Title: Florida Entomologist
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00127
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Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1975
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Volume ID: VID00127
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Volume 58, No. 4 December, 1975


G4)t(.EH ,H. J. W. C. YEARIAN. AMI) R. C. WILKINSON tul''hn,& nald Repio
IhIcltie Behat iir ul fps avuh'u:. 221
R Al i. (-;.-Three Neu. Spec'.es ofe gniephoriuide (A carnnan. Tair.qir-enemL,-) Ir-mi
Fragaria in Flurida 2.31
GORIIH. (1.-A New Spetcie's Forcipestricis BurA.-, 1968 (Hnlienopterav Encv1rU.t
dae) fromnt Puerto Riwor, Parawfit 'in For iponivia iDipterw Ci'ratropugoia
dae) 2-*'
WIRTH. WCr. 'V.-Biolrogicul and Vett S.io,,ni%,n, in Forcipornyia trLp-
tera- (era topogon t. fe) 241.3
PolRrF.. C C-A Vew Floridlacnu AP',lc.rf idea uaih (Cuormnnln (in Ziiroogmgraph.
o4 Florida Jli -srostvini im Hfilinfuiptra: Ichrwunermnilda) 247
MNI: A. MI.-Long Term (Can Trapping ;nr Ptipulatibi .4 naIY /'1. (oGround.
Sitritc e. -Aiiii Lofl.ad -1 r2ri-5'l7
BEAVER-,. J. B.. AND A (. o/LHIM .-f''Ipment of Diaprepes abbreuatw- oin
Po tied Citruz Seed/ling,, 271
MUCHIMORE, 'W. B.-PIeue/,r. *upIln~ ;romi FI''nda. 4. Thv (hizu, Dinocherne,
(Chernetidai e J 275
DEBARR. G L.. L. H BARBER. AND R. C. WILINbON -lIthin-Crou'n Duirihw
/1'jn o4 C(ri v and Seed I,, se t Damage Ih, Slas.h Pine Flowers, ('onelvi.. and
Comes 281I
LEVY. H H. A. % %N RINSVEL. AND H. L CRONMROY-AMwor r and Tra-e Element
Anlal'vsi in Red Import d Fite I.nt Qw'ene. h., Ion Induccd .c Ru' FU1o1Cre.,
L n.;F 2t49
PFRIiONLI. A. .J.. K. NI. BARANOUW-KI. -Nri) J L N ITTIN-ON- Recapture (I' Virginl Fe
miale Caribbean Fiata Five. friont Tirop. Baitc rl nit-it AMC- 291
BARANowsmi, R. NI.. AND J A Si -TvR-ThII I.eC Hi-t'ir' ', (ra-peduchus pul-
chelIlus, at Lygaide-dXic to i/nv L ntivild.sNtu ., Hffinpti in: L~gauidavl 297,
PO RTER.K. C.-Ne e-N R-e p.a Zi.- hu..'mT. i. (H' nit nuipt'ro Ewn i-i'ae) :311.3
SiWKA. S.. A. A. G1LILER. H. D. (-;-%Hk. A. D. A %%0LIF NBA(c.--L. AND H H L)E
L% RosAk-EfjPr, i q Imidhati-on a~ If/I T", 1, T101n'1il and AJi'/iJt. *,/ Spulln
1'1d *if Alonnc-q ','hu T-. *ln (, Bialn --am 307
Scientific A'itl.
LLOYD. J E -S tiuRE ALE. AND' W' B NIL HMORE-P'. W/le. *.rl nilt,. Phor-
etic on Firt~' .; 241

(Continued on back cover)

Published by The Florida Entomological Society




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R. M. Baranowski
S. H. Kerr
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This issue mailed Dec. 18, 1975

221 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975



Ips avulsus (Eichhoff) parent adults were introduced into pine inner
bark-glass plate observation units where they periodically fed as follows:
chips of excised inner bark were taken into the buccal cavity, compressed,
and the resulting pellet of exhausted tissue was expelled from the mouth.
Microscopic examination of sectioned and whole guts showed contents con-
sisting principally of symbionts, starch grains, and small amounts of very
fine material. Ventral dilator muscles of the pharynx were well-developed
and the alimentary tract was of the elongate type reported in liquid-
feeding insects.
Gelatinous feces were produced and deposited on the roof of the male's
nuptial chamber, where they were consumed by consorting beetles or ad-
hered to their bodies.
Adult reproductive behavior was similar to that reported for Ips pini
(Say) and Ips paraconfusus Lanier. I. avulsus copulation lasted an average
of 35 sec (range, 22-45 sec) at 300C. Pairs mated 3 times at about 10-min in-
tervals, after which each female isolated herself from the associated male
in his nuptial chamber by packing the egg gallery behind her with boring

Generalized accounts of behavior in North American bark beetles
(Scolytidae) have been given by Beal and Massey (1945), Blackman (1922),
Chamberlin (1939), and Swaine (1918), but detailed accounts of reproduc-
tive behavior in North American Ips spp. have been reported for only a few
species such as Ips confusus (LeConte) (=Ips paraconfusus Lanier) from
California (Barr 1969), Ips pini (Say) from Idaho (Schmitz 1972), and Ips
calligraphus (Germar) from Florida (Wilkinson et al. 1967).
Ips avulsus (Eichhoff) is a small species6 which commonly infests the
thinner-barked portions of Pinus spp. in the southeastern USA. Its repro-
ductive habits (Beal and Massey 1945, Blackman 1922, Thatcher 1960) have
been reported as follows: I. avulsus is polygamous, but the male alone
usually initiates attacks on host material by boring an "entrance tunnel"
through the outer bark and excavating a small, irregular, flattened "nup-
tial chamber" in the soft inner bark (phloem) next to the sapwood. He may
then tunnel-out the basal portion of one or more "egg galleries", which are
subsequently extended through the inner bark by the 1 to several females
which join him in the nuptial chamber. The basal portions of the egg gal-

'Coleoptera: Scolytidae.
"Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series no. 5868. This Study was par-
tially supported by the Southern Forest Disease and Insect Research Council, Atlanta, Georgia.
3Present address is 3736 S. W. 6th Place, Gainesville, Fla 32601.
4Dept. of Entomology, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, 72701.
5Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611.
6Body length of alcohol-preserved general adults from north-central peninsular Florida
(n=50 spms/sex): x+s=2.90.1 (2.7-3.2) mm for female; Ts=2.90.1 (2.5-3.1) mm for male
(unpublished data).
'Egg dimensions (n=69 eggs from 18 females): Xs=0.80+0.04(0.71-0.92) mm long;!s-
0.46 + 0.03 (0.37-0.54) mm wide (unpublished data).

The Florida Entomologist

leries radiate out from the nuptial chamber and commonly do not follow
the grain of the underlying sapwood, but the more distal, egg-bearing por-
tions of the egg galleries tend to parallel the wood grain. As females ex-
tend their egg galleries through the inner bark, they deposit relatively
large7 eggs singly in cup-shaped "egg niches", cut at intervals into either
or both sides of the galleries. The eggs are covered and sealed in the egg
niches by bits of inner bark tamped together in the form of a plug (called
"phloem plugs" in our study).
Data on egg gallery construction and oviposition are given by Yearian
(1966) and Yearian et al. (1972). Egg gallery construction in individual log
bolts (2 females and 1 male in consort) was completed within 10 days after
introduction of females, and most reproductive activity took place during
the first 5 days. The average space between egg niches in the egg galleries was
5.9 mm and the mean length of 46 egg galleries was 13.5+1.4 cm. In more
extended tests, each of 10 females oviposited successively in 3 log bolts
and consorted with a different male in each bolt. The total length of gal-
leries constructed per female averaged 51.2+5.75 cm, and females laid a
mean of 77.0+13.8 eggs. Females oviposited in both sides of their egg gal-
leries when only 1 egg gallery was extended into an area of non-infested
inner bark. When 2 egg galleries were concurrently extended side by side
and close together, oviposition was concentrated on the opposite (farthest
removed) sides of the respective galleries and not any or relatively few eggs
were laid in the narrow phloem strip separating the 2 galleries. Males
abandoned their nuptial chambers about 10 days after females were intro-
duced with them, and most females left their galleries 15-20 days after in-
troduction into the nuptial chambers.
I. avulsus larvae feed in relatively short and broad "larval galleries"
which extend laterally from the egg gallery through the inner bark and are
greatly enlarged at their distal ends where pupation occurs. Callow adults
have been reported to feed on inner bark before leaving brood logs, but de-
tailed accounts of parent or immature (F,) adult feeding behavior are lack-
ing. Adult feeding and reproductive behavior of I. avulsus are described
Behavior was studied by the use of phloem-glass plate units, a modifi-
cation of the "sandwich" technique described by Hopping (1961) for rearing
Ips spp. Each unit consisted of 3 layers; (1) a 25 X 36 X 0.95 cm glass plate
which was placed on the bottom, (2) a 15 X 24 X 0.5 cm sheet of phloem from
the inner bark of typical slash pine, Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii
which was placed in the middle, and (3) a 25 X 36 X 0.95 cm glass plate with
a 6 mm hole in the center, which was placed on top. The 3 layers were held
together at their edges with no. 10 binder clips. A 6 mm plug of outer bark
was inserted in the hole in the top plate and nonabsorbent cotton was
packed around the edges of the phloem sheet in the middle to prevent des-
iccation. All observation units were held at 300C throughout the study.
All test beetles were collected as callow adults from or near their
pupal chambers and reared in isolation on inner bark until mature. It was
assumed that they had not mated prior to the tests. To initiate each test, 1
male was placed on the outer bark plug and a 10mm cover slip was placed
over the hole in the top plate. Males that did not become "established"
by boring an entrance tunnel and constructing a nuptial chamber in the

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

Gouger et al.: Ips avulsus Behavior

inner bark sheet were replaced by other males, as required. Twelve hr after a
male was introduced and established in a unit, a female was placed on the
bark plug where the male had bored his entrance tunnel.
Feeding, mating, and oviposition behavior were observed for each of the
10 pairs of I. avulsus, until each female had isolated herself from the as-
sociated male in his nuptial chamber by packing the egg gallery behind her
with boring material.
Ten beetles of each sex, newly-emerged from pine logs, were fixed, sec-
tioned, and stained by a modified Gram-Weigert procedure (Gouger 1971),
then sections were examined microscopically to determine whether my-
cangia were present and to determine contents of the alimentary canal.

Feeding.-I. avulsus males rotated about their longitudinal axis while
boring a round entrance tunnel through the plug of outer bark in the upper
plate. Boring material was passed back under the beetle by means of the
mandibles, maxillae, and prothoracic legs, then pushed to the rear with the
meso and meta-thoracic legs. Feeding began when the inner bark was
reached. Chips of bark tissue were excised from the inner bark, taken into the
buccal cavity, and appeared to be compressed by squeezing action of the
mandibles. After compression, the residual pellet of host tissue was ex-
pelled from the head and passed to the rear of the body as described above.
Periodically, chips of inner bark were excised but passed to the rear without
being taken in and compressed. Similar feeding behavior was observed in fe-
males and males.
Microscopic examination of fresh whole guts and stained sections of
newly-emerged adults showed that contents of the gut consisted prin-
cipally of microorganisms, starch grains, and very fine host material (Fig.
1); only small amounts of the coarser inner bark tissues were present. Asco-

Fig. 1. Contents of foregut of newly-emerged I. avulsus adult, showing
light-colored starch grains in a matrix of very fine material. Starch grains
are ca. 10[ across.


The Florida Entomologist

spores of the bluestain fungus, Ceratocystis ips (Rumbold) C. Moreau, were
universally present in the gut and especially within the hind gut, but no
mycangial bodies or unusual concentrations of microorganisms were de-
tected anywhere in the adult body. The alimentary canal was of the elon-
gate scolytid type and ventral dilator muscles of the pharynx were pres-
ent and very well-developed (Fig. 2).
I. avulsus adults of both sexes produced gelatinous feces which were
commonly deposited on the roof of the nuptial chamber where they were
frequently eaten by consorting beetles entering the chamber or adhered to
their bodies.

Fig. 2. Median sagittal section through L avulsus adult head. Intake of
inner bark (solid arrow); ventral dilator muscles of pharynx (hollow
arrow-VDM). Head is ca. 1 mm across dorso-ventrally.

Mating.-An I avulsus female placed on the bark plug of an observa-
tion unit became visibly excited upon contacting boring material (chips,
pellets, and some gelatinous feces) expelled from the entrance tunnel by a
male established in his nuptial chamber, and burrowed into this extruded
material until she was at the entrance to the tunnel. The male blocked
entry into the tunnel by backing into it and bringing his elytral declivity
nearly even with the entrance. The female pushed vigorously against the
male's declivity while forcing her way into the tunnel and stridulated with
her head and pronotal organs as in other Ips spp. (Barr 1969, Wilkinson et
al. 1967). The pushing-stridulating behavior of the female was repeated
several times and the female occasionally "bit" the margins of the male
elytra until the pair had reached the nuptial chamber (Fig. 3, A). The female
immediately began construction of an egg gallery extending off the nuptial
chamber and the male assisted by removing material produced during this

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

Gouger et al.: Ips avulsus Behavior

tunneling operation (Fig. 3, B, C). The female was not observed to stridu-
late with her head and pronotal organs after she had once begun an egg
Copulation in I. avulsus first occurred after the female had constructed
2.5-3.0 mm (or about 1 body length) of egg gallery. The male periodically
butted the female's elytra, which apparently stimulated her to receive him,
and copulation occurred at the junction of an egg gallery and nuptial
chamber with the male above at an angle of ca. 1000 (Fig. 3, D). Copulation
lasted an average of 35 sec (range: 22-45 sec) at 300C. Pairs mated 3 times at
about 10-min intervals, ending when the female abruptly packed the tunnel
behind her with boring material.
Oviposition.-The mated I avulsus female extended her tunnel until it
ran parallel with the phloem grain in most cases, then excised phloem
tissue from the left or right side of the egg gallery with her mandibles to
form an egg niche. The egg niche was cut to approximately the same size as
her head capsule by rotary motion of the extended head. Tissue removed
from the niche was packed into a phloem plug located at the end of the egg
gallery (Fig. 3, E). She then backed out of the gallery (F), turned around
in the nuptial chamber (G) and backed up to the egg niche (H) where a single
egg was quickly deposited (I). She then reversed her position (J,K,L) and
removed pieces of the phloem plug which were then tamped tightly over
and around the egg with her mouthparts (M).

Butts (1951) studied morphological differences between "liquid-
feeding" and "solid-feeding" coccinellid beetles and other insects, and re-
ported ventral dilator muscles were well-developed in liquid-feeding
species such as the Mexican bean beetle, Epilachnus varivestis Mulsant,
but absent in solid-feeding species. He also observed that ... those insects
that take liquids only have a greatly elongated alimentary canal", as il-
lustrated by E. varivestis. Butts did not report that E. varivestis also pro-
duces liquid feces, which behavior would appear to be concomitant to
liquid-feeding in many insects (eg., aphids and scales).
Ips avulsus is evidently a "liquid-feeding" species at least in the adult
stage, based on its feeding behavior of intake-compression- and regurgitation
of inner bark from the buccal cavity, the presence of very well-developed
ventral dilator muscles of the pharynx, and especially the presence of only
very fine, semi-liquid material, and almost no solids in the gut. Ips avulsus
has the elongate alimentary canal typical of liquid-feeding insects such
as the Mexican bean beetle (illus. by Butts 1951), and also typical of scoly-
tid beetles as illustrated by Hopkins (1911) in the red turpentine beetle,
Dendroctonus valens LeConte.
Liquid-feeding, the deposition of gelatinous feces on the walls of the
nuptial chamber, and consumption of feces by consorting adults was also
observed by us in Ips calligraphus (Germ.) (unpublished), which suggests
that this behavior is common in Ips spp. Leach et al. (1934) reported that the
sticky fecal pellets of Ips grandicollis (Eichh.) and I. pini were deposited
and adhered to the nuptial chamber wall. Barr (pers. comm.) reported that
I. paraconfusus defecated principally in the nuptial chamber.
Two important consequences of this behavior would be (1) transmission
of bluestain (C. ips) spores and other symbionts between consorting adults

The Florida Entomologist

and (2) concentration of the male-produced aggregating pheromone in feces
deposited in the nuptial chamber, which virgin females must find and enter
in order to mate and reproduce.
The universal presence of viable bluestain fungus ascospores in the gut
and feces of Ips adults emerging from brood logs or colonizing new host
material is explained by their extensive feeding on C. ips perithecia in the
inner bark of brood logs prior to attacking new host material (Leach et al.
1934, Yearian et al. 1972). Such spores germinate in new host tissues sur-
rounding the nuptial chamber soon after deposition of feces (Leach et al.
1934), thus ensuring establishment in new host material. Feeding on peri-
thecia and interchange of symbionts through feeding on gelatinous feces
deposited in the nuptial chamber thus ensures transmission and dispersal of

Chamber Cf


E>g /Plug



Fig. 3. Reproductive behavior of Ips avulsus:-A. Male I. avulsus pre-
ceding female into nuptial chamber; B. Female I. avulsus assisting male in
constructing nuptial chamber; C. Male removing frass from nuptial cham-
ber; D. Copulation in nuptial chamber; E. Female constructing egg niche
in egg gallery.


Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

Gouger et al.: Ips avulsus Behavior

Fig. 3 (Cont'd.) F. Female backing out of egg gallery; G. Female turn-
ing around in nuptial chamber; H. Female backing into egg gallery; I. Fe-
male ovipositing in egg niche; J, K, L. Female reversing her position and
re-entering the egg gallery; M. Female packing phloem around the egg.

The Florida Entomologist

such symbionts throughout a population of consorting adults; this would
serve an important function in species such as Ips avulsus which lack my-
cangia for the transport of symbionts.
Reproductive behavior of I. avulsus was identical to that illustrated by
Schmitz (1972) for I. pini, a not surprising result since both species belong to
Hoppings taxonomic Group IV (Hopping 1963, Lanier 1972). Reproductive
behavior is apparently quite generalized in pine-feeding Ips spp. from North
America, since it has now been observed to be similar in species from Group
IV (pini from Idaho and avulsus from Florida), Group IX (paraconfusus
from California) (Barr 1969, pers. comm.), and Group X (calligraphus from
Florida) (unpublished study by authors).

The authors are indebted to W. J. Coleman and T. H. Atkinson for as-
sistance in conducting research and in preparation of the manuscript. Draw-
ings of Ips reproductive behavior were prepared by J. B. Gouger. Permission
to use information communicated by Barbara A. Barr, Univ. of California,
Div. of Entomology and Parasitology, Berkeley, is gratefully acknowl-


BARR, B. A. 1969. Sound production in Scolytidae (Coleoptera) with em-
phasis on the genus Ips. Can. Ent. 101:637-72.
BEAL, J. A., AND C. L. MASSEY. 1945. Bark beetles and ambrosia beetles
(Coleoptera: Scolytidae): with special references to species occur-
ring in North Carolina. Duke Univ. School of Forestry Bull. 10.
178 p., illus.
BLACKMAN, M. W. 1922. Mississippi bark beetles. Miss. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech.
Bull. no. 11. 130 p., illus.
BUTTS, F. H. 1951. Feeding habits and mechanism of the Mexican bean beetle.
Cornell Agr. Exp. Sta. Memoir 306. 32 p.
CHAMBERLIN, W. J. 1939. The bark and timber beetles of North America,
north of Mexico. O.S.C. Coop. Assoc., Corvallis, Ore. Lith. 513 p.
GOUGER, R. J. 1971. Interrelations of Ips avulsus (Eichh.) and associated
fungi. Univ. of Florida Ph.D. Thesis. 92 p.
HOPKINS, A. D. 1911. Contributions toward a monograph of the scolytid
beetles. USDA Bureau of Ent. Tech. Series no. 17, part I. The genus
Dendroctonus. 164 p., illus.
HOPPING, G. R. 1961. Techniques for rearing Ips DeGeer (Coleoptera:
Scolytidae). Can. Ent. 93:1050-3.
HOPPING, G. R. 1963. The natural groups of species in the genus Ips DeGeer
(Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Can. Ent. 95(5):508-16.
LANIER, G. N. 1972. Biosystematics of the genus Ips (Coleoptera: Scoly-
tidae) in North America. Hopping's groups IV and X. Can. Ent. 104:
LEACH, J. G., L. W. ORR, AND C. CHRISTENSEN. 1934. The interrelationships
of bark beetles and bluestaining fungi in felled Norway pine timber.
J. Agr. Res. 49(4):315-41.
SCHMITZ, R. F. 1972. Behavior of Ips pini during mating, oviposition, and
larval development (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Can. Ent. 104:1723-8.
SWAINE, J. M. 1918. Canadian bark beetles. Part II. Can. Dept. Agr. Tech.
Bull. no. 14. 143 p.

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

Gouger et al.: Ips avulsus Behavior

THATCHER, R. C. 1960. Bark beetles affecting southern pines: a review of
current knowledge. S. Forest Exp. Sta. Occas. paper 180. 25 p.
1967. Stridulation and behavior in two southeastern Ips bark beetles
(Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Fla. Ent. 50(3):185-95.
YEARIAN, W. C. 1966. Relations of the blue stain fungus, Ceratocystis ips
(Rumbold) C. Moreau, to Ips bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)
occurring in Florida. Univ. of Florida Ph.D. Thesis. 81 p.
YEARIAN, W. C., R. J. GOUGER, AND R. C. Wilkinson. 1972. Effects of the
bluestain fungus, Ceratocystis ips, on development of Ips bark
beetles in pine bolts. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 65(2):481-7.


L. R. Clark, P. W. Geier, R. D. Hughes, and R. F. Morris, was first published
in 1967. Halsted Press of John Wiley & Sons, New York, is now selling a
paper-backed reprint of this useful book for $6.75.
(For a review of the book by E. O. Wilson, see Science 158:622, 1967.)

f I!-1j (
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The Florida Entomologist


Zoological Institute and Zoological Museum,
University of Hamburg, 2000 Hamburg 13, West Germany

Three new species and 1 new subspecies of the families Pygmephoridae,
Microdispidae, and Scutacaridae are described and illustrated. These are:
Mahunkania secunda, Brennandania parasilvestris floridae, Scutacarus
(S.) fragariae, and Scutacarus (S.) longipes, all found on Fragaria in Flor-
ida. Males and 2 larvae of S. fragariae are described which constitutes only
the third discovery of males in the Scutacaridae since Michael (1884). The
study of the male confirms the close relationship between Pygmephoridae
and Scutacaridae.

There are only few investigations on the Pygmephoroidea, especially
the Scutacaridae fauna of North America. Therefore I am very thankful to
have received this material through the kindness of H. A. Denmark, Florida
Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services, Gainesville. If not
otherwise mentioned, the material is deposited in the Florida State Collec-
tion of Arthropods (FSCA), Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.
Anatomical nomenclature follows that of van der Hammen (1970).

Mahunkania secunda Rack, new species
(Fig. 1-5)
FEMALE: Length (without gnathosoma) 260Ip; width 120p. DORSUM (Fig.
1). Propodosoma with 3 pairs of setae. The rostral (pr) and medio-lateral
prodorsal setae (pml) subequal. Setae pr smooth, pml moderately plu-
mose. Posterior prodorsal setae (pi) longest, slightly plumose. Sensillus
(Fig. 2) "pear-like" with long, finely ringed pedicel. Stigmata long. Opis-
thosomatic setae slightly plumose. Length of setae pc, nearly twice pc,.
Setae pd, barely longer than pc,. Length of setae pe, twice pe,. Setae pf,
longest setae of dorsum, pf,4X as long as pf,. VENTER (Fig. 5). Apodemes 1
and 2 complete. Apodemes 3 not reaching trochanters III. Apodemes 4 in-
complete. Epimeres I and II each with 3 setae, all nearly of same length
and slightly plumose. All setae of hysterosoma smooth and subequal.
Opisthosomatic setae ph, and ph, close together, ph3 is separated from ph,.
LEG I (Fig. 3). Weak claw on ventral side of tibiotarsus and 4 solenidia dor-
solaterally. Femur with 2 normal setae and 2 blunt spines, one of them
probably equivalent to seta c. LEG II. Small solenidium on dorsum of
tibia. Tarsus dorsally with larger solenidium, and distally with 2 claws
and long slender pulvillus. LEG III. Small solenidium on dorsum of tibia.
Tarsus with 2 claws and long slender pulvillus (Fig. 4). LEG IV. Tibia with
minute solenidium and spinelike seta. Tarsus with 2 claws and slender pul-
'Contribution No. 320, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida De-
partment of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, Florida 32602.

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

1005 1 5
25s 2 4
25 3

Fig. 1-5. Mahunkania secunda n. sp., female: 1) dorsum; 2) sensillus;
3) leg I; 4) claws and pulvillus of leg III; 5) venter.

MALE: Unknown.
MATERIAL: Holotype female, FLORIDA, Hillsborough County, Dover,
9-X-1973, (D-96-5), E. R. Fatic, on Fragaria sp.
DIscUSSIoN: This new species is the second of the genus Mahunkania and
shows the generic characteristics distinctly: the long, finely ringed pedicel
of the sensillus, the 2 blunt spines on femur I, the long, slender pulvillus
on tarsus II-IV. The new species differs from the type of the genus, M. hallen-
sis Rack (1972), by having setae pe, and pf, shorter, setae pf, longer, stigmata
long, claw I inserted more distally, and the difference in size of the sole-
nidia on tibiotarsus I.

Brennandania parasilvestris Rack, 1974
(Fig. 6)

In the material from Florida a female was found which seems to be B.
parasilvestris, although a few differences exist. The differences do not ap-
pear to be significant enough to erect a new species, but do warrant sub-
species status. Hitherto B. parasilvestris was known only from Europe

Rack: New Pygmephoroidea

(DDR) as opposed to B. silvestris, first described by Jacot (1936) from North
Carolina, U. S. A. The specimen from Florida is a subspecies which is de-
scribed as follows:

Brennandania parasilvestris floridae Rack, new subspecies
(Fig. 7)
FEMALE: Length (without gnathosoma) 160p; width 801. Specimen more
slender than specimens from Europe. DORSUM. Number and point of inser-
tion of setae identical to B. parasilvestris, but are smooth and more slender.
VENTER. Setae identical to B. parasilvestris. All setae more slender. LEG I.
Solenidia and setae approximate those in B. parasilvestris and both without
claw. LEG IV. (Fig. 7). Conspicuous chitinous tooth at external edge of tro-
chanter in both subspecies but not mentioned by Rack (1974). Leg IV from
holotype of B. parasilvestris is shown in Fig. 6. Shape of Leg IV differs by
proportionate length of trochanter to femur. B. parasilvestris floridae has
a distinctly shorter femur.
MALE: Unknown.
MATERIAL: Holotype female, FLORIDA, Hillsborough County, Dover,
9-X-1973, (D-96-5), E. R. Fatic, on Fragaria sp.

25f l

6 7

Fig. 6-7. Female, leg IV: 6) Brennandania parasilvestris Rack; 7) Bren-
nandania parasilvestris floridae n. ssp.

Scutacarus (S.) fragariae Rack, new species
(Fig. 8-18)
FEMALE: Length 140-210u (mean of 30 specimens 180,), holotype 180,;
width 110-1501A (mean of 30 specimens 1301A), holotype 120u. Pale yellow,
dorsally and ventrally smooth. DORSUM (Fig. 8). Setae pc, ; pc2, slightly
plumose. Setae pd, a bit thicker than pc, and pc, also slightly plumose.
Setae pe, > pe,; pe, slightly plumose, pe, smooth. Setae pf, > pf2; pf,
slightly plumose, pf, smooth. VENTER (Fig. 9). Apodemes 2 thin, weakly
developed. Sejugal apodemes strong. Apodemes 3 short, not reaching tro-
chanters III. Apodemes 4 incomplete. Epimeres I and II each with 2 setae.


The Florida Entomologist

Setae la and lb distinctly plumose; la > lb. Setae 2a and 2b arise closely
to one another; 2a > 2b; 2a slightly plumose, 2b smooth, spinelike. Epi-
meres III with 3 setae, all subequal and slightly plumose. Epimeres IV
with 3 nearly smooth setae; 4b nearly twice as long as 4a, surpasses the end
of body, if mounted specimens are not pressed too much. Setae ph, and ph,
close to one another, subequal, long, slender and plumose. Base of setae
ph3 is about twice the distance apart as ph, and ph2, short, and smooth. LEG I
(Fig. 10 and 11). Tibiotarsus with a weak claw. Of the 4 solenidia, the ven-
trally arising solenidium 1 is the strongest one. Solenidium 4 is also strong.
Solenidia 2 and 3 are long and slender. LEG II and III. Small solenidium
on dorsum of tibia. Tarsus with a long solenidium, a spinelike seta, 2 claws
and a pulvillus. LEG IV (Fig. 12). Tibiotarsus with 7 setae, seta 7 is longest.

100M 8 9
50)8 12
25u 10 11

Fig. 8-12. Scutacarus (S.) fragariae n. sp., female: 8) dorsum; 9) venter;
10) dorsum of tibiotarsus I; 11) venter of tibiotarsus I; 12) leg IV.

MALE: Length 150-1901 (mean of 20 specimens 170l); width 90-100u (mean
of 20 specimens 95j). DORSUM (Fig. 13). Gnathosoma long, narrow and very
reduced. Propodosoma with 3 pairs of setae. Setae pr minute, smooth,
needle-like; pi are strongest, longest, and plumose. Bothridia, sensilli and
stigmata absent. Opisthosomatic setae pc,, pc2 and pd, on a common shield,
subequal, slightly plumose. Setae pe, > pe2, thicker and more distinctly
plumose than pe2. Genital-capsule nearly completely covered with 2 fine
transparent scales; it has 1 pair of cylindrical setae and 1 pair of minute
spines. Penis long and strongly sclerotized. VENTER (Fig. 15). Apodemata 1

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

Rack: New Pygmephoroidea

complete. Apodemata 2 not reaching anterior sternal apodeme. Sejugal
apodeme weekly developed, complete. Posterior sternal apodeme incom-
plete. Anterior part of posterior sternal apodeme in center incomplete,
reaching trochanters III. Apodemes 3 strong only near sternum. Apodemes
4 complete, strong, straight and form acute angle. Epimeres I and II with 2
pairs, epimeres III and IV with 3 pairs of setae; setae 2b smooth, spinelike.
LEG I (Fig. 14). Tibia and tarsus separated. Tibia with 2 solenidia, solenidium
1 long and thin, solenidium 2 shorter and larger. Tarsus with 2 solenidia,
solenidium 3 very long and broad, solenidium 4 much shorter and thinner.
Tarsus with weak claw inserting on praetarsus. LEG II. Tibia with small tar-
sus, large solenidium and spinelike seta. Tarsus with 2 claws and short,
broad pulvillus. LEG III. Tibia with small solenidium. Tarsus with spine-
like seta, 2 claws and pulvillus. LEG IV (Fig. 16). Tibia with slender sole-
nidium. Tarsus without claw, 2 very long setae, one inserted dorsally and
one ventrally.

oo10p 13 15 17
50u 16 18
25P 14

Fig. 13-18. Scutacarus (S.) fragariae n. sp., male: 13) dorsum; 14) tibia
and tarsus I; 15) venter; 16) leg IV. Male larva: 17) dorsum; 18) venter of
the end of body.

The Florida Entomologist

MALE LARVA: Length (without gnathosoma) 140-16011; width 75-110..
DORSUM (Fig. 17). Gnathosoma with 2 small, strong, spinelike setae, and 2
small setae. Shield of propodosoma with 3 pairs of setae, first pair minute,
2 others 4 times as long and plumose. First shield of hysterosoma tripar-
tite. All setae of hysterosoma subequal and plumose. Setae pf, are longest
ones. VENTER. Sternalapodemes absent. Epimeres I-III with 2 pairs of setae,
all short and smooth. End of body distinctly narrow, mostly turned ven-
trally (Fig. 18). Cuticula between the epimeres closely and slightly
gathered. LEG I. Tibia with thin solenidium. Tarsus with slightly broader
solenidium, distally with 2 claws. LEG II. Tibia dorsally with thin and short
solenidium. Tarsus dorsally with slightly broader and longer solenidium,
distally 2 claws and short, broad pulvillus. LEG III. Tibia dorsally with
thin and short solenidium. Tarsus distally with 2 claws and pulvillus.
FEMALE LARVA: Female larva slightly larger than male larva (length
170-220/A, width 110-1851) and dorsal setae of body and solenidia of legs
slightly stronger and longer.
MATERIAL: Holotype female, 30 females, 10 males, 10 larvae para-
types, and alcohol material at FLORIDA, Hillsborough County, Dover, 9-
X-1973, (D-96-5), E. R. Fatic, on Fragaria sp., deposited in the Florida State
Collection of Arthropods in Gainesville, Florida; 10 females, 10 males,
10 larvae paratypes and alcohol material with the same dates as holotype
in the collection of the Zoological Institute and Zoological Museum,
University of Hamburg, West Germany.
DISCUSSION: The new species is closest to S. (S.) abatus Mahunka (1967),
S. (S.) hajeki Mahunka (1967), both from Chile, and S. (S.) hermosillai
Mahunka (1968) from Argentina. It differs from them especially in that
abatus has much shorter setae 4a and 4b, hajeki much shorter setae ph, and
hermosillai fully developed apodemes 4.
Many free females and males and several larvae with a well developed
female or male inside were collected together. Therefore, all larvae,
males, and females surely belong to the same species. This is only the third
time that males and larvae of a scutacarid have been found. The first discov-
ery was made by Michael (1884) for Scutacarus (S.) acarorum (Goeze,
1780), the second by Norton and Ide (1974). Males and larvae are seldom
found in most genera of other families of Pygmephoroidea, but are found
more often in Siteroptes and Bakerdania. The males of Bakerdania (see
Bakerdania exigua Mahunka (1969) in Rack, 1974) and Scutacarus are more
related to each other than the males of Bakerdania on the one hand and
Dolichocybe, Pyemotes, Acarophenax, etc., on the other hand (= Pyemotoi-
dea by Mahunka, 1970). The study of the males confirms the correctness of
the classification based on the study of the females into different superfami-
lies, Pyemotoidea and Pygmephoroidea, logically erected by Mahunka

Scutacarus (S.) longipes Rack, new species
(Fig. 19-23)
FEMALE: Length 280u; width 200A. Body well sclerotized. Color yel-
lowish. Dorsum and venter finely and closely punctated. DORSUM (Fig.
19). Propodosoma at sides behind sensilli with distinct tip (Fig. 21). Setae
pc,=pc2, smooth. Setae pd, /4 shorter than pc,, smooth. Setae pe, =pe2,

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

Rack: New Pygmephoroidea

smooth; pe, slightly larger than pe,. Setae pf, > pf2, smooth; pf, distinctly
broader than pf2. VENTER (Fig. 20). Sternalapodemes well developed. Apo-
demes 3 incomplete. Apodemes 4 strong, reaching trochanters IV. Epimeres
I and II each with 2 pairs of setae. Setae la=lb=2a, distinctly plumose.
Setae 2b long and spinelike. Epimeres III and IV each with 3 pairs of setae,
except for 4b all nearly the same length and weakly plumose. Setae
ph, > ph,, arising close together, plumose. Setae ph, = ph,, distant, smooth.
LEG I (Fig. 22). Tibiotarsus with medium-sized claw, arising from short pedi-
cel. There are 4 solenidia. Solenidium 2 small and elongate. Solenidium
1 located ventrally. Solenidium 4 is strongest. LEG II. Tibia with small
solenidium. Tarsus with long solenidium, 1 spinelike seta, 2 strong claws
and pulvillus. LEG III. Tibia with minute solenidium. Tarsus with spine-
like seta, 2 strong claws and pulvillus. LEG IV (Fig. 23). Trochanter with
distinct tooth. Tibiotarsus distinctly elongate, with 7 setae as figured.
MALE: Unknown.
MATERIAL: Holotype female, FLORIDA, Hillsborough County, Dover,
9-X-1973, (D-96-5), E. R. Fatic, on Fragaria sp.
DIscussION: Only 7 of about 200 known species and subspecies of the
subgenus Scutacarus have an elongate tibiotarsus IV; 1 of them, S. (S.)
wranoskyi Mahunka (1970) is found in Nebraska (U.S.A.) and 5 others are

19 20

S---o---o' 1920
21 250 21 22

Fig. 19-23. Scutacarus (S.) longipes n. sp., female: 19) dorsum; 20) venter;
21) right side of propodosoma with sensillus; 22) tibiotarsus I; 23) leg IV.

The Florida Entomologist

found in South America. The new species is most closely related to the
European S. (S.) longitarsus (Berlese, 1905) with 3 subspecies, 2 of them
found in Africa and South America. The new species differs from S. (S.)
longitarsus by its smaller size, the shorter tibiotarsus IV and its other seta-
tion. It differs from S. (S.) wranoskyi especially by the other station of the
dorsum and of the tibiotarsus IV.


I wish to express my thanks to Mr. H. A. Denmark for linguistical re-
view of the manuscript.


CROSS, E. A. 1965. The generic relationships of the family Pyemotidae (Aca-
rina: Trombidiformes). Kans. Univ. Sci. Bull. 45(2):29-275.
JACOT, A. P. 1936. Three undescribed Pediculoidid mites from the Southern
Appalachians. Can. Ent. 68:129-33.
MAHUNKA, S. 1970. Considerations on the systematics of the Tarsonemina
and the description of new European taxa (Acari: Trombidiformes).
Acta Zool. Hung. 16(1-2):137-74.
MICHAEL, A. D. 1884. The hypopus question, or the life-history of certain
Acarina. J. Linn. Soc. London (Zool.) 17:371-94.
NORTON, R. A., AND G. S. IDE. 1974. Scutacarus baculitarsus agaricus
n.subsp. (Acarina: Scutacaridae) from commercial mushroom houses,
with notes on phoretic behavior. J. Kansas Ent. Soc. 47(4):527-34.
RACK, G. 1972. Tarsonemina aus dem Saalkreis bei Halle (Acarina, Trom-
bidiformes). Ent. Mitt. Zool. Mus. Hamburg 4(78):.277-86.
RACK, G. 1974. Neue und bekannte Milbenarten der Uberfamilie Pygme-
phoroidea aus dem Saalkreis bei Halle (Acarina, Tarsonemida). Ent.
Mitt. Zool. Mus. Hamburg 4(87):499-521.
VAN DER HAMMEN, L. 1970. Tarsonemoides limbatus nov. spec., and the sys-
tematic position of the Tarsonemida (Acarina). Zool. Verh. (108):

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975


The Florida Entomologist



Systematic Entomology Laboratory, IIBIII, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA1


Forcipestricis portoricensis, spec. nov., is described. It and the type-
species, F. gazeaui Burks are internal larval-pupal parasites of ceratopo-
gonids in the genus Forcipomyia Meigen.

Willis W. Wirth recently gave me some encyrtid parasites of Forcipo-
myia fuliginosa (Meigen) collected by L. G. Saunders on Puerto Rico dur-
ing 1953. The specimens represent an undescribed species of Forcipestricis
Burks. The distinctive habitus of the specimens, their host association and
possible negative effect on biological control attempts prompted this de-

Forcipestricis portoricensis Gordh spec. nov.
FEMALE-1.0-1.3 mm long. Body uniformly tan; antenna and legs except
coxae and femora slightly paler.
Head in frontal aspect slightly wider than high, subtriangular; com-
pound eye, vertex, inner margin near compound eye, malar space and region
between toruli sparsely setose; head smooth, bearing few faintly incised
striae on vertex and malar space. Torulus 2 times as high as wide; toruli
separated by 2 times torulus diameter and 1 torulus height below imagi-
nary line extending between ventral margin of compound eyes. Antennal
scape (Fig. 1) sparsely setose, nearly smooth and not reaching vertex;
pedicel sparsely setose, smooth and as long as funiculars 1-3 combined;
funicular segments transverse, moderately setose, smooth, each succeeding
segment uniformly increasing in size; club compact, setose, smooth; rhi-
naria on all funiculars and club. Clypeal margin straight; mandible tri-
dentate, middle mandibular tooth large, conically pointed, inner and
outer teeth small. Maxillary palpus 3 segmented, apical segment blunt,
as long as segments 1 and 2 combined; labial palpus 2 segmented, apical
segment blunt, segments subequal.
Pronotum nearly concealed from above, strongly transverse, moder-
ately setose, with faintly incised reticulate sculpture; mesoscutum mod-
erately setose with faintly incised reticulate sculpture; scutellum (Fig.
3) nearly smooth, with central pair of scolopophorus (?) sensilla, longi-
tudinal mesal portion lacking setae, laterally adjacent areas with a few
pale thin setae and a cluster of 7-10 horseshoe-shaped tubercles, lateral
region lacking setae and sculpture; metanotum with transverse striae and
small setae only along anterolateral margin. Propodeum mesally short,

'Mail address: c/o U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 20560.


Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

The Florida Entomologist


Fig. 1-3. Forcipestricis portoricensis. 1. Female antenna, inner aspect;
2. Male antenna, inner aspect; 3. Female scutellum.

strongly transverse and bulbous laterally to accommodate a large spir-
acle; with a few striae. Tegula sparsely setose and bearing a faintly in-
cised reticulate sculpture.
Metasoma 1.1-1.3 times longer than mesosoma; cerci approximately
halfway between anterior and posterior margins of metasoma; terga faintly
incised with reticulate sculpture; metasomal apex moderately setose.
Middle tibia 1.1-1.3 times longer than ovipositor.
Forewing hyaline; speculum present, margins poorly defined; costal
cell and anterior margin setose; submarginal vein long, separated from
marginal vein by hyaline break; marginal vein shorter than stigmal vein;
postmarginal vein apically indistinct, approximately as long as stigmal
vein; wing blade distad of speculum with uniform vestiture of small, thin
MALE-1.0-1.2 mm long. Similar to the female in habitus, coloration, chae-
totaxy and sculpture. Differing in the following features: antennal funicu-
lar segments (Fig. 2) moniliform, but the first distinctly smaller than the
last; club as long as preceding 2 funiculars combined.
Type locality: Mayaguez, Puerto Rico.
Holotype: Female dissected and mounted in balsam; USNM Number
73409. Described from 10 females and 2 males collected at Mayaguez,
Puerto Rico, on 23 March 1953 by L. G. Saunders. The host was identified
by W. W. Wirth as Forcipomyia fuliginosa (Meigen). Eight female and 2
male paratypes deposited in USNM.
Variation: Little variation of morphological features was detected among
the specimens examined. One female had funicular segments 5 and 6 partly
fused and was not included in the type series.
Comparative comments: Burks (1968) erected the genus Forcipestricis for a
single species gazeaui which was reared by Lionel Gazeau from pupae of
Forcipomyia (F.) simulata Walley in Maryland. Forcipestricis portori-
censis may be distinguished from F. gazeaui on the basis of the following
characters: the latter species is black, the first 4 funicular segments are sub-
annelliform and the last 2 enlarged (female only), the scutellum is
boldly reticulate, and the gaster is as long as the mesosoma.

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975


Gordh: Forcipestricis portoricensis, N.Sp.

Both species bear conspicuous horseshoe-shaped tubercles on the scu-
tellum. I have not seen these features in the Encyrtidae before and suggest
that they may be diagnostic characters used in addition to those cited by
Burks (1968) to separate Forcipestricis from all other genera of encyrtids.
The denticles cannot be seen with reflected light and a dissecting micro-


BURKS, B. D. 1968. A new chalcidoid parasite of a ceratopogonid midge
(Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae). Ent. News 79:236-40.

Female pseudoscorpions (hereafter called ps) (Paratemnus elongatus) are
phoretic on Photuris sp. D fireflies during a brief, early-summer period in
Gainesville, Florida (Lloyd and Muchmore, 1974, Fla. Ent. 57:381). We
have made additional observations on this phenomenon at the same site.
Phoresy was found on the first night of observations, 16 June 1975 and was
last seen on 24 June, though sought several evenings subsequently. Sea-
sonal distribution of phoresy during 2 seasons, as presently delimited by
observations on more than 400 fireflies, of which 8 (3 males) were encum-
bered with a total of 22 pss (all female apparently), is 9-24 June: Photuris
D season is from early May to mid August. Multiple phoresy is common,
and the pattern established is odd, but probably not significant: 3 fireflies
had 1 ps, 3 fireflies had 3 pss each, and 2 had 5 pss. Most pss were attached to
a hind tibia, usually by a single chela; other attachment sites observed in
the field were the tibio-tarsal junction and tarsus of a hind leg, and meso-
tarsus and tibia. In captivity pss occasionally reattached at other places,
including the elytral apex and an antenna.

The Florida Entomologist

Experiments in which potential carriers were made to walk through the
bore of a glass tube past Paratemnus females, or were confined up to 48
hr with them in petri dishes, demonstrated that detached pss would some-
times reattach to Photuris D adults. Firefly larvae, chrysomelid beetles
(Diabrotica sp.), a Gryllus cricket, and an earwig were not grasped.
A firefly with 2 passengers is barely able to fly. One with 5 pss walks
with difficulty. The average live-weight of the pss was 0.002 g (n= 12); and
of fireflies, 0.037 g (n=2), a ratio of 1:19. The firefly in Fig. 1 was carrying
a payless load 29% of its own body weight (plus a parasitic mite on the right
elytron). We know not why, to where or whence. Nothing yet supports a
predation hypothesis, or even indicates that phoresy on fireflies is adaptive.
J. E. Lloyd, S. Correale, Univ. of Fla., Gainesville 32611; and W. B. Much-
more, Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627.

Fig. 1. Adult female firefly Photuris sp. D with 5 phoretic female pseu-
doscorpions Paratemnus elongatus and a parasitic mite. Photo taken in the
field the night of capture. Note that the pseudoscorpion at the lower left is
holding on with both chelae.

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975


The Florida Entomologist



Systematic Entomology Laboratory, IIBIII, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA,
c/o U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 20560


Biological notes are given on 2 species of Forcipomyia midges that are
parasitized by the hymenopteran genus Forcipestricis Burks (Encyrtidae).
Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia) picea (Winnertz) (synonym: F. simulata
Walley, NEW SYN.) breeds under tree bark in Europe and North America.
Forcipomyia (Microhelea) fuliginosa (Meigen) is worldwide in distribution,
and larvae have been found under damp tree bark in Brazil, on wood in
Puerto Rico, from a mossy log in Costa Rica, from bromeliads in Trinidad,
from rotting leaves of Musa in Ghana, and from mosses, liverworts, and
algae on a clay bank in Singapore. Forcipomyia intonsa Chan and LeRoux
from Singapore is a synonym of F. fuliginosa (NEW SYN.).

The hymenopteran parasitic genus Forcipestricis was described by Burks
(1968) for a single species, gazeaui Burks. The description by Gordon Gordh
of this laboratory of a second species prompted me to review the literature
on the known hymenopteran parasites of the biting midges (Ceratopogoni-
dae) and to summarize the knowledge of the larval biology of the host of
the second species, Forcipestricis portoricensis Gordh.
A survey of the literature revealed no instance of any hymenopterous
parasite having been reared from the Ceratopogonidae, other than from the
terrestrial or semi-aquatic genus Forcipomyia Meigen. The more aquatic
genera in the subfamilies Leptoconopinae, Dasyheleinae, and Ceratopogo-
ninae, and the predominantly aquatic genus Atrichopogon Kieffer in the
Forcipomyiinae have no known hymenopteran parasites.
In addition to the 2 species of Forcipestricis in the family Encyrtidae,
there are records of only 2 species of hymenopterous parasites of Forci-
pomyia, these in the genus Entomacis Forster in the family Diapriidae:
1) E. longii (Ashmead), 1902, described in the genus Adeliopria Ashmead,
reared from pupae of Forcipomyia wheeleri (Long) taken in what appeared
to be an abandoned ant nest in Texas; and 2) E. californica (Ashmead),
1883, described in the genus Hemilexis Forster, without reference to host,
from the Santa Cruz Mountains, California, subsequently determined by
C. F. W. Muesebeck and recorded by Bedard (1938) from Washington,
emerged from larvae of Forcipomyia.
Lionel Gazeau reared Forcipestricis gazeaui Burks from Forcipomyia
(Forcipomyia) simulata Walley in Maryland. Close examination of all
stages of the American F. simulata and comparison with European material
of F. (F.) picea (Winnertz) revealed no significant differences and I there-
fore place F. simulate as a juniv'or sy'nym o F. picea ~NEW SYNONYMY).
Larvae of this widespread Holarctic species occur quite frequently under the

'Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville 32601.

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

The Florida Entomologist

bark of logs and dead trees of a wide variety of plant families. The larvae
are gregarious and feed in small groups of 10-40 individuals on various
fungi that grow on the rotting cambium tissue of the trees.
It was with great interest, therefore, that I discovered in the L. G. Saun-
ders collection a number of hymenopterous parasites that were reared by
Saunders from Forcipomyia (Microhelea) fuliginosa (Meigen) in Puerto
Rico. Gordon Gordh has kindly determined these parasites as a second spe-
cies of Forcipestricis and has described them in a companion paper in this
Just before his death in 1968, Saunders donated his valuable collection
of reared ceratopogonids to the U. S. National Museum in Washington,
D. C. He spent a lifetime in a detailed study of the biology and immature
stages of Forcipomyia midges; his classic publications (1924, 1956) are the
best authority in the field. From 1953 until his fatal illness began in 1965
he pioneered in the study of the Forcipomyia midges associated with polli-
nation of cocoa, making extensive collections and observations in Puerto
Rico, Trinidad, and other Caribbean islands in 1953 and 1957, Costa Rica in
1956 and 1957, the Philippines in 1961, and Ghana in 1963. I am taking this
opportunity to report some unpublished rearing records of Forcipomyia
from his collection and manuscript notes.

Forcipomyia (Microhelea) fuliginosa (Meigen)
The extensive taxonomic literature concerning this cosmopolitan spe-
cies has been summarized by Wirth (1956, 1972b). The adult females of F.
fuliginosa attack caterpillars in small swarms, piercing the bodies of the
caterpillars with their mouthparts and feeding upon the haemolymph. I
(Wirth 1972a) have expressed my belief that the feeding of these midges fits
them well to act as vectors of polyhedral viruses or other pathogens. In
some situations it is possible that Forcipomyia midges may have some role
in biological control, bringing a virus infection from "wild" hosts in a
field or orchard margin into a caterpillar population on a crop plant.
There are many records of F. fuliginosa feeding on a wide variety of lepi-
dopterous larvae, but the species has been found occasionally on other
unrelated hosts, including sawfly larvae, dragonflies, and meloid beetles.
Field workers in biological control are especially urged to keep in mind
the potential importance of Forcipomyia feeding on caterpillars and other
insects and to look carefully for the attacks of these minute parasites.
Adults of F. fuliginosa also have been found frequently in flowers of
cocoa, where at times they may assume some importance in pollination
(Kaufmann 1974).
Immature Stages.-The larva of F. fuliginosa was first described and
figured under the name of F. inornatipennis (Austen) by Ingram and Mac-
fie (1924) who reared the larvae in the laboratory in Ghana from eggs
obtained from a gravid female imprisoned in a tube containing vegetable de-
bris. Lane (1947) next described the larva and pupa under the name inor-
natipennis var. ornaticrus Ingram and Macfie from material which was col-
lected from damp wood under the bark of dead, fallen, and rotting trees
in Brazil. Chan and LeRoux (1971) described and figured a new species,
Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia) intonsa from all stages reared in Singapore,
Malaysia, from mosses, liverworts, and blue-green algae collected on a

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

Wirth: Forcipomyia Biology

clay bank. Their species belongs in the subgenus Microhelea Kieffer and is
identical with F. fuliginosa (NEW SYNONYMY).
In the Saunders collection in the U. S. National Museum of Natural
History are 4 lots of F. fuliginosa reared from larvae, as follows:
COSTA RICA: Hacienda Theobroma, Siquirres, 14 June 1956, from mossy
log, L. G. Saunders, all stages (CR31).
GHANA: Tafo, 20 May 1963, from rotting Musa leaves, L. G. Saunders,
all stages (G26).
PUERTO RICO: Mayagtiez, 27 January 1953, on wood, L. G. Saunders,
all stages (PR7). The Forcipestricis parasites emerged from the host pupae
on 23 January.
TRINIDAD: Las Hermanas, 7 August 1957, from epiphytic bromeliad, L.
G. Saunders, 2 males, 2 females, 2 pupal exuviae (There are also several
adult F. fuliginosa specimens in the USNMNH collection that were also
reared in Trinidad from bromeliads by R. W. Williams (no. 51, 3-10 Sep-
tember 1963).

ASHMEAD, W. H. 1893. Monograph of the North American Proctotrypidae.
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 45:1-472.
ASHMEAD, W. H. 1902. A new genus of diapriids from Texas. Biol. Bull.
BEDARD, W. D. 1938. An annotated list of the insect fauna of Douglas Fir
(Pseudotsuga mucronata Rafinesque) in the northern Rocky Moun-
tain Region. Canad. Ent. 70:188-97.
BURKS, B. D. 1968. A new chalcidoid parasite of a ceratopogonid midge (Hy-
menoptera, Encyrtidae). Ent. News 79:236-40.
CHAN, K. L., AND E. J. LEROUX. 1971. Nine new species of Forcipomyia
(Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) described in all stages. Canad. Ent. 103:
GORDH, G. 1975. A new species of Forcipestricis Burks 1968, from Puerto
Rico parasitic on Forcipomyia (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae; Diptera:
Ceratopogonidae). Fla. Ent. 58:
INGRAM, A., AND J. W. S. MACFIE. 1924. Notes on some African Ceratopogo-
ninae-Species of the genus Forcipomyia. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasit.
KAUFMANN, T. 1974. Behavioral biology of a cocoa pollinator, Forcipo-
myia inornatipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Ghana. J. Kansas
Ent. Soc. 47:541-8.
LANE, J. 1947. A biologia e taxonomia de algumas esp6cies dos grupos
Forcipomyia e Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae (Heleidae)).
Arq. Fac. Hig. Saude Pfib. Univ. Sao Paulo 1:159-68, 2 pl.
SAUNDERS, L. G. 1924. On the life history and the anatomy of the early
stages of Forcipomyia (Diptera, Nemat., Ceratopogoninae). Parasi-
tology 16:164-213, 3 pl.
SAUNDERS, L. G. 1956. Revision of the genus Forcipomyia based on charac-
ters of all stages (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae). Canad. J. Zool. 34:
WIRTH, W. W. 1956. New species and records of biting midges ectoparasitic
on insects (Diptera, Heleidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 49:356-64.
WIRTH, W. W. 1972a. Midges sucking blood of caterpillars (Diptera: Cera-
topogonidae). J. Lepidopterists' Soc. 26:65.
WIRTH, W. W. 1972b. The Neotropical Forcipomyia (Microhelea) species
related to the caterpillar parasite F. fuliginosa (Diptera: Ceratopo-
gonidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 65:564-77.


The Florida Entomologist


NATURAL HISTORY PHOTOGRAPHY. D. M. Turner Ettlinger (Ed). 1974.
Academic Press, New York, 395 p. illus. $23.25 (73-19024). This book, with
its broad coverage taxonomically and technically, is the last word in na-
ture photography, instruction, and guidance. While it is too heavy and not
appropriate for a guide while in the field, many of its thumb rules and tech-
niques are worth copying into a pocket memorandum. Several problems
and techniques of laboratory and controlled field photography are dis-
cussed. Chapters: Big game, Small vertebrates, Bats, Birds at the nest,
Birds away from the nest, The uses of playback tape, Birds in flight, Flight
photography with electronic flash, Insects and other invertebrates, Aquaria
and vivaria, Plant photography, Underwater photography, Photography in
caves, Stereo photography, Tropical conditions, and, under "Some techni-
cal points", camera choice, shutters, lenses, focusing, depth of field, ex-
posure, and other topics fundamental to all specialty areas. All photog-
raphers, including the consummate connoiseur, will find something of
value here!
Were you aware that taking pictures from the back of an elephant is not
as easy as it looks, and not the same as shooting from a motor vehicle? This
is mainly because they have a different sort of air intake system and the
pumping rocks the rider. How then, from a howdah? Use a faster film and
shutter, and it's worth it because with an elephant you move much closer
to some subjects than you can with more prosaic perches. When working in
a damp, cool cave take your photos early because the moisture you will
add to the atmosphere with your breathing will flatten and wash out your
images. The cave chapter also has instructions for making a stove to cook
your camera to keep its optics, workings, and film dry. The text is ade-
quately but not profusely complemented with quality illustrations. These
include B&W photographs (I especially like a thistle and flying owl with
prey), and line drawings (electronic circuits, camera-subject-light position-
ing for various situations, hide (blind) plans). Each chapter has a short, and
inadequate bibliography. Among minor criticisms: through a typo error in-
sects are considered to be vertebrates (table of contents); grasshoppers are
inferred to be Lepidoptera, or leps to sing (p 153); it is hinted that natural
selection works at the community level (p 310); and the political view of
one contributor (p 344) would be better at Hyde Park.
As a general criticism this volume, like other recent photography guides,
fails the practising biologist because it is directed at nonbiologists and de-
votes much space to fundamentals of nature study. For entomologists, a
more serious shortcoming is that the chapter on insects is the weakest and
its photos are not especially inspirational, or 'emulatable'. Its text is
mostly nature-study, ethics, and conservation, and barely gets around to
If you are interested in nature photography you must study this book.
If you are responsible for library purchases in any field of basic, applied or
hobby natural history, put this book on your list-if your institution is still
buying books.

James E. Lloyd
University of Florida


Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

The Florida Entomologist



Department of Biological Sciences,
Fordham University, Bronx, N. Y. 10458


Polycyrtidea floridana n. sp. is described from Gainesville, Florida. Our
only other United States Polycyrtidea, P. limits Cushman from the Lower
Rio Grande Valley of Texas, also is described and compared. Possible
zoogeographic relationships of these and other southeastern mesostenine
ichneumonids are discussed.

Through courtesy of Dr. Howard V. Weems, Jr., Curator of the Florida
State Collection of Arthropods, at Gainesville, I have received for study
an undescribed species of the genus Polycyrtidea Viereck. At the same time,
under grants from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the Na-
tional Geographic Society, it has been possible for me to collect a series
of Polycyrtidea limits Cushman, a Mexican and Central American form,
which has been found in the United States only in the southern tip of Texas.
Polycyrtidea is a small, primarily Neotropical genus belonging to the
Subtribe Lymeonina of the Tribe Mesostenini. According to Townes (1966:
99, 1969:288), there are 5 described species and at least 6 more awaiting de-
scription. The genus ranges on the west from subtropical northern Argentina
north to the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas and on the east to Cuba
and peninsular Florida, but its center seems to lie in tropical and subtropi-
cal South America. Unlike most ichneumonids, which prefer wet forests,
most Polycyrtidea have adapted to semiarid desert or thorn scrub habitats.
Thus, I have collected it in the northwest Argentine Dry Chaco and Sub-
andean Desert, in river valleys of the Peruvian Coastal Desert, and in sub-
tropical thorn scrub at McAllen, Texas. Little is known about the hosts of
Polycyrtidea, but Walkley (1958:48) reported that P. flavopicta Ashmead
has been reared in British Guiana from the schoenobiine pyralidid moth,
Rupela albinella Cramer.

Genus Polycyrtidea Viereck
Polycyrtidea Viereck, 1913:382.
Type: Polycyrtidea gracilis Viereck. Original description.
The following diagnosis will separate Polycyrtidea from all other
North American mesostenine genera: front with a median conical horn;
epomia strong and ending above in a prominent tubercle on dorsal edge of
pronotum; hind rim of metanotum without a small tooth on each side of

'Contribution No. 332, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida De-
partment of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, Florida 32602.
'Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Florida Department of Agri-
culture and Consumer Services, Gainesville.


Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

The Florida Entomologist

postscutellum;' areolet very small and lacking second intercubitus; base
of second discoidal cell usually narrowed to a point; mediella very
strongly arched; first gastric tergite extremely long and slender, without
longitudinal carinae.

1. Mesoscutum with abundant large, coarse punctures, notauli
reaching about 2/3 its length; lower metapleuron coarsely
puncto-reticulate throughout; female flagellum with white
band; hind tarsus marked with white ........................P. limits Cushman
1'. Mesoscutum with sparse small to medium sized punctures,
notauli reaching about 1/3 its length; lower metapleuron
becoming smooth and largely impunctate on much of upper
anterior 3/5; no white on female flagellum or hind tarsus-- .
........................................................................................... P florid a n a n sp .

Polycyrtidea limits Cushman
(Fig. 1)
Polycyrtidea limits Cushman, 1929. Holotype: female, USA: Brownsville,
Texas (U. S. National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D. C.).
FEMALE. Color: scape dark brown above, white to pale yellow below;
flagellum blackish with white band above on segments 6 or 7 to 10 or 11;
head white to pale yellow with dark brown on apical 1/5 to 1/3 of man-
dible, a little dusky staining near anterior tentorial pits, more or less
blackish between antennal sockets, with shining black on a broad area
which reaches dorsad from antennal sockets, widens to include ocellar
area, expands greatly onto occiput, reaches ventrad behind onto upper
1/2-2/3 of temple more narrowly, and finally continues rearward and
below over most of postocciput; mesosoma shining black with profuse
white to pale yellow markings as follows: broad band on dorsal margin
of pronotum from epomia to apex, broad band on all but about median
1/4 of front margin of pronotum sometimes confluent with dorsal band,
apical margin to almost all of propleuron, a pair of broad longitudinal
blotches on middle of mesoscutum bordering notauli externally, some-
times a pair of yellow marks on median lobe of mesoscutum along notauli,
tegula, prescutellar ridge, most of scutellum, most of postscutellum, sub-
alarum, a pair of very large narrowly separate to confluent blotches one
on upper and one on lower half of mesopleuron, usually some brownish
staining in sternaulus, sometimes blotch medially on mesosternum just
below sternaulus or occasionally all of mesosternum yellow with
brownish suffusion, upper metapleuron and sometimes most of hind rim of
metanotum, almost all of lower metapleuron, very large blotch occu-
pying most of propodeum behind weakly traceable apical trans-carina ex-
cept for apical margin and a more or less large area reaching well for-
ward from insertion of first gastric segment; gaster dull fulvous with vari-
ably developed dusky staining, especially on base of second tergite but
sometimes nearly throughout, tergite 1 pale yellow on about basal 3/5
and again on apical 1/6, tergites 2-7 with a broad pale yellow apical band
that more or less fades out laterad; fore and mid legs with coxae, tro-
chanters, and trochantelli yellowish white with a little brown staining on


Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

Porter: New Polycyrtidea

Fig. 1. Polycyrtidea limits, female, McAllen, Texas. Mesonotum and
dorsum of pronotum.
Fig. 2. Polycyrtidea floridana, female Holotype. Mesonotum and dor-
sum of pronotum.

apex of mid trochantellus and femora, tibiae, and tarsi fulvous with dusky
staining on up to last 3 tarsomeres of fore leg and on tarsomeres 1 or 2 to
5 of mid leg; hind leg with coxa yellow with a very large black to pale
brownish blotch on more than basal half of front face, a smaller black to
dark brown blotch on apical half above, and a very large black to pale
brownish blotch over more than basal half of hind face; trochanter and
trochantellus often mostly black with yellow on apex but sometimes
more extensively yellowish or brown and fulvous marked; femur fulvous,
sometimes with considerable dusky staining; tibia fulvous with dusky stain-
ing briefly on base and on about apical 1/10 varying to extensively black-
ish with only a diffuse dull fulvous pre-basal band; tarsus blackish brown
with white on apical 2/5 to 5/8 of first segment, all or almost all of
second segment, sometimes in part or even throughout on third segment;
wings hyaline.
Length of fore wing: 4.6-5.6 mm. Head: frontal horn large and high, 0.23-
0.29 as long as first flagellomere. Mesoscutum: smooth and polished with
abundant large, coarse, in part subadjacent to adjacent punctures; notauli
sharply defined for about 2/3 the length of mesoscutum and with a trans-
verse impression connecting their apices. Metapleuron: lower part coarsely
puncto-reticulate throughout. Propodeum: apical trans-carina with promi-
nent and more or less tubercular cristae, otherwise weakly and irregularly
traceable. First gastric tergite: post petiole shining but throughout with
minute wrinkling. Second gastric tergite: 2.7-3.4 as long as wide at apex,
its surface nearly mat with very fine but strong wrinkling that becomes only
a little weaker near apex.
MALE. Differs from female as follows: Color: flagellum without a
white band.
Length of fore wing: 4.8-5.0 mm. First gastric tergite: postpetiole smooth
and polished, largely without minute wrinkling. Second gastric tergite:
4.2-6.3 as long as wide at apex.


The Florida Entomologist

SPECIMENS EXAMINED. 8 females, 4 males, USA, Texas: Hidalgo Co.,
Valley Botanical Garden at McAllen, XII-73 in Malaise trap, 24-XII-73,
1-74 in Malaise trap, 7-1-75, 12-21-1-74, III-74 in Malaise trap, C. C. Porter.
(In collection of Charles C. Porter, McAllen, Texas and Florida State
Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville, Florida).
VARIATION. Townes' description (1962:406) indicates that the ground
color of the mesosoma may vary from black to reddish brown.
RELATIONSHIPS. P. limits ranges from the lower Rio Grande Valley
south to Costa Rica. In South America it is replaced by the perhaps only
subspecifically distinct P. flavopicta, which has a somewhat different color
pattern. From P. floridana, on the other hand, limits differs in many charac-
ters of color and sculpture, as summarized under the discussion of that spe-
cies. These 2 U. S. Polycyrtidea thus appear to have had a separate origin.
FIELD NOTES. The Valley Botanical Garden at McAllen, Texas,
where I collected material of limits, comprises about 15 acres of subtropi-
cal thorn scrub dominated by Prosopisjuliflora and Celtis pallida, but with
a considerable admixture of Acacia farnesiana, A. greggii, Condalia obo-
vata, and Celtis lindheimeri. Hand collected specimens of limits were swept
from a grassy and weedy area shaded by large Celtis lindheimeri. The Ma-
laise trap which caught several additional specimens also was placed in the
shade of C. lindheimeri. P. limits seems to fly through much of the year in
south Texas, on the basis of my records for December, January, and March
and Townes' data (1962:407) for July and August. It probably will be found
to be most abundant in winter, as is true for most Rfo Grande Valley ich-

Polycyrtidea floridana Porter, new species
(Fig. 2)
FEMALE. Color: scape yellow with a little brownish above; pedicel pale
brownish above and yellow beneath; flagellum dull pale brown; head
bright yellow with dark brown on apical 1/3 of mandible and shining black
on a large area which begins just above antennal sockets, reaches dorsad and
expands to include ocellar region, widens out behind on occiput and about
upper 1/3 of temple, and finally continues rearward and ventrad over
about upper 2/3 of postocciput; mesosoma shining black with profuse yel-
low markings as follows: very large area covering most of dorso-lateral
half of pronotum, very broad and almost contiguous band on front margin
of pronotum, most of propleuron, a pair of broad longitudinal almost
percurrent stripes on mesoscutum, tegula, most of prescutellar ridge, scu-
tellum, most of postscutellum, subalarum, very large blotch over most
of upper half of mesopleuron, small dull spot on mesopleuron below
well in front of mid coxa, a pair of dull and obscure areas on mesosternum
in front of mid coxae, upper metapleuron almost wholly, almost all of
lower metapleuron, a very large blotch occupying much of propodeum be-
hind basal trans-carina; gaster dull fulvous with considerable dusky stain-
ing, tergite 1 pale yellow on basal 3/5 and again on apical 1/6; tergites 2-5
with a broad, pale yellow apical band which fades out laterad and succeed-
ing tergites more narrowly and diffusely yellowish on apex; fore and mid
legs yellow on coxae, trochanters, and trochantelli and otherwise pale
fulvous with considerable yellow staining below on basal half of femora
and more or less dusky staining on last tarsomere; hind coxa yellow with a

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

Porter: New Polycyrtidea

very large black area occupying most of front face except near apex and a
large brown blotch on hind face; trochanter and trochantellus brownish
grading into dull fulvous below and dull yellowish on apical rims; hind
femur, tibia, and tarsus dull fulvous with dusky staining on last tarsomere;
wings hyaline.
Length of fore wing: 3.6 mm. Head: frontal horn low, 0.15 as long as first
flagellomere. Mesoscutum: smooth and polished with very sparse small to
medium sized punctures that become only moderately denser on anterior
1/3; notauli reaching only about 1/3 length of mesoscutum, without a
transverse impression between apices. Metapleuron: lower part smooth and
practically impunctate on much of upper anterior 3/5 but rearward and
below with increasingly more numerous large punctures which finally be-
come subadjacent to adjacent and mingled with weak oblique wrinkling.
Propodeum: apical trans-carina weakly traceable laterad, where it forms
obscure cristae. First gastric tergite: postpetiole smooth and highly pol-
ished, without minute wrinkling or shagreening. Second gastric tergite: 2.2
as long as wide at apex, its surface shining with well developed minute
wrinkling that nearly fades out on apical 1/5.
MALE. Unknown.
TYPE MATERIAL. Known only from the holotype female: USA, Florida,
Alachua Co., Gainesville (Doyle Conner Building), 4-XII-1971, H. V.
Weems Jr. & C. Artaud, in Malaise trap. Holotype in Florida State Collec-
tion of Arthropods, Gainesville.
FIELD NOTES. The type locality is an area of sandy soil which supports
a forest of Pinus palustris, various oaks, and the saw palmetto, Serenoa
RELATIONSHIPS: Floridana is a distinctive species. It differs strongly
from the Texan and Middle American P. limits not only by those charac-
ters already mentioned in the key but also in the following details: yel-
low markings of mesoscutum in the form of almost percurrent stripes in-
stead of shorter broad blotches, mesopleuron with a large yellow blotch
covering most of upper half but without any yellow on lower half except
for a small spot below well in front of mid coxa, gastric tergites 6-7 only
narrowly and diffusely yellowish on apex, hind coxa with a very large
black area occupying most of front face except near apex and a large brown
blotch on hind face but without a dark area dorsally, frontal horn 0.15
(vs. 0.23-0.29) as long as first flagellomere, without a transverse depres-
sion between apices of notauli, apical trans-carina of propodeum developed
laterally into obscure (rather than prominent and somewhat tubercular)
cristae, postpetiole without minute wrinkling, second gastric tergite 2.2
(vs. 2.7-3.4) as long as wide at apex.
The only other Polycyrtidea which might approach floridana is the
Cuban P. pusilla Cresson. The unique type of pusilla in the Gundlach col-
lection at Havana, Cuba is not available for study. According to Townes
(1966:99) this specimen has lost both the head and the abdomen. However,
Cresson's original description (1865:31-32) shows that pusilla differs from
floridana in the following characters: notauli "rather deeply impressed"
(vs. weakly impressed in floridana), mesosternum pale yellowish instead
of mostly dark, mesopleuron with only subalarum yellow lacking a very
large pale blotch on its upper half, first gastric tergite pale yellow on
basal half but without yellow on apex, succeeding tergites "honey yellow"
with base of second blackish but without pale yellow bands on apex.

The Florida Entomologist

As to origin of floridana and the cause of its present geographic isolation,
at least 3 possibilities may be suggested:
(1) When we know more about the Cuban P. pusilla, we may find it
closely related to floridana. This would suggest that floridana is a remote
or recent immigrant from across the water to the south. However, all avail-
able evidence indicates that ichneumonids cross water gaps rather infre-
quently. Of the 39 species of Mesostenini presently known from Florida
(Townes, 1962), only 5 occur also in Cuba (making up about 23% of that
apparently impoverished fauna). Moreover, of those 5, only Compsocryptus
fasciipennis Brull and Lymeon bicinctus Cresson are shared exclu-
sively between Florida and Cuba, while the other 3 (Pachysomoides fulvus
Cresson, P. stupidus Cresson, and Acerastes pertinax Cresson) also range
widely in the rest of the United States and in the mainland tropics. Ex-
change of ichneumonids between Florida and the neighboring West Indies
thus would appear minimal.
(2) P. floridana or its ancestor could have followed the Gulf Coastal
Plain up from Middle America into Florida. However, no species closely
related to floridana presently is known from Mexico or Central America.
If floridana and the Texan-Middle American limits stem from a common
ancestor, the degree of distinctness between them suggests that their separa-
tion must have taken place very long ago.
Among other Florida Mesostenini, only 4 species have a distribution
somewhat like that outlined above. Pachysomoides fulvus occurs through-
out the United States, in Cuba, and south into M6xico at least to Orizaba.
Pachysomoides stupidus ranges from North Carolina and Florida west to
Texas and south through Middle America and the West Indies to Venezuela.
Acerastes pertinax extends from Maryland south to Brasil and Paraguay.
Diapetimorpha macula Cameron reaches from Maryland south through
Texas into Mexico at least as far as Veracruz. Note that none of these spe-
cies is restricted to the Gulf Arc. All are modern, highly adaptable Neo-
tropical elements of recent penetration in the United States. It is this adapt-
ability which has allowed them to include the whole Gulf Arc in their
ranges. During the present interglacial epoch and, indeed, most probably
since the end of the Tertiary (Graham 1973:305-310) faunal and floral ex-
change between Mexican humid forests and those of the southeastern
United States appears to have been blocked by the persistence of a wide
band of desert and thorn scrub in northern Mexico and southeastern Texas.
Moisture, far more than temperature, is the prime factor governing ich-
neumonid distribution, and its lack probably explains why much more of
the fantastically rich Mexican ichneumonid fauna has not spread into the at
present climatically favorable southeastern United States. Of course Poly-
cyrtidea is a relatively dry-adapted genus but one which penetrates deserts
in the vegetation along river banks. As pointed out by Graham (1973:305),
"drainage systems that could serve as migration routes via gallery forests
tend at right angles to the required direction of migration rather than par-
alleling the Texas coast."
(3) Polycyrtidea floridana may be one of the relicts of the diverse North
American Neotropic biota which existed in the Tertiary but was later deci-
mated by Pleistocene glaciation. Until the Oligocene, a wet subtropical
forest community covered most of North America. This included plant
genera, such as Philodendron (Araceae), Ficus, Ocotea and Nectandra
(Lauraceae), and Podocarpus, all suggestive of a mild, if not necessarily


Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

Porter: New Polycyrtidea

frost-free, wet forest community not unlike that growing today in southeast
Brasil and ideal for Neotropic sylvan ichneumonids (Dilcher 1973:44). At
that time, the ancestor of P. floridana may have ranged widely over North
America. With glaciation, however, tropical species retreated south, and
the northern limits of their distribution were fragmented among refugia
such as ravines, river valleys, and coastal plains. At glacial maxima, tem-
perate conditions blanketed most of Mexico, with subtropical climates
beginning around 20 degrees north latitude along the coasts and genuinely
tropical conditions starting at about the Nicaraguan border, while in east-
ern North America only the southern half of Florida enjoyed a subtropi-
cal climate (Udvardy 1969:322). During interglacials, temperatures im-
proved but rain diminished, hampering northward dispersal of moisture-
loving forms, such as ichneumonids, especially from the Middle American
refugium. As already noted, the only eastern refugium of subtropical cli-
mate was Florida, and much of Florida was inundated at various times
during the Pleistocene although "a number of substantial islands" (Spencer
and Stegmaier 1973:9) remained above water at all times during that
period. As grossly impoverished island faunas all over the world suggest,
ichneumonids do not cross water with facility. Furthermore, some authors
believe that the latest glaciation (the Wisconsin) may have been severe
enough to "entirely eliminate" (Spencer and Stegmaier 1973:10) any gen-
uinely tropical element from Florida. Thus, that part of the North Amer-
ican Neotropic Tertiary fauna which was driven southwest into Mexico
survived the glaciations in that favorable region with its open connection
to the south, whereas the eastern component that was pushed toward Flor-
ida mostly became extinct from the cold and from lack of ability to es-
cape across the water to the Florida islands or the West Indies. During the
present interglacial, those species which did find refuge in what now is Flor-
ida in many cases have moved out over much of the east. Most of these today
range westward only as far as the limit of the southeastern Pine-Oak
forests around Houston, Texas. However, some of the more adaptable ones
have attained the Rio Grande Valley of southern Texas and parts of
northern Mexico, coming into contact with relatives from which they have
been separated since the end of the Tertiary and from which they now are
specifically distinct.
This third zoogeographic pattern is the one to which most Florida ich-
neumonids of Neotropic affinities seem to pertain, as illustrated by the fol-
lowing list:
1. Baryceros audax Cresson: Eastern U. S. as far west as Kansas.
2. B. texanus Ashmead: Maryland and Michigan west to Arkansas,
Oklahoma, and Texas, with 1 record for Sonora State in northern
3. Mallochia agenioides Viereck: Eastern U. S. as far west as Nebraska.
4. M. laevis Townes: S. Georgia and Florida.
5. Trachysphyrus weemsi Porter: Florida.
6. Lanugo retentor Brull&: New Jersey and Illinois west to central
7. Diapetimorpha brunnea Townes: S. Georgia and Florida.
8. D. picta Townes: S. Georgia and Florida.
9. D. rufigaster Cushman: Maryland and Michigan to Florida.
10. D. introita Cresson: North Carolina to northern Nuevo Le6n, M6x-


The Florida Entomologist

11. Lymeon, cinctiventris Cushman: Maryland to Lower Rfo Grande
12. L. orbum Say: Connecticut and Michigan to Lower Rio Grande
13. Polycyrtidea floridana Porter: Florida.
14. Cryptanura banchiformis Megerle: New England to central Texas.
15. Polycyrtus neglectus Cushman: Massachusetts and Michigan to north-
east Texas, with a disjunct population in the Sierra Madre Oriental of
northeast Mexico at Cola de Caballo near Monterrey.
16. Messatoporus rufiventris Cushman: U. S. and southern Canada.
17. M. compressicornis Cushman: Connecticut and Ohio west to Ala-
bama; closely related to the Mexican M. arcuatus Cresson.
18. Agonocryptus discoidaloides Viereck: E. U. S. to Lower Rfo Grande
The above information, based on Townes' (1962) revision of the North
American Mesostenini as well as on the Florida State Collection of Arth-
ropods and the author's personal collection, suggests that there is a dis-
tinctive northeast North American mesostenine ichneumonid fauna of Neo-
tropic and Sonoran (Compsocryptus and Lanugo) origins. This complex, in
which Polycyrtidea floridana seems to fit, may constitute, in the case of its
Neotropic members, the remnants of a much larger Tertiary fauna mostly
extirpated by the Pleistocene glaciations (the Sonoran elements probably
extended eastward during the driest parts of some of the Pleistocene inter-
To complete our picture of the Florida mesostenines, we should note
that, besides the 22 Neotropic and 2 Sonoran species already mentioned,
the state also harbors 15 mesostenines of Holarctic origin and belonging
to the genera Apsilops, Agrothereutes, Gambrus, Aritranis, Ischnus,
Habrocryptoides, Trychosis, Listrognathus, Mesostenus (transfuga group),
and Xylophrurus.


CUSHMAN, R. A. 1929. A revision of the North American ichneumon-flies of
the genus Mesostenus and related genera. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.
CRESSON, E. T. 1865. On the Hymenoptera of Cuba. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila-
delphia 4:1-200.
DILCHER, D. L. 1973. A palaeoclimatic interpretation of the Eocene floras
of southeastern North America, p. 39-57 In A. Graham (ed.), Vegeta-
tion and vegetational history of northern Latin America. Elsevier
Scientific Publishing Co., Amsterdam.
GRAHAM, A. 1973. History of the arborescent temperate element in the
northern Latin American biota, p. 301-312 In A. Graham (ed.), Vege-
tation and vegetational history of northern Latin Am6rica. Elsevier
Scientific Publishing Co., Amsterdam.
SPENCER, K. A., AND C. E. STEGMAIER, JR. 1973. Agromyzidae of Florida.
Arthropods of Florida and neighboring land areas 7:1-205. Division
of Plant Industry, Gainesville.
TOWNES, H. K. 1962. Ichneumon-flies of America north of Mexico: 1.
Subfamily Gelinae, Tribe Mesostenini. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 216:

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

Porter: New Polycyrtidea

TOWNES, H. K. 1966. A catalog and reclassification of the Neotropic Ich-
neumonidae. Mem. Amer. Ent. Inst. 8:1-367.
TOWNES, H. K. 1969. Genera of Ichneumonidae, Part 2: Gelinae. Mem. Amer.
Ent. Inst. 12:1-537.
UDVARDY, M. D. F. 1969. Dynamic zoogeography, p. 1-445. Van Nostrand
and Reinhold, New York.
VIERECK, H. L. 1913. Descriptions of twenty-three new genera and thirty-
one new species of ichneumon-flies. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 46:359-386.
WALKLEY, L. M. 1958. Ichneumonidae, p. 36-62 In K. V. Krombein et al.,
Hymenoptera of America north of Mexico. Agriculture Monograph
No. 2, U. S. Dep. Agr., p. 1-1420.


Specializing in Books and 'Publications

Storter Printing Co.



The Florida Entomologist

A CESIUM-134 TRAP FOR ISOTOPE USE'"2-(Note). To safe-
guard against a Cesium-134 (specific activity 2 mCi/0.5 cc) leak during a re-
cent radioisotope experiment in Gainesville (Del Fosse, E. S., H. L. Crom-
roy, and D. H. Habeck. 1975. Determination of the Feeding Mechanism of
the Waterhyacinth Mite. Hyacinth Contr. J. In Press.), a'34Cs trap was de-
signed to supplement a radiation-approved chemical hood (Fig. 1). The
hood had a fan located at the top, which pushed '34Cs-laden air out of the
hood into 1.27 cm diam Tygon" plastic tubing. Attached to this plastic
tubing was a 10 cm length of 1.27 cm copper tubing, the free end of which was
inserted into a 0.95 1 glass jar containing ca. 250 ml 0.1N HC1. The end of
this copper tubing extended ca. 2 cm into the HCI. To a 7 cm length of cop-
per tubing (the end of which did not enter the HC1) was attached another
length of Tygon" tubing, which led back into the bottom of the hood. A pre-
cipitate, '3CsC1, collected in the jar, and clean air was pulled back into
the hood. The trap's efficacy was shown by absence of surface radiation con-
tamination outside of the hood as measured with wipe tests and a Nal de-
tector counter. Del Fosse, E. S., and H. L. Cromroy. Department of Ento-
mology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611.


Fig. 1 Design of '"4Cs trap utilized in a waterhyacinth mite (Orthogalum-
na terebl zntis Wallwork) experiment.

'Cooperative research conducted in Gainesville by Agricultural Research Service, U. S. De-
partment of Agriculture, and the University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611.
-Approved as Journal Series No. 5913.

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

The Florida Entomologist



Silver City, New Mexico


This investigation was designed to estimate statistically the number of
can traps required to study populations of ground-surface, arid-land arach-
nids. Data were obtained from 16 traps operated for 1 year in the pinyon-
juniper life zone of the Pinos Altos Mountains in southwestern New Mex-
ico. The formula N = S2/SE2 (where N= number of traps, S2 = variance, and
SE = standard error of the mean) was used to estimate the number of traps
required for assigned precision limits of 10, 20, 30, and 50% of the mean (1)
number per trap. Only precision limits within 20% or less of the i are con-
sidered meaningful.
Thus, population studies on the local scorpion, Vejovis coahuilae Wil-
liams, would require 67 traps, whereas 25 traps would be sufficient for simi-
lar studies on local gross solpugid populations. Mastigoproctus giganteus
Lucas populations might be estimated using only 21 traps per area. Fi-
nally, the number of traps per study area required for estimates of local,
arid-land spider populations varied from 11 for the abundant cursorial
gnaphosid, Zelotes tuobus Chamberlin, through 12 for the abundant web-
building pholcid, Psilochorus imitatus Gertsch and Mulaik, to 22 for the
abundant wolf spider, Schizocosa n. sp. (nr. avida Walckenaer). Data on
less common species indicated that 20-70 traps per area might be required
for study, even of male cursorial activity.
This evaluation of can trap population estimates suggests that a knowl-
edge of the life cycle, food habits, ecological requirements, and behavior
of target species, and the use of this and other methods of population esti-
mation should be combined for valid population studies.

An investigation was designed to determine if long term operation of can
traps of the type proposed by Muma (1970) could be utilized for quanti-
tatively analyzing ground-surface, arid-land, non-acarine, arachnid popu-
lations (Williams 1968; Muma 1973, 1974). This report is concerned pri-
marily with calculating the necessary number of traps per study area for
the production of a repeatable mean number of specimens per trap, per year
within certain limits of precision.
Baited and unbaited pitfall devices buried flush with the surface of the
soil have been used as a qualitative survey tool by arthropod taxonomic
specialists for many years. Fichter (1941) first suggested their use for quan-
titative research. His alcohol pitfall was large, expensive, and difficult to
install and maintain. However, Muma and Muma (1949) discussed prairie

'Contribution No. 330 Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Depart-
ment of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, Fla. 32602. Research Contribution
No. 328 Western New Mexico University, Silver City, New Mex. 88061.
'Professor and Entomologist Emeritus, University of Florida, Agricultural Research and
Education Center, Lake Alfred, Fla. 33850; Research Associate, Bureau of Entomology, Di-
vision of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gaines-
ville, Fla.; and Department of Biological Sciences, Western New Mexico University, Silver
City, New Mex.


Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

The Florida Entomologist

spider populations on the basis of specimens collected in the Fichter pit-
fall, and Rhoades (1962) did the same with insect and spider populations
in northwestern Florida. Other workers have utilized sheltered or un-
sheltered, sunken metal, glass, or plastic containers for both qualitative
and quantitative studies (Southwood 1966). Reports have indicated consid-
erable variation in trap size, killing-preserving agents, number used, time
of operation, animals studied, and purpose of investigation. These varia-
tions for 12 recent studies are cited in Table 1.
Prior to presentation of the present research, it seems apropos to discuss
the nomenclature of ground-surface arthropod trapping devices. As indi-
cated in Table 1, 4 different names have been applied to such devices. The
extra-large, 1 m-wide trap constructed to force arthropods into a much
smaller alcohol-filled container (Fichter 1941; Muma and Muma 1949;
Rhoades 1962) has consistently been referred to as an alcohol pitfall. Small,
dry, similar-sized jars (Hensley et al. 1961; Duffey 1962; Mitchell 1963;
Greenslade 1964; Hayes 1970) have also been referred to consistently as
pitfall traps. Duffey hyphenated the term pitfall and Hensley et al. used a
killing agent, but all workers applied the same name to essentially the
same device. Variation in trap nomenclature has occurred among workers
who utilized moderate to large-sized cans. Allred et al. (1965) referred to
theirs, which they operated dry, as can pit-traps; although they and other
workers later referred to them as can traps. Williams (1968 and 1970) re-
ferred to his, also operated dry, as pitfall traps, and Muma (1963, 1970,
1973, 1974) consistently referred to his, whether operated dry or with a
killing-preserving agent, as can traps. Since the terms alcohol pitfall and
pitfall trap have been consistently applied to similar devices, operated in
a similar manner, a comparable name needs to be developed only for mod-
erate to large cans operated dry and similar cans operated with a killing
or killing-preserving agent. I suggest that large, dry cans be referred to as
pit traps, a term used by Schmid et al. (1973), and large cans with a killing-
preserving agent as can traps.
Two reviews (Southwood 1966, Turnbull 1973) have questioned the va-
lidity or reliability of such traps for quantitative evaluation of arthropod
populations. Both reviews cited apparent reasons for this lack of efficiency
and value. Several workers have taken the opposite position.
Duffey (1962) concluded that small, dry pitfalls produced valid spider
population data often comparable to those obtained by Tullgren aparatus
processing of turf samples and by hand picking. Williams (1968, 1970) con-
cluded that large, dry pitfalls produced numbers of scorpions comparable
to those of the natural community observed with the ultraviolet light
method. Schmoller (1971) believed that small, dry pitfalls produced good
data on diurnal versus nocturnal ground-surface arthropods. Muma (1970,
1973, 1974, 1975) maintained that large pitfalls, despite numerous hypo-
thetical objections, produced valid spider and solpugid population data.
Gist and Crossley (1973) found small pitfall and hand sorting estimates of
ground surface arthropods on isolated grids to be highly comparable. And
finally, Uetz and Unzicker (in press) indicated that pitfall trapping is a
valid, useful ecological method.
These differences of opinion concerning usefulness and validity of the
pitfall principle in population studies may be reduced to 6 factors.
1. Large species may damage or devour small species. This is unques-
tionably true for dry pitfalls, but a killing-preserving agent (Fichter 1941;

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

Muma: Arachnid Populations

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260 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

Hensley et al. 1961; Muma 1970, 1973; Schmid et al. 1973) prevents such ac-
2. An alcohol preservative may repel species. Until comparative
studies have been conducted with pitfall devices containing water, water
and detergents, alcohol, and other preservatives, possible repellence can
neither be assumed nor denied. However, the data of Muma (1973, 1974,
1975, this paper, and unpublished) indicate that many insect and arachnid
arthropods are not repelled by an alcohol (ethyl or iso-propyl)-ethylene
glycol mixtures. In fact, the common to prevalent collection of grass-
hoppers, ants, crickets, beetles, flies, spiders, and scorpions indicates a de-
gree of attraction. The use of picric acid suggested by Southwood (1966)
may be hazardous, since dry picric acid and its derivatives are known to be
explosive, and Frank A. Enders (unpublished) has found picric acid to be
less useful than ethylene glycol in a desert.
3. Trap and removal may reduce populations. Tretzel (1955), Green-
slade (1964), Williams (1968), and Muma (1973, 1974, 1975) have found that
this is not true, at least for spiders, carabids, scorpions, and solpugids.
4. Placement of traps may influence trap catches. The lip of the trap
may be above ground-surface among dense grasses and herbs, above ground-
surface in duff or leaf litter, and at ground-surface in natural or artificially
cleared areas. As stated by Muma and Muma (1949), placement of traps
should be based on a knowledge of the habits and life histories of the target
5. Animal activity may influence trap catches. Activities vary from spe-
cies to species, from habitat to habitat, from dry to night, with weather, tem-
perature, and according to attractiveness of the trap to the target animals.
Here again, quantitative analyses of trap records not guided by a knowledge
of the biology of the species under study could be misleading.
6. Abundance of the study animal is the least influential factor. This
may be true but such a generalization is subject to criticism, particularly
since the influence of trap size, trap number, and duration of trap operation
on the stability of the mean number of target animals collected is not
I have used (Muma 1974, 1975) and am presently using the large can trap
proposed by Muma (1970), so only this trap is evaluated here.

Sixteen can traps were emplaced in the pinyon-juniper life zone of the
Pinos Altos Mountains in Grant County, New Mexico. Emplacement was
in 3 transects; traps 1-5 oriented in an east-west line, spaced at 5 m inter-
vals; traps 6-11 oriented in a north-south line at 5 m intervals, and traps
12-16 oriented in an east-west line at 10 m intervals. Transects 1-5 and 12-16
were separated by about 50 m.
The traps were operated from 1 April 1972 to 2 April 1973. Specimens
were collected from the traps at 2-week intervals. To reduce evaporation,
the killing-preserving agent used was 200 ml of a 1:1 mixture of 70% com-
mercial grade isopropyl alcohol and commercial grade ethylene glycol.
The killing-preserving agent was reconstituted at each visit with a 3:1 mix-
ture of alcohol and glycol.
At each collection date, specimens were removed from each trap, sorted,
identified, recorded, and maintained separately. Only adult specimens were

Muma: Arachnid Populations

identified to species. Sub-adults, when possible, were identified to genus
and spiderlings (first, second, and third instars) to family. All immatures,
with few exceptions, are reported here at the family level. A few adults
could not be identified to species and are reported here at the generic level.
Dr. Willis J. Gertsch, Portal, Arizona either identified or confirmed identi-
fications of most of the spiders. Michael Soleglad, San Diego, California
identified the scorpions.
The standard error of the mean was utilized in the formula SE = S/-f or
n= S2/SE2 to analyze the numbers of collected specimens of common spe-
cies, those representing 1 or more percent of the total recorded specimens.
In these formulas SE= standard error, S= standard deviation, n= number
of traps and S2 = variance. Variance was determined for precisions of 10, 20,
30, and 50% of the mean number of specimens per trap, per year. The mean
(K) number of specimens per trap, per year and the standard deviation (S) of
the yearly trap totals and means were computed in the usual manner. Dr.
Tom R. Ashley, ARS, USDA, Gainesville, Florida, and his associates ex-
amined accumulated raw data, and suggested this statistical treatment. Dr.
Ashley also assisted in evaluating statistical review comments and sugges-


Altogether 956 arachnid specimens, representing 4 orders and 15 families,
were collected in the traps during the study. The Scorpionida was repre-
sented by 1 family and 1 species, the Pedipalpida by 1 family and 1 species,
the Solpugida by 2 families and 6 species, and the Araneida by 11 families
and 64 species. For taxonomic and zoogeographic purposes all species col-
lected are listed in Table 2. The only statistical data presented in the table
are those pertaining to families and species representing 1 or more percent
of the total recorded arachnid population.
The statistical approach used indicated that large series of traps are re-
quired at each study station if a sampling precision within 10% of the mean
is desired for most of the local common arachnid forms representing less
than 20% of the total studied population. On the other hand, if less
sampling precision is tolerable, a few traps can be operated on each study
area to produce meaningful population data for most common southwest-
ern New Mexico arachnids collected during this study.
No differences were detected between the arachnids trapped in the east-
west and north-south transects, so the tabulated figures represent the totals
for 16 traps.


Many of the arachnids collected by the can traps were not true, ground-
surface cursorial forms. For instance, most Pholcidae, Agelenidae, Dicty-
nidae, Theridiidae, and Linyphiidae are web-builders. They stay on their
snares to capture prey that vibrate or become entangled in the silken
strands. Further, most of the misumenine Thomisidae are known to be am-
bush predators (Gertsch 1949). Regular occurrence of such sedentary forms
in can traps is difficult to explain in some cases and relatively easy in

The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

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The Florida Entomologist

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

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Muma: Arachnid Populations

Common occurrence of misumenine crab spiders in can traps primarily
represents sexual cursorial activity of males searching for females (Muma
and Muma 1949). In this study 83% of the collected misumenines were
males, whereas only 60% of the cursorial philodromine crab spiders were
males. Other explanations are needed for the regular occurrence of web-
building species.
Among the theridiids, females were 4 times as numerous as males. They
may have been trapped either while changing web sites (Turnbull 1964) or
while repelling intruders (Riechert 1973). Also conceivably some theridiids
could be cursorial species taxonomically classified among web-builders.
In this study, the most prevalent species was Psilochorus imitatus
Gertsch and Mulaik, a pholcid. Abundance of pholcids probably was due
to the spiders' use of the can traps as web-building sites. This species and
other southwestern pholcids normally use mammal, especially rodent,
burrows, hollow yucca "logs", and crevices in and under other ground-
surface debris as web-building sites. It can be assumed that the sunken cans
merely added additional micro-habitats to the environment. Since more
than 1 male of this species often live in the web of 1 female under natural
conditions, it is not surprising that 64% of the collected adults were males.
Some males also may have been trapped while searching for females.
The common occurrence of agelenid, dictynid, and linyphiid spiders in
the can traps cannot presently be explained, especially since nearly equal
proportions of the sexes of each species were collected. Many linyphiids
also have been taken in other studies (Barnes 1953; Walker 1969). As
stated by Muma and Muma (1949), behavioral and life history studies must
be conducted on local, arid-land species before their cursorial activity can
be explained.
The above discussions suggest biological reasons for the occurrence of
non-cursorial forms in the can traps. In addition, surprisingly, analyses of
trapped specimens indicate that such traps may be useful in comparative
population studies on such species. This is especially true for the abundant
P. imitatus, whose populations may be investigated to a precision within
20% of the mean, using 12 traps per study area. To a limited extent, the
same is true for the ambush predator, Xysticus cunctator Thorell, if pre-
cision limits are extended to 30% of the mean and deductions and conclu-
sions are confined largely to activity of the male population.
Among the true cursorial spiders collected during the study, the Lyco-
sidae and Gnaphosidae were by far the most abundant. In fact, the only
common cursorial spiders taken in the traps were representatives of these
families. The cursorial Anyphaenidae were uncommon and the Clubionidae
and Salticidae were common only as families. Therefore, in any local,
arid-land studies involving populations of running or jumping spiders, de-
ductions and conclusions should be confined to the family level for pre-
cision within 20% of the mean using 27 traps per study area.
The most common cursorial spider taken in the can traps was Zelotes
tuobus Chamberlin. It was more than twice as abundant as the next three
most common gnaphosid, a large undescribed Zelotes, and more than 6 times
as numerous as Drassyllus mephisto Chamberlin and a species of Haplo-
drassus near signifer C. L. Koch. Although the wolf spiders as a family were
more numerous than the wandering gnaphosids, the most common lycosid,
Schizocosa n. sp., was distinctly less abundant than Z. tuobus. However, it


The Florida Entomologist

was 3 times as numerous as either Schizocosa mimula Gertsch or Tarentula
kochi Keyserling and 5 times as abundant as Lycosa n. sp., the other 3 com-
mon wolf spiders.
Although only 5 traps per study area would be required to obtain pre-
cision within 20% of the mean for evaluation of local lycosid and gnapho-
sid populations at the family level, the number of traps would have to be
increased to 30 to obtain precision within 30% of the mean if analyses of
common local species populations were desired.
As discussed above for the non-cursorial spiders, other factors must also
be considered in the comparative estimation of arid-land, cursorial, spider
populations with can traps. For instance, increased confidence in the mean
number of wandering gnaphosids trapped apparently is somewhat related to
the abundance of the several species under investigation. Only 11 traps are
required to obtain precision within 20% of the mean for the very abundant
Z. tuobus. A much larger number of traps is required for the less common
gnaphosids. Furthermore, the sex ratios of trapped common gnaphosids
varied from only 31% males for D. mephisto to only 63% males for Z.
tuobus which indicates that both gnaphosid sexes are cursorially active. The
same is not true for the lycosids. In the first place, increased confidence in
the mean number of lycosids trapped is not related to the abundance of the
investigated species. More traps were required to obtain the same level of
confidence for the abundant undescribed species of Schizocosa than for the
much less common S. mimula. Since the sex ratios of trapped wolf spiders
varied from 73% males for Schizocosa n. sp. to 86% males for S. mimula,
the occurrence of wolf spiders in can traps must be assumed to be largely an
expression of male sexual cursorial activity (Hollander 1967). These data
show that can trap evaluation of wolf spider populations should be com-
bined with careful biological and behavioral studies prior to the drawing of
specific conclusions.
Among the other orders of arachnids trapped, the data on the scorpion,
Vejovis coahuilae Williams, perhaps are the most interesting since Wil-
liams (1968, 1970) has collected and published data on a closely related
species, Vejovis spinigerus Wood. In his first study, Williams (1968) oper-
ated 100 pit traps in a desert valley and concluded that V. spinigerus was
not sufficiently abundant to determine the effects of trap cover and the trap
and removal method. Habitat data collected by Williams (1970), using 20
pit traps per habitat, corroborated his 1968 findings by demonstrating that
V. spinigerus was primarily a rocky, habitat species.
Present data also confirm Williams' conclusions since V. coahuilae is
closely related to V. spinigerus and was the only scorpion collected in
can traps in the rocky, pinyon-juniper life zone of the Pinos Altos Moun-
tains. The limited number of specimens recorded here indicate that either
Williams' pit traps were more efficient in collecting scorpions than can
traps or, as indicated by Beatty (1961) and Frank A. Enders (unpublished),
the scorpion population during the present study was much smaller than
that sampled by Williams. In either case it appears that use of fewer than
62 can traps per study area will invalidate such traps for the study of local
scorpion populations. Further, current studies (Muma 1975, and unpub-
lished) indicate that scorpions are highly discontinuous in distribution and
"colonies" should perhaps be located before trapping is attempted.
Data on Mastigoproctus giganteus Lucas, the only pedipalpid trapped
during the present study, indicate that local populations of this whip-

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

Muma: Arachnid Populations

scorpion can be studied with as few as 21 traps per station. Current studies
(Muma, unpublished) indicate that this whip-scorpion may also be highly
discontinuous in distribution and "colonies" should perhaps be located be-
fore trapping is attempted.
The data on solpugids were somewhat disappointing. Although the
family Eremobatidae represented 3% of the total, trapped, arachnid popu-
lation, the Ammotrechidae were not common, and none of the 6 recorded
solpugid species achieved common status. Even analyzed at the family
level, the data indicate that use of fewer than 25 can traps per plot greatly
decreases the sampling precision of such traps for estimating local solpugid
populations. For instance, local, gross solpugid populations can be com-
pared only to a precision within 30% of the mean, using 11 can traps per
study area. Since a single field worker cannot effectively operate 25 traps
per study area, additional methods studies are required for analyzing sol-
pugid populations. Muma (1974) indicated the need for such studies for
Eremochelis bilobatus (Muma).
Several conclusions can be drawn concerning the use of can traps, and
possibly also alcohol pitfalls, pitfall traps, and pit traps, for the estima-
tion of ground-surface and cursorial arachnid populations. Prior to trap-
ping, an investigation should be made to determine whether or not the spe-
cies or group to be studied is subject to collection by the pitfall principle.
During this study, absence of Loxoscelidae, Diguetidae, Sparassidae, and
Oxyopidae and collection of relatively few Salticidae indicate that all
ground-surface forms may not be susceptible to collection by pitfalls.
After susceptibility to can trap collection has been determined, habitats
with low population levels should be investigated with perhaps more can
traps than were utilized here to determine the sexual activity and precision
limits of the mean number of individuals trapped. Finally, can traps ap-
parently can produce only data on community or habitat species compo-
sition, relative data on abundance, and some information on seasonal
adult incidence and activity. Therefore, can trap population data should
be considered complementary and supplementary to other population es-
timates and to a knowledge of the biology and behavior of the forms under


communities of the Nevada test site. Brigham Young Univ. Sci. Bull.,
Biol. Ser. 2(2):1-52.
BARNES, ROBERT D. 1953. The ecological distribution of spiders in non-
forest maritime communities at Beaufort, North Carolina. Ecol.
Monogr. 23:315-37.
BEATTY, J. A. 1961. The spiders and scorpions of the Santa Catalina Moun-
tain area, Arizona. M.S. Thesis, University of Ariz. 158 p.
DUFFY, ERIC. 1962. A population of spiders in limestone grassland. J. Anim.
Ecol. 31:571-599.
FICHTER, EDSON. 1941. Apparatus for the comparison of soil surface arthro-
pod populations. Ecology 22(3):338-9.
GERTSCH, W. J. 1949. American spiders. D. Van Nostrand Co. Inc., New
York, 285 p.
GIST, C. S., AND D. A. CROSSLEY, JR. 1973. A method for quantifying pitfall
trapping. Envir. Ent. 2:951-952.

The Florida Entomologist

GREENSLADE, P. J. M. 1964. Pitfall trapping as a method for studying pop-
ulations of Carabidae. J. Anim. Ecol. 33:301-10.
HAYES, WILLIS B. 1970. The accuracy of pitfall trapping for the sand-beach
isopod, Tylospunctatus. Ecology 51(3):514-6.
CONCIENNE. 1961. Effects of insecticides on the predaceous arthropod
fauna of Louisiana sugar cane fields. J. Econ. Ent. 54:146-9.
HOLLANDER, H. 1967. Range movement of the wolf spiders, Pardosa
chelata (0. F. Muller) and P. pullata (Clerck), Oikos 18:360-9.
MITCHELL, B. 1963. Ecology of two carabid beetles, Bembidion lampres
(Herbst.) and Trechus quadristriatus (Schrank). II J. Anim. Ecol.
MUMA, MARTIN H. 1970. An improved can trap. Notes Arachnologists of
the S.W. (1):16-8.
MUMA, MARTIN H. 1973. Comparison of ground-surface spiders in four cen-
tral Florida ecosystems. Fla. Ent. 56:173-96.
MUMA, MARTIN H. 1974. Solpugid populations in southwestern New Mex-
ico. Fla. Ent. 57:385-92.
MUMA, MARTIN H. 1975. Two vernal ground-surface arachnid populations
in Tularosa Basin, New Mexico. in press to S.W. Nat.
MUMA, MARTIN H., AND KATHARINE E. MUMA. 1949. Studies on a popula-
tion of prairie spiders. Ecology 30(4):485-503.
RHOADES, W. C. 1962. A synecological study of the effects of the imported
fire ant eradication program. Fla. Ent. 45:161-73.
RIECHERT, S. E. 1973. The effect of thermal balance and prey availability
on distribution patterns of the desert spider Agelenopsis aperta
(Gertsch). Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Wisconsin. 203 p.
SCHMID, J. M., J. C. MITCHELL, AND M. H. SCHROEDER. 1973. Bark beetle
emergence cages modified for use as pit traps. USDA For. Serv. Res.
Note RM-244. 2 p.
SCHMOLLER, RONALD. 1971. Nocturnal arthropods in the alpine tundra of
Colorado. Arctic and Alpine Res. 3(4):345-52.
SOUTHWOOD, T. R. E. 1966. Ecological Methods with Particular Refer-
ence to the Study of Insect Populations. Methuen, London. 391 p.
TRETZEL, E. 1955. Intragenerische Isolation and Interspezifische Kon-
Kurrenz bie Spinnen. Zool. Morph. U. Oekol. Tiere 44:43-162.
TURNBULL, A. L. 1964. Search for prey by a web-building spider, Achaea-
ranea tepidariorum (C. L. Koch) (Araneae, Theridiidae). Can. Ent.
TURNBULL, A. L. 1973. Ecology of the true spiders (Araneamorphae). Ann.
Rev. Ent. 18:305-48.
UETZ, G. W., AND J. D. UNZICKER. Pitfall trapping in ecological studies of
wandering spiders. J. Arachnol. (in press).
WALKER, P. A. 1969. Phenology of spiders in two habitats on a raised beach
with some new records for County Durham. Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc.
Northumberland, Durham and Newcastle upon Tyne. 17(1):69-78.
of spider populations of ground stratum in Arkansas pasture and
adjacent cultivated field. Proc. Arkansas Acad. Sci. 17: no pagina-
WILLIAMS, STANLEY C. 1968. Methods of sampling scorpion populations.
Proc. California Acad. Sci. (Fourth Series) 36(8):221-30.
WILLIAMS, STANLEY C. 1970. Coexistence of desert scorpions by differential
habitat preference. Pan-Pacific Ent. 46(4):254-67.

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

The Florida Entomologist


Horticultural Research Laboratory, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA,
Orlando, Fla. 32803


Adult Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) were recovered from citrus seedlings
132 through 168 days after infestation of the plants with 0- to 24-hour old
larvae. Pupae were recovered 98 through 238 days after infestation. The
number of larval instars could not be determined from the frequency dis-
tribution curves of head capsule measurements.

The so-called sugarcane rootstalk borer weevil, Diaprepes abbrevi-
atus (L.), a serious pest of sugarcane and citrus in the West Indies, was first
found infesting citrus in the vicinity of Apopka, Fla., in 1964. Later a quaran-
tine area of ca. 6500 acres that included an uninfested border zone was es-
tablished (Woodruff 1964, 1968). In a recent review of the status of this pest
in Florida, Selhime and Beavers (1972) found that the known area of infes-
tation entailed ca. 7200 acres of citrus within an area of ca. 15,000 acres.
Little is known about the development of D. abbreviatus, especially in
Florida. In the Barbados, Watson (1903) reported the egg stage as 10 days,
the larval stage as 312, the pupal stage as 15, and the adult lifespan as 20,
a total of 357 days. Ballow (1912) and Jones (1915) also indicated a life
cycle of ca. 1 year. Nowell (1913) reported larval periods of 261, 326, and
334 days before pupation.
In more detailed studies in Puerto Rico, Wolcott (1933) successfully
reared 3 larvae to the pupal stage on corn and bean seed. Larval periods
were 202, 238, and 268 days, and pupation occurred after the 10th, 6th, and
9th instars, respectively. He indicated that the larval period was extended
to ca. 1 year by a resting period before pupation. Later, Wolcott (1934) arbi-
trarily chose the 8th instar as the transitional period from active growth to
the period before pupation, an interval he called active diapause. This ac-
tive diapause lasted less than 2 and more than 13 months (Wolcott 1936).
Adults remained in the ground from 11 to 126 days before emergence, but
some completed their life cycle in 8 to 18 months.
The earlier studies thus indicated a high degree of variability in the de-
velopment of D. abbreviatus. Also, we have little information about the
development of the weevil in Florida. A study was therefore made of the
larval development of D. abbreviatus at the USDA Citrus Root Weevil
Research Unit at Apopka, Fla. The information may be helpful in determin-
ing the age of new larval infestations, in predicting the number of genera-
tions occurring in Florida, in timing the application of control measures,
and in determining the feasibility of rearing this weevil on artificial diets.

Two tests were made. In the first test, each of 150 sweet orange seedlings
(0.5 m tall) planted in 4-liter plastic pots was infested with 5 neonatal

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

The Florida Entomologist

D. abbreviatus (0-24 hr old) by placing the larvae in a small hole adjacent
to the tree trunk and covering them with soil. Then, at least 3 seedlings
were uprooted each week, and the larvae were recovered by sifting the soil
through various sized screens. Head capsule widths of the recovered larvae
were measured with an ocular micrometer, and were placed in K.A.A.D.
solution (Peterson 1962) for 24 hr; then they were preserved in 70% alcohol
until the test was completed. The larvae were so small during the first 4
weeks of this test that additional seedlings grown in 0.35-liter cans were in-
fested. Weevils could then be recovered from the soil by placing the soil
in small dishes and flooding them with water so the small larvae were
floated off. All trees were held in a building under artificial lighting at
ca. 250C and 60-65% RH.
In the second test, 93 plants in 4-liter plastic pots were each infested
with 10 neonatal larvae as before. These plants were held outdoors in an
8 X 8 X 7-ft screen cage (16 mesh/in.) covered with a corrugated fiberglass
roof. Plants were uprooted only after they had been killed by larval feed-
ing. The head capsules of the recovered larvae were not measured to avoid
undue stress on the larvae. Larvae were transferred onto fresh plants.

The first test was run from 5 May to 8 November 1971. Six adults (0.8%),
6 pupae (0.8%), and 107 larvae (14.3%) were recovered, a total of 15.7% of the
larvae originally infested. Most larvae were recovered from 35 to 70 days
after infestation. Head capsule measurements ranged from 0.33 mm for neo-
natal larvae to 2.58 mm for 175-day-old larvae. We were unable to deter-
mine the number of larval instars from the frequency distribution of head
capsule widths because individual variation in growth prevented definite
separation of instars. Pupae were recovered at 98, 126, 140, 154, 161, and 175
days after infestation. Adults were recovered at 154(2), 161(2), and 168(2)
days. Larvae were recovered each week through 175 days. The test was dis-
continued at 182 days because all plants had been uprooted.
In the second test, 5 May 1971, to 9 March 1972, four adults were re-
covered at 132, 133(3), and 144 days after infestation, and 8 pupae were
recovered (while larvae were being transferred onto fresh plants) at 102,
129(2), 132, 221, 234, 236, and 238 days after infestation. During the test, 64
larvae were transferred to fresh plants.
In all other attempts to establish a colony of D. abbreviatus on citrus
(seedlings), larval mortality was high. Although over 1,100 potted seed-
lings, cultivars of pineapple orange, Carrizo citrange, rough lemon, Mur-
cott orange, sweet lime, Cleopatra mandarin, Succory orange, and sweet
orange were infested with about 16,000 larvae, only 90 adults were re-
covered from 140 to 297 days after the infestation.
Results of these tests indicate that the developmental period of D. ab-
breviatus in Florida is highly variable, as reported for the West Indies,
and that natural mortality of the immature forms due to unknown factors
is also high. An extended diapause (Wolcott 1936) is not a prerequisite for
the development of all these weevils because adults were first obtained at
154 and 132 days in the first and second test, respectively. This occasional
absence of diapause may make it possible to rear the weevil in the labora-
tory on artificial media by selecting eggs from those weevils that mature in
the shortest period.

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

Beavers and Selhime: Diaprepes abbreviatus

The assistance of R. A. Sutton, W. McCloud, S. W. Pierce, and D. W.
Elliott, of this Research Unit, in various phases of this work is appreciated.


BALLOW, H. A. 1912. Insect pests of the Lesser Antilles. The root-borer
(Diaprepes abbreviatus). pp. 66-69. In Pamphlet Ser. 71, Imperial
Dep. Agr. West Indies.
JONES, T. H. 1915. The sugarcane weevil root borer Diaprepes spengleri
(L.). Insular Exp. Stn. (Rio Piedras, P.R.) Bull. 14:1-19.
NOWELL, W. 1913. Report of the assistant superintendent of agriculture on
the entomological and mycological work carried out during the
season under review. Rep. Local Dep. Agr. Barbados, 1912-13:34-35.
PETERSON, A. 1962. Part I. Larvae of Insects. Edwards Bros. Inc., Ann Arbor,
Mich. 315 p.
SELHIME, A. G., AND J. B. BEAVERS. 1972. A new weevil pest of citrus in
Florida. Citrus Ind. 53(1):4-5.
WATSON, H. B. 1903. The root borer of sugarcane (Diaprepes abbreviatus).
West Indian Bull. 4(1):37-47.
WOLCOTT, G. N. 1933. The larval period of Diaprepes abbreviatus L. J. Agr.
Univ. P.R. 17(3):257-264.
WOLCOTT, G. N. 1934. The diapause portion of the larval period of Di-
aprepes abbreviatus L. J. Agr. Univ. P.R. 18(3):417-428.
WOLCOTT, G. N. 1936. The life history of Diaprepes abbreviatus at Rio
Piedras, P.R. 20(4):883-914.
WOODRUFF, R. E. 1964. A Puerto Rican weevil new to the United States
(Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Fla. Dep. Agr. Ent. Circ. 30:1-2.
WOODRUFF, R. E. 1968. The present status of a West Indian Weevil (Di-
aprepes abbreviata (L.)) in Florida (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).
Fla. Dep. Agr. Ent. Circ. 77. 4 p.


274 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975


MY WEAPONS HAD WINGS. Hubert W. Simmonds. Percy Salmon, Wills,
and Grainger, Ltd. Auckland, N.Z. 1964. 164 p. (Published privately by
the author under patronage of the Fiji Society).
One of the benefits of travel is the opportunity to see and acquire items
of interest that are not readily available at home. Curio vendors the world
over assiduously endeavor to assure that no traveler returns home empty
handed. All too often the treasured objet d'art excavated from the tomb
of third dynasty Pharoah proves to have come from a factory production
line in some enterprising center of modern industry. Fortunately, not all
travelers are losers. After chasing fireflies in New Guinea some five years
ago Dr. James Lloyd returned home with a book-in addition to an ample
store of knowledge about the life and behavior of New Guinea fireflies.
Being something of a bibliophile he had visited the only bookstore in
the port city of Madang. Among the Bibles and religious literature he found
an entomological book with the jingoistic title "My Weapons Had Wings."
For the price of $2.75 (Australian) he acquired a book that appears to have
escaped the attention of scientific literature abstracting services as well as
new book lists and reviews. He recently mentioned the book to me as one
that contained a lot of interesting information concerning biological con-
trol. He then retrieved the book from his overloaded shelves and I was sur-
prised to find it to be the autobiography of Hubert W. Simmonds.
Mr. Simmonds spent 17 years as Government Entomologist of Fiji and
during these years organized and personally conducted explorations to find
natural enemies of pests that had invaded the Fiji Islands. As a result of
this work the coconut scale, coconut leaf moth as well as the noxious weed
known as Koster's curse were controlled and constitute classic examples of
biological control through introduction of natural enemies. After retiring
in 1937 he interested himself in the problem caused in Fiji by an enormously
abundant housefly population. In Java he found a histerid beetle, Platy-
lister chinensis, that preyed on fly larvae. Imported into Fiji and Samoa it
proved phenomenally successful and all but eliminated the housefly from
these islands.
Interesting as this book is to entomologists-at least those of the bio-
logical control persuasion-it deserves a much wider audience. The author
and his wife were keen naturalists and dedicated conservationists who
worked to establish nature reserves long before ecology and endangered
species became household words. In addition to entomology and natural
history, Mr. Simmonds' comments on the social customs of peoples living
on the islands and lands bordering the Pacific Ocean. Few pages lack some
fascinating information of scientific or human interest. For example on page
93 we learn how a weed acquired the name of "Koster's curse." A young man
surnamed Koster was asked where the weed first appeared. He replied, "On
Parr's Place." Erroneously interpreted as pa's place the weed became
known as Koster's Curse! So, if you can find a copy of this book-read it!

R. I Sailer
Gainesville, Fla.

The Florida Entomologist



Department of Biology, University of Rochester,
Rochester, New York 14627


The genus is redefined on the basis of a redescription of the type species,
Dinochernes vanduzeei (Chamberlin). A new species from Florida, D.
wallacei, is described.

Several years ago I received a number of pseudoscorpions collected by
Dr. H. K. Wallace in Florida. One of these has proved to be a representative
of the genus Dinochernes, previously known only from Coronados Island,
Gulf of California, Mexico. Because the original description of the type
species, Chelanops vanduzeei Chamberlin (1923), is incomplete, I have re-
described that species from the holotype and have revised the generic di-
agnosis, in addition to describing the new species.

Genus Dinochernes Beier
Dinochernes Beier, 1933:99.
Type species: Chelanops vanduzeei Chamberlin, 1923.
DIAGNOSIS (revised, based on females only): A genus of the family Cher-
netidae. Characterized especially by very heavy palpal chelae and restric-
tion of all trichobothria except t and et to proximal halves of fingers. Body
and appendages stout; carapace and palps fairly heavily sclerotized, brown,
surfaces granulate; legs, especially femora, scaly. Carapace longer than
broad; with a single, shallow transverse furrow just behind middle; 2 large,
distinct eyespots present. Tergites 1-10 and sternites 3-10 divided. Posterior
part of carapace, all tergites, and all sternites poorly sclerotized, such that
some scuta are only small plaques in midst of extensive, scaly inter-
scutal membranes; setae not confined to sclerotized areas; most dorsal
setae terminally denticulate, most ventral ones acuminate; setae of spi-
racular plates acuminate; 11th tergite with 2 and 11th sternite with 4 long,
tactile setae; setae of anal plates denticulate. Genital opercula not un-
usual; spermathecae comprising 2 smaller, proximal, cribrate, ovoid sacs
and 2 larger, distal, thin-walled, spherical sacs. Chelicera with 3 setae in
flagellum; hand with 5 setae, b and sb terminally denticulate, es long,
acuminate. Palps quite robust, especially chela, where hand is nearly as
deep as long, and fingers are shorter than hand. Chelal fingers with 35-50
contiguous marginal teeth, and 10-15 external and 0-1 internal accessory
teeth. Movable finger with well developed venedens and venom duct reach-
ing about to level of trichobothrium t; fixed finger with terminal tooth

'Contribution No. 322, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida De-
partment of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, Florida 32602.
'Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Florida Department of Agri-
culture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, Florida 32602.

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

The Florida Entomologist

much reduced, and no apparent venom duct. Only trichobothrium t on
movable finger and et on fixed finger in distal halves of fingers; it, ist and
est grouped just proximad of middle of finger; all others located in basal
thirds of fingers. Legs rather short and robust; each tarsus with elevated slit
sensillum just proximad of middle; tarsus IV (and III) with long, promi-
nent tactile seta just distad of middle.
REMARKS: Males of this genus are still unknown. It is hoped that con-
tinued collecting, especially in Florida, will turn up some specimens soon.
Also, from the wide geographic separation of the 2 known species (Mexico
and Florida), it appears likely that representatives of the genus will be
found at various places along the Gulf of Mexico and perhaps into Central
and South America.

Dinochernes vanduzeei (Chamberlin)
Chelanops vanduzeei Chamberlin, 1923:378; 1931:fig. 69.
Dinochernes vanduzeei; Beier, 1933:99.
The holotype female (California Academy of Sciences, Type 1296) from
Coronados Island, Gulf of California, Mexico, has been studied and com-
pared with the specimen from Florida mentioned below. Because this spe-
cies is the type of the genus, it deserves a more complete description than
that given by Chamberlin.
DESCRIPTION OF FEMALE: Carapace and palps heavily sclerotized. Cara-
pace about 1.25 times as long as broad; surface granulate; with 1 shallow,
indistinct, transverse furrow about 0.7 length of carapace from anterior
margin; 2 large, distinct eyespots. Abdomen elongate; tergites 1-10 and ster-
nites 3-10 divided; tergal chaetotaxy 8:10:10:12:12:12:14:15:14:14:10:2; ster-
nal chaetotaxy 15:(3)9(3):(1)5(1):14:16:16:16:15:19:T3T2T3T:2. Spermathe-
cae not in best position for observation, but obviously similar to those
of D. wallacei described below (see Fig. 2). Chelicera 0.28 as long as cara-
pace; hand with 5 setae, b denticulate, sb broken, es long, acuminate; fla-
gellum of 3 setae; galea broken; serrula with about 25 blades. Palp "ex-
tremely heavy; very striking is the great depth of the claw which is more
than the length of fingers" (Chamberlin, 1923:378); trochanter 1.85, femur
2.6, and tibia 2.1 times as long as broad (chela in poor position for observa-
tion); hand (without pedicel) 0.95 as long as deep; movable finger about
as long as hand. All surfaces granulate. Fixed chelal finger with 46 and
movable finger with 51 contiguous, marginal teeth; each finger with 1 in-
ternal and 12 external accessory teeth. Movable finger alone with venedens
and venom duct. Trichobothria as shown by Chamberlin (1923: plate II, Fig.
23); only t on movable finger and et on fixed finger definitely in distal
halves of fingers. Legs rather stout; leg IV with femur 2.6, tibia 3.05 and tar-
sus 3.1 times as long as deep. Surfaces of femora scaly. Each tarsus with a
prominent, slit sensillum just proximad of middle; tarsus IV with a promi-
nent, long seta 0.6 length of segment from proximal end; subterminal
tarsal setae curved, simple.
MALE: Unknown.
MEASUREMENTS (mm): Body length 4.20. Carapace length 1.07. Cheli-
cera 0.37 by 0.16. Palpal trochanter 0.54 by 0.295; femur 0.94 by 0.36; tibia
0.89 by 0.42; chela (without pedicel) 1.42 by (indet.); hand (without pedicel)
0.76 by 0.80; movable finger 0.75 long. Leg IV: entire femur 0.86 by 0.33;
tibia 0.615 by 0.20; tarsus 0.435 by 0.14.

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

Muchmore: Florida Pseudoscorpions

Dinochernes wallacei Muchmore, new species
(Fig. 1-4)
DIAGNOSIS: Distinguishable from D. vanduzeei, the only other species in
the genus, by the slightly smaller size (palpal femur 0.85 versus 0.94 mm
long), fewer teeth on fingers of palpal chela (37 and 43 versus 46 and 51),
and relatively shorter palpal tibia (0.89 versus 0.95 as long as femur).
DESCRIPTION OF FEMALE: Carapace and palps rather heavily sclero-
tized, brown; other parts lighter. Carapace 1.4 times as long as broad; sur-
face granulate; with shallow, but distinct transverse furrow 0.6 length of
carapace from anterior margin; posterior tenth of carapace (behind setae)
poorly sclerotized, scaly and directly continuous with interscutal mem-
brane; with 2 large, conspicuous eyespots; about 50 terminally denticulate
vestitural setae, including 4 long ones at anterior and 7 near posterior mar-
gin. Tergites 1-10 and sternites 3-10 divided; sclerotized portions of tergites
restricted, with extensive interscutal membranes; surfaces scaly; sclerotiza-
tion of sternites poor, anteriorly restricted to small plaques in center of
each sternal half; setae not confined to sclerotized areas; interscutal and
pleural membranes scaly. Tergal chaetotaxy 9:9:9:11:11:13:14:14:15:15:
T11T:2; sternal chaetotaxy 23:(3)9(3):(1)8(1):16:17:19:15:19:20:T2T4T2T:
2; dorsal setae terminally denticulate; ventral ones often acuminate;
anterior genital operculum as shown in Fig. 1; setae of spiracular plates
acuminate, those of anal plates denticulate. Spermathecae as shown in
Fig. 2. Chelicera about 0.33 as long as carapace; hand with 5 setae, b and sb
terminally denticulate, es long, acuminate; flagellum of 3 setae, anterior
1 serrate on distal quarter, posterior 1 short, straight; galea short, stout,
with 8-9 terminal rami; serrula exterior with 24 blades. Palp quite robust
(Fig. 3 and 4); trochanter 1.7, femur 2.6, tibia 1.95, and chela (without
pedicel) 2.25 times as long as broad; hand (without pedicel) 1.1 times as
long as deep; movable finger 0.88 as long as hand. All surfaces granulate
except chelal fingers. Fixed finger with about 37 contiguous, marginal teeth,
and 1 internal and 11 external accessory teeth; movable finger with 43
marginal teeth and no internal but 14 external accessory teeth. Movable
finger with well developed venedens and venom duct, nodus ramosus dis-
tal to level of trichobothrium t; fixed finger with terminal tooth much re-
duced, no visible venom duct. Trichobothria positioned as shown in Fig.
4; only t on movable finger and es on fixed finger definitely in distal half
of fingers; it, ist and est grouped just proximad of middle of finger; all
others located in basal thirds of fingers. Legs generally typical of Cherne-
tidae but rather stout; leg IV with entire femur 2.6, tibia 3.1, and tarsus 3.3
times as long as deep. Surfaces of femora scaly; each tarsus with an ele-
vated slit sensillum just proximad of middle; tarsus IV (and III) with
prominent, long seta 0.55 length of segment from proximal end; sub-
terminal tarsal setae curved, simple.
MALE: Unknown.
MEASUREMENTS (mm): Body length 5.4. Carapace length 1.05. Chelicera
0.34 by 0.19. Palpal trochanter 0.50 by 0.29; femur 0.85 by 0.33; tibia 0.755
by 0.385; chela (without pedicel) 1.325 by 0.59; hand (without pedicel) 0.73
by 0.665; pedicel 0.12 long; movable finger 0.64 long. Leg IV: entire femur
0.805 by 0.31; tibia 0.57 by 0.185; tarsus 0.415 by 0.125.
MATERIAL: Female holotype (WM 593.01001), FLORIDA, Alachua
County, 5 miles west Gainesville on Archer Road, 8-IV-1949, (H. K. Wal-

The Florida Entomologist

1 ,
i u^-

Fig. 1-4. Dinochernes wallacei new species, holotype female: 1) Genital
opercula; 2) Spermathecae; 3) Dorsal view of right palp; 4) Lateral view
of left chela.

lace), mesophyticc hammock west of Hogtown Sink on J. C. Dickinson
Ranch on trunk of smooth-barked tree in hammock-hackberry?" The speci-
men is in the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville.
ETYMOLOGY: The species is named in honor of Dr. H. K. Wallace, re-
nowned entomologist of the University of Florida, who collected the type

This work was supported in part by a grant (GB37570) from the National

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

Muchmore: Florida Pseudoscorpions 279

Science Foundation. The assistance of Charlotte H. Alteri in preparing the
drawings is gratefully acknowledged.


BEIER, M. 1933. Pseudoskorpione aus Mexiko. Zool. Anz. 104:91-101.
CHAMBERLIN, J. C. 1923. New and little known pseudoscorpions, princi-
pally from the islands and adjacent shores of the Gulf of California.
Proc. California Acad. Sci., ser. 4, 12:353-387.
CHAMBERLIN, J. C. 1931. The arachnid order Chelonethida. Stanford Univ.
Publ. Biol. Sci. 7(1):1-284.

The Florida Entomologist

BRAZIL-(Note). Anticarsia gemmatalis Hiibner and other lepidop-
terous larvae attacking soybeans are commonly infected by Nomuraea
rileyi (Farlow), although there are no quantitative data on the occurrence
of this fungus in Brazil. An experiment was therefore carried out to investi-
gate the effect of N. rileyi on population levels of A. gemmatalis in soy-
A 12 ha plot of 'Hardee' soybeans sown 16 November 1973 in Ponta
Grossa, Paran6 was sampled. Thirty randomly-chosen plants were re-
moved and inspected weekly from 4 December 1973 to 24 April 1974; twice-
weekly sweep-sampling was done from 27 January to 1 May. The total
number of A. gemmatalis larvae and the percentage infected with N. rileyi
were noted.
Larvae of A. gemmatalis were found from the end of December until
early April. They were most abundant at the end of the soybean flowering
period, with means of 29 larvae per 30 plants (= 1 m), found by plant inspec-
tion on 13 February, and 19 per 100 m of row by sweeping on 7 February.
The first larvae infected with N. rileyi were recorded on 13 February by both
sampling methods. The proportion of infected larvae increased rapidly
until by the pod-filling stage in early March, 94% of the larvae on inspected
plants and 71% of those in the sweep samples showed disease symptoms.
From 20 March until 3 April, after which no more larvae were seen, all
larvae on inspected plants were infected with N. rileyi; in the sweep samples
only 1 larva, which was infected, occurred after early March.
The total number of larvae per plant sampled by plant inspection was
greater than the number found by sweeping. The percentage of infected lar-
vae was 41.5% of the total of 142 sampled by plant inspection and 18% of
the total of 96 sampled with the sweep net. Plant inspection was the most
efficient of the 2 methods used, doubtless due to dead larvae adhering firmly
to the plants and those on the lower part of the plant remaining untouched
by the sweep net.
The mean temperature in the period from January to April was about
200C, the relative humidity varying between 76 and 80%, thus approximating
conditions considered ideal for the development of N. rileyi.
The percentage of infected larvae represent only those showing disease
symptoms at the time of sampling; undoubtedly many larvae not showing
symptoms were also infected, and had all the larvae been examined again
at a later date, a higher percentage of infection would have been likely.
Although N. rileyi, because of its late appearance, is sometimes consid-
ered ineffective in controlling Lepidoptera, it appeared to be responsible
in this experiment for maintaining populations of A. gemmatalis below the
level at which insecticidal control is recommended.
We thank the Director of 'IPEAME', Ponta Grossa for providing re-
search facilities and Dr. G. E. Allen and Dr. G. L. Greene, University of
Florida, for identification of N. rileyi and for criticism of the manuscript
respectively. Beatriz S. Correa, and Judith G. Smith. Departamento de
Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 756, Curitiba
80.000, Parana, Brasil.

'Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

The Florida Entomologist




From 76 to 87% of the total cone crop was located in the upper half of
the tree crowns of slash pines, Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii, in Baker
County, Florida. The east and south quadrants supported significantly
larger crops than the north and west quadrants. The numbers of female
strobili attacked by the slash pine flower thrips, Gnophothrips fuscus; cone-
worms, Dioryctria spp.; or seedworms, Laspeyresia spp., did not differ sig-
nificantly among the quadrants. Significantly greater numbers and percent-
ages of cones in the upper crown were infested by Dioryctria spp. More
cones in the upper crown were infested by Laspeyresia spp., but the percent-
age of cones infested, as well as the average number of Laspeyresia larvae
per cone, did not vary significantly between levels or among quadrants.
The proportion of full, empty, and seedbug damaged seed did not differ sig-
nificantly among quadrants or crown levels.

To insure early detection of insect pest problems in pine seed orchards
it is essential to know where infestations are most likely to occur. Within
the crowns of individual trees the host structures and insect attacks upon
them are not always evenly distributed. Therefore, when collecting data on
insect populations or impact in seed orchards, it may be advantageous to se-
lect sampling methods which take into account the distribution of host ma-
terial and/or insect attacks within various sectors (i.e. quadrants and
levels) of the crown. In addition, control measures should be directed to
the area of the crown where the crop is concentrated or where the greatest
losses are anticipated.

Field layout.-Twelve slash pines, Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii,
located on the Olustee Experimental Forest, Baker County, Fla., were
selected on the basis of being open-grown, with well-developed crowns
similar in form to seed orchard trees (Barber 1968). The trees ranged from
43 to 55 ft in total height, and 9 to 13 in. DBH. The lowest limbs were 10 to
17 ft above ground level. Three trees were chosen in each of 4 old-field
stands, growing on well-drained flatwoods sites with both slash and long-
leaf pine, P. palustris Mill., present.
The tree crowns were divided into north, east, south, and west quadrants
with the aid of plastic ribbon radiating out from the base of the trunk,
along N. E., S. E., S. W., and N. W. compass bearings. A ribbon tied around
the trunk divided the live crown into upper and lower crown levels. The
locations of all female flower, conelet, and cone clusters were deter-

'USDA Forest Service, SEFES, Forestry Sciences Lab., Athens, Ga., 30602; University of
Nebraska, Cooperative Extension Service, Box 66, Clay Center, Neb., 68933; and University of
Florida, Department of Entomology, Gainesville, Fla., 32611.

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

282 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

mined, and each cluster was identified as to quadrant and level by a small
numbered tag.
Two-foot-wide bands of aluminum placed around the trunk of each tree
prevented squirrels from destroying cones.
The study was begun by tagging conelets and cones in June 1967. In 1968,
all female flower clusters were tagged early in January. Each month from
June 1967 through September 1968, except November and December 1967,
the number of surviving conelets and cones, as well as those lost to mor-
tality factors, was recorded.
Mortality categories.-Because only a few conelets became infected with
southern cone rust, Cronartium strobilinium (Arthur) Hedgcock and Hahn,
or were killed by attacks of coneworms, Dioryctria spp., insufficient data
were available for analysis of within-crown distribution of these losses
(DeBarr and Barber 1974). However, 2 types of conelet mortality occurred
in sufficient abundance to analyze statistically.
The slash pine flower thrips, Gnophothrips fuscus Morgan, feeds upon
female slash pine strobili from twig-bud stage until pollination. While
feeding ceases once the strobili are pollinated, mortality of thrips-damaged
conelets continues for several months (DeBarr 1969). Therefore, cumula-
tive totals (January-April 1968) of the numbers of thrips-killed conelets
were used in the analysis of variance. The 1967 thrips data were not ana-
lyzed because the study was begun after many of the thrips-killed conelets
had fallen from the trees.
The second category of conelet mortality was damage by Dioryctria
larvae tunneling vegetative shoots; conelets growing on infested shoots
usually died. The numbers of dead conelets resulting from shoot attacks
were subjected to an analysis of variance.
Coneworms, Dioryctria spp.; seedworms, Laspeyresia spp.; the leaf-
footed pine seedbug, Leptoglossus corculus (Say); and the shieldback pine
seedbug, Tetyra bipunctata (H.-S.), were the principal insects destroying the
seed in slash pine cones. Dioryctria attacks were marked by loosely twist-
ing a small piece of colored wire around the cone stalks. Thus, monthly
records contained only data on infestations that occurred since the previ-
ous tally. A cumulative total of cones infested by Dioryctria for 1967
(June-October) and 1968 (January-October) was obtained by combining
the monthly records. These yearly totals were analyzed for differences in
the number or percentage of cones infested with Dioryctria among trees,
quadrants, and crown levels.
In September of 1967 and 1968, all cones undamaged by Dioryctria spp.
were collected by quadrant and level to provide data on the incidence of
seedworm, Laspeyresia spp., infestation. Following seed extraction, the
cones were bisected with a cone cutter (DeBarr and Proveaux 1969) and the
number of larval galleries per cone axis recorded. Analyses of variance
were used to examine the quadrant and level variation in number and pro-
portion of cones infested by Laspeyresia, as well as the mean number of
Laspeyresia larvae per cone. Seed condition was determined by a radio-
graphic procedure (DeBarr 1970). These data were also subjected to anal-
yses of variance.
Data analysis.-The data were summarized with a PL/I computer pro-
gram. The mortality percentages for each category were based upon the
total number of conelets or cones present in each octant on the first obser-

DeBarr et al.: Pine Cone Damage 283

vation date each year. Analyses of variance to test for statistically sig-
nificant differences in the distribution of conelets and cones, and for losses
in each mortality category among trees, quadrants, and levels were run,
utilizing Statistical Analysis System (SAS) programs. Duncan's New
Multiple Range test (DNMRt) was used to determine the statistical signifi-
cance of quadrant differences.
Where sufficient data were available, an analysis of variance was run on
the mortality for a single month. In some analyses, missing plots made it
necessary to combine data from upper and lower crown levels into quad-
rant totals, or calculate level totals by combining the quadrant data for
each level. These quadrant or level totals were then used in a simplified
analysis of variance.

Among-tree variation of insect attacks.-Analyses of variance of infes-
tation or strobili mortality showed significant differences among trees for
the following factors: conelets killed by thrips (p=0.01), conelets indi-
rectly killed by Dioryctria shoot attacks (p=0.01), and cones infested with
Dioryctria (p= 0.001) or Laspeyresia (p= 0.0001). These differences may re-
flect local environmental effects, but apparent differences in inherent
susceptibility of individual trees to Dioryctria, Laspeyresia, and thrips
(DeBarr et al. 1972, Merkel et al. 1965, Merkel 1967a) have been reported.
Highly significant differences (p=0.01) in the proportion of full, seed-
bug-damaged, and empty seed occurred among trees in 1967 and 1968.
DeBarr et al. (1972) previously reported clonal differences in susceptibility
of slash pines to seedbug damage. Furthermore, the amount of self-pollina-
tion varies from tree to tree, and this affects the proportion of empty vs.
full seeds per cone (Franklin 1969).
Within-crown distribution of female strobili.-In the analyses of vari-
ance of numbers of conelets or cones present at several different times dur-
ing female strobili development, all F-tests showed highly significant dif-
ferences (p= 0.0001) among trees and between the upper and lower crown
levels. From 76 to 87% of the total conelet or cone crops were found in the
upper crown (Table 1). Cone production is generally greatest in the upper
crowns of conifers, as reported for Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii
(Mirb.) Franco, (Kozak et al. 1963, Winjum and Johnson 1964); red pine,
Pinus resinosa Ait., (Hard 1964); longleaf pine, P. palustris Mill., (Coyne
1968); and shortleaf pine, P. echinata Mill., (Coulson and Franklin 1968).
The numbers of conelets differed significantly (p= 0.05) among the quad-
rants in both years. Numbers of cones differed significantly (p = 0.05) among
quadrants in 1967, but not in 1968. The DNMRt showed that in 3 out of 4
tests, the east and south quadrants supported significantly larger (p=0.05)
crops than the north and west quadrants (Table 2). Our findings substantiate
the report of a strong non-random east over west distribution of cone initi-
ation on slash pine trees observed by Goddard and Strickland (1965) in a
clonal seed orchard at Gainesville, Florida. Later, Smith and Stanley
(1969) also found a preponderance of cone initiation on the east crown face
for open-grown trees in 3 slash pine stands near Gainesville. They postu-
lated that this distribution was related to the intensity of morning sunshine
received on the east crown face during the period (July and August) when
flower primordia are initiated. Similarly, branches in the south quadrant

The Florida Entomologist












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Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

DeBarr et al.: Pine Cone Damage
































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The Florida Entomologist

are reportedly the most prolific flower producers on other species of coni-
fers, including red pine (Mattson 1972), Douglas fir (Winjum and Johnson
1964), and shortleaf pine (Coulson and Franklin 1968).
Within-crown distribution of insect attacks by quadrant.-There were
no statistically significant differences in the numbers of female strobili at-
tacked by thrips, Dioryctria, or Laspeyresia among the quadrants. Neither
did the proportion of the strobili per quadrant damaged or destroyed by
Dioryctria, Laspeyresia (Table 3), or seedbugs (Table 4) differ significantly.


Crown Laspeyresia spp. Dioryctria spp.
Year Level or
Quadrant Cones Infested* Larvae/Cone Cones Infested**

Number-Percent Number Number-Percent
1967 Lower 12.6 30.4 0.44 16.3 26.8
Upper 25.6 35.3 0.50 36.4 30.0
East 11.6 32.8 0.50 16.6 29.2
North 9.6 33.3 0.50 11.3 25.0
South 10.9 37.8 0.49 18.4 31.4
West 9.6 29.6 0.41 10.7 21.9
1968 Lower 11.5 27.3 0.31 1.5 4.9
Upper 34.5 23.0 0.30 22.8 12.1
East 15.0 28.6 0.36 6.3 7.8
North 13.8 25.9 0.36 5.3 7.4
South 10.9 20.6 0.23 7.4 8.5
West 13.6 23.6 0.29 5.9 10.4

*Based upon the number of Dioryctria-free cones collected in Sept.
**Based upon the number of cones present at the first observation date of each year.

Analyses of variance of Dioryctria cone attacks run on individual
monthly data gave results similar to the analyses based upon yearly
totals (accumulated cone mortality June-September 1967 and January-
September 1968). While tree differences were again significant, there were
no significant differences in Dioryctria infestation among quadrants.
Our observations agree with previous reports on the distribution of in-
sects in the crowns of other host species. Coulson and Franklin (1968)
found that insects (primarily Dioryctria) infesting the conelets and cones
of shortleaf pine congregated in the upper crown and that the south side
(which had the most cones) did not harbor a disproportionate number of in-
sects. Yates and Ebel (1972) found no significant differences in conelet mor-
tality caused by the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Com-
stock), among quadrants. Coyne (1968) reported that the longleaf pine seed-
worm, Laspeyresia ingens Heinrich, also did not favor any particular
crown direction on longleaf pine.

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

DeBarr et al.: Pine Cone Damage


Seed Condition*

1967 1968
Level or Seedbug Seedbug
Quadrant Full Damaged Empty Full Damaged Empty

Lower 79.8 10.1 10.1 79.3 12.6 8.1
Upper 84.1 7.0 8.9 80.1 10.0 9.9
East 82.7 8.5 8.8 77.9 11.8 10.3
North 77.4 9.2 13.4 80.1 9.3 10.6
South 83.8 8.3 7.9 83.2 8.1 8.7
West 87.2 6.4 6.4 79.9 10.6 9.5

*All figures are percent.

Within-crown distribution of insect attacks by crown level.-Yates and
Ebel (1972) reported that the Nantucket pine tip moth killed a significantly
greater percentage of the shortleaf pine conelets in the upper crown than in
the lower crown. In our study, there were no significant differences between
crown levels for the percentages of conelets killed by thrips. The propor-
tion of full, seedbug-damaged, and empty seeds also did not differ signifi-
cantly between crown levels in either 1967 or 1968 (Table 4).
A significantly greater number and percentage of cones (p=0.001) were
infested by Dioryctria in the upper tree crown (Table 3).
Significantly greater numbers of cones (p= 0.001) were infested with
Laspeyresia in the upper tree crown, but the percentage of infested cones, as
well as the mean number of Laspeyresia larvae per cone, did not differ
significantly between crown levels (Table 3). Abrahamson and Kraft (1965)
found the highest population densities of the eastern pine seedworm, L.
toreuta Grote, on the lower 10 ft of the tree crowns of jack pine, Pinus
banksiana Lamb. Coyne (1968) also observed that L. ingens favors cones
in the lower crown of longleaf pine for oviposition. The slash pine seed-
worm, L. anaranjada Miller, is the predominant species infesting slash pine
cones (Merkel 1967b), with occasional attacks by L. ingens. Perhaps L.
ingens prefers the lower tree crown, while L. anaranjada seeks oviposition
sites in the upper crown.


ABRAHAMSON, L. P., AND K. J. KRAFT. 1965. A population study of the cone
moth Laspeyresia toreuta Grote in Pinus banksiana stands. Ecology
BARBER, L. R. 1968. Distribution of cones damaged by coneworms, seed-
worms, and thrips in Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii. M.S. Thesis,
Univ. Fla., 53 p.


The Florida Entomologist

COULSON, R. N., AND R. T. FRANKLIN. 1968. Dispersion of seed and cone
insects within the crown of shortleaf pine. J. Ga. Ent. Soc. 3:159-62.
COYNE, J. F. 1968. Laspeyresia ingens, a seedworm infesting cones of long-
leaf pine. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 61:1116-22.
DEBARR, G. L. 1969. The damage potential of a flower thrips in slash pine
seed orchards. J. For. 67:326-7.
DEBARR, G. L. 1970. Characteristics and radiographic detection of seedbug
damage to slash pine seed. Fla. Ent. 53:109-17.
DEBARR, G. L., AND L. R. BARBER. 1974. Mortality factors reducing the
1967-1969 slash pine crop in Baker Co., Fla.-a life table approach.
U. S. For. Serv. Res. Pap. (In Press). Southeast. For. Exp. Sta., Ashe-
ville, N. C.
DEBARR, G. L., AND M. T. PROVEAUX. 1969. A new table model cone cutter.
USDA For. Serv. Tree Plant. Notes 19:19-20.
Differences in insect infestation in slash pine seed orchards due to
phorate treatment and clonal variation. For. Sci. 18:56-64.
FRANKLIN, E. C. 1969. Inbreeding as a means of genetic improvement of
loblolly pine. Tenth South. For. Tree Improv. Conf. Proc. 1969:
GODDARD, R. E., AND R. K. STRICKLAND. 1965. Stimulation of cone produc-
tion. Cooperative Forest Genetics Research Program. 7th Progress
Report. Univ. Fla., School For. Res. Rep. No. 11, 18 p.
HARD, J. S. 1964. Vertical distribution of cones in red pine. U. S. For. Serv.
Res. Note LS-51, 2 p. Lake States For. Exp. Sta., St. Paul, Minn.
tion in cone and seed yield from young, open-grown Douglas firs on
the U. B. C. research forest. Univ. B. C. Fac. For. Res. Pap. 57, 8 p.
MATTSON, W. J., JR. 1972. The role of insects in the dynamics of cone pro-
duction of red pine, Pinus resinosa. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Minnesota,
157 p.
MERKEL, E. P. 1967a. Individual slash pines differ in susceptibility to seed-
worm infestation. J. For. 65:32-3.
MERKEL, E. P. 1967b. Life history of the slash pine seedworm, Laspeyresia
anaranjada Miller (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae). Fla. Ent. 50:144-9.
MERKEL, E. P., A. E. SQUILLACE, AND G. W. BENGTSON. 1965. Evidence of
inherent resistance to Dioryctria infestation in slash pine. Eighth
South. For. Tree Improv. Conf. Proc. 1965:96-9.
SMITH, W. H., AND R. G. STANLEY. 1969. Cone distribution in crowns of slash
pine, Pinus elliottii Engelm., in relation to stem, crown and wood
increment. Silvae Genet. 18:86-91.
WINJUM, J. K., AND N. E. JOHNSON. 1964. Differences in cone numbers,
lengths, and cut-counts in the crowns of young open-grown Douglas-
fir. J. For. 62:389-91.
YATES, H. O. III, AND B. H. EBEL. 1972. Shortleaf pine conelet loss caused
by the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana. Ann. Ent. Soc.
Am. 65:100-4.

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975


The Florida Entomologist



Analysis of red imported fire ant queens, Solenopsis invicta Buren, by
ion induced X-ray fluorescence indicated that concentrations of P, S, Cl,
K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Rb, Sr, and Mo could be detected in
their tissues. In general, results indicated that red imported fire ant queens
contained lower total body levels of P, S, Cl, K, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb,
Rb, Sr, and Mo than major and minor workers. However, higher concentra-
tions of Ca and Mn were noted in queens when compared to workers.

Ion induced X-ray fluorescence data have been presented showing the
relative total body concentration of major and trace elements (P, S, Cl,
K, Ca, Ni, Cr, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Sr, Mo, Rb) in the tissues of major and
minor workers, larvae, and pupae of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis
invicta Buren (Levy et al. 1974). Their results indicated that adult red im-
ported fire ants contained a higher total body concentration of major and
trace elements than the immature stages, with the following trend being
noted: workers > pupae > larvae. The aim of the present paper is to deter-
mine the total body concentration of major and trace elements in red im-
ported fire ant queens. This data could then be used to compare the relative
major and trace element content among several developmental stages of
a single ant species, i.e. the red imported fire ant.

Field collected red imported fire ant queens (i.e. 2-3g collected during
a mating flight) were obtained from the Insects Affecting Man Research
Laboratory, ARS-USDA, Gainesville, Florida. These queens were freeze-
killed and dried by lyophilization, ashed in a low temperature radiofre-
quency furnace, and analyzed for total body major and trace element con-
centration according to the ion induced X-ray fluorescence techniques of
Van Rinsvelt et al. (1973).

Results of ion induced X-ray fluorescence indicated that significant con-
centrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Rb, Sr, and Mo
can be detected in the tissues of red imported fire ant queens (Fig. 1). In addi-
tion, stage-specific concentrations of these major and trace elements have
been shown between major and minor workers, pupae, and larvae of the red
imported fire ant (Levy et al. 1974). Data by Levy et al. (1974) indicated
that P, S, Cl, K, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Rb, Sr, and Mo were less con-
centrated in the tissues of queens than in major and minor workers. How-
'Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 5886.
'Department of Entomology & Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
32611. Present address of R. Levy: West Florida Arthropod Research Laboratory, P. O. Box
2326, Panama City, Florida 32401.
'Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611.

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975


The Florida Entomologist

=-z i" o/ -.


10 '- Ii-,,--
5 10 15
Fig. 1. Analysis of red imported fire Ant queens by ion induced X-ray
ever, total body levels of Ca and Mn were found to be greater in queens
than in workers. The generally high concentration of major and trace ele-
ments in the workers when compared to queens could indicate the impor-
tance of major and minor workers in supplying nutrients to the colony.
Furthermore, the greater concentration of Ca and Mn in imported fire ant
queens could reflect egg development and metabolic activity of the female
reproductive system.
In general, ion induced X-ray fluorescence is an excellent tool for
studying the relative concentration of biologically active elements (e.g.
Ca, K, Cu, Fe, Zn) as well as environmental contaminants (e.g. Pb, Sr)
which have accumulated in insect tissues.

The authors wish to thank D. P. Jouvenaz from the Insects Affecting
Man Research Laboratory, ARS-USDA, Gainesville, Florida for supplying
the insects used for the analyses. This research was partly supported by
Cooperative Agreement Grant No. 12-14-100-10, 951(33) entitled Toxicants
For Control of Imported Fire Ants.
LEVY, R., H. A. VAN RINSVELT, AND H. L. CROMROY. 1974. Relative concen-
tration of major and trace elements in adult and immature stages
of the red imported fire ant determined by ion induced X-ray fluores-
cence. Fla. Ent. 57:269-73.
Major and trace element detection in insects by ion induced X-ray
fluorescence. Fla. Ent. 56:186-90.

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

The Florida Entomologist




Field tests in Homestead, Fla., during spring and summer, 1972, demon-
strated that virgin male Caribbean fruit flies, Anastrepha suspense (Loew),
caged in sticky board traps attracted virgin females. Apparently much of
the attraction was related to release of a volatile sex attractant. More fe-
males were trapped in the late afternoon than during other parts of the day.
Traps baited with 10 live males were as effective as the McPhail traps
currently used and were substantially more effective when baited with 20
or 40 males. The pure pheromone, when available, may be easy to use in
traps and may be a more sensitive survey tool than those presently avail-

Five day old male caribflies, Anastrepha suspense (Loew), have been
shown to attract female flies in a laboratory bioassay (Nation 1972). Ex-
tracts prepared from males indicated that some or possibly all of the at-
traction was due to 1 or more chemicals released by the males. To establish
whether the attraction of virgin females to males was significant under field
conditions, we developed a field bioassay at the University of Florida Agri-
cultural Research and Education Center at Homestead, Florida.

All experiments were conducted in an avocado grove. Avocados are not
a host of caribfly and the nearest grove of host trees consisted of guavas
approximately 300 m away. No wild flies were observed in the avocado
grove, and between the avocado and the guava grove there was only open
ground. Survey traps were placed in the avocado grove before and after
most of the experiments. The trapping results consistently indicated an
absence of wild flies. In 1 test with marked flies, all flies captured were
Cotton boll weevil traps baited with live caribfly males supplied with
dry sucrose, yeast hydrolysate paste, and water, and coated with stickem5
were used. Control stickem-coated traps contained food only. Males were
placed in screen mesh cylinders 16 cm long X 6 cm diam. All flies used in
these experiments were laboratory reared. Sexes were segregated before sex-
ual maturity was reached.
A Latin square 4 x 4 design was used for trap location. The avocado trees
in the release area were spaced 6 m apart. The traps were suspended from a
branch approximately 2 m above the ground in every 4th tree. Virgin fe-
males were released at 25 sites, each approximately 13 m from any trap.

'Diptera: Tephritidae.
"Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 4992.
'Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611.
4Univ. of Fla., Agricultural Research and Education Center, Homestead, Fla. 33030.
'A glue-like trapping agent (Michel Pelton Co., Oakland, California).

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

292 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

Attraction of females to 0, 1, 5, and 10 live males was compared in the
first experiment. Both sexes were 8 days old when first put into the field
and recaptures were recorded between 2-6 days. The experiment was repli-
cated 4 times in successive weeks; a total of 6,250 females was released. A
second experiment was designed to compare the attraction of the McPhail
trap with the attraction of 10, 20, and 40 live males in the same traps and re-
lease sites as before. The flies were again 8 days old when first put into the
field. The aqueous suspension of yeast hydrolysate used in the McPhail
traps was always prepared 3 days in advance of the experiment date. This
comparison was run 4 times in successive weeks with a total release of
8,650 females. Female flies were always released between 1500 and 1700 h.
Captures were recorded over a period of 3-6 days.
Results were transformed to percentage of recovery and evaluated by
analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test.


Traps without males captured 2.25 females per trap, traps with 1 male
attracted 5.31 females per trap, 5 males attracted 14.19 females per trap, and
10 males attracted 43.44 females per trap (Table 1). The recovery of re-
leased females in each experiment varied from 6.5 to 28% between repli-
cates. Traps with 10 males attracted significantly more females than traps
with 0, 1, or 5 males, and traps with 5 males attracted more than traps con-
taining 0 males. The difference between traps with 0 and 1 male was not
significant. Variation in percentages of recovery among replicates may
have been caused by variable weather conditions prevailing when repli-
cates were performed. In the test started on 3 May 1972 the low total re-
covery of 6.45% was possibly related to the fact that females were held in
much smaller cages prior to release than used in subsequent replicates.
Crowding could have weakened the flies.



Total no.
of females

Mean no.

Treatments 5-3-72 5-12-72 5-16-72 5-26-72 recaptured trap

0 Male 11 3 9 13 36 2.25a
1 Male 16 13 30 26 85 5.31ab
5 Males 21 51 84 71 227 14.19 b
10 Males 81 204 170 240 695 43.44 c

Total recapture 129 271 293 350 1043
No. of females
released 2000 1000 2000 1250 6250
% Total recovery 6.45 27.10 14.65 28.00 16.69

*Values followed by the same letter are not significantly different at 0.01 level.

Perdomo et al.: Caribfly Trapping

The McPhail trap captured an average of 14 females per trap, traps with
10 males captured an average of 17 females per trap, and traps with 20 and
40 males captured an average of 32 and 60 females per trap, respectively
(Table 2). In this series of experiments the total percentage recovery of re-
leased females varied from 12 to 38% between replicates.


Total no. Mean no.
Dates of females recaptured
Treatments 5-30-72 6-7-72 6-13-72 6-20-72 recaptured trap*

McPhail 97 71 26 31 225 14.06a
10 Males 75 52 57 95 279 17.44ab
20 Males 155 108 63 186 512 32.00 b
40 Males 356 170 93 349 968 60.50 c

Total recapture 683 401 239 661 1984
No. of females
released 2900 2000 2000 1750 8650
% Total recovery 23.55 20.00 11.95 37.77 22.94

*Treatments followed by the same letter were not significantly different at the 0.01 level.

Statistical analysis shows that traps with 40 males attracted signifi-
cantly more females than McPhail traps or traps with 10 or 20 males. Traps
with 20 males attracted more females than McPhail traps; but traps with
10 males were not significantly different from the McPhail traps. On 2 oc-
casions traps with 10 males captured fewer females than McPhail traps.
Recapture of females at intervals of time after release was recorded for
the test of 26 May (Fig. 1). Most of the females recaptured were caught dur-
ing the first 48 h and during the daylight hours. From 1945 h of 26 May to
0615 h of 27 May only 24 flies were recaptured which represents only 0.29
flies per trap per hour, but during the daylight hours on 27 May substan-
tially more females were recaptured (though not as many as during the day-
light hours of 26 May) indicating that caribflies are not particularly active
at night.
The recapture percentages at the end of 48 h, and the total recapture per-
centage for 6 experiments are shown in Fig. 2. Data from 2 experiments are
not included because no observations were made at 48 h. Almost all flies
recaptured were caught during the first 48 h following release.


We conclude from these experiments with A. suspense that virgin males
attract virgin females under field conditions. It seems reasonable to con-



The Florida Entomologist

: May 26

S:May 27





1600 2000 0800 1200 1600


Fig. 1. Number of A. suspense adult virgin females recaptured at inter-
vals of time with 4 sticky traps with 5 males and 4 with 10 males each in a

non-host avocado grove.
50 : 4

40 I (
40 (X): t

8 hours after the release
umulative recovery

total days


I illI

m m
m m

ml!: ii'

111 -

1 2 3 4 5 6
Fig. 2. Recapture of virgin female A. suspense adults in 48 h, and cumu-
lative recovery for total observation period with sticky traps baited with


20 -

X 10



Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

Perdomo et al.: Caribfly Trapping

elude that much of the field attraction is related to release of a volatile
sex attractant. Although extracts of male bodies have not been field tested,
such extracts do attract females in laboratory bioassays (Nation 1972). The
field data show that more females are trapped in the later afternoon than
during other intervals of the day.
Preliminary data on observations of the behavior of wild flies in the
field indicate that mating occurs during the afternoon hours. No mating
has been observed in the morning. A related paper will be prepared detail-
ing this information.
AliNiazee (1971) showed that about 80-90% of the omnivorous leaf
roller, Platynota stultana Walsingham (Lepidoptera), males caught were
attracted between 1800 h-2000 h and no males were trapped between mid-
night and 1800 h. AliNiazee attributed this to a rhythm of sexual behavior in
the males or as a response to a rhythm of a female pheromone release or a
combination of both factors. Very little, however, is known about the be-
havior of A. suspense in the field.
Although sticky traps with 20 or 40 males were substantially more
effective than McPhail traps, the use of these traps is more cumbersome and
time consuming than use of McPhail traps, and probably could not replace
McPhail traps in practice. Possibly the pure pheromone, when available,
would be easier to use and be a more sensitive survey tool than those pres-
ently available.
Good recoveries of released virgin females in some experiments suggest
that substantial population reduction might be possible with pheromone
baited traps. Much more data are needed, however, on the effectiveness of
pheromone baited traps in host areas. The avocado grove was selected for
these experiments because avocado is a non-host fruit and the grove was
isolated from host fruit groves. In a host grove we would expect competi-
tion from wild males and oviposition odors. Nakagawa et al. (1970) showed
that when males were scarce or absent, sperm-deficient, sexually mature fe-
male Mediterranean fruit flies were attracted by trimedlure, medlure, and
angelica seed oil, but when sexually mature males were introduced into
field populations, virgin females stopped their response to the lures.
The effect of age and mating of the flies in influencing attraction in the
field also must be evaluated. Since females begin producing fertile eggs
when they are 7 days old (Baranowski 1968) a pheromone trap likely would
have to attract younger females than those used in these experiments and
also non-virgin females in order to provide satisfactory control.


ALINIAZEE, M. T., AND E. M. STAFFORD. 1971. Evidence of a sex pheromone
in the omnivorous leaf roller, Platynota stultana (Lepidoptera: Tor-
tricidae); laboratory and field testing of male attraction to virgin
females. J. Econ. Ent. 64:1330-5.
BARANOWSKI, R. M. 1968. Research on the Caribbean fruit fly at the Sub-
tropical Station (Homestead, Florida). Nurserymen's Buyer's Guide
and Bulletin 13:7-8.
NAKAGAWA, S., G. J. FARIAS, AND L. F. STEINER. 1970. Response of female
Mediterranean fruit flies to male lures in the relative absence of
males. J. Econ. Ent. 63:227-9.
NATION, J. L. 1972. Courtship behavior and evidence for a sex attractant in
the male Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspense. Ann. Ent. Soc.
Am. 65:1364-7.

The Florida Entomologist

FIELDS.'-(Note). During studies of the bean leaf beetle in 1974 we found
eggs of the southern corn rootworm (SCRW), Diabrotica undecimpunctata
howardi Barber, in soil from 2 Illinois soybean fields. These are, to our
knowledge, the first hard data showing that SCRW adults oviposit in soy-
bean fields although the adults are often common there.
SCRW adults and larvae feed on a wide variety of plants of diverse
families (F. H. Chittenden. 1905. USDA Bur. Ent. Circ. 59, F. S. Arant.
1929. Alabama Polytech. Inst. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 230, and D. Isely. 1929.
Univ. Arkansas Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 232), including some legumes, i.e.,
peanuts (W. V. Campbell and D. A. Emery. 1967. J. Econ. Ent. 60:1675-8).
We used the method of Waldbauer and Kogan (1973. Environ. Ent. 2:
441-6 and 4:375-80) to extract SCRW eggs from soil cores cut through soy-
bean roots in Coles and Mason Co. fields. We found 10 eggs in cores col-
lected in the Mason Co. field on 5 August. Cores taken in the Coles Co.
field on 30 July yielded 11 eggs, those taken on 26 August yielded 1, and
those taken on 11 September yielded 2. The cores may actually have con-
tained more eggs; because SCRW eggs are larger than bean leaf beetle eggs,
some may have been lost because they did not pass through the 40-mesh
screen used to remove debris in extracting bean leaf beetle eggs.
We identified the eggs by the descriptions of W. T. Atyeo, G. T. Week-
man and D. E. Lawson (1964. J. Kansas Ent. Soc. 37:9-11) of the chorion
sculpturing of Diabrotica eggs, and by collections and photographs of eggs
made by one of us (J.V.M.). We did not rear adults from the eggs since there
is no doubt about the identification.
Ten sets of 50 sweeps made in each field on each of 10 days between 5
August and 24 September showed adults to be abundant-overall means
of 2.5 and 1.4 per 50 sweeps at Mason and Coles Cos., respectively. The pop-
ulations reached maxima in both fields on 18 September-8.3 and 3.9 per
50 sweeps in Mason and Coles Cos., respectively. Mark A. Mayse, G. P.
Waldbauer, and Joseph V. Maddox. Illinois Natural History Survey, Illi-
nois Agricultural Experiment Station, and Department of Entomology,
University of Illinois, Urbana, 61801.

'Supported in part by the International Soybean Program (INTSOY), the Office of Interna-
tional Agriculture, and the Agr. Exp. Sta., Univ. of Illinois; the Southern Regional Coopera-
tive Project S-74, and the N.S.F. and E.P.A. through a grant (NSF GB-34718) to the Univ. of
Calif. The findings and opinions expressed herein are those of the authors and not necessarily
those of the Univ. of Calif., the National Science Foundation, or the Environmental Protec-
tion Agency.

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

The Florida Entomologist



University of Florida Agricultural Research and Education Center,
Homestead, and Biological Sciences Group, University of Connecticut,
Storrs, Connecticut, respectively


Craspeduchus pulchellus (F.), a widespread neotropical species is first
reported from the United States. In this country it is known only from Key
Largo, Florida where it is found on Corchorus siliquosus L. Eggs are de-
posited on the ground in loose clusters. The nymphs and adults are found
on plants of C. siliquosus feeding on the seedpods or they may be found be-
neath the plants feeding on fallen seeds.
The immature stages are described and figured.

Craspeduchus pulchellus (F.) is a widespread neotropical species previ-
ously known from the West Indies, Central and South America (Slater
1964). Although, as noted below, there is a previous erroneous report from
Canada and several quarantine interceptions, the species has not previously
been known to be present as a breeding species in the United States.
On 3 December 1969, Mrs. Perrie Krieter (formerly laboratory tech-
nician, AREC, Homestead) collected several specimens from Key Largo,
Florida. Subsequently we have, over a period of several years, collected
additional material at several locations on Key Largo, always on the seed-
pods or at the base of Corchorus siliquosus L. A breeding population is defi-
nitely present.
Provancher (1871) reported this species from Quebec, but this is certainly
in error. It has been intercepted at ports of entry in California, Texas,
Louisiana, and Florida on 7 occasions since 1951 (Wheeler 1951; Hunt
1956, 1958; Mumford 1965, 1966). Included in these was a single specimen
intercepted in a shipment of copra from the Philippines! None of these rec-
ords, of course, established the species as a member of the fauna of the United
Pulchellus was placed in the genus Ochrostomus Stal in the 1964 Slater
Catalogue. Most of the literature records place it in the old omnibus
genus Lygaeus and it has been cited in 2 subgenera of Lygaeus, Ochrosto-
mus Stal and Craspeduchus Stal. Both of these latter were described by
Stal in the same work. Slater (1964) has elevated both Craspeduchus and
Ochrostomus to generic status. Van Duzee (1916) fixed pulchellus (F.) as
type species of Ochrostomus and xanthostaurus H.S. as type species of Cras-
peduchus. Ashlock (1975) has discussed the matter, pointed out that pul-
chellus and xanthostaurus are congeneric and since both generic names ap-
pear first in the same paper either can be selected by the first revisor. Ash-

'Fla. Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 5910.
'This work was supported in part by a grant-in-aid from the National Science Foundation.

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

The Florida Entomologist

lock (1975) in the capacity of first revisor has selected Craspeduchus Stal
as the senior synonym and reduced Ochrostomus Stal to junior synonymy.
Pulchellus (F.) therefore becomes properly Craspeduchus pulchellus (F.)
as indicated in the title.
Pulchellus will key in Torre Bueno (1946) to Lygaeus sg. Craspeduchus
and poorly to the species uhleri Stal, to which pulchellus is closely related.
From uhleri, pulchellus is readily distinguishable by the longer labium
which extends to the posterior margin of the metacoxae or onto the first vis-
ible abdominal sternum, whereas in uhleri the labium extends posteriorly
only between the mesocoxae. The abdominal sternum in uhleri is nearly
uniformly orange-red with the seventh and succeeding segments a strongly
contrasting dark brown to black. In pulchellus the abdominal sternum is
predominately dark chocolate brown to black with the connexival area
broadly flavescent and the posterior margins of sterna 4 to 7 pale margined.
These pale areas usually are suffused with reddish coloration.
The only previous biological information of which we are aware are rec-
ords by Wolcott (1936, 1941, 1950) of mating pairs on Corchorus hirsutus
in Puerto Rico. Wolcott's 1936 paper indicates a tentative identification of
the plant, although his 2 subsequent citations do not have a qualifying
statement. In view of our host findings we feel that Wolcott's host identify
requires verification. Gibson and Carrillo (1959) report pulchellus "en
maiz" in Mexico.
We have taken C. pulchellus only upon or below specimens of Corchorus
siliquosus L. and only on Key Largo. There C. siliquosus occurs in open
roadside sites in full sunlight, growing on an overdrained limestone sub-
strate together with a variety of roadside weeds. We also have found pul-
chellus associated with the above host in Jamaica.
Graptostethus servus (F.) a widespread species of lygaeine in the eastern
hemisphere, is reported by Golding (1947) as breeding upon Corchorus cap-
sularis L. and C. olitorius L. in Africa. This species is known to breed upon a
variety of other plants (see Slater & Sperry 1973 for summary).
Three species of Corchorus are found in Florida, aestuans L., orinocensis
HBK, Jutes and siliquosus L. All of the plants that we recognized as Cor-
chorus proved to be siliquosus. We therefore assume that the other species
are relatively rare. Long and Lakela (1971) state C. siliquosus is found in
hammocks and disturbed sites in south Florida. We do not believe it to be a
true hammock plant, but on occasion it may occur along the edges of ham-
mocks if the area is open. It is quite common along roadsides and in cleared
fields where plant growth has been unchecked for a few years.
We have examined C. siliquosus in many areas on the mainland in south
Dade County especially in the Homestead area and also in the Everglades
National Park from the entrance to the Flamingo Prairie area without find-
ing C. pulchellus. C. siliquosus is rare in the lower Florida Keys; however, 1
plant was observed on Key West, but C. pulchellus was not present. We have
been able to collect C. pulchellus along the entire length of Key Largo and
are sure that, at present, it is limited to this area.
In view of the limited distribution of the insect, and despite the wide-
spread occurrence of the host plant, it seems likely that pulchellus has only
recently established itself in North America. There is a single specimen of
pulchellus in the Division of Plant Industry, Florida Dep. of Agriculture
and Consumer Services Collection at Gainesville taken on Key Largo 2
May 1961 (B. K. Dozier). It should be noted that in the years immediately

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

Baranowski and Slater: New Lygaeid Record

prior to 1961, severe hurricanes had struck the southern Florida area. It
seems likely to us that pulchellus could have been introduced at that time.
Eggs are deposited on the ground in loose clusters. When the host
plants are growing vigorously, nymphs and adults will be found up on the
plants feeding on the seedpods and occasionally early instars will be
found in open, partially dried pods still remaining on the plants. When
plants are not actively growing, breeding populations can often be found in
the debris directly under the plants; however, they do not move very far
from the host plants.

Craspeduchus pulchellus
Fifth instar nymph: Key Largo (in alcohol), Fig. 1
Head, central area of pronotum, scutellum, wing pads a rich reddish
brown; suture between tylus and juga, a broad anteriorly diverging irregu-
lar stripe within epicranial arms on either side of midline, area immediately
behind eye, pronotal calli and antero-lateral region of scutellum con-
trastingly black; pronotum broadly margined anteriorly and posteriorly
with white, darkened central area suffused with rose-red; scutellum with a
pale white, posteriorly broadening median longitudinal stripe; abdomen
pale testaceous with a wide median and a pair of very broad vivid sublateral
red longitudinal stripes extending from base to tergum 8; eighth and ninth
terga mesally black, scent gland sclerites dark brown, small, with SGA
on both segments 4-5 and 5-6 rounded and larger that SGP (Slater & Wil-
cox 1973); legs and antennae nearly uniformly dark brown, distal ends of
femora and 1st antennal segment paler, femora irregularly spotted with
black; head below with a large pale yellow blotch below eye; pleura
reddish brown with broad white or pale yellow margins, abdomen pale
yellow to testaceous with a broad longitudinal red vitta sub-laterally,
sterna 8 and 9 black mesally.
Head convex dorsally, moderately declivent anteriorly, tylus not
quite attaining distal end of first antennal segment, epicranial stem present
but very short; length head 1.03, width 1.25, interocular space 0.75; pro-
notum short, broadly transverse, anterior margin conspicuously concave,
posterior margin nearly straight, length pronotum 0.75, width 1.45; wing
pads extending midway on abdominal terga 3, length wing pads 1.75; length
abdomen 2.75; labium reaching well between or slightly beyond meso-
coxae, length labial segments I 0.60, II 0.60, III 0.65, IV 0.55; antennae
slender, terete, 4th segment narrowly fusiform, length antennal segments
I 0.30, II 0.75, III 0.65, IV 1.05, total length 4.70.
NOTE: There is some variation in color. In some individuals the dark areas
including the appendages are nearly uniformly black rather than reddish
brown, and the rose-red pronotal coloration is confined to the lateral mar-
gin centrally beyond the dark central quadate marking.
Fourth Instar: (as above) Fig. 2
General form and color as in preceding; pronotal central coloration
predominately red and contrasting markedly with a dark calli "bar"; meso-
thoracic wing pads small and lobate, not extending caudad of distal end
of metathoracic pads; length head 0.95, width 1.10, interocular space 0.70;
length pronotum 0.55, width 1.20; length wing pads 0.85; length abdomen

'All measurements are in millimeters.

The Florida Entomologist

3 4 5
Fig. 1-5 Craspeduchus pulchellus nymphs. 1. Fifth instar. 2. Fourth in-
star. 3. Third instar. 4. Second instar. 5. First instar.

2.15; length labial segments I 0.50, II 0.55, III 0.55, IV 0.55; length antennal
segments I 0.25, II 0.55, III 0.50, IV 0.85; total length 4.4.
Third Instar: (as above) Fig. 3
General form and color as in preceding; reddish central coloration of
pronotum extending completely over lateral margin except for extreme
anterior corner; mesonotum including wing pads dark brown with exception
of a median reddish stripe that widens posteriorly and extends laterally
along posterior margin to inner angle of wing pads; median and sub-
lateral red longitudinal abdominal stripes strongly differentiated from
orange ground color.
Length head 0.65, width head 0.90, interocular space 0.65; length pro-
notum 0.35; width 0.90; length abdomen 2.25; length labial segments I 0.40,
II .40, III .45, IV .40; length antennal segments I .20, II .40, III .35, IV .60;
total length 3.75.
Second Instar: (as above) Fig. 4
Very similar in form and color to instar 1; pronotum with pale anterior

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975


Baranowski and Slater: New Lygaeid Record

marginal color much broader and more conspicuous than posterior; dark
sclerotization, of mesonotum covering greater part of notum; abdomen
and thoracic nota chiefly red so that longitudinal red stripes are only ob-
scurely differentiated from remainder of coloration, abdomen narrowly
orange laterally; length head .60, width .70, interocular space .50; length
pronotum .30, width .75; length abdomen 1.45; length labial segments I
.30, II .35, III .35, IV .35; length antennal segments I .20, II .40, III .40, IV
.65; total length 2.90.
First Instar: (as above) Fig. 5
Head reddish brown with dark markings very conspicuous, pronotum
reddish slightly paler anteriorly and posteriorly with transverse calli
"bar" nearly black and very strongly contrasting; mesonotum with a prom-
inent brown transverse sclerite on either side of midline, covering anterior
one-half of notum and extending nearly to lateral margins, a short trans-
verse dark "bar" in middle of lateral one-half of above sclerite; meta-
notum with a similar but much smaller sclerite along anterior margin,
strongly tapering to a point near meson; ground color of thoracic nota and
abdomen orangish with a broad median and 2 sublateral longitudinal red
stripes; appendages as in later instars.
Head relatively large, strongly convex, tylus exceeding distal end of
antennal segment 1; length head .45, width .50, interocular space .40; all
thoracic nota short and strongly transverse, length pronotum .25, width
.55; no evidence of wing pads present; abdomen large ovoid, length ab-
domen 1.15; labium elongate, exceeding metacoxae and reaching visible
abdominal sternum 2; length labial segments I .25, II .25, III .25, IV .25;
length antennal segments I.15, II .20, III .20, IV .35; total length 1.95.
Oval in shape with 8-10 micropylar processes arranged in a circle 0.25
mm in diameter at the anterior end; length 1.1 mm, width 0.6 mm, pearl
white in color.
Under room temperatures varying from 23 to 260C the average develop-
ment time of the egg was 12 days; 1st instar 10; 2nd instar 8; 3rd instar 10; 4th
instar 12; and 5th instar 13 days. Adults can be maintained several weeks in
the laboratory on sunflower seeds.

We thank Dr. C. W. Campbell, University of Florida AREC, Home-
stead for his identification of Corchorus siliquosus L.


ASHLOCK, P. D. 1975. Toward a classification of North American, Lygaeinae
Chemiptera-Heteroptera:Lygaeidae). J. Kansas Ent. Soc. 48:1:27-32.
BARBER, H. G. 1939. Scientific survey of Porto Rico & the Virgin Islands: in-
sects of Porto Rico & the Virgin Islands: Hemiptera-Heteroptera.
Sci. Surv. P. Rico 14:3:263-441.
GIBSON, W. W., AND J. L. CARRILLO. 1959. Lista de insects en la coleccion
entomologica de ea oficina de studios especiales S.A.G. Mexico.
Folleto Miscelaneo No. 9i-xviii, 1-254.

The Florida Entomologist

GOLDING, F. D. 1947. Further notes on the food plants of Nigerian insects.
VI. Bull..Ent. Res. 38:75-80.
HUNT, JUDITH. 1956. List of intercepted plant pests. 1955. USDA. Agr. Res.
Ser. Plant Quarantine Branch. p. 1-63.
HUNT, JUDITH. 1958. List of intercepted plant pests, 1957. USDA. Agr. Res.
Ser. Plant Quarantine Division. p. 1-66.
LONG, R. W., AND O. LAKELA. 1971. A flora of Tropical Florida. Univer-
sity of Miami Press, Coral Gables, Florida. 962 p.
MUMFORD, B. C. 1964. List of intercepted plant pests, 1963. USDA. Agr. Res.
Ser. Plant Quarantine Division. p. 1-76.
MUMFORD, B. C. 1965. List of intercepted plant pests, 1964. USDA. Agr. Res.
Ser. Plant Quarantine Division. p. 1-76.
SLATER, J. A. 1964. A Catalogue of the Lygaeidae of the world. 2 vol. U. of
Connecticut, Storrs.
SLATER, J. A., AND B. SPERRY. 1973. The biology and distribution of the
South African Lygaeidae, with descriptions of new species (Hemip-
tera:lygaeidae). Ann. Transvaal Mus. 28:(10):117-201.
SLATER, J. A., AND D. B. WILCOX. 1973. The chinch bugs or Blissinae of South
Africa (Hemiptera:Lygaeidae). Memoirs Ent. Soc. Southern Afr. 12:
TORRE-BUENO, J. R. DE LA. 1946. A synopsis of the Hemiptera-Heteroptera
of America north of Mexico III. Lygaeidae Ent. Amer. 26:1-141.
WHEELER, W. H. et al. 1951. List of intercepted plant pests, 1949. USDA
Agr. Res. Admin. Bur. of Ent. and Plant Quarantine. p. 1-77.
WOLCOTT, G. W. 1936. "Insectae Borinquenses" J. Dep. Agr. P. Rico 20:(1):
WOLCOTT, G. W. 1941. A supplement to "Insect Borinquenses" J. Dep. Agr.
P. Rico 25:(2):33-158.
WOLCOTT, G. W. 1950. (1948) The insects of Puerto Rico. J. Dep. Agr. P. Rico
VAN DUZEE, E. P. 1916. Checklist of the Hemiptera of America North of
Mexico. N. Y. Ent. Soc.

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975


303 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975



Department of Biological Sciences,
Fordham University, Bronx, N. Y. 10458

Recent collecting at McAllen in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of
Texas has revealed 3 species of Zethus: Z. aztecus and Z. montezuma, here
recorded for the first time from the United States, and Z. miscogaster, previ-
ously unknown from the state of Texas. All the U. S. Zethus are keyed and
ecological data are provided for the Texas species.

The solitary vespoid genus Zethus has 187 species in tropical America
but is poorly represented in the United States. Z. spinipes Say occupies most
of the Upper and Lower Austral Zones. Z. slossonae Fox inhabits subtrop-
ical Florida. Z. miscogaster Saussure extends from southern Arizona to Ar-
gentina, and Z. guerreroi Zavattari has been reported from Arizona and New
Mexico to El Salvador. These 4 species constitute the entire Nearctic fauna,
as cited in Bohart and Stange's (1965) recent monograph of the New World
During the last two years, I have been surveying the Hymenoptera of
the Valley Botanical Garden at McAllen, Texas. Among material col-
lected are series of Z. aztecus Saussure, Z. montezuma Saussure, and Z. mis-
cogaster. Z. montezuma and Z. aztecus have not been recorded previously
from north of Mexico. Z. miscogaster is cited for the United States by Bo-
hart and Stange on the basis of a single specimen from the Baboquivari
Mountains of Arizona.
These additions to our Zethus fauna are not surprising. Few entomolo-
gists have sampled the Hymenoptera of the Lower Rio Grande Valley. Fur-
thermore, that region harbors the richest Neotropical biota of any part of
the United States. Indeed, the plant community at the Valley Botanical
Garden is subtropical thorn scrub resembling that which grows in suitably
arid places from Mexico south to Argentina. The dominant large angio-
sperm genera are Acacia, Baccharis, Celtis, Condalia, Opuntia, Parkin-
sonia, and Prosopis. This same element forms a prominent part of Chaco
communities in northern Argentina at the other extreme of the Neotropics.
The following contribution offers a revised key to the United States
Zethus and field notes on the species newly recorded from Texas.

1. Third gastric sternite with a conspicuous translucent api-
cal lamella or flange that is truncate abruptly on each side
before attaining lateral margin of sternite (Fig. 1) .............................. 2

'Contribution No. 328, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Depart-
ment of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, Florida 32602.
'Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Florida Department of Agri-
culture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, Florida 32602.

The Florida Entomologist

1'. Third gastric sternite with apical flange weakly to con-
spicuously differentiated but not especially abbreviated
toward lateral m argin of sternite ....................................................... 3
2. Hind margin of 2nd gastric tergite evenly convex, hardly mem-
branous; only 1 well developed mid-tibial spur; interocellar
area without tubercles ................................................ aztecus Saussure
2'. Hind margin of 2nd gastric tergite divided into 3 sections by
translucent lateral lobes; 2 mid-tibial spurs; interocellar
area with broad, more or less polished tubercles separated by
a narrow line of punctures..................................... guerreroi Zavattari
3. Female clypeus mat with very minute regular longitudinal
striae, as well as numerous large punctures; male fla-
gellum rolled toward apex; mid-tibia with 1 well developed
apical spur; gaster mostly red .............................. .. slossonae Fox
3'. Female clypeus shining with strong punctures and/or coarse
striations but without minute wrinkling; male flagellum
hooked toward apex (Fig. 2, 4); mid-tibia with 1 or 2 apical
spurs; gaster m costly black ................ ................ .................... 4
4. Stem of 2nd gastric tergite definitely longer than that of 1st
(Fig. 3); notaulus weakly impressed or absent.... miscogaster Saussure
4'. Stem of 2nd gastric tergite definitely shorter than that of 1st
(Fig. 5); notaulus distinct at least over apical 0.5 of meso-
scutum ................................................. ...... . ............... ............. 5
5. Apical propodeal lamella produced into a rounded lobe
above valvula (Fig. 5); 2 well developed mid-tibial spurs;
petiole slender ....................................................... m ontezum a Saussure
5'. Apical propodeal lamella scarcely distinguishable from rest
of submarginal carina; only 1 well developed mid-tibial
spur; petiole very stout...................... ............ ....... ..... spinipes Say

Zethus aztecus Saussure
(Fig. 1)

SPECIMENS EXAMINED: 1 female, 8 males, TEXAS, Hidalgo Co., Valley
Botanical Garden, McAllen, C. C. Porter. On 12-VI-1973, 2 males were
swept from flowers of Acacia greggii A. Gray. The other 7 specimens, in-
cluding the only female, were taken between 27-VIII and 8-IX-1973, on
flowers of Baccharis halimifolia L.
Outside the United States aztecus ranges from Tamaulipas and Sonora
in Mexico south to Guatemala and El Salvador.
I am indebted to Dr. Lionel Stange of the Instituto Miguel Lillo (Tucu-
man, Argentina) for determination of this material.

Zethus guerreroi Zavattari

No specimens of guerreroi were available for examination. Bohart and
Stange (1965:177) recorded it from southern Arizona, southwestern New
Mexico, most of the Mexican states, and Quetzaltepeque in El Salvador.

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

Porter: New Records For Zethus

Fig5.1-5. Zethus species. 1) Z. aztecus, ventral view 2nd and 3rd gastric
sternites, showing laterally truncate apical flange of 3rd. 2) Z. miscogaster,
male, apex of flagellum. 3) Z. miscogaster, lateral view of 1st and 2nd
gastric segments. 4) Z. montezuma, male, apex of flagellum. 5) Z. monte-
zuma, lateral view of apex of propodeum and 1st 2 gastric segments.

Zethus slossonae Fox
SPECIMENS EXAMINED: 1 female, FLORIDA, nr. Everglades, 26-VI-1972,
C. C. Porter.
Z. slossonae is confined to the subtropical part of Florida. Its closest
relatives are West Indian and South American.

Zethus miscogaster Saussure
(Fig. 2, 3)
SPECIMENS EXAMINED: 2 females, 2 males, TEXAS, Hidalgo Co., Valley
Botanical Garden, McAllen, C. C. Porter. On 11-VI-1973, 1 male was col-
lected from flowers of Acacia greggii. The other 3 specimens were found on
flowers of Baccharis halimifolia between 27-VIII and 8-IX-1973.
Bohart and Stange (1965:74) reported miscogaster from Arizona and
outside the United States from Mexico, El Salvador, Panama, Colombia,
Venezuela, Brasil, Paraguay and Argentina.

Zethus montezuma Saussure
(Fig. 4, 5)
SPECIMENS EXAMINED: 4 females, 2 males, TEXAS, Hidalgo Co., Valley
Botanical Garden, McAllen, C. C. Porter. A single female appeared on

The Florida Entomologist

flowers of Baccharis between 27-VIII and 8-IX-1973. Between 20-27-XII-
1973, 2 more females were collected on foliage of Prosopis juliflora DC.
From 12-21-1-1974, 1 female and 2 males were found on foliage of Con-
dalia obovata Hook and Baccharis halimifolia L.

Zethus spinipes Say

SPECIMENS EXAMINED: 1 female, 1 male, MARYLAND, Dorchester Co.,
Hudson, 1-VIII-1972, C. C. Porter.
Z. spinipes ranges over most of the eastern United States from Massa-
chusetts and Kansas south to Florida and Texas.


One female each of Z. aztecus, miscogaster, and montezuma has been
donated to the Florida State Collection of Arthropods at Gainesville.
Other material herein cited remains in the collection of Charles C. Porter
at McAllen, Texas.


BOHART, R. M., AND L. A. STANGE. 1965. A revision of the genus Zethus
Fabricius in the Western Hemisphere. Univ. Calif. Pub. Ent. 40:1-208.

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

307 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975



Cotton Insects Laboratory, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA,
Brownsville, Texas 78520


Adult tobacco budworms, Heliothis virescens (F.), irradiated as pupae
within 24 hr of adult eclosion with 20 or 40 krad gamma irradiation were
paired singly in all possible combinations. The effects of treatment on the
quantity and motility of sperm were generally related to dose. However,
the quantity and motility of sperm and mating frequency of irradiated
males were affected by 20 or 40 krad at 5 days after adult eclosion but not
after 10 days. The mating frequency of irradiated females was not affected
by either dose at either time, but fecundity was affected. A dose of 40 krad
completely sterilized both sexes; a dose of 20 krad caused 64 and 98% steril-
ity in males and females, respectively. Both doses of irradiation increased
longevity of males, but female longevity was increased with 20 krad.

Field tests involving releases of sterile male tobacco budworms,
Heliothis virescens (F.), on the Island of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, were
unsuccessful because laboratory-reared males were not sexually competi-
tive with males of the natural population for the native females. Basic in-
formation on the overall reproductive capacity of an insect is essential to
develop a control method based on the sterile male technique. Some of this
information is lacking for the tobacco budworm.
Flint and Kressin (1969) suggested that the presence of normal quanti-
ties of sperm in the spermatheca of the tobacco budworm, rather than fre-
quency of mating, is basic to normal oviposition; they also found that
sperm from irradiated (I) or unirradiated (U) males was equally effective
in stimulating oviposition. The effect of gamma irradiation on the motility
of tobacco budworm sperm has not been determined, though it has been for
the bollworm, H. zea (Boddie) (Snow et al. 1972). A study was therefore
conducted to determine the effects of 6"Co irradiation on mating frequency,
the amount of sperm transferred and its motility in the spermatheca, and
the fecundity, fertility, and longevity of treated tobacco budworm moths.

The budworms used were taken from our laboratory colony (Guerra
et al. 1971). Male or female pupae were irradiated with 20 or 40 krad within
24 hr of adult eclosion at a rate of 815.2 rad/min with SD 8% of mean. These
doses were chosen because they are considered to be a substerilizing (Guerra

'In cooperation with the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Texas A&M University,
College Station 77843.
'Radio-Biology Department, Atomic Energy Establishment, Inshas, Arab Republic of
Egypt; on fellowship from International Atomic Energy Agency.

The Florida Entomologist

et al. 1974) and a sterilizing dose-a 97% reduction in hatch was obtained
with 30 krad (Wolfenbarger and Guerra 1971). Only moths that closed
within 24 hr of irradiation were paired. The females from the single-pair
replicates were dissected at 5 or 10 days after pairing or upon death. Each
test was replicated 4 times during a 2-month period in 1973, with 40-50
Female spermathecae were dissected by holding and applying a little
pressure to the female abdomen with the thumb and index fingers of the left
hand and pulling out the protruded oviscaptum with a fine pair of forceps
until the entire sexual organs were completely removed. These organs were
then placed on a glass slide and the spermatheca was separated, placed on
another slide in a drop of 0.25 m sucrose, and covered gently with a cover
glass for microscopical examination.
The relative amounts and motility of eupyrene sperm in the spermath-
eca were determined by the rating system developed by Holt and North
(1970) and modified by Snow et al. (1972); we used the methods of Snow et
al. (1972) to determine motility of eupyrene sperm. Thus when 60% or more
of the visible eupyrene sperm were motile in the spermatheca, we assumed
that the spermatheca contained a normal quantity of motile sperm and that
these females successfully mated. Spermatophores (an indicator of mating
frequency) and eggs were counted by the methods of Wolfenbarger and
Guerra (1970), and longevity was recorded as described by Guerra et al.
(1971). Sterility was based on the observed difference in egg hatch of the
I X U moths and the check.
Binomial confidence limit techniques were used to test the differences
between the check and irradiation treatments in the percentage of females
with no sperm or with normal quantities in the spermathecae. These tech-
niques were also used to compare the differences in sperm motility. All dif-
ferences were compared at the 5% level of probability.

The proportion of females with normal quantities of sperm after 5 days
was reduced 37% from the check when males were irradiated with 20 krad
and 94% when the males received 40 krad (Table 1); reductions were signif-
icant. After 10 days, the quantity was equal among females paired with
males irradiated at 20 krad, and that of females paired with males irradi-
ated with 40 krad was reduced 67%, a significant difference. However, 32 and
20% of the check females had less than normal quantities of sperm (be-
tween 1 and 59% of eupyrene sperm) after 5 and 10 days, respectively. For
the purpose of this work, we reported only females with normal or no sperm
at all. We suggest that this difference among the check females in quantity
of sperm at 5 and 10 days results because female budworms oviposit, re-
absorb, or expel unused sperm. For example, Flint and Kressin (1969) found
that 15-20% of their strain of tobacco budworms failed to transfer a normal
quantity of sperm. Also, Taylor (1967) and North and Holt (1968) indicated
that when sperm was not transferred in normal quantities, the female bud-
worm remated (as determined by spermatophores per female) more often
than when she received normal quantities.
When males were irradiated at 20 krad, the number of females with
sperm of normal motility was reduced 50%, a significant difference, after 5
days compared with females placed with U males and 100% after 10 days


Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

Souka, et al.: Irradiation of Tobacco Budworm









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The Florida Entomologist

(both were significant); at 40 krad, no motile sperm were present in the fe-
males after either period. These results are similar to those reported by
Snow et al. (1972) for the bollworm.
When I females were paired with U males, the proportion with normal
motility was equal to the check at 5 and 10 days after pairing. This finding
is especially important if sterile tobacco budworm females are to be used
in a release program. Such females receive motile sperm in their spermathe-
cae, and they also receive normal quantities and mate as often as untreated
females. Thus I females of this species are completely "normal" in terms
of sperm transfer.
Irradiation with 40 krad completely sterilized both sexes; 20 krad caused
64, 83, and 98% sterility in I male X U female, I female X U male, and I
male X I female crosses, respectively (Table 2). These results are similar
to those shown by others for the same crosses at ca. the same doses (Flint
and Kressin 1967, El Sayed and Graves 1969, Wolfenbarger and Guerra
1970). Likewise, frequency of mating was generally similar to that deter-
mined in other tests for the lifetime of the insects, regardless of dose or sex
Fecundity was significantly affected whenever one or both sexes were
irradiated, regardless of dose. However, it is much more important that the
increased motility of sperm and the presence of presumably normal quan-
tities of sperm did not cause normal fecundity in I females. Moreover, since
all the U females were equally fecund when equal amounts of sperm were
transferred, we conclude that the dose of irradiation affected egg laying
and fertility more than it affected any other factor.
Mating frequency (Table 1) during these tests was comparable between
treatments (including the check) in the 5-day group (2-3 spermatophores/
female). When adult pairs were permitted to stay together 10 days, mating
frequency was somewhat greater in the check (5 spermatophores/female),


Cross* Irradiation % Spermato- Longevity t
(Female X Male) dose (krad) sterility** phores Eggs Female Male

UXU 4.92 a 796 a 13.0 b 13.2 b
UXT 20 64 2.85 b 466 b 12.7 b 12.1 b
TXU 20 83 3.85 ab 449 b 15.9 a 16.3 a
TXT 20 98 2.85 b 307 bc 12.5 b 12.4 b
UXT 40 100 3.83 b 277 e 11.8 b 11.8 b
TXU 40 100 3.92 ab 108 d 14.8 b 15.5 a
TXT 40 100 3.57 ab 101 d 12.8 b 13.2 b

*U= untreated; T= treated.
**Based on 61% hatch of the check.
tMeans followed by same letter are significantly similar
at 5% level of probability.

by Duncan's multiple range test


Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

Souka, et al.: Irradiation of Tobacco Budworm

but mating frequency was comparable in the rest of the treatments (3-4 sper-
matophores/female). Similar results were obtained when pairs were per-
mitted to mate their entire lifespan (Table 2).
Irradiation significantly increased male longevity at both doses of ir-
radiation; female longevity was significantly increased with 20 krad. Also,
the percentage of females that mated in all treatments (data not shown)
was 92-100% after 5 days and 96-100% after 10 days, therefore it appears that
in the laboratory the majority of the matings for the lifespan took place
during the 1st 5 days after adult emergence.


EL SAYED, I. E., AND J. B. GRAVES. 1969. Effects of gamma radiation on the
tobacco budworm. I. Irradiation of pupae. J. Econ. Ent. 62:289-93.
FLINT, H. M., AND E. L. KRESSIN. 1967. Gamma irradiation of pupae of the
tobacco budworm. J. Econ. Ent. 60:1655-9.
FLINT, H. M., AND E. L. KRESSIN. 1969. Transfer of sperm by irradiated
Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and relationship to
fecundity. Can. Ent. 101:499-502.
GUERRA, A. A., R. D. GARCIA, AND H. H. DE LA ROSA. 1974. Suppression of
populations of tobacco budworms caged with sterile females. J.
Econ. Ent. 67:333-4.
of substerilizing doses of reserpine and gamma irradiation of the to-
bacco budworm. J. Econ. Ent. 64:804-6.
HOLT, G. G., AND D. T. NORTH. 1970. Effects of gamma radiation on the
mechanisms of sperm transfer in Trichoplusia ni (Hiibner). J. Insect
Physiol. 16:2211-22.
NORTH, D. T., AND G. G. HOLT. 1968. Genetic and cytogenetic basis of radia-
tion-induced sterility in the male cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni.
In: International Atomic Energy Agency Symposia "Isotopes and
Radiation in Entomology." Vienna, Austria, Nov. 1967, p. 391-403.
SNOW, J. W., R. L. JONES, D. T. NORTH, AND G. G. HOLT. 1972. Effect of ir-
radiation on ability of adult male corn earworms to transfer sperm,
and field attractiveness of females mated to irradiated males. J.
Econ. Ent. 65:906.
TAYLOR, O. R. 1967. Relationship of multiple mating to fertility in Atteva
punctella (Lepidoptera: Ponomeutidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 60:
WOLFENBARGER, D. A., AND A. A. GUERRA. 1970. Response of strains and
sexes of the tobacco budworm to gamma irradiation. J. Econ. Ent.
WOLFENBARGER, D. A., AND A. A. GUERRA. 1971. Response of strains and
sexes of the tobacco budworm to gamma irradiation. J. Econ. Ent.

The Florida Entomologist

NOT LETHAL.-(Note). Photinus umbratus fireflies are distasteful to
fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus) and skinks (Eumeces laticeps). An at-
tacking lizard vigorously spits out the firefly, wipes its snout with its fore-
feet or against the substrate, and sometimes makes gaping or yawning move-
ments of the mouth. A single experience will usually prevent further
attacks for several weeks or months; when a firefly is presented to a lizard
days later, the animal sometimes, without approaching the firefly, makes
gaping, yawning movements (J. E. Lloyd, 1973. Coleop. Bull. 27:91-106).
We presented P. umbratus to 9 fence lizards in a total of 45 trials; none
were eaten though 6 attacks were elicited. Four lizards never attacked (prior
experience?); 3 attacked only on the first presentation and not during 4 re-
maining weeks of trials; 1 attacked on the second trial, and not again; and
1 attacked on the first 2 trials but not subsequently. (A feeding regimen of
mealworms and crickets at 2-day intervals was established during the
month preceding the tests; tests were performed in lieu of regular feeding.
In all cases reported, animals that did not attack fireflies ate mealworms.)
We stuffed the gutted abdomens of live crickets with 3-7 fireflies (killed
by freezing), and presented them to 5 lizards. The stuffed crickets walked
and elicited attacks. In 4 attacks, by 2 fence lizards, crickets were taken
headfirst partway (up to the abdomen) into the mouth and then suddenly
disgorged; in 3 separate attacks and disgorgements a skink swallowed then
vomited crickets smuggling 5-7 fireflies each; another skink swallowed 6
crickets containing a total of 28 fireflies and 4 hr later disgorged all and a
mealworm she had eaten after refusing the seventh cricket-3 weeks later she
swallowed more than 15 fireflies in 3 crickets, disgorged the third with its 6
fireflies, ate another with 6, refused the next, and during 7 subsequent hours
of observation did not further disgorge or exhibit unusual behavior. A fence
lizard swallowed 3 crickets with a total of 15 fireflies and in the subsequent
8 hr exhibited no unusual behavior or disgorgement, but when tested 18 days
later ran from a cricket and jumped and clawed at the glass wall of the
cage. Three weeks later it ate a cricket with 6 fireflies and refused 2 more and
a mealworm; in 6 subsequent hours it exhibited no unusual behavior or dis-
gorgement. Both skinks commonly pushed partially swallowed, stuffed
crickets through the sand and when swallowed these were well-covered
with sand.
The gaping-yawning of experienced lizards, when viewing a firefly, may
be an indication of recall activity in their central nervous system, and the
flight of the lizard that had previously eaten but not vomited 15 fireflies
suggests that the meal produced internal discomfort. Susanne L. Sydow,
and James E. Lloyd, Depts. of Zool. and Entomol., respectively, Univ. of
Florida, Gainesville 32611.

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975



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The Florida Entomologist


Acantholyda, key to Florida spp.,
(Itycorsia) floridana, n.sp., 45
Agee, H. R., article by, 165
Anastrepha suspense, trapping,
Circadian rhythms, 312
Aniulus fili, n.sp., 217
Anwar, M., article by, 207
Anticarsia gemmatalis, attacked
by Nomuraea rileyi, 246
Ants, rearing arboreal spp., 59
Apacheiulus guadelupensis, n.sp.,
Arachnidae, ground surface popu-
lations, 257
Asthenopodes picteti, new name,
Atkinson, J. B., note by, 8

Bachelor, J. S., article by, 157
Baranowski, R. M., article by,
Barathrodesmus, n. gen., 167
inflatus, n.sp., 167
Barber, L. R., article by, 281
Beavers, J. B., article by, 29, 271
Berlesedesmus, n. gen., 167
flagellipes n.sp., 167
Berner, L., article by, 137
Bhatkar, A. P., article by, 59, 75
Brennandania parasilvestris flori-
dae, n. ssp., 231
Bugbee, R. E., article by, 43
Buschmann, L. L., note by, 90

Cantu, E., article by, 207; note
by, 103
Caraibodesmus acutipes, n.sp.,
sculpturatus, n.sp., 167
Cecidomyiidae from pine cones,
Cesium-134, trap for isotope use,
Chellman, C. W., note by, 22
Colaspis blakeae, n.sp., 1
gemellata, redescription, 1
ostmarki, redescription, 1
submetallica, redescription, 1
hypochlora, redescription, 1
Collins, F. A., article by, 15
Conomyrma insana, predator on
fire ant, 75

Correa, B. S., note by, 246
Correale, S., note by, 242
Craspeduchus pulchellus, biology,
new record, 297
Crawford, R. L., note by, 8
Cromroy, H. L., article by, 289;
note by, 256
Culex fatigans, control, 203

DeBarr, G. L., article by, 281
De La Rosa, H. H., article by, 307
Del Fosse, E. S., article by, 256
DeLong, D. M., note by, 33
Dendroctonus frontalis, recent
history, 22
Diabrotica unidecimpunctata ho-
wardi, eggs in soybean fields,
Diaprepes abbreviatus, parasite of,
Development, 271
Dinochernes, redescription, 275
vanduzeei, redescription, 275
wallacei, n.sp., 275
Docodesmus coxalis, n.sp., 167
Doryctinus marshi, n.sp., 213
Dragonflies, new records, 117
Dumorpha, n.gen., 33
dedeca, n.sp., 33
Dunkle, S. W., article by, 117

Ebel, B. H., article by, 193
Enallagma minisculum, nymph,
Eurhinocricus aequaliramus, n.sp.,
bisinuatus, n.sp., 167
granulatus, n.sp., 167
townsendi, n.sp., 167
townsendi marginandus, n.ssp.,
valvatus, n.sp., 167
Eurytoma stegmaieri, n.sp., 43

Fairchild, G. B., article by, 23
Forcipestricis portoricensis, n.sp.,
Forcipomyia (microhelea) fuligi-
nosa, biology, 243
(Forcipomyia) picea, biology,
Freytag, P. H., article by, 33
Frost, S. W., article by, 35

Vol. 58, No. 4, 1975

Index to Volume 58, 1975

Gagne, R. J., article by, 193
Garcia, R. D., article by, 307
Glomeridesmus albiceps, n.sp., 167
Gomphus ozarkensis, n.sp., 91
Gordh, G., article by, 239
Gouger, R. J., article by, 221
Greenbaum, H. N., article by, 45,
213; note by, 202
Gryllus pennsylvanicus, season-
ality, 31
Guerra, A. A., article by, 307

Habeck, D. H., article by, 97
Habrophlebria vibrans, descrip-
tion, 137
Habroplebiodes celeteria, n.sp.,
Hakiulus occidentalis, n.sp., 217
Hamlen, R. A., article by, 187
Heliothis virescens, control, 103
Chemosterilants, 207
Irradiation effects, 307
zea, control, 103
Hubbard, M. D., article by, 111
Hypera meles, damage by, 113

Ips avulsus, behavior, 221

Knight, W. E., article by, 113
Knopf, K. W., article by, 199
Kuitert, L. C., note by, 90, 212

LaBrecque, G. C., article by, 9
Leppla, N. C., note by, 312
Leptophlebia bradleyi, description,
137, 203
intermedia, description, 137
Levy, R., article by, 289
Light traps, insects taken in, 35
Lloyd, J. E., note by, 31, 242
Loomis, H. F., article by, 167, 217

Maddox, J. V., note by, 296
Mahunkania secunda, n.sp., 231
Mayse, M. A., note by, 296
Melanagromyza ruelliae, parasite
of, 43
Merkel, E. P., article by, 193
Mocis disseverans, life history, 97
latipes, life history, 97
marcida, life history, 97
Morgan, P. B., note by, 202
Muchmore, W. B., article by, 275;
note by, 242
Muma, M. H., article by, 83, 275
Musca domestic, parasites of, 202
Muscidifurax raptor, parasite of
house fly, 202

Nation, J. L., article by, 291
Naves, M. A., article by, 75
Neodiprion merkeli, new record,
Nevin, F. R., article by, 53
Nickerson, J. C., article by, 75

Ogunwolu, E. O., article by, 97
Ostmark, H. E., article by, 1

Pace, A. E., note by, 31
Pachycrepoideus vindemiae, para-
site of house flies, 202
Pachygrontha singularis, n.sp., 65
Pachygronthinae, hosts, distribu-
tion, 65
Paraleptopplebia volitans, de-
scription, 137
Paratriphleps laeviusculus, new
record, 157
Patterson, R. S., article by, 203;
note by, 202
Peloribates floridensis, n.sp., 53
tellandsius, n.sp., 53
Perdomo, A. J., article by, 291
Pinus elliottii, damage to, 281
Pitre, H. N., article by, 113
Plecia nearctica, extraction of
eggs, 90
Dimorphism, 212
Polycyrtidea floridana, n.sp., 247
limits, redescription, 247
Pomonis, J. G., article by, 207
Porter, C. C., article by, 247, 303
Pseudaulacaspis pentagon, nat-
ural enemies, 15
Pseudoscorpions, phoretic on fire-
flies, 242

Rack, G., article by, 231
Rhinocricus translocatus, n.sp.,
Robinson, S. H., article by, 207

Saissetia coffeae, control, 187
Scutacarus (S.) fragariae, n.sp., 231
longipes, n.sp., 231
Selhime, A. G., article by, 29, 271
Sharma, V. P., article by, 203
Silvius gigantulus weemsi, n.ssp.,
(Silvius) gigantulus, key to, 23
(Silvius) microcephalus, key to,
Siphonocybe crassirostrata, n.sp.,
Siphonophora compact, n.sp.,

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