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Title: Florida Entomologist
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Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1976
Copyright Date: 1917
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Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
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The


FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

Volume 59, No. 3 September, 1976


CONTENTS

BRACH. V -Subhocial Behavior in the Funnel-Web Wolf Spider Sosippus flori-
danu l.-, airw c. L %i.,t-( e .... 225
HEFTPNER. .J B. N N D. H. HABECK-/-ICseCt.s .4\.a, tatedl uith Pol gonum IP,.h
g,na, cet) in Norith Cintral Florido I Introducltin and Lepidopther 231
MILLEk. H. .C.-Rctii'tt i the Hilaris Species Group of Crabro (H-ni noptern
Sphecidae) 241
MILLER, R. C.. AND F. E. Kurczewski-C'omparat'ie Nesting Behuaior o' Crabro
rufibasis und Crabro artadiensis (H~nmn liipter-t Sphecidue: Crobrn.maej 267
LooMIs. H. F.-Twon 'Neu S'pecif'.s of Diplopi.ods /rumn Te.\a. and one from Ale'.l
lef 287
HEPNER, L. W.-Fiftren Nciw Specie, of Ervthroneura iErythndula) (Homop
tera:Cwidellidane, II 293
VITELLI .A., H. N N(c.(;. AND R. F. BRooKI-Lraboratotr Rearing ', the
Coffee Bean iIcti I 3u1
WISEMAN, B. R.. W' W'. McMNILLIAN. AND N. W. WIDSTRUM-Fee(ding of/ Corn
Earu-orm in the Lab,.airn i,rn Emiised Silks of Selected Corn Entrw with
,ote- on Onus insidiosus 305
GENLUNG. W. G.. M. J. JANES. AND V. E GREEN. JR.-ln.,ect. atnd Other Dietary
Iterm. oblMiaynard', Red 'inrg Blackbrrd in Relation t, Agrwulture 3091
DLNKLE, S. W.-Lartia of the Dragonlfy,. Ophiogomphus arizonicus (Odionata.
G(nmphidae) 317
HARNETT. D. E.-Somne New Preparation Technitques Used in Lenlhopper Prepa.
ration 321
SHELLEY, R. M.-.4A Nei' Dtp)lopd if tht (C;ntii. Cleidogona iromin North Caro
lina Chordetumidul a-'hidogonidae) 325
Srrienl /flic .Note.,
VON WINDForCITH, D. L., A K BIltRDITT..JK.. AN D H. SPALDiN(;-Phosphine
as a Fumigant for Grap;' lit to in;li'td h Ca(ribbolwn Fruit F'/ Lirvae 285
HIRHMAN, D. B.. AN C; B. EDuM .\H.--Fvt../ing h Fur, rSpl a.i' IMlraf-tng
Butterflies in Nt therin Flortio .31114
iR INERi, J. A. .ND S. N.\K XH RA-Nes.thrip- breticollis arnd Scotothrips
cla rpenn L- (AT T rnpt,,ltirn Ph/iil'-.,thri/plid eit on (_'oco- nucifera ..... 308
GKF.FNBAUIM. H. N.-Observations on the Mating Bihait.,r of Hyssopus
rhyacioniae 324
WILLIAMS, D. F. \ND A. J. Ro(.FRS-.Stlr/t/h Fh/'- Inlerted uithi I .Ih ite
Macrocheles muscaedomestica .................................. ......... 328
Book Reviews....... ........... ................. .......... ......... ................................. .. ..... 230, 320


Published by The Florida Entomological Society



















~OINIEU


THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY

OFFICERS FOR 1975-76
President.................................. .................... .... ................... H V W eem s, Jr.
Vice-President ....... ....................................................................... C S. Lofgren
Secretary ........................... ................................... . . . ... F. W M ead
T rea surer ............. ........................................................................ N C L eppla


R. M. Baranowski
S. H. Kerr
Other Members of Executive Committee......... D. E. Weidhaas
A. K. Burditt, Jr.
W. L. Peters

PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE
E editor ... ..................................... ..... ............... S. H K err
A associate E ditors ............................................................ ................ E E G rissell
J. E. Lloyd
H. V. Weems, Jr.
Carol A. Rolfs Kay
R. M. Baranowski
Business M anager..................................................................... ...... N C. Leppla

THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST is issued quarterly-March, June, September, and
December. Subscription price to non-members $15.00 per year in advance, $3.75 per
copy. Entered as second class matter at the post office at Gainesville, Florida.
Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be sent to the Editor, Entomology
Department, University of Florida, Gainesville. Subscriptions and orders for back
numbers are handled by the Business Manager, Box 12425, University Station, Gaines-
ville, Florida 32604. The Secretary can be reached at the same address.
When preparing manuscripts, authors should consult "Instructions to Authors",
on the cover of most issues, and examine recent issues for details of form and style.
The page charge is $10.00 per page, partial pages proportionally. Page charges
are scaled upward for articles more than 10 printed pages long. One page of tables
is allowed free in every article. Beyond this allowance, tabular matter in excess
of 25% of the printed article's length is charged at $20.00 per page, partial pages pro-
portionally.
Reprints cost 2.54 per page for the first 1,500 pages and 14 per page thereafter. For
example, 200 reprints of a 3-page article total 600 pages; at 2.54 per page the charge
would be $15.00. The minimum reprint charge is $5.00. There are no free reprints of
articles of 1 page or longer. Twenty-five free reprints will be provided, if requested,
of partial page notes, book reviews, obituaries, etc. No covers for reprints will be pro-
vided.


This issue mailed October 8, 1976









The Florida Entomologist


SUBSOCIAL BEHAVIOR IN THE FUNNEL-WEB WOLF
SPIDER SOSIPPUS FLORIDANUS (ARANEAE: LYCOSIDAE)

VINCENT BRACH

Archbold Biological Station, Rt. 2, Box 180, Lake Placid, Florida 33852

ABSTRACT

Females of the lycosid spider Sosippus floridanus Simon in south-
central Florida construct funnel-web snares in which the young are re-
tained for several months and are actively fed malaxated prey. The rela-
tionship of the web to intraspecific communication and the evolution of
social behavior in spiders is discussed.


The commonest form of parental care in spiders is simply a short post-
eclosion period during which the spiderlings are actively or passively
guarded by the mother. During this time, the spiderlings metabolize the last
of their yolk stores and rarely feed, although a number of exceptions are
known (Kaston 1965, Shear 1970). The young of many species exhibit some
degree of gregariousness which usually disappears after the first post-
eclosion molt, the spiderlings dispersing by ballooning or on foot.
In the vagrant Lycosidae, the egg case is usually carried about attached
to the mother's spinnerets under her abdomen. When the young eclose, they
are carried about on the back of the mother until the first post-eclosion
molt. However, in no case has the mother been known to feed her young
during this period, although she may take food herself (Fabre 1913, Kaston
1965).
Sosippus floridanus Simon is one of the few North American members
of the lycosid subfamily Hippasinae, or funnel-web wolf spiders. These
spiders retain the general appearance of vagrant lycosids but resemble the
agelenid funnel-web spiders in habits (Comstock 1948). That the sedentary
habits of these spiders have been secondarily derived is suggested by the
retention of the egg case-carrying habit (Gertsch 1949). Aside from accounts
in general works, however, the biology of the sedentary Lycosidae appears
to have been largely overlooked.
During August 1975, I observed several webs of S. floridanus at the Arch-
bold Biological Station, Highlands Co., Florida, in which large numbers
of juveniles were found living with the mother. This observation prompted
me to make a detailed investigation of the brood care of this spider, with
the result that an advanced subsocial relationship, unparalleled in the
Lycosidae, was discovered.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Six webs containing adult female S. floridanus spiders and their broods
were studied at the Archbold Biological Station between August and De-
cember, 1975. Three of the webs were collected entire and the spiders trans-
ferred to wide-mouth gallon jars. The captured females soon spun typical
funnel webs in the jars and took food regularly. The remaining webs were
left in situ and were observed at least twice a week during the study period.


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976









The Florida Entomologist


The remains of prey from 2 of the field webs were quantified and sorted by
taxon with the aid of a hand lens.

RESULTS
Field Observations
The webs of immature S. floridanus are usually constructed on the
ground in open, sandy areas. The funnel retreats are built under rubbish
with the skirts of the retreats extending out for a distance of 10-30 cm. How-
ever, 5 of the 6 webs containing adult females and their broods were con-
structed approximately 0.5 m above the ground in the fronds of the saw pal-
metto, Serenoa repens Small (Fig. 1). A single adult web was constructed
on the ground in a clump of dying Opuntia cactus. The retreats of the adult
webs found in palmetto were constructed by spinning the base of one of the
fronds into a tube, with the funnel skirts extending out to the frond edges.
A loose knock-down snare of thick silk was spun above the funnel, often
covering much of the palmetto plant and rendering the web extremely con-
spicuous.
Two of the 6 adult female S. floridanus were observed carrying their
egg cases during August and September 1975. The egg case usually was at-
tached to the spinnerets by a short "rope" of thick silk. The mother was in-
capable of spinning as long as the egg case was in this position. Upon eclo-
sion, the young climbed onto the mother's abdomen and were carried by her
until their 1st molt. The number of young found in 4 of the webs ranged
from 20 to approximately 70, while the 2 egg cases contained 51 and 60 eggs,
respectively.


Fig. 1. Web of Sosippus floridanus in palmetto.


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976










Brach: Lycosid Spider Behavior


The mother spider was usually seen sitting at the mouth of her funnel
retreat, often flanked by her young. If crickets or other suitable prey were
thrown onto the web, the mother would dash out, seize the prey and drag
it backwards into the retreat. A mother spider could usually be induced to
catch several prey in rapid succession. The remains of the prey were always
left in the retreat. The early young (up to 1 mo) tended to remain in the re-
treat and wait for food to be brought to them, but as they matured this tend-
ency to cluster in the retreat lessened and the young were frequently seen
sitting near the edges of the funnel skirts. Small prey were occasionally
captured individually and consumed on the spot by older juveniles.
The young tended to remain in the webs for periods up to 5 mo, at which
time many were about 1 cm in body length and were quite capable of cap-
turing their own food. In 2 cases where the mother had died (both in late
November), all of the young left the brood web within 1 week. The single
brood web spun on the ground was unusual in that even after the mother
had died, several of the young remained in the immediate vicinity and con-
structed separate webs along the borders of the old brood web, while 1 spi-
der took over the old retreat of the mother.

Laboratory Observations and Prey Analysis:
All 3 of the S. floridanus females collected with their broods quickly
established themselves in gallon jars in the laboratory. The laboratory
webs resembled the field webs in having a tube-like silken retreat at
the bottom of the jar which was extended into a funnel at the top, above
which was spun a labyrinthine snare. The young clustered at the bottom of
the retreat until they were 1-2 mo old and had reached a length of 5-8 mm,
after which they began to spend increasing portions of time away from the
retreat, as in the field webs.
Mealworms and small (1 cm) beetles thrown into the laboratory webs
were seized by the females and carried to the bottoms of the retreats. As soon
as the prey was subdued, the young began to cluster about the prey. The
mothers malaxated the prey thoroughly before dropping it. The young then
swarmed over the prey and fed upon it communally (Fig. 2). The mother
spiders appeared to take little food during the period from August to No-
vember, as most of the prey was carried directly to the young without being
fed upon.
The remains of prey from 2 field webs collected after the broods had
dispersed showed 49 and 28 identifiable prey items, respectively. The com-
monest prey item was the cercopid bug Prosapia bicincta (Say) (60%), fol-
lowed by scarabaeid beetles, Diplotaxis sp., (20%) and the coccinellid
beetle Hemisphaerota cyanea (Say) (10%). Prey items ranged in size from
3 to 35 mm. The remains of prey were often well-punctured with holes made
by the fangs of the mother.
Cannibalism was infrequently observed in the laboratory and was al-
ways on spiderlings which were injured while molting. Instances of can-
nibalism appeared to increase somewhat as the spiderlings matured. At no
time was a mother observed to molest her young, and mothers would
readily accept the young from other S. floridanus broods, even of widely
varying ages. Nearly-mature and adult specimens from other webs which
were placed in the laboratory webs were treated as prey and were always
killed within a few seconds.










The Florida Entomologist


Fig. 2. Brood of Sosippus floridanus feeding communally on prey
caught by the mother.

DISCUSSION
Trophic exchange between parent spiders and their young is known to
occur in several spider families, chiefly the Agelenidae, Eresidae and Theri-
diidae (Shear 1970). In all cases, communication between mother and brood
appears to be mediated by web-borne vibrations or by contact-requiring
tactile signals, some of which appear to have no counterparts in solitary
spider behavior. Tretzel (1961) found that spiderlings of the agelenid Coe-
lotes terrestris (Wider) actively solicited food from the mother by stroking
her palps and chelicerae. Nprgaard (1956) observed mother Theridion saxa-
tile (C. L. Koch) spiders giving "summoning" and "danger" signals to their
broods, a different web-borne vibration being used for each signal. Many
spiders discriminate conspecifics from prey by means of their characteristic
web vibrations (Kaston 1965) but some, especially the more advanced
quasisocial spiders such as the theridiid Anelosimus eximius Keyserling
(Brach 1975) and the eresid Stegodyphus sarasinorum Karsh (Kullmann
1972) appear to recognize one another by specific-surface cues at close
range. The need for specific-surface recognition may be related to the com-
munal prey capture behavior of these spiders; it probably serves as a "fail-
safe" against intraspecific aggression during the excitement of prey capture,
which may involve dozens of spiders struggling in close proximity to one
another.
The origin of vibration-related communication mechanisms probably
lies in the characteristic method of prey capture of most spiders, in which a
heavy reliance is placed on silk. Although a few families of spiders have


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976


~~C
:c









Brach: Lycosid Spider Behavior


evolved vagrant habits and detect prey largely by sight (e.g., the Saltici-
dae), most have evolved mechanisms for the location and discrimination of
prey by vibration. Silken snares and traplines may thus be viewed as ex-
tensions of the spider's receptive field. As pointed out by Shear (1970), the
web appears to be a necessary preadaptation for sociability in spiders, as no
"social" spiders are known which do not live in communal webs. By way of
analogy, the use of web-borne vibrations for intraspecific communication
over longer distances is the spider equivalent of the chemical signals used
by social insects. The limitations inherent in such a purely mechanical sys-
tem of communication are obvious and may form one of the severest con-
straints on the evolution of spider social behavior.
Lycosid spiders have evolved along 2 lines of behavior with respect to
silk usage. In the first, silk is used only for the construction of egg cases, for
ballooning (young spiders) and occasionally for the construction of tem-
porary retreats (e.g., Pirata, Pardosa, some Lycosa). These spiders tend to be
largely or completely vagrant, carrying both egg cases and young about
for relatively short periods of time. In the second line, there is an in-
creased dependence upon silken retreats or silk-lined burrows having some
degree of permanence. In some Lycosa, the brood may overwinter with the
mother in her burrow, but the primitive habit of carrying the young persists
(Gertsch 1949). However, only in the genus Sosippus is the web extended
beyond the retreat to form a snare. The peculiar method of carrying the egg
case observed in S. floridanus may be an adaptation to increase mobility,
as an egg case might be expected to cause somewhat less interference if
dragged behind the spider rather than carried tucked under the abdomen and
held by the spinnerets and the last pair of legs, as in most vagrant Lycosi-
dae. However, why provisioning behavior has evolved only in S. floridanus
is not readily explained. It is possible that provisioning may in fact occur
in a few retreat-building lycosids other than S. floridanus and should be
looked for in future investigations of lycosid brooding behavior.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I thank J. N. Layne for his criticism of the text.

LITERATURE CITED
BRACH, V. 1975. The biology of the social spider Anelosimus eximius (Ara-
neae: Theridiidae). Bull. So. Calif. Acad. Sci. 74:37-41.
COMSTOCK, J. H. 1948. The spider book (rev. W. J. Gertsch). Comstock,
Ithaca, N. Y.
FABRE, J. H. 1913. The life of the spider. Dodd, Mead & Co., New York.
GERTSCH, W. J. 1949. American spiders. Van Nostrand, New York.
KASTON, B. J. 1965. Some little known aspects of spider behavior. Amer.
Midi. Nat. 73:336-56.
KULLMANN, E. J. 1972. Evolution of social behavior in spiders (Areneae:
Eresidae and Theridiidae). Amer. Zool. 12:419-26.
NORGAARD, E. 1956. Environment and behavior of Theridion saxatile.
Oikos 7:159-92.
SHEAR, W. A. 1970. The evolution of social phenomena in spiders. Bull.
British Arach. Soc. 1(5):65-76.
TRETZEL, E. 1961. Biologie, Okologie und Brutpflege von Coelotes terres-
tris (Wider) (Araneae, Agelenidae). II. Brutpflege. Zeit. Morph.
Okol. Tiere 50:375-542.


229









The Florida Entomologist


BOOK REVIEW

INSECT ECOLOGY. Peter W. Price. 1975. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
514 p. $15.95. This is the first book in 21 years to attempt a comprehensive
treatment of insect ecology. Unlike its 2 predecessors-Chapman's Animal
Ecology with Especial Reference to Insects (1931) and Andrewartha and
Birch's The Distribution and Abundance of Animals (1954)-this volume's
title proclaims that insect ecology is finally subject enough to permit
book-length treatment on its own merits.
The reader need go no farther than the table of contents, however, to
discover that Price correctly views insect ecology as a subdiscipline of
(bio-)ecology. Indeed he has included a chapter on nearly every current
enthusiasm of general ecologists-for example, Coevolution of Plants and
Herbivores, Strategies in Reproduction, Species Packing, Diversity and Sta-
bility. There are 17 other chapters, with the only topics that are conspicu-
ously absent being the ecological aspects of specific physical factors, such
as temperature, moisture, and light.
The most impressive features of this book are its scope and its current-
ness. It cites a staggering number of mostly recent references-over 1,000,
approximately half of which are from the past 10 years. The coverage is un-
diminished through 1973 and into 1974.
Price has arranged his material in 21 chapters of approximately 20 pages
each. He precedes each chapter with an outline that identifies the important
aspects discussed. He generally gives his topics historical perspective and
then launches into a review of ideas and research findings of recent authors.
His explanations are often superficial: the reader must refer to the original
literature to understand many of the topics that Price introduces. Price
does not criticize the ideas of others nor does he attempt to fit them into
some organized scheme of his own. He presents a smorgasbord rather than a
carefully planned meal.
There are next to no typographical errors nor botched citations, and I
detected no wrong or missing bibliographic entries. The illustrations are
mostly graphs redrawn from the original papers for this book; they are
abundant and helpful. Most errors in content are omissions (I challenge
anyone to understand Fig. 15.6 from only what Price has to say about it) but
on p. 81 Nicholson and Bailey's "area of discovery" is wrongly defined,
and on p. 207 Price presents a graph that misrepresents the data in the paper
it cites.
A promise of a modern evolutionary framework goes unfulfilled. On
p. 2 Price notes that the reproducing individual is the primary unit of nat-
ural selection but subsequently he again and again makes no effort to ex-
plain or avoid statements that imply the contrary. For example (p. 144),
"a female that produces females contributes more to subsequent popula-
tion growth than does a female that produces males," and (p. 193) "the best
strategy in this situation is for the population to maintain a relatively high
magnitude of dispersal at all density levels."
Although Insect Ecology has some short-comings, it is remarkably com-
prehensive and up-to-date. Every entomologist should become familiar
with it and can get valuable new ideas from reading it.
Thomas J. Walker
Dep. Entomol. and Nematol.
University of Florida
Gainesville, Fla. 32611


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976


230









The Florida Entomologist


INSECTS ASSOCIATED WITH POLYGONUM
(POLYGONACEAE) IN NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA.
I. INTRODUCTION AND LEPIDOPTERA'

J. B. HEPPNER2 AND D. H. HABECK'

Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611

ABSTRACT
Interactions of Lepidoptera and semi-aquatic species of Polygonum
were investigated in north central Florida. Freshwater shore species of
Polygonum are common in Florida and form an important element in such
habitats. New host records were obtained for 17 of 43 Lepidoptera species
associated with Polygonum in Florida (21 from literature reports and 22
from our hearings). Myriophyllum brasiliense Cambess (Haloragaceae) is an
additional new host record for 2 tortricids, Choristoneura parallel (Robin-
son) and Argyrotaenia ivana (Fernald). An undescribed species of Coleo-
phora and a gelechiid, "Aristotelia" absconditella (Walker), are newly
recorded for the Florida fauna. Lepidoptera families involved in this eco-
logical survey include Tortricidae, Coleophoridae, Gelechiidae, Pyra-
lidae, Papilionidae, Lycaenidae, Geometridae, Sphingidae, Arctiidae, and
Noctuidae.


To better understand insect-host interactions in the freshwater shore
ecosystems of Florida, an ecological survey of insects associated with semi-
aquatic smartweeds, mainly Polygonum punctatu Elliot and Polygonum
densiflorum Meissner (Polygonaceae), was initiate. This first report covers
our results for Lepidoptera. A second report will cover the non-lepidop-
terous insects, including the parasitic Hymenoptera reared from the Lepi-
doptera reported herein. A few records for associations with Polygonum
setaceum Baldwin ex Elliott and Polygonum hydropiperoides Michaux
are also noted. Florida Lepidoptera not reared by us but having recorded
Polygonum hosts are included in a summary list at the end. Plant samples
were taken from several localities in Florida, but the major portion of
the study was conducted in or near Gainesville, Alachua County, Florida,
from mid-1972 to late 1974.
I. POLYGONUM AND ITS ENVIRONMENT
The species of Polygonum are commonly called "smartweeds" and
"knotweeds." More specific common names for individual species add cer-
tain adjectives to these general names (Muenscher 1944), e.g., dotted smart-
weed for Polygonum punctatum. The genus Polygonum encompasses over
200 species worldwide, while in the United States about 2 dozen species are
generally distributed. Of the 2 main species in this study, P. densiflorum is
more or less restricted to the southeastern United States, while P. punc-
tatum is found throughout the United States. Knotweeds tend to be pros-
trate and grow in more xeric habitats than do smartweeds, which include

'Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 8028
'Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods.
'Professor; Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville.


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976










The Florida Entomologist


erect plants occupying more mesic habitats. Typically, smartweeds will
be found in moist soils, ditches, and semi-aquatic freshwater habitats. In
Florida they are common and have a significant role in freshwater habitats.
The 2 smartweeds emphasized here grow only in partially flooded ground
or in very moist soil at pond or stream edges. Some species of Polygonum
are of economic importance due to invasions of pastures and cultivated
fields.
Polygonum species are mostly annuals, although some are perennials
like P. punctatum and P. densiflorum. From our observations in north
Florida, P. punctatum and P. densiflorum have a yearly life cycle with four
distinct seasonal aspects: 1) initial winter growth; 2) successive flowering
and continued growth from late winter to mid-autumn; 3) autumn growth
of post-reproductive plants; and 4) late autumn and winter remains of frost
damaged plants, followed by regrowth as temperatures moderate. Poly-
gonum densiflorum is the thicker stemmed of the 2 species, but both have
stems naturally swollen at the nodes. Successive generations can be found
in the same areas year after year unless disturbed or displaced by competi-
tion from other plant species.
Most parts of an individual plant are exploited by different species of
Lepidoptera, competition usually occurring only with the non-lepidop-
terous insects that utilize the same niches on the plants. Even heavy infes-
tation by insects produces few visible effects (except for some damage from
leaf feeders), the plants remaining vigorous until the first frost. This latter
point demonstrates the comparatively benign coexistence of Polygonum
plants and their insect load.
II. LEPIDOPTERA
This section includes Lepidoptera associated with one or more Poly-
gonum species as larval feeders. Most such Lepidoptera are moths, and
only a few species of butterflies are recorded on Polygonum (Tietz 1972).
During our investigations only one butterfly adult, the hesperiid Ancy-
loxypha numitor (Fabricius), was seen on P. punctatum flowers: no butter-
fly larvae were found on Polygonum.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plant samples were field collected and taken into the laboratory for
rearing of larvae and capture of emerging adults. Plant samples were
searched for both leaf-feeding and stem-boring larvae, with individual
larvae placed in petri dishes or 1 oz and larger plastic cups. Some plant
samples were divided into plastic bags or gallon ice cream containers for
mass, non-searched hearings. Laboratory temperatures were moderated to
about 250C (day), with nightly reductions to no less than 10C in winter.
Moisture was maintained close to natural conditions to prevent plant
wilting.
No Lepidoptera were found feeding on Polygonum roots or submerged
stems, but some nocturnally feeding larvae were found hiding in root
masses during the day. Larvae boring in stems drowned if stems acciden-
tally became submerged under water, since water entered the frass hole.
Voucher specimens from reared material were deposited in the Florida
State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville. The durations of immature
development were measured from early larval instars to adult emergence;


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976










Heppner and Habeck: Insects of Polygonum


these periods are approximate due to imprecise knowledge of the ages of
field collected larvae. The number following the hearingss" heading indi-
cates the number of hearings completed. All determinations are our own
except as indicated in the acknowledgments section.


TORTRICIDAE
Argyrotaenia ivana (Fernald)
Hosts: New records: Polygonum punctatum and P. densiflorum; Myrio-
phyllum brasiliense Cambess (Haloragaceae). Literature records: Iva
imbricata Walter and Gnaphalium obtusifolium Linnaeus (Compositae);
Apium graveolens Linnaeus var. dulce Persoon (=celery) (Umbelliferae)
(Kimball 1965).
Distribution: Southeastern United States.
Dates: Most months in Florida; summer further north.
Hearings: 10; immature period 13-24 days; pupal stadium 4-13 days.
Remarks: Argyrotaenia ivana is a leaf-roller, larvae feeding on the
leaves. It has been rarely collected. Male genitalia of reared specimens
have a very broad uncus for Argyrotaenia, but this character appears to be
constant in A. ivana (J. A. Powell, personal communication).
Choristoneura parallel (Robinson)
Hosts: New records: Polygonum punctatum and Myriophyllum brasi-
liense. Literature records: Acer rubrum Linnaeus (Aceraceae) (Kimball
1965).
Distribution: Northeastern United States, south to Florida.
Dates: March, April, and July (Florida); summer (Northeast).
Rearings: 3; pupal stadium 10-19 days (only last instar larvae and
pupae were collected).
Remarks: Genitalic examination showed the reared moths to be C.
parallel, not the more common and polyphagous Choristoneura rosa-
ceana (Harris). The larvae of Choristoneura feed on host leaves.

Platynota rostrana (Walker)
Hosts: Polyphagous (see Kimball 1965). New record: Polygonum punc-
tatum.
Distribution: Eastern United States, west to Texas.
Dates: Almost every month in Florida; spring to autumn (Northeast).
Rearings: 6; immature period 21-29 days.
Remarks: Adults reared from Polygonum punctatum were taken from
mass samples as they emerged. Larvae are leaf-tiers and feed on the leaves.
Sparganothis sulfureana (Clemens)
Hosts: New record: Polygonum punctatum. Literature record: Helenium
(Compositae) (Kimball 1965).
Distribution: Eastern United States, west to Texas.
Dates: Adults most of the year in Florida; June to September (North-
east).
Rearings: 2; immature period 25-28 days.
Remarks: Sparganothids are leaf feeders, usually forming a slightly
rolled leaf with silk webbing as a shelter.










The Florida Entomologist


COLEOPHORIDAE
Coleophora sp. (undescribed)
Hosts: New record: Polygonum punctatum.
Distribution: Gainesville (the distribution should be more extensive in
Florida, wherever the host grows).
Dates: Known only from August and September thus far.
Hearings: 2; insufficient data on immature period.
Remarks: Forbes (1923) reported a related coleophorid, Coleophora
shaleriella Chambers, to be a seed feeder on Polygonum. Larvae of our
species have elongate and straight cases, and larvae chew small holes in
the leaf epidermis. Barry Wright (personal communication) of the Nova
Scotia Museum, Halifax, has indicated that the coleophorids reared by A. F.
Braun (reported in Forbes 1923) are a new species which he will describe
in his forthcoming revision of the Nearctic Coleophoridae, while the species
Forbes called Coleophora shaleriella, refers to a species different from the
one reared by Braun. The species reared by us represents a third related
species. Currently, only one adult is available for study.

GELECHIIDAE
"Aristotelia" absconditella (Walker) "Smartweed Node Borer"
Hosts: New records: Polygonum punctatum and P. densiflorum. Litera-
ture records: Ampelopsis (Vitaceae) and Polygonum sp. (Forbes 1923).
Distribution: Eastern United States, from Maryland to Florida.
Dates: Year round in Florida; May to June (Maryland).
Hearings: 42; immature period 16-64 days; pupal stadium 6-31 days.
Remarks: R. W. Hodges (personal communication) (Systematic Ento-
mology Laboratory, USDA) has informed us that A. absconditella belongs
in another genus and will be transferred to an appropriate genus in a future
revision. "Aristotelia" absconditella is the predominant stem borer of Poly-
gonum punctatum, less so in P. densiflorum where weevil larvae (Rhinon-
cus longulus LeConte and Lixus spp.) are more common borers. The host
record of Ampelopsis needs to be verified. Forbes (1923) noted that this gele-
chiid is a stem borer, with larvae overwintering in the excavated nodes. His
note that the larva forms a gall is erroneous: the "gall" is one of the natur-
ally swollen stem nodes of the host plant. Often 8 or more larvae will
be found per Polygonum stem, each occupying only 1 node plus 1-3 cm. of
stem in either or both directions from the node. Such infestations produce
no noticeable effect on the plant. The moth is a new record for Florida
(Alachua and Columbia Counties), even though adults should be common
near the host plants. The common name, "smartweed node borer," is pro-
posed for this moth. There are at least 7 generations per year in Gainesville,
Florida.
Chionodes discoocellella (Chambers)
Hosts: New records: Polygonum punctatum and P. densiflorum. Litera-
ture records: Rumex and Polygonum sp. (Forbes 1923).
Distribution: New Jersey to Florida, west to Kansas and Texas.
Dates: Nearly year round in Florida; June, July and September in the
Northeast.
Rearings: 22; immature period 15-56 days; pupal stadium 5-15 days.


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976










Heppner and Habeck: Insects of Polygonum


Remarks: Chionodes discoocellella is a leaf skeletonizer. A silken web
is formed on the ventral leaf surface of its host in preparation for pupation.
There are no records of a spring generation in Florida, but one should occur.
More detailed biological notes and descriptions of immature stages of C.
discoocellella and A. absconditella will be published at a later date.

PYRALIDAE
Ostrinia penitalis (Grote)
Hosts: New records: Polygonum sp. and P. densiflorum. Literature
records: Nelumbo and Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) (Mutuura and Munroe
1970).
Distribution: Eastern North America to the central plains, northwest
to British Columbia; subspecies in the neotropics as far south as the Amazon
region of Brazil.
Dates: January to November (Florida); May to August (Northeast).
Hearings: 5; immature period 19-73 days.
Remarks: Nymphaeaceae have been the only known hosts of 0. peni-
talis. Larvae are common on Nelumbo in Florida, but rare on Polygonum.
Larvae were found feeding on leaves of Polygonum and successfully com-
pleted their life cyces on this host. The known Polygonum feeder, Ostrinia
obumbratalis (Lederer) (= ainsliei Heinrich), was not found during our field
work: it may eventually be found in Florida as it has been collected in
Louisiana and Mississippi (Mutuura and Munroe 1970).
Parapoynx obscuralis (Grote)
Hosts: Vallisneria (Hydrocharitaceae), Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae), Sagit-
taria (Alismaceae), Potamogeton (Potamogetonaceae), Polygonum punc-
tatum (Habeck 1974).
Distribution: Nova Scotia to Wisconsin, south to southern Florida.
Dates: Almost year round in Florida; summer in the north.
Hearings: 1; immature period 24 days.
Remarks: Larvae were found in portable cases constructed from two
pieces of a Polygonum leaf. Larvae are aquatic and feed on submerged
leaves.
Sylepta penumbralis (Grote)
Hosts: New records: Polygonum sp. and P. densiflorum.
Distribution: Ohio to Missouri, south to Florida.
Dates: April, July to September (Florida); May, September to October
(Ohio).
Rearings: 2; immature period 14-33 days.
Remarks: Larvae feed on leaves of the host. Some question exists re-
garding the specific name of this species. It has been indicated that S. penum-
bralis may be a synonym of Sylepta silicalis (Guen6e) (Forbes 1923, Kimball
1965); in this case the latter name would have priority.
Synclita obliteralis (Walker) Waterlily Leafcutter
Hosts: New records: Polygonum sp., P. punctatum, P. densiflorum, and
P. hydropiperoides. Literature records: numerous aquatic plants (Kimball
1965).
Distribution: Nova Scotia to Manitoba, south to Florida and Texas;
also British Columbia; introduced in Hawaii and England.










The Florida Entomologist


Dates: Year round in Florida; spring to autumn in the Northeast.
Hearings: 8; immature period 20-30 days.
Remarks: Synclita obliteralis is a polyphagous feeder of freshwater
plants. Larvae feeding on submerged Polygonum leaves form a typical
bivalve case of 2 leaf parts.

GEOMETRIDAE
Anacamptodes defectaria (Guen6e)
Hosts: New record: Polygonum punctatum. Literature records: Populus
and Salix (Salicaceae) (Kimball 1965).
Distribution: Southeastern United States, north to Virginia.
Dates: Year round in Florida; summer further north.
Hearings: 1; immature period 21 days; pupal stadium 12 days.
Remarks: Early instar larvae feed on the flowers of Polygonum punc-
tatum moving onto the leaves in later instars. As mentioned by Forbes
(1948) and Kimball (1965), known host records are only for Salicaceae,
indicating that Polygonum may be only an incidental host.
[Synchlora frondaria denticularia (Walker)]
Hosts: Literature records: Stillingia (Eurphorbiaceae), Pluchea and
Bidens (Compositae) (Ferguson 1969); Chrysanthemum and Rubus (Rosa-
ceae) (Kimball 1965); Ambrosia artemisiifolia Linnaeus (Stegmaier 1971).
?Polygonum punctatum.
Distribution: North Carolina to Florida, west to Arkansas and Texas;
Cuba, Bahamas, and Bermuda.
Dates: Adults every month in Florida; spring to autumn further north.
Rearings: 1; insufficient data on immature period.
Remarks: Ferguson (1969) noted that most species in the Synchlorini
are flower feeders of Compositae, and this holds true for Synchlora fron-
daria and subspecies, except for the Stillingia and Rubus records. The pupa
found on Polygonum may, consequently, represent only a pupation site
and not a larval host.

ARCTIIDAE
Diacrisia virginica (Fabricius) Yellow Wollybear
Hosts: Polyphagous. New record: Polygonum punctatum. Literature
records: numerous plants including Polygonum sp. and Polygonum con-
volvulus Linnaeus (Tietz 1972).
Distribution: Nova Scotia to Florida, west to British Columbia; Mex-
ico.
Dates: Every month in Florida; May-June and August-September
(Northeast).
Rearings: 1 larva collected on P. punctatum.
Remarks: only 1 larva was collected, indicating that Polygonum is not
often used as a host in Florida.
Estigmene acraea (Drury) Salt Marsh Caterpillar
Hosts: Polyphagous. New record: Polygonum punctatum. Literature
records: Tietz (1972) lists numerous plants, including Polygonum amphi-
bium Linnaeus.
Distribution: Southern Canada to Central America.


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976










Heppner and Habeck: Insects of Polygonum


Dates: Most months in Florida; June and August (Northeast).
Rearings: 1 larva on P. punctatum.

NOCTUIDAE
Acronicta oblinita (Abbot & Smith) Smeared Dagger
Hosts: Polyphagous. Tietz (1972) lists numerous plants, including
Polygonum hydropiper Linnaeus and P. punctatum.
Distribution: Nova Scotia to Manitoba, south to Florida and Texas;
British Columbia.
Dates: Almost year-round in Florida; April-September (Northeast).
Rearings: 1 larva on P. punctatum.
[Anticarsia gemmatilis (Hibner)] Velvetbean Caterpillar
Hosts: Numerous Leguminosae. ?Polygonum punctatum.
Distribution: American tropics north to the northeast U. S.
Dates: Year round in Florida; summer and autumn as adults fly north
from breeding areas.
Rearings: 1; immature period 14 days (late instar to adult).
Remarks: Anticarsia gemmatilis is a crop pest in Florida and nearby
states. The only certain recorded hosts are leguminous plants, indicating
that the larva found on Polygonum punctatum was using the plant only
as a pupation site.
Argyrogramma verruca (Fabricius)
Hosts: New records: Polygonum punctatum and P. setaceum. Litera-
ture records: Sagittaria (Alismataceae) and Calendula (Compsitae) (Kim-
ball 1965).
Distribution: Ontario to Florida, west to Arkansas; also Colorado;
south to the neotropics.
Dates: Adults every month in Florida; late summer in the Northeast.
Rearings: 6; immature period 24-35 days; pupal stadium 6-26 days.
Remarks: Larvae feed diurnally on leaves.
Neoerastria apicosa (Haworth)
Hosts: New record: Polygonum punctatum. Literature record: Poly-
gonum spp. (Tietz 1972).
Distribution: Nova Scotia and Quebec, west to Iowa; south to Florida
and Texas.
Dates: Every month in Florida; May to September in the northeast.
Rearings: 4; immature period 33-43 days; pupal stadium 9-17 days.
Remarks: Larvae are leaf feeders.
Palthis asopialis (Guen6e)
Hosts: New record: Polygonum punctatum. Literature records: Bidens
and Erechtites hieracifolia (Linnaeus) (Compositae); Phaseolus spp. (Le-
guminosae); Zea (Gramineae) (Tietz 1972).
Distribution: New York to Illinois, south to the neotropics.
Dates: Nearly every month in Florida; June to September (Northeast).
Rearings: 1; immature period 14 days (late instar larva).
Remarks: Larvae are leaf feeders, forming a shelter of leaves for pro-
tection during inactive periods of the day. Forbes (1954) noted the same
"cocoon" in larvae reared from heads of Bidens.










The Florida Entomologist


Spodoptera dolichos (Fabricius)
Hosts: New record: Polygonum punctatum. Literature records: numer-
ous weeds and cultivated plants (Kimball 1965).
Distribution: Maine to Illinois and Wisconsin, south to the Antilles.
Dates: Adults almost every month in Florida; June and August to Sep-
tember in the Northeast.
Rearings: 3; immature period 15-21 days; pupal stadium 13 days.
Remarks: Larvae are polyphagous, feeding nocturnally on leaves and
hiding among detritus of plant stems at soil level during the day.
Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) Southern Armyworm
Hosts: Polyphagous. New record: Polygonum punctatum.
Distribution: Southeastern United States, north to Maryland.
Dates: Year round in Florida; spring and autumn further north.
Rearings: 2; immature period 27 days; pupal stadium 13-14 days.
Remarks: Spodoptera eridania is an important economic pest in the
Southeast on many crops. It is not especially common on Polygonum.
The following list includes all Lepidoptera associated with Polygonum
species in Florida. Species preceded by an asterisk have Polygonum host
records (literature records of Tietz 1972), but were not found during the
course of our investigations. The two species in brackets indicate possible
non-Polygonum feeders reared from Polygonum samples, apparently
using the plants only as pupation sites. The arrangement of families fol-
lows phylogenetic relationships; genera are listed alphabetically.
LIST OF Polygonum-AsSOCIATED LEPIDOPTERA IN FLORIDA


Tortricidae
Argyrotaenia ivana (Fernald)
Choristoneura parallel (Robin-
son)
*Epiblema otiosana (Clemens)
Platynota rostrana (Walker)
Sparganothis sulfureana (Clem-
ens)
Coleophoridae
Coleophora n. sp.
Gelechiidae
"Aristotelia" absconditella (Wal-
ker)
Chionodes discoocellella (Cham-
bers)
Pyralidae
Ostriniapenitalis (Grote)
Parapoynx obscuralis (Grote)
Sylepta penumbralis (Grote)
Synclita obliteralis (Walker)
Papilionidae
*Battus philenor (Linnaeus)
Lycaenidae
*Lycaena thoe (Guerin-M6nd-
ville


Geometridae
Anacamptodes defectaria (Gue-
nee)
*Apicia confusaria (Hiibner)
*Euphyia centrostrigaria (Wol-
laston)
*Euphyia multiferata (Walker)
*Haematopsis grataria Fabricius
*Melanolophia canadaria (Gue-
nee)
*Nycterosea obstipata (Fabricius)
*Prochoerodes transversata
(Drury)
[Synchlora frondaria denticularia
(Walker)]
*Timandra amaturaria (Walker)

Sphingidae
*Hyles lineata (Fabricius)

Arctiidae
*Apantesis arge (Drury)
Diacrisia virginica (Fabricius)
Estigmene acraea (Drury)
*Isia isabella (Abbot & Smith)

Noctuidae
Acronicta oblinita (Abbot & Smith)


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976










Heppner and Habeck: Insects of Polygonum


[Anticarsia gemmatilis (Hubner)] Neoerastria apicosa (Haworth)
Argyrogramma verruca (Fabri- Palthis asopialis (Guenee)
cius) *Peridroma saucia (Hibner)
*Dipterygia scabriuscula (Lin- *Plathypena scabra (Fabricius)
naeus) *Simyra henrici (Grote)
*Feltia subterranea (Fabricius) Spodoptera dolichos (Fabricius)
*Heliothis zea (Boddie) Spodoptera eridania (Cramer)
*Lithacodia carneola (Guenee)

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank R. W. Hodges (Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA,
c/o Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.) for determination of the
Gelechiidae, B. Wright (Nova Scotia Museum, Halifax, Canada) for deter-
mination of the Coleophoridae, and J. A. Powell (University of California,
Berkeley) for help with the Tortricidae. Research for this study was funded
largely by a grant from the Florida Department of Natural Resources (D. H.
Habeck, principal investigator) to investigate insect enemies of aquatic
weeds in Florida. The critical reviews of the manuscript provided by H. V.
Weems, Jr. (Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Division of Plant In-
dustry, Gainesville) and C. A. Musgrave (University of Florida) are grate-
fully acknowledged. D. W. Hall, of the University of Florida Herbarium, pro-
vided many plant identifications.

LITERATURE CITED
FERGUSON, D. C. 1969. A revision of the moths of the subfamily Geometri-
nae of America north of Mexico (Insecta, Lepidoptera). Peabody
Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull. 29:1-251. 49 pl.
FORBES, W. T. M. 1923. Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring states.
Primitive forms, microlepidoptera, pyraloids, bombyces. Cornell
Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta., Mem. 68:1-729.
FORBES, W. T. M. 1948. Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring states.
Part II. Geometridae, Sphingidae, Notodontidae, Lymantriidae. Cor-
nell Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta., Mem. 274:1-263.
FORBES, W. T. M. 1954. Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring states.
Part III. Noctuidae. Cornell Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta., Mem. 329:1-433.
FORBES, W. T. M. 1960. Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring states.
Part IV. Agaristidae through Nymphalidae, including butterflies. Cor-
nell Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta., Mem. 371:1-188.
HABECK, D. H. 1974. Caterpillars of Parapoynx in relation to aquatic plants
in Florida. Hyacinth Control J. 12:15-8.
KIMBALL, C. P. 1965. The Lepidoptera of Florida. An annotated checklist.
Fla. Dept. Agr. & Consumer Services, Div. Plant Industry, Arthro-
pods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas 1:1-363. 26 pl.
MUENSCHER, W. C. 1944. Aquatic plants of the United States. Cornell Univ.
Press, Ithaca. 374 p.
MATUURA, A., AND E. MUNROE. 1970. Taxonomy and distribution of the
European corn borer and allied species: genus Ostrinia (Lepidop-
tera: Pyralidae). Mem. Ent. Soc. Can. 71:1-112.
STEGMAIER, C. E., Jr. 1971. Lepidoptera, Diptera, and Hymenoptera associ-
ated with Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Compositae) in Florida. Fla. Ent.
54:259-72.
TIETZ, H. G. 1972. An index to the described life histories, early stages and
hosts of the macrolepidoptera of the continental United States and
Canada. Allyn Mus. Ent., Sarasota. 2 vol.


239













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The Florida Entomologist


A REVIEW OF THE HILARIS SPECIES GROUP OF CRABRO
(HYMENOPTERA: SPHECIDAE)

RICHARD C. MILLER

Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 14850

ABSTRACT

The hilaris species group of Crabro is characterized and a key to males
and females of the 8 component species is presented with illustrations.
Two new species from the eastern United States are described, C. arcadi-
ensis from Florida and C. atlanticus from New Jersey, North Carolina, and
Georgia. The true female of C. cingulatus (Packard) is recognized for the
first time. C. rufibasis (Banks), a Floridian species regarded by some
workers as a color form of C. hilaris Smith, is retained as a good species
based on a review of the recent geological history of Florida, the present
distributions of the 2 species, the apparent lack of secondary intergrada-
tion, and clinal color variation in other crabronine wasps. Secondary inter-
gradation in the crabronine Ectemnius 10-maculatus (Say) in Florida is
described as an example. Distributions by county, including months of
capture, are provided for the 8 species.


Except for a few species in the upper Neotropical Region, the preda-
tory ground-nesting wasps of the genus Crabro are Holarctic in distribu-
tion. The hilaris group is strictly Nearctic and includes 8 species, or about
9% of the known species of Crabro in the world. The group is equivalent
to the taxon Paranothyreus proposed by Kohl (1896) as a name for a sub-
group of the species group Thyreopus of the subgenus Crabro. The first
valid use of the name was by Ashmead (1899), who characterized Parano-
thyreus as a genus (see Krombein 1951). Dr. R. M. Bohart is currently re-
vising the Nearctic species of Crabro and has decided that Paranothyreus
does not deserve formal recognition. I agree with him and therefore recog-
nize the hilaris species group in place of Paranothyreus.
The stimulus for preparing this paper grew out of the need for valid
names to apply to 2 Floridian species whose comparative behavior I in-
vestigated with Dr. F. E. Kurczewski in 1973. One of these species, arcadi-
ensis, is described as new and the other, rufibasis (Banks), is retained with
full species status. Dr. R. M. Bohart (pers. commun.) has suggested that
rufibasis is only a subspecies of hilaris Smith, but I believe the evidence
presented in this paper favors recognition of rufibasis as a distinct species.
Other important parts of this paper are referred to in the abstract.
Specimens of the genus Crabro may be identified using the generic
keys of Pate (1944, as Pemphilis) or Leclercq (1954). Although 95% or
more of the specimens in the hilaris group may be recognized by the red
or yellow clypeus and peculiar carina before the mid coxa (Fig. 7), a more
detailed characterization of the group is as follows: base of mandible, most
of scape, clypeus, and pronotal tubercle yellow or red-orange; at least ter-
gites 1 and 2 marked with yellow or red-orange (if abdomen is marked with
yellow, marks are separated medially on tergite 3); mandible bidentate
apically; supraorbital fovea barely outlined, not firmly impressed; fla-


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976










The Florida Entomologist


gellomere 1 distinctly longer than flagellomere 2; pronotal collar with
a small tooth anterolaterally (Fig. 7); mesopleuron usually with a
chevron-shaped carina before the mid coxa (Fig. 7), consisting of a tubercle
connected to the base of the coxa by a curved transverse carina; propodeum
coarsely areolate dorsally; first abdominal segment more petiolate than
usual, at least 1.4 times as long as apical width viewed dorsally; spaces
between punctures of vertex, mesonotum, and mesopleuron generally
shining, not finely alutaceous at 50 magnification; Female only: median
lobe of :lypeus truncate apically, without a tooth on each side; pygidium
punctuate, not longitudinally rugose; setae of pygidium dense and obscur-
ing sculpture beneath only on apical half or less (Fig. 1-4); Male only:
flagellum with a long or short fringe of hair ventrally, not unusually
widened; foreleg without a tibial shield; fore basitarsus not explanate or
distorted; mid tibia with an apical spur; pygidium absent, tergite 7 convexly
rounded.
Several species of Crabro usually placed in the subgenus Synothy-
reopus Ashmead have females, but not males, similar to those in the hilaris
group. These species have a distinct tubercle before the mid coxa but
have the clypeus black, not yellow. In addition, the supraorbital fovea is
usually well-impressed, the setae of the pygidium are denser basally, and
the spaces between the punctures of the vertex, mesonotum, or mesopleu-
ron are usually finely alutaceous at 50 Four species in this general
group are: lacteipennis Rohwer, peltista Kohl, tenuiglossus Packard and
tumidus (Packard).
I have based my determinations of cingulatus, cognatus Fox, and
snowii Fox on the lectotypes designated by Cresson (1928), and I have
designated a lectotype for rufibasis myself. I consider the types of hilaris,
aequalis Fox, rugicollis (Viereck), and clarconis (Viereck) to be holotypes
because each was apparently described from a single specimen.

KEY TO THE Hilaris SPECIES GROUP OF Crabro
1. Females: antennae 12-segmented; 6 abdominal tergites vis-
ible, the last in the form of a flattened triangular pygidium (Fig.
1-4) ........................... ............................. 2
1'. Males: antennae 13-segmented; 7 abdominal tergites visible,
the last convexly rounded ....... ...... ................................................... 9
2. Upper frons shining and punctate, seldom granulate or longi-
tudinally striate; base of clypeus with a median dark mark
about equal in length to flagellomere 4; fore wing lightly in-
fumated with brown, including marginal cell; upper prepectus
(Fig. 7) shining and punctate, without transverse rugulae;
N. Y., Md., D. C., Va., Ga., Fla., Ill., Minn., Kans., Man., Sask...
.............. ...... ........ .. ............ ............................ . . . ....... sn o w ii F ox
2'. Upper frons less shining, either granulate or longitudinally
striate; if base of clypeus bears a well-developed median dark
mark, then upper frons is distinctly longitudinally striate and
fore wing is hyaline except for brown spot at extreme apex. .............. 3
3. Prepectus entirely (95-100%) yellow or red-orange, including
a narrow border along prepectal carina on anterior face of


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976









Miller: Hilaris spp. Group of Crabro


ANTERIOR POSTERIOR

Crabro spp. 1) C. cingulatus (Packard), pygidium of female, viewed head-
on. Crabro spp. 2) C. hilaris Smith, pygidium of female, viewed head-on.
Crabro spp. 3) C. cingulatus (Packard), same pygidium shown in Fig. 1, til-
ted slightly upward to reveal punctation. Crabro spp. 4) C. hilaris Smith,
same pygidium shown in Fig. 2, tilted slightly upward to reveal punctation.
Crabro spp. 5) C. aequalis Fox, cross section of left fore femur of male one-
fifth way to apex. Crabro spp. 6) C. arcadiensis n. sp., cross section of left
fore femur of male one-fifth way to apex.










The Florida Entomologist


Crabro spp. 7) C. arcadiensis n. sp., lateral view of thorax of female
(prp=prepectus). Crabro spp. 8) C. aequalis Fox, lateral view of anterior
thorax, showing maculation of pronotal collar and tubercle. Crabro spp.
9-10 C. arcadiensis n. sp., lateral view of anterior thorax, showing macula-
tion of pronotal collar and tubercle. Crabro spp. 11) C. cingulatus (Pack-
ard), posterior view of left fore femur of male. Crabro spp. 12) C. atlanticus
n. sp., posterior view of left fore femur of male.


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976


244









Miller: Hilaris spp. Group of Crabro


mesopleuron; fore wing lightly to strongly infumated with
brown, including marginal cell; apparently restricted to eastern
co a sta l sta tes .................. ..................... ....................................................... 4
3'. Prepectus black or wth a yellow mark on dorsal three-fourths
or less; anterior face of mesopleuron without a narrow border
of yellow or red along prepectal carina; if prepectus is marked
with yellow, then fore wing is hyaline except for brown spot at
extreme e apex ............. ...................... .................................... 5
4. Light markings of body bright yellow, red in some specimens
kept too long in cyanide jars; tergites 4-5 with a yellow band
or a pair of yellow lateral marks; flagellomere 1 almost entirely
black; Mass., Conn., N. Y., N. J., N. C., Ga., Fla. (Fig. 13)--...
.............................. .............. ...... .. ... .... .... ......... ...... .. ...... h ila ris S m ith
4'. Light markings of body red-orange, becoming rosier anteri-
orly; tergite 4 usually, and 5 always, entirely black; fla-
gellomere 1 almost entirely red-orange; central and southern
Fla. (Fig. 13)................................ ............ rufibasis (Banks)

5. Fore wing hyaline except for a small brown spot beyond apex
of marginal cell; upper frons distinctly longitudinally striate,
the sculpture reaching the inner margins of the supraorbital
foveae; tip of pygidium ferrugineous beneath dense setae that
obscure the background (Fig. 1; abdomen of atlanticus un-
known but pygidium probably sim ilar)............................... ....................... 6
5'. Fore wing, except base, lightly to strongly infumated with
brown, including marginal cell; upper frons granulate and ob-
scurely longitudinally striate medially, leaving a shining punc-
tate strip along inner margin of supraorbital fovea; tip of pygi-
dium black beneath sparser setae that do not completely ob-
scure the background (Fig. 2); prepectus entirely black ...................... 8
6. Upper prepectus transversely striatopunctate, densely so
along extreme upper margin (50 X); mesoscutum densely
punctate anterolaterally, most of the punctures contiguous
to each other (50 x); tergite 5 with yellow marks often sepa-
rated medially; hind tibia black or dark brown apically, not
brunneus; N. H., Mass., Conn., Minn., Ia., S. D., Kans., Mont.,
Ida., Ut., Colo., M an., Sask., Alta............... ..................... cognatus Fox
6'. Upper prepectus shining and punctate, without transverse
sculpture; mesoscutum more sparsely punctate anteriorly,
with some of the shiny spaces as large as the diameter of a
puncture; tergite 5 with yellow marks united medially to form a
band, at least in cingulatus .......................... ...... ........ .......... 7
7. Prepectus with at least a small yellow spot dorsally, often with
a large mark covering as much as upper three-fourths of
sclerite (exceptions: entirely black in 2 small specimens); hind
tibia brunneus on apical third externally, not dark brown or
black; posterior propodeum usually with 1 strong and 5-7
weak, incomplete transverse rugulae on each side; Mich., Ill.,
S. D., Kans., Okla., Tex., Man. ........................ cingulatus (Packard)










The Florida Entomologist


7'. Prepectus entirely black; hind tibia brownish-black on apical
third externally; posterior propodeum with 3 or 4 strong,
usually complete transverse rugulae on each side; N. J., N. C.,
G a. ............................................... ..... .......... ........... atlanticus n.sp.

8. Pronotal collar and tubercle yellow, the band on the collar
distinctly separated from the mark on the tubercle (Fig. 8);
light markings of body usually bright yellow (exceptions: pos-
terior parts rosy to orange in north central Fla.; beware cyanide
reddened specimens); N. J., N. C., Ga., Fla., Mich., Kans.,
T e x .................... ...... ....... ... ....... ..... .... ... .... .... .. ..... .. a eq u a lis F o x
8'. Pronotal collar and tubercle red-orange, the band on the
collar touching or broadly joined to the mark on the tubercle
(Fig. 9-10); light markings of body red-orange; peninsular Fla.
(Fig. 13) ........................ ............ ... ... ........... arcadiensis n.sp.

9. Mesosternum with a brush of dense white hair; mid basitarsus
flattened, fringed with long hair; fore wing hyaline except for
brown spot at apex beyond marginal cell .............................. ......... 10
9'. Mesosternum without a brush of dense hair; mid basitarsus
nearly cylindrical, not fringed with long hair; fore wing more
strongly infumated with brown, including marginal cell................. 12

10. Fore tibia entirely yellow; fore femur with a dark stripe pos-
teriorly, mid femur with dark stripes dorsally and posteriorly;
upper prepectus dull and densely striatopunctate (50 x);
N. H., Mass., Conn., Minn., Ia., S. D., Kans., Mont., Ida., Ut.,
Colo., M an., Sask., Alta .................................. ................ cognatus Fox
10'. Fore tibia with an inner apical dark spot; fore femur, and usu-
ally mid femur, entirely yellow; upper prepectus punctate and
shining, without or with extremely weak transverse sculpture
................. ........................................................ . . . ................. 1 1

11. Fore femur in posterior view (Fig. 11), strongly flattened ven-
trally on basal four-fifths; ventral brush of hairs on fore femur
strong, increasing in length slightly toward apex; hind coxa
marked with yellow laterally; Mich., Ill., S. D., Kans., Okla.,
Tex., Man. ........................................ cingulatus (Packard)
11'. Fore femur, in posterior view (Fig. 12), weakly flattened ven-
trally on basal half; ventral brush of hairs on fore femur weak,
clearly decreasing in length toward apex; hind coxa dark
laterally; N J., N C., Ga. ................ ............................... atlanticus n.sp.

12. Fore femur anteriorly with a razor-edged longitudinal carina
on basal half; mid basitarsus curved along inner margin, with
an inner apical prolongation; prepectus and underside of
head at base of mandible almost always black; N. Y., Md.,
D. C., Va., Ga., Fla., Ill., Minn., Kans., Man., Sask............. snowii Fox
12'. Fore femur anteriorly either smooth or with a blunt longi-
tudinal ridge on basal fourth; if mid basitarsus is curved, then
underside of head at base of mandible has a bright yellow or
dull red spot .. .... ....... .......... .......... ... .............. .. ............. 13


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976










Miller: Hilaris spp. Group of Crabro


13. Mid basitarsus straight along inner margin, truncate apically,
without an inner prolongation; prepectus entirely red-orange,
or with a yellow mark of variable size (exception: entirely
black in 1 unusually small specimen); underside of head at
base of m andible black ....................................... ... 14
13'. Mid basitarsus curved along inner margin, with a small inner
apical prolongation; prepectus entirely black; underside of
heat at base of mandible with a bright yellow or dull red spot........... 15
14. Light markings of body bright yellow (beware cyanide-
reddened specimens); tergites 5-6 almost always with a pair
of lateral marks; flagellomeres 1-2 entirely, or almost entirely,
dark; Mass., Conn., N. Y., N. J., N. C., Ga., Fla. (Fig. 13) hilaris Smith
14'. Light markings of body, except for mandible and scape, red-
orange; tergites 5-6 entirely black; flagellomeres 1-2, at least
dorsolaterally, marked with orange or yellow; central and
southern Fla. (Fig. 13)................... ........................... rufibasis (Banks)
15. Pronotal collar and tubercle yellow, the band on the collar
distinctly separated from the mark on the tubercle (Fig. 8);
light markings of body usually bright yellow (marks on abdo-
men rosy in 1 specimen from unknown locality in Fla.); fore
femur anteriorly with a blunt longitudinal ridge on basal
fourth, the flattened ventral surface forming an abrupt right
angle with the anterior face (Fig. 5, cross section one-fifth way
to apex); N. J., N. C., Ga., Fla., Mich., Kans., Tex. (Fig. 13)
........................................ .................. .. ........................ a eq ua lis F ox
15'. Ponotal collar and tubercle red-orange, the band on the
collar touching or broadly joined to the mark on the tubercle
(Fig. 9-10); light markings of body red-orange to rosy; fore
femur anteriorly without a blunt ridge on basal fourth, the
juncture of the anterior and ventral surfaces definitely more
rounded (Fig. 6, cross section one-fifth way to apex); peninsular
Fla. (Fig. 13); ............. ......... ....... .................. ........... arcadiensis n.sp.

Crabro aequalis Fox
Crabro aequalis Fox, 1895:164, Female, Ga. (type: ANSP)
Paranothyreus rugicollis Viereck, 1904:241, Male, N. J., Burlington Co.,
Riverton, 8-VII-1901 (type: ANSP)
DIAGNOSIS: both sexes; base of mandible, clypeus, and scape yellow;
clypeus without a median dark mark basally; pronotal collar and tuber-
cle yellow, the band on the collar distinctly separated from the mark on
the tubercle; prepectus black; tergite 3 with a pair of yellow or orange
lateral marks; fore wing, except base, lightly to strongly infumated with
brown, including marginal cell; occipital carina well developed ven-
trally, reaching or almost reaching the hind margin of the hypostomal
carina; punctures of mesoscutum fine, separated anteriorly by numerous
shiny spaces, many as large as the diameter of a puncture; upper prepectus
relatively shiny, with 1-6 weakly raised, often incomplete transverse rugu-
lae (Fig. 7).









248 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976

MALE: spot on underside of head at base of mandible yellow; fore tibia
with a median black spot on apical third internally; mid femur and tibia
mostly bright yellow; tergite 2 with a pair of lateral marks, not a band; ter-
gite 4 marked with yellow or rosy-yellow; mesosternum and venter of fore
femur without long hair; fore femur anteriorly with a blunt longitudinal
ridge on basal fourth; fore femur, viewed posteriorly, distinctly flattened
ventrally on basal half or slightly less; mid basitarsus curved along inner
margin, with a small inner apical prolongation.
FEMALE: metanotum often spotted with yellow; mid femur largely black
or orange, in all cases contrasting strongly with yellow of mid tibia; upper
frons granulate and obscurely longitudinally striate medially, leaving a
shining punctate strip about equal to width of supraorbital fovea along
inner margin of the latter; pygidium as in hilaris (Fig. 2,4), the setae not so
dense apically that they obscure the background completely, and the
punctures more widely spaced on the apical third than in cingulatus.
DISCUSSION: This species is most closely related to the Floridian arcad-
iensis and may be envisioned as the parent stock of the latter. The differ-
ences between the 2 species, particularly in the male fore femora and the
pattern of maculation, are discussed under arcadiensis. The light markings
of the body are usually yellow in aequalis, but the southernmost specimens
yet collected (Alachua Co. and Clay Co., Fla.) have the hind legs and ab-
dominal marks rosy or red-orange. Based on the few records currently
available, the Florida population of aequalis is nearly contiguous to that
of arcadiensis (Fig. 13).
DISTRIBUTION (including months of capture): NEW JERSEY, Burlington
Co., VII-VIII, Ocean Co., VI-VII, Camden Co., VI: NORTH CAROLINA, Dare
Co., V-VII, Wayne Co., V. Wake Co., V-VI; GEORGIA, ?; Florida, Santa
Rosa Co., V. Liberty Co., V. Gadsden Co., V. Alachua Co., ?, Clay Co., V-
VI; Michigan, Washtenaw Co., VII; Kansas, Pottawatomie Co., VI-VII,
Reno Co., VI; Texas, Brazos Co., IV.


Crabro arcadiensis Miller, NEW SPECIES
DIAGNOSIS: both sexes; base of mandible, clypeus, and scape rosy or
tinged with pink; clypeus without a median dark mark basally; pronotal
collar and tubercle red-orange, the band on the collar touching or broadly
joined to the mark on the tubercle; prepectus black; tergite 3 usually black
or with several small orange spots laterally; fore wing, occipital carina,
punctures of mesoscutum, and upper prepectus as in aequalis.
MALE: spot on underside of head at base of mandible dull red; fore
tibia without a median black spot on apical third internally, but sometimes
with a small dark lateral mark at base of apical spur; mid femur and tibia
red-orange; tergite 2 with a broad orange band that usually reaches the
anterior margin medially; tergite 4 entirely black; mesosternum and venter
of fore femur without long hair; fore femur anteriorly without a blunt longi-
tudinal ridge on basal fourth; fore femur, viewed posteriorly, indistinctly
to distinctly flattened ventrally on basal third; mid basistarsus as in ae-
qualis.
FEMALE: metanotum marked with red; mid femur red-orange dorsally,
only a shade darker than light orange of mid tibia; tergites 4-5 black; upper
frons and pygidium as in aequalis.










Miller: Hilaris spp. Group of Crabro


HOLOTYPE MALE: FLORIDA, Highlands County, Archbold Biological
Station, 26-III-1972, F. E. Kurczewski and R. C. Miller (type: Cornell).
Length: 7.5 mm.
Coloration: shining black, the following red-orange: mandible except
apical fourth, clypeus except narrow apical margin, scape, pedicel, base
and apex of flagellomere 1, large spot on underside of head at base of
mandible, pronotal collar and tubercle, tegula and axillary sclerites (some-
what yellower), axillae, scutellum, metanotum, small mark above mid coxa,
extreme apex of propodeum, legs except bases of coxae, first segment of
abdomen (sternite a little darker basally), tergite 2 except for posterior fifth
and a pair of dark spots anterolaterally on basal fourth, a pair of elongate
well-separated lateral marks on tergite 3, sternite 2 except for apical mar-
gin and a pair of dark oval patches laterally, sternites 6-7 apically, and
apex of subgenital plate. Apical fourth of mandible red, apical margins of
sternites 2-5 testaceous. Fore wing rather strongly infumated with brown
except on basal fourth, veins and stigma brown.
Head: shining, with dense appressed silvery hair on clypeus and along
inner margins of eyes ventrally; hair white, except dark brown on central
vertex and upper temples, erect on upper frons and vertex, appressed
on temples except ventrally; hair on temples ventrally longer than else-
where and suberect; mandible bidentate apically, the lower tooth shorter;
clypeus with a weak ridge medially, the apical margin of the median lobe
truncate and bordered closely on each side by an obtuse tooth; scapal
basin faintly alutaceous, impunctate except for dorsal half where sparse
silvery hairs arise; upper frons bisected by a distinct longitudinal im-
pression below median ocellus, finely and sparsely punctate except medi-
ally where the punctures are coarser and denser, separated by the di-
ameter of a puncture or less; upper frons with faint, interrupted longi-
tudinal striae before anterior ocellus, the sculpture becoming weaker and
more alutaceous before reaching inner margins of supraorbital foveae;
vertex finely punctate; temples with minute rather dense punctures dor-
sally and larger, sparser punctures ventrally; supraorbital fovea indis-
tinctly outlined, not impressed, minutely punctate, nearly twice as long as
diameter of posterior ocellus; ocelli in an isosceles triangle of proportions
9:9:16; ocellocular distance about 0.90 times postocellar distance; occipi-
tal carina well-developed ventrally, passing narrowly behind and nearly
touching posterior margin of hypostomal carina; flagellum slightly clavate,
flagellomeres unmodified, nearly cylindrical and fringed ventrally with hair;
longest hair below flagellomere 1 only slightly longer than width of seg-
ment; flagellomere 1, viewed dorsally, about 1.4 times length of flagello-
mere 2.
Thorax: shining, pronotal collar ecarinate, with a longitudinal impres-
sion medially and a prominent tooth anterolaterally; pronotal tubercle
ecarinate, well-rounded; mesosternum and mesopleuron with short white
hair, that on mesopleuron sparser and a little shorter; hair on mesoscutum
very dark and much denser than on mesopleuron; punctures of mesos-
cutum fine, rather dense, separated anterolaterally by 0-2 times the di-
ameter of a puncture; mesoscutum shining anteriorly between the punc-
tures, not dull; mesoscutum apparently without longitudinal rugulae along
posterior margin; scutellum more sparsely punctate than mesoscutum, the
posterior margin with about 12 weak longitudinal rugulae, the anterior
margin bordered by a deep groove containing 7 foveoles; metanotum im-
punctate, with 7 distinct longitudinal rugulae, bordered anteriorly by a
deep groove containing about 8 foveoles; mesopleuron bordered anteri-
orly by an angulate prepectal carina which terminates ventrally at junc-


249










The Florida Entomologist


ture with foveolate episternal sulcus; prepectal carina margined posteri-
orly by distinct foveoles; prepectus with 3 weak transverse rugulae dor-
sally, finely punctate ventrally but more coarsely and densely punctate
on upper fifth; oblique groove at posterior margin of mesopleuron foveo-
late; mesopleuron more finely and sparsely punctate than mesoscutum;
mid coxa preceded by a strong chevron-shaped carina (Fig. 7); median longi-
tudinal carina of mesosternum with about 6 prominent transverse rugulae
on each side; metapleuron indistinctly punctate, ventrally with some 7
firm transverse rugulae, dorsally with about 4 strong oblique rugulae;
metapleuron bordered posteriorly by strongly foveolate groove; propo-
deum shining, strongly areolate dorsally, bisected by a deep, firmly-
margined longitudinal groove which is divided into 3 rectangular areoles
by 2 transverse carinules; dorsal area with 7 quadrangular areoles on each
side, separated from posterior and lateral faces by strong carinae; areoles
shining, essentially impunctate, weakly to moderately granulate or ru-
gose; posterior propodeum with a deep median cuneate impression bordered
on each side by a shining indistinctly punctate rectangular area that is di-
vided into 4 rectangular areoles by 3 strong transverse rugulae; side of pro-
podeum alutaceous anteromedially, minutely punctate posteriorly,
bordered dorsally, ventrally, and posteriorly by firm transverse rugulae,
separated from dorsal and posterior faces of propodeum by strong carinae.
Legs: fore femur slender, weakly flattened ventrally on basal third,
about 2.5 times as long as maximum width in ventral view, with only short,
sparse, inconspicuous hair; base of fore femur gently rounded anteriorly,
without a short longitudinal ridge separating the anterior and ventral sur-
faces; fore basitarsus nearly cylindrical, only slightly flattened; mid basi-
tarsus longer than in snowii, curved along inner margin and somewhat pro-
longed apically on inner side; maximum width of smaller apical spur of
hind tibia equal to width of basitarsus, excluding fringe of hairs on latter;
tibiae spinose laterally.
Wings: cubital vein of forewing joins radial vein slightly before middle
of marginal cell.
Abdomen: shining, especially anteriorly; hair white on orange areas,
mostly dark on black areas, suberect on tergites 1-3, increasingly more
appressed and silvery on tergites 4-7; tergite 1 minutely, sparsely punc-
tate, not finely alutaceous at 50 x; tergites 2-6 more densely punctate,
finely alutaceous transversely; tergites 5-7 increasingly more coarsely
punctate, the punctures on 7 very coarse and nearly contiguous; tergite
7 convex, without a pygidial area, broadly rounded apically; sternite 7
strongly emarginate apically, the others truncate or obscurely emar-
ginate; sternites very sparsely haired, sternite 3 more densely so than the
others, 5 and 6 nearly bare; sternite 2 with about 6 prominent erect bristles
apically, sternite 3 with about 8, sternites 4-6 with 1 or 2 on each side; ster-
nites 2-6 finely alutaceous.
ALLOTYPE FEMALE: FLORIDA, Desoto Co., Arcadia, 29-III-1972, F. E.
Kurczewski and R. C. Miller (Cornell).
Coloration, head, thorax, legs, wings, and abdomen same as in male
except as follows:
Length: 10.5 mm.
Coloration: underside of head at base of mandible without an orange
spot, tergite 3 entirely black, sternites 3-4 with weak orange marks apically.
Head: clypeus with a narrow, polished triangular bevel anteromedially;
apical margin of median lobe nearly truncate, slightly sinuate laterally but
without an obtuse tooth on each side; longitudinal sculpture of upper
frons does not reach inner margins of supraorbital foveae; ocelli in an isos-
celes triangle of proportions 10:10:16; flagellum not fringed with hair ven-
trally.


Vol. 59, No, 3, 1976










Miller: Hilaris spp. Group of Crabro


Thorax: metanotum finely punctate, with about 12 longitudinal
rugulae; rectangular area to each side of median impression of posterior
propodeum divided into 5 rectangular areoles by 4 strong transverse
rugulae.
Legs: fore femur more robust, not flattened below on basal third, more
densely haired ventrally; mid basitarsus straight, not modified; smaller
apical spur of hind tibia much narrower, little more than half width of basi-
tarsus.
Abdomen: hair on orange areas more golden; tergite 6 with a flat, tri-
gonal pygidial area margined by a carina, almost exactly as in hilaris (Fig.
2,4); apical fourth of pygidium black, not ferrugineous, the punctures only
partly obscured by suberect setae; sternites 2 and 6 more densely haired
than the others; sternites 2-4 with small scattered punctures and a weak
subapical transverse row of large punctures bearing long white bristles;
sternites 4-5 with about 4 prominent bristles on each side.
PARATYPES: (all from Florida; Fig. 13), 4 males, 5 females, Putnam Co.,
Welaka, 18-20-IV, 1-4-V-1955, H. E. and M. A. Evans; 1 female, Orange
Co., Orlando, 8-IV-1954, H. E. Evans; 7 females, DeSoto Co., Arcadia, 30-
III-1967, E. J. Kurczewski, 6-IV-1971, 30-III, 1-IV-1972, F. E. Kurczewski
and R. C. Miller, 28-III, 9, 10-IV-1973, R. C. M.; 1 female, Highlands Co.,
Lake Placid, 1-IV-1954, H. E. Evans, 1 female, Highlands Hammock St.
Pk., 14-IV-1968, H. V. Weems Jr., 5 males, 36 females, Archbold Biological
Sta., 11-V-1961, 24-IV-1964, H. E. and M. A. Evans, 14-IV-1963, J. G. and
B. L. Rozen, 25-IV-1963, K. V. Krombein, 13-IV-1966, R. W. Dawson, 27,
28, 31-III, 1, 2-IV-1967, E. J. K., 30-31-VI, 1-2-IV-1970, F. E. K., 5-IV-1971,
15, 16, 18, 29-III, 6, 7, 12, 14, 15, 19, 20-IV-1973, F. E. K. and R. C. M.; 1
male, Dade Co., Biscayne Bay (AMNH, ANSP, CESF, CNC, CU, FSCA, KVK,
MCZ, NCS, UCD, UG, UK, USNM; see acknowledgments).
DIscussIoN: I have not found any structural differences between fe-
males of arcadiensis and aequalis, but the males have distinctly different
fore femora. Species separated by differences in the male fore legs are
commonplace in the Crabroninae. The nearly contiguous populations of
the 2 species in Florida (Fig. 13) would be somewhat puzzling if one was
not familiar with the biogeography of Florida. Geologists are reasonably
certain Florida was separated from the mainland as an island or group of
islands during several interglacial periods of the Pleistocene. This infor-
mation is discussed in greater detail under rufibasis where it is of critical
importance in the decision to retain the latter as a species rather than as
a race or subspecies of the more northern hilaris.
Such historical information is also helpful in understanding color varia-
tion in aequalis in northern Florida. Aequalis is 1 of a group of crabronines
in which many of the yellow markings become rosy or red-orange in
peninsular Florida, whereas hilaris is 1 of a much smaller group that re-
tain their yellow or white marks. I suggest that as aequalis has reinvaded
northern Florida in recent times, it has undergone local changes in colora-
tion similar to those which must have occurred earlier when arcadiensis
was just a far-southern population of aequalis. The southernmost females
of aequalis yet collected (Gainesville, Alachua Co. and Gold Head
Branch St. Pk., Clay Co.) have rosy or red-orange marks on the abdomen
and hind legs rather than the yellow marks more typical of the species.
Nevertheless, both females still have the pronotal collar and tubercle
yellow, not red-orange as in arcadiensis, and the band on the collar is dis-
tinctly separated from the mark on the tubercle (Fig. 8), not narrowly or










The Florida Entomologist


B= AEQUALIS

S=ARCADIENSIS


: =HILARIS . oo P; ,,^'

*= RUFIBASIS /


13. Distribution of Crabro aequalis Fox and C. arcadiensis n. sp. in
Florida, and of C. hilaris Smith and C. rufibasis (Banks) in southern Georgia
and Florida.
broadly joined as in arcadiensis (Fig. 9-10). These females are simply color
variants at the southern edge of the range of aequalis and should not be
described as subspecies.
The examination of the shapes of the fore femora of the males may re-
quire better equipment and lighting than sphecid workers normally use. I
would not attempt to observe the differences without a mechanical insect
holder and a microscope with good resolution at 50-100 X. The base of the
fore femur in aequalis has a short, rather blunt longitudinal ridge where the
anterior face meets the ventral surface. The base of the fore femur in arcadi-
ensis is much more rounded in the same region. The difference is most easily
perceived by imagining a cross section of the fore femur one-fifth of the way
to the apex (Fig. 5-6). The femur is also more strongly flattened ventrally
in aequalis than in arcadiensis.
The only male of aequalis I have seen from Florida (unknown lo-
cality) has the fore leg typical of the species but lacks lateral marks on
tergite 5. The yellow marks on the abdomen are slightly rosy. Both of the
females referred to earlier also lack the usual lateral marks on tergite
5, and the specimen from Clay Co. even lacks lateral marks on tergite 4.
This trend is not particularly surprising because the lateral marks on ter-
gite 5 are already very weak in 4 females from the Florida panhandle. The
reduction or loss of the apical-most marks on the abdomen also occurs in


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976










Miller: Hilaris spp. Group of Crabro


other northern crabronines which range far into Florida, and the matter is
discussed again under rufibasis. Although the female from Clay Co. looks
remarkably like arcadiensis, it shows 1 more sign of its true relationship
by the yellow marks at the apex of sternites 2 and 3. Such yellow marks
are sometimes absent in aequalis but are never present in arcadiensis. I am
confident that trapping of progeny in emergence cages, such as those de-
scribed in the following article by Miller and Kurczewski, will confirm
that aequalis females from northern Florida, regardless of their color,
produce males with fore femora typical of aequalis.

Crabro atlanticus Miller, NEW SPECIES
DIAGNOSIS: both sexes; prepectus black; hind tibia black apically; seg-
ments 2-5 of hind tarsus dark brown, darker than basitarsus; fore wing hy-
aline except for brown spot at extreme apex; upper frons distinctly longi-
tudinally striate, the sculpture reaching the inner margins of the supraorbi-
tal foveae; occipital carina clearly ends before reaching hypostomal
carina; punctures of mesoscutum rather coarse, moderately dense an-
teriorly but still separated by shiny spaces as large as the diameter of a
puncture; upper prepectus shining and punctate, without transverse sculp-
ture.
MALE: fore femur, and usually mid femur, entirely yellow; fore tibia
with an inner apical dark spot; hind coxa dark laterally; tergite 5 with
elongate lateral marks that are narrowly separated medially; tergite 6
with a pair of yellow lateral marks; flagellum flattened ventrally; hair
beneath flagellomere 1 at least 1.5-2.0 times width of flagellomere; meso-
sternum with a brush of dense white hair; fore femur, in posterior view (Fig.
12), weakly flattened ventrally on basal half; ventral brush of hairs on
fore femur weak, much shorter than hair on mesosternum at a point four-
fifths way to apex; fore femur, viewed ventrally, about 2.7 times as long
as maximum width; mid basitarsus straight and flattened, fringed with hair
as long as width of segment.
FEMALE: base of clypeus with a rectangular median dark mark about
equal in length to penultimate flagellomere; metanotum black; pos-
terior propodeum with 3 or 4 strong transverse rugulae on each side.
HOLOTYPE MALE: NEW JERSEY, Ocean Co., Lahaway, 30-V-1916 (type:
MCZ).
Length: 7.9 mm.
Coloration: shining black, the following yellow: mandible except
apical fifth, clypeus except narrow apical margin, scape, pedicel below,
pronotal collar except medially and laterally, tubercle, spot on tegula,
most of axillary sclerites, fore leg except coxa below and a dark spot on
inner surface of tibia near apex, mid leg except for most of coxa, hind tro-
chanter except dorsally, small forked mark at base of hind femur anteri-
orly, hind tibia on basal half and with a broad inner stripe attaining apex,
hind basitarsus,a pair of elongate lateral marks on tergite 1 that are nar-
rowly separated medially, a pair of broader lateral marks on tergites 2-3,
a pair of elongate lateral marks narrowly separated medially on tergites
4-5, a pair of small broadly separated marks on tergite 6, and a pair of sub-
apical lateral spots on sternites 2-3, those on 2 much larger and obscurely
joined anteriorly. Apical fourth of mandible red, underside of head at base
of mandible with a small ferrugineous spot, flagellum deep ferrugineous
below, tegula light brown except for anterior spot, dark markings of legs









254 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976

tinged with brown, apical margins of tergites 1-3 ferrugineous, and much of
sternites 1-3 deep ferrugineous. Wings hyaline except for small brown spot
at apex of fore wing beyond end of marginal cell, veins and stigma light
brown.
Head: weakly shining, with dense appressed silvery hair on clypeus and
along inner margins of eyes ventrally; hair white, erect on upper frons and
vertex, somewhat more appressed on temples except posteroventrally;
hair on upper frons and extreme posterior margin of vertex very long,
slightly longer than conspicuous hair on temples posteroventrally; man-
dible bidentate apically, the lower tooth shorter; clypeus with a weak
ridge medially, the apical margin of the median lobe truncate and bordered
closely on each side by an obtuse tooth; scapal basin impunctate, slightly
roughened; upper frons bisected by a distinct longitudinal impression be-
low median ocellus, with firm longitudinal striae that obscure any punc-
tation; striae reach inner margins of supraorbital foveae; vertex indis-
tinctly punctate, with interrupted transverse striae; temples shallowly
punctate ventrally, faintly alutaceous reticulatee) dorsally between
irregular fine rugulae; supraorbital fovea indistinctly outlined, not im-
pressed, nearly twice as long as diameter of posterior ocellus; ocelli in an
isosceles triangle of proportions 1:1:2; ocellocular distance about 0.95
times postocellar distance; occipital carina clearly ends before reaching
hind margin of hypostomal carina; flagellum slightly clavate, the fla-
gellomeres flattened ventrally and fringed with hair; longest hair below
flagellomere 1 at least twice dorsoventral width of segment; flagello-
mere 1, viewed dorsally, about 1.4 times length of flagellomere 2.
Thorax: shining; pronotal collar ecarinate, with a longitudinal im-
pression medially and a small tooth anterolaterally; pronotal tubercle
ecarinate, well-rounded; mesosternum with a dense brush of long white
hair; hair on mesopleuron long and erect but much sparser than on meso-
sternum; hair on mesoscutum and scutellum about as long as that on
mesopleuron, denser than on the latter but sparser than on the mesoster-
num; punctures of mesoscutum moderately large, rather coarse and tend-
ing to align in oblique rows medially; punctures moderately dense antero-
laterally, but separated by conspicuous shiny spaces, some as wide as the
diameter of a puncture; mesoscutum with numerous weak longitudinal
rugulae along posterior margin; scutellum more sparsely punctate than
mesoscutum, the posterior margin with a few indistinct longitudinal rugu-
lae, the anterior margin bordered by a deep groove containing 7 foveoles;
metanotum not distinctly punctate, with about 15 irregular longitudinal
rugulae, bordered anteriorly by a deep groove containing about 7 foveo-
les; mesopleuron bordered anteriorly by an angulate prepectal carina that
terminates ventrally at juncture with foveolate episternal sulcus; prepec-
tus shining and sparsely punctuate, without transverse sculpture; oblique
groove at posterior margin of mesopleuron foveolate; mesopleuron more
finely and sparsely punctate than mesoscutum; mid coxa preceded by a
strong chevron-shaped carina (Fig. 7); median longitudinal carina of meso-
sternum with several weak transverse rugulae on each side anteriorly, ob-
scured by hair; metapleuron impunctate, crossed by about 15 weak, inter-
rupted transverse rugulae, bordered posteriorly by a foveolate groove;
propodeum shining, strongly areolate dorsally, bisected by a deep, firmly
margined longitudinal groove which is divided into 3 sections by 2 trans-
verse carinules; dorsal area with 7 or 8 quadrangular and triangular
areoles on each side, separated from posterior and lateral faces of propo-
deum by strong carinae; areoles shining, impunctate, weakly to moderately
rugose; posterior propodeum with a deep median cuneate impression bor-
dered on each side by a shining weakly granulate rectangular area crossed
by 3 transverse rugulae; side of propodeum impunctate, very finely striate,









Miller: Hilaris spp. Group of Crabro


bordered dorsally, ventrally, and posteriorly by short transverse rugulae,
separated from posterior propodeum by a strong carina.
Legs: fore femur slender, weakly flattened ventrally on basal half,
about 3.1 times as long as maximum width in ventral view, with a weak
brush of hairs ventrally on basal two-thirds; hair decreases in length to-
ward apex and is much shorter than hair on mesosternum except at extreme
base of femur; fore basitarsus distinctly flattened, especially externally,
with sinuous anterior margin and slightly curved posterior margin; mid
basitarsus flattened, with a conspicuous ventral and lateral brush of hairs
longer than width of tarsus; apical spurs of hind tibia both narrower than
width of basitarsus; tibiae spinose laterally.
Wings: cubital vein of fore wing joins radial vein slightly but distinctly
before middle of marginal cell.
Abdomen: shining, especially anteriorly; hair white on yellow areas,
dark brown on black areas, suberect on tergite 1, more appressed and
shorter on tergites 2-4; tergites 5-7 with longer white to golden hair; tergite
1 minutely, sparsely punctate, not finely alutaceous at 50 x; tergites 2-6
increasingly more densely and firmly punctate, finely transversely alu-
taceous; tergite 7 more densely and coarsely punctate than preceding ter-
gites, without a pygidial area, broadly rounded apically; sternites 2, 3, and
6 very weakly emarginate medioapically; sternite 7 strongly emarginate
apically; sternites very sparsely haired, sternite 3 more densely so than
the others, 5-7 nearly bare; sternites 2-3 with 2 apical lateral bristles on
each side, sternites 4-6 with 1 on each side; sternites 2-6 finely alutaceous.
ALLOTYPE FEMALE: NEW JERSEY, Cape May Co., South Seaville, 25-
V-1923, J. C. Bradley (Cornell).
Coloration, head, thorax, legs, and wings as in male except as follows:
Length: about 8 mm (abdomen missing).
Coloration: base of clypeus with a rectangular median dark mark about
equal in length to penultimate flagellomere; flagellum not lighter ven-
trally; underside of head at base of mandible without a ferrugineous spot;
fore femur with a ventrally-prolonged yellow mark covering apical third
dorsally and apical two-thirds ventrally; fore tibia yellow except for
dark stripe on inner face; fore and mid basitarsi entirely yellow, the fol-
lowing tarsal segments testaceous; mid femur yellow on apical third;
mid tibia with a short dark stripe internally; hind femur entirely brownish-
black; hind tibia yellow on basal half to two-thirds and with a broad
inner stripe attaining apex; hind basitarsus yellow except for apical fifth
which is brown; tarsal segments 2-4 brown, the fifth testaceous.
Head: apical margin of median lobe of clypeus nearly truncate,
slightly sinuate laterally but without an obtuse tooth on each side; fla-
gellomeres unmodified, not fringed with hair ventrally.
Thorax: hair on mesosternum much sparser and shorter; hair on meso-
scutum shorter than that on mesopleuron and denser than that on meso-
pleuron and mesosternum; mesoscutum without longitudinal rugulae
along posterior margin; metanotum punctate, with about 11 longitudinal
rugulae, several of which nearly attain the anterior margin; foveoles
along posterior margin of prepectal carina minute medially but still pre-
sent; short transverse rugulae along median longitudinal carina of meso-
sternum about 8 in number, not obscured by hair; side of propodeum faintly
alutaceous anteriorly, without distinct striae and with fewer transverse
rugulae.
Legs: fore femur more robust, not flattened ventrally on basal half,
with shorter hair; fore and mid basitarsi nearly cylindrical, not fringed with
long hair.
PARATYPES: 4 Males, NEW JERSEY, Ocean Co., Lahaway, 30-V-1916;









The Florida Entomologist


2 males, NORTH CAROLINA, Moore Co., Southern Pines, 4-7-IV-1910, A. H.
Manee; 1 male, GEORGIA, Dougherty Co., Albany, 30-III-1938, P. W. Fattig
(CU, MCZ, USNM).
DISCUSSION: One male (Ga.) differs from the others in having a yellow
mark on the scutellum, while a second male (N. J.) is unusual in having
2 short brown stripes on the mid femur. Crabro atlanticus is most closely
related to the western cingulatus. Although males of the 2 species are
easily distinguished by the characters in the key, the females are remarkably
alike. The female of atlanticus can be recognized, for the moment, by its en-
tirely black prepectus and 3 or 4 strong transverse rugulae on the posterior
propodeum. Females of cingulatus almost always have the prepectus
marked with yellow, and the posterior propodeum with 1 strong and 5-7
weak transverse rugulae. Also, the female of atlanticus has the hind tibia
brownish-black apically, not brunneus as in cingulatus.


Crabro cingulatus (Packard)
Thyreopus cingulatus Packard, 1867:366, male (female misdetermined),
Ill. (lectotype: ANSP)
Crabro clarconis Viereck, 1906:213, female, Kans., Clark Co., June, 1962
ft. (type: Snow Entomological Museum, UK)
DIAGNOSIS: both sexes; clypeus usually entirely yellow basally,
rarely with a short median dark mark; segments 2-5 of hind tarsus testa-
ceous or light brown, usually not much darker than basitarsus; fore wing,
upper frons, occipital carina, mesocutum, and upper prepectus as in atlanti-
cus.
MALE: coloration of prepectus, fore and mid femora, and fore tibia as
in atlanticus; hind coxa marked with yellow laterally; tergite 5 with elon-
gate lateral marks that are usually narrowly united medially; tergite 6,
flagellum, flagellomere 1, and mesosternum as in atlanticus; fore femur,
viewed posteriorly (Fig. 11), strongly flattened ventrally on basal four-
fifths; ventral brush of hairs on fore femur strong, as long or longer than
hair on mesosternum at a point four-fifths way to apex; fore femur, viewed
ventrally, about 2.1 times as long as maximum width; mid basitarsus as
in atlanticus.
FEMALE: metanotum marked with yellow; prepectus usually marked
with yellow dorsally, the mark sometimes covering as much as upper three-
fourths of sclerite; hind tibia brunneus on apical third; yellow lateral
marks on tergites 4-5 united medially to form bands; posterior propodeum
usually with 1 strong and 5-7 weak, incomplete transverse rugulae on each
side; setae of pygidium (Fig. 1) very dense on apical third, completely ob-
scuring background; punctures of pygidium (Fig. 3) rather dense on apical
third, tending to coalesce more than in hilaris; base of pygidium often alu-
taceous (finely reticulate) between the punctures (Fig. 3).
DISCUSSION: Packard (1867:367) and Fox (1895:178) were correct in sus-
pecting that the female described as cingulatus was not the opposite sex of
the male. It proved to be a female of Crabo argus, a species that does not
even belong to the hilaris group. The female of argus may be distinguished
as follows: mesopleuron often with a short, straight transverse carina be-
fore the mid coxa but lacking a tubercle; median lobe of clypeus broadly,
weakly emarginate apically, not perfectly truncate; upper frons not longi-


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976









Miller: Hilaris spp. Group of Crabro


tudinally striate; flagellomere 1 equal to or slightly shorter than flagel-
lomere 2; pygidium longitudinally rugose, without separated punctures.
I can not make any sense of the paragraph in which Fox (1895:180) states
that Packard (1867) confused hilaris with cingulatus. The existing type series
of cingulatus consists only of 2 specimens from Illinois, the lectotype
male designated by Cresson (1928) and the misdetermined female of argus.
As stated in the abstract, this is the first paper in which the true female
of cingulatus is recognized. Females of this species have been misidentified
as hilaris and cognatus by previous workers. Cingulatus, like hilaris, differs
from cognatus in having the upper prepectus punctate and shining, not
transversely striatopunctate. Also, both differ from cognatus in having
small but distinct foveoles medially along the anterior margin of the pre-
pectus. The female of cingulatus differs from hilaris in many ways: if a yel-
low spot is present on the prepectus, it does not cover the ventral fifth; the
anterior face of the mesopleuron is not narrowly margined with yellow
along the prepectal carina; the setae of the pygidium are much denser api-
cally, obscuring the background (Fig. 1), and the punctures tend to coalesce
more on the apical third (Fig. 3); the fore wing is essentially hyaline ex-
cept for a small brown spot at the extreme apex; the longitudinal striae
of the upper frons are much more distinct, the area appearing more granu-
late in hilaris; and the mesoscutum is usually less densely punctate
anterolaterally, with some distinct shiny spaces between the punctures. For
differences between cingulatus and its closest relative, atlanticus, see the
discussion under the latter species.
DISTRIBUTION (including months of capture): MICHIGAN, Berrien Co.,
VII; ILLINOIS, Cook Co., VII, Mason Co., ?; S. D., Union Co., VI; KANSAS,
Clark Co., VI, Douglas Co., VI, Hamilton Co., VI, Ottawa Co., IV, Pawnee
Co., VI, Pottawatomie Co., V, Riley Co., VI, Sedgwick Co., VI, Stafford Co.,
VIII; OKLAHOMA, Canadian Co., V; TEXAS, Bastrop Co., XI, Brazos Co.,
V, Brewster Co., IV, Cameron Co., III, Dallas Co., ?, Hidalgo Co., X, Lee
Co., III-IV, Starr Co., IV, Travis Co., ?, Victoria Co., IV, Williamson Co.,
IV. CANADA: MANITOBA, Onah, VII, Aweme, VII, IX.


Crabro cognatus Fox
Crabro cognatus Fox, 1895:178, Female, Mont. (lectotype: ANSP)
DIAGNOSIS: both sexes; clypeus entirely yellow basally, or with an
extremely small median dark mark; prepectus black, rarely with a small
yellow spot dorsally in females; hind tibia, hind tarsus, fore wing, and oc-
cipital carina as in atlanticus; punctures of mesoscutum very dense antero-
laterally, generally contiguous to each other; upper prepectus trans-
versely striatopunctate, densely so along extreme upper margin.
MALE: fore femur with a dark stripe posteriorly, mid femur with dark
stripes dorsally and posteriorly; fore tibia entirely yellow; hind coxa dark
laterally, yellow ventrally; tergite 5 without yellow marks or with
lateral marks that are separated medially; tergite 6 usually black, rarely
spotted with yellow; flagellum, flagellomere 1, and mesosternum as in
atlanticus; fore femur, viewed posteriorly, very robust and broadly arched
ventrally, with sparse moderately long hair at base; mid basitarsus as in
atlanticus.
FEMALE: metanotum marked with yellow; lateral marks on tergites









258 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976

4-5 often separated medially; posterior propodeum as in cingulatus, except
the weak rugulae are often oblique rather than transverse; setae, punctures,
and base of pygidium as in cingulatus.
DISCUSSION: Cognatus is most closely related to atlanticus and cingu-
latus. Many females identified by previous workers as cognatus proved to
be cingulatus and, to a lesser extent, snowii and atlanticus. Fortunately,
cognatus may be easily separated from the others by its transversely stri-
atopunctate upper prepectus. C. snowii, atlanticus, and cingulatus have the
upper prepectus punctate and shining, free of transverse sculpture. C. cog-
natus is perhaps most similar to atlanticus, but differs in having the meso-
scutum and mesopleuron much more densely punctate. Also, cognatus has
numerous weak oblique rugulae on the posterior propodeum whereas at-
lanticus has 3 or 4 strong transverse rugulae. The prepectus is black or has
a minute yellow spot dorsally in cognatus, whereas in cingulatus it almost
always has a medium to large spot dorsally. And the hind tibia is black
apically in cognatus, not brunneus as in cingulatus, cognatus, atlanticus,
and cingulatus all differ from snowii in having the upper frons longitu-
dinally striate and the fore wing nearly hyaline except for a small brown
spot at the extreme apex.
DISTRIBUTION (including months of capture): NEW HAMPSHIRE, Rock-
ingham Co., VIII; MASSACHUSETTS, Nantucket, VIII; CONNECTICUT,
Middlesex Co., VIII; MINNESOTA, Polk Co., ?; IOWA, Woodbury Co., ?;
SOUTH DAKOTA, Walworth Co., VIII, Brown Co., VIII, Butte Co., VII,
Harding Co., VIII; KANSAS, Clark Co., VIII, Douglas Co., ?, Grant Co.,
VIII, Riley Co., IX, Decatur Co., ?, Sherman Co.; MONTANA, Tooele Co.,
?; IDAHO, Bingham Co., VIII, Lincoln Co., VII; UTAH, Box Elder Co., ?,
Sevier Co., IX; COLORADO, Bent Co., ?. CANADA: MANITOBA, Melita, White-
water, VII-VIII; SASKATCHEWAN, Minton, Saskatoon, Torquay, Willow
Bunch, VII-VIII; ALBERTA, Medicine Hat, ?

Crabro hilaris Smith
Crabro hilaris Smith, 1856:416, Female, Fla., St. Johns Co., St. Johns
Bluff (type: BMNH)
DIAGNOSIS: both sexes; light markings of body yellow; clypeus as yel-
low as scape, without a median dark mark basally; flagellomere 1 en-
tirely, or almost entirely, dark; mid femur yellow apically, contrasting
strongly with black or dark brown base; hind femur black or brown, much
darker than yellow at base of hind tibia; dark areas bordering yellow marks
on tergites 1-2 usually black, but infused with reddish-brown in specimens
from Ga. and Fla.; fore wing as in aequalis; upper frons granulate or stri-
atogranulate, the sculpture reaching the inner margins of the supraorbital
foveae; occipital carina as in atlanticus; punctures of mesoscutum very
dense, almost contiguous to each other anterolaterally; upper prepectus
as in atlanticus.
MALE: underside of head at base of mandible black; prepectus with a
yellow mark of variable size, rarely black; tergite 4 with a pair of elon-
gate lateral marks, rarely with only a dot on 1 side; tergites 5-6 with
lateral marks (absent in 1 specimen from Sumter Co., Fla. and 1 from
McIntosh Co., Ga.); mesosternum and venter of fore femur without long
hair; fore femur rounded anteriorly; mid basitarsus straight along inner
margin, truncate apically.










Miller: Hilaris spp. Group of Crabro


MALE: metanotum usually black, rarely spotted with yellow; pre-
pectus entirely (95-100%) yellow, including a narrow border along prepec-
tal carina on anterior face of mesopleuron; tergites 4-5 with a yellow band,
rarely with separated lateral marks; setae of pygidium, viewed head-on
(Fig. 2), not so dense apically that they completely obscure background;
punctures of pygidium (Fig. 4) visible almost to apex and separated by shiny
spaces.
DISCUSSION: This species is most closely related to the Floridian rufi-
basis and may be envisioned as the parent stock of the latter. The 2 species
differ only in color and pattern of maculation, and their populations are
contiguous in Florida (Fig. 13). The yellow body markings of hilaris do
not become rosy or orange in northern Florida as they do in aequalis. In
Gainesville, Alachua Co., Fla., the only area where the 2 species are
known to be sympatric, hilaris retains its bright yellow markings and rufi-
basis its red-orange marks. Color variation in hilaris and reasons for re-
taining rufibasis as a distinct species are discussed under rufibasis.
All collection records to date indicate that hilaris is restricted to the
eastern coastal states from Massachusetts to Florida. Many collections
had females from Kansas and Texas identified as hilaris, but each of these
proved to be cingulatus. In cingulatus, the yellow spot on the prepectus
varies from small to large, but it never covers the ventral fourth or fifth
of the sclerite. In hilaris, the prepectus is 95-100% yellow, with at most a
tiny black corner ventrally. Another color difference not mentioned in the
key involves the pygidium. In cingulatus, the apical fifth or so of the pygi-
dium is ferrugineous, whereas in hilaris the tip is essentially black.
DISTRIBUTION (including months of capture): MASSACHUSETTS, Bristol
Co., VII, Dukes Co., VIII; CONNECTICUT, New Haven Co., VIII; NEW YORK,
Nassau Co., VII-VIII, Suffolk Co., VII; NEW JERSEY, Camden Co., VI, At-
lantic Co., IX, Burlington Co., VI-VIII; NORTH CAROLINA, Dare Co., V-
VIII; GEORGIA, McIntosh Co., IV, Glynn Co., ?, Liberty Co., IV, Lowndes
Co., XI; FLORIDA, Okaloosa Co., IV, Alachua Co., X, Putnam Co., IV, St.
Johns Co., III, Volusia Co., ?, Citrus Co., IV, Sumter Co., III.


Crabro rufibasis (Banks)
Thyreopus rufibasis Banks, 1921:17, Female, Fla., Pinellas Co., Gulf-
port, April (lectotype: MCZ)
DIAGNOSIS: both sexes; light markings of body red-orange excluding
yellow scape; clypeus usually rosier than scape, without a median dark
mark at base; flagellomere 1 largely orange or yellow; mid femur red-
orange to brown, the apex not contrasting strongly with the base dorsally;
hind femur red-orange to brown, not much darker than base of hind tibia;
tergites 1-2 largely red-orange, not yellow and black or yellow and
reddish-brown; upper frons, fore wing, occipital carina, punctures of meso-
scutum, and upper prepectus as in hilaris.
MALE: underside of head at base of mandible black; prepectus largely
or entirely red-orange; tergite 4 entirely black in more than 80% of speci-
mens examined, with small orange marks laterally in the others; tergites
5-6 entirely black; mesosternum, fore femur, and mid basitarsus as in hi-
laris.
FEMALE: metanotum black; prepectus entirely (95-100%) red-orange,









The Florida Entomologist


including a narrow border along prepectal carina anteriorly; hind tibia
entirely red-orange; tergite 4 usually black, rarely with elongate red
lateral marks; tergite 5 entirely black; setae and punctures of pygidium
as in hilaris.
DISCUSSION: Much to my surprise, 2 females of rufibasis in the MCZ
collection are labeled "Type 13823," and both agree well with Banks'
(1921) description. I have placed a lectotype label on the only speci-
men with a small label reading "Reynolds coll.," because Banks indi-
cated in his description that Reynolds was the collector. The lectotype
has 2 more labels, 1 reading "Gulfport, Fla., April," and the other "Col-
lection N. Banks."
Females of rufibasis and hilaris differ from other females in the hilaris
group in having 95% or more of the prepectus marked with red-orange or
yellow. They are also unique in having a narrow border of the appropriate
color on the anterior face of the mesopleuron along the prepectal carina.
Although the 2 seem to differ only in color and pattern of maculation,
I am convinced they are distinct species based on a variety of evidence. Such
evidence includes the near-certainty that central Florida was separated
from the mainland as an island or group of islands during the Pleistocene
(Neill 1957), the present contiguous but nonoverlapping ranges of hilaris
and rufibasis in Florida (Fig. 13), and the apparent lack of secondary inter-
gradation along the zone of potential sympatry or elsewhere.
A knowledge of the recent geological history of Florida is important
because it points out the error in believing rufibasis to be merely a popu-
lation of hilaris that has adapted to a subtropical environment. Once we
know the 2 forms were isolated from each other, we can reasonably estimate
whether they are specifically distinct by examining their present distribu-
tions and noting the amount of secondary intergradation if any. According
to Neill (1957), the submergences and emergences of the Florida penin-
sula prior to the Pleistocene resulted from crustal movements. During
the Pleistocene, however, such changes resulted from the rising and falling
of the sea level as water was released from or taken up into massive ice
sheets. The first interglacial rise in sea level was apparently the most
severe, attaining a level 270 ft above present and leaving only a large is-
land in Polk Co. and several smaller islands to the east. Subsequent cy-
cles of interglacial rise and glacial fall of sea level were less severe. The
salt water channel between the mainland and the Pleistocene islands is
known as the Suwannee Straights, and its bed is now occupied by the Suwan-
nee River and tributaries. The Suwannee Straights ran approximately
through Alachua Co. in northern Florida. Neill (1957) reported that many
central Florida forms of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians are
closely related to mainland forms and intergrade with them at the level
of the Straights.
Neill also observed that several mainland species cross the Suwannee
Straights area only along the coasts and for some reason do not penetrate
the old Pleistocene island area. This is essentially the situation which pre-
vails in the present-day distribution of Crabro hilaris as can be seen in Fig.
13. In central Florida, hilaris has been collected only as far south as
Gainesville in Alachua Co. Yet on the east coast it is known from south-
eastern Putnam Co. and northeastern Volusia Co., and on the west coast as
far south as Citrus and Sumter Co.'s. Gainesville is the only locality where


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976


260










Miller: Hilaris spp. Group of Crabro


hilaris and rufibasis are known to be sympatric, and they remain distinct
in this area. Neill (1957) made the interesting observation that if "racial"
distributions were controlled by temperature-correlated factors, we
would expect the peninsular form (such as rufibasis) to swing upward
along the west coast as do the isotherms. Instead, just the opposite occurs,
with hilaris looping down around rufibasis on each side and retaining its
bright yellow markings even in these southern coastal areas.
Specimens of hilaris from northern Florida with ferrugineous marks at
the base of the abdomen and lacking the usual lateral marks on the apical
tergites are almost certainly clinal variants. From Massachusetts to North
Carolina, the dark areas bordering the yellow marks of tergites 1 and 2 are
essentially jet black. An occasional female from North Carolina has the
black base of tergite 1 tinged ever so lightly with brown. In specimens from
Georgia and northern Florida the base of tergite 1 becomes increasingly
browner and finally light reddish-brown medially. At the same time, the
dark area at the base of tergite 2 and between the yellow marks becomes
brown or ferrugineous. In 1 of the southernmost females yet collected,
from Gainesville, tergite 5 lacks lateral marks, a situation parallel to
that observed in aequalis. In short, the change is gradual from North Caro-
lina south into Florida and does not seem to be the result of secondary
intergradation of hilaris and rufibasis. Further support is obtained by ex-
amining certain eastern crabronines that range into Florida but lack dis-
tinctive central Floridian forms. Crossocerus impressifrons (Smith) and
C. similis (Fox) are 2 crabronines in which the black tergites become in-
creasingly ferrugineous or rosy medially as we move south into Florida.
Likewise, certain species that never have ferrugineous or rosy marks on the
abdomen lose the light marks on the apical tergites or have all the lateral
marks greatly reduced. Two such species ranging far into southern Florida
are Ectemnius paucimaculatus (Packard) and E. singularis (Smith). In sum-
mary, I would like to formally discourage anyone from naming the
various color variants of hilaris as new subspecies.
The only difficulty I suspect future workers may have in separating
Florida specimens of hilaris and rufibasis is that caused by cyanide red-
dening, particularly in the males. Most males of hilaris have yellow lat-
eral marks on tergites 4 and 5, but I have seen 2 specimens in which these
marks are absent. One from McIntosh Co., Georgia bears the same label
data as another male that has typical abdominal markings, suggesting that
this is natural variation in populations of hilaris. Cyanide reddened males
of hilaris from Florida lacking lateral marks on tergites 4 and 5 would be
quite difficult to distinguish from rufibasis, and no doubt such specimens
will eventually turn up.
At least 4 species in the crabronine genus Ectemnius were apparently
isolated from their parent populations to the north during the Pleistocene,
and they underwent changes in color and pattern of maculation in Florida
similar to those in rufibasis and arcadiensis. It must be emphasized that
such red color forms are not necessarily good species. Each case must be
evaluated separately after a thorough examination of many specimens. At
present, subspecific names are used for the red-marked forms of each of the
following species: E. excavatus (Fox), E. scaber (Lep. and Br.), E. texanus
(Cresson), and E. 10-maculatus (Say). I have not examined large series of
the first 3 species and can not say whether the red forms are distinct species









The Florida Entomologist


or whether secondary intergradation with the northern parent populations
has taken place. However, I have examined a large number of specimens of
E. 10-maculatus and can state that secondary intergradation has occurred,
resulting in a polytypic species. The red variety 10-maculatus tequesta Pate
is not a good subspecies. It is simply a color variant that becomes more com-
mon toward the southern end of Florida.
To outline the situation in 10-maculatus more clearly, I examined 12
females and 56 males collected in the same area, the Archbold Biological
Station, Highlands Co., Florida, between 24 Feb. and 5 May, 1961-1973.
Based on coloration and pattern of maculation of the abdomen, females
and males can be divided into 5 groups. The first group of females is typical
of northern populations in having a pair of large, bright yellow lateral
marks on tergites 1-5, but differs in having a broad median red mark on ter-
gite 1. I have seen similar females from as far north as Glynn Co. in south-
eastern Georgia. Only 1 of the Archbold females falls in this group. A
second group of 5 females is typical of tequesta, having tergite 1 and the
anterior half or two-thirds of tergite 2 red. The remainder of the abdomen
is black except for minute yellow lateral spots which may be present on
tergites 2-5, but never on tergite 1. These females correspond roughly to the
condition in Crabro rufibasis and C. arcadiensis, i.e., they are thought to
have arisen through isolation from northern parent populations during the
Pleistocene. A third group of 4 females consists of probable hybrids be-
tween the first 2 groups. Females of this group have 5 pairs of yellow lat-
eral marks developed almost as well as in northern females, but they also
have the remainder of tergite 1 and the anterior half of tergite 2 red. In other
words, they appear to have the color pattern of group 1 superimposed on
the color pattern of group 2. A fourth group, represented by only 1 female,
has the abdomen black except for red tergite 1 and a faint red mark anteri-
orly on tergite 2. The fifth group, also represented by only 1 female, has
the abdomen entirely black.
Group 1 of the males consists of 2 specimens that can hardly be distin-
guished from far-northern males, from New York for example. These males
have absolutely no red marks on the abdomen and have a pair of bright
yellow lateral marks on tergites 1-6, those on 5 united medially. Group 2
consists of 26 specimens corresponding to the tequesta-like females. How-
ever, about 10 of them have the red anterior band of tergite 2 very reduced,
and the minute yellow lateral dots on tergites 2-5 are often lacking. Group
3 includes 8 males corresponding nicely in color to the "hybrid" females
except that tergite 6 also bears a pair of yellow lateral marks. Group 4
consists of 6 males having the abdomen black except for tergite 1, which
varies from entirely red to barely infused with red. The 14 males of group
5 have entirely black abdomens. In reality, males of groups 2, 4, and 5 tend
to form a continuum, varying from a form in which tergite 2 has a distinct
red band on the anterior half to a form in which the abdomen is entirely
black. Other specimens from central and southern Florida sometimes show
minor peculiarities in color and extent of maculation of the abdomen,but
with few exceptions they can be placed in 1 of the groups described above.
I do not expect that secondary intergradation in other species of Sphe-
cidae from Florida will be as striking as in the case of E. 10-maculatus de-
tailed above, but I think it is important to point out how obvious such hy-
bridization may be. Possible hybrids between Crabro hilaris and C. rufibasis


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976










Miller: Hilaris spp. Group of Crabro


have not yet turned up and I don't think they will. Note also that hilaris
has not invaded the central Florida "island" habitat while group 1 of E.
10-maculatus certainly has. I hope other workers will take an active inter-
est in this taxonomic problem and place emergence cages over nests of both
hilaris and rufibasis in the area of potential sympatry. This is the only
way to obtain evidence supporting or disproving my contention that the 2
are distinct species and produce offspring characteristic in color of their
species regardless of latitude.
DISTRIBUTION (including months of capture): FLORIDA, Alachua Co.,
IV-V, X, Volusia Co., III, Pasco Co., IV, Lake Co., III-IV, XII, Orange Co.,
III-IV, X, Pinellas Co., IV, Hillsborough Co., III, Polk Co., III, Manatee
Co., II-IV, DeSoto Co., II, IV, Highlands Co., XII- V, Martin Co., VI, Lee
Co., III, Palm Beach Co., III, Dade Co., II-IV, XI-XII (see Fig. 13).

Crabro snowii Fox
Crabro snowii Fox, 1896:79, Female, Kans., Douglas Co., 900 ft, June
(lectotype: ANSP)
DIAGNOSIS: both sexes; clypeus with a median dark mark at base about
equal in length to flagellomere 4 in female, more variable in male; hind
tibia and hind tarsus as in atlanticus; fore wing, except base, very lightly
infumated with brown; upper frons shining and punctate, seldom with even
small patches of longitudinal striae; occipital carina as in atlanticus, ex-
cept ventral extremities raised very little above surface, not minutely
foveolate; punctures of mesoscutum much as in aequalis, but generally a
little coarser and denser; upper prepectus as in atlanticus.
MALE: prepectus black, but entirely yellow in specimen from Fla. pan-
handle; underside of head at base of mandible usually black, with a dull
yellow spot in specimen from panhandle; fore and mid femora variably
marked with brown or black; fore tibia marked with brown internally;
mesosternum and venter of fore femur without long hair; fore femur
slender, anteriorly with a razor-edged longitudinal carina on basal half;
mid basitarsus curved along inner margin, with an inner apical prolonga-
tion.
FEMALE: metanotum usually spotted with yellow; prepectus black or
with a yellow spot dorsally; anterior margin of prepectus without or with
weakly formed foveoles medially; posterior propodeum with transverse
rugulae very weak or absent, except for 1 strong ventral rugula; pygidium
much as in cingulatus, but the punctures not quite as dense and the base
usually more shining between the punctures.
DIScussION: snowii females tend to be a little smaller than females
of the other 7 species, averaging only 8 mm (6.5-9.5). Females can usually
be recognized by the shining, punctate upper frons, but 1 topotypical speci-
men from Kansas has 2 small patches of weak longitudinal striae before
the anterior ocellus. Males from Kansas also tend to have the upper frons
more strongly sculptured than usual. The prepectus is black or bears a
tiny yellow spot dorsally in all females examined to date, but it may be
entirely yellow in the Florida panhandle. One male from Liberty Co. in
the panhandle has the prepectus entirely yellow, while all other males
have the prepectus entirely black. The possibility that the Liberty Co.
population is an isolated one should not be overlooked, as Neill (1957)


263










The Florida Entomologist


reported that the panhandle has many endemic races as well as isolated
populations of more northern species.
Females of snowii might be confused with those of aequalis if only the
sculpture of the upper frons were examined. But in aequalis the upper pre-
pectus has 1-4 weakly raised transverse rugulae (Fig. 7), the prepectal
carina is margined posteriorly by distinct foveoles, the occipital carina is
much stronger ventrally, the transverse rugulae of the posterior pro-
podeum are well-developed, and the setae of the pygidium are less dense
apically. In addition, aequalis females lack the prominent median dark
mark at the base of the clypeus. C. snowii seems to be most closely related
to aequalis and arcadiensis based on the structure of the mid basitarsus in
the male and the sculpture of the upper frons in the female.
DISTRIBUTION (including months of capture): NEW YORK, Nassau Co.,
VII, Suffolk Co., VII; MARYLAND, Montgomery Co., VIII; D. C., VI-VIII;
VIRGINIA, Fairfax Co., VII, Arlington Co., VII; GEORGIA, Clarke Co., IX;
FLORIDA, Liberty Co., V; ILLINOIS, Morgan Co., ?; MINNESOTA, Olmsted
Co., VII; KANSAS, Douglas Co., VI-VII. CANADA: MANITOBA, Aweme, Bois-
sevain, Hartney, Horton, Pilot Mound, Stockton, Virden, Whitewater, VII-
VIII; SASKATCHEWAN, Broadview, Estevan, Kenosee, Neilburg, Saskatoon,
Torquay, VII-VIII.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I would like to thank my current professor, Dr. L. L. Pechuman, and
my former professor, Dr. F. E. Kurczewski for making valuable suggestions
and for encouraging me to complete this study. I am also indebted to Dr.
R. M. Bohart for taking time from a busy schedule to correspond with me.
This revision would not have been possible without the friendly coopera-
tion of the following institutions and persons (abbreviations used in text
to note deposition of paratypes):


AMNH American Museum of Natural History, M. Favreau
ANSP Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, D. C. Rentz
CESF SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syra-
cuse, F. E. Kurczewski
CNC Canadian National Collection, J. Barron, G. Gibson
CU Cornell University, L. L. Pechuman, J. Schafrik
FSCA Florida State Collection of Arthropods, E. E. Grissell
KVK Karl V. Krombein
MCZ Museum of Comparative Zoology, H. E. Evans, J. C. Scott
NCS North Carolina State, D. Stephan
UCD University of California at Davis, R. M. Bohart
UG University of Georgia, C. L. Smith
UK University of Kansas, G. W. Byers
USNM United States National Museum, USDA Agricultural Research
Service, A. S. Menke
LITERATURE CITED
ASHMEAD, W. H. 1899. Classification of the entomophilous wasps, or the
superfamily Sphegoidea. Can. Ent. 31:161-225.


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976










Miller: Hilaris spp. Group of Crabro


BANKS, N. 1921. New Nearctic fossorial Hymenoptera. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am.
14:16-26.
CRESSON, E. T. 1928. The types of Hymenoptera in the Academy of Nat-
ural Sciences of Philadelphia other than those of Ezra T. Cresson.
Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc. 5, 90 p.
Fox, W. J. 1895. The Crabroninae of Boreal America. Trans. Amer. Ent.
Soc. 22:129-226.
Fox, W. J. 1896. Supplement to the Crabroninae of Boreal America. Trans.
Amer. Ent. Soc. 23:78-80.
KOHL, F. F. 1896. Die Gattungen der Sphegiden. Ann. K. K. Naturhist.
Hofmus. 11:233-516.
KROMBEIN, K. V. 1951. In Muesebeck, C. F. W., K. V. Krombein, and H. K.
Townes. Hymenoptera of America north of Mexico. Synoptic cata-
log. USDA, Agr. Mono. 2. Washington, 1420 p.
LECLERCQ, J. 1954. Monographie syst6matique, phylog6netique et zoogeo-
graphique des Hym6nopteres Crabroniens. These, Fac. Sci. Univ.
Liege. Lejeunia Press, 371 p.
NEILL, W. T. 1957. Historical biogeography of present-day Florida. Bull.
Fla. State mus. (Biol. Sci.) 2:175-220.
PACKARD, A. S. 1867. Revision of the fossorial Hymenoptera of North
America. I Crabronidae and Nyssonidae. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. 6:
353-444.
PATE, V. S. L. 1944. Conspectus of the genera of pemphilidine wasps
(Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Am. Midl. Nat. 31:329-84.
SMITH, F. 1856. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects in the collection of
the British Museum. Part IV. Sphegidae, Larridae, and Crabronidae.
London. Trustees Brit. Mus., pp. 207-497.
VIERECK, H. L. 1904. Additions to Sphegoidea (Hymenoptera). Trans. Amer.
Ent. Soc. 30:237-44.
VIERECK, H. L. 1906. Notes and descriptions of Hymenoptera from the west-
ern United States. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 32:173-247.



















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The Florida Entomologist


VAUGHAN F. MC COWAN
(1920-1976)

Vaughan F. (Mac) McCowan, 56,
of Rochester, N.H., died at his home
8 March 1976 following a heart at-
tack. He was a forest entomologist
with the U. S. Department of Agri-
culture, Forest Service, Portsmouth,
N. H.
Mr. McCowan was born in Port-
land, Maine and had lived in Ro-
r chester for the past 6 years.
S. Vaughan was a veteran of World
War II, serving with the 101st Air-
borne Division. He was a member of
the executive board of the Rochester
Salvation Army, a member of the Phi
Kappa Phi fraternity, and a member
of the Resurrection Lutheran Church,
Rochester.
He held a Bachelor's Degree in forestry from the University of Maine,
Orono and a Master's Degree in forest entomology from the University
of Michigan, Ann Arbor. He was a Registered Forester in Florida.
Before going to Portsmouth, Mr. McCowan was employed in the Re-
search Center of Weyerhaeuser Timber Co. at Centralia, Washington for
4 years. He was employed by the Florida Forest Service (now Division of
Forestry) in April 1957, and became the first State Forest Entomologist
for Florida. He began the first systematic surveys in the State of Florida
to determine the yearly insect and disease losses in pine stands. The first
aerial survey of Florida, for the purpose of detecting the activities of forest
insects and evaluating them, with particular emphasis on bark beetles in-
festing pines, was participated in by McCowan in cooperation with U. S.
Forest Service. Vaughn left the State of Florida in 1965 to accept a position
with U. S. Forest Service at Cass, Minnesota, and later in Upper Darby,
Pennsylvania, and Amherst, Massachusetts.
Members of his family include his wife, Mrs. Lavona (Piel) McCowan
of Rochester; one daughter, Mrs. Nate (Nancy) Sumner of Washington,
D. C.; two sons, John of Beverly, Mass. and Bruce of Rochester; one grand-
son, Sean Sumner of Washington, D. C.; son-in-law, Nathan Sumner and
daughter-in-law, Giselle (Jenkins) McCowan. Burial will be in Keezar
Falls, Maine.
"Mac" was a rugged individualist and therefore sometimes misunder-
stood by those who did not know him. He was a compassionate and loyal
friend to all who knew him well. He was an outdoorsman, highly competi-
tive, a concerned citizen, widely read, and highly knowledgeable in science
and the humanities. Vaughan McCowan was truly a unique individual.

G. W. Dekle
C. E. Chellman
R. C. Wilkinson


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976


266










The Florida Entomologist


COMPARATIVE NESTING BEHAVIORS
OF CRABRO RUFIBASIS AND CRABRO ARCADIENSIS
(HYMENOPTERA: SPHECIDAE: CRABRONINAE)

RICHARD C. MILLER AND FRANK E. KURCZEWSKI

Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 14850,
and Department of Forest Entomology, SUNY College of Environmental
Science and Forestry, Syracuse, N. Y. 13210, respectively

ABSTRACT

The nesting behaviors of Crabro rufibasis (Banks) and C. arcadiensis
Miller, 2 ground-nesting predatory wasps native to Florida, were com-
pared in detail. Among the features examined were nesting habitat, male
behavior, nest structure, nest construction, sequence of activities in the nest,
daily activity patterns, orientation flights, hunting behavior, prey trans-
port, provisioning and storing times, nest provisions, prey positions, egg
placement, larval development, cocoon structure cleptoparasites, sea-
sonal occurrence, and apparent population sizes. Emergence cages placed
over completed nests of C. rufibasis of the January-February generation
yielded wasp progeny and an unexpectedly large number of cleptoparasitic
sarcophagid flies. Direct and circumstantial evidence suggested that C. rufi-
basis is primarily a winter species in southern Florida and has only a par-
tial second generation in the spring, whereas C. arcadiensis is apparently
univoltine in the spring.
C. rufibasis and C. arcadiensis were remarkably similar behaviorally
but differed partly in seasonal occurrence, choice of nesting sites, and pro-
portions of fly families taken as prey. These apparent behavioral differ-
ences may have developed only recently as C. rufibasis moved into areas
modified by man for fruit production and ranching. Both Floridian species
differ from other known Crabro in having unusually long vertical burrows
with nearly all cells within 11 cm of a vertical line through the entrance.


Crabro rufibasis (Banks) and C. arcadiensis Miller belong to an essen-
tially Holarctic genus of ground-nesting predatory wasps that provision
multicellular nests with adult Diptera. Both species are members of the
hilaris group, a taxon of 8 Nearctic species reviewed by the senior author in
the preceding article. Populations of rufibasis and arcadiensis are restricted
to peninsular Florida and seem to be contiguous to populations of the
closely related hilaris Smith and aequalis Fox (see Fig. 13 and discussions
under rufibasis and arcadiensis in the preceding paper).C. hilaris and aequalis
range as far north as Massachusetts and Michigan.
Although rufibasis and arcadiensis are distinct, they are strikingly simi-
lar morphologically and both were called rufibasis when we began our
study. The incentive to look for fine structural differences arose from the
simple field observation that females of rufibasis nested in aggregations
free of individuals of the color typical of arcadiensis. This paper compares
the nesting behaviors of the 2 species in detail and explains how they are
partly separated by differences in seasonal occurrence, choice of habitat,
and preference for certain kinds of prey. We offer special thanks to Mr.
Richard Archbold for his continued assistance during our study and for pro-
viding the excellent facilities of the Archbold Biological Station.


267


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976










The Florida Entomologist


STUDY AREAS
Crabro rufibasis was observed at Arcadia, DeSoto Co. during 6 Febru-
ary-10 April 1971-73, and at the Archbold Biological Station, Highlands
Co. from 27 December-3 April 1973-74. C. arcadiensis was studied at Ar-
cadia from 25 March-10 April 1971-73, and at the Archbold Biological
Station during 16 March-26 April 1973. At Arcadia, nests were found in
level or gently sloped sand in a cow pasture along the Peace River. Many
nests of arcadiensis were located in a sparsely vegetated area, 3 x 7 m,
where the sand was powdery white and rather loose on the surface but much
firmer underneath. These nests and others located in grassier parts of the
pasture were well-separated from dense shrubs and trees. In contrast, the
majority of nests of rufibasis were found in densely vegetated sand near
a ridge with many shrubs and large oaks. Nests of both species were often
started in depressions or hoof-prints. Active nests of the 2 species were
found within 10 m of each other only once. Excavation of both nests sug-
gested that the 2 females had each appropriated the burrows of other insects,
possibly bees. Utilization of preexisting burrows was uncommon in both
species although females searching for nesting sites often flew low above
the sand, examining cracks and depressions.
At the Archbold Station, the nesting sites of the 2 species were more
separated. A large aggregation of arcadiensis was spread over an 18 x 250 m
section of a sparsely vegetated fire trail very similar in appearance to the
main arcadiensis site at Arcadia. The vegetation along the fire trail was
an undisturbed turkey oak-slash pine association. During late March
and early April, the height of the nesting season for arcadiensis, scattered
nests were found in other areas, particularly in the grass along the main
road just before a grove and along the path to a metal dump. We observed
only 1 nest in a vertical surface, the steep sandbank at the rear of the metal
dump. Krombein (1964) observed a similar nest in the same sandbank (re-
ported as rufibasis, but the female is clearly arcadiensis). Most nests of
rufibasis were located in a disturbed area, a 45 x 95 m grove of orange, lo-
quat, avocado, and mango trees bordered by mahoganies and scattered lob-
lolly pines. This area was generally much grassier than the fire trail in
which arcadiensis nested. One female of rufibasis constructed a nest in late
February on the path leading to the metal dump, an area where arcadiensis
nested a month later, but she did not complete the nest.

MALE BEHAVIOR
Males of rufibasis were observed flying around trees in the grove from
late December to mid-April. They were most numerous around the sun-
lit leaves of trees in full bloom. Similarly, males of arcadiensis hovered
in pendulous flights around sunlit leaves of small turkey oaks along the
fire trail in mid-March.

NEST STRUCTURE
During the course of the study, 14 nests of rufibasis and 17 of arcadiensis
were dug open and examined. Many other nests of each species were ob-
served but not excavated. A nest entrance was usually surrounded by a
circular tumulus of sand about 4.5 cm in diameter and 2 cm high (Figs. lb,


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976









Miller and Kurczewski: Nesting of Crabro spp.


087
07
06


-------------
04


5

T


05
2C4
C2 C3
01
-2----)------------
OS
CD ::C
(::


Fig. 1. Side (S) and top (T) views of 2 nests of Crabro rufibasis. Cells
numbered in apparent chronological order, according to contents. Black
dot indicates burrow storage of flies.
2b). The sample size, range, and average tumulus size for each species is
given in Table 1.1 Older nests, particularly those rained upon, often lacked
tumuli. The circular entrance holes, 4-6 mm wide, were usually located
'Table 1 includes measurements of many aspects of the nesting behaviors and permits a com-
parison of data for the 2 species. Sample sizes, ranges and means will not always be mentioned
in the text.


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The Florida Entomologist


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in the centers of the tumuli. However, in nests located on slopes the en-
trances were at the upper ends of the mounds (Fig. la, 2a). We experienced
some difficulty in distinguishing Crabro tumuli from those made by halic-
tid bees of the genus Agapostemon. In general, the chunks of sand around
Crabro entrances were shorter and less columnar than those around
Agapostemon nests. The average distance between conspecific nests was 8.1
m for rufibasis and 9.4 m for arcadiensis (Table 1).


02
D1 9

%7 06

T 3
0 5 04


Fig. 2. Side (S) and top (T) views of 2 nests of Crabro arcadiensis. Black
dot indicates burrow storage of flies.









272 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976

Nests of either species had vertical burrows descending at right angles to
the surface and short side burrows radiating outward, either horizontally
or inclined downward at an angle of about 60 to the main burrow. When
a nest was dug open, only the side burrow leading to the cell the female
was provisioning could be found. The others had been plugged firmly with
moist sand. A comparison of Fig. 1 and 2 indicates how remarkably alike
the nests of rufibasis and arcadiensis were. Average values for total bur-
row length, cell depth, deepest cell in the nest, and distance of each cell
from a vertical line through the entrance were very similar (Table 1). Al-
though the cells of rufibasis were often longer than those of arcadiensis
and the terminal side burrows were sometimes abruptly horizontal in
arcadiensis, we could find no constant differences between the nests. The
maximum number of cells per nest was 11 for rufibasis and 13 for arcadi-
ensis. Two nest features unusual for species of Crabro were the long verti-
cal burrows and the tight grouping of cells around a vertical line through
the entrance. The vertical element of the burrow was at least one-half the
distance from the surface to the deepest point of the side passage, often much
more. None of the rufibasis cells and only 2 of 74 in arcadiensis nests
were farther than 11 cm from a vertical line through the entrance (see top
views of nests).

NEST CONSTRUCTION AND SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES IN THE NEST
Females searching for nesting sites were common in both species, but the
beginning of nest construction was observed only for 1 arcadiensis. This
female began digging in a small depression in the sand after briefly enter-
ing a bee nest and examining several cracks in the sand. She dug for 2 min,
walked out on the new tumulus, cleaned her eyes and antennae, moved to
a different side of the depression, and commenced digging again. She re-
moved sand with her mandibles and forelegs and, as she went deeper, used
her abdomen to push sand out of the entrance.
Females of both species began provisioning after digging the initial ver-
tical burrow and side passage. Prey were brought in therefore before the cell
was excavated. The newly-captured prey were simply stored head-inward
at the unwidened or barely widened end of the passage (Fig. 1, 2). The walls
of the cell were fashioned after the full complement of prey for a cell had
been gathered. Females of both species plugged the main burrow with sand
about 2 cm below the surface when they were constructing a cell, and both
took 45-55 min to complete activities below the surface and reopen their
nests. During this time they placed the prey inside the newly-constructed
cell, oviposited, closed off the side passage with sand, and excavated a new
side burrow at a higher level. In other words, the first cell in the nest was
the deepest and the last-provisioned cell the shallowest (Fig. 1, 2). Even
in large nests it was unusual to find a cell "out of place" by more than 1
cm.
On warm sunny days, some females of each species completed 2 cells
and started a third. In general, however, only 1 cell was completed each
day and the average number of cells per day, counting rainy days, was less
than 1. At night, females remained in their nests and plugged the upper
burrow with sand 0.5-2.0 cm below the entrance. In the morning the plug
was pushed out, adding a small amount of sand to the tumulus. After
heavy rains, many females pushed up large amounts of damp sand. Most









Miller and Kurczewski: Nesting of Crabro spp.


nests were obliterated and their burrows filled in by such rains, but evi-
dence of nest closure by the wasp was observed in both species. In such
cases a small funnel in the top of the tumulus, about 1.5 cm wide and 1.5
cm deep, was observed. In 1 instance, a female of rufibasis in a head-upward
position was observed just below the funnel, removing sand from the walls
of the vertical burrow and pushing it downward. Such nests were older
than the average for their species and were plugged thoroughly with sand
2-15 cm below the open entrance. The average number of days a nest re-
mained active was 10.8 for rufibasis and 8.4 for arcadiensis (Table 1).

DAILY ACTIVITY PATTERNS AND ORIENTATION FLIGHTS
Females of rufibasis opened their nests as early as 840 hr and began pro-
visioning as early as 930 hr in February. On cool, foggy, or overcast morn-
ings activity was delayed 1-3 hr. Females of arcadiensis opened as early
as 800 hr in April and began provisioning as early as 830 hr. Rain during
the night or previous day slowed down the activities of both species. De-
pending on the weather, females completed their first cell and plugged
the nest entrance between 1250 and 1500 hr. Although some females closed
themselves in for the night as early as 1500 hr, others provisioned almost
to sunset. One female of rufibasis was still bringing in prey at 1750 hr in
January, and a female of arcadiensis was still provisioning at 1710 hr in
early April.
Both species usually made an orientation flight above the nest after
opening in the morning and when beginning the provisioning of a new cell.
Such flights varied highly in pattern and lasted 3-60 sec. The initial orien-
tation flight was sometimes followed by 1 or 2 much shorter flights before
subsequent provisioning trips. The first orientation of the day was usually
the most extensive, consisting of several circular or semicircular move-
ments 4-9 cm above the nest, facing the entrance, followed by a series of
zig-zag flights of increasing length on 1 side of the nest. In the latter series,
the wasp flew rapidly away from the nest in a straight line and then slowly
homed in on the entrance in a transverse zig-zag flight. The longest such
flight observed, that for arcadiensis, extended 5 m from the entrance. Pos-
sibly such flights were equally as long for rufibasis but because of the
dense vegetation around the nests they could not be seen.

HUNTING BEHAVIOR AND PREY TRANSPORT
Prey capture was not observed for either species. Females of rufibasis
circled flowering fruit trees in the Archbold Station grove and darted at
flies on the leaves. Many of the flies obtained by sweeping the flowers with
a net were the same species obtained from nests of rufibasis. Females of
arcadiensis hunted around sunlit leaves of small turkey oaks near the
fire trail. One female flew 10 m from her nest and began hunting in the
sparse grass at the edge of the fire trail. At Arcadia, a female of arcadiensis
was observed hunting in low grass not more than 10 m from the center of
the aggregation. One of the prey therevids, Furcifera pictipennis (Wied.),
was common on the sand in the same area. Provisioning females returned
to their open entrances in flight and dove in at an angle of about 600 from
a position 4-8 cm above the surface. The prey was held low beneath the









The Florida Entomologist


thorax and base of abdomen of the wasp with the middle legs. Prey were
generally held ventral-side-upward and head-forward. Individual females
varied in their approach to the nest, either hovering before entering or diving
in without hesitation.

PROVISIONING, STORING, AND HEAD-IN-ENTRANCE TIMES
The average provisioning times were 13.7 min for rufibasis and 10.0 min
for arcadiensis (Table 1). Ninety percent of the provisioning times for
rufibasis were under 33 min, whereas 90% of the trips for arcadiensis were
less than 24 min. The mean amount of time spent storing prey between pro-
visioning trips was 3.5 min for rufibasis compared to 1.9 min for arcadiensis
(Table 1). After returning to the surface, females usually spent a minute
or less looking from side to side and tapping the sand with their antennae.
They also cleaned their eyes and antennae at this time. Although rufibasis
generally spent more time in the entrance than arcadiensis (Table 1),
there was much overlap between individuals of the 2 species. Females of
both species exited at a characteristic low angle flight and remained within
30 cm of the sand surface for 3 m or farther.

NEST PROVISIONS
The families of prey captured by arcadiensis and rufibasis, and their
relative importance as provisions, are shown in Table 2. The genera and
species of prey taken by arcadiensis are listed in Table 3, while those used
by rufibasis are listed in Table 4. All prey were adult Diptera. The fami-
lies Therevidae and Dolichopodidae made up 86.8% of the provisions of
arcadiensis, whereas they comprise only 17.6% of the provisions of rufi-
basis. The latter species preyed much more heavily on the suborder Cy-
clorrhapha. As shown in Table 2, 82.0% of the prey of rufibasis were from
12 families of Cyclorrhapha, particularly Muscidae, Otitidae, Antho-
myiidae, Tachinidae, Syrphidae, Calliphoridae, and Sarcophagidae. Addi-
tional prey records from other areas are needed in order to determine
whether the lack of flies of the suborder Nematocera among the prey of
rufibasis is accidental or real. The same applies for the lack of Calli-
phoridae among the prey of arcadiensis. Both observations might be ac-
counted for by the differences in hunting sites. Another difference in choice
of prey is reflected in the frequency of Dolichopodidae in cells of the 2 spe-
cies. Every cell of arcadiensis contained at least 1 dolichopodid, while
only 34.1% of the cells of rufibasis contained these flies (Table 1). Seven-
teen species of flies were preyed upon by both wasp species.
Individual prey of rufibasis weighed an average of 5.2 mg, compared to
an average of 3.1 mg for arcadiensis (Table 1). The heaviest prey of rufi-
basis was a tachinid, Lespesia aletiae (Riley), weighing 26.0 mg, while the
heaviest prey taken by arcadiensis was a therevid, furcifera pictipennis
(Wied.), weighing 12.4 mg. The dolichopodid Chrysotus discolor Loew was
the lightest prey for both wasps, the smallest specimens weighing only 0.3-
0.7 mg. Females of arcadiensis were all heavier than their prey, weighing an
average of 16.9 mg. Although females of rufibasis were similar in weight,
averaging 16.3 mg, they sometimes carried prey heavier than themselves
(Table 1). Rufibasis stored an average of 12.5 prey per cell, whereas the
average for arcadiensis was 16.7 (Table 1). Contents of completed cells


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976


274










Miller and Kurczewski: Nesting of Crabro spp.


TABLE 2. FAMILIES OF PREY OF Crabro arcadiensis AND C. rufibasis
AND THEIR RELATIVE IMPORTANCE AS PROVISIONS.


Crabro arcadiensis
No. % of total


Family


Crabro rufibasis
No. % of total


Tipulidae
Chironomidae
Stratiomyiidae
Therevidae
Bombyliidae
Dolichopodidae
Syrphidae
Otitidae
Tephritidae
Sciomyzidae
Lauxaniidae
Chamaemyiidae
Milichiidae
Chloropidae
Agromyzidae
Anthomyiidae
Muscidae
Calliphoridae
Sarcophagidae
Tachinidae


TABLE 3. GENERA
Family

TIPULIDAE
CHIRONOMIDAE
STRATIOMYIIDAE
THEREVIDAE


BOMBYLIIDAE
DOLICHOPODIDAE


AND SPECIES OF PREY CAPTURED BY Crabro arcadiensis.
Genus and species No. Area*


Undetermined
Chironomus spp.
Sargus lucens Loew
Furcifera pictipennis (Wiedemann)
Psilocephala festina (Coquillett)
Psilocephala morata Coquillett
Geron holosericeus Walker
Asyndetus ammophilus Loew
Asyndetus harbeckii Van Duzee
Asyndetus spp.
Chrvsotus barbatus (Loew)
Chrysotus costalis Loew
Chrvsotus discolorLoew
Chrysotus johnsoni Van Duzee
Chrysotusjunctus Van Duzee
Chrysotus spp.
Condylostylus caudatus (Wiedemann)
Condylostylus chrvsoprasi (Walker)
Condylostylus crinitus (Aldrich)
Condvlostylus erectus Becker
Condylostylus flavipes (Aldrich)


1
3
1
144
1
469
1
1
2
0
2
1
9
8
5
1
27
0
2
28
Total = 706


0.1
0.4
0.1
20.4
0.1
66.4
0.1
0.1
0.3
0
0.3
0.1
1.3
1.1
0.7
0.1
3.8
0
0.3
4.0


0
0
0
24
2
54
29
101
1
1
3
0
5
2
0
36
114
16
19
36
Total= 443











The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976


TABLE 3.-Continued


Genus and species


No. Area*


DOLICHOPODIDAE














SYRPHIDAE
OTITIDAE
TEPHRITIDAE
LAUXANIIDAE

CHAMAEMYIIDAE
MILICHIIDAE
CHLOROPIDAE


AGROMYZIDAE

ANTHOMYIIDAE
MUSCIDAE





SARCOPHAGIDAE

TACHINIDAE


Condylostylus furcatus (Van Duzee) 4
Condylostylus graenicheri Van Duzee 24
Condylostylus mundus (Wiedemann) 19
Condylostyluspatibulatus (Say) 2
Condylostylus tonsus (Aldrich) 2
Condylostylus spp. 158
Diaphorus leucostoma Loew 5
Diaphorus mundus Loew 1
Mesorhaga caudata Van Duzee 14
Mesorhaga spp. 20
Sciapus bradleii Van Duzee 6
Sciapus unifasciatus (Say) 28
Sciapus variegatus (Loew) 2
Sciapus spp. 7
Allograpta obliqua (Say) 1
Euxesta notata (Wiedemann) 1
Dioxna picciola (Bigot) 2
Poecilominettia valida (Walker) 1
Sapromyza umbrosa Loew 1
Leucopis sp. 1
Pholeomyia dispar (Becker) 9
Chlorops abdominalis Coquillett 3
Chlorops lascivus Adams 3
Parectecephala maculiceps Becker 2
Japanagromyza viridula (Coquillett) 2
Phytobia maculosa (Malloch) 3
Emmesomyia socialis (Stein) 1
Bithoracochaeta leucoprocta 16
(Wiedemann)
Coenosia atrata Walker 1
Coenosia sp., nr. rufitibia Stein 2
Coenosia (Limosia) spp. 7
Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus) 1
Rauinia pectinata (Aldrich) 1
Ravinia sp. 1
Acronarista cornuta Reinhard 4
Chaetophlepsis townsendi (Smith) 3
Elfia melissopodis (Coquillett) 4
Houghia setipennis Coquillett 1
Hypostena setinervis Coquillett 4
Lixophaga mediocris Aldrich 1
Miamimyia cincta Townsend 1
Microchaetina mexicana (Townsend) 2
Micromintho melania Townsend 2
Paradidyma apicalis Reinhard 1
Paradidyma sp. 1
Pseudochaeta sp., nr. finals Reinhard 1
Sitophaga n. sp., nr. angustifrons Rein. 2
Gen. sp. (Dexiinae) 1
Total= 706


*Area Code: A = Arcadia, Fla.; S = Archbold Station, Fla.; B = both areas.
*Genus or species made up 5% or more of all prey taken.


Family











Miller and Kurczewski: Nesting of Crabro spp.


TABLE 4. GENERA AND SPECIES OF PREY CAPTURED BY Crabro rufibasis.


Genus and species


No. Area*


THEREVIDAE


BOMBYLIIDAE
DOLICHOPODIDAE




SYRPHIDAE





OTITIDAE


TEPHRITIDAE
SCIOMYZIDAE
LAUXANIIDAE

MILICHIIDAE

CHLOROPIDAE
ANTHOMYIIDAE
MUSCIDAE









CALLIPHORIDAE

SARCOPHAGIDAE



TACHINIDAE


Furcifera pictipennis (Wiedemann)
Psilocephala festina Coquillett
Psilocephala notata (Wiedemann)
Villa sp.
Chrysotus discolor Loew
Condylostylus caudatus (Wiedemann)
Condylostylus chrysoprasi (Walker)
Condylostylus graenicheri (Van Duzee)
Plagioneurus univittatus Loew
Allograpta obliqua (Say)
Ocyptamus costata (Say)
Ocyptamus fuscipennis (Say)
Parapenium banksi Curran
Toxomerus geminatus (Say)
Toxomerus n. sp.
Euxesta basalis (Walker)
Euxesta eluta Loew
Euxesta notata (Wiedemann)
Xanthaciura insecta (Loew)
Atrichomelina pubera Loew
Homoneura sp.
Poecilominettia valida (Walker)
Pholeomyia decorior Steyskal
Pholeomyia dispar (Becker)
Chlorops abdominalis Coquillett
Pegomya gopheri Johnson
Atherigona orientalis Schiner
Coenosia spp.
Coenosopsia prima Malloch
Fannia sp.
Gymnodia arcuata (Stein)
Gymnodia cilifera (Malloch)
Gymnodia debilis (Williston)
Limnophora narona (Walker)
Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann)
Orthellia caesarion (Meigen)
Phaenicia cluvia (Walker)
Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius)
Johnsonia elegans Coquillett
Ravinia derelicta (Walker)
Ravinia spp.
Undetermined
Acronarista cornuta Reinhard
Actia sp.
Catharosia nebulosa (Coquillett)
Chaetonodexodes vanderwulpi
(Townsend)
Chaetophlepsis townsendi (Smith)
Clausicella floridensis (Townsend)
Elfia melissopodis (Coquillett)
Exoristoides n. sp.
Gaediopsis flavipes Coquillett
Leskiella brevirostris James


Family


A
S
S
S
B
B**
S
A
S
S
S
S
S
S
B
S
S
S**
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S**
S**
B
S
B
S
S
S
S
A
S
S
S
A
B
B
S
A
S
S
S

A
S
A
S
S
S










278 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976

TABLE 4.-Continued

Family Genus and species No. Area*

TACHINIDAE Lespesia aletiae (Riley) 1 S
Lixophaga mediocris Aldrich 1 S
Lydella sp., nr. thompsoni Herting 2 A
Medina n. sp. 2 S
Miamimyia cincta Townsend 1 S
Paradidyma singularis (Townsend) 1 A
Phasiopsis floridana Townsend 1 S
Pseudochaeta sp., nr. finals Reinhard 6 B
Pseudomyothyria ancilla (Walker) 2 A
Prophryno parviteres (Aldrich and 2 S
Webber)
Trichopoda plumipes (Fabricius) 1 S
Gen. sp. (Dexiinae) 1 A
Gen. sp. (Eryciinae) 1 S
Total = 443

*Area Code: A = Arcadia, Fla.; S = Archbold Station, Fla.; B = both areas.
**Species made up 5% or more of all prey taken.

weighed an average of 68.6 mg for rufibasis, compared to 53.6 mg for arcadi-
ensis (Table 1). The number of families of prey per cell was essentially
identical for the 2 species averaging 3.4 for rufibasis and 3.1 for arcadiensis
(Table 1).

PREY POSITIONS AND EGG PLACEMENT
Larger prey were uniformly placed head-inward in the cell whereas
smaller flies were occasionally placed obliquely or backwards. The ven-
ters of the prey generally faced the central longitudinal axis of the cell.
The egg-bearer, always 1 of the more common prey in the cell, was ventral-
side-upward at the inner end of the cell, usually near the bottom. The egg
of either species was white, slightly curved, and measured 2.0-2.5 x0.5-
0.6 mm. Its cephalic end was attached to the neck of the prey along the ven-
tral midline. The egg extended obliquely backward at an angle of 30-60
to the body axis of the fly, and was directed to the left or right side with
equal frequency.

LARVAL DEVELOPMENT AND COCOON STRUCTURE
The eggs of both species hatched 1-2 days after oviposition and the tiny
larva fed on a single prey for several days. In 1 cell of arcadiensis, the
small larva fed not only at the neck of the egg-bearer, but turned around
and fed at the base of the abdomen. Larger larvae were all head-inward
at the inner end of the cell. Uneaten prey were located at the opposite end
of the chamber. The last-instar larva was curled in a C, with fly remains
and uneaten parts lying in the curve between the head and anus. After con-
suming all the provisions in about a week, the larva turned around in its
cell before spinning a cocoon, i.e., its head faced the closed side passage.
Cocoons of both species were brown, ellipsoidal, and measured 10-12x5-6
mm. Thoraces and wings of the prey loosely adhered to the surface of the










Miller and Kurczewski: Nesting of Crabro spp.


cocoon and could be scraped away without damaging the exterior of silk
and sand.

EMERGENCE CAGES AND COLLECTION OF WASP PROGENY
Cylindrical emergence cages made of fine screening topped with 2 layers
of cheesecloth were placed over 31 completed nests of rufibasis in the grove
at the Archbold Station during January and February, 1973. The cages, 30
cm in diameter and about 35 cm high, were buried in 3-5 cm of sand to pre-
vent tipping. Our original intent was to trap the progeny of the January-
February females to determine whether they were all colored like the type
of rufibasis or whether some were colored like arcadiensis. However, by the
time the progeny emerged (Fig. 3, 16 March-8 April), the senior author had
discovered morphological differences between the 2 species and was not
surprised to find that all the offspring were typical rufibasis. Nevertheless,
the caging experiment was not a waste of time because we obtained an un-
expected bonus of cleptoparasitic flies as well as an important clue to
another problem: only 15 males and 10 females of rufibasis were collected
in the cages, a much smaller number than expected, even after accounting
for the parasites. This point will be reconsidered after a discussion of
cleptoparasites.

CLEPTOPARASITES
Although cleptoparasitic flies appeared to be the worst enemies of rufi-
basis and arcadiensis, ants were also a problem. A worker of Pheidole sp.,
near morrisii Forel, entered a roadside nest of arcadiensis in late March
and carried off a dolichopodid fly just captured by the wasp. Three spe-
cies of sarcophagid flies, Ravinia derelicta (Walker), Senotainia trilineata
(Wulp), and Ptychoneura aristalis (Coq.) were reared from cells of rufi-
basis or captured in emergence cages. The last 2 species were also reared
from cells of arcadiensis. Multiple maggots per cell were observed for
all 3 fly species, with as many as 9 per cell for R. derelicta, 7 for S. tri-
lineata, and 4 for P. aristalis. In addition, both sexes of flies were reared
from maggots in a single cell for each of the 3 cleptoparasites. Fully-
grown maggots of P. aristalis burrowed out of the Crabro cells and formed
puparia in the sand several cm away. They behaved similarly in sand-filled
plastic containers in the laboratory.
All specimens of R. derelicta were reared from a single cell of rufibasis
provisioned in late March. Interestingly, both sexes of this fly were taken
as prey by rufibasis females at the Archbold Station and at Arcadia. S. tri-
lineata was reared from 2 nests, 1 of rufibasis and 1 of arcadiensis. A female
of this "satellite" fly was observed trailing a prey-laden female of arcadi-
ensis to her nest. Flies of this genus have enlarged eye facets and are able
to larviposit on the prey before the wasp carries it into the nest (Evans and
Eberhard 1970).
P. aristalis, the most common parasite of rufibasis, was reared from
cells in the laboratory and captured in emergence cages. In all, 75 flies
emerged from 21 of 31 caged nests between 12 February and 7 April. Their
pattern of emergence is shown in Fig 3 and their distribution in the nests in
Fig. 4. The average number of days from completion of the nest by the wasp
to emergence of the first fly was 32.3 (N=21, R= 20-63). Only 1 observa-










The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976


- R ARISTALIS (cleptoparasites)
----C. RUFIBASIS (progeny)


12 16 20 24 28 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 1 4
FEB. MARCH APRIL


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
NO. OF P. ARISTALIS (CLEPTOPARASITES) PER NEST
Fig. 3. Pattern of emergence of Ptychoneura aristalis (cleptoparasites)
and Crabro rufibasis (progeny) from caged nests. Fig. 4. Number of Ptycho-
neura aristalis (cleptoparasites) per nest in 31 caged nests of Crabro rufi-
basis.

tion (63 days) exceeded the 40-day mark. The average number of days to
emergence of the last parasite was 38.8 (R=22-66), with only 3 observa-
tions (63, 63, 66 days) exceeding 46. These observations indicate that a
small number of P. aristalis took approximately twice as long as the
others to emerge. Possibly this is a built-in mechanism to insure survival


280



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2-


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Miller and Kurczewski: Nesting of Crabro spp.


of the cleptoparasites in the event of unfavorable changes in weather or
host abundance. Approximately two-thirds of the nests dug open to obtain
prey also contained fly maggots, confirming the high rate of parasitism ob-
served for the caged nests.

SEASONAL OCCURRENCE AND APPARENT POPULATION SIZES
Crabro rufibasis has been collected between 15 October (Gainesville,
Alachua Co.) and 1 June (Martin Co.), while C. arcadiensis has been col-
lected only from 15 March to 11 May (Archbold Biological Station, High-
lands Co.). Rufibasis has at least 2 generations a year at the Archbold Sta-
tion and possibly a third during the months of October and November. Un-
fortunately, the Station has not been visited by interested persons during
these months. A daily record of the number of active nests of rufibasis in
the January-February generation at the Archbold Station is plotted in Fig.
5. The actual number of females represented is somewhere between 15, the
maximum number of active nests on a given day, and 38, the number of nests
observed in the grove during January and February. Because females were
not individually marked, we cannot accurately state how many nests a
female makes during her life.
The small number of progeny collected in the emergence cages sug-
gested to us that rufibasis has only a partial second generation during
April at the Archbold Station. Eleven nests of rufibasis which were active
a total of 73 days (R = 2-10) yielded 52 healthy cells. Therefore the average
number of cells per day for this sample was 52/73=0.71. In contrast, 27
caged nests2 active a total of 291 days (R=2-28) produced only 25 wasps
(10 females) and 70 cleptoparasitic flies. For the moment, consider this to
represent 95 cells. Therefore the average number of cells per day for caged
nests was about 95/291=0.32, less than half the average for excavated
nests. If some of the P. aristalis developed from maggots in the same cell,
which is a strong possibility, the average number of cells per day for caged
nests would be even smaller. This line of reasoning led us to believe that
some of the progeny of the January-February generation were remaining
in the ground as larvae. One caged nest that produced no wasps during a
3-months period but was known by field observations to contain several
cells was dug open to obtain direct evidence. Only 2 cocoons were found,
but each contained a diapausing larva, not a developing pupa.
Five of the 10 rufibasis females trapped in cages during late March and
early April were released unharmed in the field immediately after they
emerged. Yet only 3 nests were discovered on the Station property during
the spring despite an intensive search. We take this as evidence that our cages
were effective in capturing nearly all the progeny of the January-February
generation and conclude that rufibasis has only a partial spring generation
at the Station.
Crabro arcadiensis apparently has only 1 generation a year, from mid-
March to early May. An almost daily record of the number of active nests
of arcadiensis on the Archbold Station fire trail is plotted in Fig. 6. In
all, 55 nests were observed on the fire trail and about 15 in other areas of
the Station. The same relationship between apparent population sizes of
'Four of the 31 caged nests were not included in these calculations. To the best of our know-
ledge, none of the excluded nests produced any adult offspring during March and April.











282


L 18
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The Florida Entomologist


JAN. FEB.


16 20 24 28 1 5
MARCH APRIL


9 1:


Fig. 5. Number of active nests of Crabro rufibasis during January and
February, 1973 at the Archbold Biological Station. Fig. 6. Number of active
nests of Crabro arcadiensis during March and April, 1973 at the Archbold
Biological Station.

arcadiensis and rufibasis was observed at Arcadia. In 1973, only 3 nests
of rufibasis were found there during the winter months, and no nests were
discovered in the spring. However, 20 nests of arcadiensis were observed at
Arcadia in late March.

DISCUSSION

The similarity in nesting behaviors of Crabro rufibasis and C. arca-
diensis is indeed impressive. Despite our extensive study and our attempts
to quantify many aspects of the nesting behavior, we found no absolute


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976










Miller and Kurczewski: Nesting of Crabro spp.


differences between the 2 species. The differences we noted were in terms
of the average behavior of individuals of the 2 species. Although rufibasis
and arcadiensis occurred in the same area during the spring, rufibasis had
its main generation during January and February. The 2 species occasion-
ally nested near each other, but mostly they selected different habitats.
Arcadiensis preferred natural sites with sparsely vegetated sand and pal-
mettos or scrubby oaks, while rufibasis preferred disturbed areas with large
oaks or flowering fruit trees. However, we believe rufibasis evolved in
Florida before man began modifying the natural vegetation for fruit pro-
duction and ranching. The clearest behavioral difference we noted, that
of prey preference, may also hinge upon the problem of natural versus dis-
turbed vegetation. The majority of flies captured by arcadiensis were ob-
served on sparsely vegetated sand, palmetto flowers, and sunlit leaves of
scrubby oaks. The flies taken by rufibasis were those around large oaks
and flowering fruit trees. A more detailed knowledge of the native Flori-
dian plants frequented by the prey flies of rufibasis might shed some light
on the problem. Although we are by no means experts on the vegetation of
southern Florida, we find it hard to believe that there are enough native
Floridian plants attracting flies in January and February to support a
main generation of rufibasis.
The choice of hunting sites may also influence the average size of fly
captured, another feature in which the 2 species differed. Rufibasis weighed
on the average no more than arcadiensis, but it selected prey averaging
2 mg heavier, and it sometimes carried prey heavier than itself. Other small
quantitative differences listed in Table 1 may also be significant behavior-
ally but should be regarded with caution until similar measurements of
adequate sample size are made elsewhere. For example, we suspect that the
longer average provisioning time and the smaller average number of prey
per cell for rufibasis are more than coincidental.
Behavioral data on other species of the hilaris group are lacking. Rau
and Rau (1918) observed what they thought was Crabro cingulatus (Pack-
ard) nesting in a steep sandbank near a lake in Missouri. However, the
senior author noted in the preceding paper that the female Packard asso-
ciated with cingulatus was, in fact, a female of argus (Packard). We have
not seen any specimens collected by the Raus, but we strongly suspect they
studied argus, not cingulatus.
Kurczewski and Acciavatti (1968) reviewed the nesting behaviors of 10
Neartic species of Crabro and made a rather thorough search of the be-
havioral literature on Crabro in the English language. Their summary of
the behavioral features shared by all species of Crabro applies equally
well to rufibasis and arcadiensis. They found species of Crabro to differ
most clearly in nest site selection, choice of prey, number of prey per cell,
and size of the prey. Our studies confirm the apparent value of choice of
prey, number of prey per cell, and size of prey in distinguishing species be-
haviorally. Their suggestion of distinct habitat preferences at the subgenus
level, particularly between banks and nearly level areas, has however
not held up. We have observed nests of arcadiensis, argus, advenus Sm.
and monticola (Pack.), representing all 4 of the previously recognized sub-
genera in the Nearctic Region, in both vertical and nearly horizontal soil
surfaces.
Crabro rufibasis and C. arcadiensis differ from nearly all other species










The Florida Entomologist


of Crabro in nest structure, a feature Kurczewski and Acciavatti (1968)
found to be of little value. The nests of the 2 Floridian species have a rela-
tively long vertical burrow, descending to an average of 25 or 30 cm in new
nests before curving horizontally, and the cells are almost always lo-
cated within 11 cm of a vertical line through the entrance. The cells of the 2
species averaged 32 and 36 cm deep and increased in age with increasing
depth. Vertical burrows of other species of Crabro are usually much shorter
and the cells are often more than 11 cm away from a vertical line through
the entrance. Likewise, cells of other species are rarely as deep as those of
rufibasis and arcadiensis, the correlation of cell age and depth is usually
not so clearly expressed, and cells are sometimes clustered at the same
level. The main burrow of the 2 Floridian species is not branched, whereas
it may be so in other species of Crabro.
We can find only 1 record of a Crabro nest similar to those of rufibasis
and arcadiensis. Adlerz (Kohl 1915) found a burrow of the Palearctic C.
cribrarius F. that descended rather vertically for 15-20 cm before turning
horizontally. The length of the horizontal section was not indicated. This
nest would resemble a nest of rufibasis or arcadiensis that was near com-
pletion because the vertical burrow became shorter as cells were added.
The prey of cribrarius is reminiscent of that stored by rufibasis and includes
Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Anthomyiidae, Syrphidae, Therevidae, Asilidae,
Tabanidae, and Empididae (Leclercq 1954, Hamm and Richards 1926). Fi-
nally, we noted that rufibasis and arcadiensis are among the most poly-
phagous species of Crabro yet studied, provisioning nests with at least
15 and 18 families of flies, respectively. Two species at the other extreme
are the Palearctic C. lapponicus Zett., preying only on Rhagionidae, and
the Nearctic C. cribrellifer (Pack.) storing exclusively Asilidae (Leclercq
1954, unpublished observations).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This study would not have been possible without the cooperation of
Mr. Richard Archbold. We thank him and the staff of the Archbold Station
for making our stay pleasant and productive. We are also especially grate-
ful to the following research scientists of the Systematic Entomology
Laboratory, USDA, ARS, for identifying the large number of prey flies and
cleptoparasites: R. J. Gagne, L. V. Knutson, C. W. Sabrosky, D. R. Smith,
G. C. Steyskal, F. C. Thompson, and W. W. Wirth.


LITERATURE CITED
EVANS, H. E. AND M. J. W. EBERHARD. 1970. The wasps. Univ. Mich. Press,
265 p.
HAMM, A. H. AND 0. W. RICHARDS. 1926. The biology of the British Crabro-
nidae. Trans. Ent. Soc. London 74:297-331.
KOHL, F. F. 1915. Die Crabronen (Hymenopt.) der paliaktischen Region.
Ann. K. K. Naturhist. Hofmus. 29:1-453.
KROMBEIN, K. V. 1964. Results of the Archbold expeditions. No. 87. Bio-
logical notes on some Floridian wasps (Hymenoptera, Aculeata).
Amer. Mus. Nov. 2201:1-27.
KURCZEWSKI, F. E. AND R. E. ACCIAVATTI. 1968. A review of the nesting be-


284


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976









Miller and Kurczewski: Nesting of Crabro spp.


haviors of the Nearctic species of Crabro, including observations
on C. advenus and C. latipes (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). J. New York
Ent. Soc. 76:196-212.
LECLERCQ, J. 1954. Monographie Syst6matique, phylog6n6tique et zoog6o-
graphique des Hym6nopteres Crabroniens. These, Fac. Sci. Univ.
Liege. Lejeunia Press, 371 p.
RAU, P. AND N. RAU. 1918. Wasp studies afield. Princeton Univ. Press, 372 p.




PHOSPHINE AS A FUMIGANT FOR GRAPEFRUIT IN-
FESTED BY CARIBBEAN FRUIT FLY LARVAE-(Note). Citrus
and other fruit infested by larvae of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha
suspense (Loew), must be fumigated with ethylene dibromide prior to ship-
ment from Florida to Japan, California or Texas (A. K. Burditt, Jr. and
D. L. von Windeguth; 1975, Proc. Fla. State. Hortic. Soc., 88:318).
Research on phosphine as an alternative commodity treatment has been
initiated at Miami. Phosphine (PH,) generated from aluminum phosphide
has been used for several years as a fumigant for insect pests of grain and
other stored products (D. L. Lindgren and L. E. Vincent; 1966, J. Stored
Prod. Res., 2:141). However, aluminum phosphide has not been used to con-
trol insect pests of fresh fruit because of possible phytotoxicity. A new
formulation has been tested that involves the use of magnesium phosphide.
This paper reports the results we obtained when magnesium phosphide
was used to generate phosphine gas for fumigation of grapefruit infested with
Caribbean fruit fly larvae. The test fruit was placed in a large outdoor cage
containing over 50,000 adult Caribbean fruit flies for 5 to 7 days. Then they
were removed and held at ambient temperature until fumigated.
Fruit were fumigated on 6 dates (about 1 week apart) from July 23
through 27 August 1975. Fumigations were in a 2,000 ft' semi-trailer van.
Fruit were removed at 6, 12, and 24 hr after fumigation was begun, and the
surviving larvae were counted (Table 1). Mortality ranged from 74 to 100%
after 6 hr, from 89 to 100% after 12 hr, and from 99 to 100% after 24 hr. Analy-
sis of the data by probit techniques showed that 50% mortality occurred
within 2 hr and 95% mortality within 11 hr. The concentration of phosphine
gas in the van was determined by using Draegerdetector tubes. The maxi-
mum concentration, 300 to 600 ppm, was reached 6 to 8 hr into the fumiga-
tion period. Thereafter the concentration declined gradually to between 73
and 200 ppm by 24 hr.
Our studies of the tolerance of fresh fruit to phosphine have shown that
grapefruit and avocados tolerate the treatments as applied. In preliminary
tests, there were no residues of phosphine or related chemicals in fruit that
had been fumigated. Phosphine therefore, may be a potential fumigant for
treatment of fresh fruit and other commodities infested by Tephritid larvae.
D. L. von Windeguth, A. K. Burditt, Jr. and D. H. Spalding, Subtropical
Horticulture Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Miami,
FL 33158.
This paper reports the results of research only. Mention of a product or
pesticide in this paper does not constitute a recommendation for use by the
U. S. Department of Agriculture nor does it imply registration under
FIFRA as amended.













The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976


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The Florida Entomologist


TWO NEW SPECIES OF DIPLOPODS FROM TEXAS
AND ONE FROM MEXICO'

H. F. LooMIs2''

5355 S. W. 92nd St., Miami, Florida 33156

ABSTRACT

Eurymerodesmus digitatus and Aniulus acuminatus are described as
new species with keys to the Texas species. Tarascolus reflexus is described
as new and placed in a key with the other 2 Mexican species.


A collection of 4 species of diplopods, made in Burnet Co., Texas, con-
tained 2 previously known species and 2 new ones, described hereafter. A
new species from new Mexico City also is described as of special interest in
adding characters and verifying previously doubtful ones in the genus to
which it belongs.
The 3 male holotypes and 2 allotypes are deposited in the Florida
State Collection of Arthropods in Gainesville. A male paratype of each
species is in the milliped collection of the National Museum of Natural
History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.

Desmonus Cook 1898
Desmonus crassus Loomis 1959

Although considerably removed from the only reported locality of this
species, the specimens show so few differences from it that they are thought
to represent only an extension of range.
Two males, female, Texas, Burnet Co., 5 mi ESE Marble Falls, 15-II-
75, J. C. Loomis.


Eurymerodesmus Brolemann 1900
KEY TO TEXAS species of Eurymerodesmus
1. Body 18.5 mm long, 2.5 mm wide; valves of female cyphopods
unequal in length................... ...........................sanbernardensis Causey
1'. Body 20-23 mm long, 3.5-3.6 wide; valves of female cyphopods
of equal length ..... ....... ....................................... ............... 2
2. Lower anterior process of male slender, finger-like, curved;
outer joint of gonopods straight .......................... digitatus new species
2'. Lower anterior mandibulary process of male broadly tri-
angular, straight; outer joint of gonopods bent near apex ----
.......................................................... ..... m elacis Cham berlin and M ulaik

'Contribution No. 346, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Depart-
ment of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville 32602.
'Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Florida Department of Agri-
culture and Consumer Services, Gainesville.
'Deceased 5 July 1976.


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976









The Florida Entomologist


Eurymerodesmus digitatus Loomis, NEW SPECIES
Diagnosis: Most closely related to melacis but differing mainly as
stated in key.
Description: Length of mature specimens 20 mm; male 3.2 mm wide;
female 3.6 mm wide and more convex. Color and its distribution appar-
ently much as in melacis. Lower anterior process of mandibles as men-
tioned in key and shown in Fig. 1, curving slightly inward; process of female
a much shorter, broadly rounded lobe. First segment of holotype with
raised margin in front of posterior angle extending a little laterad of that
preceding it, less so in paratype male. Lateral keels and their posterior
angles as in melacis. Last segment with 3 widely spaced macrosetae along


Fig. 1-8. Texas and Mexican millipeds. 1-3, Eurymerodesmus digitatus n.
sp.: 1) mandibulary stipes and margins of head and segment 1; 2) right gono-
pod, ventral view; 3) right cyphopod, cephalic view. 4-6, Aniulus acumina-
tus n. sp.: 4) mandibulary stipes of male; 5) left anterior gonopod, outer
lateral view; 6) left posterior gonopod, outer lateral view. 7-8, Tarascolus
reflexus n. sp.: 7) right side of anterior gonopods, anterior view; 8) right pos-
terior gonopod, anterior view.


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976









Loomis: New Diplopods From Texas and Mexico


each side of dorsum, another on side near apex, and 4 in apex. Anal scale
large, almost evenly rounded behind, with a most faint apical angulation.
Gonopodial opening large, broadly subcordate; lateral margin gradu-
ally raised from either end into a long, thin, rounded lobe, setose along
crest and on outer surface. Gonopods (Fig. 2) contained in body, each termi-
nal joint short, straight, with only faint upward curve. Coxae of first male
legs with a short, conic, distomesal tubercle; those of next legs with high,
curved, slenderly conic tubercle on ventral surface, the thicker seminal
tubercles on posterior surface and caudally directed. Third male sternum
very narrowly and deeply channeled along middle; sterna 4, 5, and 6 with
small setose tubercles each side, those of 7th sternum nearly twice as large
but smaller than those of 9th sternum,thereafter reduced and soon vanish-
ing. Cyphopod of female (Fig. 3) narrowly and evenly sagittate, its valves
nearly the same size and equal in length.
Holotype male, paratype male, female, 1 young, TEXAS, Burnet Co.,
5 mi ESE Marble Falls, 15-II-75, J. C. Loomis.

Aniulus Chamberlin 1940
Sixteen species now are known in this genus, 9 of them concentrated in
Texas, their original descriptions and illustrations of the gonopods readily
distinguishing them. The remaining species are widely scattered in other
states and apparently are quite localized.


KEY TO TEXAS SPECIES OF Aniulus
1. Secondary branch of posterior gonopods greatly reduced in
size, vestigial.............................................. ..................... vestigialis Loom is
1'. Both branches of posterior gonopods not greatly different in
size ............................. ................. 2
2. Both branches of posterior gonopods unusually broad.............
............................................. .................. austinensis C ham berlin
2'. Secondary branch of posterior gonopods slender ............................... 3
3. Seminal branch of posterior gonopods unusually broad............
.... .................. ..................... .................. .... ... orein es C h am b erlin
3'. Both branches of posterior gonopods slender......................................... 4
4. Apical half of produced portion of coxae of anterior gonopods
broadly foliar ................................................. ....... adelphus Chamberlin
4'. Apical half of produced portion of coxae of anterior gonopods
not broadly foliar......................... ..... ........... ........ ............ 5
5. Apical part of produced portion of coxae of anterior gonopods
long and very slender ............................................ dorophor Chamberlin
5'. Apical part of produced portion of coxae of anterior gonopods
sh orter an d less slen der ....................................... .................................. 6
6. Produced portion of coxae of anterior gonopods short and
smoothly clavate .......................... ............... ........ fluviatilis Chamberlin
6'. Produced portion of coxae of anterior gonopods longer and
m ore irregular in shape.............. .......... .......... ........... ...................... 7


289









290 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976

7. Produced portion of coxae of anterior gonopods twice as broad
above middle as at base ....................................... craterus Chamberlin
7'. Produced portion of coxae of anterior gonopods nearly as
broad near base as beyond ............................. ..................... ............... 8
8. Produced portion of coxae of anterior gonopods broad and
abruptly pointed ................................................. brazonus Cham berlin
8'. Produced portion of coxae of anterior gonopods more slender,
gradually acuminate ............... ........... acuminatus new species


Aniulus acuminatus Loomis, NEW SPECIES
Diagnosis: As suggested by the key, the closest relative among the
known species probably is brazonus Chamberlin 1940, as indicated by the
anterior and posterior gonopods, the illustrations of the 2 species show the
relationship, as well as the main differences.
Description: Largest specimen, holotype, 28 mm long, 53 segments;
other male with 51 segments. Head with mandibulary stipes as shown in
Fig. 4. Ocelli of holotype 2-3-5-6-7-8-9-10, beginning near antenna. Lower
margin of segment 1 long, straight to slightly rounded; raised rim strong.
Lower side of segment 2 with 3-5 deep channels in both males. Lower side
of male segment 7 long and straight but somewhat oblique. Mucro of last
segment moderately exceeding valves. Transverse sulcus of segments
strongly impressed across dorsum and only slightly curved in front of ad-
jacent prominent pores on anterior segments but more curved and farther
removed thereafter. Gonopods shown in Fig. 5 and 6. Sternum of 10th male
legs large, extending forward and upward well into body, with a prominent
median ridge, the lower end of which, in ventral view, projects as an angle
into gonopodial opening.
Holotype male, paratype male, female with last 3 segments legless,
TEXAS, Burnet Co., 5 mi ESE Marble Falls, 15-II-75, J. C. Loomis.

Ziniulus Chamberlin 1940
Ziniulus aethes Chamberlin 1940
Two males, Texas, Burnet Co., 5 mi ESE Marble Falls, 15-II-75, J. C.
Loomis. This is an extension of range for the species.

Tarascolus Chamberlin 1943
Neither species of this genus has been reported since the original descrip-
tions and illustrations appeared, and these left much to be desired. Hoff-
man and Orcutt 1960 did not examine specimens, and their statements of
characters were found on Chamberlin's text and figures, or studied con-
jectures. Thus, the finding of a third species allows certification of old and
new generic and specific characters and verification of the distinctness of
Tarascolus from Scobinomus Loomis 1953. Differences of the former genus
include the clasping first segment, lack of scobinae, straight posterior mar-
gin of segments which are without subventral serrations or dentations, and
coxites of anterior gonopods not grooved nor separated by membrane from
the sternum for much of their breadth.










Loomis: New Diplopods From Texas and Mexico


KEY TO SPECIES OF Tarascolus
1. Suture on either side of midbelt distinct.............. clarus Chamberlin
1'. Only anterior suture m ore or less distinct ............................................... 2
2. Punctations of midbelt noticeably smaller than on hindbelt;
coxal lobes of male legs 4 and 5 strongly reflexed ........~.......------.
.................... .... ........ ............................ ... ... reflexus new species
2'. Midbelt and hindbelt uniformly punctate; coxal lobes of
male legs 4 and 5 vertical .............. ................. bolivari Chamberlin



Tarascolus reflexus Loomis, NEW SPECIES
Diagnosis: Related to bolivari Chamberlin 1943 but outwardly distin-
guished by the fine punctations of midbelt, contrasting with coarse ones
of hindbelt, and by the reflected tips of coxal lobes of male legs 4 and 5;
gonopods also differ.
Description: Body black or nearly so above; length 37mm, diameter
3.8 mm; 48 segment both males; segment 6 and 7 strongly swollen on sides,
forming widest part of body. Clypeal fovea 4-4. Segment 1 moderately
emarginate behind stipes; thickly rimmed along its lower half; lower
limits directed downward and inward; surface with a few fine, rather short,
and irregular scratches, and fine, sparse punctations; posterior surface
with several striae above lateral angles. Segments, except terminal ones,
with broad, indefinite constriction containing midbelt; transverse suture
finely impressed between forebelt and midbelt of segment 10 holotypee),
segment 20 (paratype), to caudal end of body; no impression between
mid- and hindbelt, along middorsum, nor on sides near pores. Forebelt
finely transversely striate; midbelt finely and rather sparsely punctate
on all but a few caudal segments where size and number increase; hind-
belts, last segment, and anal valves coarsely punctate. Lateral striations
deeply impressed, often reaching nearly to pores or infrequently above
them, their back terminus not marked by a protuberance. Pores large, open-
ing from a distinct pit at front of hindbelt. Last segment broadly rounded
at apex, considerably exceeded by anal valves which meet in a deep re-
entrant angle.Preanal scale short, wide; broad apex at most only faintly
rounded; surface noticeably depressed in front of apical half. Gonopods
shown in Fig. 7 and 8; coxites of anterior gonopods smooth and without
grooves and only partly separated from sternum by membrane; sternum
deeply channeled between thick basal portion and that above. Legs 1 and 2
strongly crassate; claws longer and heavier than those that follow. Coxal
lobes of third legs longer and narrower than those of bolivari, extending
between lobes of legs 4 and 5, these lobes narrowly elevated with strongly
reflexed tips; coxal lobes of 6th legs broader than preceding ones, ending
in a subangular tip, recurving slightly; coxae of 7th legs much thicker and
not lobed. Ventral margin of segment 7 high and thin across middle, a
separate excavation either side, in front, for reception of tips of anterior
gonopods.
Holotype male, another male, MEXICO, 21 km NE Mexico City (La
Marquesa), 22-VI-75, Sanchez Velazquez Leticia.







The Florida Entomologist


LITERATURE CITED
CHAMBERLIN, R. V. 1940. New genera and species of North American Paraiu-
lidae. Bull. Univ. Utah 30(11):3-39.
CHAMBERLIN, R. V. 1943. On Mexican millipeds. Bull Univ. Utah 34(7):
3-103.
CHAMBERLIN, R. V., AND S. MULAIK. 1941. On a collection of millipeds
from Texas and New Mexico. J. New York Ent. Soc. 49:57-64.
HOFFMAN, R. L., AND B. S. ORCUTT. 1960. A synopsis of the Atopetholidae,
a family of spirobolid millipeds. Proc. United States Nat. Mus. 111
(3426):95-166.
LOOMIS, H. F. 1953. New millipeds of the western states and lower Cali-
fornia. J. Washington Acad. Sci. 43:417-22.
LOoMIS, H. F. 1959. Millipeds collected enroute from Florida to San An-
tonio, Texas, and Vicinity. J. Washington Acad. Sci. 49:157-63.


PRINTING



Specialzing in B0O s anald cpubl.ca ons




Storter Printing Co.


GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


292


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976









The Florida Entomologist


FIFTEEN NEW SPECIES OF ERYTHRONEURA
(ERYTHRIDULA) (HOMOPTERA, CICADELLIDAE), II1

LEON W. HEPNER

Department of Entomology, Mississippi State University,
Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762

ABSTRACT

Fifteen new species of Erythroneura (Erythridula) and 1 previously
named species (E. minute Johnson) are described. The new species are clif-
fordi, jonesi, dunni, parsonsi, garretsoni,chandleri, ivae, pecanae, tomen-
tosae, kennethi, lucileae, clarysae, wandae, edgari and styraxae.


The subgenus Erythridula contains some of the most common species
of Erythroneura found in eastern North America. All Erythroneura are
restricted to woody plants for oviposition and many are host specific. Of
the species described in this paper (including minute Johnson), 1 each is
found on species of Rubus, Vaccinium, Acer, Quercus and Styrax; 5 are on
species of Carya, and the oviposition hosts of 5 species are not known.
Erythroneura adults leave hibernating quarters in mid spring and go to
spring food plants before continuing to summer or oviposition hosts. Ilex
decidua is a common spring food plant in central Mississippi and, on oc-
casion, more than 100 different species of Erythroneura have been collected
from 1 plant in a matter of 10 or 15 minutes. Also, after the last part of
August many adults leave the summer host and feed on selected fall food
plants before entering hibernating quarters. Records before May 1 and after
September 1, then, may be for spring and fall food plants rather than for
oviposition hosts.
All holotypes of species described in this paper will be deposited in the
Illinois Natural History Survey collection.

Erythroneura (Erythridula) cliffordi Hepner, new species
(Fig. 1)
Length 2.8 mm; yellowish, typical markins faintly indicated.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view broad, almost parallel margined, basal
processes closely appressed to shaft, extending almost to gonopore; in
posteroventral view with basal processes slender, slightly curved. Dorsal
process about one-fourth length of shaft. Foot of style with long slender
anterior point, much shorter posterior point and slender heel. Pygofer
hook medium.
Holotype male, State College, Miss., 8-VII-1969, L. W. Hepner, on
Rubus sp.
Nearest E. rubens Beamer but with larger aedeagal shaft in lateral view
and with basal processes slightly curved laterally in dorsoventral view.


'Publication No. 6513, Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, Missis-
sippi State, Mississippi 39762.


293


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976









The Florida Entomologist


Fig. 1-8. Erythroneura (Erythridula) spp. i. E. cliffordi; 2. E. jonesi; 3. E.
dunni; 4. E. parsonsi; 5. E. garretsoni; 6. E. chandler; 7. E. minute John-
son; 8. E. ivae. A. Aedeagus, lateral view; B. Aedeagus, posteroventral
view; C. Foot of style, lateral view.


Erythroneura (Erythridula) jonesi Hepner, new species
(Fig. 2)
Length 2.7 mm; pale yellow with typical markings indicated.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view long, almost parallel margined with a
process on dorsal margin near apex, basal processes arising from shaft near
base, bowed ventrally, extending about to gonopore; in posteroventral
view slender, a pair of small triangular lateral lobes at apex, basal pro-


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976










Hepner: New Erythroneura


cesses straight and narrow. Dorsal process about one-third length of shaft.
Foot of style with short triangular posterior point and small anterior
point. Pygofer hook slender.
Holotype male, Juniper Springs, Fla., 9-VI-1963, L. W. Hepner, on
Vaccinium sp.
Nearest E. fumida (Gillette) but with apex of aedeagal shaft enlarged
in lateral view and with basal processes straight in posteroventral view.

Erythroneura (Erythridula) dunni Hepner, new species
(Fig. 3)
Length 3.1 mm; typical markings orange.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view slender, membranous area on basal half
of dorsal margin, basal processes on ventral margin of apical half, extend-
ing about to apex; in posteroventral view broadest near base, basal pro-
cesses curved laterally on outer fourth. Dorsal process about half length
of shaft. Foot of style with no anterior point and with posterior point
curved, pointed and almost length of instep. Pygofer hook small.
Holotype male and 7 male paratypes, Urbana, Ill., 22-IV-1959, H. B.
Cunningham.
Nearest E. minute Johnson but with basal processes free of shaft only
on apical half and with membranous area on basal half of shaft in lateral
view.

Erythroneura (Erythridula) parsonsi Hepner, new species
(Fig. 4)
Length 3.1 mm; typical markings orange.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view short with basal processes arcuate, aris-
ing at apical two-fifths of shaft on ventral margin and extending about to
gonopore; in posteroventral view almost parallel margined to pointed
apex, basal processes curved laterally. Dorsal process about half length
of shaft. Foot of style with posterior point slightly curved, about length
of instep, anterior point very short. Pygofer hook medium.
Holotype male, Lexington, Tenn., 3-VII-1963, L. W. Hepner, on Acer
rubrum. Male paratypes as follows: 1, Timothy, Tenn., 1-IX-1963, L. W.
Hepner, on Acer saccarum; 33, Kingston, N. Y., 26-VIII-1966, 18 on Acer
pennsylvanicum, 5 on Acer saccarum, 10 on Fagus grandifolia, L. W. Hep-
ner; 2 Urbana, Ill., 22-IV-1959, H. B. Cunningham; 6, Enfield, Ill., 13-IV-
1960, Ross and Cunningham; 2, Fountain Bluff, Ill., 13-II-1957, Ross and
Stannard; 1, Dalton, Ga., 26-VIII-1963, L. W. Hepner, on Acer rubum, and
5, State College, Miss., 2 on 29-II-1963, and 1 each on 17-III-1962, 28-III-
1962 and 19-VI-1968, all by L. W. Hepner.
Nearest E. minute Johnson but with basal processes arising at apical
two-fifths of shaft.

Erythroneura (Erythridula) garretsoni Hepner, new species
(Fig. 5)
Length 3 mm; cream to hyaline with typical markings yellow and indis-
tinct.










The Florida Entomologist


Aedeagal shaft in lateral view broad, roughened along ventral margin,
basal processes arising from socket near base of shaft, reaching about to
gonopore; in posteroventral view slender, basal processes curved laterally
on outer half. Dorsal process about half length of shaft. Foot of style with
posterior point curved, about length of instep, anterior point almost a right
angle. Pygofer hook small.
Holotype male and 6 male paratypes reared in cage #1339 at State
College, Miss., in 1969, on Carya glabra, L. W. Hepner. Additional male
paratypes reared in cages #278, #276 and #364 in 1964 and #270 in 1969 at
State College, Miss., L. W. Hepner; and from Illinois, 1 each, Cave-in-
Rock, 1-IX-1962, L. W. Hepner, on Carya cordiformis; Enfield, 13-IV-
1960, Ross and Cunningham, and Oblong, 10-IX-1954, Ross and DeLong.
Nearest E. minute Johnson but with ventral margin of aedeagal shaft
roughened and with larger posterior point on foot of style.




Erythroneura (Erythridula) chandler Hepner, new species
(Fig. 6)
Length 3 mm; white with typical markings orange.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view curved, basal processes arising from ven-
tral part of shaft at basal fifth, extending about to gonopore; in postero-
ventral view slender, basal processes curved laterally on outer fourth.
Dorsal process about half length of shaft. Foot of style with posterior
point slightly shorter than instep, anterior point almost a right angle. Py-
gofer hook small.
Holotype male and 4 male paratypes, State College, Miss., 30-III-1962,
L. W. Hepner. Additional male paratypes as follows: 1, State College,
Miss., 13-IV-1961, L. W. Hepner; 1 Dixon Springs, Ill., 2-IX-1963, on Carya
ovata, L. W. Hepner; 2, Urbana, Ill., 22-IV-1959, H. B. Cunningham
and 1, Norris City, Ill., 13-IV-1960, Ross and Cunningham.
Nearest E. minute Johnson but with longer aedeagal shaft, basal pro-
cesses extending from shaft itself on basal fifth and basal processes not
enlarged near apex in lateral view.



Erythroneura (Erythridula) minute Johnson
(Fig. 7)
Erythroneura minute Johnson, 1935. Bul. Ohio Biol. Surv. 6:93.
Length 3 mm; white with typical markings distinct and orange.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view short, broad, basal processes arising
near base of shaft, bowed ventrally, broadest on outer half before pointed
apex; in posteroventral view bluntly pointed, basal processes curved out-
ward on outer fourth. Dorsal process more than half length of shaft. Foot
of style with posterior point curved, about length of instep, anterior point
about a right angle. Pygofer hook small.
This species was reared on Carya sp. in Mississippi.
Nearest E. varia McAtee but with much shorter aedeagal shaft.


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976









Hepner: New Erythroneura


Erythroneura (Erythridula) ivae Hepner, new species
(Fig. 8)

Length 3.1 mm; white with typical markings lemon yellow.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view broad, basal processes arising from ven-
tral margin of shaft near base; in posteroventral view slender, basal
processes almost straight, extending diagonally from shaft near base. Dor-
sal process about one-third length of shaft. Foot of style with posterior
point about length of instep, anterior point almost a right angle. Pygofer
hook medium.
Holotype male and 1 male paratype, Foley's Woods, Paris, Ill., 21-
IX-1960, Ross and Stannard, and 2 male paratypes, Urbana, Ill., 22-IV-
1959, H, B. Cunningham.
Nearest E. minute Johnson but with basal processes almost straight and
extending diagonally from near base of shaft, and with longer posterior
point on foot of style.

Erythroneura (Erythridula) pecanae Hepner, new species
(Fig. 9)

Length 2.7 mm; yellowish with typical markings indicated.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view curved, basal processes bowed ventrally,
almost reaching gonopore; in posteroventral view with basal processes
curved on outer fourth. Dorsal process about half length of shaft. Foot of
style with posterior point about length of instep, curved, anterior point al-
most a right angle. Pygofer hook small.
Holotype male, allotype female and 5 pairs of paratypes, reared in
cage #208, in 1969, State College, Miss., on Carya illinoiensis, L. W. Hep-
ner and 14 male and 9 female paratypes reared in cage #211 in 1969. Addi-
tional male paratypes as follows: 1, Amboy, Ill., 27-IX-1956, Stannard
and Ross; 1, Hemphill, Tex., 2-VII-1962, Glenn Wiygul; 1, Timothy, Tenn.,
1-IX-1963, on Carpinus caroliniana, L. W. Hepner and 1, Yellville,
Ark., 23-VIII-1962, L. W. Hepner.
Nearest E. varia McAtee but with basal processes broadest at base
in lateral view and contiguous along basal three-fifths in dorsoventral
view.
Erythroneura (Erythridula) tomentosae Hepner, new species
(Fig. 10)

Length 3 mm; white with typical markings yellow.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view apically enlarged, basal processes aris-
ing on socket at base of shaft, slightly curved, extending to gonopore; in
posteroventral view short, basal processes slender, curved laterally. Dor-
sal process about three-fifths length of shaft. Foot of style with slender
posterior point about length of instep, anterior point almost a right angle.
Pygofer hook small and blunt.
Holotype male, allotype female and 3 male paratypes, reared at State
College, Miss., on Carya tomentosa, in cage #118 in 1967, L. W. Hepner.
Nearest E. varia McAtee but with basal processes extending from socket
near base of shaft and basal processes not enlarged apically in lateral
view.









The Florida Entomologist


Fig. 9-16. Erythroneura (Erythridula) spp. 9. E. pecanae; 10. E. tomen-
tosae; 11. E. kennethi; 12. E. lucileae; 13. E. clarysae; 14. E. wandae; 15. E.
edgari; 16. E. styraxae. A. Aedeagus, lateral view; B. Aedeagus, postero-
ventral view; C. Foot of style, lateral view.

Erythroneura (Erythridula) kennethi Hepner, new species
(Fig. 11)
Length 3 mm; pale yellow with darker markings barely evident.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view curved, short, curved basal processes
near middle on ventral margin; in posteroventral view short, curved,
sharply pointed basal processes emerge from shaft near middle on lateral
margins. Dorsal process about three-fifths length of shaft. Foot of style
with slender, curved posterior point about one and one-half times length


298


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976









Hepner: New Erythroneura


of instep, anterior point small but distinct. Pygofer hook small and
sharply pointed.
Holotype male, Enfield, Ill., 13-IV-1960, Ross and Cunningham.
Nearest E. varia McAtee but with much shorter basal processes and
with posterior point of foot of style much longer.

Erythroneura (Erythridula) lucileae Hepner, new species
(Fig. 12)
Length 3 mm; typical markings orange and distinct.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view curved, apically enlarged, basal pro-
cesses rising at base of shaft, bowed ventrally; in posteroventral view slen-
der, basal processes curved abruptly at outer fourth. Dorsal process about
half length of shaft. Foot of style with large heel, slender posterior point
longer than instep, anterior point very small. Pygofer hook small and
slender.
Holotype male and 4 male paratypes, Coffeyville, Kans., 25-VIII-1962,
on Quercus marilandica, L. W. Hepner.
Nearest E. varia McAtee but with foot of style with much larger heel
and longer, more slender posterior point.

Erythroneura (Erythridula) clarysae Hepner, new species
(Fig. 13)
Length 3 mm; typical markings pale orange.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view straight, broadest at base, basal pro-
cesses not extending to gonopore; in posteroventral view straight and
slender with basal processes resembling narrow lateral flanges on mid-
dle half of shaft. Dorsal process about half length of shaft. Foot of style
with posterior point curved,about length of instep, meeting instep at obtuse
angle, anterior point short. Pygofer hook short.
Holotype male, Rushville, Ill., 29-IV-1960, on Aesculus sp., Ross
and Cunningham, (probably the spring food plant and not the oviposition
host).
Nearest E. varia McAtee but differs in having short basal processes
closely appressed to shaft and the obtuse angle by which the posterior point
joins the instep of foot of style.

Erythroneura (Erythridula) wandae Hepner, new species
(Fig. 14)
Length 3 mm; scutellum black with typical markings yellow and
irregular.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view long and slender, basal processes api-
cally enlarged, arising from socket near base of shaft and extending to
gonopore; in posteroventral view basal processes slender and sinuate,
crossed twice on ventral margin of shaft. Dorsal process about half length
of shaft. Foot of style broad, posterior point straight, about length of in-
step, anterior point short but distinct. Pygofer hook slender.
Holotype male, State College, Miss., 22-IX-1961, on Carya illinoiensis,
L. W. Hepner. Male paratypes as follows: 1, State College, Miss., 1-VIII-









The Florida Entomologist


1959, L. W. Hepner, and 1, Houston, Miss., 15-IX-1961, on Quercus falcata,
L. W. Hepner. These collections could well be on the fall food plant
and not on the oviposition host.
Nearest E. penenoeva Beamer but with the basal processes sinuately
twice crossed in posteroventral view.

Erythroneura (Erythridula) edgari Hepner, new species
(Fig. 15)
Length 3 mm; pale yellow with typical markings barely indicated.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view broadest basally, basal processes
curved, about reaching gonopore; in posteroventral view slender, basal
processes two-thirds length of shaft, laterad of shaft, curved on outer half.
Dorsal process about two-fifths length of shaft. Foot of style with broad
posterior point longer than instep, anterior point short. Pygofer hook
small.
Holotype male, Rocky Point, Clarkville, Ill., 21-IX-1960, Ross and
Stannard.
Nearest E. varia McAtee but with shorter, straighter basal processes
in lateral view and with posterior point of foot of style straighter, heavier
and meeting instep at an obtuse angle.

Erythroneura (Erythridula) styraxae Hepner, new species
(Fig. 16)
Length 2.5 mm; pale yellow with typical markings barely evident.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view almost parallel margined, slightly
curved, basal processes reaching gonopore; in posteroventral view slender,
pointed, basal processes closely appressed to sides of shaft. Dorsal pro-
cess about half length of shaft. Foot of style with anterior and posterior
points short, about equal in length. Pygofer hook bluntly pointed.
Holotype male, allotype female and 2 male and 1 female paratypes
reared in cage #254 in 1963, State College, Miss., L. W. Hepner, on Styrax
sp.
Nearest E. tridens Beamer but with basal processes closely appressed
to shaft in posteroventral view and with shorter posterior point on foot
of style.


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976










The Florida Entomologist


LABORATORY REARING OF THE
COFFEE BEAN WEEVIL' 23

M. A. VITELLI, H. N. NIGG, AND R. F. BROOKS

University of Florida, IFAS, Agricultural Research and Education Center,
Lake Alfred, Florida 33850

ABSTRACT

A method for mass rearing of the coffee bean weevil and an artificial
diet utilizing readily available ingredients are described.


The coffee bean weevil, Araecerus fasciculatus De Geer, has a world-
wide distribution and has been reported as a pest of many agricultural com-
modities (Mphuru 1974), particularly coffee and cacao (Reh 1907, Morales
1966, Gallego 1967), and a variety of stored products (Back 1931, Cotton
1963). Hubbard (1885) found the coffee bean weevil in dried oranges in
Florida. An earlier report showed that all stages inhabit dried oranges
(Anonymous 1879). Studies by Sayed (1935) showed that the best develop-
ment of the coffee bean weevil on natural food occurs with high moisture
and temperature.
Cabal (1952) was able to rear several generations of the insect on coffee
beans, pastas, diets elaborated from cookies, and several products made
with grained cacao and corn. The only requirements of these diets seemed to
be the proper consistency and moisture. Recently, reports by numerous
growers about the increasing populations and fruit drop associated with the
coffee bean weevil (Woodruff 1972) have stimulated further research on
this insect in Florida.
Adult weevils are difficult to collect in large numbers in the field.
Therefore, a mass production method was needed to regularly obtain in-
sects of a uniform age for detailed studies on the biology and control of
the coffee bean weevil. This report details this technique.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
All ingredients for the diet (Table 1) were obtained at a local super-
market. The diet was prepared as follows: The ingredients in Table 1 were
added in the order listed while blending continuously. They were blended
until a smooth, even paste was achieved. The mixture was poured into an
aluminum or wax paperlined medium-sized baking pan to a 1-inch level.
This was allowed to rise to twice its original height, placed in an oven at
350F, and baked for 25 to 35 min or until a bread-like consistency was ob-
tained.

'This investigation was supported in part by an IBP sponsored project entitled "The Prin-
ciples, Strategies, and Tactics of Pest Population Regulation and Control in Major Crop Eco-
systems." NSF Grant GB 34718 to the University of California at Berkeley and the University
of Florida.
'Coleoptera: Anthribiidae.
'Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 7005. Received for publi-
cation 15 October 1975.


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976










The Florida Entomologist


TABLE 1. LIST OF INGREDIENTS FOR PREPARATION OF DIET FOR LABORA-
TORY CULTURING OF Araecerus fasciculatus.

Proportional
Ingredients Quantity parts by vol.


Chicken eggs (whole, blended) 2 medium 8
Prunes (dry, pitted)* 50 g 8
Kitchen salt (noniodized) 0.3 g few grains
Bakers' yeast 7 g 1
Lemon juice (natural strength)** 30 ml 1
Bees' honey (natural) 45 ml 2
Unflavored gelatin 15 g 1
Infant feeding formula 300 ml 8
(liquid form-concentrated)t
Whole wheat flour 140 g 16

*Prunes can be replaced with dry fruits: apricots, raisins, or apples.
**Lemon juice is used to lower pH to 5.4-5.5.
tOptional-gelatin is not necessary but it improves consistency of media-"Knox" brand
was used.
*Infant feeding formula, SMA or Similac was used. Similar formulas can be used.

Baked diet was cut in chunks 2 x 2 x 4 cm (approx). A toothpick was in-
serted into each chunk, the chunk was lightly dipped into melted (4:1)
beeswax-paraffin4 mixture, the wax coat was allowed to cool, and the
chunks were stored at 450F.
Cages were made of 5 cmX 11 cm plastic vials with an 18 mesh per 2.54
cm screen bottom. One diet chunk was exposed in each cage for 1 week to 10
adult weevils (5 male and 5 female) for oviposition.
Following the 1-week exposure, each chunk was replaced with a fresh
one. Exposed chunks were placed in other cages for completion of larval
development and adult emergence. Adult weevils and exposed chunks were
held at 80+3F, 13 hr light, and 785% RH. Adult weevils were con-
veniently harvested with suction into a vaccum flask.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Development of the diet reported here was derived from the agar-base
diet of Vitelli (1968)5. However, the agar-base diet desiccated rapidly and
immature weevil mortality was frequently as high as 100%. Adding the wax
coat to the diet obviated this problem.
Experimentation with diets made from elaborated cereals and instant
breakfast products produced several generations of the weevil, but these
were inefficient and inconvenient for mass rearing purposes.
The life cycle of the weevil reared continuously under laboratory con-
ditions on this diet varied according to different environmental conditions.

"Paraffin Tissue Prep., Cat. No. T-565, Melting Point 56.5'C, from Fisher Scientific Company
was used.
'Vitelli, M. A. 1968. Some factors affecting the efficiency of coleomegilla maculata (De Geer)
as a predator of the bollworm. Masters Thesis, Univ. of Arkansas.


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976










Vitelli et al.: Coffee Bean Weevil Rearing


For instance, at 8030F, development from egg to adult required an aver-
age of 26 days, and at 7230F it required an average of 56 days. Adults
lived an average of 10 to 12 weeks.
Weevils pupated inside the diet, and the adults usually spent a period
of 2 to 3 days feeding and working their way out of the chunk.
Mating was observed within 2 to 3 days after adult emergence, and ovi-
position commenced 5 to 7 days after mating. Each chunk of diet yielded
87 to 178 adults.
Twenty-two consecutive generations of this weevil have been reared on
this diet with an average increase of 10-fold per generation.
This method permits rearing the coffee bean weevil with a minimum of
labor and trouble. The cost of each chunk of diet is estimated at 10 cents
or approximately 1 dollar per 1,000 weevils.
Due to the variety of hosts reported for the coffee bean weevil, other
diets and rearing techniques may also have prove successful. Research
in this area is encouraged.


LITERATURE CITED
ANONYMOUS. 1879. Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture for 1879.
Washington: GPO.
BACK, E. A. 1931. Stored-grains pests. USDA Farmers Bull. 1260. 46 p.
CABAL, A. 1952. Biologia y Control del Gorgojo del Caf6: Araecerus fasci-
culatus De Geer. Universidad Nacional, Facultad de Agronomia,
Medellin, Colombia, S. A. 72 p.
COTTON, R. T. 1963. Pests of stored grain and grain products. Burgess,
Minneapolis. 318 p.
GALLEGO, L. M. 1967. Lista preliminary de insects de importancia econo-
mica y secundaria que afectan los principles cultivos, animals
domisticos y al hombre en Colombia. Revista, Facultad Nacional
de Agronomia de Medellin 26(65):1-24.
HUBBARD, H. G. 1885. Insects affecting the orange. Washington: GPO.
MORALES, M. E. 1966. Combate de plagas del Caf6. Bol. Divulg No. 41.
32 p. Minist. Agric. Ganaderia, Costa Rica.
MPHURU, A. N. 1974. Araecerus fasciculatus De Geer (Coleoptera: Anthri-
biidae): A Review. Trop. Stored Prod. Information 26:7-15.
REH, L. 1907. Insektenfrass an Kakao-Bohnen Z. Wiss. Insekt. Biol. 3:21-5.
SAYED, M. T. 1935. On the biology of Araecerus fasciculatus De Geer (Col.
Anthribiidae) with special reference to the effects of variations in the
nature and water content of the food. Ann. Appl. Biol. 22:557-77.
WOODRUFF, R. E. 1972. The coffee bean weevil, Araecerus fasciculatus De
Geer, a potential new pest of citrus in Florida (Coleoptera: Anthri-
biidae). Fla. Dep. Agr. Consum. Serv., Div. Plant Ind. Ent. Circ. 117.
2. p.










The Florida Entomologist


FEEDING BY FOUR SPECIES OF MIGRATING BUTTER-
FLIES IN NORTHERN FLORIDA.-(Note). Four species of migratory
butterflies (C. B. Williams, 1930, The migration of butterflies, Oliver and
Boyd, London) were observed at the Univ. of Fla. experimental farm, Green
Acres, Alachua Co., Florida in October 1975. The butterflies were the long-
tailed skipper, Urbanus proteus (L.), the cloudless sulphur, Phoebis
sennae (L.), the buckeye, Junonia lavinia (Cramer), and the gulf fritillary,
Agraulis vanilla (L.). On 14 and 21 October, we observed butterflies en-
countering a mixed flower patch measuring approximately 23 X 32 m which
was situated approximately 90 m south of a wooded area. The butterflies
had to cross a portion of plowed field to reach the flower patch. The most
abundant flowers (in order of abundance) were Monarda punctata L. (Labi-
atae), Heterotheca subaxillaris (Lam.) Britton and Rusby (Compositae),
Crotalaria sp. (Leguminosae), and a yellow-flowered Oenothera sp.
(Onagraceae). The first 2 species were by far the most numerous. The tem-
perature on both days reached 290C and the wind was variable from N to
SE up to 7 m/s. We observed 1) numbers of butterflies landing in or passing
through the flower patch, 2) numbers of butterflies arriving at and leaving
the flower patch during 20-min periods in the morning and afternoon, 3) type
of flower each butterfly landed on, and 4) activities of butterflies while in
the flower patch.
The data for 1) and 3) are presented on Table 1. On 21 October during the
morning (11:10-11:30 AM) and afternoon (4:15-4:45 PM) we observed nearly
the same number of butterflies entering the patch from the N and NW as
were leaving the patch flying SE. Only P. sennae, which seemed to prefer
the relatively scarce Oenothera, did not land at least as often as it flew
through. No butterflies were seen laying eggs, but observations indicated
that almost all butterflies landing were feeding. This is the first report of
these butterflies stopping to feed while migrating.
We would like to thank Drs. James E. Lloyd, Thomas J. Walker, Jona-
than Reiskind, and Thomas Emmel for their suggestions, and Dr. Dana G.
Griffin, III for some plant determinations. David B. Richman and G. B. Ed-
wards, Dep. Zoology, and Dep. Entomology and Nematology, respec-
tively, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville 32611.

TABLE 1. REACTION OF MIGRATORY BUTTERFLIES TO A FLOWER PATCH.
Butterfly # Landing # Flying % of those which landed on plants
on plants Through Monarda Heterotheca Oenothera Other
14 October
3:00-4:00 PM
U. proteus 216 42
P. sennae 3 31 No observations made
J. lavinia 4 2
A. vanillae 7 7
21 October
six 20-minute
periods from
12:05-3:55 PM
U. proteus 152 32 75.7 14.5 9.8*
P. sennae 15 52 6.3 68.8 25.0
J. lav)inia 3 2 100.0
A. canillae 10 7 50.0 30.0 20.0**
*Includes 2 on Crotalaria sp., 3 on Rubus sp. leaf, and 1 on unidentified composite.
**Includes 1 on Crotalaria sp.


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976









The Florida Entomologist


FEEDING OF CORN EARWORM1 IN THE LABORATORY
ON EXCISED SILKS OF SELECTED CORN ENTRIES
WITH NOTES ON ORIUS INSIDIOUSS3

B. R. WISEMAN4, W. W. MCMILLIAN4, AND N. W. WIDSTROM5

Southern Grain Insects Research Laboratory
Agr. Res. Serv., USDA, Tifton, GA 31794

ABSTRACT

Selected corn, Zea mays L., entries, previously classified in the field
as resistant or susceptible, were evaluated in the laboratory using corn
earworm, Heliothis zea (Boddie), larval growth and mortality to measure
the effects of utilizing silks as diets. Data obtained on earworm larval
growth and mortality, when force-fed silks of resistant corns, indicated
that at least 2 mechanisms of resistance were present, tolerance and either
antibiosis or non-preference.


In 1972, Wiseman et al. reported that certain corn, Zea mays L., lines
were tolerant of larval populations of the corn earworm (CEW), Heliothis
zea (Boddie), in the field. These resistant corns supported as many or more
larvae/ear, yet sustained less ear damage than susceptible corns. In at-
tempts to delineate the plant factors underlying the resistance, Wiseman
et al. (unpublished data)6 found that 2 of the resistant corns that were
tolerant to CEW had long silk channels, maintained a high moisture con-
tent in the silks, and possessed a larger quantity of silk. Moreover, another
previously classified resistant field corn had a long silk channel, but it
also had low moisture content in the silks and possessed a small quantity
of silk. Our objectives in this study were to examine the effects of force feed-
ing silks from the resistant and susceptible corns to corn earworm larvae
in an effort to determine which resistance mechanisms were present and to
determine the presence of Orius insidiosus (Say) on the silks.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Early-Season Test.-Six corn hybrids and 1 population which had been
selected as either resistant or susceptible test entries were planted in 25-
row plots 6.1 m long.
Silks were harvested when 100% of the plants were in full silk (3 days
past initial silking) and every 5 days thereafter for 20 days. Silks were
separated within each entry as exposed silk (that position beyond the husk
tip) and unexposed silk (the silk in the silk channel). Ten masses of silk

Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.
SIn cooperation with University of Georgia College of Agriculture Experiment Stations,
Coastal Plain Station, Tifton, GA 31794. Received 9 February, 1976.
Mention of a proprietary product does not constitute an endorsement by the USDA.
SResearch Entomologist.
Research Geneticist.
"Wiseman, B. R., N. W. Widstron, and W. W. McMillian. Unpublished data. Ear char-
acteristics and mechanisms of resistance among selected corns to corn earworm.


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976


305










The Florida Entomologist


(exposed or unexposed) from each of 5 plots were placed in diet cups (1 silk
mass/cup) that contained moistened filter paper. One corn earworm first-
instar from the Tifton, Georgia laboratory colony was placed on the silks
of each diet cup, and the cups were placed in a constant temperature room
maintained at 26.70C with a relative humidity of 70 2%. Mortality of the
larvae was recorded at the end of each fifth day for 25 days. Every 5 days
the living larvae were placed in new diet cups containing newly harvested
masses of silk of the appropriate age.
Late-Season Test.-A similar test was conducted with 5 of the same 7
entries to determine the effect of silk in a late-season planting on the
weight of CEW larvae. The test entries were planted in 6.1-m single row
plots in a randomized complete block design with 6 replications. In this
test, however, both the percentage mortality and the weight of larvae were
determined 10 days after the CEW larvae were placed on silk (exposed or
unexposed) of each entry. In addition, the number of 0. insidiosus per 30
silks was recorded before the silks were placed in the diet cups.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 1 includes the percentage mortality of CEW larvae after having
fed on early-season silks of resistant and susceptible corn entries. After 5
days of feeding, the mortality of CEW larvae on the susceptible sweet


TABLE 1. MORTALITY OF CORN EARWORM LARVAE FED EARLY-SEASON
SILKS OF SELECTED CORN ENTRIES.


% Mortality after Indicated Days of Feeding


Corn
entry*


Silks


5 10 15 20 25


'471-U6 X 81-1' (R)

'Stowell's
Evergreen' (S)
'loana' (S)

'409 X 20' (I)

'Dixie 18' (R)

'Asgrow 204B' (S)

'Zapalote Chico' (R)


Means


Exposed
Nonexposed
Exposed
Nonexposed
Exposed
Nonexposed
Exposed
Nonexposed
Exposed
Nonexposed
Exposed
Nonexposed
Exposed
Nonexposed
Exposed
Nonexposed


10 16
0 4


32 46
12 12


34 64 90 100 100
4 10 24 52 80
11.1 18.0 32.3 46.0 61.4
2.3 4.0 8.6 19.7 26.0


*R= resistant; I= intermediate resistance; and S= susceptible.


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976










Wiseman et al.: Corn Resistance to Earworm


corns, loana and Stowell's Evergreen, and on the resistant 471-U6x81-1
and intermediate resistant 409 x 20 were about the same. Likewise, the mor-
tality of CEW larvae fed unexposed silks of dent hybrids, Dixie 18 (resis-
tant) and Asgrow 204B (susceptible), were about the same as the mortality
on the sweet corn. The CEW mortality on Zapalote Chico silks, however,
showed that the resistance of this population is not tolerance, but initially
an antibiosis and/or an extreme nonpreference effect from feeding or lack
of feeding on the exposed silks. As CEW feeding progressed over time, no
pupation had occurred by the end of 15 days on Zapalote Chico. Thus, the
evidence for an antibiosis or extreme nonpreference mechanism of resistance
of the Zapalote Chico silks on corn earworm larvae is strengthened.
Generally, there were small differences in larval mortality among
the other resistant or susceptible entries at 10, 15, or 20 days. Mean mor-
tality was higher for the CEW larvae which had been fed exposed silks than
for those fed the unexposed silks, especially at 25 days (61.4% vs. 26.0%).
Percentages of pupation at 15 days were as follows for the CEW larvae
that were fed exposed silks of each entry: Asgrow 204B, 26%; 471-U6 x 81-1,
24%; loana, 12%; Stowell's Evergreen, 6%; Dixie 18, 4%; 409x20, 0%; and
Zapalote Chico, 0%. Percentages at 15 days for the CEW larvae that were
fed on unexposed silks were Stowell's Evergreen, 82%; 471-U6x81-1, 52%;
Dixie 18, 52%; loana, 38%; 409 x 20, 34%; Asgrow 204B, 34%; and Zapalote
Chico, 0%. Overall, only 10.2% of the CEW larvae that fed on exposed silk
had pupated by the 15th day, while 41.7% pupated when fed unexposed silk,
indicating greater changes occurred in the exposed silks which affected the
CEW.
In the late season test (Table 2), the measured effects of the tolerant
471-U6x81-1 and Dixie 18, and the susceptible Stowell's Evergreen and
loana were in general agreement with the findings of the earlier test: mor-
tality of CEW larvae by the end of the tenth day was low on the tolerant
entries compared with mortality on the susceptible corn entries. Larval
growth on silks of Zapalote Chico, however, was again less than that on
silks of tolerant corn entries while mortality at the tenth day was higher.
Thus, resistance of Zapalote Chico again seemed to be in the silks. The ex-
posed silks, in particular, seemed to possess an antibiotic and/or non-

TABLE 2. GROWTH AND MORTALITY OF CORN EARWORM LARVAE* FED 10
DAYS ON LATE-SEASON SILKS OF SELECTED CORN ENTRIES.

Larval weights (mg) on: % mortality of larvae on
Silks Silks Silks Silks
Corn entry exposed unexposed Mean exposed unexposed

'471-U6 X 81-1' (R) 161.9 190.8 176.4 a 8 a 2 a
'Stowell's Evergreen' (S) 98.0 277.4 187.7 a 8 a 14 a
'loana' (S) 26.6 128.1 77.3 c 28 b 2 a
'Dixie 18' (R) 20.6 203.0 111.8 b 8 a 8 a
'Zapalote Chico' (R) 9.3 43.4 26.3 d 60 c 34 b

*Means in the same column followed by the same letter are not significantly different
P= 0.05. R= resistant, and S= susceptible.










The Florida Entomologist


preference mechanism of resistance. This resistance may be physical in that
the silks become too dry for the larvae to penetrate for establishment,
but chemical factors cannot yet be ruled out completely. Certainly the
long tight husks of Zapalote Chico are not the sole contributing factor
to its resistance.
In the late season test, large numbers of adults and nymphs of O. insidi-
osus were found in silks of the corn entries tested. At full silk, 30 masses
of Zapalote Chico, 471-U6x81-1, Stowell's Evergreen, Dixie 18, and loana
had 92, 115, 144, 197, and 204 0. insidiosus, respectively. By 7 days after 100%
silk, Orius were present in the silks of 30 masses as follows: Zapalote
Chico (69), loana (73), Stowell's Evergreen (97), Dixie 18 (178), and 471-U6
x 81-1 (278). The presence of more Orius in the silks of Dixie 18 and 471-U6
x 81-1 at 7 days past 100% silking is another indication that the silks of these
2 hybrids maintain a favorable environment for corn earworm larvae and
/or that these 2 corn entries may be more attractive to Orius than the other
lines.
Acknowledgment.-Lila G. Adcock and Winfred N. Roberson of this
laboratory are thanked for their assistance in this study.

LITERATURE CITED
WISEMAN, B. R., W. W. MCMILLIAN, AND N. W. WIDSTROM. 1972. Tolerance
as a mechanism of resistance in corn to the corn earworm. J. Econ.
Ent. 65:835-7.












NESOTHRIPS BREVICOLLIS AND SCOTOTHRIPS CLARIPENNIS
(THYSANOPTERA: PHLAEOTHRIPIDAE) ON COCOS NUCIFERA:
TWO NEW SPECIES RECORDS FOR THE CONTINENTAL UNITED
STATES.'-(Note). Single specimens of Nesothrips brevicollis (Bagnall) and
Scotothrips claripennis (Moulton) were collected on 21 October and 6 December
1971, respectively, from coconut palms, Cocos nucifera L., at Coral Gables, Dade
County, Florida. Each specimen represents the first record for its species in the con-
tinental United States. Mount (1947; Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) 31 (5): 162, 177)
records N. brevicollis from Hawaii, Okinawa, Taiwan, Java, India, Mauritius and Re-
union Island, and S. claripennis from Hawaii, Mexico, Bahamas, Jamaica, Trinidad,
Mozambique, Republic of South Africa and India. The 2 species feed on fungal spores.
Both species were collected from leaves of mature fruiting coconut palms dur-
ing a survey for insects which could possibly act as the vector(s) of the lethal yellow-
ing disease of this palm. The identity of the species was confirmed by the junior author.
James A. Reinert, Univ. of Fla., Agr. Res. Center, Ft. Lauderdale, Fla. 33314; and
S. Nakahara, Plant Protection and Quarantine Program, APHIS, USDA Beltsville,
Maryland 20705.


'Fla. Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 6181.


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976









The Florida Entomologist


INSECTS AND OTHER DIETARY ITEMS OF MAYNARD'S
RED-WING BLACKBIRD' IN RELATION
TO AGRICULTURE2


WILLIAM G. GENUNG3, MELVIN J. JANES,3
AND
VICTOR E. GREEN, JR.4

ABSTRACT

Maynard's red-wing blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus floridanus May-
nard, is often considered highly injurious to sweet corn, field corn, and
other grains in south Florida. Stomach contents analysis supports this
contention. The birds are also highly insectivorous. Among the more in-
jurious insects eaten by red-wings in substantial numbers are elaterid
beetles, fall armyworm, corn earworm, ants, weevils, southern green
stinkbug, and grasshoppers.


The amount of injurious insect and noxious plant material consumed
in relation to cultivated crop material is a criterion often used in gross
assessment of the economic status of birds. Since growers in the Florida
Everglades have frequently felt it necessary to protect corn from hordes
of red-wings by shooting, and since this effort has sometimes stimulated
criticism, we felt that an impartial sampling of the local sub-specific
population of these blackbirds for stomach contents analysis should be
made. This article is the culmination of that study.
Red-wing blackbirds of various sub-specific designation, are generally
and historically recognized as being highly injurious to certain crops: corn
-Bartram (1971), Bent (1958), Mitchell and Linehan (1967), Giltz (1967);
rice-Bent (1958), Neff and Meanly (1957), Meanly (1971), Green (1972,
1973); other grains-Bent (1958), Beal (1948), and pine seeds-Bent (1958).
Food habits of some of the races have been discussed in some detail in Bent
(1958), but no mention of food habits was made of either Maynard's red-wing
Agelaius phoeniceus floridanus Maynard, or the Florida red-wing, A.p.
mearnsi Howell and Van Rossem. The present paper should help fill this
deficiency in respect to Maynard's red-wing subject to limitations explained
in the next paragraph.
Sprunt (1954) has depicted a southwest to northeast diagonal line ex-
tending from the lower Florida Gulf Coast, in the vicinity of Naples, to
the Atlantic Coast, near Jupiter, as being the line of separation between
A.p. mearnsi to the north and A.p. floridanus to the south. In the vicinity
of Lake Okeechobee the line crosses the southern tip of the lake and emerges
north of Pelican Bay, in the vicinity of Bacom Point; therefore, the Agri-
cultural Research and Education Center, Belle Glade lies only about 7
miles below the line of sub-specific separation and within the zone con-
sidered occupied by Maynard's red-wing. Within such close limitations,

Passeriformes: Icteridae
SFlorida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 5990.
Agricultural Research and Education Center, Belle Glade
SUniversity of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville.


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976









310 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976

some, possibly much intergradation occurs with the Florida red-wing. For
the purpose of this paper and in consideration of the above defined ranges
the sub-species involved is considered to be A.p. floridanus Maynard. This
particularly applies since very few of the specimens were taken in mid-
winter when A.p. phoniceus, the eastern red-wing, might be present in
limited numbers.

METHODS
Some of the red-wings killed depredating in or entering experimental
corn plantings at Belle Glade were randomly secured by the authors, from
1960 to 1972, for stomach contents analysis. Of 103 birds, 85 contained ma-
terial in sufficiently good condition to permit analysis. This report is based
on these 85 birds.
The birds were dissected, the gizzards excised and opened, and the con-
tents of each stored in 70% alcohol until analysis. For analysis these con-
tents were emptied into a petri dish and examined under a binocular micro-
scope. Each item was identified to the lowest possible taxonomic category
and the number of each recorded for each bird. In many instances entire in-
sects or other specimens were virtually intact. In other cases, key fragments
were numerous enough that species, genus, or family could be readily
identified and numbers of individuals ascertained or closely estimated by
assembling these parts.


RESULTS
Many economically important insect species were eaten regularly by
these red-wings. These included corn earworm in 12.0% of the birds, and fall
armyworm in 25.2%. Other noctuid larvae totaled about 11%. Two-lined
spittlebug was found in over 13%, southern green stinkbug in 6.0% and
other Hemiptera and Homoptera in 7.2%. Elateridae were the most promi-
nent of the Coleoptera eaten and occurred in 35% of birds, and Melanotus
communis (Gyllenhal), the most common of these elaterids, appeared in
24%. Grasshoppers, including Schistocerca sp., were found in only about
6% of the birds. Ants (Formicidae) were eaten with some regularity and were
found in nearly 10% of the birds. Many other injurious insects found in
smaller numbers are given in Table 1.
Among beneficial species Carabidae constituted the largest group and
occurred in 13.2% of stomachs. More than half of these, however, were
Selenophorus paliatus (Fab., a species that is at times actually injurious
to corn seed by eating the germ area (Genung and Green 1974). Other bene-
ficial species included damsel flies, dragon flies, tachinid flies, and spiders,
all in small numbers (Table 1).
Animal matter, other than insects, was found in rather insignificant
amounts including the already mentioned spiders. A planarian worm and
and pillbug (a terrestrial crustacean) completed the miscellaneous ani-
mal matter. A definitive analysis of all recognizable animal items in
these stomachs is given in Table 1.
Corn, Zea mays L., both from the standpoint of percent of birds con-
taining it and number of individual units eaten, was the most prominent
single item among adult red-wing blackbirds and was found in nearly 41%












Genung et al.: Diet of Maynard's Red-Wing Blackbird 311




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of stomachs. Other vegetable matter included seed of grasses, vaseygrass,
Paspalum urvellei stend; broadleaf panicum, Panicum adspersum trin., and
knotroot foxtail, Setaria geniculata Lam. Dayflower, Commelina diffusa
(Burm.) F., and some undetermined seed completed the vegetable com-
ponent of the stomachs (Table 2)1.

DIscuSSION
Maynard's red-wing, within areas producing sweet corn, field corn, rice,
and certain other grains, must be considered injurious. Probably a higher
percentage of birds than the 41% recorded during this study would have con-
tained corn except that many were intercepted before they could cause
damage. The strangest report of crop damage by red-wings was from the
Jupiter, Florida area. A grower, there, observed many sweet peppers being
pecked by the birds. Pepper pods examined by us in the field did indeed ap-
pear to have been pecked by birds. This report seems doubly strange because
we have seen little indication of blackbirds feeding on berries or fruits of
any kind even where such material is abundant. Elderberries, Sambucus
simpsonii Rehder, for example, are available almost year around in the
Everglades but are rarely eaten by these birds. The surinam cherry, Eu-
genia uniflora L., available in spring and fall crops, also, was not observed
to be fed upon. Also, our observations of bird damage to tomatoes and
strawberries have always involved species other than red-wings. The litera-
ture indicates that red-wings generally have little taste for fruit (Beal
1948, Bent 1954, Sprunt 1954). Beal (1948) on the basis of 1,083 stomachs
examined (of various races) stated that "the red-wing eats very little fruit".
Mr. A. T. Pospichal, however, reported to the writer (Pers. comm.) that red-
wings and other icterids caused heavy damage to homegrown grapes near
Tampa, and Dr. J. R. Orsenigo (Pers. comm) has seen serious injury by the
typical eastern race to cherries in New York.
In areas that are entirely in pastures or range land the red-wing must
be considered as almost entirely beneficial since it feeds on many serious
pasture pests including twolined spittlebug, fall armyworm, and striped
grasslooper, Mocis latipes (Guenee). While grasshoppers were relatively
light in these stomach contents, it was observed during the outbreak of the
larger obscure grasshopper, Schistocerca obscura (F.), in 1969, that black-
birds fed almost exclusively on this insect and shuttled almost contin-
uously between infestations and the nesting areas. If safe, effective and eco-
nomical bird repellents were available for economic crops, red-wings
could become generally beneficial to agricultural interests. Develop-
ment of such materials would be welcomed by all concerned about black-
bird populations and for whatever reasons.

LITERATURE CITED
BARTRAM, W. 1791. Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia,
East and West Florida, 1955. (Unabridged Edition). Dover Publ.,
New York, N. Y.
BEAL, F. E. L. 1948. Some common birds useful to the farmer. U. S. Dep.
Interior. Cons. Bull. No. 18, Fish and Wildlife Service.
Assistance of Dr. J. R. Orsenigo, Plant Physiologist and Weed Specialist, AREC, Belle
Glade, was obtained in identification of various seed.


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976












Genung et al.: Diet of Maynard's Red-Wing Blackbird 315


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BENT, A. C. 1958. Life histories of North American blackbirds, orioles, tana-
gers and their allies. Smithsonian Institution Bull. 211.
GENUNG, W. G., AND V. E. GREEN, JR. 1974. Food habits of the meadowlark
in the Everglades in relation to agriculture. Environ. Ent. 3:39-42.
GILTZ, M. K. (Ed.). 1967. Proceedings of North American Conference on
blackbird depredations in agriculture. The Ohio State Univ. Coop.
with the USDA, Columbus, Ohio.
GREEN, V. E., JR. 1972. Birds injurious to the world rice crop, species,
damage and control. I. Western Hemisphere. II Riso XXI. (3):281-
292.
GREEN, V. E., JR. 1973. Birds injurious to the world rice crop, species dam-
age and control. I. Part 2. Western Hemisphere. II Riso XXII. (1):
59-68.
MEANLY, B. 1971. Blackbirds and the southern rice crop. U. S. Dep. In-
terior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and
Wildlife. Resource Publ. 100.
MITCHELL, R. T., AND J. T. LINEHAN. 1967. Protecting corn from blackbirds.
U. S. Dep. Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service Bureau of Sport Fish-
eries and Wildlife. Wildlife Leaflet 476.
NEFF, J. A., AND B. MEANLY. 1967. Blackbirds and the Arkansas rice crop.
U. S. Dep. Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Bull. 584.
SPRUNT, A., JR. 1954. Florida bird life. Coward-McCann, Inc., New York.
National Audubon Society and Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission, Cooperatively.


316


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976









The Florida Entomologist


LARVA OF THE DRAGONFLY, OPHIOGOMPHUS
ARIZONICUS (ODONATA: GOMPHIDAE)

SIDNEY W. DUNKLE

South Campus, Santa Fe Community College, Gainesville, Florida 32601

ABSTRACT

The larva of Ophiogomphus arizonicus Kennedy is described and
figured from New Mexico. It is extremely similar to the larvae of 0. sev-
erus Hagen and 0. morrisoni Selys. The dorsal hooks on segments 2-9 of
the abdomen are higher than those of 0. severus but shorter and more robust
than those of 0. morrisoni. The ante-apical tubercles of male 0. arizoni-
cus larvae are positioned at mid length on the epiproct. The placement
of these tubercles is similar in 0. severus but 2/3 out from the base of the
epiproct in 0. morrisoni. Notes on the habitat and emergence of adult O.
arizonicus are given.


I found a habitat of Ophiogomphus arizonicus Kennedy on the San
Francisco River 6 km W of Luna, Catron Co., New Mexico (Dunkle, 1975).
On 9 June 1974 my wife and I discovered an emerging male, 34 last instar
exuviae, and 8 larvae. The San Francisco River, when we visited it during
an exceptional drought, was a clear stream 2 to 3 m wide with many exposed
rocks and silt bottomed pools. Most of the exuviae were floating in the
stream, while others were on rocks a few cm above the water line or at the
water line. Attached exuviae were seen along slow-flowing pools and
gentle rapids.
Eight Ophiogomphus larvae were obtained from silt (but not sand or
gravel) bottom areas in the stream. Three measured 20 mm in length, 1 was
13 mm long, and 4 were 7-8 mm long. The 20 mm larvae are essentially
like the exuviae except that there are no ante-apical tubercles on the epi-
proct of the males, the extreme tips of the epiproct and cerci are decurved,
and the dorsal hooks on segments 2-4 of the abdomen are a little lower in
proportion to body size. The smaller larvae have more divergent lateral
spines on the abdomen, much taller, more pointed, and more erect dorsal
hooks on segments 2-9 of the abdomen, and a more acuminate epiproct. These
larvae can not be said to be 0. arizonicus with certainty because other
Ophiogomphus species are so similar even in the last larval instar, as de-
scribed below.
The emerging male was first seen at 10:25 AM several cm above water
level on a boulder in mid stream. The larva was brown with the thorax
and sides of the abdomen pale green. There was a darker brown mid-dorsal
stripe edged with yellow on the abdomen. After 23 minutes and falling off
the rock twice, the adult began to emerge while the larva had the tip and
underside of the rear half of the abdomen under water. In 10 more minutes
the eyes were emerging and in 2 more minutes the adult was supported up-
right by his abdomen with the legs folded. In 6 additional minutes the
adult pulled his abdomen free of the exuvia. In 12 more minutes or a total
of 30 minutes after beginning emergence, the wings were full size and the
abdomen was nearly full size.


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976









The Florida Entomologist


DESCRIPTION: Larva of 0. arizonicus very similar to larvae of other
species in its genus. Exuviae grey when dry or yellow-brown in alcohol
(35 exuviae sample contained 19 females and 16 males). Females slightly
greater total length (range 25.7-30.0, mean 28.1 mm) than males (range 25.0-
29.0, mean 27.4 mm). Width of abdominal segment 5 ranges from 7.0-9.3 mm
in females and 8.0-9.2 mm in males. Mean width of both males and females
8.4 mm.
In the description following, measurements of the transforming speci-
men are given first and those of 10 typical exuviae including the transform-
ing specimen are given in parentheses. Segment 4 of antenna usual nipple-
like projection in this genus (Fig. Ib). Segment 3 of antennae 2.6 x (2.0-2.6,
mean 2.2) longer than wide, fringed with long hairs on sides, and with medial
edge slightly concave. Labium not different in any definable way from
those of related species (Fig. la). Lateral spines on abdominal segments 7-9
(Fig. Ic), but no trace of spine on segment 6. Lateral spines point straight
rearward or may be slightly divergent, especially on 7. Length of lateral
spine on 7 0.20 (0.13-0.20, mean 0.18) length of lateral margin of 7 includ-
ing length of spine. Similarly, spines of 8 and 9 0.21 (0.16-0.28, mean 0.22)
and 0.12 (0.12-0.28, mean 0.19) length of lateral margins of those segments
respectively. Relative lengths of lateral spines were variable. Emerging
specimen had 7=8>9, but of other 9 exuviae measured, 4had 7=8=9,
3 had 7<8=9, 1 had 7=8<9, and 1 had 7<8>9.) Dorsal hooks (Fig. Id) on ab-
dominal segments 2-9, tallest on 2, and gradually becoming reduced in
height to near flatness on 9. All dorsal hooks slant rearward, and taller
hooks on 2-3 or 4 excavated on rear edge in lateral view. Epiproct usually


0 o













b C





Fig. 1. Camera lucida drawings made from exuvia of emerged male O.
arizonicus. a) prementum and palps of labium, dorsal view; b) left an-
tenna, dorsal view; c) segments 7-10 of abdomen, dorsal view; d) dorsal
hooks on the abdomen, lateral view.


318


Vol. 59, No. 3, 1976










Dunkle: Larva of Ophiogomphus arizonicus


slightly shorter than paraprocts (equal in 3 males and 2 females of all
35 exuviae). Ante-apical tubercles in all 16 male exuviae located very
close to midpoint of epiproct and project slightly laterally. Epiproct
basal width 0.60 (0.48-0.60, mean 0.53) of its length. Cerci 0.89 (0.76-0.89,
mean 0.85) as long as epiproct with basal width 0.36 (0.23-0.41, mean 0.32)
of their length. Width of abdominal segment 5 0.98 (0.86-1.04, mean 0.94)
of mid-dorsal length of last 4 segments together with anal pyramid. Anal
pyramid 0.84 (0.66-1.02, mean 0.87) of length of segments 9 and 10 combined.
Segments 2-10 of abdomen have fringe of long white hairs laterally as
shown in Fig. 1.

COMPARISON WITH OTHER SPECIES: The larva of 0. arizonicus would
key out with 0. severus Hagen and 0. morrisoni Selys in Needham and
Westfall (1955). However, couplet 6 which differentiates the latter 2
species is reversed. In comparing the exuvia of an emerged female severus
from Idaho with arizonicus, the only significant difference noted was the
lower dorsal hooks in severus. The drawings of the dorsal hooks of severus
in Walker (1933) and Kennedy (1917) also showed the hooks to be lower
than in arizonicus. The hooks are variable, for Kennedy (1917) showed the
hook on 2 blunt and the hooks on 3 and 4 smaller than Walker (1933).
According to the drawings of O. m. morrisoni Selys and 0. m. nevadensis
Kennedy in Kennedy (1917) the dorsal hooks are taller, more slender, and
less robust than in arizonicus.
Kennedy (1917) stated that O.m. nevadensis is "hardly as hairy" as O.
m. morrisoni and may lack the lateral fringe of hairs on the abdomen. The
photograph of 0. morrisoni in Needham and Westfall (1955) shows that
males have ante-apical tubercles 2/3 out from the base of the epiproct.
Walker (1933) shows the ante-apical tubercles of 0. severus positioned as
in 0. arizonicus. The first member of couplet 3 of the key in Walker (1958)
reads "apex of epiproct of male extending not more than one-third of its
length beyond the ante-apical tubercles" but apparently should read
"apex of epiproct of male extending one-third or more of its length beyond
the ante-apical tubercles". This change in the key would be necessary to
properly lead to the other species further down the key, including 0. sev-
erus.
In summary, it may be possible to tell male larvae of 0. arizonicus
from 0. morrisoni by the position of the ante-apical tubercles. 0. m. neva-
densis can be differentiated by the reduced lateral abdominal fringe. Dif-
ferentiation among the 3 species by the shape of the dorsal hooks is difficult
and may not be reliable until more information is obtained on different
populations.
Specimens of 0. arizonicus including the emerged male, the 8 larvae, and
several exuviae have been deposited in the Florida State Collection of
Arthropods at Gainesville.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I am deeply grateful to Dr. Minter J. Westfall, Jr. who provided help
and facilities throughout this study. My wife Sondra also helped in several
ways, including finding most of the exuviae.




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