARKANSAS, Washing-
ton County, Devil's Den State Park, 18-VI-1965; allotype Female (No. 723),
ARKANSAS, Montgomery County, Camp Albert Pike, 13-VI-1965; both
collected by William F. Mauffray. The holotype and allotype are in the
Florida State Collection of Arthropods at the University of Florida in
Paratype male (No. 724), collected 1 mile west of DeQueen, Arkansas,
27-IV-1952, by Alice Ferguson Beatty, and now in the Beatty collection;
paratype Female (No. 725), collection data same as allotype except 14-VI-,
and now in Florida State Collection of Arthropods.
In addition I have identified as this species the remnants of Calvert's
male and female "fraternus", the male from Upper Jemmy's Creek, 17-V-
1897, and the female from White River, Arkansas, 10-VI-1897. They are in
the collection of the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences.
COMPARISON WITH G. crassus: The similarity to crassus was early recog-
nized, but the columns below indicate the noted differences. Although many

of the differences are relative I have
suaded that ozarkensis is distinct.

G. ozarkensis
Middorsal carina dark (Fig. 6a).
Dark antehumeral and humeral
stripes confluent throughout (Fig.
Posterior hamule thinner, tapering
all the way from base to tip (Fig.

Superior appendages with tooth
farther from apex (Fig. 2).
Penis smaller; flagella shorter; pre-
puce shorter, thicker, and less
pointed at apex (Fig. 4).

found no intermediates and am per-

G. crassus

Middorsal carina light.
Dark antehumeral and
stripes separated in part.


Posterior hamule thicker, broadly
curved and not tapering so notic-
ably from base to tip, thinner only
at extreme tip.
Superior appendages with tooth
nearer apex.
Penis larger; flagella longer; pre-
puce longer, thinner, and more
pointed at apex.

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

Westfall: A New Species of Gomphus

Dark antehumeral and humeral
stripes confluent throughout.
Occiput from above straight to
slightly concave; anterior surface
with a distinct bulge.
Minute spine between lateral ocellus
and compound eye.
Subgenital plate constricted at 1/
length from base, divided medially
for about 1/3 its length, lateral
margins and tips subparallel (Fig.

Dark antehumeral and humeral
stripes separated in part.
Occiput from above folded over an-
teriorly and distinctly concave; an-
terior surface with no bulge.
Conspicuous horn between lateral
ocellus and compound eye.
Subgenital plate constricted at 1/3
length from base, divided medially
for about / its length, lateral
margins and tips strongly diver-

The penis of the male ozarkensis is very different from that of hybridus
(Westfall, 1956). Also the occiput of the female of hybridus is strongly
convex in contrast to ozarkensis where it is straight or slightly concave. In
fraternus the occiput of the female is also convex, and the penis of the male
is very distinct. The nymph of ozarkensis is unknown.

I wish to thank George and Alice Beatty to whom the DeQueen specimen
belongs for the privilege of describing the species, although their specimen
was not used as the holotype. Thanks are due William F. Mauffray for the
three specimens of ozarkensis he gave to us. Carl Cook kindly sent me
several specimens of G. crassus from Kentucky for comparison. The draw-
ings are the work of Esther Coogle and Paul Laessle who are former, and
present staff artist, respectively, of the Zoology Department, University of

CALVERT, P. P. 1901. On Gomphus fraternus, externus and crassus (order
Odonata). Ent. News 12:65-73.
CALVERT, P. P. 1921. Gomphus dilatatus, vastus and a new species, lineati-
frons (Odonata). Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 47:221-232.
NEEDHAM, J. G. and M. J. WESTFALL, JR. 1955. A manual of the dragon-
flies of North America (Anisoptera). Univ. California Press, Berk-
eley. XII+ 615 p.
WALKER, E. M. 1957. The affinities of the North American species of
Gomphus as revealed by the genitalia (Odonata, Gomphidae). Contr.
R. Ontario Mus. Zool. Palaeont. 46:1-24.
WALKER, E. M. 1958. The Odonata of Canada and Alaska, Vol. 2, Univ.
Toronto Press, Toronto. XI+318 p.
WESTFALL, M. J., JR. 1956. A new species of Gomphus from Alabama
(Odonata). Quart. J. Fla. Acad. Sci. 19(4) :251-258.
WESTFALL, M. J., JR. 1974. A critical study of Gomphus modestus Need-
ham, 1942, with notes on related species (Anisoptera: Gomphidae).
Odonatologica 3(1):63-73.

The Florida Entomologist


INSECT PHYSIOLOGY. V. B. Wigglesworth. 7th Edition 1974. Chapman and Hall,
London. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 166 p. This small book is very readable
and can be finished in a couple of evenings. It appears to be a much condensed version
of Professor Wigglesworth's Principles of Insect Physiology. Eleven chapters deal
with integument, respiration, circulation, digestion, excretion, nutrition and
metabolism, growth, reproduction, muscles, nervous system and behavior, and the
endocrine system. There is an adequate index. About half of the chapters have from 2-4
line drawings, but some have none.
The chapter on respiration is one of the best. Wigglesworth discusses structure of
trachea and spiracles, mechanisms of gas exchange, and regulation of breathing. He
devotes the last 4 pages in the chapter to specialized respiration of aquatic and
parasitic forms. The chapters on integument and excretion also were well written and
contained several illustrations.
The book does have some shortcomings. Undoubtedly one of the most difficult
decisions in writing a book of this size is choosing what to leave out. In this case some of
the most exciting work in insect physiology was omitted or so severely curtailed that
the reader may not realize that many scientists are using insects as model systems to
study questions related to the whole of biology. For example, the chapter on the
endocrine system fails to convey the importance of contributions from insect
physiology being made toward understanding hormonal regulation. This is surprising
since Professor Wigglesworth has contributed so much to this very understanding
through his own research.
The chapter on muscles includes little of the mechanism of muscle contraction.
Some deficiencies are likely due to the highly condensed material. For example, the
explanation of the click mechanism operating in flight muscles of Diptera and
Hymenoptera stops short of explaining how an oscillation is maintained. "This
sudden release [of tension] deactivates the contracting muscle and causes it instantly
to relax, . ." It should be explained that muscle remains in a physiological state
called the "active state" for a few milliseconds following a nerve stimulus. The
muscle does indeed cease contracting if the tension is suddenly released, but it can
contract again if the tension is reintroduced while the active state exists. Release of
tension occurs in one set of thoracic muscles when the wing clicks into the up position,
and tension is reintroduced to the opposite set of muscles. Contraction of these
muscles clicks the wings into the down position and reintroduces tension to the first
set of muscles. Several oscillations of wing movements can be achieved in a few
milliseconds after only 1 nerve stimulus to each set of opposing muscles. Vertebrate
muscle can be made to give several oscillatory contractions for each nerve stimulus,
so the uniqueness achieved by insects lies in the elasticity of the wing hinges and the
instability of intermediate wing positions.
There are a few printing and/or careless errors. On p. 91 queen substance of honey
bees is incorrectly named 9-oxodecanoic acid rather than 9-oxo-trans-2-decenoic acid;
on p. 103 there is a slight error in the structural formula of cholesterol; on p. 118, the
sex pheromone of Periplaneta as reported in the original literature was incorrect; on p.
149 the retinal pigment involved in the light reaction mediating vision is said to be
retinene, rather than rhodopsin.
In spite of these limitations, the book is still a valuable addition to an
entomologist's library. For working entomologists, not especially trained in
physiology, it is a fast way to get an overview of some of the basic foundations of
physiology. For graduate students nearing a Ph.D. qualifying exam, it can serve as a
memory jogger for earlier physiology courses, and very likely as a source of
information with which he can stump all his professors.
James L. Nation

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

The Florida Entomologist



Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611


Average numbers of fertile eggs laid by Mocis disseverans (Walker), M.
latipes (Guen6e), and M. marcida (Guende) were 308.0, 277.4, and 183.6, re-
spectively. Pre-oviposition periods ranged from 2-12 days with averages of 4, 4,
and 5 days, respectively, for the 3 species. Mocis larvae were reared success-
fully on all grasses supplied but not on the legumes lima beans, Phaseolus
limensis, Macf; peanut, Arachis hypogaea L.; and Glycine max L. There were
6 or 7 larval instars; larvae pupated within folded leaves. At 755F, the
life-cycles on quineagrass, Panicum maximum Jacq. of M. disseverans, M.
latipes, and M. marcida averaged 34.6, 27.4, and 45.8 days, respectively, but
the ranges overlapped. Mated females of M. latipes and M. disseverans each
lived 13 days, while M. marcida females lived 15.2 days. All 3 species had a 1:1
sex ratio. No parasitoid was found to be specific to any Mocis sp. Parasitoids
reared from Mocis pupae were the sarcophagids, Sarcodexia sternodontis
Townsend, and Sarcophaga sp. the braconids, Apanteles scitulus Riley, Me-
teorus autographa Muesebeck, and Microplitis maturus Weed; the chalcids,
Brachymeria ovata ovata (Say), and B. robusta (Cresson); and the ich-
neumonids, Coccygomimus aequalis (Provancher), Enicospilus purgatus
(Say), E. arcuatus? (Felt), and Gambrus ultimus (Cresson). Predators of
Mocis larvae were a tenebrionid adult, Bothrothesfortis (Casey) and a carabid
larva, Pinacodera sp.

The Mocis spp. occurring in Florida are M. disseverans (Walker), M.
latipes (Guenee), M. marcida (Guende), and M. texana (Morrison) (Kimball
1965). Mocis larvae, commonly called grass loopers or striped grassworms, are
major pests of pastures. Genung (1964, 1967, 1968) reported outbreaks on
sudangrass, Sorghum valgare var. sudanense (Piper) Hitch; ryegrass, Lolium
multiflorum Lam; and paragrass, Panicum purpurascens Raddi. Mocis larvae
also have been reported to feed on non-grass plants (Bastos Cruz et al. 1962,
Bissell 1940, Kimball 1965, Wolcott 1923, Ware 1973). We questioned whether
Mocis larvae fed on non-grass hosts, therefore, we studied the utilization of 3
legumes by these insects. The life-history of M. latipes has been extensively
studied (Vickery 1924, Dinther 1954, Labrador 1964, Reinert 1975, W. G.
Genung and R. J. Allen unpublished data). Dyar (1902) described the larval
stages of M. latipes. We studied and compared the life-histories of M. dis-
severans and M. marcida with that of M. latipes in Florida. We also surveyed
for the natural enemies of Mocis larvae. Data on M. texana were scanty and,
therefore, not reported in this paper.

'Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 5662.
'Present address: Plant Quarantine Div., Fed. Dep. Agr. Res. PMB5042, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

The Florida Entomologist

Each female moth of M. disseverans, M. latipes, and M. marcida, collected
at light traps in Gainesville and Belle Glade, was held for oviposition in a 1/2
pint cardboard cup covered with polyethylene plastic. Absorbent cotton
soaked in 10% sucrose solution was pinned to the inside of each cup as a food
source. Moths were transferred daily to new cups until death and the eggs laid
were counted. Laboratory cultures were augmented with adults caught on the
wing in Gainesville and with adults reared from larvae and pupae collected in
a pasture in Newberry. The newly hatched larvae were placed individually in
9 cm diam glass petri-dishes. The larvae of all species were reared at 75 5F
and a 16L:8D photoperiod. Developmental durations, to adult eclosion, of
newly hatched larvae; percentage larval mortalities; and pupal weights of the
3 species were compared. The larvae were reared on greenhouse grown leaves
of corn, Zea mays L.; guineagrass, Panicum maximum Jacq.; St. Augus-
tinegrass, Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze; and wheat, Triticum
aestivum (L.). Newly emerged male and female moths were held for mating
and oviposition in the cardboard cages. Males were removed and held in
separate cages when females started to oviposit. Fecundity and oviposition
behavior of each female and the longevities of mated males and females were
All larvae used were progeny of moths reared in the laboratory. The test
foods, all greenhouse grown, were lima beans, Phaseolus limensis Macf.;
peanut, Arachis hypogaea L.; and soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. Twenty-
five 1st and 4th larval instars for each species were supplied with young leaves
of each test food. Survival and duration of the larval stage on each test food
were recorded. In another test, freshly cut leaves of lima beans, peanut, corn,
and guineagrass were placed 1 in each quadrant on Whatman no. 4 filter paper
in petri-dishes. A 1st instar was placed on the lima bean leaf and the larva was
observed until it began feeding. This test was replicated 5 times for each
Weekly observations were made on forage crops and lawns in Gainesville
and life stages of Mocis were collected and documented.

M. disseverans laid the highest average number of fertile eggs while M.
marcida laid the least (Table 1). M. latipes laid 37.5 more eggs than Reinert
(1975) reported. Average widths (n= 40) and ranges, in parentheses, of M.
disseverans, M. latipes, and M. marcida eggs were 0.73 (0.60-0.90) mm, 0.64
(0.56-0.68) mm, and 0.84 (0.75-0.90) mm, respectively. Preoviposition periods
under laboratory conditions varied from 2-12 days with means of 4, 4, and 5
days, respectively. The incubation period averaged 4 days for each species with
a range of 2-5 days. Females laid eggs singly for the most part, but sometimes
eggs were clustered such that 2-15 eggs were in contact with each other.
Dinther (1954) and Fennah (1947) recorded egg masses of 8 and 40-60 respec-
tively, for M. latipes. Females of all species caged on potted wheat oviposited
mostly on the cage screen, floor and wooden frames. In the field moths

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

Ogonwolu and Habeck: Biology of Mocis spp.

M. latipes, AND M. marcida REARED IN THE LABORATORY.

Fecundity Longevity (days)**

No. of Avg. No.*
Species eggs fertile eggs Mated Mated

M. disseverans 214-538 304.9 15.5 13.0
M. latipes 94-458 277.4 11.4 13.0
M. marcida 92-412 183.6 12.4 15.2

*Average of 5 females.
**Average of 10 insects.

apparently preferred low grasses for oviposition; eggs were found on the un-
dersurface of the leaves of bahiagrass, Paspalum notatum Flugge; and trans-
vaalagrass, Cynodon transvaalensis Davy. Prior to hatching, the chorion
became transparent dorso-laterally. Larvae exit through the abraded chorion,
leaving white egg shells. These were not devoured contrary to observation of
Dinther (1954).
Upon closing larvae immediately began looping and feeding. Larvae
passed through 6 or 7 instars; however, 1 M. marcida larva went through 8
instars. The larval stages were generally as described by Dyar (1902) for M.
latipes. The head capsule widths of the larval instars are presented in Table 2.
Descriptions and keys to mature larvae and pupae will be published in a
separate paper. Durations in larval stages varied within progeny of the same
female for each test food, and also within species for all test foods. The ranges
of larval durations on the test foods broadly overlapped within species (Table
3). If duration of the larval stage is a criterion to establish host preference, all
species most preferred wheat, followed by corn and guineagrass; St. Augus-
tinegrass was least preferred. Larval mortalities on St. Augustinegrass, a high


severans, M. latipes, AND M. marcida REARED IN THE LABORA-

Head capsule widths (mm)

M. disseverans M. latipes M. marcida

Instars Mean Range Mean Range Mean Range
1 0.44 0.41-0.48 0.38 0.33-0.41 0.46 0.45-0.48
2 0.59 0.53-0.68 0.56 0.49-0.63 0.68 0.56-0.75
3 0.95 0.75-0.98 0.90 0.79-1.01 1.00 0.83-1.09
4 1.26 1.13-1.53 1.40 1.13-1.54 1.42 1.25-1.58
5 1.70 1.59-2.20 1.70 1.64-2.00 1.84 1.69-2.20
6 2.50 2.24-2.63 2.30 2.20-2.50 2.64 2.47-3.21
7 3.06 2.95-3.40 3.01 2.95-3.26 3.21 3.10-3.40

100 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

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Ogonwolu and Habeck: Biology of Mocis spp.

percentage of which occurred in the early instars, were 20.0, 25.3, and 36.0% for
M. latipes, M. disseverans, and M. marcida, respectively. On other test grasses
mortalities were below 15%. We observed high mortalities from drowning of
1st larval instars in the field. Excessive moisture is critical to survival of these
larvae especially in the morning when dew collects on leaf tips. Reinert (1975)
also observed that the 1st larval instar was the most vulnerable in the life-
cycle on M. latipes.
Mocis larvae supplied with the legumes (lima beans, peanuts, and
soybeans) died without feeding and usually survived less than 4 days (Table
4). The larvae of each species given free choice of food fed only on grasses.
These results contradicted Bastos Cruz et al. (1962); Bissell (1940); and Kim-
ball (1965) who reported M. latipes feeding on groundnut; soybean; broad-
bean, Vicia faba L., respectively; and Wolcott (1923) who reported M. mar-
cida feeding on cowpea, Vigna sinensis (Torner). The report of Mocis larvae
infesting Washington palms, Washingtonia robusta Wendl. (Ware 1973) is
also apparently incorrect.

VAL INSTARS OF Mocis disseverans, M. latipes, AND M. marcida

Time to mortality (in days)

M. disseverans M. latipes M. marcida*

Test Food 1 4 1 4 1 4
Lima beans 3.33 3.75 2.00 2.00 3.25 4.00
Peanuts 2.00 4.00 2.00 3.75 3.00 4.00
Soybeans 2.75 4.00 2.00 3.75 3.60 4.00
*Average of 10 insects.

We observed Mocis larvae feeding on the following grasses in the field:
bahiagrass, bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.; dogtoothgrass, C.
incompletus Nees; rhodesgrass, Chloris gayana Kunth; pearl millet, Pen-
nisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.; sudangrass; St. Augustinegrass; trans-
vaalagrass; and Pennisetum americanum (L.) Schum in Engl. This list does
not completely cover the host plants of Mocis larvae. Allen and Genung (1974)
reported that M. latipes attacks 44 different species of grasses. The 1st and 2nd
larval instars fed on epidermal layers only; 3rd and later instars fed by making
notches on leaf margins. During an outbreak, larvae completely defoliated
fields of transvaalagrass. Damage to food plants could be light or severe
depending on intensity of attack and stage of larvae (Labrador 1964). Larvae
were observed to feed at night at which time they crawled up the plant; during
the day larvae lay curled in clumps of grass or on the ground in fields of low
grasses. Larvae on plants when touched, dropped to the ground and lay curled.
Pupation took place in folded leaves as described by Labrador (1964). Dura-
tion in pupal stage (as well as pupal weights) varied less widely among progeny
of the same female, and also within species reared on different hosts than did
duration of the larval stage (Table 3). Based on pupal weight, M. latipes did

The Florida Entomologist

better on the velvet-bean caterpillar diet and corn while M. disseverans and
M. marcida did best on guineagrass. All 3 species weighed least when reared on
St. Augustinegrass. Data on Table 3 do not show a distinct correlation
between larval duration and pupal weight, which is principally determined by
species size, quality and quantity of food consumed by the larvae.
Only 1% of all adults reared in the laboratory had deformed wings. It is
probable that exposure to excessive heat in the pupal stage was the cause of
wing deformation. Adults flew vigorously at night and were always attracted
to light. During outbreaks large number of Mocis adults could be collected
from walls of public buildings (Vickery 1924). Longevities of mated males and
females of each species are presented in Table 1. Each species had a 1:1 sex
ratio (n = 140). M. latipes, the smallest species, generally completed its life-
cycle faster than M. disseverans and M. marcida (Table 3). The life-cycle of
M. latipes reared on corn averaged 28.3 days with a range of 25-33 days.
Vickery (1924) recorded an average of 36 days at 760F and Bodkin (1914)
reported 26-31. On St. Augustinegrass, M. latipes completed its life-cycle in
36.2 days, 3.8 days more than reported by Reinert (1975). Outbreaks of Mocis
spp. occurred from August to November in 1973; peak of emergence, based on
light trap catches, was late July to early August for M. marcida; and late
September and early October for M. latipes and M. disseverans. Larvae were
collected on grasses previously listed, and pupae from blackberry, Rubus
cuneifolius Pursh; dogfennel Eupatorium compositifolium Walt; ragweed,
Ambrosia artemisifolia L; and Florida pusley, Richardia scabra L. It is
probable that non-grass host records were based upon plants from which
pupae were collected.
We collected 325 pupae of which 6% were parasitized. This low level of
parasitism supports the claims of Allen and Genung (1974) that parasitoids do
not prevent the development of economic levels of M. latipes. They reported 2
viruses as more important natural control factors. Parasitoids reared from
Mocis pupae were the sarcophagids Sarcodexia sternodontis Townsend, and
Sarcophaga sp.; the braconids Apanteles scitulus Riley, Meteorus au-
tographe Muesebeck, and Microplitis maturus Weed; the chalcids
Brachymeria ovata ovata (Say), and B. robusta (Cresson); and the ich-
neumonids Coccygomimus aequalis (Provancher), Enicospilus purgatus
(Say), E. arcuatus? (Felt) and Gambrus ultimus (Cresson). A tenebrionid
adult, Bothrothes fortis (Casey.) and a carabid larva, Pinacodera sp. act as
predators of Mocis larvae.

We extend sincere appreciation to R. J. Gagne (Systematic Entomology
Laboratory, Washington, D. C.) and H. N. Greenbaum (University of Florida)
for identifying dipterous and hymenopterous parasitoids respectively, R. E.
Woodruff (Fla. Dep. of Agr.) for identification of the predators and to D. Hall
(Univ. of Florida) for identifying host plants of Mocis spp. The work of Dr.
Amalia Lehman who translated Labrador's paper from Spanish to English is


ALLEN, G. E., AND W. G. GENUNG. 1975. New virus disease of Mocis latipes. J.
Invert. Pathol. (In press)

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

Ogonwolu and Habeck: Biology of Mocis spp.

BASTOS CRUZ, B. P., B. FIGUEIREDO, AND E. ALMEIDO. 1962. The principal
diseases and pests of groundnut in the State of Sao Paulo. (in Por-
tuguese). Biologico 28(7):189-95 (Rev. Appl. Ent. 51:446. 1963).
BISSELL, T. L. 1940. Entomology. Ga. Exp. Sta. Rep. 52:58-64.
BODKIN, G. E. 1914. The grass moth Remigia repanda. J. Board Agr. Brit.
Guiana 7(4):171-7.
DINTHER, J. B. 1954. Laphygma frugiperda S & A. and Mocis latipes in
Surinam. Ent. Ber. 15:427-31.
DYAR, H. G. 1902. Life histories of some North American moths. Proc. U. S.
Nat. Mus. 23:255-84.
FENNAH, R. G. 1947. Mocis repanda, the Guinea grass moth. In The Insect
Pests of Food Crops in the Lesser Antilles. Agr. Dep. St. George's,
Grenada. Windw. and Leew., Is p. 85.
GENUNG, W. G. 1964. USDA Coop. Econ. Insect Rep. 14(34):965.
GENUNG, W. G. 1967. Ibid. 17(52):1081.
GENUNG, W. G. 1968. Ibid. 18(38):897.
KIMBALL, C. P. 1965. Arthropods of Florida and neighboring land areas. Vol. 1
Lepidoptera of Florida. Div. Plant Ind. Florida Dep. Agr., Gainesville,
363 p.
LABRADOR, J. R. S. 1964. Estudio de biologiay combat del gusano medidor de
les pastos Mocis repanda F. en el estado Zulia. (Study of the bionomics
of Mocis repanda F. in the State of Zulia). Facultad de Agronomia.
Kasmera. L (4):111-44.
REINERT, J. A. 1975. Life history of the striped grassworm, Mocis latipes
(Guenee). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. (In press).
VICKERY, R. A. 1924. The striped grass looper, Mocis repanda Fab. in Texas. J.
Econ. Ent. 17:401-5.
WARE, F. L. 1973. Host record of Mocis latipes. P. 2 In Triology (F. W. Mead,
Ed.) Div. Plant Ind. Florida Dep. Agr., Gainesville, 12(10), 4p.
WOLCOTT, G. N. 1923. Insect Portoricensis. A preliminary annotated check list
of the insects of Porto Rico with description of some new species. J.
Dep. Agr. P.R. 7:1-313.

Methyl parathion is combined with carbaryl and recommended for con-
trol of the bollworm, Heliothis zea (Boddie), and the tobacco budworm,
H. virescens (F.), in Texas. We do not know whether this mixture is additive,

'In cooperation with the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Texas A&M University,
College Station 77843.
'This paper reflects the results of research only. Mention of a pesticide or a proprietary
product in this paper does not constitute a recommendation or an endorsement of this product
by the USDA.

The Florida Entomologist

synergistic, or antagonistic against either species. Therefore, we evaluated
ratios of carbaryl and the synergists methyl parathion and 4-chloro-2-
nitrophenyl 2-propynyl ether against these Heliothis species.
The insecticide-susceptible strains of bollworm and tobacco budworm
were reared at the Brownsville laboratory. The average weight of the
larvae of both species at the time the insecticides were applied was 34 mg,
based on weights of untreated larvae. Thirty to 100 larvae were treated with
each treatment (Table 1). The materials were applied topically in 1 ul
total volume of acetone solution to the dorsum of the thorax of each
larva with a microapplicator.
The tests were designed to determine the LD,, (mg toxicant/g body
weight) after 48 hr.
None of the candidate synergists except methyl parathion killed any
larvae; thus the mortality data are not presented. The mixture with 4-
chloro-2-nitrophenyl 2-propynyl ether and carbaryl in a 2:1 ratio showed
the greatest synergistic activity against the bollworm (Table 1). A mixture
of methyl parathion and carbaryl in a 1:2 ratio showed the greatest syner-
gism against the tobacco budworm. Only 4-chloro-2-nitrophenyl 2-pro-
pynyl ether in a 1:4 ratio with carbaryl showed antagonism against the
bollworm (data not shown). However, 4 materials with carbaryl showed
antagonism against the tobacco budworm, 2 at a ratio of 8:1 and 2 at a
ratio of 4:1. Dan A. Wolfenbarger and Eliud Cantu, Cotton Insects Re-
search Laboratory, Agric. Res. Serv., USDA, Brownsville, Texas 78520.


Ratio Bollworm Tobacco budworm
carbaryl LD5, Cotoxicity LD5o Cotoxicity
(mg/g) coefficient* (mg/) coefficient*
0:1 0.088 0.033

Methyl parathion
1:0 .071 .019

Methyl parathion + carbaryl
1:2 .028 123 .0026 1600

4-chloro-2-nitrophenyl 2-propynyl ether + carbaryl
4:1 .044 201 .0090 367
2:1 .015 586 .017 193
1:1 .017 514 .014 234

Calculated from LC,,o's (ug/larva) according to Sun and Johnson (1960) with equation
3 for the methyl parathion-carbaryl ratios and equation 5 for the remaining ratios; a coefficient
above 100 indicates synergism.

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

The Florida Entomologist


Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611

The nymph of Somatochlora provocans Calvert, previously undescribed,
is morphologically similar to the nymphs of Somatochlora elongata (Scud-
der), S. minor Calvert and S. walshii (Scudder). It can be distinguished
from elongata by the shorter hind tibiae, from minor by the absence of a
dorsal hook on abdominal segment 3, and from walshii by the median anal
appendage being longer than the lateral appendages. The S. provocans
nymphs were found in a small lake inlet with sphagnum-covered edges.

The known distribution of Somatochlora provocans Calvert is essentially
southeastern, ranging from New Jersey to northern Florida, west to southern
Mississippi and north to Tennessee and Kentucky (Needham and Westfall,
1955). Beatty and Beatty (1968) point out that the Pennsylvania record
was based on a misdetermination. Adults are not commonly collected and
the nymph has been unknown until this paper. While collecting aquatic in-
sects on 2 occasions in Cheraw State Park, Chesterfield County, South Caro-
lina, I found several Somatochlora nymphs which I kept alive and reared.
One male and 1 female of S. provocans emerged, and it is from the exuviae
and 2 nymphs that I have drawn the following description of the last-instar
nymph. The discovery of this species in South Carolina constitutes a new
state record.

General body color in life pale green, blending with brown at margins
and extremities. Head widest at level of eyes, twice as wide as long; lateral
margins behind eyes slightly convex and converging posteriorly to meet the
concave occiput; fringe of long setae on frons (frontal ridge) between an-
tennae; a row of long setae directly behind eyes, other setae scattered on
top of head and along lateral and occipital margins; a row of smaller setae
on postocciput. Antennae 4.9 to 5.1 mm long; antennal ratio 13:15:14:7:9:
11:11; segments 1 and 2 with many long setae, remaining segments with
few, shorter setae. Labium extending posteriorly between procoxae nearly
to anterior level of mesocoxae; 8 palpal setae in male, 7 in female; 11 pre-
mental setae (8 long, 3 short, progressively diminishing in length toward
midline) ; end hook of palpal lobe shorter than adjacent first palpal seta;
8 or 9 crenulations on margin of each palpal lobe, each crenulation with 5
to 8 stiff, spinelike setae; anterior margin of prementum angulate with
edges slightly concave (Fig. 1).
Thorax widens posteriorly, as wide as head at metathorax. Prothorax

'Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Journal Series No. 5732.

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

The Florida Entomologist



Fig. 1-7. Somatochlora provocans Calvert nymph: 1) prementum in
ventral view; 2-3) dorsum of abdomen in lateral view, male and female,
respectively; 4-5) posterior segments and appendages in dorsal view, male
and female, respectively setaee on posterior margins of segments and mar-
gins of appendages omitted) ; 6-7) anal appendages in lateral view, male
and female, respectively.

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

Tennessen: Nymph of Somatochlora provocans

with elevated protuberances at dorso-lateral angles bearing 20 to 25 long
setae. Lateral margins of thorax bear numerous long setae dorsal to coxae;
all coxae with long dorsal setae, procoxae with greatest number of ventral
setae; sternum with setae near coxae; metasternum with scattered setae
medially. Femora with a row of 4 to 6 widely spaced, dorsal long setae;
hind femora extend posteriorly to middle of abdominal segment 7. Hind
wing pads extend to anterior margin of abdominal segment 6.
Abdomen oval-shaped, widest at segment 6; lateral margins of each seg-
ment bearing 30 to 50 setae, these setae 2 to 3 times longer on segments 8
and 9 (longest on 9); posterior margins of segments 1 to 9 fringed with
setae becoming progressively longer on posterior segments. Segment 10
cylindrical with a row of 6 to 8 small setae on ventrolateral margins. Venter
of abdomen scattered with numerous small setae; postero-ventral margin of
segment 9 clothed with many very long setae which extend posteriorly to
tips of inferior anal appendages. Dorsal hooks present on segments 4 to 9
in male, 5 to 9 in female; hooks in lateral view (Fig. 2 and 3) sharp and
straight, not decurved (dorsal margin very slightly convex); hook on 4 in
male less than 0.33 size of that on 5; in dorsal view, tip of hook on 9
reaches posterior margin of segment 10; dorsal margins of hooks with a
staggered row of 12 to 20 small setae. Lateral spines present on segments
8 and 9 only, those on eight 0.66 length of those on 9, and less than 0.2 length
margin of segment 8 (margin length includes spine) ; spines on 9 about 0.25
length margin of segment 9. Segment 10 about 0.4 as wide as segment 9 at
widest points; segment 9 about 0.75 as wide as and 0.5 as long as segment 8.
Lateral margins of median anal appendage slightly concave in dorsal view,
appendage tapering posteriorly to an acuminate tip (Fig. 4 and 5); median
appendage slightly longer than lateral appendages and shorter than in-
feriors; lateral margins of inferior appendages of male concave in dorsal
view, tips divergent (Fig. 4); inferiors of female not divergent (Fig. 5); in
lateral view of anal pyramid, dorsal margin of median appendage nearly
straight in male with a very slight preapical protuberance (Fig. 6), slightly
concave in female (Fig. 7). Numerous setae clothe venter of median ap-
pendage and dorsal, medial and ventral surfaces of inferior appendages.
Measurements: total length 22-22.5 mm; width of head 6.3-6.43 mm;
length of abdomen 12.5 mm; hind femur 6.6-7.35 mm; hind tibia 7.65-8.2 mm;
hind wing pad 6.8-7.1 mm; prementum 4.6 mm.


The nymph of Somatochlora walshii (Scudder) was described by Walker
(1941) and compared to that of S. minor Calvert. The nymph of provocans
is morphologically more similar to these 2 species than any of the other
known Somatochlora nymphs. In the key to the nymphs of Somatochlora
by Needham and Westfall (1955), provocans keys out to couplet 7, in which
minor and walshii are separated. According to the characters in that coup-
let, provocans is more like walshii in number of dorsal hooks but similar to
minor in number of premental setae. The following emendation to the key
will separate these 3 species.

7 -Dorsal hooks present on segments 3-9; dorsal hook on segment
4 in lateral view about 0.75 length of hook on segment 5............minor

The Florida Entomologist

-Dorsal hooks present on segments 4 or 5-9; dorsal hook on seg-
ment 4, if present, less than 0.5 length of hook on segment 5............7a

7a-Median anal appendage longer than lateral appendages; dorsal
hooks on segments 7-9 nearly straight in lateral view ....- provocans
-Median anal appendage distinctly shorter (male) or nearly same
length (female) as lateral appendages; dorsal hooks on segments
7-9 slightly decurved in lateral view-...........................................walshii
The addition of provocans to Needham and Westfall's key presents other
problems. The third character to help separate S. elongata (Scudder) from
minor and walshii in couplet 6, "lateral spines of 9 one-sixth as long as its
margin", must be omitted as this ratio is variable and approximates the
ratio in provocans. In fact, these 4 species are remarkably similar mor-
phologically. Although elongata usually has longer legs than the other
species, variation and possible overlap cast doubt upon the usefulness of leg
length as a diagnostic character. For example, in a series of 12 last
nymphal instar elongata collected and reared in North Carolina by M. J.
Westfall, Jr., femur and tibia length varied from 7.9-8.75 mm and 9.1-9.95
mm, respectively. However, an elongata nymph reared by Dr. P. D. Har-
wood in West Virginia is markedly smaller, with femur and tibia lengths
of 7.15 mm and 8.45 mm, respectively. These latter measurements fit more
closely the second part of couplet 5 in Walker (1925) and couplet 6 in
Needham and Westfall (1955). Also, little is known of variation within
minor, walshii and provocans, and overlap with elongata in femur and tibia
lengths should be anticipated.
In an effort to find additional characters to separate the nymphs of these
4 species, 9 characters were studied and the results summarized in Table 1.
The nymph of elongata is most similar to minor in measurements, number
of palpal and premental setae and in often possessing a dorsal hook on seg-
ment 3. Walker (1941) reported no such hook in the single nymph avail-
able to him, but noted it showed "a very slight elevation" on this segment.
The nymph of walshii, based on just 2 specimens examined and Walker's de-
scription (1941), is slightly smaller than provocans and quite similar in
number of premental setae and dorsal hooks. It is the only 1 of the 4
species in which the median anal appendage is shorter than the lateral
appendages. The nymph of provocans is similar to minor in size but can be
distinguished by the absence of a hook or elevation on abdominal segment 3,
by the median anal appendage being longer than the lateral appendages,
and by the lateral spine of segment 9 being only 0.2 as long as the segment
margin. Also, the dorsal hooks of provocans in lateral view are nearly
straight, whereas in elongata, minor and walshii they are notably to slightly

Somatochlora provocans. SOUTH CAROLINA (new state record) : Chesterfield
Co., Cheraw State Park, 23-IV-1972, 1 nymph, K. J. Tennessen, male emerged
30-V-1972 (KJT); 1 nymph, M. J. Westfall, Jr. (FSCA); same locality,
21-V-1974, 2 nymphs, K. J. Tennessen, female emerged 28-V-1974 (KJT).
Somatochlora elongata. NORTH CAROLINA: Macon Co., Ravenel Lake, near
Highlands, VI-1953, 21 nymphs, M. J. Westfall, Jr., 11 reared (FSCA).

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

Tennessen: Nymph of Somatochlora provocans

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The Florida Entomologist

WEST VIRGINIA: Tucker Co., strip-mine pond near Davis, 8-VI-1971, 1 nymph,
P. D. Harwood, male emerged 16-VI-1971 (FSCA); Tucker Co., Alder Creek,
24-V-1974, 1 nymph, P. D. Harwood, female emerged (PDH).
Somatochlora minor. WISCONSIN: Price Co., Needle Creek, 13-V-1971, 1
nymph, K.J. Tennessen (KJT).
Somatochlora walshii. ONTARIO: Mer Bleue, died 1-1930, 1 female nymph, E.
M. Walker (ROM). PENNSYLVANIA: Centre Co., Bear Meadows Natural
Area, 30-V-1956, 1 nymph, G. H. Beatty, female emerged 12-VI-1956
Collections containing the specimens are given in parentheses and are ab-
breviated as follows: FSCA: Florida State Collection of Arthropods; ROM:
Royal Ontario Museum; PDH: Paul D. Harwood Collection; KJT: K. J.
Tennessen Collection.


The nymphs of S. provocans were found in a very small, sand-bottomed
inlet flowing into a small lake in Cheraw State Park, South Carolina (340
30' N. Lat., 80" W. Long.). This inlet drains a low, swampy area thickly
overgrown with brush and vines, and crosses a nature trail on the northern
edge of the lake. Here the little stream varies from about 1 to 2 ft in width
and from 1 to 4 inches in depth, and is nearly inaccessible 5 ft on either
side of the trail. Sphagnum moss grows thickly along the muddy edges;
the nymphs were taken in the flowing water on both sides of the trail with
a small strainer dipped near the sphagnum-covered edges.
The addition of the nymph of S. provocans to our knowledge leaves 9
North American species of Somatochlora still unknown in the nymphal
stage: brevicincta Robert, calverti Williamson & Gloyd, ensigera Martin,
filosa (Hagen), georgiana Walker, hineana Williamson, incurvata Walker,
margarita Donnelly, and sahlbergi Trybom.


I wish to thank Dr. Minter J. Westfall, Jr. for advice, specimens and
reading the manuscript, and Dr. Glenn B. Wiggins and Dr. Paul D. Harwood
for loans of specimens.

BEATTY, G. H., and A. F. BEATTY. 1968. Check list and bibliography of
Pennsylvania Odonata. Proc. Pennsylvania Acad. Sci. 42:120-129.
NEEDHAM, J. G., and M. J. WESTFALL, JR. 1955. A manual of the dragon-
flies of North America (Anisoptera). Univ. California Press, Berk-
eley. 615 p.
WALKER, E. M. 1925. The North American dragonflies of the genus
Somatochlora. Univ. Toronto Studies, Biol. Series 26:1-202.
WALKER, E. M. 1941. The nymph of Somatochlora walshii Scudder. Can.
Ent. 73:203-205.

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

The Florida Entomologist


Laboratory of Aquatic Entomology,
Florida A & M University,
Tallahassee, Florida 32307

The type species of the genus Asthenopodes Ulmer, 1924, which has been
referred to as Asthenopodes albicans (Pictet), is given a New Name,
Asthenopodes picteti. The distribution of the Neotropical genus Astheno-
podes is discussed.

Ulmer (1924) established the genus Asthenopodes for the species of
mayfly which he referred to as Palingenia albicans Pictet, and which at that
time was placed in the genus Asthenopus (Ulmer 1921, 1924). Palingenia
albicans Pictet, 1843, was designated as the type species by Ulmer (1924)
and is still the only described species in the genus.
Pictet (1843-5), however, did not describe the species Palingenia albicans
as new, but listed and described a misidentified species which he thought was
the species originally described by Percheron (1838, in Guerin and Perch-
eron) as Ephemera albicans (Lestage 1924; Ulmer 1920, 1921; Traver 1956).
Ephemera albicans Percheron is now considered to be a species of Camp-
surus (Ulmer 1921, 1924; Traver 1956).
Article 49 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature states
that a specific name used in an erroneous specific determination cannot be
retained for the species to which the name was wrongly applied, even if in
different genera. Because Asthenopodes albicans was misidentified by Pictet
as the species described by Percheron (now Campsurus albicans) and
wrongly credited to Pictet by Ulmer (1921, 1924) as a new species, this
species must be renamed. I therefore propose the NEW NAME Asthenopodes
picteti for Asthenopodes albicans (Percheron) sensu Pictet, 1843. This then
becomes the new name for the type species of Asthenopodes Ulmer, 1924;
the formal synonymy follows:
Asthenopodes picteti Nomen Novum
Palingenia albicans (Percheron); Pictet, 1843:149 misidentificationn).
Campsurus albicans (Pictet); Eaton, 1883:40.
Asthenopus albicans (Pictet); Ulmer, 1921:239.
Asthenopodes albicans (Pictet); Ulmer, 1924:26.
Asthenopodes picteti is known from "Brazil" (Pictet 1943-5, Ulmer
1924), and from the Cuarem River, Artigas Province, Uruguay (Traver
1956). Traver (1950, 1956) also listed Asthenopodes sp. from Kartabo,
Bartica District, Guyana and another Asthenopodes sp. from the Cuarem
River, Artigas Province, Uruguay. Thus the genus appears to have a dis-
tribution from northern Uruguay through Brazil to Central Guyana. Un-
fortunately I do not know the locality from which the Brazilian specimen
was taken, but I suspect it was from the south central lowlands. This type
of distribution pattern, covering the Amazon Basin and the Parand depres-
sion (Sick 1969), is discussed as one of the principal biogeographic divisions

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

The Florida Entomologist

of Ephemeroptera in South America, the polystenothermal lowland fauna
(Guiana-Brazilian division of Fittkau, 1969), by Hubbard and Peters (in


I thank William L. Peters, George F. Edmunds, Jr., and Manuel L.
Pescador for their critical reading of the manuscript. This work has been
partially supported by Grant Number 416-15-16, Phase II from Cooperative
State Research Service, U.S.D.A., William L. Peters, principal investigator.

EATON, A. E. 1883-8. A revisional monograph of recent Ephemeridae or
mayflies. Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 2nd Ser. Zool. 3:1-352.
FITTKAU, E. J. 1969. The fauna of South America. p. 624-658 In Biogeog-
raphy and ecology in South America. W. Junk, The Hague, Nether-
GUtRIN, E., and A. PERCHERON. 1838. Genera des insects, ou exposition
d6taill6e de tous les caract&res propres a chacun des generes de cette
class d'animaux. Part 6. Mequignon-Marvis, p6re et fils, Paris. 10
pl. with descriptive letterpress.
HUBBARD, M. D., and W. L. PETERS. (in press). Bibliografia taxon6mica
de la Ephemeroptera de aguas continentales del sur de Sud Am6rica.
Pap. Ocas. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat., Santiago, Chile.
LESTAGE, J. A. 1924. Notes sur les Eph6mBres de la Monographical Revi-
sion de Eaton. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belgique 64:33-60.
PICTET, F.-J. 1943-5. Histoire naturelle g6n6rale et particulikre des in-
sectes n6vropteres. Famille des tph6m6rines. J. Kessman & Ab.
Cherbuliez, Geneva, Switzerland x + 300p. 19p + 47 pl.
SICK, W.-D. 1969. Geographical substance. p. 449-474 In Biogeography
and ecology in South America. W. Junk, The Hague, Netherlands.
TRAVER, J. R. 1950. Notes on Neotropical mayflies. Part IV. Family
Ephemeridae (continued). Rev. Ent. (Rio de Janeiro) 21(3) :593-614.
TRAVER, J. R. 1956. The genus Asthenopodes (Ephemeroptera). Comun.
Zool. Mus. Hist. Nat. Montevideo 4(75):1-10, 2pl.
ULMER, G. 1920. tbersicht fiber die Gattungen der Ephemeropteren, nebst
Bemerkungen fiber einzelne Arten. Stett. Ent. Z. 81:97-144.
ULMER, G. 1921. iber einige Ephemeropteren-Typen ilterer Autoren.
Archiv f. Naturg. 87A(6):229-267.
ULMER, G. 1924. Einige alte und neue Ephemeropteren. Konowia 3(1/2):


Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

The Florida Entomologist



A plastic chamber containing excised crimson clover, Trifolium incarna-
tum (L.), seed heads was used in measuring clover head weevil, Hypera
meles (F.), larval feeding damage on 35 inbred lines. Percent seed damage
was based on number of florets with corollas removed. Seed was not dam-
aged when the corollas were not disturbed. Significant differences existed
between the least and most fed on lines among both early and late-season

The clover head weevil, Hypera meles (F.), greatly reduces the reseeding
ability of crimson clover, Trifolium incarnatum (L.), because of larval dam-
age to floral parts and developing seeds. The total crimson clover acreage
in the Southeastern United States has declined from an estimated 6 million
acres grown in 1951 to 600,000 acres currently under management. The
majority of this decline has been attributed to H. meles, with reported re-
ductions in seed yield ranging from 80 to 87% (Knight and Hollowell 1973).
This paper reports: (1) a method of screening selected inbred lines of
crimson clover for resistance to damage to the seed head by larvae of H.
meles and (2) differences in feeding damage to these lines.

The feeding chamber (Fig. 1) consisted of a plastic cylinder, 6.5 cm long
and 8.5 cm diam with 1 end glued to the top of a 9-cm plastic petri dish
and the other end resting on the bottom of the dish. Ventilation was pro-
vided by cutting a 5 cm diam hole in the dish top and covering it with 52-
mesh nylon screen. Also, three 1.5 cm holes were cut in the dish bottom to
hold rubber-capped plastic vials filled with water. Each vial contained an
excised crimson clover seed head with stem collected from a spaced-plot field
nursery. The stems were inserted into the water through the hole in the
rubber cap. Filter paper with 3 appropriately cut holes was placed in the
chamber bottom and moistened every 12 hr. The chamber wLs supported by
placing it in the shell of a 1-pt paper carton with the top and bottom re-
Three field-collected H. meles .4th stage larvae were placed on each
clover head with a damp camel's hair brush. Each of the 35 early and late-
season lines ywas represented by 4 chambers or replications. The prepared
feeding chambers were arranged in a randomized complete block design on
trays in an Avironmental chamber and held for 85 hr at 210C 12-hr day,
180C 12-hr night, and 60% RH.

'Coleoptera: Curculionidae.
2Cooperative investigations of the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment
Station and the Plant Science Laboratory, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA, Mississippi State,
3Department of Entomology, Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Sta-
tion, Mississippi State, MS 39762.
4Plant Science Laboratory, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA, Mississippi State, MS 39762.

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

The Florida Entomologist

Fig. 1.-Feeding chamber for evaluating H. meles
crimson clover seed heads.

After the feeding period, larvae were removed from
seed heads were evaluated for feeding damage.

larval feeding on

the chambers and

Preliminary microscopic observations to determine the relationship be-
tween larval feeding damage and corolla drop from the seed head showed
that seed damage was closely related to corolla drop on seed heads of check
lines. Under the binocular microscope, 85.4% of the florets with corollas
removed sustained seed damage. When corollas were not disturbed by the
larvae, seed was not damaged. Larvae apparently either disturb or excise
the drying corolla when entering the floret to feed on the developing em-
bryo; as a result, it falls from the seed head. Thus, the number of corollas
on the chamber floor was used as an index of seed damage.
Larval feeding on 'Dixie 68-152' and 'Frontier 68-53', the least damaged
lines among the early season group, was similar to that on 'Chief O. P.', the
open pollinated check and on 12 of the other 14 inbred lines tested (Table 1).
However, 1 line, 'Chief 68-77', suffered significantly greater feeding damage
(2-fold increase). Among the late season lines, 3 inbreds, 'Dixie 149-5-S',
'Dixie 71', and 'Chief 68-108' although not significantly different in feeding
damage from the 'Frontier 0. P.' check, were all damaged substantially less
than either 'Chief 68-1' or 'Dixie 68-111-S.,'. Damage to the other 17 lines
did not differ significantly.

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

Smith et al.: Damage by Clover Head Weevil


Early-season group Late-season group
Inbred line Mean % damage*t Inbred line Mean % damage

Dixie 68-152 24.00 a Chief 68-108 15.00 a
Frontier 68-53 24.00 a Dixie 71 15.00 ab
Chief 68-129 26.00 a Dixie 149-5-S7 15.00 abc
Chief O. P. 28.00 ab Dixie 68-113-S2 16.00 abcd
Dixie 68-151-S2 29.00 ab Chief 68-94 21.00 abcd
Dixie 68-128 33.00 ab Frontier O. P. 21.00 abcd
Dixie 68-96 34.00 ab Chief 68-17 22.00 abcd
Frontier 68-46 36.00 ab Dixie 124-So 23.00 abed
Dixie 68-129 36.00 ab Chief 68-99 25.00 abede
Dixie 68-46 36.00 ab Chief 68-22 25.00 abcde
Dixie 68-68 36.00 ab Chief 68-2 26.00 abcde
Chief 68-141 37.00 ab Chief 118 27.00 abcde
Frontier 68-67 38.00 ab Chief 48-So 30.00 abcde
Frontier 68-59 38.00 ab Dixie 68-70 30.00 abcde
Chief 68-77 42.00 b Chief 68-109 31.00 abcde
Chief 68-64 31.00 abcde
Chief 68-123 32.00 abde
Dixie 68-92 34.00 cde
Chief 81-So 34.00 de
Dixie 68-111-S2 42.00 e
Chief 68-1 43.00 e

*Corolla drop from the floret used as indicator of larval feeding and seed damage.
t Means not followed by the same letter differ significantly at the .05 level of probability
by Duncan's new multiple range test.

Results of the present study indicate that laboratory tests with 4th stage
larvae can be used to determine relative differences in seed damage to crim-
son clover by H. meles. This test procedure allows the evaluation of dam-
age to seed heads at predetermined larval infestation levels under controlled
environmental conditions. This technique, developed to specifically measure
crimson clover seed damage by H. meles larvae, can now be incorporated as
a component in a series of related host plant resistance evaluations. The
least and most damaged lines screened in these initial tests can now be used
for comparison as 'resistant' and 'susceptible' check lines in future seed
damage determinations.
The differences in seed damage among inbred lines are difficult to ex-
plain. Little information has been generated on inbred line chemical com-
position; however, Sullivan et al. (1972) demonstrated the dependence of
flower color on glycoside anthocyanin pigments. Several insect-plant rela-
tionships are known where glycosides affect insect feeding behavior (Hedin
et al. 1974), thus comparisons of seed head glycoside content from lines with
highly different H. meles larval feeding responses may provide an explana-
tion for differences in inbred line seed damage.

The Florida Entomologist

Development of resistant crimson clover varieties through plant breeding
programs utilizing the technique reported here could greatly improve the
reseeding ability of this important forage legume, and reduce or eliminate
the requirement for chemical control of the clover head weevil.

HEDIN, P. A., F. G. MAXWELL, AND J. N. JENKINS. 1974. Insect plant at-
tractants, feeding stimulants, repellants, deterrants and other related
factors affecting insect behavior. p. 494-527. In Proc. of the Summer
Institute on Bio. Control of Plant Insects and Diseases. Univ. and
Coll. Press of Miss., Jackson, Miss.
KNIGHT, W. E. AND E. A. HOLLOWELL. 1973. Crimson clover. Adv. in
Agron. 25:47-76.
SULLIVAN, S. L., K. P. BAETCKE, AND W. E. KNIGHT. 1972. Anthocyanins
of color mutants of Trifolium incarnatum. Phytochem. 11:2525-6.

Pale tree-cricket with his bell
Ringing ceaselessly and well,
Sounding silver to the brass
Of his cousin in the grass.

William Bliss Carman

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

* hr

hE~qijli .

%**mIE~Ur.LS- r


The Florida Entomologist



South Campus, Santa Fe Community College,
Gainesville, Florida 32601


New state records for the continental United States and new early or late
dates of flight are listed for Tachopteryx thoreyi Hagen, Cordulegaster
obliqua Say, Gomphus villosipes Selys, Gomphus apomyius Donnelly,
Ophiogomphus arizonicus Kennedy, Aeshna multicolor Hagen,
Coryphaeschna ingens (Rambur), Helocordulia selysii (Hagen), Celithemis
verna Pritchard, Dythemis fugax Hagen, Dythemis nigrescens Hagen,
Erythemis collocata (Hagen), Erythrodiplax berenice (Drury), Leucorrhinia
frigida Hagen, Libellula composite Hagen, Libellula nodisticta Hagen,
Libellula pulchella Drury, Belonia saturata (Uhler), Macrodiplax balteata
Hagen, Paltothemis lineatipes Karsch, Perithemis intense Kirby, Sympetrum
costiferum (Hagen), and Cannacria gravida (Calvert).

New records obtained by the author in Florida are not included but will be
included in a forthcoming paper by Minter J. Westfall, Jr.

Tachopteryx thoreyi Hagen
Mississippi, Perry Co., 6 mi NW Benndale. 8 April 1974. One male and 1
female collected of several seen. New Mississippi record.
Cordulegaster obliqua Say
Texas, Houston Co., Ratcliff Lake. 18 April 1974. One female collected.
New Texas record and early date. This specimen departs from C. obliqua
in the direction of C. fasciata Rambur as both are described in Needham
and Westfall (1955) in the following characters:
Total length 84 mm, forewing antenodals 24 on 1 wing, and 9 cells in the
anal loop on one hindwing.
Gomphus (Arigomphus) villosipes Selys
Pennsylvania, Forest Co., Beaver Meadows Lake. 4 August 1973. Three
males collected of a few seen. New late date.
Gomphus (Hylogomphus) apomyius Donnelly
Mississippi, Forrest Co., Chaney Creek 1 mi E of Brooklyn. 10 April 1974.
Nine males collected. New Mississippi record.
Ophiogomphus arizonicus Kennedy
New Mexico, Catron Co., San Francisco River 4 mi W of Luna. 8 June
1974. Four males and 1 female, 1 emerging male, and many exuviae
collected. New early date and New Mexico record.
Aeshna multicolor Hagen
New Mexico, Grant Co., Lake Roberts. 8 May 1974. Ten males and 1
female collected. One or 2 pairs in copulation seen. New early date.
Coryphaeschna ingens (Rambur)
Texas, Sabine Co., Toledo Bend Reservoir. 17 April 1974. One male


Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

The Florida Entomologist

collected. New Texas record. This species was also listed as being from
Texas in a thesis on the odonata of the San Antonio, Texas, area (P. N.
Albright, unpublished data, Trinity Univ., San Antonio). The source of
information for that list was a letter from A. M. Ferguson to the author,
P. N. Albright.
Helocordulia selysii (Hagen)
Alabama, Baldwin Co., U. S. 90 at the Florida border. 10 March 1972. One
general female collected of 3 seen. New early date.
Celithemis verna Pritchard
Mississippi, Forrest Co., Grapevine Pond 4 mi NE of Brooklyn. 10 April
1974. One general male collected by Sondra L. Dunkle. New early date.
Dythemis fugax Hagen
Texas, Gillespie Co., Lady Bird Johnson Park at Fredericksburg. 25 April
1974. One general male collected. New early date.
Dythemis nigrescens Hagen
Texas, Burnet Co., Inks Lake. 23 April 1974. One pruinose male collected
of 2 seen. New early date. This species has not been previously recorded in
print as being from Texas, although it has been collected by many people
there. The latest date in the Florida State Collection of Arthropods is 1
November 1923 for a specimen collected at Acoponeta, Nayarit, Mexico
by J. H. Williamson.
Erythemis collocata (Hagen)
Arizona, Cochise Co., Parker Canyon Lake. 12 May 1974. One female
collected. New early date.
Erythrodiplax berenice (Drury)
New Mexico, Chaves Co., Bottomless Lakes State Park. 11 June 1974.
Three males and 1 general female collected. New record for New Mexico.
These lakes are saline gypsum sinkholes.
Leucorrhinia frigida Hagen
Michigan, Manistee Co., Dorner Lake. 24 August 1973. One male collect-
ed. New late date.
Libellula composite Hagen
New Mexico, Chaves Co., Bottomless Lakes State Park. 11 June 1974.
Three males collected of about 20 seen. A pair was seen in copulation and
tandem oviposition. New early date and New Mexico record.
Libellula podisticta Hagen
New Mexico, Catron Co., Tularosa Creek at the town of Apache Creek. 9
June 1974. Three pruinose males collected of a few seen. New early date
and New Mexico record. Several specimens of this species were collected
of many seen on 14 June 1964 by Clifford Johnson 5 mi S of Pietown in the
same county.
Libellula pulchella Drury
New Mexico, Socorro Co., Bosque del Apache Wildlife Refuge. 4 July
1965. New record for New Mexico, collected by Clifford Johnson.
Belonia saturata (Uhler)
Texas, Kinney Co., 5.2 mi E of Bracketville on U. S. 90. 29 April 1974. Two
males collected of a few seen. Two females were seen in oviposition. New
early date.
Macrodiplax balteata Hagen
New Mexico, Chaves Co., Bottomless Lakes State Park. 11 June 1974.
Five males and 3 females collected. New record for New Mexico.

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

Dunkle: New Dragonfly Records

Paltothemis lineatipes Karsch
Texas, Burnet Co., Inks Lake. 23 April 1974. One female collected. New
early date.
Perithemis intense Kirby
Arizona, Pinal Co., Picacho Reservoir. 15 May 1974. One male collected.
New early date.
California, Imperial Co., Imperial Dam on the Colorado River. 16 May
1974. Three males collected. New California record.
Sympetrum costiferum (Hagen)
Pennsylvania, Tioga Co., Pheasant Hill Campground near Wellsboro. 31
July 1973. Five males and 5 females collected. New Pennsylvania record.
Some males and 1 female examined had all black tibiae.
Vermont, Windsor Co., Pasture Pond W of South Royalton near the
White River. 24 July 1973. Seven males and 3 females collected. New
Vermont Record. All those caught had dark brown to black tibiae.
Cannacria gravida (Calvert)
Georgia, Irwin Co., Cook Lake. 11 September 1974. Four males and 3
females collected. New Georgia record. There is also a male from the
Satilla River, Brantley Co., 6.7 mi E of Nahunta, 12 October 1963
collected by D. R. Paulson in the Florida State Collection of Arthropods.
The specimen of Libellula pulchella is in the collection of Clifford John-
son. At least 1 specimen of each of the other species listed has been
deposited in the Florida State Collection of Arthropods at Gainesville,
Florida. Most of the other specimens are in the author's collection.

I am especially grateful to Dr. Minter J. Westfall, Jr. for verifying the
identity of these specimens and helping in numerous other ways. I would also
like to thank Clifford Johnson for his kind suggestion that I include his
Libellula records.


NEEDHAM, J. G., and M. J. WESTFALL, JR. 1955. A manual of the dragonflies of
North America. University of California Press, Los Angeles. 615 p.

The Florida Entomologist

THE PEST WAR. W. W. Fletcher. 1974. John Wiley & Sons, N.Y. x + 218.
Professor Fletcher's book purports to cover all pests, their control, and
the impact of controls on the environment and on the welfare of mankind.
To what extent and for what audience? Slim coverage of a huge subject
is forewarned by there being only 175 pages of text. Fletcher offers that the
book should . serve as a useful introductory text for elementary
courses in pest control. .. ." This reviewer teaches just such courses but re-
gretfully has not yet found a useful introductory text. Consider that this
book-published in 1974-does not even contain the expression "pest man-
agement", that it never touches on the fundamental concepts of devel-
oping modern pest control systems.
Chapter 1 describes (in 21 pages) the anatomy, development, and ex-
amples of insects, weeds, and fungi. Not pathogens-just fungi. Bacteria,
viruses, MLO's, and the like are ignored. Nematodes are mentioned, but
only as something entomologists occasionally worry about. Now you
know how he keeps within 175 pages.
The book is wildly uneven, for, on the other hand, Fletcher spends two
pages describing smut control in the 1700's. He gives a long, pointless
background on the discovery of the herbicidal properties of 2,4-D. And
while bacteria and viruses do not rate a discussion, we are told all about
the grey seal as a pest. The grey seal? I'll leave it to the reader to have fun
with that one; it may sell a book for Fletcher if you are piqued enough to
find out about it.
After a short-13 pages-chapter on "Methods of Pest Control" (mechan-
ical, eradication, resistant varieties, etc.) Fletcher spends 5 chapters on
pesticides. Then one on vertebrate pests (and the grey seal), and a 15 page
chapter on biological control-which ends with a grabber on dung disposal
in Australia.
Now a chapter called "Novel Methods of Control". Fletcher never
defines this, but backs into an explanation in stating that . the corner-
stone of pest control is the use of pesticides, with some support being sup-
plied by biological methods". Novel evidently does not mean "new" for
he discusses sterility in insect control (demonstrated 20 years ago and used
practically for 15), and other methods (ex.: repellents) much older than
that. The dismay of this reviewer peaked here as Fletcher utterly ignores
the opportunity at least to mention the pest management concept and
creating integrated programs of control in which a mixture of strategies
are combined to minimize the use of practices which are ecologically
damaging, temporary, and expensive.
His sole nod in this direction is an outmoded version of integrated con-
trol suggesting that the future may lie in making use of both chemical and
biological control. The future went by when you weren't looking, Pro-
fessor Fletcher.
There is reasonable balance in the final chapter on pesticides in the en-
vironment. The appendixes contain brief lists of "Further Reading", pest
names, and pesticide names.
The book is written in something less than the Queen's English, which
one does not expect from an English professor, but it is not so bad as to be
distracting. Examples of regulations and regulatory agencies are all
I suspect that Professor Fletcher, as many have and most of us are
tempted, has converted his class lecture notes into a book along with the
(admitted) help of colleagues who wrote on certain specialties. Keep try-
ing. You may come up with a commercial success and achieve that prayed
for independence from cloddish bureaucrats.
S. H. Kerr
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida


Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

The Florida Entomologist


Dr. John A. Mulrennan (right) reflects on his award as "FLORIDA'S MAN
OF THE YEAR IN ENTOMOLOGY" at the Society annual banquet at Orlando
5 September 1974. Listening (left) is Dr. A. J. Rogers, recipient of the
same award in 1973. Photograph by Frank W. Mead.

"John Andrew Mulrennan is a hard man to praise. John is a bulldozer-
not a sports car. More than 40 years ago he had decided what his life was
to mean to himself and his fellow man. He settled into a low crouch and
started moving steadily, relentlessly and irresistibly ahead. Down went
marshes and bogs, fake exterminators and inert politicians, public disbelief
and hesitant legislators. In the level ground behind him sprang up scientific
chemical and engineering control measures, realistic laws, and sound financ-
ing of large expensive projects. The only way he could steer was straight
ahead. The goal was a mosquitoless, midgeless, flyless, healthier Florida,
and John kept his hard nose pointed straight at that goal. He loved God
and his fellow man, and he made that plain in the way he lived and spoke.
In 1955, in his final remarks as president of The Florida Public Health As-
sociation, John Mulrennan said: 'If you have faith in the mission to which
you have dedicated yourself for suffering humanity-then, with your tech-
nical knowledge you will be able to open wide the eyes, minds and hearts of
all mankind to the fact that public health is the preservation of the human
body. Our responsibility is one of supreme importance when we realize that
the human body is the most sacred of all temples-for therein dwells a soul
which on that final day must give its accounting for its stewardship on this

Footnote: Extensive quotes are from a presentation speech given 1 October 1971 at
Miami Beach, Florida, when Dr. Mulrennan was presented with a Meritorious Service
Award by The Florida Public Health Association.

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

The Florida Entomologist

"It is a true pleasure to honor a man who knows who and what he is,
where he is going, and why ....
"John Andrew Mulrennan was born in 1906 on a farm near Blooming-
dale, a hamlet in Hillsborough County, Florida. There his God-fearing, hard
working, thoroughly Irish, dirt-farmer Cracker family raised citrus and
cattle-and huddled indoors after dark listening to the whine of the billions
of mosquitoes that made the night unlivable.
"But John Mulrennan was made of hard stuff. By the time he had
graduated from Brandon High School, he knew what he wanted to do. He
wanted to become an entomologist at the University of Florida and fight the
scourge that so inhibited the life and prosperity of his state. While still on
campus, he employed his traditional gift from the Emerald Isle to talk
Catherine Williams of Leefield, Georgia, into marrying him. They have
raised 4 fine children." His son, Lieutenant Commander John A. Mulrennan,
Jr., is following in his father's footsteps and is today a medical entomologist
in charge of the U. S. Naval Disease Vector Control Center, Naval Air
Station, Alameda, California.
"In a world that was plummeting to the depths of the Great Depression
John Mulrennan found a job. He worked for a year as entomologist for a
large citrus firm. His ability was noticed, and the Rockefeller Foundation
called him to Tallahassee to work on its research project on mosquito con-
trol. But in 1953 the Lone Star State needed an assistant state entomologist
and named John to the post. The following year he assumed the top position
in that field and remained until the Rockefeller group called him back to
Florida and more research at Pensacola. Here his work came to the atten-
tion of the State Board of Health which appointed him to head its ento-
mological effort in 1941. He has remained in that position to this day.
"World War II was just beginning, and the tremendous responsibility of
malaria control around the state's many military training bases along with
the training of entomologists, physicians and engineers for similar work in
the armed forces fell largely on John Mulrennan. Men, machinery and
chemicals were available-but he was the man who organized their use for
the protection of our fighting men. After Hiroshima John was one of the
key men responsible for the use of the same equipment and insecticides in
the famous mass spraying that wiped out indigenous malaria in the southern
United States.
"Now John Mulrennan was ready. He had seen what could be done. He
set out to convince the state that the disease-carrying, tourist-repelling in-
sect pests could be eliminated. In 1949 and 1953 he persuaded the legislature
to pass the unique state aid law which provided assistance to counties and
districts in operating mosquito control programs. It is estimated that such
control is the key to the rise of annual tourist business from one to" over
"six billion dollars in the past fifteen years. The number of insect-vectored
disease prevented is incalculable." There has been no indigenous malaria in
Florida since 1948. His research program on St. Louis encephalitis in
Florida in 1959-60 identified the probable mosquito vector, Culex nigripalpus,
a species not previously incriminated as a disease vector, and resulted in a
program of surveillance and control that has been instrumental in prevent-
ing epidemics of this disease in Florida.
"In 1947 John Mulrennan was the prime mover in the passage of the
structural pest control law which drove out the thousands of quack extermi-
nators who were bilking millions of dollars from the Florida public. The up-
grading of this business in this manner is said to have saved countless
millions of dollars to the people in the improved preservation of wooden
structures. The research facilities established through John Mulrennan's

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

John A. Mulrennan Receives Award

persuasion at Vero Beach and Panama City are well-known, and unique in
the nation.
"In his field of science, John Mulrennan is known all over the world.
One species of mosquito and one of the sand fly bear his name in interna-
tional nomenclature." His outstanding services and contributions in the
field of insect control and public health have been recognized and honored
nationally and internationally, as well as at the state level. He is a past
president of The Florida Entomological Society, The Florida Anti-Mosquito
Association, The Florida Public Health Association, and The American
Mosquito Control Association, and he was the first Chairman of the United
States and Territorial Vector Control Conference. He is a member of Alpha
Zeta, Phi Sigma, and Gamma Sigma Delta honorary societies and in 1961
received special recognition from Gamma Sigma Delta. In 1971 he was
awarded the coveted Meritorious Service Award by The Florida Public
Health Association. In 1972 he was recognized by his alma mater, the
University of Florida, which conferred upon him an Honorary Doctor of
Science degree. Today it is our pleasure on behalf of The Florida Ento-
mological Society to recognize Dr. John A. Mulrennan as FLORIDA'S MAN
OF THE YEAR IN ENTOMOLOGY IN 1974 and to present him with this
plaque which reads, "To Dr. John A. Mulrennan For His Unselfish Devotion
and Contribution In The Field of Entomology To The Nation, The State,
And The Florida Society."
Dr. L. A. Hetrick
Dr. J. F. Reinhardt
Dr. A. N. Tissot
Dr. D. O. Wolfenbarger
Dr. H. V. Weems, Jr., Chairman

i- :

''' '' I:
~I "
It ~L
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to you and nature








The Florida Entomologist


The 57th Annual Meeting of The Florida Entomological Society was held
at the Sheraton Olympic Villas, Orlando, Florida, 4-6 September 1974. On
the evening of 4 September a pre-meeting "Bull Session"of submitted topics
was held with Mr. Freddie A. Johnson, Moderator.
President William G. Genung brought the convention to order at 9:00
AM on 5 September. The invocation was offered by Dr. Gene Zimmerman,
First United Methodist Church, Orlando.
After the Presidential Address by Mr. Genung, the meeting launched
into the reading of 36 regular scientific papers, 1 panel discussion on the
status of "lovebug" (Plecia nearctica Hardy) research, and 4 invitational
papers. The invitational presentations were as follows: "Field tests with
the microsporidian pathogen Nosema algerae against Anopheles albimanus
in Panama" by D. W. Anthony, Insects Affecting Man Laboratory, USDA,
ARS, Gainesville, Florida; "Thoughts about the future and direction of
parasite biology" by Carol Musgrave, Dept. Entomology and Nematology,
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gaines-
ville; "Biological control in the West Indies" by Fred D. Bennett, Common-
wealth Institute of Biological Control, Trinidad, W. I.; "The life style of
insects and its relationship to flowers" by C. Dodson, Selby Botanical Gar-
den, Sarasota, Florida. Speakers on the "lovebug" panel included Norman
Leppla and Philip Callahan, Insect Attractants, Behavior, and Basic Biology
Research Laboratory, USDA, ARS, Gainesville; Harold Denmark, Div.
Plant Industry, Fla. Dept. Agr. & Consumer Service, Gainesville; James
Hager, Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, Div. Health, Vero Beach,
Florida. Registrations at the meeting totaled 148.
The preliminary business session was called to order at 11:50 AM on 5
September by President Wm. G. Genung. Seventy-five members were
present. The minutes of the 56th Annual Meeting were presented by Secre-
tary Frank W. Mead as published in Vol. 57, No. 2 (June 1974) of The
Florida Entomologist. The minutes were approved as read. Treasurer
Donald E. Short read the Treasurer's Report for the year ending 31 August
1974. The financial statement was approved as read.
Subscriptions $ 1203.75
Dues 1651.75
Advertising 293.88
Publication Charges 2259.53
Reprints 456.16
Back Issues 114.32
Fishing With Natural Insects 6.00
56th Annual Meeting:
Banquet Receipts 438.00
Registration 380.00
Hospitality Hour Donation 10.00
Cash Disbursed at Meeting 78.00
Cash Withdrawn from Savings Account 750.00
$ 7641.39
Cash Balance August 31, 1973 1245.67
$ 8887.06

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

The Florida Entomologist

56th Annual Meeting:
Banquet $ 951.24
University City Photo 93.00
Programs 19.35
Supplies for Meeting 46.17
Petty Cash Fund for Meeting 100.00
Storter Printing Company 5815.35
Postage and Mailing 222.89
Gainesville Letter Shop 41.55
Assembling Reprints 112.10
Plaque, Honors and Awards Committee 94.89
Secretarial Help 394.07
Supplies 91.07
Corporate Filing Fee 2.00
Refunds for overpayment of dues and publication costs 36.75
Bank Debits 37.04

$ 8057.47
Cash Balance August 31, 1974 829.59

$ 8887.06
Savings, Guaranty Federal Balance August 31, 1974 $ 4842.89
Interest for Fiscal Year 309.73

$ 5152.62
Cash Balance August 31, 1974 829.59

TOTAL CASH ON HAND AUGUST 31, 1974 $ 5982.21
Donald E. Short
Treasurer and Business Manager

President Genung called upon Howard V. Weems, Jr., Chairman of the
Honors and Awards Committee, to give the report of this committee. Dr.
Weems noted that early this year the Society had a total of 4 living Honor-
ary Members. The By-Laws allow a maximum of 9. Two of the honorary
members died in recent months, these being Mr. Kenneth E. Bragdon and
Dr. John W. Wilson. Dr. Weems remarked that no more than 2 persons
can be elected honorary members in any one year. Two names were sub-
mitted to the membership as candidates for honorary membership in 1974,
and Dr. Weems said the protocal specified by the By-Laws had been fol-
lowed, and that a high percentage.of the ballots had been returned. The 2
candidates voted upon and elected were Dr. W. L. "Tommy" Thompson and
Mr. Wm. B. Gresham. Dr. Thompson, who had been ill for some time,
passed away on 31 May 1974 while the balloting period was still active. It
was the feeling of the Honors and Awards Committee and the Executive
Committee that Dr. Thompson should have Honorary Membership, even
though conferred posthumously. Dr. Weems said that "Tommy" was much
loved by all who knew him, that he made tremendous contributions to ento-
mology in our state, and that he was widely respected by all. In announc-
ing that Mr. Wm. B. Gresham was elected to Honorary Membership, Dr.
Weems said that Bill had not enjoyed good health and that he could not
physically devote himself to Society activities as he once had done. Dr.
Weems emphasized that over recent years Bill Gresham distinguished him-

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

Minutes of 57th Annual Meeting

Fig. 1. Dr. A. N. Tissot (right) receives the 1974 Outstanding Con-
tribution Award from Dr. R. C. Wilkinson representing the Southern Forest
Insect Work Conference. Photograph by Chuck Woods, IFAS, Gainesville.

self particularly in activities on behalf of our Society and the things we try
to promote for the benefit of entomology in our state. Dr. Weems felt that
Bill Gresham had done more, by far, in recent years than any other member
of Industry. Weems added that he hoped in the years ahead members with
industry backgrounds would be more active in the affairs of the Society.
Weems felt this was a special need, noting that in past years industry was
well represented in Society affairs, but activity from this sector had
Prof. R. C. Wilkinson came to the podium to discuss an award won by
Emeritus Professor Archie N. Tissot. Dr. Tissot was co-author with
Emeritus Prof. J. O. Pepper of Pennsylvania State University of an award
winning paper on, "Pine-feeding species of Cinara in the Eastern United
States (Homoptera: Aphididae);" published and released for mailing 20
December 1973, by IFAS, University of Florida. This monograph had been
entered by Dr. Wilkinson in the regional contest sponsored each year by the
Southern Forest Insect Work Conference. The Cinara paper was winner of
a 1974 Outstanding Contribution Award which was presented a few weeks
later to Dr. Tissot at an Entomology Department seminar.
Dr. Weems remarked that Archie Tissot is one of the 2 living honorary

The Florida Entomologist

members of the Society prior to the election of Bill Gresham. Archie was
elected in 1964. The other living member is Dr. Carroll N. Smith, who was
elected in 1970.
A Certificate of Appreciation for Services Rendered in the Field of
Entomology was awarded to Dr. F. S. Blanton. Dr. Wm. G. Eden accepted
the award for Dr. Blanton who could not attend the meeting. Dr. Weems
extended Special Recognition to Dr. D. O. Wolfenbarger and called him to
the podium for a few words. "Wolfie" thanked the Society and said he
would continue to serve entomology and his fellow men. The 3rd honoree
was Dr. John A. Mulrennan, who was given a plaque as Florida's Man of
the Year in Entomology. In accepting the award Dr. Mulrennan gave a
brief personal account of the development of entomology in Florida, adding
that he was proud and thankful to receive the "Man of the Year" award.
(Secretarial Note: See full text of this award elsewhere in this issue.)

Honoree No. 1: Certificate of Appreciation to Dr. F. S. Blanton
Dr. Franklin Sylvester Blanton, known to many of his friends as "Syl,"
was born on 12 December 1903 at Jones Mill (now Frisco City), Alabama.
After a wild and carefree youth, he married Audrey Quevedo and sired 2
daughters and 1 son . Virginia G. Blanton Meyer, 31; Martha Blanton
Tisdale, 30; and Frank T. Blanton, 27.
Meanwhile, he attended the University of Florida from 1924 to 1929 and
received his Bachelor of Science in Agriculture degree with a major in
entomology in 1929. He pursued graduate studies at Cornell University
from 1935 to 1941, receiving his Master of Science degree with a major in
medical entomology in 1941. From 1941 to 1951, he continued his graduate
studies at Cornell University, receiving his Doctor of Philosophy degree
with a major in medical entomology in 1951.
Dr. Blanton is a Fellow in the American Association for the Advance-
ment of Science and a former member of the American Medical Association,
American Entomological Society, Washington Entomological Society, New
York Entomological Society, Canadian Entomological Society, National
Geographic Society, American Mosquito Control Association, and The Florida
Entomological Society. He is a member of Phi Sigma, Gamma Sigma Delta,
and Sigma Xi honorary societies and Alpha Gamma Rho social fraternity.
He is a Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods
and the U. S. National Museum of Natural History.
Dr. Blanton began his professional career 13 May 1929 with the USDA,
as an agent on the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Control Program. On 13
April 1931, he was transferred to Babylon, New York to work with pests
of ornamentals. He remained at the laboratory for 13 years, leaving as
head of the laboratory in 1943 for the U. S. Army. During World War II
he served 3 tours as Chief Entomologist in the Surgeon General's office. He
made 11 trips to the Pacific Area as a malaria education officer and set up
the delousing programs for prisoners of war in the U.S.A. After the war,
Dr. Blanton served in the Philippines, Japan and Korea as typhus control
officer and headed the Alaskan insect project for 3 years. In 1947, he was
the liaison officer for the Orlando USDA Laboratory (now located in Gaines-
ville). He was transferred to Panama for 4 years as Chief Malariologist of
the Caribbean. Dr. Blanton received the U.S.A. Typhus Commission Medal
Army Commendation with three oakleaf clusters and other military cita-
tions. In 1956, Dr. Blanton retired from the Army Medical Service Corps
as a Regular Army Lieutenant Colonel. He was employed by the University
of Florida in September 1956 as Professor of Medical Entomology where he

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

Minutes of 57th Annual Meeting

served until retirement 30 June 1974. He is the author or coauthor of a
number of publications in the fields of entomology and public health, and
in recent years has devoted much of his time to biting midges of the New
World, which study has involved extensive collection and preparation of
material from Latin American countries. This study, made in cooperation
with Dr. Willis W. Wirth of the U. S. National Museum of Natural History
is still being continued after Dr. Blanton's retirement from his teaching
career, and it already has resulted in a series of publications and the de-
scription of many new species of Ceratopogonidae.
It is our pleasure on behalf of The Florida Entomological Society to pre-

Fig. 2. In a reenactment at Gainesville, Dr. F. S. Blanton (left) receives
(right), Chairman, Honors and Awards Committee. Photograph by Frank
W. Mead.

Honoree No. 2: Special recognition of Dr. D. O. Wolfenbarger
At the 55th Annual Meeting of The Florida Entomological Society, held
at the Causeway Inn, Tampa, Florida 6-8 September 1972, Dr. D. O. Wolf-
enbarger was presented by the Society with a Certificate of Appreciation for
Services Rendered in the Feld of Entomology. On 30 June of this year
"Wolfie" retired after many years of service to the University of Florida,
the agricultural interest of Florida, and The Florida Entomological Society.
Dr. and Mrs. Wolfenbarger are here with us today. We would like to ex-
tend to them our best wishes for the years to come and to have Wolfie come
forward and say a few words. We know that you will continue to keep an
active interest in entomology, Wolfie, and hope that you will continue to at-
tend regularly the annual meetings of our Society.

The Florida Entomologist

Fig. 3. Dr. D. O. Wolfenbarger (right) responds to "SPECIAL REC-
OGNITION" extended to him at Orlando 5 September 1974. Also in picture
are Dr. H. V. Weems, Jr. (center) Chairman, Honors and Awards Com-
mittee, and President Wm. G. Genung (left). Photograph by Frank W.

Honoree No. 3: Dr. John A. Mulrennan was recognized as FLORIDA'S MAN
of the YEAR in ENTOMOLOGY, receiving an engraved plaque. The full text
of the Honors and Awards Committee on Dr. Mulrennan appears elsewhere
in this issue.
L. A. Hetrick
J. F. Reinhardt
A. N. Tissot
D. O. Wolfenbarger
H. V. Weems, Jr., Chairman
President Genung asked Mr. Hal D. Bowman to read the Annual Report
of the Subtropical Branch of the Society prepared by David B. Shibles,

Officers for 1973-1974 were as follows:
President-Richard M. Baranowski
Vice President-Bernard W. Wolff
Secretary-Treasurer-David B. Shibles
The following meetings were held during the past 1973-1974 year at the Cox
Science Building on the University of Miami campus:

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

Minutes of 57th Annual Meeting

9 October 1973

13 November 1973

11 December 1973

8 January 1974

12 February 1974

12 March 1974

9 April 1974

14 May 1974

Mr. Alberto Perdomo
Sexual Attraction of the Caribbean fruit fly
Dr. David Shibles
Bacillus thuringiensis
Dr. George Decker
Costs and Benefits of Pesticides
Mr. Donald Von Windeguth
Discussion of Recent Work Concerning Releases of
Sterile Male Caribbean Fruit Fly in the Florida Keys.
Open discussion concerning the use of parasites to con-
trol Caribbean fruit flies.
Dr. Jim Apple
Wisconsin Pesticide Use Laws
Dr. J'm Nation
Sex Pheromones of the Caribbean Fruit Fly
Dr. Robert Woodruff
Wanderings in Australia

At the 12 February meeting our Subtropical Branch resolved to hold our
annual election of officers in May rather than December with the new
officers taking office in September rather than January. At our 14 May
1974 meeting new officers were elected for the 1974-1975 year:
President-Arthur K. Burditt, Jr.
Vice President-Richard M. Baranowski
Secretary-Treasurer-David B. Shibles
These men will assume office in September, 1974. Our next scheduled meet-
ing at the Cox Science Building will be 8 October, 1974.

David B. Shibles, Secretary

The last report of the Preliminary Business Meeting was on Public
Relations, presented by Dr. John R. Strayer, Chairman.

The establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency and the
passage of the Federal Environmental Pest Control Act of 1972 has gen-
erated an avalanche of new regulations relative to pesticides. Pesticide
Labeling, Restricted Pesticides, Applicator Certification, Experimental Per-
mits, Pesticide Disposal, and Re-Entry Intervals are areas that are in-
volved or have been involved in new or pending regulations during the past
year. Every economic entomologist will be affected to some degree by these
regulations. The public relations effort should involve anyone who has an
opinion. The regulations being formulated now will govern our profession
in the future. It behooves entomology for each of us to be informed and get
involved. This Committee sincerely urges you to make comments and offer
data in an effort to obtain sound and fair regulations of our pesticide tools.
The Legislature has just passed the Florida Pesticide Application Act of
1974. Under this act persons applying restricted pesticides must become
certified applicators. This law has designated the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services as the agency responsible for certifica-

The Florida Entomologist

tion and it opens the way for Florida's compliance with the Federal En-
vironmental Pest Control Act of 1972 which requires certification of re-
stricted pesticide users by October 21, 1976. Specific details of certification
are incomplete at this time; however, it is anticipated that the necessary
preliminaries will be completed in time to begin Applicator Training Pro-
grams in early 1975.
During the course of the year numerous talks, radio, and TV appearances
were made by members of the Society. Any effort to list all of these con-
tributions by each member would be sure to leave someone out. All of these
Public Relations efforts are acknowledged and each member is encouraged
to promote the profession when given the opportunity.
The Committee prepared new releases and sent them to local papers for
publicity of the 1973 Certificate of Appreciation Awards and the Society's
Presidential election. In preparation for the current 1974 meeting, local
newspapers, radio and TV were notified and furnished articles and "spots"
prepared to highlight the meeting. One TV station replied affirmative with
a request for more information and possibly a tape on the lovebug situation
in Florida.
The Committee on Public Information, Entomological Society of Amer-
ica, is currently producing a revision of the brochure "Entomology, an Ex-
citing Scientific Career." John Strayer has been named to this national
committee and if FES members have any comments or ideas for the national
brochure send them to him.
The Department of Entomology and Nematology developed a new display
that was used at Agricultural Careers Day and Florida 4-H Congress. This
was an excellent display and Society members Dan Minnick and Fred John-
son deserve the credit.
The Committee wishes to commend all members who participated per-
sonally in public relations activities during 1974. We hope that each mem-
ber will set a personal public relations goal for 1975. Talk to a civic group,
lead a 4-H club, lecture to your youngsters school class or write a letter to
EPA. PR is everybody's business!
R. E. Dixon
M. J. Janes
W. E. Wagner
J. N. Simons
J. R. Strayer, Chairman
There being no further business, the meeting was adjourned at 12:33 PM,
5 September.
The final business meeting was called to order by President Genung at
2:46 PM, 6 September 1974. Approximately 40 members were present.
After the call for new business, Dr. Robert E. Woodruff proposed a change
in the By-Laws. He proposed that the Editor of The Florida Entomologist
be made a permanent voting member of the Executive Committee. Woodruff
explained that although the Editor has been called in for consultation by the
Executive Committee at times during the past, the Editor had no official
say, nor did he have a vote within this ruling committee. Woodruff felt that
the publishing of The Florida Entomologist was the major activity and
responsibility of the Society and that the person (The Editor) directing this
major undertaking should have a direct vote in Executive Committee meet-
ings. President Genung then read the portion of the Governing Documents
that gives procedure on handling amendments to the By-Laws [see Fla. Ent.
49(2) :133]. Following protocol he appointed a special committee to con-
sider the proposed amendment, instructing this committee to report its
recommendation at the next annual meeting.


Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

Minutes of 57th Annual Meeting

E. C. Beck
S. L. Poe
R. E. Woodruff, Chairman
A major item of discussion was initiated when A. B. Selhime reminded
the members of the necessity for additional funding as outlined by Editor
S. H. Kerr at the Wednesday night "bull session." President Genung noted
that the Executive Committee and the Publications Committee had indorsed
raising annual membership dues to $10; increasing page charges to $10;
increasing institutional subscriptions to $15, but keeping student member-
ship at the present level of $2. W. E. Whitcomb moved that the above dues
and fees be made effective Jan. 1, 1975. Seconded by H. A. Denmark. A
lively discussion followed in which some members wished to make the dues
increase lower and the page charges higher than in the motion. This
reached the form of an amendment to the original motion when Arthur K.
Burditt moved that the new slate of fees should be $7.50 for annual dues,
$15.00 for page charges, institutional dues $15.00, and student dues $2.00.
Considerable discussion on the amendment followed, and finally there was a
call for the question. In a hand vote, the amendment failed by a margin of
about 2 to 1. The Chair ruled against any further amendments, and the
vote was taken on the original motion, which was passed by a margin of
about 2 to 1.

The Membership Committee made a specific effort to solicit new members
for the Society during 1974. A letter was sent to each of 55 colleges and
universities in Florida, encouraging students to become members. Letters
were also sent to 20 persons in the State who work in entomology but are
not members of the Society. We now have a total membership of 432, of
whom 35 are students. In addition to copies sent to individual members,
the Journal is sent to 245 institutions.
R. C. Bullock
S. L. Poe
J. A. Reinert
C. E. Stegmaier, Jr.
Elisabeth C. Beck, Chairman

The Entomology in Action slides were used by Frank Mead during
November, 1973, at an entomology seminar at Ohio State University and at
a lecture meeting of the Wheaton Club of Naturalists, Columbus, Ohio.
The committee used the display of 2 x 2 slides covering many of the
entomology centers in Florida at the 1974 Florida Entomological Society
meeting. This presentation of 160 slides was on display in the mezzanine
of the Sheraton Olympic Villas along with exhibits of forest entomology.
The slides and exhibits are available for use by the membership. Anyone
preparing a talk or exhibit on the subject of entomology is encouraged to
use these materials. They may be obtained from the Society Secretary,
Frank W. Mead.
J. F. Butler
G. L. Greene
R. E. Woodruff
C. O. Calkins, Chairman

The Florida Entomologist

Three members passed away during the last year. Mr. Kenneth E.
Bragdon, 88, passed away at Savannah, Georgia, 23 February 1974. He was
the last surviving Charter Member of the Society. Dr. W. L. Thompson, 78,
passed away at Lake Alfred, Florida, 31 May 1974. He was President of
the Society from 1935-36 and again 1936-37. It was largely the efforts of
Tommy that kept the Society intact during the Great Depression. Dr. John
W. Wilson, 72, died at Orange City, Florida, 20 June 1974. He was Presi-
dent of the Society in 1952 and was made an Honorary Member in 1966. He
had a long career at the University of Florida experiment station at Sanford.
M. J. Janes
A. B. Selhime, Chairman
A moment of silence was observed in memory of the departed members.
[Secretarial Note: For an obituary on Mr. Bragdon, see the September 1974
issue of The Florida Entomologist 57(3):224. For an obituary on Dr.
Wilson, see the December 1974 issue of same journal 57(4) :419-20. For
information on Dr. Thompson, see The Florida Entomologist 53(2):72,
June 1970].
The Auditing Committee has examined the Treasurer's books and finds
them in excellent shape.
S. S. Fluker
J. B. O'Neil
G. L. Greene, Chairman
[A round of applause was given for the fine job by Treasurer Don Short.]

Four University of Florida students were the winners in the contest
based on content and oral presentation. The contest was very close. First
place winner was Ernest S. Del Fosse for his paper on, "Determination of
the feeding mechanism of Orthogalumna terebrantis Wallwork using 134Cs
-injected water hyacinth." Second place went to Jack C. Shuster for, "A
comparative study of copulation in Passalidae (Coleoptera) : New positions
for beetles." There was a tie for third place, Co-winners were Robert L.
Crocker, "Temperature as a factor affecting predation by Geocoris punctipes
on soybean looper eggs" and Isadore L. Williams for, "Impact of insects on
slash pine treated with paraquat to induce lightwood formation." First
prize was $50, 2nd prize was $30, and each of the co-winners for 3rd prize
received $20. The students were directed to spend the money on entomology
books of their own choosing.
W. C. Adlerz
Lewis Berner
H. A. Denmark
R. C. Wilkinson, Chairman (pro tem)
of the Sub-Committee for Student
Papers; Honors and Awards Com-
Resolution No. 1
WHEREAS The Florida Entomological Society, meeting at the Sheraton
Olympic Villas, Orlando, Florida, has found the facilities to be convenient


Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975

Minutes of 57th Annual Meeting

and attractive and the staff to be hospitable and courteous, which has greatly
contributed to the success of this meeting,
THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that the Society expresses its appreciation to
the Hotel Management and staff,
AND BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Secretary be instructed to write a
letter of appreciation to the Hotel Management.
Resolution No. 2
WHEREAS the Program Committee has solicited and arranged a very
interesting, diversified and educational program, and
WHEREAS the speakers have taken time to prepare and present their
papers, and
WHEREAS the Local Arrangements Committee has provided excellent or-
ganization and an outstanding banquet with delightful entertainment,
THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that the Society commends and expresses its
appreciation to these committees and to our Invitational Speakers who have
shared their expert knowledge with us.
W. C. Adlerz
R. B. Workman
L. C. Kuitert, Chairman

Mr. President, the Nominating Committee submits the following list of
nominees to fill the elective offices of the Society for 1974-75:
President-R. M. Baranowski
Vice President-Howard V. Weems, Jr.
Secretary-Frank W. Mead
Treasurer-D. E. Short
Executive Committee-Donald E. Weidhaas
All nominees have agreed to have their names placed in nomination as
required by the By-Laws.
H. A. Denmark
R. W. Metz
T. E. Summers
A. J. Rogers, Chairman
President Genung asked for additional nominations from the floor. There
were none. E. C. Beck moved that the report of the Nominating Committee
be accepted, the nominations be closed, and that the Secretary be instructed
to cast a unanimous ballot for the proposed slate of officers. Motion was
seconded by D. Wojcik, and approved.
Outgoing President Genung thanked the committee members and all
those who had contributed to the success of the Society during the year
and the annual meeting, then requested that 2 members escort Incoming
President Baranowski to the podium. Dr. Baranowski thanked the Nom-
inating Committee and the general membership, saying that he appreciated
the honor and that it was humbly accepted. He gave special thanks to the
other members of the Program Committee, Invitational Speakers, arid the
members who submitted papers at the Annual Meeting. The meeting was
adjourned at 3:40 PM.
Persons serving on other committees that functioned during the fiscal
year 1973-74 are as follows:

The Florida Entomologist


C. W. McCoy
E. A. Moherek, Jr.
J. F. Reinhardt
J. D. Wright
A. G. Selhime, Chairman


A. K. Burditt, Jr.
D. von Windeguth
R. M. Baranowski, Chairman


J. A. Mulrennan
M. Murphey, Chairman


14 September 1973. Deauville Hotel, Miami Beach.
28 February 1974. Office of Wm. G. Eden, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville.
4 September 1974. Sheraton Olympic Villas, Orlando.
F. W. Mead, Secretary

Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975



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