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Title: Florida Entomologist
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Insects -- Periodicals
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The


FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

Volume 60, No. 1 March, 1977





CONTENTS

ROSEN, D., AND P. DEBACH-Resurrection of Aphytis theae I H.meninptera:
.phelinidue), A Parasite of Tea Scale, with Notes on a New Group of Spe-
n e.. 1
STEY-SKAL, G. C.-History and Use of the McPhail Trap 11
AVERY. S. W., D. P. JOUVENAZ, W. A. BANKS. AND D. W. ANTHONY- Virus Like
Particles in a Fire Ant, Solenopsis sp., (Hymenop!era: Formicidae) from
Brazl .17
LOOMIS, H. F.-Three Neiw illipeds From liest Indian Caves 21
McLAUGHLIN, J. R., J. H. TUMLINSON. AND J. L. SHARP-.Absence of Synergism
in the Response of Florida Lesser Peachtree Borer Males to Synthetic Sex
Pheromone 27
FRANK, J. H. Mvrmecosaurus ferrugineus, an .rgentine Beetle from Fire Ant
Nests in the United States 31
BALCIUNAS, J.. AND K. KNOPF-Orientation, Flight Speeds, and Tracks of Three
Species of Migrating Butterflie 37
MOCKFORD, E. L.-Morphological Characters of the Florida Species of Archip-
socus with Closed Phallosome (Psocoptera. A rchipsocidae) 41
HEPNER, L. W.-Fourteen New Species of Erythroneura (Erythridula) (Hom-
optera: CLcadellidae)V .. 49
WEEMS, H. V., JR.-The Florida Endangered Insect Program 57
Scientific Notes:
CROCKER, R. L.-Concerning Pairs of Migrating Buckeyes, Junonia coenia
(L.) .. 25
EDWARDS, G. B., AND D. B. RICHMAN-Flight Heights of Migrating Butter-
7ies 30
MCWHORTER. R., AND M. SHEPARD-Response o. Me.xican Bean Beetle Lar-
ove and the Parasitoid Pediobius foxeolatus to Dinril .. 55
CALKINS, C. O.--\'tes on the Cocoon Construction Behuanor of Apanteles
militaris 65
HAMLEN, R A.-C-clopropane .llticides for Suppression of Spider .Mile
Populations on Tropical Foliage Palhn. 66
PAUL. R. C.-Species-Speciic Phonota.xls in Gr\ Ilus Females 67

(Continued on Back Cover)


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The Florida Entomologist Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977 1

RESURRECTION OF APHYTIS THEAE
(HYMENOPTERA: APHELINIDAE), A PARASITE OF
TEA SCALE, WITH NOTES ON A NEW GROUP OF SPECIES

DAVID ROSEN AND PAUL DEBACH

Division of Biological Control, University of California, Riverside 92521

ABSTRACT

Aphytis theae (Cameron), recently introduced from India into Florida
for the biological control of the tea scale, Fiorinia theae Green, is rede-
scribed. The funicularis group is established for species of Aphytis with 5-
segmented antennae and reduced mouthparts, including A. funicularis
Compere, A. gordoni DeBach and Rosen, A. theae and A. ulianovi Girault.
A key to the 4 members of the new group is presented.


The tea scale, Fiorinia theae Green (Homoptera: Diaspididae), is known
as a widespread pest of tea, citrus and various ornamentals in the Far East
(Sasscer 1912, Borkhsenius 1966). It has been recorded from Thea and Camel-
lia spp. in the southeastern and southern United States (Sasscer 1912, Ferris
1942), and is rated as one of the 10 economically most important pests of
ornamental nurseries in central and northern Florida (Dekle 1965). In
view of its economic significance, efforts were initiated in 1975 to introduce
its natural enemies from India into Florida.
Shipments of tea scale material collected in Assam, India, yielded an
aberrant species of Aphytis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), entirely yellow,
with 5-segmented antennae and greatly reduced mouthparts. Specimens
were forwarded to the authors for identification, and we have determined
them as Aphytis theae (Cameron).
Cameron (1891) described Aphelinus theae from a single specimen,
reared from the tea scale at Janygo, India. Unfortunately his original de-
scription, quoted in its entirety below, was hopelessly inadequate:
"Yellow; the legs pallid, with apex of the hinder tibiae and tarsal
joints infuscated. Head dilated behind the eyes. The second antenna
joint small; the third large, thicker than the second or fourth; the
fourth and fifth not half the size of the third, and equal in length; the
club abrupt, longer than the preceding four joints united; the last
joint conical, apparently thinner than the penultimate. Hinder
tarsal spur as long as the metatarsus. Wings with a long hair fringe.
"Length not 1/2 millim.
"The only specimen I have seen is mounted in balsam and has got
flattened, so that its exact shape cannot be seen satisfactorily. Ap-
parently there are two broad triangular processes projecting from the
thorax to near the middle of the abdomen; but their precise relation-
ship or structure cannot be correctly made out. They seem to proceed
from the base of the mesonotum. The sutures of the thorax cannot be

'Permanent address: The Hebrew University, Faculty of Agriculture, Rehovot, Israel.










2 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977

observed. I am not aware of any similar structure being known in the
family. It is so peculiar that I have no doubt that it will be proved,
on further examination, from fresh specimens, of generic value-that
the species forms the type of a new genus. Otherwise the species com-
pares fairly well with Aphelinus."
Cameron's 2 original figures of theae are reproduced herein (Fig. 1, 2).
The original description is, of course, very confusing. Cameron apparently
considered the antenna of theae as being 8-segmented. However, a close
study of his Fig. 5a readily reveals that he must have imagined the pedicel












Fig. 1-2. Aphelinus theae, original figures by Cameron, 1891 (Fig. 5, 5a),
Fig. 1. Female. Fig. 2. Antenna.

to be divided into 2 segments-undoubtedly an error. Considering the poor
quality of the specimen, the drawbacks of balsam as a mounting medium
for Aphytis, and the optical equipment available to him, we assume that
his subdivision of the club into 3 segments was also a mistake. In fact, no
known genus in the Aphelinidae has the antennal configuration depicted
by Cameron, with 2 small funicular segments and a large, 3-segmented
club. On the other hand, if his subdivisions of the pedicel and club are ig-
nored, the outline of the antenna drawn by Cameron is very similar to that
of an Aphytis with 5-segmented antennae. The "triangular processes"
described by Cameron must have been the endophragma, a common feature
of Aphytis and other aphelinids (Fig. 1).
Unfortunately, the type specimen of theae could not be found either in
the Manchester Museum, where Cameron worked, or in the British Museum
(Natural History), and has apparently been lost (R. R. Askew and Z.
Boucek, personal communications 1976). Nevertheless, we concur with
Compere (1955) who, on the basis of the original description, correctly
recognized theae as a species of Aphytis. Furthermore, we have no hesitation
in referring the species recently obtained from tea scale in India to Cam-
eron's old species, which was obtained from the same host in the same
country. A detailed redescription of A. theae, based on recent material, is
presented below.
The genus Aphytis was erected by Howard (1900) for aphelinid species
with 5-segmented antennae. As pointed out by Timberlake (1924) and later
confirmed by Compere (1955), this was based on Howard's mistaken assump-
tion that the generotype, A. chilensis Howard, had a 5-segmented antenna,
with only 2 segments in the funicle. In reality, chilensis has a 6-segmented
antenna with 3 segments in the funicle, but the first funicular segment is










Rosen and DeBach: Redescription of Aphytis theae


minute and could not be clearly seen in the unique type specimen. Most
of the species of Aphytis have 6-segmented antennae; however, the number
of segments in the antennae is no longer regarded as a reliable character
for the separation of genera in the Aphytis group of Aphelininae. The main
diagnostic character separating Aphytis from related genera is the well-
developed, relatively long propodeum with a distinct, sculptured median
salient, usually bearing marginal crenulae (Rosen and DeBach 1970, 1976).
Additionally there is the biological distinction that all Aphytis spp. are
primary ectoparasites of armored scale insects (Diaspididae). No related
genera contain species with this habit. As currently understood, the genus
Aphytis now includes species with 4, 5, or (mostly) 6 antennal segments.
Girault (1932), in an obscure, privately-published paper, described A.
ulianovi, an Australian species with 5-segmented antennae. He referred it
to the genus Aphytis because he apparently was unaware of Howard's origi-
nal mistake and considered that genus to comprise species with 5-segmented
antennae. (In the same paper he referred species of Aphytis with 6-segmented
antennae to the genera Aphelinus and Marietta.) We have examined the
types of ulianovi, as well as abundant recent material referable to this
species, and consider it to be a bona fide member of Aphytis.
Compere (1955) described a similar African species, A. funicularis, in the
genus Aphytis, and made the following comments: "In conventional sys-
tematics this species is out of place in Aphytis, having only two segments
in the funicle instead of the usual three. However, in my opinion, funicu-
laris is more closely related to the common yellow species of Aphytis than
are many species that cannot be distinguished by diagnostic characters of
generic value." We agree with Compere's conclusion. Not only does funicu-
laris possess all the main diagnostic characters of Aphytis, including the
well-developed, crenulate propodeum, but the female has a vestigial
transverse suture on the antennal club which, if complete, would have
separated a normal third funicular segment, thus clearly demonstrating
its affinity to the usual species of Aphytis even in this respect.
Rosen and DeBach (1976) defined 6 species-groups in the genus Aphytis.
These were the vittatus, chilensis, proclia, mytilaspidis, lingnanensis and
chrysomphali groups. DeBach and Rosen (1976) recently described an Ori-
ental species, A. gordoni, as yet another aberrant species of Aphytis, closely
related to funicularis. Being unable to assign it to any of the 6 species-
groups, they listed it among "miscellaneous species." With the resurrection
of theae as a fourth species of Aphytis with 5-segmented antennae, the es-
tablishment of a seventh distinct species-group for these abberant species
now seems advisable.

THE FUNICULARIS GROUP

This small, aberrant group is characterized by the reduction of antennal
segmentation and mouthparts of both sexes: antennae 5-segmented (1121),
lacking the third funicular segment; mandibles minute or absent; both
maxillary and labial palpi 1-segmented. General coloration yellow;
wings uniformly setose, hyaline or nearly so. The propodeum is short, not
exceeding 4 times length of the metanotum or 3/4 length of scutellum;
the shape of propodeal crenulae and other morphological characters vary
considerably among the members of this group.










The Florida Entomologist


The funicularis group presently comprises the following 4 species:
funicularis, gordoni, theae, and ulianovi. Surprisingly, it appears to be
rather widely distributed, with 2 Oriental members, 1 Ethiopian, and 1 Aus-
tralian member.
This group differs markedly from all other species-groups in Aphytis,
and does not exhibit any obvious affinities to any particular group. Nothing
can be said at present regarding the possible origin or phylogenetic status
of this peculiar group. The chilensis group with aberrant male antennae
exhibiting great reduction of the first 2 funicular segments and normal
female antennae, is apparently unrelated. Perhaps the fact that 3 of the 4
known members of the funicularis group possess specialized sensilla on the
antennal scape of the male-a primitive characteristic found in other ap-
helinine genera and in the primitive species-groups but not in the more ad-
vanced groups of Aphytis-may be interpreted to indicate that this group has
split from the mainstream of the genus at an early evolutionary stage.
Discovery of additional species will hopefully shed more light on this
interesting problem.
Very little is known about the biology of the 4 members of the funicu-
laris group. In the absence of functional mandibles, it would be interesting
to know whether these species are capable of gnawing an exit hole in the
covering scale of the host, like other species of Aphytis, or are forced to
emerge by pushing their way from underneath the edge of the covering scale
as other species do facultatively. At least 2 members of this group appear
to show some promise as natural enemies of important scale insect pests:
gordoni, parasitic upon the citrus snow scale, and theae, parasitic upon the
tea scale.
The members of the funicularis group may be readily separated from one
another by the following key:

KEY FOR IDENTIFICATION OF MEMBERS OF funicularis GROUP
1. T horacic stern infuscated or dusky ............................................. ............ .... 2
1.' Thoracic sterna immaculate, concolorous with body; propodeal
crenulae minute, triangular, non-overlapping; ovipositor short;
male antennal scape bearing a ventral plate with 2 tuberculous
sensilla ................. ....... ............. ... ............. ... ............. theae
2. Thoracic stern faintly dusky in the female, lightly infuscated in
the m ale .................................. ........... ... ................. ......... ................... ... 3
2'. Thoracic stern strongly infuscated in both sexes; mesoscutum with
numerous (15 or more) setae, each parapsis with 3; propodeal crenu-
lae minute, triangular, non-overlapping; ovipositor long; forewing
broad, "delta" area densely setose; male antennal scape bearing a
ventral plate with several tuberculous sensilla .......................... funicularis
3. Propodeal crenulae minute, rounded, non-overlapping; mesoscu-
tum with few (8-12) setae, each parapsis with 1; forewing narrow,
"delta" area sparsely setose; male antennal scape bearing 2 distinct
se n silla .................................................. ........................ .... ............ ......... g o rd o n i
3'. Propodeal crenulae larger, rounded, overlapping; mesoscutum
with numerous setae (usually 15 or more), each parapsis with 3;
forewing broad, "delta" area densely setose; male antennal scape
not bearing any specialized sensilla ............... ................................. ulianovi


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










Rosen and DeBach: Redescription of Aphytis theae


SYNOPSIS OF KNOWN MEMBERS OF funicularis GROUP
Aphytis funicularis Compere

Aphytis funicularis Compere, 1955, Univ. Calif. Publ. Ent., 10:279,282-283.
Aphytis funicularis: Quednau, 1964, J. Ent. Soc. S. Afr., 27:94.
Type locality: South Africa.
Hosts: Rolaspis chaetachmae (Brain), Furchadiaspis zamiae (Morgan).

Aphytis gordoni DeBach and Rosen
Aphytis gordoni DeBach and Rosen, 1976, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., 69:545.
Type locality: Hong Kong.
Host: Citrus snow scale, Unaspis citri (Comstock).

Aphytis ulianovi Girault
Aphytis ulianovi Girault, 1932, New lower Hymenoptera from Australia
and India, p. 3.
Type locality: Australia.
Hosts: Undetermined armored scale insects.

Aphytis theae (Cameron)
(Fig. 1-17)
Aphelinus theae Cameron, 1891, Mem. Proc. Manchester Lit. Phil. Soc.,
4th Ser., 4:183-194; P1. 1, Fig. 5, 5a.
Aphytis theae: Compere, 1955, Univ. Calif. Publ. Ent., 10:317.
Type locality: India.
Host: Tea scale, Fiorinia theae Green.

REDESCRIPTION
Female: Eyes finely setose. Mandibles (Fig. 3) reduced to minute, unsclero-
tized rudiments, not visible in most cleared specimens; both maxillary
and labial palpi 1-segmented. Antennal scrobes rather indistinct. Antennae
(Fig. 4) 5-segmented (1121); scape slender, 4.67 to 5.20 times as long as wide,
up to 1.25 times longer than club; pedicel usually 1.60 to 1.67 times as long
as wide, considerably longer than 2 segments of funicle combined; first
funicular segment trapezoidal or subrectangular, 1.50 to 2 times as wide as
long; second segment more symmetrical, subrectangular, usually some-
what longer and wider than first segment, about 1.75 to 2 times as wide as
long; club rather robust, truncated, about 2.60 to 3 times as long as wide,
about twice to 2.75 times longer and considerably wider than pedicel, bear-
ing 4-5 longitudinal sensilla.
Setae on thorax slender, longest ones dark, visible under low magnifi-
cation ( 40, on white background), others paler, barely visible under high
magnification (X 120); setae on head and abdomen pale, invisible even
under high magnification (x 120). Vertex with 2 pairs of long setae along
occipital margin, in addition to numerous shorter setae. Mesoscutum (Fig.
5) with 13-19 setae, posterior pair and 1 seta at each antero-lateral corner
longer and somewhat coarser than rest; each parapsis with 3 short setae,
each axilla with 1 long seta, scutellum with 4. Frontovertex, pronotum










The Florida Entomologist


"'47
4L ,I. -


Fig. 3-9. Aphytis theae (Cameron), neoparatype series, female. Fig. 3.
Lower face, showing rudimentary mandibles. Fig. 4. Head and antennae.
Fig. 5. Thorax and propodeum. Fig. 6, 7. Metanotum, propodeum and base of
abdomen. Fig. 8. Abdomen. Fig. 9. Forewing (dark spot below marginal vein
is an artifact).

and mesonotal sclerites reticulated, with a delicate infra-sculpture within
cells. Scutellum 0.75 to 0.80 times median length of mesoscutum. Metano-
tum (Fig. 5-7) arcuate, reticulated except on sides; anteromedian apodeme
slender, straight, distinctly longer than median length of metanotum.
Propodeum (Fig. 5-7) short, varying from a little over twice to fully 3
times as long as metanotum, about 0.5 to 0.67 times length of scutellum,
reticulated centrally, the cells considerably longer than wide, faintly
reticulated on sides; posterior margin nearly straight, with a weak median
salient; crenulae 5+5 to 8+8, minute, triangular, distinctly elongated,
non-overlapping. Second abdominal tergite (Fig. 7) transversely striated
on sides, reticulated on a small central area; tergites III-VIII (Fig. 8) re-


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










Rosen and DeBach: Redescription of Aphytis theae


ticulated on sides, bearing 2-4 fine setae in a transverse row on each reticu-
lated area; tergite III transversely reticulated mesad of lateral setiferous
areas, transversely striated across center; tergite VI longitudinally reticu-
lated mesad of lateral setiferous areas, transversely striated across center,
bearing a pair of submedian setae; tergite VIII reticulate-punctated across,
with a transverse row of 4 setae between spiracles; syntergum triangular,
rather broad, cauda weakly incised and considerably wider than long,
faintly punctated, bearing 6-7 setae in a transverse row. Cerci (Fig. 8) situ-
ated considerably closer to posterior spiracles than to tip of abdomen, with
2 long setae and 1 short seta. Ovipositor short, shaft about 1.25 times as
long as middle tibia (1.15-1.29), sheaths 0.33 to 0.40 times length of middle
tibia.
Mid-tibial spur considerably longer than corresponding basitarsus.
Forewing (Fig. 9) rather broad, about 2.33 to 2.50 times as long as wide;
marginal fringe not exceeding 0.20 times width of disc. "Delta" area proxi-
mad of speculum with 61-85 setae in 7-8 rows, somewhat sparser and dis-
tinctly longer than setae distad of speculum, not clearly separated from
row of setae along posterior margin of wing; costal cell with a longitudi-
nal row of 2-4 fine setae centrally, and sometimes 1 coarse seta near apex.
Submarginal vein bearing 2 long, subequal setae, proximal one only a
little shorter than distal, and 11-14 bullae. Marginal vein bearing 8-11
prominent, subequal setae along anterior margin, usually about 2.50 times
longer than the setae in a row along center of vein.
Forewing perfectly hyaline; a faint fuscous streak along posterior mar-
gin, distad of speculum.
Generally coloration entirely pale yellowish, without any dark mark-
ings on head or body; even the short black streak at base of forewing, com-
mon to all other yellow species of Aphytis, absent in this species. Thoracic
sterna immaculate, concolorous with rest of body. Antennal scape pale,
pedicel dusky, funicle and club uniformly, faintly dusky. All legs con-
colorous with body, except middle tibiae which are distinctly dusky. Wing
veins hyaline.
Length 0.53-0.77 mm.
Male: Essentially similar to female in structure, chaetotaxis, sculpture
and coloration, differing mainly in antennal characteristics.
Antennal scape (Fig. 10-13) somewhat widening anteriorly, 3.75 to 4.50
times as long as wide, a little longer than club, bearing on ventral aspect
an oval, partly divided plate with 2 minute tuberculous sensilla, bordered
by a row of setae; pedicel as in female; first funicular segment about 1.50
to 2 times as wide as long, second segment 1.67 to 2.25 times as wide as long;
club as in female; bearing 2-3 longitudinal sensilla.
Mesoscutum (Fig. 14) with 10-14 setae. Propodeum (Fig. 14-16) about
2.33 to 2.67 times as long as metanotum, 0.50 to 0.60 times length of scutel-
lum; crenulae 5 + 5 or 5 + 6, as in female.
Abdominal sterna faintly punctated. Genitalia (Fig. 17) about 0.75
times length of middle tibia (0.72-0.76); phallobase well defined, tapering
anteriorly, papillae minute, not elongated; digital sclerites robust, with a
strong apical claw, a little less than one-third combined length of aedea-
gus and apodemes (0.28-0.31).
Forewing as in the female; "delta" with 49-62 setae in 5-6 rows; sub-
marginal vein bearing 11-13 bullae; marginal vein bearing 7-9 prominent,
subequal setae along anterior margin.











The Florida Entomologist


Fig. 10-17. Aphytis theae (Cameron), neoparatype series, male. Fig. 10.
Head and antennae (allotype). Fig. 11. Antenna, showing plate and sen-
silla on scape. Fig. 12. Antennal scape and pedicel, showing tuberculous
sensilla in lateral view. Fig. 13. Antennal scape and pedicel, showing setae
bordering plate on scape. Fig. 14. Thorax and propodeum. Fig. 15, 16. Metan-
otum and propodeum. Fig. 17. Posterior abdominal sternites, genitalia and
middle tibia.


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977


.
;8~11~11~18218~'
It;Pars3lrer~"










Rosen and DeBach: Redescription of Aphytis theae


Coloration as in female; antennae somewhat paler.
Length 0.55-0.78 mm.
Redescribed from numerous male and female specimens, obtained from
the tea scale, Fiorinia theae Green, on tea plants, Jorhat (Assam), India.
Some of these specimens were reared by T. Sankaran in December 1975, and
sent to the authors at Riverside for identification; other material was reared
by T. M. Manjunath and shipped as pupae to the USDA Biological Control
Laboratory at Gainesville, Florida, where it was cultured in the quaran-
tine laboratory and insectary and subsequently sent to us by Frederick A.
Collins III. A female neotype and a male allotype were selected from a
series reared by F. A. Collins from tea scale on Camellia japonica at the
insectary of the USDA Biological Control Laboratory, Gainesville, 27
May 1976.
Neotype and allotype in the collection, of the Division of Biological
Control, University of California, Riverside; a few specimens from the
neoparatype series were deposited at the Florida State Collection of Arth-
ropods, Gainesville. Other specimens to be deposited in the U. S. National
Museum of Natural History, Washington, D. C., in the British Museum
(Natural History), London, and in the collection of the Department of
Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Rehovot.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Financial support of this study through grant no. GB 17829 of the Na-
tional Science Foundation is gratefully acknowledged. The authors are
grateful to Mr. E. C. Dahms, Curator of Entomology at the Queensland
Museum, Brisbane, for making the types of Aphytis ulianovi available for
study; to Dr. T. Sankaran of the CIBC Indian Station, Bangalore, and Mr.
F. A. Collins of the USDA Biological Control Laboratory, Gainesville,
for providing specimens of Aphytis theae.


LITERATURE CITED

BORKHSENIUS, N. S. 1966. A catalogue of the armoured scale insects (Dias-
pidoidea) of the world. Nauka, Moscow and Leningrad, 449 p. (in
Russian).
CAMERON, P. 1891. Hymenopterological notices. Mem. Proc. Manchester
Lit. Phil. Soc., 4th Ser., 4:182-194; P1. 1.
COMPERE, H. 1955. A systematic study of the genus Aphytis Howard (Hy-
menoptera, Aphelinidae) with descriptions of new species. Univ.
Calif. Publ. Ent., 10:271-319.
DEBACH, P., AND D. ROSEN. 1976. Twenty new species of Aphytis (Hymen-
optera: Aphelinidae) with notes and new combinations. Ann. Ent.
Soc. Amer., 69:541-545.
DEKLE, G. W. 1965. Arthropods of Florida and neighboring land areas. Vol.
3. Florida armored scale insects. Fla. Dept. Agr. Div. Plant Indust.,
V+265 p.
FERRIS, G. F. 1942. Atlas of the scale insects of North America. Ser. 4:395.
Stanford Univ. Press, California.
GIRAULT, A. A. 1932. New lower Hymenoptera from Australia and India.
Priv. Publ., Brisbane, 6 p.








The Florida Entomologist


HOWARD, L. 0. 1900. A new genus of Aphelininae from Chile. Canad. Ent.,
32:167-8.
ROSEN, D., AND P. DEBACH. 1970. Notes on the genus Marlattiella Howard
(Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Mushi, 43:39-44.
ROSEN D., AND P. DEBACH. 1976. Biosystematic studies on the species of
Aphytis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Mushi, 49:1-17.
SASSCER E. R. 1912. The genus Fiorinia in the United States. USDA Bur.
Ent. Tech. Ser., 16(V):75-82.
TIMBERLAKE, P. H. 1924. Descriptions of new chalcid-flies from Hawaii
and Mexico (Hymenoptera). Proc. Hawaii Ent. Soc., 5:395-417.


PRINTING



Specializing in or s and cub ications



Storter Printing Co.


GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










The Florida Entomologist


HISTORY AND USE OF THE McPHAIL TRAP

GEORGE C. STEYSKAL
Systematic Entomology Laboratory, IIBIII, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA1

ABSTRACT
The so-called McPhail trap was developed as a household fly trap in
Europe before the turn of the century, but it is used in the United
States for survey work with fruit flies. An experiment conducted in
the Washington, D.C. area shows it to be a promising collector of many
kinds of Diptera.

In a book that I purchased in a secondhand store, I noted what I
knew as a McPhail trap. The book (Balogh 1958) showed a drawing
(Fig. III, p. 482) of a glass trap set on the ground over a class tum-
bler set into the ground and provided with bait and a rod leading up-
ward into the trap. The trap stood on 3 small integral legs and con-
tained a quantity of liquid. The figure was captioned in German as a
"Dahl flytrap (after Koch, 1924)." In the extensive bibliography
appended to the book, I found references that led eventually to a paper
by Dahl (1896). Dahl claimed therein that his effort to determine
quantitatively what kind of insects come to small carrion was the first
attempt to combine experiment and statistics in an ethological investi-
gation in nature. He also provided a drawing of his apparatus, here
reproduced as Fig. 1, and described its operation as follows (in my
translation from German):
"The experiment, which after much feeling around turned out to
be especially well adapted to my purpose, is very simple: a dead spar-
row was placed, at various times of the year and in various kinds of
territory in a glass tumbler set into the ground and a bellshaped glass
flytrap placed over it, then at certain defined intervals the capture was
removed and determined. The flying insects were captured in the
spirits (sp) and the non-flying carrion-feeders, which almost without
exception are unable to climb up smooth glass walls, were found in
the tumbler. In order to obtain regular and complete catches, it was
found that some safety precautions had to be taken. One should write
as clearly as possible with a diamond pencil on the bell glass one's
name and the remark that a scientific experiment is being made.
The word 'science' (German "Wissenschaft") sounds so good to
the German people that its effect never failed, even with youngsters
who did not understand it. Instead of the glass stopper, one should
place a cork in the top of the bell glass, because deer and cows will
remove the glass stopper. Around the edges one should raise a dark
wall (w) 2-3 cm high and place a stick extending from the bird car-
cass into the trap, in order that the flies may not crawl out, but in-
stead as many of them as possible get into the alcohol. The trap
should be brought in at least every eighth day, because otherwise the
alcohol will become too much evaporated and captured insects decay."
Dr. Paul Arnaud, Jr. has an antique standing on his desk in the
California Academy of Sciences, which is nothing more or less than a
'Mail address: c/o U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 20560.


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










The Florida Entomologist


fine example of this kind of flytrap. An article in a Washington, D.C.
newspaper (Wash. Post, 2 July 1973) showed a photograph of a flytrap
of this type and stated that a dealer in the area had imported some of
them from Sweden. Thus the trap known in America as the McPhail
trap has a long history of domestic use in Europe. As a piece of en-
tomological apparatus, however, its designation with M. McPhail's
name seems proper enough.
A trap built on the same principal, but with a screw-top, was used
in Italy for work with the Mediterranean fruitfly, Ceratitis capitata
Wiedemann. It was described by Costantino (1930), part of whose
figure is copied here in Fig. 2.




hook
loop

wire


cork

I1 /glass
Shouse-fly
trap


water

S" "- tumbler
odoriferous
Substance


Fig. 1-3. 1, Experimental set-up used by Dahl, 1896; 2, trap used
by Costantino, 1930; 3, copy of sketch from unpublished report by
McPhail, 1934-1935.

The summary of the work on the Mexican fruitfly, Anastrepha
ludens (Loew), in Baker, Stone, Plummer, and McPhail (1944) is the
only extended account of the early use of a trap of this type by ento-
mologists in America. In that report (p. 84), under the heading
"Trapping the Adults," it is stated that "(McPhail) . undertook
work on traps . That which proved most effective is shown in figure
45 (p. 85) and this has been adopted as the standard trap. The first


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










Steyskal: History and Use of McPhail Trap


samples were blown in Mexico, and varied somewhat in size. The
standard, however, is now made from a mold. The use of these traps
with suitable lure now permits an index of populations and a method
of inspection for adults." In this same work, there is reference to
several unpublished USDA reports. In one of them by McPhail (No.
54, 1934-1935), is a sketch (Fig. 3) of the apparatus he used in his
early study on attractants and a photograph of the investigator serv-
icing the traps. Mr. McPhail has kindly permitted the use of the
photograph here (Fig. 4).


Fig. 4. M. McPhail servicing fruit fly traps in 1935 (from unpub-
lished USDA report).

In order to obtain some firsthand information on the origin of the
traps used by McPhail, I obtained his address in Cuernavaca, Mexico,
where he is now living in retirement. In a letter to me, dated 13 Octo-
ber 1972, Mr. McPhail writes "I was browsing around in a glassware
shop in Mexico City and found hidden away there 6 of these traps.
The owner said they had been imported from Japan. I took the lot
and did my first experiment with them. They were made of very thin
glass and had 3 short legs-obviously intended for table use. The
fact that the trap is called the "McPhail trap" in some localities is
due, presumably, to confused reporting after the trap had been dis-
tributed by the thousands to several fruitfly operations."
The first reference to the trap by McPhail's name is apparently by
Newell (1936): "Up to June 1933, wire fruitfly traps, similar to those
used during the Mediterranean fruitfly campaign, were used in Key
West [Florida]. Although baited with many different materials, their
use was negative. On July 1, 1933, about 25 glass McPhail traps were










The Florida Entomologist


received. Baited with a fermenting mixture of citrus juice and brown
sugar, these traps immediately demonstrated their superiority over
the old ones. In September 1933, some hundred additional traps were
received at Key West, and subsequent shipments, the last in November
1934, have increased the total number of traps to 500 . Traps are
not used as a control measure but merely as an indication of the
progress of eradication." Bait is now put in the trap.
The traps continue to be used in fruit fly survey work. For
example, thousands have been used in Florida for survey and detection
of Anastrepha species. During recent work with the Caribbean fruit
fly, Anastrepha suspense Loew, a bait of hydrolyzed torula yeast and
borax in water was developed (Lopez, Steiner, and Holbrook 1971).
Because I received many very interesting flies captured during the
recent work with the Caribbean fruit fly, I became interested in the
possibilities of the trap for other than fruit fly surveys. The only
purposes is that of Bennett (1972) in which he recounts very success-
ful trapping of euglossine bees with special attractants in British
Honduras. I therefore secured a few McPhail traps and set them out
in my backyard in Bethesda, Maryland, Where they were hung at a
height of 6 ft in a flowering dogwood tree, Cornus florida L., after I
had baited them with 4 pellets of the hydrolyzed torula yeast-borax in
water. The results were most gratifying.
The first baiting lasted from 17 to 23 July 1972. The flies cap-
tured were skimmed off the liquid, washed in tap water, and pre-
served in 70% ethyl alcohol, from which they were later removed
through cellosolve and xylene and mounted dry. The only records I
kept of that run are the specimens of Gaurax species (Chloropidae)
determined by C. W. Sabrosky:
Gaurax maculicornis Sabrosky 28 females
G. apicalis Malloch 11 females
G. pilosulus Becker 10 females
G. festivus Loew 6 males
G. pallidipes Malloch 5 females
G. pseudostigma Johnson 5 females
G. melanotum Sabrosky 2 females
G. ocellaris Sabrosky 2 females
G. dorsalis Loew 1 female
G. n. sp. a 2 females
G. n. sp. b 1 female
G. n. sp. c. 1 male
Total 74 specimens
Twelve species of a genus that I did not even know occurred in the
locality, and 3 new species among them!
During 1973, I hung out the trap daily from 15 May to 30 June and
from 25 July to 10 September. I brought the catch in every night at
dark and reset the trap, using the same bait for an average of 4 days.
The following insects were captured:


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










Steyskal: History and Use of McPhail Trap


DIPTERA no. of specimens
Muscoidea
Anthomyiidae 60
Calliphoridae 764
Muscidae 315
Sarcophagidae 764
Acalyptratae
Aulacigastridae 5
Chloropidae 208
Clusiidae 6
Drosophilidae 1244
Lonchaeidae 367
Milichiidae 3
Odiniidae 2
Otitidae 197
Pallopteridae 14
Periscelididae 1
Piophilidae 352
Sphaeroceridae 1
Sepsidae 12
Aschiza
Syrphidae 3
Phoridae 233
Nematocera
Various families 42
HYMENOPTERA 38
OTHER ORDERS 28
The Otitidae included the following species; 173 Delphinia picta
(F.), 14 Idana marginata (Say), 7 Pseudoseioptera colon (Loew), 2
Euxesta notata (Wiedemann), and 1 Pseudotephritis vau (Say). I
was not previously aware that Idana marginata and Pseudoseioptera
colon were in the neighborhood.
I set out a trap again in 1974 from 4 to 13 June and kept only
specimens of Gaurax. In these 10 days with only 1 trap I accumulated
652 specimens of at least a dozen species.
Thus, without experimenting at all with baits other than the pel-
lets used for Anastrepha suspense and in a suburban residential
neighborhood developed several decades earlier from an Appalachian
hardwoods containing many Liriodendron tulipifera and Cornus flor-
ida, I demonstrated that the McPhail trap can be a valuable collecting
tool for certain kinds of Diptera.

LITERATURE CITED
BAKER, A. C., W. E. STONE, C. C. PLUMMER and M. McPHAIL. 1944.
A review of studies on the Mexican fruitfly and related Mexi-
can species. USDA Misc. Publ. 531: 1-155.
BALOGH, J. 1958. Lebensgemeinschaften der Landtiere: lhre Erfor-
schung unter besonderer Berucksichtigung der zoozonologischen
Arbeitsmethoden. Akademiai Kiado, Budapest. 560 p.
BENNETT, F. D. 1972. Baited McPhail fruitfly traps to collect euglos-
sine bees. J. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 80: 137-45.










16 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977

DAHL, F. 1896. Vergleichende Untersuchungen uber die Lebensweise
wirbelloser Aasfresser. Sitzungsber. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss.
Berlin 1896 (II): 17-30.
LOPEZ, F. F., L. F. STEINER, and F. R. HOLBROOK. 1971. A new yeast
hydrolysate-borax bait for trapping the Caribbean fruit fly. J.
Econ. Ent. 64: 1541-3.
NEWELL, W. 1936. Progress report on the Key West (Florida) fruit
fly eradication project. J. Econ. Ent. 29: 116-20.










BOOK REVIEW


FIELD PHOTOGRAPHY, BEGINNING AND ADVANCED TECHNIQUES. Alfred
A. Blaker. 1976. W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco. 451 p. $19.95. This
is the book naturalists and field scientists have been hoping for. It actually
is 2 books: a hardback text, and a small "paperback" booklet (41 p.) with
tables and formulas for field convenience. Blaker, an anthropologist by
formal education, was staff member and then head of the Scientific Photog-
raphy Laboratory of the Univ. of California, Berkeley. Currently he is Lec-
turer in Photography for the Univ. of California Extension, at Berkeley. He
has written another book dealing with scientific photography, Photography
For Scientific Publication. No question of it, Blaker's book is the single
most important book on photography for field science and should be added
to personal as well as experiment and field station libraries.
Content is broad, not merely aimed at taking pictures, and includes dis-
cussions on lab operation, training, facilities, and staffing; basic photog-
raphy, scientific accuracy, and composition, as well as a broad treatment
of filters (IR, UV, ND, and color balancing), and darkroom procedures;
and exposure. Finally, 167 pages are devoted to field subjects and tech-
niques, including the inevitable chapter on field manners (morals). Chap-
ters: climatic problems (temperate zone and extreme conditions); high reso-
lution 35 mm techniques (camera, film processing, and printing); closeup
and photomacrography (standard, macro, reversed retro-focus, and add-on
lenses; extension and reversal technique); focal-length variation (tele-
photo and wideangle); stereo photography; and balanced-ratio flash appli-
cations. There are 3 appendices, including one on copying color slides to
black-and-white. A number of formulas are included and discussed (e.g.
base separation for stereo effects, effective aperture of camera-binocular
combinations, calculation of extension for closeup, and 16 more). There
are 37 tables, 83 figures, 55 B&W photos, 12 color plates, a bibliography,
and index.
When studying this book one knows he is learning from a master. (I noted
only one seeming error-on page 123, line 2, if "the product of' is deleted,
the verbal expression will agree with the formula on the next page.)
J. E. Lloyd










The Florida Entomologist


VIRUS-LIKE PARTICLES IN A FIRE ANT, SOLENOPSIS SP.,
(HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE) FROM BRAZIL

S. W. AVERY, D. P. JOUVENAZ, W. A. BANKS, AND D. W. ANTHONY
Insects Affecting Man Research Laboratory, Agr. Res. Serv.,
USDA, Gainesville, Florida 32604

ABSTRACT

Virus-like particles were found by electron microscopy in the adipose
tissue of an undescribed species of Solenopsis collected in Brazil. The rod-
shaped particles were enclosed by double membranes and were present in
both the nuclei and cytoplasm of the infected cells.


Interest in the diseases of fire ants, Solenopsis spp., was recently re-
newed by reports that infections of Thelohania (Protozoa: Microsporida)
had been found in several species of fire ants in South America (Allen and
Buren 1974, Allen and Silveira-Guido 1974). Our surveys (unpublished
data) also have revealed at least 3 additional microsporidia and several
other pathogens associated with fire ants in Brazil and in the United States.
However, the only indication of a possible viral infection in Formicidae
was reported by Steiger et al. (1969) who found virus-like particles in nerve
and fat body tissue of a wood ant, Formica lugubris Zett. In this paper, we
report observations of virus-like particles in adult fire ants collected in
Brazil. These ants were collected from 1 of several colonies that had mi-
crosporidian infections, and the virus-like particles were found while ex-
amining specimens prepared for ultrastructural studies of the protozoan.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
The host, an undescribed species of Solenopsis close to both Solenopsis
invicta Buren and Solenopsis saevissima (F. Smith) (Buren, personal com-
munication), was collected near the Rio Piquiri in Mato Grasso, Brazil.
The collection did not include the queen, and there was very little brood.
The ants were brought alive to the USDA, Insects Affecting Man Research
Laboratory in Gainesville, Florida, and maintained under strict quarantine
conditions for several weeks in plastic nests similar to those described by
Wilson (1962). They were fed our standard ant diet of macerated labora-
tory-reared insects, pureed beef, raw eggs, and vitamins in agar.
Gasters from adult workers were examined by phase microscopy for the
microsporidian infections. Infected gasters were dissected and fixed in 3%
glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer for 24 hr at 0C and an addi-
tional 24 hr at 30C. Then the specimens were postfixed in 1% Os04 in 0.1 M
cacodylate buffer for 24 hr at 0C, dehydrated in ethanol series, and em-
bedded in Spurr's low viscosity medium (Spurr 1969). Thick sections were
made for phase microscopy; thin sections made for electron microscopy
were cut at 60-90 nm with diamond knives and were stained in uranyl ace-
tate and lead citrate (Reynolds 1963). In addition, a 1% phosphotungstic
acid at pH 6 was used to make the negative stains of suspensions from ap-
proximately 100 ants triturated in a tissue grinder and partially purified


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










The Florida Entomologist


by differential centrifugation. Photomicrographs were made with an elec-
tron microscope with an acceleration voltage of 75 kV. Measurements were
made directly from the negatives, and the magnification of the electron
microscope was calibrated with a carbon replica containing 2160 lines/mm.


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Rod-shaped particles were found in the adipose tissue of the ants in asso-
ciation with the microsporidium. Of 6 microsporidian-infected insects ex-
amined by electron microscopy, 2 were found to be infected with the par-
ticles. A third ant contained particles but was not infected with the micro-
sporidium. A few particles were seen around muscle bundles, but none were
found in the epidermis tissue or in the Malpighian tubules adjacent to in-
fected fat body.
The particles were first seen in greatly hypertrophied nuclei of cells in
the adipose tissue. The amount of condensed nucleoprotein in these nuclei
was considerably less than in normal cells. Some of the cells contained
a few particles in the cytoplasm. The second specimen had a higher concen-
tration of the particles, and the nuclei and cytoplasm of these infected
cells were completely disrupted (Fig. 1). Approximately 75% of the fat
body cells of this specimen contained particles. There was no evidence of
occlusion of the particles in a protein matrix in either the nucleus or the
cytoplasm. The particles were seen occasionally, however, in tightly
packed spheres some of which were bound by a membrane.
The particles were slightly tapered at both ends and were enclosed by
double membranes (Fig. 1). The electron dense core was 193 25 X 50 +2.5
nm, and the membrane was 15 nm thick. The whole particle was 252 12
X 89 7 nm. Particles in the cytoplasm were frequently curved and the
membrane appeared to be pulled away from the core. Particles in the sus-
pension from triturated ants were also tapered at each end, but the electron-
dense core observed in the thin sections was not always evident in the nega-
tive stain preparations.
The virus-like particles described herein do not appear to resemble those
described from a wood ant. Steiger et al. (1969) described 2 types of particles
from apparently healthy ants: the first were hexagonal in shape and mor-
phologically resembled the iridescent viruses, and the second was spherical
in shape. These particles were found in the cytoplasm of nerve and fat body
tissue. The particles we have found, however, appear to be morphologic-
ally similar to the nonoccluded rod-shaped viruses reported from fat body
tissue of the Indian rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) (Huger 1966),
and from the gut epithelium of the beetle Gyrinus natator L. (Gouranton
1972). Our limited observations also indicate that the development of the
virus-like particles from Solenopsis may also be similar to those reported
from the beetles.
Determination of symptoms in live ants has been inconclusive, and the
infection rate could not be estimated. The hypertrophied nuclei and poor
cellular integrity of the fat body could be seen in thick sections, and the
colony had an increased mortality rate. Because of the dual infection, how-
ever, the mortality and cytopathology could not be attributed exclusively
to either infection. Very recently similar particles have been found by elec-


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










Avery et al.: Virus-Like Particles in Solenopsis sp.


Apt Sw


Fig. 1.-Virus-like particles in a fat body cell of Solenopsis sp. V, virus-
like particles; L, lipid droplet.

tron microscopic examinations of adult workers of Solenopsis geminata
(F.) collected in Alachua County, Fla. Biochemical and transmission
studies will be done as additional material becomes available.


LITERATURE CITED
ALLEN, GEORGE E., AND WILLIAM F. BUREN. 1974. Microsporidan and fun-
gal diseases of Solenopsis invicta Buren in Brazil. J. N.Y. Ent. Soc.
82:125-30.
ALLEN, G. E., AND A. SILVEIRA-GUIDO. 1974. Occurrence of microsporida in
Solenopsis richteri and Solenopsis sp. in Uruguay and Argentina.
Fla. Ent. 57:327-9.
GOURANTON, J. 1972. Development of an intranuclear nonoccluded rod-
shaped virus in some midgut cells of an adult insect, Gyrinus natator
L. (Coleoptera). J. Ulstrastruct. Res. 39:281-94.










The Florida Entomologist


HUGER, ALOIS, M. 1966. A virus disease of the Indian Rhinoceros Beetle,
Oryctes rhinoceros (Linneaus), caused by a new type of insect virus,
Rhabdionvirus oryctes gen. n., sp. n. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 8:38-51.
REYNOLDS, EDWARD W. 1963. The use of lead citrate at high pH as an elec-
tron-opaque stain in electron microscopy. J. Cell. Biol. 17:208-12.
SPURR, ARTHUR R. 1969. A low viscosity epoxy resin embedding medium
for electron microscopy. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 26:31-43.
STEIGER, U., U. E. LAMPARTER, C. SANDRI, AND K. AKERT. 1969. Virus-
ahnliche Partikel im Zytoplasma von Nerven und Gliazellen der
Waldameise. Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 26:271-82.
WILSON, E. 0. 1962. Chemical communication among workers of the fire
ant, Solenopsis saevissima (Fr. Smith). 1. The organization of mass
foraging. Anim. Behav. 10:134-47.

















SCALED PAGE CHARGES FOR LONG ARTICLES

Long articles can be printed in The Florida Entomologist. We prefer
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There are no problems involved in editing or in printing technology.
The upper limit is how "fat" we would want an issue to be. We could
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The page charges for long articles are:
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Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










The Florida Entomologist


THREE NEW MILLIPEDS FROM WEST INDIAN CAVES'

H. F. LooMis2
5355 S. W. 92nd St., Miami, Florida 33156

ABSTRACT
In the Eurydesmidae, Cylindromus uniporus (n. gen., n. sp.), a probable
troglobite, Platyurodesmus parallelus (n. gen., n. sp.), a probable troglo-
phile, Jamaica, and Sphaeriodesmus secundus n. sp. (Sphaeriodesmidae),
troglophile, Jamaica, are described and illustrated. Prosopodesmus jacob-
soni Silvestri (Stylodesmidae) is reported for the first time in Jamaica.


In continuing his studies on the invertebrate faunas of West Indian
island caves, Dr. Stewart B. Peck, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada,
sent me a collection of millipeds he had made in Jamaica and Puerto Rico
in 1974. Although only 1 of the species appeared to be a troglobite, coming
from a Puerto Rican cave and represented by a female lacking 1 moult of
maturity, it is so distinctive as to justify description as a new genus and spe-
cies of the family Eurydesmidae. Another species of the family from Ja-
maica is a doubtful troglobite of a new genus, while a 3rd new species, from
that island, is a troglophile and only the 2nd member of its genus from
there. Several other troglophilic species, already known on the island
where collected are not reported here except for an introduced species which
is becoming widespread in the American tropics, extending into the Miami
area of Florida and now first recorded from Jamaica.
Holotypes of the above species are in the Florida State Collection of
Arthropods, Gainesville. Paratype males, available in 2 species, are in the
National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washing-
ton, D. C.
EURYDESMIDAE
Cylindromus Loomis, new genus
TYPE SPECIES: Cylindromus uniporus new species
DIAGNOSIS: As a probable troglobite, the curious keels and pores restricted
to segment 5 distinguish this genus from all epigean genera.
DESCRIPTION: Body slender, of moderate size, colorless, antennae and
legs slender, much longer than in surface species. Head with vertex swol-
len, a prominent furrow between antennae separating it from swollen
front; labrum with raised anterior rim; joint 6 of antenna longest, fol-
lowed by joint 2. Segment 1 as wide as segment 2; keels of segment 2 to ante-
penultimate strongly produced behind at corner into a terete, finger-like
extension obliquely raised outward; keels of penultimate segment with
back corner small and acute; pores present on segment 5 only, opening
from tip of produced corner. Dorsum of last segment and deflexed mucro


'Contribution No. 371. Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Depart-
ment of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville 32602.
'Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Florida Department of Agri-
culture and Consumer Services, Gainesville 32602. Deceased 5 July 1976.


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










The Florida Entomologist


discontinuous. Pleural crests present on segments 2-4. Sterna but slightly
depressed in each direction.

Cylindromus uniporus Loomis, new species
DESCRIPTION: Body less than 10x as long as broad; smooth, shiny, and
colorless; 13 mm long, 1.6 mm wide. Head with deep median sulcus and
conspicuous furrow between antennae separating strongly swollen vertex
and front; labrum with a thin raised rim along margin, preceded by 18-20
long, fine setae; antennae long, slender; joint 6 longest and widest, fol-
lowed in length by joints 2, subequal 3-5, 1, and 7. Segment 1 (Fig. 1) as
broad as segment 2, with a distinct angle each side behind which margin is
nearly straight to angularly rounded posterior corner. Following seg-
ments with both divisions strongly convex; metazonites with a long, fine
seta each side near anterior third, about half way to base of keel. From seg-
ment 2 to antepenult, keels elevated caudally and ectally; posterior
corners produced into a long, cylindrical, finger-like process, rounded at
tip; that of segment 5 bearing the only pore at its tip (Fig. 2); from segment
2-15 or 16 a tiny tooth present on outer margin near base of produced corner;
penultimate segment (Fig. 3) with posterior corner of keels reduced to very
small angles; last segment with heavy, down-curved mucro. Anal valves
moderately inflated, margins rather thinly raised. Preanal scale large,
subtriangular; lateral margins slightly convex. Pleurae of segments 2-4
with a longitudinal ridge descending ventral, third of way between coxae
and base of keels, its posterior margin bearing 2-3 conic teeth. Legs long
and slender, exceeding keels by about half their length; joints 3, 6, 2, 4 and
5 subequal, and 1 descending in that order of length; sterna scarcely de-
pressed in either direction.
Holotype female with 19 segments, Puerto Rico, Cuevo los Choros,
15 km S of Arecibo, 31-V-74, S. B. Peck.

Platyurodesmus Loomis, new genus
TYPE SPECIES: Platyurodesmus parallelus new species
DIAGNOSIS: The colorless, parallel-sided body with penultimate segment
unusually wide, its large poriferous angles resembling those of preceding
segments in strong contrast to the small posterior angles of poreless keels,
differentiate this genus from any other in the family. The species appears to
be a troglophile.
DESCRIPTION: Body colorless, slender, parallel sided between 1st and last
segments; pore formula normal; surface smooth and shiny. Antennae not
especially long or slender; 3rd joint longest, 6th joint thickest and bearing
a subapical sensory area. Segment 1 narrower than next 1, with 3 transverse
rows of a few, fine, erect setae; several succeeding segments with a seta pro-
jecting outward and upward from midmargin of keels. Metazonites strongly
convex in both directions; nonporiferous keels consisting of a rimless
lateral swelling ending behind in a small angulation; periferous keels
similar except that angulation is replaced by a large caudolaterally pro-
jecting pore process. Caudal segments not narrowing toward end of body;
penultimate segment scarcely narrower than antepenult and with as large
a pore process. Last segment broad and unusually short, with large de-
flexed mucro. Legs about normal in length and proportions; joint 3 long-


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










Loomis: New Millipeds from West Indian Caves


6


















Fig. 1-8. West Indian cave millipeds. Fig. 1-3. Cylindromus uniporus
n. sp.: 1) Left side, segments 1-2, dorsal view; 2) Left side, segments 5-6, dor-
sal view; 3) Left side, antepenult and penult segments, dorsal view. Fig.
4-6. Platyurodesmus parallelus n. sp.: 4) Segment 14, dorsal view; 5) Seg-
ments 18-20, dorsal view; 6) Left gonopod, ventral view. Fig. 7-8. Sphaerio-
desmus secundus n. sp.: 7) Left side, segments 3-5, lateral view; 8) Right
gonopod, lateral view.










The Florida Entomologist


est. Gonopods slender and long, apex laterally produced into a slight,
acute hook, a rather large, elongate expansion below it. Third male ster-
num with 2 large conic tubercles between coxae.

Platyurodesmus parallelus Loomis, new species
DESCRIPTION: Holotype male 16 mm long, 1.3 mm wide; largest female 17
mm long, 1.7 mm wide; sides of body essentially parallel from segments;
body colorless, surface smooth and shiny. Head with vertex not especially
swollen, with a sharply impressed median sulcus but no interantennal
depression; labral setae 14-16, short; setae of clypeal area longer and scat-
tered; antennae of normal size; joint 2 a little longer than subequal joints
3-6, latter broadest with prominent sensory area on outer side near apex.
Segment 1 semielliptical, a little narrower than segment 2, posterior
angles slightly less than squarely rounded; an anterior row of 4-6 fine
erect setae, 4 across middle, a posterior row rubbed off, and a single seta
projects outward from midmargin of keels of segments 2-5 or 6. Metazonites
smoothly convex in both directions, anterior one-third or one-fourth
crossed by row of 4 long, well-spaced setae. Keels not well defined,
merely swelling on sides of metazonites and without marginal rim or teeth;
nonporiferous ones ending in a small angulation (Fig. 4), replaced by a
large, caudolaterally projecting process, with apical pore, on others (Fig.
5). Segments 19-20 unusually wide, latter with deflexed mucro continuous
with dorsum in front. Anal valves evenly inflated, smooth; margins thin,
slightly elevated. Preanal scale large, subtriangular, sides a little con-
vex; apex not acute. Legs of normal size and proportions, with joint 3 dis-
tinctly longer than 6. Sterna somewhat depressed in both directions. Both
sexes with a pleural ridge above coxae of segments 2-4. Gonopods shown in
Fig. 6. Gonopodial opening in segment 7 surrounded by a high rim. Third
male sternum with a high, acutely conic tubercle each side; 4th sternum
with smaller, less acute ones.
Holotype male, Jamaica, Clarendon Parish, Jackson Bay Cave, Bench
Passage, 11-VIII-74 S. B. Peck; male, 3 females, 4 young, same data except
2-VIII-74.

SPHAERIODESMIDAE
Sphaeriodesmus Peters 1864
Sphaeriodesmus secundus Loomis, new species
DIAGNOSIS: Much larger than the only other Jamaican species, S. bruesi
(Chamberlin 1918), and with gonopods heavier, much more sharply bent at
apex.
DESCRIPTION: Body large and stout, slightly over 2.5 x as long as broad,
20 mm x 7.7 mm. Head with sharply impressed vertigial sulcus almost
reaching a line between tops of antennal openings; labrum with 30-40 setae
of various lengths, shortest ones on or near front margin; front with sparse
scattering of long setae; antennal joints 2 and 6 subequal in length, fol-
lowed by joints 3, 5, and 4. Segments 3-5 shown in Fig. 7; lower sides of seg-
ment 7 bear a large, subconic tubercle above base of anterior legs, smaller
tubercles in same position on segments 3-5 and 7 to midbody. Gonoped
shown in Fig. 8; opening in segment 7 with margin vertically but thinly


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










Loomis: New Millipeds from West Indian Caves


raised on sides and behind. Sterna of legs 3-6 narrower than coxa each side,
7 a little wider, 9 nearly twice as wide as coxa, succeeding sterna only about
half as wide as adjoining coxae.
Holotype male, Jamaica, Trelawny Parish, Windsor Great Cave, 10 m S
of Falmouth, 26-VIII-74, S. B. Peck; male, same parish, Spring Garden,
Harties Cave, 4-IX-74.

STYLODESMIDAE
Prosopodesmus Silvestri 1910
Homodesmusparvus Chamberlin 1918; Loomis 1950.
Numerous specimens of this introduced species, originally described
from Java, found in Trelawny Parish, Windsor Great Cave, 10 m S of Fal-
mouth, 26-VIII-74; and Westmoreland Parish, Monarva Cave, 10 mi W of
Savanna-la-Mar, 30-VIII-74.

LITERATURE CITED
CHAMBERLIN, R. V. 1918. The chilopods and diplopods of the West Indies.
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 62:151-262.
LOOMIS, H. F. 1950. Synonymy of some native American and introduced
millipeds. J. Washington Acad. Sci. 40:164-6.
PETERS, W. C. H. 1864. Ubersicht der im Konigl, zoologischen museum
befindlich Myriapoden aus der families der polydesmi, so wie bes-
chreibungen einer neuen gattung, Trachiulus, der juli, und neuer ar-
ten der gattung Siphonophora. Monatsb, Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin.
p. 529-51, 617-27.
SILVESTRI, F. 1910. Descrizioni preliminary di novi generi di diplopodi.
Zool. Anz. Leipzip 35:357-364.














CONCERNING PAIRS OF MIGRATING BUCKEYES, Junonia coenia (L.)-
(Note). During October 1975, I observed that several of the buckeyes which
were migrating southeastwardly across a plowed field in Alachua Co., Fla.,
were traveling in pairs. On 14 Oct. I pursued one such pair for ca. 75m across
the field, while swatting energetically at them with a large-mouth aerial
net, finally capturing them both at once. Throughout their evasive ma-
neuvers, the pair had remained together-usually within several centimeters
of each other. Laboratory examination of the specimens by T. J. Walker and
D. A. Nickle disclosed that they were a male and a mated female. Robert
L. Crocker, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville 32611.











The Florida Entomologist


HAROLD FREDERICK LOOMIS
(1896-1976)
Harold F. (Loo) Loomis died 5 July
1976 in South Miami Hospital. Born in
SMertensia, New York on 23 December
1896, he joined the U. S. Department of
Agriculture in 1914, where he served ac-
tively until his retirement in 1958. He
continued this association informally
Until shortly before his death, using an
w .. office that had been put at his disposal
at Chapman Field, Miami, Florida.
Loo worked on genetic improvement
of corn and cotton and phytopathology
of the latter, and he conducted agronomic
studies of tropical crop plants, especially
rubber, coffee, cacao, and miscellaneous
medicinal plants, publishing 50 papers on
these subjects. He lived 8 years in Ari-
S h, Tzona, where he and his wife, Edith (Sis),
whom he married in 1922, collected mil-
lipeds on dozens of camping trips into
the mountains. In 1919 Loo went to China with O. F. Cook as the photographer on a
cotton expedition looking for long staple varieties. They made an enormous loop
up through China all the way to Peking, partly by river and partly overland, col-
lecting millipeds when time allowed. Loo and Sis continued to collect millipeds
for the rest of his life, visiting Mexico, several Central American countries, several
Bahama Islands, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Haiti, Dominica, Antigua, St. Croix, St. Thomas,
St. John, Trinidad, Guyana, and Surinam. In 1932 he accompanied Dr. G. B. Fair-
child on the Armour expedition of 3 months, during which they visited more than 30
islands of the Antilles.
Loo and Sis moved to Miami in 1931 where Loo was associated with the U. S.
Plant Introduction Garden at Chapman Field as a Research Agronomist. He served
as director from 1945 to 1958. Before and during World War II he was concerned with
production of natural rubber. His other interests ranged from palms and orchids to
beetles and millipeds, on which he became an acknowledged authority. His specialty
was West Indian and Central American millipeds. He published 64 scientific papers
on arthropods, including 50 papers on millipeds in which new taxa were described;
2 of these were coauthored with O. F. Cook and 2 with R. L. Hoffman, 1 with D. Daven-
port, and 1 with R. L. Schmitt. An additional publication on 2 common millipeds in
Florida was coauthored with H. V. Weems, Jr. He described 521 new species, 127 new
genera, 2 new subfamilies, and 9 new families (3 of these coauthored). He was a col-
laborator with the (U. S.) National Museum of Natural History for many years and
was an Honorary Fellow (Entomology) of the Smithsonian Institution. He was an
active Research Associate of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods from 1967
until the time of his death, publishing regularly in The Florida Entomologist. Al-
most all of the type specimens of the species which he described were deposited in the
National Museum of Natural History and the Florida State Collection of Arthro-
pods. Mr. Loomis was also a charter member of the Fairchild Tropical Garden, serv-
ing for many years on the Executive Committee of its Board of Directors, a member
of the South Florida Orchid Society, the Palm Society, The Florida Entomological
Society, and the Biological Society of Washington. He is survived by his wife, his son,
James C., of San Antonio, Texas, and daughter, Mrs. Margery Krome, of Norfolk,
Virginia. Loo will be remembered by his many friends as a kindly and gracious man,
ever eager to share what he had with others.
Howard V. Weems, Jr.
Div. of Plant Industry, Fla. Dep. of
Agr. and Consumer Services


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










The Florida Entomologist


ABSENCE OF SYNERGISM IN THE RESPONSE OF
FLORIDA LESSER PEACHTREE BORER MALES TO
SYNTHETIC SEX PHEROMONE'

JOHN R. MCLAUGHLIN, J. H. TUMLINSON, AND J. L. SHARP
Insect Attractants, Behavior and Basic Biology Research
Laboratory, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA, Gainesville, Fla. 32604

ABSTRACT

The response of male lesser peachtree borers, Synanthedon pictipes
(Grote and Robinson), in Florida to the sex pheromone (E,Z)-3,13-octade-
cadien-1-ol acetate, unlike that of borer males in Wisconsin, was not syner-
gized by the addition of the Z,E isomer. These geographically separated
populations may thus respond to different pheromones.


The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson),
utilizes (E,Z)-3,13-octadecadien-1-ol acetate (E3,Z13-18:Ac) as its sex phe-
romone (Tumlinson et al. 1974). Tumlinson et al. (1974) also reported
that Z3,Z13-18:Ac will inhibit the response of male S. pictipes to the phe-
romone. This is an unfortunate circumstance because the Z,Z isomer is a
major contaminant in the synthesis of the pheromone, and it can only be
removed by costly chromatographic techniques (Tumlinson and Heath
1976).
Therefore, we were intrigued by a report (Karandinos et al., 1977) of a
synergistic effect of the Z,E isomer on the response of male S. pictipes to
E3,Z13-18:Ac in Wisconsin. We reasoned that such a synergistic effect might
overcome the inhibition of the Z,Z isomer. The experiment designed to test
that hypothesis revealed an apparent difference in the response of Florida
and Wisconsin S. pictipes males to traps baited with synthetic sex phero-
mone.

METHODS
The chemicals used were synthesized by Dr. R. E. Doolittle of this lab-
oratory as were those used by Karandinos et al. (1977), and they were
subjected to the same purification procedures. These purified materials were
then used to bait Pherocon 1C sticky traps placed in a peach-nectarine
orchard near Lowell, Fl.
In the first experiment (fall test), the traps were baited with stainless
steel planchets containing one of 5 treatments mixed with 1% by volume
of UOP 688@, which served as a keeper and antioxidant (McLaughlin et al.
1976): 1) 100 pg of E,Z; 2) 100 pg of E,Z plus 100 pg of Z,E; 3) 100 ig of E,Z
plus 1 pg of Z,Z; 4) 100 pg of E,Z plus 100 pg Z,E plus 1 pg Z,Z; and 5) 100
pg of Z,E. Two rows of traps separated by ca. 40 m were established. Each
row contained 5 traps baited randomly with each of the 5 treatments. The
traps were placed ca. 1 m above the ground (mid-tree height) and were sepa-


'Mention of a commercial or proprietary product in this paper does not constitute an en-
dorsement of that product by the USDA.


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










The Florida Entomologist


rated by ca. 22 m. The study was begun on 8 October 1975, and the traps were
checked 11 times in 16 days. A clean sticky surface was placed in each trap
each time it was checked, and each trap with its particular bait was moved to
the next trap location in the row.
Since our fall test revealed no synergistic effect of the Z,E isomer, we
conducted another experiment the following spring in the same orchard to
determine whether there was a seasonal difference in the behavior of the in-
sect. The treatments were placed (without antioxidant) into 0.31-cc poly-
ethylene vials (Olympic Plastic Co., Los Angeles, Ca.) with closed lids.
Three treatments were tested: 1) 50fg E,Z; 2) 50 jg Z,E; and 3) 50 .g E,Z plus
50 ug Z,E. Three rows of 3 traps each were established. The same experi-
mental design and procedures were used as before. The traps were placed
in the field 31 March 1976 and checked 9 times in 13 days.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The Z,E isomer had no apparent effect on the capture of male S. pictipes
in traps baited with the identified sex pheromone, E3,Z13-18:Ac, and it did
not overcome inhibitory effect of the Z,Z isomer (Table 1). Traps baited
with the Z,E isomer alone did capture a few S. pictipes during the first 2 days
of the 2nd test, probably because of contamination by some E,Z.

TABLE 1. CAPTURES OF MALE S. pictipes IN TRAPS BAITED WITH VARIOUS
ISOMERS OF 3,13-octadecadien-l-ol acetate.

Isomer Male captures/trapping
(jLg) intervala.b
Mean SE

Test 1
E,Z (100) 7.3 1.0 a
E,Z:Z,E (100:100) 8.0.+1.3 a
E,Z:Z,Z (100:1) 1.70.4 b
E,Z:Z,Z:Z,E (100:1:100) 2.30.4 b
Z,E (100) 0

Test 2
E,Z (50) 24.0 5.5 a
E,Z:Z,E (50:50) 18.1 4.5 a
Z,E (50) 1.10.9 b

'Means of 22 values in test 1 and 27 in test 2.
bMeans followed by uncommon letters differ significantly (1%) by Duncan's new multiple
range test (Z,E not included in test 1; comparisons made only within tests).

The results confirm preliminary observations in Georgia (Tumlinson
et al. 1974) that the Z,E isomer does not influence the attraction of S. pic-
tipes males to E3,Z13-18:Ac. Since Karandinos et al. (in press) found that
Wisconsin populations of S. pictipes are influenced behaviorally by this


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










McLaughlin et al.: Peachtree Borer Pheromone Study 29

isomer, there is a possibility that S. pictipes populations in various geo-
graphic areas of the U. S. respond to different pheromones (see Klun and
Cooperators 1975 and references therein).

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We thank Dr. T. D. Eichlin, Division of Plant Industry, Department of
Food and Agriculture, State of California, Sacramento, who verified repre-
sentative samples of the moths captured as S. pictipes.


LITERATURE CITED
KARANDINOS, M. G., TUMLINSON, J. H., AND EICHLIN, T. D. 1977. Field evi-
dence of synergism and inhibition in the Sesiidae sex pheromone sys-
tem. J. Chem. Ecol. 3:57-64.
KLUN, J. 1., AND COOPERATORS. 1975. Insect sex pheromones: Intraspecific
pheromonal variability of Ostrinia nubilalis in North America and
Europe. Environ. Ent. 4:891-4.
MCLAUGHLIN, J. R., DOOLITTLE, R. E., GENTRY, C. R., MITCHELL, E. R.,
AND TUMLINSON, J. H. 1976. Response to pheromone traps and dis-
ruption of pheromone communication in the lesser peachtree borer
and the peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 2:73-
81.
TUMLINSON, J. H., AND HEATH, R. R. 1976. Structure elucidation of insect
pheromones by microanalytical methods. J. Chem. Ecol. 1:87-99.
TUMLINSON, J. H., YONCE, C. E., DOOLITTLE, R. E., HEATH, R. R., GENTRY,
C. R., AND MITCHELL, E. R. 1974. Sex pheromones and reproductive
isolation of, the lesser peachtree and the peachtree borer. Science
185:614-6.












BOOK NOTICE


INSECTS AND THE LIFE OF MAN. Vincent B. Wigglesworth. 1976. Hal-
sted Press, New York. 217 p. $12.50. A collection of essays and lectures for
the general audience, written across a span of 40 years of the author's dis-
tinguished career. Selected titles: Insects and Human Affairs; DDT and the
Balance Of Nature; Science, Pure and Applied; The Science and Practice
Of Entomology; Insects and the Farmer; Malaria In Ceylon; Malaria In
War; The Insect As A Medium For the Study Of Physiology; Fifty Years
Of Insect Physiology; Preformation and Insect Development; Experi-
mental Biology, Pure and Applied; Wordsworth and Science; and The Re-
ligion Of Science.-J. E. Lloyd










The Florida Entomologist


FLIGHT HEIGHTS OF MIGRATING BUTTERFLIES-(Note). Four species of
butterflies known to migrate (C. B. Williams. 1930. The Migration of But-
terflies. Oliver & Boyd, London, 473 p.): the long-tailed skipper, (Urbanus
proteus (L.); the cloudless sulphur (Phoebis sennae (L.); the buckeye,
(Junonia lavinia (Cramer); and the gulf fritillary, (Agraulis vanilla (L.),
were observed 7 Oct. 1975 from 2:00-5:00 PM at the University of Florida
experimental farm, Green Acres, Alachua Co., Fla. Temperature was ca.
290C and the wind was from the SE at 5-7 m/s. Flight heights were measured
by sighting along 2 equivalent 15 m rows of 5 0.9 m posts, the rows forming
an angle of 1200 with a 3 m post at the apex. All posts were marked at 0.3 m
intervals (flight heights estimated at 1 ft intervals). The angle was bisected
by the apparent flight direction of the butterflies (toward the SE, against
the wind). Flight height measurements were made over a plowed field on the
southern arm of the angle, and over a 10 m wide divider for 2 plowed fields
(consisting of bahiagrass 0.3 m in height) on the eastern arm.
The flight patterns of each of 3 species were different (A. vanilla will
not be discussed because of its small sample size). Urbanus proteus is a
strong, swift flier with little variance in its flight path. Phoebis sennae, a
slower flier than U. proteus, exhibited continuous high-amplitude oscilla-
tions in its flight path. Junonia lavinia maintained a slow flight, nearly
without oscillations. Mean flight heights of the 3 species (Table 1) were
significantly different from each other over both the plowed field and the
grass. The grass significantly raised the mean flight heights of the skipper
and buckeye, whereas the mean flight height of the sulphur was high enough
so that it was not affected by the grass (p < 0.05 for all t-tests; calculations
made using mid-value of each interval).
We would like to thank Drs. J. E. Lloyd and T. J. Walker, Dep. Ent.
and Nem., for their suggestions. G. B. Edwards and D. B. Richman, Dep. of
Ent. and Nem. and Dep. of Zoology, respectively, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Fla. 32611.

TABLE 1. COMPARISON OF FLIGHT HEIGHTS OF 4 SPECIES OF MIGRATORY BUTTERFLIES OVER
A PLOWED FIELD (A) AND OVER 0.3 M BAHIA GRASS (B), IN METERS.

A B A-B
Species n + 95% CI Range n t*95% CI Range Significance

Phoebis sennae 60 1.03+0.30 <.3-3.0+ 39 0.95+0.14 0.3-1.5 ns
Urbanusproteus 408 0.650.05 <.3-2.1 295 0.740.07 <.3-3.0+ p<0.05
Junonia lavinia 30 0.290.15 <.3-09 14 0.47+0.19 <.3-0.9 p<0.05
Agraulis vanilla 1 0.75 1 0.45


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










The Florida Entomologist Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977 31

MYRMECOSA URUS FERRUGINEUS,
AN ARGENTINIAN BEETLE
FROM FIRE ANT NESTS IN THE UNITED STATES

J. H. FRANK
Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, P. O. Box 520
Vero Beach, Florida 32960

ABSTRACT
Myrmecosaurus ferrugineus Bruch (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pae-
derinae) has been found in nests of Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera:
Formicidae) in Florida, Alabama, and Louisiana. A description of the adult
of M. ferrugineus and a key to separate it from adults of other Myrmeco-
saurus species are given. All 7 described species of Myrmecosaurus are asso-
ciated with Solenopsis and are South American. M. ferrugineus has presum-
ably been introduced accidentally into the United States.


During 1976 Dan P. Wojcik (USDA-ARS, Gainesville, Florida) sent me
a number of specimens of Staphylinidae, mostly from ant nests, for identi-
fication. Among the specimens was a total of 6'examples of Myrmecosaurus
Wasmann. All 6 examples had been collected by Wojcik from nests of the
red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, as follows: 1 male, Flor-
ida, Leon County, Tall Timbers Research Station, 20-1-1970; 3 males, Ala-
bama, Houston County, near Ashford, 24-X-1975; 1 male, Alabama, Walker
County, Carbon Hill, central dividing strip of U.S. highway no. 78, 23-X-
1975; 1 male, Louisiana, Tangipohoa Par., Hammond, 4-XII-1975.
The occurrence of individuals of Myrmecosaurus in the United States
(Georgia and Mississippi) has been reported previously by Collins and
Markin (1971), but the specific identity of the beetles had not been deter-
mined. It seemed to me to be of some interest to identify the specimens, to
determine whether they belong to a described species and, if so, what its dis-
tribution is and what ant species it might be associated with.


PROCEDURE
A literature search revealed that 7 species of Myrmecosaurus have been
described, all from South America. In Table 1 are given the names of the
described species in order of description, author, date, and page number of
description, as well as known distribution (country, state or province or
department). No keys to the identification of the 7 species have been pub-
lished although Wasmann (1918) gave a key to the 4 species described at
that time.
Examination of the literature revealed that adults of 4 of the species
were described as having carinate elytra, while adults of the other 3 species
were reported to have elytra without carinae. Further, the specimens from
Florida, Alabama and Louisiana appeared similar to the descriptions of
adults of P. gallardoi (Brethes) and of P. ferrugineus Bruch.
Through the kindness of Drs. Sixto Coscaron and Luis de Santis, I was
able to borrow 9 examples of M. gallardoi, 2 of M. ferrugineus, and 5 of M.









The Florida Entomologist


TABLE 1. LOCATION OF ORIGINAL DESCRIPTION AND KNOWN DISTRIBUTION
OF Myrmecosaurus SPECIES.


M. myrmeco-
philus (Holmgren)1908:344 Bolivia: La Paz
M. solenopsidis Wasmann 1909:767 Brazil: Santa Catharina
M. gallardoi (Brethes) 1916:431 Argentina: Buenos Aires,
Entre Rios, Jujuy
M. vagans Bruch 1918:187 Argentina: C6rdoba,
Rio Negro
M. laticeps Bruch 1925:243 Argentina: C6rdoba
M. ferrugineus Bruch 1932:1 Argentina: Misiones
M. calverti Coiffait
and Saiz 1968:383 Chile: Valparaiso, Santiago


vagans Bruch from Museo La Plata, Argentina. All of these examples had
been collected in Argentina between 1908 and 1936. I have compared these
examples with all published descriptions and am convinced that all ex-
amples are identified correctly.
I compared the examples from Florida, Alabama and Louisiana with the
borrowed examples of P. gallardoi and P. ferrugineus, including prepara-
tions of the aedeagi, and am convinced that all 6 of the United States ex-
amples belong to P. ferrugineus. The aedeagus of P. ferrugineus is illus-
trated in lateral view in Fig. 4-6; it is evident that this structure may appear
differently in different examples because, on drying, the apex may curl. In
Fig. 4-6 the internal structures of the aedeagus are indicated only by a
broken line; these structures are undoubtedly highly diagnostic and were
dissected out from one example and illustrated in ventral view (Fig. 10)
and lateral view (Fig. 11). The aedeagus of P. ferrugineus appears symmetri-
cal in ventral view (Fig. 9), contrasting with the aedeagus of P. gallardoi
(Fig. 7, 8) which appears asymmetrical (Fig. 8) in ventral view.


REDESCRIPTION OF ADULT OF M. ferrugineus
Ferruginous, some specimens darker, appendages paler. Form broadly
elongate. Length about 3.7 mm from labrum to apex of abdomen. With
coarse granulate sculpture on dorsal and ventral aspects of head, pro-
notum, pro-, meso- and metasternum, elytra, femora and basal abdominal
segments. Labrum quadridentate. Frons broadly rounded. Lateral margins
of head explanate and broadest at midpoint between eyes and hind angles.
Eyes very small, partially obscured from above by very strongly pro-
nounced supra-orbital carina parallel to lateral margin of head and con-
tinuous with frontal carina. With less well-marked median pair of carinae
beginning and ending in prominent, elongate, granular tubercles. Head
from frontal carina to hind margin 1.15 longer than distance between hind
angles. Gular sutures united for greater part of their length, divergent only
just before base of head. Ventral aspects of head with pair of infra-orbital
carinae becoming obscure posteriorly. Neck 0.25 x width of head at hind
angles.


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










Frank: A Beetle from Fire Ant Nests


Fig. 1-3. Myrmecosaurus spp. Fig. 1. Habitus of ferrugineus (the example
drawn is a male from Alabama). Fig. 2. Head of gallardoi. Fig. 3. Head of
laticeps after photograph and description by Bruch (1925).

Antenna with basal article rather large and boad, but not geniculate,
almost 2 x as broad as article II and as long as articles II, III and IV com-
bined; article III more slender and longer than II, remaining articles be-
coming broader to apex. Fourth article of maxillary palpus subulate,
minute; third article large, broad. Third article of labial palpus nearly
as long as penultimate but much more slender.
Pronotum 1.15 x longer than broad, rather narrowly produced anteri-
orly, emarginate at hind angles; with carina on each side running diagon-
ally from neck to hind angle; with more obscure median carina diverging
posteriorly. Prosternum with median longitudinal carina. Anterior coxae
large, exserted; coxal cavities closed posteriorly by lateral expansion
of the prosternum. Mesocoxal cavities confluent; mesosternum with small
median carina. Posterior coxae contiguous. Scutellum largely obscured
by pronotum. Elytra explanate, their suture equal in length to pronotum
along midline; elytra jointly 1.5 x width of pronotum, slightly broadened
toward hind angles; with 3 pairs of carinae: a more obscure sutural pair
and 2 outer pairs, parallel to suture; the interval between sutural carina
and central carina slightly narrower than that between central and outer









The Florida Entomologist


8 9 10 11
Fig. 4-11. Aedeagi of Myrmecosaurus spp. Fig. 4-6. Lateral view of aedea-
gus of ferrugineus: 4) Normal; 5) and 6) Resulting from distortion after
drying. Fig. 7-8. Aedeagus of gallardoi: 7) Lateral view; 8) Ventral view.
Fig. 9-11. Aedeagus of ferrugineus: 9) Ventral view, the shaded area indi-
cates outline of internal structures; 10) and 11) Ventral and lateral views
respectively of internal structure.

carina which, in turn, is slightly narrower than that between outer carina
and lateral margin of elytron.
Abdominal segments with 2 pairs of parasternites. Abdominal sternite
II represented only as narrow band attached to anterior margin of sternite
III, these sternites with median longitudinal carina. Abdominal segments
III, IV, and V as broad as elytra at hind angles, remaining segments nar-
rowed. Posterior margin of sternite VIII of male centrally with small
emargination, of female not emarginate. Abdominal segments with very
short pubescence; this scarcely evident on rest of body.
Each tarsus of 5 tarsomeres; anterior tarsi of male slightly expanded;
article I of metatarsus equal in length to article V. Metatibia with cteni-


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977









Frank: A Beetle from Fire Ant Nests


dium on both inner and outer aspect; pro- and meso-tibiae with similar,
but less pronounced ctenidia. Intersegmental membranes with scleroti-
zations forming rectangular pattern typical of subfamily Paederinae.
Wings present. Aedeagus (Fig. 4, 9) externally symmetrical, without lat-
eral lobes; external membrane weakly sclerotized, the internal structures
(Fig. 10, 11) symmetrical and partially visible; the weakly sclerotized
outer membrane may shrivel on drying, particularly at the apex, allowing
the structure to appear differently in different individuals (Fig. 4, 5, 6).
Adults of this species belong to a group characterized by the presence
of elytral carinae. The group contains 4 described species: M. gallardoi,
M. laticeps Bruch, and M. calverti Coiffait and Saiz in addition to M. ferrugi-
neus. Adults of M. calverti were stated by Coiffait and Saiz (1968) to have
the outermost carina of each elytron forming an arc from the anterolateral
angle to the postero-lateral angle; the form of this carina appears to dis-
tinguish adults of M. calverti from adults of the other 3 species in which
all carinae are parallel to the suture. Adults of the remaining 3 species
may be distinguished by the structure of the head: in M. gallardoi the head
is elongate, the frons transverse, and the lateral margins of the head are
slightly emarginate (Fig. 2), while in M. ferrugineus the head is not evi-
dently elongate, the frons is rounded and the lateral margins of the head
are slightly rounded so that the head is broadest at a point about midway
between the eyes and postero-lateral angles (Fig. 1); adults of M. laticeps
have the head appearing triangular, distinctly broadest at the postero-
lateral angles, and the lateral margin of the head diverging from the outer-
most carina (Fig. 3) while in M. ferrugineus the outermost carina appears
parallel to the lateral margin (Fig. 1).
The following key should serve to distinguish adults of the 7 known
species; it makes use of the partial key (to 4 species) given by Wasmann
(1918) as well as published descriptions and my own comparisons of M.
vagans, M. gallardoi and M. ferrugineus adults.


KEY TO ADULTS OF Myrmecosaurus SPECIES
1. Elytra without any obvious carinae ................ ................ .......... ... 2
1'. Elytra with 3 pairs of well-marked carinae ............................ .............. 4
2(1). Elytra jointly 1.5 x broader than long (width measured at
widest part, length along suture from scutellum) ...... M. vagans Bruch
2'. Elytra as long as broad ........... ............... ... .............. 3
3(2'). Head broadest at hind angles .................. M. myrmecophilus (Holmgren)
3'. Head parallel-sided ................................. M. solenopsidis Wasmann
4(1'). Each elytron with outermost carina forming an arc from antero-
lateral angle to postero-lateral angle ........ M. calverti Coiffait and Saiz
4'. Elytra with carinae parallel to suture ............. ............................ 5
5(4'). Lateral margins of head slightly emarginate (Fig. 2)...................
........ ................................................ M gallardoi (B rethes)
5'. Lateral margins of head rounded (Fig. 1, 3)......................... ...... .......... 6
6(5'). Head broadest between eyes and hind angles (Fig. 1) ........................
..................................................................................... M ferrug in eu s B ru ch
6'. Head broadest at hind angles (Fig. 3) ............................M. laticeps Bruch










The Florida Entomologist


CONCLUSION
In the keys to genera of Staphylinidae of the United States published
by Arnett (1961), the standard reference work to the identification of adults,
individuals of Myrmecosaurus will trace to the genus Echiaster. The fol-
lowing couplet will distinguish adults of these genera:
1. Head carinate and with explanate margins ................. Myrmecosaurus
1'. Head not carinate, without explanate margins ........................ Echiaster
The larva of M. solenopsidis was described by Wasmann (1918:213) and
again by Paulian (1941:194), while that of M. vagans was described by Sil-
vestri (1946:65). Although the ocelli of these larvae are indistinct, the other
structures are not atypical of the known larvae of the subfamily Paederi-
nae. M. ferrugineus was stated by Bruch (1932) to have been discovered in a
nest of the ant Solenopsis saevissima var. quinquecuspis Forel in Misiones,
Argentina. All the other 6 species seem also to be associated with various
Solenopsis species. A manuscript detailing some biological observations on
M. ferrugineus is in preparation by Dan P. Wojcik.
I have seen none of the Myrmecosaurus examples mentioned by Collins
and Markin (1971) as having been collected in nests of Solenopsis in Geor-
gia and Mississippi, but believe it likely that they will also prove to be-
long to M. ferrugineus.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I am very grateful to Michael C. Thomas of Vero Beach for preparing
Fig. 1-3 and to Drs. Sixto Coscaron and Luis de Santis for the loan of ma-
terial.
LITERATURE CITED
ARNETT, R. H. 1961. The beetles of the United States (a manual for identi-
fication). Pt. 2, fasc. 15. Washington, D. C.; Catholic University of
America Press. p. 233-310.
BRtTHES, J. 1916. Description d'un nouveau genre et d'une nouvelle espece
de staphylinide myrmecophile. Physis 2:431-2.
BRUCH, C. 1918. Nuevos hugspedes de hormigas procedentes de C6rdoba.
Physis 4:186-95.
BRUCH, C. 1925. Un nuevo estafilinido mirmecophilo. Physis 8:242-4.
BRUCH, C. 1932. Algunos estafilinidos de Misiones (Coledptera). Physis
11:1-8.
COIFFAIT, H., AND F. SAIZ. 1968. Les Staphylinidae (sensu lato) du Chili.
In: Biologie de l'Amerique Australe, 4:339-468. Paris; Centre natn.
Recherche Sci.
COLLINS, H. L., AND G. P. MARKIN, 1971. Inquilines and other arthropods
collected from nests of the imported fire ant Solenopsis saevissima
richteri. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 64:1376-80.
HOLMGREN, N. 1908. Ober einige myrmecophile Insekten aus Bolivia und
Peru. Zool. Anz. 33:337-49.
PAULIAN, R. 1941. Les premiers 6tats des Staphylinoidea. Etude de morpho-
logie comparee. Mem. Mus. natn. Hist. nat., Paris (n.s.) 15:1-361.
SILVESTRI, F. 1946. Contribuzioni alla conoscenza dei mirmecofili. III-V.
Boll. Lab. Ent. Agr. Portici 6:52-69.
WASMANN, E. 1909. Myrmecosaurus, ein neues myrmekophiles Staphylini-
den-genus (171. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Myrmekophilen). Zool.
Anz. 34:765-8.
WASMANN, E. 1918. Ubersicht der myrmecophilen Paederinengattung Myr-
mecosaurus Wasm. (Staphylinidae). (231. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der
Myrmecophilen). Ent. Bl. 14:210-4.


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977









The Florida Entomologist


ORIENTATION, FLIGHT SPEEDS, AND TRACKS OF
THREE SPECIES OF MIGRATING BUTTERFLIES'

JOSEPH BALCIUNAS AND KENNETH KNOPF
Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32611

ABSTRACT
Air speed, ground speed, and track of the bean leafroller, Urbanus pro-
teus (L.), the cloudless sulphur, Phoebis sennae eubule (L.), and the buck-
eye, Precis coenia (Hiibner), were determined by timing individuals flying
between 2 parallel lines. Stepwise discriminant analysis revealed no sig-
nificant differences among leafrollers, sulphurs, and buckeyes in regard to
average air speed (22.0, 18.5, and 19.0 km/h, respectively) and track (147,
1470, and 1500). Most of the butterflies observed were flying in the same
direction, referred to as the migratory direction, approximately 1500 SSE.
No significant differences were found among tracks of leafrollers flying
in early afternoon, late afternoon, or in opposing crosswinds. Thus migrat-
ing leafrollers apparently compensate both for sun movement and perhaps
wind direction in maintaining a relatively constant track.


Williams (1957) defines migration as ". . movements of animals in a
direction and for a distance over which they have control, and which re-
sults in a temporary or permanent change of habitat." He believes that ob-
servation of large numbers of insects flying steadily in one direction is evi-
dence of migration. Several species of butterflies exhibit a unidirectional
southward flight during fall of each year in North-central Florida. Three
species of butterflies, the bean leafroller, Urbanus proteus (L.), the cloud-
less sulphur, Phoebis sennae eubule (L.), and the buckeye, Precis coenia
(Hiibner) were chosen for study of their migratory behavior. This choice was
due primarily to the relative abundance of migratory individuals of these
species at the study site during early October. Leafrollers were especially
abundant, with hundreds of individuals flying southward every afternoon.
Williams (1958) mentions 1 record for southward migration of the bean
leafroller in autumn in eastern Florida. Urquhart and Urquhart (1976)
report a westward migration for this species in autumn in northwest Florida.
For migrating cloudless sulphurs, Williams (1930) states, "The most
definite conclusion is the occurrence of an autumn flight in the United
States from August to November toward the S.E., S., or S.W." He reports
flight speeds of 14.5 km/h and 8-11 km/h for this species.
Williams (1930) presents 2 records for migrations by the buckeye, one
towards the west, the other southward, but mentions no flight speeds.

METHODS
In October 1975 bean leafrollers, cloudless sulphurs, and buckeyes
were observed flying over a recently plowed field at University of Flor-
ida's Green Acres Farm, near Gainesville, Florida. Flight speeds were cal-


'Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. Journal Series No. 6205.


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










38 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977

culated from the time interval (determined with a stop watch) necessary
to fly between points on 2 parallel 30.48 m (100 ft) lines marked on the
ground. Track (direction of flight relative to the ground) and actual flight
distance were determined by relating observed flight paths in relation to
reference markers spaced 7.62 m (25 ft) apart on our parallel lines. The
lines, (100 ft) apart, were oriented at 2400 WSW, which, from preliminary
observation, was perpendicular to the flight path of most butterflies (ap-
proximately 1500 SSE). Wind speed and direction were recorded with an
anemometer and wind vane at a height of 1/2 m, the estimated modal flight
altitude of most observed butterflies. Air speeds were calculated by vector
addition using track, ground speed, wind speed and wind direction.


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Most individuals of these 3 species were migrating (flying in a general
SSE direction). Butterflies crossing the original set of parallel lines were
timed for a 15-min period; then butterflies crossing a set of opposite (per-
pendicular) parallel lines were timed for 15 min. Thus, a rough estimate
of the proportion of migratory to non-migratory forms was obtained. Dur-
ing three 15-min periods only 3 butterflies (2 leafrollers and 1 sulphur)
were observed flying in the East or West direction. During the same amount
of time 14 leafrollers, 9 sulphurs, and 1 buckeye were timed flying in the
migratory SSE direction. The number of butterflies timed is a gross under-
estimate of those migrating because during timing and recording of data
many other migrating individuals were observed crossing the parallel lines
but they could not also be timed. Other migrants were not timed because
they could not be clearly distinguished from among several individuals
crossing at about the same time. Numbers of observations, flight speeds, and
tracks are presented in Table 1.

TABLE 1. GROUND SPEEDS, AIR SPEEDS, AND TRACKS OF 3 SPECIES OF
MIGRATING BUTTERFLIES RECORDED ON 7, 14, AND 21 OCTOBER
1975, FLYING OVER A PLOWED FIELD NEAR GAINESVILLE, FLOR-
IDA.
Species Ground Speed Air Speed Track
n km/h + SD km/h SD Degrees SD

Leafroller 98 16.2 3.1 22.0 4.6 147 15
Sulphur 45 14.9 3.6 18.5 4.7 147 17
Buckeye 10 9.9 3.1 19.0 4.2 150 15


Stepwise discriminate analysis revealed no significant differences among
species for air speeds or tracks. There was a significant difference (p=.05)
between ground speeds of buckeyes and the other 2 species but this is prob-
ably due to the fact that 8 of the 10 buckeyes timed were flying into a head-
wind, resulting in a lowered average ground speed.
The data were analyzed to see if a simple sun compass (i.e., butterfly
flies at a constant angle to the sun) is used for orientation. By comparing
the tracks for 21 leafrollers timed during the first hour of observation (2










Balciunas and Knopf: Migrating Butterflies


PM) on 7 October with 21 from the third hour (4 PM), any large change in
track should be detected. Since the change in the sun's azimuth would be
approximately 150/h westward, a change in the average track of approxi-
mately 300 westward would be expected after 2 hours with a simple sun
compass. The first group had an average track of 147 160 (Y SD), while
the later group had a track of 151 120. A Student's t-test for differences
between groups showed no significant differences (t=0.954, df=40). There-
fore, our analysis would lead us to reject a simple sun compass as a means
of orientation for migrating leafrollers. This supports Williams (1957,
1958), but contrasts sharply with Baker (1968a, 1968b, 1969) who concluded
that 7 out of 8 species of British butterflies use an uncompensated sun com-
pass.
The data were also examined to see if wind direction affected direction
of travel. Twenty leafrollers, flying when there was a 5-10 km/h wind from
the west (240-300), had a track of 147 150 (x SD), while 12 leafrollers
flying when the wind was 5-10 km/h from the east (60-120) had a track of
154 120. Although the 70 shift was in the predicted direction, it was not
found to be significant by Student's t-test (t = 1.388, df= 30). Thus, while the
effect of crosswinds on the migratory track remains unsettled, at least par-
tial compensation for wind direction is suggested.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We acknowledge the direction and encouragement of Drs. D. H. Habeck,
J. E. Lloyd, and T. J. Walker, University of Florida.

LITERATURE CITED
BAKER, R. R. 1968a. A possible method of evolution of the migratory habit
in butterflies. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 253:309-41.
BAKER, R. R. 1968b. Sun orientation during migration in some British butter-
flies. Proc. R. Ent. Soc. Lond. A. 43:89-95.
BAKER, R. R. 1969. Evolution of the migratory habit in butterflies. J. Ani-
mal Ecol. 38:703-746.
URQUHART, R. A., AND N. R. URQUHART. 1976. Migration of butterflies
along the Gulf coast of northern Florida. J. Lepidopterists' Soc. 30
(1):59-61.
WILLIAMS, C. B. 1930. The migration of butterflies. Oliver and Tweed, Lon-
don. 473 p.
WILLIAMS, C. B. 1957. Insect migration. Ann. Rev. Ent. 2:163-80.
WILLIAMS, C. B. 1958. Insect migration. Collins, London. 135 p.









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The Florida Entomologist


MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF THE FLORIDA
SPECIES OF ARCHIPSOCUS WITH CLOSED PHALLOSOME
(PSOCOPTERA: ARCHIPSOCIDAE)1

EDWARD L. MOCKFORD2
Department of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University,
Normal, Illinois 61761

ABSTRACT

Three closely similar species of Florida Archipsocus-A. floridanus
Mockford, A. gurneyi Mockford, and A. nomas Gurney-have proven diffi-
cult to identify by adult morphology alone. Material preserved during
life history investigations, determined to species not only by adult mor-
phology but also by attributes of living individuals, was studied to deter-
mine variation in morphological features. Several characters were found
which do not overlap in their variation between A. gurneyi and the other
2 species, thus allowing ready recognition of that species. Females of A.
floridanus and A. nomas show some overlap, or at least abutting, in all
characters studied, but several characters taken in combination allow
recognition of nearly all females of these 2 species. Males of these 2 spe-
cies do not overlap in length of several antennal segments, but the number
of specimens was small and the distances between species slight, so that
some overlap is anticipated in these characters. As with females, several
characters in combination will allow recognition of most males to species.


Morphological characters of value in separating species of Archipsocus
were reviewed by Badonnel (1948), who added several new characters to
those previously used as the result of a study of several West African spe-
cies. In a paper on Florida Archipsocus (Mockford 1953) I presented a key
to Florida species and described several new ones. At the time of writing
of that paper, I had access not only to preserved material but also to live
material of all of the species treated. On the basis of morphological charac-
ters, as well as characters observable only in the live material, 4 species
of Archipsocus as restricted by Badonnel (1966) were recognizable. Dif-
ferences in the life histories of these species were treated by Mockford (1957).
The species of Archipsocus are notoriously difficult to distinguish on mor-
phological characters alone, and my 1953 paper was somewhat inadequate
in that it did not present data on variation in most morphological charac-
ters. It remains difficult to determine material received in alcohol, never
accompanied by life history data and often lacking habitat data. The pres-
ent paper attempts to remedy this situation by establishing extent of vari-
ation in morphological features used for determining the 3 very similar
species, A. floridanus Mockford, A. gurneyi Mockford, and A. nomas Gur-
ney, all species in which the phallosome is closed anteriorly. Some of the
features discussed here were studied recently by Badonnel (1976). Others
have not been studied previously.

'Contribution No. 368, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Depart-
ment of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, Florida 32602.
'Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville.


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977









42 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977

MATERIAL AND METHODS
Of particular value for testing morphological characters is a quantity
of preserved material on hand from earlier life history investigations. Due
to highly unbalanced sex ratios, males are present in this material in much
smaller numbers than females. Hence, numbers of males used in compari-
sons are smaller than numbers of females. Specimens mounted perma-
nently on slides were used in a preliminary survey to determine which
characters seemed to be relatively consistent within species and different
between species. These characters were then studied in detail, and the ones
which remained of value in separating species are reported below. Special
techniques involving individual characters are discussed under the headings
of the characters. Characters are treated quantitatively where possible.
Where a meristic character varied on the 2 sides of an individual, the higher
count was always taken. The mean (X) and standard deviation (S.D.) are
presented for each quantitative character except for very small samples,
where all data are presented. Statistical tests of significance of differences
between means were not run. If the means are not far enough apart so that
the differences are obvious by inspection, the character is of negligible value
in separating species.

RESULTS
Color differences: Differences between A. floridanus and A. gurneyi were
noted by Mockford (1953). After approximately 22 years in alcohol, some
material of A. gurneyi continues to appear redder than that of the other
2 species. Fresh material of A. nomas is usually paler brown than the other
2 species, but color differences alone are not reliable for species diagnosis.
Morphological features not quantified: Several features show consistent
differences which are readily described but which I have not found suitable
means to quantify. All of them involve shapes of structures, and the
method employed in studying each was to prepare a camera lucida drawing
of the structure for each slide on which it was in suitable condition. All
of the drawings of a structure for 1 species were then compared side by side
with all of the drawings of the same structure for the other species. The
structures studied are as follows:
1) Lacinial tip.-Numbers used were A. floridanus 5, A. gurneyi 5, A.
nomas 6. A. gurneyi differs from the other 2 species in having the area be-
tween the median and lateral cusps decidedly scooped out (Fig. 1). Thus,
the lateral cusp generally appears more prominent in this species. I find
no consistent difference between A. floridanus and A. nomas in lacinial tip.
The latter species shows marked variation in this feature (Fig. 2-4).
2) Subgenital plate, shape of pigmented area.-Only specimens very
slightly cleared in KOH and not stained before mounting were used. Num-
bers used were as follows: A. floridanus 6, A. gurneyi 8, A. nomas 7. A con-
sistent difference was seen between A. gurneyi (Fig. 5) and the other 2 spe-
cies (Fig. 6) in that the anterior emargination of A. gurneyi constricts some-
what just distad of its base and then widens again. There is a region one-third
or more the distance from its base to its posterior margin which is approxi-
mately as wide as (sometimes wider than) its base. In A. floridanus and A.
nomas the anterior emargination tapers gradually to its rounded posterior
end. I found no suitable way to distinguish these 2 species on basis of the
subgenital plate.









Mockford: Characteristics of Archipsocus Spp.


2 34 7




0.01










0.1
Fig. 1-7. Archipsocus spp.: Fig. 1. A. gurneyi Mockford, female, lacinial
tip (scale of Fig. 2-4). Fig. 2-4. A. nomas Gurney, females, lacinial tips
showing variation. Fig. 5. A. gurneyi, female, outline of pigmented area of
subgenital plate. Fig. 6. A. nomas, female, outline of pigmented area of
subgenital plate (scale of Fig. 5). Fig. 7. A. floridanus Mockford, male,
aedeagal arch showing lines (A, B) measured for calculating index (scale of
Fig. 2-4). Scales in mm.
3) Second valvula (=dorsal value).-Considerable intraspecific varia-
tion was observed in width and curvature of this structure, but the shape
of the tip is more consistent. Of 8 individuals of A. floridanus, 2 have the
tip rounded on both sides (Mockford 1953, Fig. 19b); 1 has it rounded on 1
side, blunt-pointed on the other (Mockford 1953, Fig. 19a); 1 has it rounded
on 1 side, acute-pointed on the other, 1 has it blunt-pointed on 1 side, not
observed on the other, 1 has it blunt-pointed on both sides, and 1 has it
blunt-pointed on 1 side and acute-pointed on the other (Mockford 1953,
Fig. 20). Of 10 females of A. nomas, 8 showed an acuminate point on both
sides (Mockford, 1953, Fig. 21) where observed (3 of these observed on only
1 side); 1 showed an acute point on 1 side and was not observed on the other;
1 showed a blunt point on 1 side and an acuminate point on the other. Of 9
individuals of A. gurneyi, 1 shows this structure rounded on both sides; 1
shows it tapering to a blunt point on both sides; 1 shows it tapering to a
blunt point on 1 side and was not observed on the other; 2 show it tapering
to a blunt point on 1 side and acutely pointed on the other; 1 shows it
acutely pointed on both sides; 1 shows it acutely pointed on 1 side and
acuminately pointed on the other, and 2 show it acuminately pointed on
both sides. The 3 species cannot be separated consistently on this character,
but usually A. nomas specimens can be distinguished from the other 2 on
basis of the acuminate tip.
4) Bases of arms of aedeagal arch.-The width of these structures was
used in my key (Mockford 1953:113, and Fig. 7-9) to separate A. nomas from
the other 2 species. In the present study, this feature was observed on 6 males
of A. floridanus, 5 of A. gurneyi, and 5 of A. nomas. Generally, it remains










The Florida Entomologist


consistently wider in A. nomas, but 1 individual of A. floridanus was found
which overlaps A. nomas in this character. The difference between A. flori-
danus and A. gurneyi in this character is slight and not reliable. No overlap
was seen between A. gurneyi and A. nomas.
Quantified morphological features: The following consist of measure-
ments, meristic characters, and indices:
1) Antennal diagrams.-These were constructed by taking the greatest
length of each segment with a filar micrometer. The micrometer unit was
approximately 0.5 [t. Separate diagrams were constructed for males and
females, and are based on the following numbers: A. floridanus 4 males, 6
females, A. gurneyi 1 male, 5 females, A. nomas 3 male, 9 females. Where a
series was measured, the 3 lines of the diagram are mean and extremes. For
A. nomas males, the 3 lines represent the 3 individuals. The diagrams (Fig.
8-12) show great consistency within species, and all of the species show ap-
proximately the same pattern of variation from segment to segment. A.
gurneyi is consistently larger than the other 2 species, and there is a con-
siderable size gap between it and the other 2 in P, Fl, F2, and F3. A. flori-
danus and A. nomas overlap in all segments in the female diagrams al-
though means for A. nomas are generally lower. Males of A. floridanus
are larger and do not overlap males of A. nomas in P, Fl, F4, F6, F8, and
F10. Sample sizes were small, however, and overlap would probably be
found in some of these segments if larger samples were used.
2) Forewing length of micropterous female.-These were taken in 1953-
54 with a micrometer disc in a dissecting microscope. They are accurate only
to 0.01 mm. For A. floridanus, N=67, range =0.14-0.23 mm, X= 0.17, S.D.=
0.02. For A. gurneyi, N = 15, range = 0.21-0.24 mm, X = 0.22, S.D. = 0.01. For A.
nomas, N= 43, range = 0.24-0.37 mm, X= 0.29, S.D. = 0.03. A. floridanus and
A. gurneyi overlap extensively in this character. No overlap was observed,
and little would be anticipated between A. floridanus and A. nomas.
3) Number of setae on margin of third valvula.-For A. floridanus,
N= 9, range = 14-19; X = 16.7; S.D. = 1.94. For A. gurneyi, N= 9, range = 10-
17, X= 13.9; S.D.= 1.83. For A. nomas, N= 9, range= 10-14; X= 11.9; S.D.
= 1.17. A. floridanus and A. gurneyi overlap broadly in this character, as do
A. nomas and A. gurneyi, but little overlap exists between A. floridanus
and A. nomas.
4) Number of setae in transverse band of female paraproct.-These are
the setae shown in my 1953 paper, Fig. 23 and 26, forming a transverse band
diagonally across the paraproct in its ventral half, ending on the distal
margin below a large marginal seta. For A. floridanus, N= 8, range = 23-29;
X=26.3, S.D. = 2.12. For A. gurneyi N= 10, range = 16-21, X = 19.3, S.D.=
1.77. For A. nomas, N = 10, range = 17-24, X = 19.0, S.D. = 2.45. A. floridanus
shows no overlap with A. gurneyi in this character. A. gurneyi overlaps
broadly with A. nomas, and A. nomas overlaps slightly with A. floridanus.
5) Aedeagal arch index.-In my 1953 paper it was noted that the aedea-
gal arch of A. floridanus is more rounded than in the other 2 species. A series
of camera lucida tracings of aedeagal arches shows that those of A. flori-
danus have their inner margins somewhat truncated distally while the
other 2 species have their inner margins more angulate, hence relatively
narrower toward their distal end. This difference can be expressed quanti-
tatively. On a camera lucida tracing of the arch a straight line is drawn
between the 2 most anterior points of the arms. A line is drawn perpendicu-


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










Mockford: Characteristics of Archipsocus Spp.


80

Fig. 8

60 A. floridanus o



40




SC P FI F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 FIO FIl

80

Fig. 9

60
60 A. nomas



40







SC P FI F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 FIO FI1


Fig. 10

80 A. gurneyi O



60



40


SC P FI F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 FIO FII
Fig. 8-10. Antennal diagrams of Archipsocus species (females). Vertical
scale in ji.










The Florida Entomologist


Fig. II


A. nomas


SC P FI F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7


F8 F9 FIO FII


Fig. 12


S80
80 '


\ A. floridanus o"


A. gurneyi o


SC P Fl F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 FIO F1
Fig. 11-12. Antennal diagrams of Archipsocus species (males). Vertical
scale in p.

lar to this line and passing through the highest point of the inner margin
of the arch. The segment of this second line between the first (base) line and
the highest point of the inner margin of the arch is measured, and a point is
found one-fourth the distance from the highest point of the inner margin
to the base. A line is drawn passing through this point, parallel to the base
line, and passing through both of the arms. The segment of this line be-
tween the inner margins of the 2 arms is measured (Fig. 7, A). The base line
is measured from the extreme lateral extent of 1 arm to that of the other
(Fig. 7, B). The latter measurement is then divided by the former to pro-
duce the index. The process is laborious, and relatively little material was
available for it. The following indices were obtained: for A. floridanus
1.87, 1.95, 1.99, 2.02, 2.22, 2.30; for A. gurneyi, 2.59 2.67, 2.72, 2.96, 3.75; for
A. nomas, 2.22, 2.62, 2.79, 3.07, 3.85. Apparently A. floridanus and A. gurneyi
do not overlap in this character. A. floridanus and A. nomas overlap little,
while A. nomas and A. gurneyi overlap extensively.
6) Number of setae on male epiproct.-For A. floridanus, N_= 6, range =
13-17. X = 14.8, S.D.= 1.72. For A. gurneyi, N = 6, range= 16-20, X= 18.7, S.D.


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










Mockford: Characteristics of Archipsocus Spp. 47

=1.51. For A. nomas, N=7, range=10-14, X=11.6, S.D.= 1.40. No overlap
is seen between A. gurneyi and A. nomas in this character. Extensive overlap
exists between A. floridanus and A. gurneyi, and some exists between A.
floridanus and A. nomas.
Diagnosis of A. gurneyi: Samples including both sexes, or females alone,
can be distinguished readily from the other 2 species by the following: (1)
shape of the pigmented area of the subgenital plate, noted above, (2) anten-
nal diagram, noted above, (3) a slight but consistent difference in lacinial
tip, noted above. Accessory information for determining such a sample
would come from several features. The number of setae of the transverse
band of the female paraproct is consistently lower than that of A. flori-
danus, although a distinction could not be made in this character from A.
nomas. If the sample is freshly preserved, the body color would be redder
than in the other 2 species. If males are included in the sample, the rela-
tively slender bases of the arms of the aedeagal arch should separate those
from A. nomas, and the relatively angular inner margin of the arch with
aedeagal arch index of 2.5 or more should separate it from the rounded arch
of A. floridanus with index of 2.3 or less. The relatively high number of
setae of the male epiproct (16-20 observed) will separate most males of this
species from the other 2 (A. nomas, 10-14, A. floridanus 13-17 observed).
Distinguishing A. floridanus from A. nomas: These 2 species are probably
not completely separable in any of the characters dealt with above. Dif-
ferences exist, however, which, in combination, should allow separation of
most individuals. The second valvula of A. nomas is generally acumi-
nately-pointed, while that of A. floridanus is generally rounded or blunt-
pointed. The forewing length of micropterous females of A. nomas is con-
sistently higher (0.24-0.37 mm) than that of A. floridanus (0.14-0.23 mm).
The number of setae of the margin of the third valvula is consistently
greater in A. floridanus (14-19 versus 10-14), and overlap was observed only
at the number 14. The number of setae of the transverse band of the female
paraproct is higher in A. floridanus (23-29 versus 17-24), but some overlap is
seen here. The aedeagal arch of A. floridanus is rounder on its inner margin
than that of A. nomas (Mockford, 1953, Fig. 7, 9), and the aedeagal arch
index of A. floridanus is generally lower (1.87-2.30) than that of A. nomas
(2.22-3.85), although overlap is seen. In antennal diagrams, although fe-
males overlap in all segments, males do not overlap in P, Fl, F4, F6, F8,
and F10, males of A. nomas being smaller. The sample sizes for males are
very small, however, and in some of these segments the 2 species approach
each other closely.
An occasional individual, especially if it is a brachypterous or macrop-
terous female, may not be referable between these 2 species, but it is likely
that 1 or more characters will indicate 1 species rather than the other.



LITERATURE CITED

BADONNEL, A. 1948. Psocopteres du Congo Belge (2e note). Rev. Zool. Bot.
Afr. 40:266-322.
BADONNEL, A. 1966. Sur le Genre Archipsocus Hagen (Psocoptera, Archip-
socidae). Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. 2e ser., 38:409-15.









The Florida Entomologist


BADONNEL, A. 1976. Archipsocus etiennei n. sp. (Psocoptera, Archipsocidae)
de l'Ile de la Reunion. Nouv. Rev. Ent. VI:3-8.
MOCKFORD, E. L. 1953. Three new species of Archipsocus from Florida. Fla.
Ent. 36:113-24.
MOCKFORD, E. L. 1957. Life History studies on some Florida insects of the
genus Archipsocus (Psocoptera). Bull. Florida St. Mus. 1:253-74.





BOOK REVIEW

Symposia of the Royal Entomological Society of London: Number
eight, INSECT DEVELOPMENT, Ed. P. A. Lawrence, Blackwell Scientific
Publications, Oxford, 1976. Insect Development consists of the proceedings
of a symposium of the Royal Entomological Society of London held in
September 1975. The editor, Peter Lawrence, suggests that "after about 30
years in the doldrums" developmental biology is making progress again,
and that new work on insects is one of the factors in this resurgence. I doubt
that scientists who work with cultures of vertebrate embryonic cells, slime
molds, or sea urchin eggs, for example, would agree that little new or ex-
citing has been going on in developmental biology for 3 decades. The fact,
however, is that insects make superb experimental organisms for studies of
determination and pattern formation-exactly those aspects of develop-
ment that are so difficult to investigate in other organisms.
Insect Development emphasizes the recent important work on insects
in the following areas: (1) Development of the insect egg, (2) imaginal discs
of Drosophila, and (3) pattern in later development. Because only 2 out
of 12 articles pertain to insect growth hormones, this volume does not pro-
vide an adequate review of insect endocrinology. However, the reader who
wishes to become familiar with the new work on insect embryology and
pattern formation in post-embryonic stages will be pleased with this vol-
ume. I am confident that the articles in Insect Development would provide
those specializing in other areas of entomology an excellent introduction
to this field.
I found the articles to be of high quality. Most are up-to-date as previ-
ously unpublished work and several new theories were presented at the
symposium. For example, a new model on how insect cells handle posi-
tional information in a pattern is presented by H. A. Schneiderman. Also,
Peter Lawrence discusses evidence for the separation of cells into (invisible)
developmental compartments that are under separate genetic control and
develop somewhat autonomously. Microsurgery on insect eggs and genetic
manipulations with Drosophila imaginal discs are also the subject of sev-
eral articles.
I know of no other small volume that does so well in discussing new
trends in insect development (exclusive of hormone studies) and I recom-
mend it highly. An added bonus is the inclusion of the comments made after
each presentation at the symposium: e.g., Prof. Wigglesworth-"Why did
God make these compartments?"; Dr. Lawrence, "Well it wasn't God, it was
evolution."
H. Oberlander
Insect Attractants, Behavior and Basic
Biology Research Laboratory, USDA,
ARS, Gainesville, Fla. 32604


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










The Florida Entomologist


FOURTEEN NEW SPECIES OF
ERYTHRONEURA (ERYTHRIDULA)
(HOMOPTERA: CICADELLIDAE) V'

L. W. HEPNER
Department of Entomology, Mississippi State University
Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762
ABSTRACT
Fourteen new species of Erythroneura (Erythridula) are described:
pfrimmeri, navoides, quadratoides, vartyi, velutinae, hamiltoni, pagodi-
foliae, rubiphylla, meridiana, isei, phelliphylla, nigriphylla, lyratiphylla, leu-
cophylla.


In this subgenus there are various processes associated with the aedeagal
shaft. In some species there are "basal processes" that originate on the
socket a short distance from the base of the shaft, at the base of the shaft or
on the shaft itself. What are termed "lateral processes" appear to be more
closely associated with the shaft and may be very narrow (at which time
they may resemble basal processes) or they may extend half way or more
along the length of the shaft and appear flange-like in posteroventral view.
In a few cases, the same structures might be termed either basal processes
or lateral processes, depending on their interpretation.
While studying this subgenus a number of types were borrowed from the
Francis Huntington Snow Museum at the University of Kansas. For the
species related to those described in this paper the following types were
examined: holotype of E. nava Bmr., E. cornipes Bmr., E. gleditsia Bmr.,
E. jocosa Bmr., and E. diffisa Bmr. and paratypes of E. cotidiana Bmr.,
E. tenebrosa Knull, E. idonea Bmr., E. quadrata Bmr., E. scissa Bmr., E.
kanza Rob., and E. spatulata Bmr.
Unless otherwise stated all specimens were collected or reared by the
author. All holotypes will be deposited in the collection of the Illinois
Natural History Survey, and paratypes in the Florida State Collection of
Arthropods, Division of Plant Industry, the United States National Mu-
seum, and the author's collection. Upon completing the descriptions of new
species in this subgenus, it is anticipated that a key to all species in the sub-
genus will be published.

Erythroneura (Erythridula) pfrimmeri Hepner, new species
(Fig. 1)
Length 2.8 mm; pale with typical markings yellow except for brown
scutellum.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view broadest at base, lateral processes
small, near gonopore; in posteroventral view pointed, lateral flanges
small, slender and curved. Dorsal process about length of instep, anterior
point distinct but short. Pygofer hook pointed.

'Publication No. 3346, Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, Mississippi
State, Mississippi 39762


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977









The Florida Entomologist


Holotype male, State College, Mississippi, 16-VIII-1960, and 4 male
paratypes, State College, Miss., 1 each 24-III-1962, 12-VI-1960, and 2 on
30-III-1962.
Nearest E. iconica McAtee, but with smaller aedeagal shaft and
smaller lateral processes and larger foot of style.

Erythroneura (Erythridula) navoides Hepner, new species
(Fig. 2)


Length 3 mm; yellow-tan with pointed crown.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view curved, broad,
posteroventral view slender, apically forked into


apically narrowed; in
two lateral processes,


Fig. 1-6. Erythroneura (Erythridula) n. spp. 1) E. pfrimmeri; 2) E. na-
voides; 3) E. quadritoides; 4) E. vartyi; 5) E. velutinae; 6) E. hamiltoni. A.
Aedeagus, lateral view; B. Aedeagus, posteroventral view; C. Foot of
style, lateral view.


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










Hepner: New Spp. of Erythroneura (Erythridula)


strongly curved laterally on outer third. Dorsal process about length
of shaft. Foot of style with small points, anterior point straight, posterior
point curved. Pygofer hook apically narrowed.
Holotype male, allotype female and 12 pairs of paratypes, State
College, Mississippi, reared in cage #34, 1963, Ilex decidua. Additional
male paratypes from Mississippi as follows: State College, 1 each col-
lected 24-III-1961, 13, 14, 15-IV-1961, 10-IV-1962, and 21-VII-1962, Ilex
decidua, and 2, Canton, 29-1-1962.
Nearest E. nava Beamer but with much larger aedeagal shaft and dorsal
process and longer lateral processes in posteroventral view.

Erythroneura (Erythridula) quadratoides Hepner, new species
(Fig. 3)
Length 3 mm; pale with typical markings yellow.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view curved, apically narrowed; in postero-
ventral view with lateral processes parallel margined extending along
shaft from base to almost apex. Dorsal process about half length of shaft.
Foot of style small with posterior point about half length of instep, an-
terior point small but distinct. Pygofer hook slender.
Holotype male reared, State College, Mississippi, cage #492, 1967,
Quercus nigra. One male paratype, State College, Miss., 19-VI-1968.
Nearest E. quadrata Beamer but with aedeagal shaft sinuate in lateral
view and foot of style with curved posterior point.

Erythroneura (Erythridula) vartyi Hepner, new species
(Fig. 4)
Length 2.9 mm; pale with typical yellow markings indicated.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view slender, curved; in posteroventral view
slender with pair of broad, rectangular apical forks, or lateral processes.
Dorsal process about half length of shaft. Foot of style with short points,
posterior point more slender.
Holotype male, allotype female, 3 male and 10 female paratypes,
State College, Mississippi, reared cage #1591, 1964, Crataegus marshallii.
Additional paratypes with same data as holotype except different cages as
follows: 2 males, cage #102; 1 male, cage #756; 3 males, 1 female, cage
# 757 and 5 males, 2 females, cage # 1590.
Nearest E. cornipes Beamer but with shorter dorsal process and lateral
processes more diverging in posteroventral view.

Erythroneura (Erythridula) velutinae Hepner, new species
(Fig. 5)
Length 2.8 mm; pale with typical markings yellow.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view slender, almost straight to upward
curved tip; in posteroventral view expanded apically into broad, thickened
forks. Dorsal process about two-fifths length of shaft. Foot of style with
posterior point almost length of instep, anterior point distinct, pointed.
Pygofer hook broad, rounded posteriorly.
Holotype male, allotype female, 4 female paratypes, State College,
Mississippi, #508, 1969, Quercus velutina. Additional male paratypes as










The Florida Entomologist


follows: 1, State College, Mississippi 7-IV-1962, and 1, Siloam Spgs.,
Brown Co., Illinois 29-IV-1960, H. H. Ross and H. B. Cunningham.
Nearest E. cornipes Beamer but with aedeagal shaft straight in lateral
view, with shorter dorsal process and heavier lateral processes.

Erythroneura (Erythridula) hamiltoni Hepner, new species
(Fig. 6)
Length 2.9 mm; cream colored all over.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view broadest basally; in posteroventral
view slender, apically expanded with median notch. Dorsal process about
half length of shaft. Foot of style slender with slender posterior point
about half length of instep, anterior point almost a right angle. Pygofer
hook short and broad.
Holotype male, allotype female, 5 male and 8 female paratyapes,
State College, Mississippi, reared in cage # 793, 1964, Carpinus caroliniana.
Additional male paratypes with same data except 4 reared in cage #311 and
1 in #313 in 1969.
Nearest E. scissa Beamer but with broader aedeagal shaft in lateral
view and without broadened area basad of gonopore in posteroventral view.

Erythroneura (Erythridula) pagodifoliae Hepner, new species
(Fig. 7)
Length 2.9 mm; white with typical markings orange.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view curved, slightly broadest basally; in
posteroventral view almost parallel margined, three apical "points"
about same length, the lateral processes curved outward. Dorsal process
about two-thirds length of shaft. Foot of style with posterior point curved,
longer than instep, anterior point short. Pygofer hook slender.
Holotype male, allotype female, 2 male and 4 female paratypes, State
College, Mississippi, in cage #859, 1963, Quercus falcata var. pagodae-
folia. Additional paratypes, 4 males, 6 females, same data, except reared
in cage #179 in 1967.
Nearest E. frisoni Ross and DeLong but with lateral processes at tip
of aedeagal shaft erect and extending beyond rest of shaft in posteroventral
view.

Erythroneura (Erythridula) rubiphylla Hepner, new species
(Fig. 8)
Length 3.1 mm; yellow all over.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view roughened on posterior margin, basal
processes closely appressed to posterior margin, reaching beyond gonopore;
in posteroventral view slender and pointed, basal processes broadly sinu-
ate and curved laterally at tip. Dorsal process about half length of shaft.
Foot of style with posterior point slightly curved, sharply pointed, al-
most length of instep, anterior point a right angle. Pygofer hood broad and
short.
Holotype male, Highlands, North Carolina 31-VII-1962, Rubus sp.
(blackberry).
Nearest E. minute Johnson but with aedeagal shaft sinuate in lateral
view and basal processes much larger.


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










Hepner: New Spp. of Erythroneura (Erythridula)


Fig. 7-14. 7. Erythroneura (Erythridula) n. spp. 7) E. pagodifoliae; 8)
E. rubiphylla; 9) E. meridiana; 10) E. isei; 11) E. phelliphylla; 12) E. nigri-
phylla; 13) E. lyratiphylla; 14) E. leucophylla. A aedeagus, lateral view; B.
Aedeagus, posteroventral view; C. Foot of style, lateral view.

Erythroneura (Erythridula) meridiana Hepner, new species
(Fig. 9)
Length 3 mm; yellow-tan all over.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view curved, almost parallel margined.
Dorsal process about half length of shaft. Foot of style with posterior
point about length of instep, anterior point short. Pygofer hook small.
(Only slides of genitalia are available, so the dorsoventral view is un-
known.)









The Florida Entomologist


Holotype male, 8 male paratypes, Sebring, Florida, 28-XII-1960.
Nearest E. spatulata Beamer but with more strongly curved aedeagal
shaft in lateral view, yellow-tan in color and with heavier foot of style.

Erythroneura (Erythridula) isei Hepner, new species
(Fig. 10)
Length 3 mm; white with typical markings broad and orange-tan, scu-
tellum dark.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view slightly broadened at middle; in pos-
teroventral view broad and pointed. Lateral processes from near middle of
shaft, strongly curved apically. Dorsal process about half length of shaft.
Foot of style with curved posterior point about length of instep, anterior
point small. Pygofer hook medium.
Holotype male, State College, Mississippi, reared in cage #249 in 1969,
Quercus nigra.
Nearest E. iconica Beamer but with lateral processes in posteroventral
view parallel margined, curved strongly at tip and with posterior point of
foot of style much heavier.

Erythroneura (Erythridula) phelliphylla Hepner, new species
(Fig. 11)
Length 3.1 mm; pale with typical markings yellow-orange.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view slender, slightly curved, almost par-
allel margined; in posteroventral view slender, apically narrowed with
three apical almost equal "points", the lateral processes curved laterally.
Dorsal process about half length of shaft. Foot of style with posterior
point about half length of instep, anterior point short but distinct. Pygofer
hook slender.
Holotype male, State College, Mississippi, 20-IX-1963, Quercus phel-
los. Three male paratypes collected at State College, Miss., on Quercus
phellos, as follows: 18-VII-1967; 5-VI-1967; 4-VIII-1967; and 2 without host
records, 30-III-1962, 16-IV-1961.
Nearest E. jocosa Beamer but with aedeagal shaft smaller and lateral
processes much shorter in posteroventral view.

Erythroneura (Erythridula) nigriphylla Hepner, new species
(Fig. 12)
Length 2.6 mm; light with typical markings yellow-orange.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view curved just beyond middle, almost par-
allel margined; in posteroventral view with three slender apical processes,
the middle one twice as long as the curved lateral processes. Dorsal
process about half length of shaft. Foot of style with posterior point about
one-third length of instep, anterior point projecting and about length of
posterior point. Pygofer hook slender.
Holotype male, allotype female, 2 male and 1 female paratypes, State
College, Mississippi, reared, cage #401 in 1964, Quercus nigra. Additional
paratypes, all reared at State College, Miss. as follows: 2 pairs, 1967, in
cage #379, Quercus nigra, and 3 pairs, 1969 in cage # 1228, Quercusphellos.
Nearest E. jocosa Beamer but with much smaller lateral processes


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










Hepner: New Spp. of Erythroneura (Erythridula)


evenly curved in posteroventral view and with foot of style with much
shorter posterior point.

Erythroneura (Erythridula) lyratiphylla Hepner, new species
(Fig. 13)
Length 2.7 mm; pale with typical markings yellow-orange.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view slender, curved, broadest basally; in
posteroventral view broad, almost parallel margined, a pair of broad
apical lateral processes slightly curved laterally. Dorsal process
slightly more than half length of shaft. Foot of style slender, posterior
point about half length of instep, anterior point distinct. Pygofer hook with
a posterior convexity.
Holotype male, Starkville, Mississippi, 16-VII-1963, Quercus lyrata.
Nearest E. jocosa Beamer but with narrower aedeagal shaft in lateral
view and broader aedeagal shaft on basal half in posteroventral view.

Erythroneura (Erythridula) leucophylla Hepner, new species
(Fig. 14)
Length 3 mm; pale with typical markings yellow-orange.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view curved, almost parallel margined, apic-
ally narrowed; in posteroventral view slender with a pair of curved apical
lateral processes and a very small median apical process. Dorsal process
about three-fifths length of shaft. Foot of style large, posterior point as
long as instep, anterior point barely evident. Pygofer hook slender.
Holotype male, allotype female, 7 male and 3 female paratypes
reared, State College, Mississippi, 1968 in cage #543, Quercus falcata var.
pagodaefolia.
Nearest E. jocosa Beamer but with lateral processes extending well
beyond tip of aedeagal shaft proper and posterior point of foot of style
about length of instep and meeting instep at an oblique angle.


RESPONSE OF MEXICAN BEAN BEETLE LARVAE AND THE PARASITOID
Pediobius foveolatus TO DIMILIN.-(Note) Laboratory studies were con-
ducted to determine the effects of Dimilin" (1-(4 chlorophenyl)-3-(2,6 di-
florbenzoyl)-urea) on Epilachna varivestis Mulsant larvae and the sub-
sequent development of its parasitoid, Pediobius foveolatus Crawford.
Dimilin has successfully controlled other insect pests with minimum ef-
fects on their parasitoids (J. R. Ables, R. P. West, and M. Shepard. 1975.
J. Econ. Ent. 68:622-4; J. Granett, D. M. Dunbar, and R. M. Weseloh. 1976.
J. Econ. Ent. 69:403-4).
Test insects were maintained in a rearing chamber at 26.7 2 C, 50 10%
RH, and a photoperiod of L:D 14:10. Dimilin concentrations were prepared
from a 25% WP formulation.
Toxicity of Dimilin to E. varivestis was determined by placing 20, 3rd-
stage larvae singly in 100 x 15 mm petri dishes per treatment, and feeding
the E. varivestis larvae on lima bean leaves dipped in solutions of 3.12,
6.25, 12.5, and 25 ppm. The control group was fed bean leaves dipped in dis-
tilled water. After 24 h, all larvae were transferred to fresh, untreated
leaves. Larvae were observed daily and provided fresh leaves until death
or adult emergence. These data were subjected to probit analysis and the
LC,, was determined.










The Florida Entomologist


Fourth instar Mexican bean beetles were used to determine the effects
of Dimilin on P. foveolatus. Twenty larvae per treatment were placed on a
bouquet of bean leaves dipped in concentrations of 3, 6, and 12 ppm. Each
group of larvae was contained in a 14 x 11 cm cylindrical plastic container
with a 52 x 52 mesh LumiteR screen lid. The control group was treated with
distilled water. After the bouquets were dry, 5 female, laboratory reared
P. foveolatus were allowed to remain in each container for 24 h. Larvae
were kept on treated foliage for 43 h. They were then removed and supplied
fresh foliage until mummies parasitizedd larvae) formed or adult beetles
emerged.
Response of the 3rd stage Mexican bean beetle larvae at each concen-
tration is illustrated in Fig. 1. The LCs,, for 3rd instar beetles, as determined
by probit analysis, was 3.4 ppm. Although direct comparison of these data
to those which may be obtained under field conditions cannot be made, bean
beetle larvae would be susceptible to low doses of Dimilin.
Parasitization, determined by dissection, was evident, but P. foveolatus
failed to develop even at the lowest concentration (3 ppm). Results from
these experiments indicate that Dimilin has the potential to control suc-
cessfully E. varivestis populations but inhibits development of P. foveo-
latus. Thus, use of Dimilin with simultaneous releases of P. foveolatus in
an integrated control program may not be desirable. R. McWhorter, and M.
Shepard, Clemson University, Dep. Ent. and Econ. Zool., Clemson, S.
Car. 29631. Tech. Contrib. No. 1436 published by permission of the Director,
S. Car. Agr. Exp. Sta.
100-1 --.......-


80-

I-


25
12.5
6.25
3.12


ppm
I l
I


I I lI EiM .,


4 8 12 1
Days Posttreatment
Dosage-mortality curves for 3rd-stage Mexican bean beetle larvae after
feeding on lima bean leaves dipped in solutions of Dimilin.


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










The Florida Entomologist


THE FLORIDA ENDANGERED INSECT PROGRAM'2
HOWARD V. WEEMS, JR.
Fla. Dept. Agr. and Consumer Serv., Div. Plant Industry, Gainesville, Fla.

Florida is endowed with one of the most abundant and varied assemb-
lages of plant and animal life to be found anywhere on earth. The preser-
vation of this rich natural heritage is of vital importance not only to Flor-
idians but to the entire nation and world as a whole.
Protection of native wildlife is not merely a luxury that affluent so-
cieties can afford to indulge in at their convenience but an absolute neces-
sity, for human survival ultimately depends upon the proper functioning
of natural ecosystems comprised of complex interacting networks of plant
and animal species. If too many of the links in these life support systems
are damaged or destroyed, they will cease to function properly. This ines-
capable dependence of human populations, regardless of their level of
technological sophistication, on healthy natural ecosystems is now being
forcefully driven home to Floridians in many ways. For example, as more
and more communities face critical water shortages, the need to preserve
natural wetland ecosystems for their value in water storage and recharge
has emerged as one of the most critical areas of state concern.
Besides their basic role as working members of ecosystems, our native
plants and animals are important to us in a variety of other ways. Many
species are commercial sources of food or other products or provide im-
portant recreational benefits, which in aggregate represents a value of
millions of dollars to the economy of the state. Of greater importance
still is the aesthetic value of our native biota. The quality of human life
is greatly enriched by natural beauty, and Florida's spectacular natural
landscapes and wildlife are among its most compelling attractions to visi-
tors and residents alike.
As a result of past geological events, moderate climate, and partial
isolation of the peninsula from the main North American land mass, the
Floridian biota contain numerous endemic or relict species and races and
forms possessing unusual adaptations for specialized environments. A
number of plants and animals now entirely or nearly restricted to the
state show relationships to remotely separated forms in the southwestern
United States, Mexico, and Central or South America, raising some in-
triguing questions about how these unusual distribution patterns came into
being. Florida is thus a treasure house of unique plant and animal forms
which make it a vast natural laboratory for the study of many fundamental
problems of ecology, evolution, and biogeography.
Beyond various practical arguments for the preservation of wildlife
lies the question of moral responsibility. Man, as the only biological
species that has acquired the ability to alter earth environments on a mas-
sive scale, now enjoys dominion over all other species. Such awesome
power should carry with it the moral obligation of using it wisely and with
the least possible detriment to other life forms.


'Presidential Address, 59th Annual Meeting of The Florida Entomological Society.
'XV International Congress of Entomology (Invitational paper).


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










The Florida Entomologist


As a result of the ever-increasing tempo of degradation and destruction
of the natural environments of Florida, more and more of our valuable
wildlife species are being threatened. Some of the most distinctive members
of the original flora and fauna found by the early explorers, such as the
Florida red wolf (Canis rufus floridanus Miller) and Carolina parakeet
(Conuropsis carolinensis (Linnaeus) ), already have become extinct. Others,
such as the Florida panther (Felis concolor coryi Bangs), Florida ever-
glades kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus Ridgway), and such arthro-
pods as Schaus' swallowtail butterfly (Papilio aristodemus ponceanus
Schaus), Hogtown Creek dragonfly (Cordulegaster sayi Selys), and the
dusky-banded tailless whipscorpion (Hemiphrynus raptator Pocock), are in
immediate danger of being lost, and many other native plants and animals
are becoming increasingly rare and may soon enter the endangered category
if present trends are not halted. In addition, numerous other species or sub-
species with limited distribution of restricted habitats in the state probably
are threatened, but not enough is known about them to be sure of their exact
status.
In recognition of the importance of Florida's native plants and animals
and the increasing threats to the existence of many forms, the Florida Com-
mittee on Rare and Endangered Plants and Animals was established in
1973 under the leadership of Dr. James N. Layne, Director of Research at
the Archbold Biological Station. It was sponsored by the Florida Audubon
Society and the Florida Defenders of the Environment. Florida's Governor
Reuben Askew and the Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Department of In-
terior, Nathaniel P. Reed, served as Honorary Co-Chairmen of the Com-
mittee, which was composed mainly of Florida scientists representing many
of the state's universities, private research and educational organizations,
and state and federal agencies.


ORGANIZATION
Subsequently the Florida Legislature designated to the Florida Game
and Fresh Water Fish Commission the legal responsibility on behalf of the
state government to pursue essentially the same objective as those that had
been adopted by the independent committee already functioning. Since this
committee encompassed many of the people within Florida with the great-
est expertise on the subject and who already had made substantial progress
toward assembling the basic data needed, the people comprising the Coordi-
nating Committee of the Florida Committee on Rare and Endangered
Plants and Animals were asked to serve as an official (but unpaid) Techni-
cal Advisory Committee on Endangered Species for the Florida Game and
Fresh Water Fish Commission. This Technical Advisory Committee is a
standing committee with its personnel reappointed annually. It has a con-
tinuing responsibility to gather and refine data, to attempt to monitor
fluctuating populations of species of special concern, and to continue to
serve as an advisory body to the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Com-
mission.
The Technical Advisory Committee consists of the chairpersons of the
special committees and as many additional members as are necessary to
carry out the responsibility for over-all planning and direction of the
project and to function as the editorial board in preparation of an inven-


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










Weems: Florida Endangered Insect Program


tory for publication. Special Committees handle specific aspects of the
data-gathering process. Most of them comprise specialists of particular
groups of plants and animals. Nonmembers of the Technical Advisory
Committee or Special Committees or agencies and organizations partici-
pating in the program are designated Cooperators.

OBJECTIVES
The primary objectives of the Committee are to 1) prepare a compre-
hensive inventory of rare and endangered plants and animals in Florida,
2) make recommendations and guidelines to aid in preserving threatened
populations, 3) encourage further research on rare and endangered forms in
the state in order to provide data that will help to devise strategies to aid
their survival, 4) promote greater public understanding of the special sig-
nificance of rare and endangered plants and animals as well as the values
and importance of all wildlife, and 5) develop an annotated list of en-
dangered habitats in Florida, with ratings of the urgency for action to be
taken for their preservation.
The inventory of rare and endangered forms includes both inconspicu-
ous and little known native plants and animals as well as the more spec-
tacular and familiar wildlife species. It attempts to bring together all
available information on the population status of these forms together
with relevant data on their distribution, ecology, and life history in the
state. The report also seeks to identify those regions and habitats in the
state that are of critical importance for protection of rare and endangered
forms as an aid to various governmental agencies and other organizations
concerned with land-use planning and preservation of natural resources.

TAXONOMIC COVERAGE
The inventory includes species, subspecies, and local populations of
particular scientific, aesthetic, or environmental significance. All major
groups of plants and invertebrate and vertebrate animals are covered, with
the realization that the data for some groups such as insects or marine in-
vertebrates will be far less complete than for those such as birds or mam-
mals.
I have served, and continue to serve, as the Chairman of the Special
Committee on Insects and Other Arthropods, excluding Marine and Fresh
Water Crustacea. The scope of this committee also includes terrestrial
molluscs, such as tree snails.

STATUS CATEGORIES
Florida as an island: For the purposes of the Florida list, the status of taxa
with ranges extending outside the state is evaluated on the basis of the Flor-
ida population. Thus a taxon which might be abundant elsewhere but whose
existence in Florida is threatened will appear on the list under the category
which best reflects its status in Florida. The categories used to designate
the status of forms included in the Inventory of Rare and Endangered
Plants and Animals of Florida are as follows:
Endangered. Taxa in imminent danger of extinction or extirpation and
whose survival is unlikely if the causal factors presently at work continue










The Florida Entomologist


operating. These forms are those whose numbers have been reduced to such
a critically low level or whose habitat has been so drastically reduced
or degraded that immediate action is required to prevent their loss.
Threatened. (Vulnerable in the International Union for the Conservation
of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) list). Taxa believed likely to
move into the endangered category in the near future if the causal factors
now at work continue operating. Included are taxa in which most or all
populations are decreasing because of over-exploitation, massive deple-
tion of habitat, or other environmental disturbance; taxa whose popula-
tions have been heavily depleted by adverse factors and the ultimate security
of which is not yet assured; and taxa with populations which may still be
abundant but are under threat from serious adverse factors throughout their
range in the state.
Rare. Taxa with small populations in the state which, though not presently
endangered or threatened as defined above, are potentially at risk. In-
cluded are those localized within a restricted geographical region or habi-
tat or thinly scattered over a more extensive range. They may be insular
or otherwise isolated forms or relicts with wide distribution. They also
may be seldom-recorded forms which may be more common than supposed,
although there is reasonably good evidence that their numbers are low.
Species of Special Concern. A species that does not clearly fit into the En-
dangered, Threatened, or Rare categories yet which, for certain reasons,
warrants special attention. A good example is the American alligator
(Alligator mississippiensis (Daudin) ). This species, under recent protection,
has increased in suitable habitats and can no longer be objectively regarded
as endangered, threatened, or rare. Relaxation of protection of this species,
however, in any way that would directly or indirectly stimulate commer-
cial traffic in crocodilian hides of any species in any part of the world
would be potentially detrimental to those species of crocodilians whose
status is presently critical. The American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus
Cuvier) already is a truly endangered species.
Status Undetermined. Taxa that are suspected of falling into one of the
preceding categories but for which the available data are insufficient to pro-
vide the basis for a decision.
Recently Extinct. Species or subspecies that have disappeared from the flora
or fauna of the state through extinction in historic times (since 1600).
Recently Extirpated. Taxa that have disappeared from Florida since 1600
but are still extant elsewhere. The bahaman swallowtail butterfly
(Papilio andraemon bonhotei Sharpe) and the atala butterfly (Eumaeus
atala florida Roeber) are examples.

DISSEMINATION OF RESULTS

The work of the Committee is to be published as a comprehensive re-
port containing accounts of each organism included in the inventory and
additional sections dealing with the general significance of rare and en-
dangered forms, an over-view of the geographic and ecological distribution
of rare and endangered plants and animals in Florida and the factors
threatening their populations, descriptions and distribution of major terres-
trial and aquatic habitat types in the state, and recommendations for the
preservation of the state's threatened biota. The format of the report will be


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










Weems: Florida Endangered Insect Program


designed to facilitate updating of information and location of specific data.
Individual accounts of species, subspecies, or unique local populations
included in the list will follow a standard format, containing, where
available, the following information in succinct form:
1) Status. Endangered, Threatened, Rare, Species of Special Concern,
Status Undetermined, etc.
2) Common and Scientific Names. All parts of each scientific name will
be shown, including the name of the describer or describers.
3) Classification. Normally the order and family will be given, although
other or additional taxonomic categories may be advisable in some
groups.
4) Other names. Other widely used common names for the taxon and any
important synonyms of its scientific name will be given.
5) Description. A brief, nontechnical general description of the organism,
including size, to aid those unfamiliar with the group to visualize its
appearance. Also prominent sex and age differences and characters dis-
tinguishing it from closely-related forms or other organisms with which
it might be confused will be given.
6) Range. Both the general geographic distribution of taxa whose range
extend beyond Florida and as detailed information as possible on the
range within the state will be given. The period to which distributional
data apply and any major changes in the Florida range that have oc-
curred in the past or are taking place today will be given, if applicable.
Also to be included are the type localities of species or subspecies de-
scribed from Florida and, if known, the present status of the form in
terms of drainage systems, where relevant. Standard outline maps will
be used to show the Florida range of each taxon and, for those forms
with ranges extending beyond the state, an additional map showing the
overall distribution.
7) Habitat. Description of habitats in which the taxon is found in Florida,
indicating, where applicable, which habitats are primary or preferred
and which are of secondary importance. Indication of which environ-
mental factors appear to determine its habitat orientation. When possi-
ble, the location of especially favorable habitat conditions within the
state will be given.
8) Life History and Ecology. Salient features of the life history and
ecology of the taxon, with emphasis on those aspects such as home range
size, dispersal tendencies, reproductive rates, and population dynamics
that are relevant to understanding of its habitat relationships, popu-
lation status, and geographic distribution will be given.
9) Specialized or Unique Characteristics. Any features of the taxon that
give it special scientific, aesthetic, or economic significance will be
given.
10) Basis of Status Classification. A summary will be presented on past and
present population levels, destruction of habitats, and other evidence
used as the basis for assigning the taxon to the given status category
and discussion of possible future changes in status based upon present
conditions and trends.
11) Recommendations. Notation of any steps already taken to protect the
form in Florida and provision of additional suggestions of measures
such as establishment of sanctuaries, protection from hunting, etc. to










The Florida Entomologist


aid in its preservation and recommendations for specific types of re-
search needed to gain a better understanding of its status or critical
features of its biology may be given.
12) Acknowledgments.
13) Selected References. Important published or unpublished works on the
taxon will be given. Personal communications may be noted in the text
but not in references.
14) Name of Author and Institutional Affiliation.
15) Illustrations. A photograph or drawing of the subject plant or animal
and additional photographs of typical habitats or characteristic fea-
tures of its life history or ecology will be used.
There are several difficulties which confront one in the attempt to sur-
vey for a particular species of invertebrate which usually do not confront
one who is gathering information concerning vertebrate animals. These
difficulties are due to: 1) the immense number of species involved, 2) the
comparatively small size of most invertebrates, 3) the seasonal occurrence
in the adult or readily identifiable life stage, 4) the lack of available data
for many species, due in large part to inadequate survey . which, in turn,
is due primarily to inadequate funding for surveys of invertebrates in com-
parison to what has been done for most vertebrates, and 5) the difficulty of
identification-the lack of competent taxonomic specialists in some groups,
and underpaid, overworked specialists in others.
There are groups of insects and other invertebrates which are not being
studied, have not been studied for many years, or have never been studied in
Florida. There is a great need for a long-range survey of the arthropods of
Florida, just to establish what is here, plus a tremendous amount of inves-
tigation needed to determine miscellaneous information about each species.
The current list of threatened and endangered species of Florida inverte-
brates is admittedly a much biased list, due to factors already mentioned.
Most species for which data can be obtained with a high degree of confidence
are restricted to those groups which: 1) can be located and identified by
sound, such as certain Orthoptera, 2) those which occur only in special habi-
tats, such as the fast-disappearing tropical hardwood hammocks of southern
Florida, caves, water systems (which themselves are becoming endangered),
3) those associated with plant or animal hosts which are themselves en-
dangered or threatened and to which these invertebrates are restricted (in-
cluding food hosts and hosts of endo and ectoparasites), and 4) unique land
habitats such as fossil sand dunes, and rare and unique microhabitats such
as pack rat nests which harbor fauna of small animals often found nowhere
else.
In conclusion I believe that most well-informed invertebrate special-
ists agree that the increased awareness of the general public of the need to
take concrete actions toward preservation of threatened and endangered
species of plants and animals, even including the many inconspicuous and
supposedly non-economic species of invertebrate animals, is very impor-
tant, but that the effort to protect most invertebrate species through over
restriction on collecting promulgated by well-meaning government offi-
cials and by sometimes ill-advised government regulations is not, I repeat,
is not the answer! Such restrictions often prevent or seriously handicap the
continuing effort by competent researchers to obtain basic information


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










Weems: Florida Endangered Insect Program


about species for which we know all too little, and they may even pinpoint
the truly rare species for unscrupulous collectors!
The answer lies primarily in the preservation of adequate habitat sam-
ples sufficiently large to allow the preservation of rare species. Systema-
tists should be among the most sensitive to this issue, for the accelerating
reduction in the number of species on our planet is one of the fundamental
issues of our time. Systematists, with their intimate knowledge of biologi-
cal diversity, are in a unique position to convey that sense of wonder for
our natural world, and they form a major part of the tiny band capable of
doing so. The time may not be far off when conservationists, backed to the
wall, will need to seek advice from systematists about which species to
write off and those for which to fight harder. It should be noted that while
legislative approaches and habitat preservation often are the conserva-
tionists' main manner of action, often in the end it is the single, spectacular
species that "sells" a particular conservation project, and in the process
permits the preservation of associated and similarly threatened species of
less concern to the general public.

























Photo Story-Copulation of the firefly Photuris SH (unnamed sp.). Old
fields in central New York State during June teem with thousands of these
fireflies. Sexually active males greatly outnumber females, and compe-
tition among males is keen. Often several males are found gathered around
a single responsive female. This photograph reveals a detail of copulation
that may relate to this extreme competition-the mesothoracic legs of the
male (hanging below the female) are raised, perhaps to strike at or sweep
away rivals. Also of interest, this photo reveals that the lateral processes
of the genitalic basal-piece remains outside the female during intromission,
though this structure is seemingly too delicate to function as a clasper.-
J. E. Lloyd










The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977


BOOK REVIEW


THE MAYFLIES OF NORTH AND CENTRAL AMERICA. George F. Edmunds, Jr., Steven
L. Jensen, and Lewis Berner. 1976. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. 330 p.
$28.50. The Mayflies of North and Central America is a necessary and long overdue
contribution to the study of Ephemeroptera. It is only the second comprehensive
work on North American mayflies published in this century, supplementing Need-
ham, Traver, and Hsu's 1935 Biology of Mayflies which contained descriptions of all
North American species then known. This book does not repeat those species descrip-
tions, but concentrates on additional information and keys to the families, subfam-
ilies, and genera. The keys are written in such a way that anyone who can key a North
American insect to order should be able to proceed to families and genera in Ephem-
eroptera with a high chance of success. Species are tabulated by region, but they are
not keyed; instead, reference is made to already published keys in those cases where
good keys exist. The book is particularly strong in the keys, figures, methods, and
discussions on a taxonomic level.
This book also summarizes what is known of the biology of mayflies. Since few
North American species have been studied in detail, the authors tried to supplement
the literature with observations and data from unpublished sources. Data from both
types of sources should be treated with some caution, as the strength of the sources
is variable, and sometimes represent nothing more than a single, isolated report. The
book generally does a good job of compiling what is known.
There are inaccuracies in a few of the figures-particularly those of male geni-
talia-so that species cannot always be determined, but we know of no instances where
these are of a magnitude to confuse the keys. Small mistakes have also crept into
some generic diagnoses: most Leptohyphes do have denticles on the claws, the apical
denticle is the largest denticle in Pseudocloeon, and possibly others. Similarly, these
will not affect the keys. Other errors: the initials are A. V. (not A. W.) Provonsha,
the author of Baetis quebecensis is Hubbard, and a misplaced comma totally con-
fuses the discussion of the geographic affinities of Hexagenia. Overall though, the
book is neat, well edited, and almost free from typographical errors.
To our knowledge, there is only 1 weak couplet in the keys: nymphs of Siphloplec-
ton vs. Metretopus. This is now being revised. The keys are very good and show a lot of
work and care. Auxiliary characters, many presented for the first time in this book,
have been added to aid in separation of similar genera, and new characters have been
developed. Problems can be foreseen only when keying specimens from Central
America, and that because there are still many new genera in that region. If problems
should arise in using the keys, there is additional help in the section on "problem
couplets" as well as in the individual discussions of taxonomy on a generic and
family level. These valuable sections elaborate problems, point out exceptional
situations, discuss distributions and geographic relationships, and summarize current
knowledge on the taxonomic stability of genera.
Other areas which merit mention are, briefly: the methods section; the section on
higher classification and phylogeny; good figures of whole nymphs of all families,
subfamilies, and selected genera; many figures illustrating morphological struc-
tures; an appendix indexing all name changes in North and Central American Ephem-
eroptera since 1935; and complete literature since that date. The book is an essential
tool for anyone working with North American mayflies.

William L., and J. G. Peters
Florida A&M University










The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977


NOTES ON THE COCOON CONSTRUCTION BEHAVIOR OF Apanteles Militaris-(Note).
During studies of the biology of Apanteles militaris (Walsh), detailed observations
were made of the emergence of mature larvae from their host, Pseudaletia unipuncta
(Haworth) (C. O. Calkins and G. R. Sutter, Environ. Ent., 1976, 5:147). Also, photo-
graphs were taken at various stages of cocoon construction.
Prior to emergence of the parasites in the field, hosts typically crawl upward
onto available prominences and become quiescent. Imminent emergence of the para-
site is indicated by a lumpy appearance of the dorsal cuticle of the host. With mag-
nification, the heads of the parasite larvae can be observed nodding back and forth
against the host cuticle as they tear away the tissue and cuticle with their mandibles.
All larvae within a host begin to emerge contemporaneously from the posterior two-
thirds of the dorsal and pleural regions of the host. As they emerge, the parasite .ar-
vae molt into the 3rd instar (D. G. Tower, J. Agr. Res., 1915, 5:495-507). The 3 caudal
segments remain within the host and the extension of the parasite exuvium precludes
escape of host haemolymph.
A larva begins construction of its cocoon by drawing silk from a spinneret at the
base of the labium. It first bends its head over posteriorly and attaches the silk to its
venter; then it pulls its body almost erect and repeats the movement. This results in
the production of a series of large, loosely woven loops around the posterior end of
the body. These silken threads adhere to those of adjacent larvae but do not adhere to
the host. The cocoons are thus held together in a single mass. Next, the larva begins
to form a more coherent framework consisting of a series of small loops that re-
semble horizontal rows of inverted "U's" that extend from the terminalia along the
ventral side of the body. The larva extends these loops upward and over its head to
form a hood as described for Apanteles congregatus (Say) (B. B. Fulton, Ann. Ent.
Soc. Am., 1940, 33:231). At this stage, the larva detaches from the host, reverses itself
so that its head is proximal to the host, and completes forming the dorsal half of the
cocoon in the same manner. The larva then begins a series of circular movements
with its head that produces a lining of closely woven transverse loops extending
toward the apical end of the cocoon. The larva reverses itself again and weaves an-
other layer of transverse loops which are now at right angles to the previous layer.
The parasite larva continues to weave the internal lining. At this stage, the cocoon is
opaque, but dissections of cocoons at various stages of completion revealed that the
larva produces several layers of silk and reverses its body to begin each layer. The
total elapsed time for cocoon construction is ca. 100 min.
About 45 min after the parasites leave the host, the caterpillar begins to move its
head laterally and later crawls away from the mass of cocoons. The host lives for
an additional 24 hr, though no further feeding occurs.
About 48 hr after emergence from the host, the parasite voids the meconium and
molts; the exuvium is forced to the base of the cocoon where it covers the voided waste
products. The larva then pupates.
Occasionally, a larva will emerge from the host at some distance from other
larvae. Very frequently, such a "solitary" larva is not successful in constructing a
cocoon and is often seen crawling away from the host.
The white cottony cocoons of A. militaris are quite conspicuous and remain at-
tached to the vegetation for many days after the wasps emerge. They are seldom at-
tacked by predators.
Acknowledgments: I would like to thank Dr. G. R. Sutter, Northern Grain In-
sects Research Laboratory, ARS, USDA, Brookings, S.D. for assistance with the pho-
tography and for his suggestions, and Drs. T. R. Ashley and N. C. Leppla, Insect At-
tractants, Behavior, and Basic Biology Research Laboratory, ARS, USDA, Gaines-
ville, Fla., for their helpful comments. C. O. Calkins, Insect Attractants, Behavior,
and Basic Biology Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, USDA,
Gainesville, Florida 32604.










The Florida Entomologist


CYCLOPROPANE MITICIDES FOR SUPPRESSION OF SPIDER MITE POPULA-
TIONS ON TROPICAL FOLIAGE PALMS-(Note).1 The twospotted spider mite,
Tetranychus urticae Koch, is a major pest in production and interior main-
tenance of ornamental palms. Available miticides are effective (S. L. Poe.
1973. J. Econ. Ent. 66:490-2), but the potential for resistant populations
necessitates evaluation of new compounds for miticidal activity. Reports
by G. B. Staal et al. (J. Econ. Ent. 1975. 68:91-5) and R. D. Nelson and E. D.
Snow (J. Econ. Ent. 1975. 68:261-5) indicate esters of cyclopropylmethyl
alcohol and cyclopropanecarboxylic acid are effective against T. urticae.
This study evaluated these chemicals for control of T. urticae on parlor
palm, Chamaedorea elegans Mart., under commercial, greenhouse-pro-
duction conditions.
Cyclopropane miticides in a 25% WP formulation included: ZR-793
(bis(cyclopropylmethyl)terephthalate); ZR-856 (hexadecyl cyclopro-
pane-carboxylate); ZR-1829 (trans-1,4-bis(cyclopropylcarbonyloxy-
methyl)cyclohexane); and ZR-1859 (tetradecyl 3-cyclopropylpropio-
nate). Standard chemicals were: PentacR (decachlorobis-2,4-cyclopenta-
dien-1-yl), 50% WP; VendexR (hexakis(beta,beta-dimethylphenethyl) dis-
tannoxane), 50% WP; and oxamyl 24% L. In Test 1, 1 or 2 sprays (0.21, and
0.08 lb ai/100 gal, respectively) were applied 7 days apart to 4 replicated
plots of T. urticae-infested C. elegans in a randomized block design. Test 2
assayed the protective activity of these compounds to prevent infestation
of noninfested parlor palms replicated and treated as in Test 1. Each palm
was infested 1 day after the 1st application with an infested palm leaf (mean
number SEM of mites and eggs/leaf were 42.39.1 and 33.2 10.3). Test
3 determined activity of aged residues with chemicals and concentrations as
in Test 1 and 2 but applied twice, 7 days apart, to a replicated series of non-
infested palms. One month following the 2nd application, palms were in-
fested with 2 leaflets containing a mean number of 14.9+_1.7 mites and
14.4+2.7 eggs/leaflet. In all tests, samples of 10 leaflets were taken peri-
odically from each plot, eggs and mites removed by a .mite brushing ma-
chine, and counted. Data were subjected to analysis of variance.
Cyclopropane miticide sprays to establish populations (Test 1) were in-
effective, compared to oxamyl or Pentac (0.5 and 0.25 lb ai/100 gal., re-
spectively). In Test 2 sprays of ZR-1859, ZR-793 or ZR-856 were as effec-
tive as oxamyl, Vendex (0.25 lb ai/100 gal) or Pentac in prevention of in-
festations. Forty-five days after the 2nd spray or 15 days postinfestation
(Test 3), palms treated with ZR-1829, ZR-1859, ZR-856, or ZR-793 con-
tained populations significantly lower than controls and equal to treat-
ments of oxamyl or Vendex. By 60 days after the 2nd spray or 30 days post-
infestation, the best chemicals were ZR-1829, ZR-793, and ZR-856, compar-
ing favorably with oxamyl, Vendex and Pentac. Populations did not differ
87 days after the 2nd spray. Cyclopropane compounds, at the concentra-
tions tested, were inferior to standard miticides in reducing established T.
urticae populations; preventative applications, however, have potential
for suppressing mite population development.-R. A. Hamlen, Univ. of
Fla., Agr. Res. Center, Apopka, Fla. 32703.


Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 386.


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










The Florida Entomologist


SPECIES-SPECIFIC PHONOTAXIS IN Gryllus FEMALES-(Note). Few pub-
lished data demonstrate the ability of female crickets to discriminate
among the calling songs of sympatric species. The experiments of Ulagaraj
and Walker (1973, Science 182:1278) with mole crickets (Gryllotalpidae)
yielded the only field data for species-specificity. Females flew to speakers
broadcasting the songs of conspecific males in preference to the songs of a
sympatric species. Laboratory experiments of Walker (1957, Ann. Ent. Soc.
Amer. 50:626), Hill, et al. (1972, Austral. J. Zool. 20:153), Popov, et al.
(1974, Rheinisch-Westfilische Akad. Wiss., Abhandl. 53), and Paul (1976,
Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 69:1007) gave similar results for North American tree
crickets (Oecanthus), Australian field crickets (Teleogryllus), European
field crickets (Gryllus), and North American ground crickets (Allonemo-
bius), respectively. In this note, I present phonotaxis data for North Amer-
ican field crickets (Gryllus).
Individuals of 2 unidentified sympatric species were collected at lights
by Dr. R. Hoy at Carlsbad, New Mexico in 1972. The songs of the 2 species
are strikingly different, and for this reason, I refer to them as "New Mexico
Triller" (NMT), and "New Mexico Chirper" (NMC). Sonograms of both
songs are shown in Fig. 1.


A B


7 i7
6 6
hr I I

kHz' kHz
2 2

o....... .. 0
200 mn.e 2t OsOm
Time Time
Fig. 1. Sonograms of (A) NMT calling song, 260 C, (B) NMC calling
song, 280 C.
Phonotaxis experiments were carried out in a low-noise, anechoic cham-
ber at the S.U.N.Y., Stony Brook, using laboratory-reared, virgin female
descendants of the field collected crickets. The experimental materials
and methods are similar to those used in experiments with Allonemobius
and Teleogryllus crickets (Paul, 1976; Hoy, Hahn and Paul, 1977, Science
195:82). Briefly, an individual female was exposed to NMT and NMC songs
broadcast over separate speakers. The female was released and allowed 3
min to walk to either speaker. The number of females attracted to NMT or
NMC song are given in Table 1. The ratio of these choices was compared
statistically to a 1:1 ratio, the expected ratio if the females chose speakers
at random. The results of "one-choice" tests, in which one speaker played
the heterospecific song and the other was silent are also shown in Table 1.
For both species, the proportion of females that chose the conspecific
song differed significantly from 0.5 (P<0.005 in G-tests for goodness of fit).
Thus, females of both sympatric, synchronic species distinguished between
NMT and NMC songs.


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977











The Florida Entomologist


TABLE 1. THE NUMBER OF FEMALES TESTED AND CHOICES MADE IN PHO-
NOTAXIS EXPERIMENTS.

Song choices

Females N NMC NMT G-tests

NMC 27 22 3 ***
NMT 16 1 15 ***
NMC 16 6
NMT 13 7 *

N= sample size.
* = one-choice test.
* ** = proportion differs significantly (P < 0.005) from a 1:1 ratio.


Some females of both species walked to the heterospecific song in one-
choice tests. This result is consistent with the findings of Paul (1976) for
ground crickets, and Zaretsky (1972, J. Comp. Physiol. 79:153), Dathe (1974,
Forma Functio 7:7), and Hill, et al. (1972) for field crickets.
NMT and NMC occur in mixed groups in fields near Carlsbad, N. M.
(R. Hoy, pers. comm.). Thus, females are exposed to both calling songs.
The ability of females to distinguish between the 2 songs may be important
in the premating isolation of these species, though, as the one-choice test
data indicate, the acoustic behavior is probably not the only barrier to in-
terspecific mating.-R. C. Paul, Univ. Fla., Gainesville, 32611.


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










The Florida Entomologist


MR. GEORGE W. "WALLY" DEKLE RECEIVES AWARD
FROM THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY


Mr. George W. "Wally" Dekle (left) receives engraved plaque emble-
matic of his award as "FLORIDA'S MAN OF THE YEAR IN ENTO-
MOLOGY" from Dr. Sidney L. Poe, Chairman, Honors and Awards Com-
mittee. Photograph by Frank W. Mead.

The Florida Entomological Society honors George Wallace "Wally"
Dekle, Taxonomic Entomologist at the Florida Department of Agricul-
ture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, Bureau of Ento-
mology, as FLORIDA'S MAN OF THE YEAR IN ENTOMOLOGY.
Wally was born 4 November 1915 in the "Kingdom of the Sun," Ocala,
Florida. He served in the U.S. Army as a parachutist and Captain, and re-
ceived a Unit Citation. In 1936, he enrolled in the University of Florida,
and received the B. S. in Agriculture degree in 1941. That year he joined the
State Plant Board of Florida (now Division of Plant Industry, Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services), from which he retired
in October 1976.
His entomological interests are many and varied, and all projects are
tackled with an energetic and enthusiastic zeal born of curiosity and a desire
to serve. Although a taxonomic specialist on such homopterous insects as
scales and mealybugs, he has also contributed greatly to field identifi-
cation of insects of commodity concern. His illustrated key to caterpillars
on corn, orchid insects bulletin, and numerous photos and descriptions of
insects depicted in the entomology circular series of Tri-ology Technical


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










The Florida Entomologist


Report and in other publications attest to the practical usefulness of his
life work. In addition, Mr. Dekle has concerned himself with the problems
of the grower, nurseryman, and producer of Florida commodities. This
interest has led him to seek solutions and recommendations for control of
populations of pest organisms ranging from scales to snails. Wally has
always provided a refreshing breath of optimism when consulted by the stu-
dent, professor, industrial worker, or grower about problems with no appar-
ent solution. His notable taxonomic work, Florida Armored Scale Insects,
first published in 1965, has been revised and is in press.
Wally holds membership in Gamma Sigma Delta, Entomological
Society of America, Florida Entomological Society, and the Florida State
Horticultural Society. He has served our society as Treasurer and Business
Manager, 1945-47, Vice-President 1963, and President in 1964. This year he
received a Certificate of Service in recognition of his 35 years of work in
State Agriculture. He has been a leader in Gainesville area Boy Scouts and
Cub Scouts for many years in support of the youth of his community.
It is with great thrill that, on behalf of the Florida Entomological
Society, I present to my neighbor and colleague as ENTOMOLOGIST OF THE
YEAR, a plaque which reads, "For His Unselfish Devotion and Contribu-
tions in the Field of Entomology to the Nation, the State and to the Flor-
ida Society."
David A. Benson
Carrol O. Calkins
Gerald L. Greene
Sidney L. Poe, Chairman,
Honors and Awards Committee


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










The Florida Entomologist


MINUTES OF THE 59TH ANNUAL MEETING OF
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY

The 59th Annual Meeting of The Florida Entomological Society was
held at the Cypress Gardens Sheraton Inn, Cypress Gardens, Florida, 8-10
September 1976.
The meeting was brought to order on Wednesday at 1 PM, 8 September
1976 by President H. V. Weems, Jr. The invocation was offered by the Assis-
tant Pastor of Hope Presbyterian Church, Cypress Gardens. Clayton W.
McCoy, Chairman of the Local Arrangements Committee, welcomed the
members, made announcements, and introduced the President, Howard V.
Weems, Jr., who then gave the presidential address on, "The Florida En-
dangered Insect Program". This talk was well received and was essentially
the same as delivered by Dr. Weems as an invitational paper at the XV
International Congress of Entomology 21 August 1976, Washington, D. C.
The remainder of the afternoon and all day Thursday, and Friday morning
were spent in hearing a total of 55 scientific papers, of which 7 were Invi-
tational as follows:
"Carcinogen bioassay of pesticides" by Cipriano Cueto, Cancer Bioassay
Program, Div. of Cancer Cause Prevention, NCI, Bethesda, Maryland.
"Status of research on the biology and control of the imported fire ants"
by W. A. Banks, Insects Affecting Man Research Lab., ARS, USDA, Gaines-
ville, Fla.
"Possibilities of pest management strategies against the imported fire
ants" by W. F. Buren, Dep. of Ent. & Nem., Univ. of Florida, Gainesville,
Fla.
"Insect hormones in pest management. I. Juvenile hormones" by D. L.
Silhacek, Insect Attractants, Behavior and Basic Biology Lab., ARS,
USDA, Gainesville, Fla.
"Insect hormones in pest management. II. Insect growth regulators"
by Herbert Oberlander, Insect Attractants, Behavior and Basic Biology
Lab., ARS, USDA, Gainesville, Fla.
"Problems in the control of human lice and scabies" by Carroll N.
Smith, ARS, USDA (retired), Gainesville, Fla.
"The Caribbean fruit fly in Florida, past and present" by R. M. Bara-
nowski, A. K. Burditt, Jr., and D. L. Chambers, respectively, representing
Agr. Res. and Educ. Center University of Florida, Homestead; Subtropical
Horticulture Research Unit, ARS, USDA, Miami; Insect Attractants, Be-
havior and P basic Biology Lab., ARS, USDA, Gainesville, Fla.
"Biology and control of the lovebug, Plecia nearctica, in Florida. L. L.
Buschman and L. C. Kuitert, Dep. of Ent. & Nem., Univ. of Florida, Gaines-
ville.
The customary "Bull Session" of submitted topics was held the evening
of 8 September with H. L. Cromroy, Dept. Ent. & Nem., Univ. of Fla., serv-
ing as Moderator for the second consecutive year. At 6:30 PM, 9 September,
a catfish and hushpuppy dinner was served at the Winter Haven Garden
center, under the able direction of Jesse Denmark, Fla. Dept. Agr. & Con-
sumer Services, Div. Plant Industry. Registrations at the annual meeting
totaled 161.
The preliminary business meeting was called to order at 11:50 AM on 9
September by President H. V. Weems, Jr. Forty-five members were present.
Weems called upon Secretary F. W. Mead to read the minutes of the last
(58th) annual meeting. The minutes were presented as published in Volume
59(1):213-222 (June 1976) of The Florida Entomologist. There being no cor-
rections or additions D. O. Wolfenbarger moved that the minutes be ap-
proved as published. Second by E. C. Beck. Motion carried.


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










The Florida Entomologist


Treasurer N. C. Leppla was asked to give his report. He prefaced his re-
port by saying that he works closely with Editor S. H. Kerr-the business
of the Society could not operate efficiently otherwise. He extended appreci-
ation to the previous business managers and to 30-40 members a year who
donate time and services, and also thanked the support of industry for this
meeting. He said that funds are adequate to conduct the business of the
Society for this coming year, adding that the bank balance of approximately
$5,000.00 must be maintained to pay for printing and operational costs prior
to billing. He concluded that no procedural changes were needed in the
immediate future.

REPORT OF THE BUSINESS MANAGER AND TREASURER
FOR THE YEAR ENDING 1 AUGUST 1976
RECEIPTS
Dues $3,551.00
Subscriptions 3,413.50
58th Annual Meeting:
Banquet 710.00
Registration 560.00
Cash redeposited 52.00
59th Annual Meeting:
Social-hour donations 120.00
Reprints 1,370.33
Publication charges 2,482.95
Advertising 285.21
Postage 45.60
$12,590.59
Checking Account Balance 31 August 1975 4,168.67
$16,759.26
DISBURSEMENTS
58th Annual Meeting:
Banquet 478.39
Cash at meeting 100.00
Social Hour 150.00
Photo supplies 13.45
Close Wolfenbarger Fund 30.17
Gainesville Hilton 396.21
Xeroxing 5.00
Gainesville Magazine 7.20
Postage & mailing 296.12
Awards 153.11
Storter Printing 8,661.21
Gainesville Letter Shop 174.12
Assembling reprints 191.56
Secretarial help 645.00
Misc. (see below) 293.50
$11,595.04
Checking Account Balance 1 August 1976 5,164.22
$16,759.26
Total Cash in Bank 1 August 1976 $ 5,164.22
MISC. DISBURSEMENTS ITEMIZED
Head Louse Symposium (H. V. Weems, Jr.) $ 50.00
Bank Debits (Checks returned) 34.00
Postage (N. C. Leppla) 40.00


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










Minutes of 59th Annual Meeting


State of Fla. (Non-profit corp. tax/'75 & '76) 10.00
Refunds (Over-payment of subscri. & public. chgs.) 87.50
Office Supplies (J. M. Calkins) 50.00
Postmaster (Post Office box rent/1 yr.) 14.00
Xeroxing new member applications (H. V. Weems, Jr.) 8.00
Total $ 293.50
Norman C. Leppla
Treasurer and Business Manager

D. H. Habeck moved that the Treasurer's report be approved subject to
audit. Seconded by W. H. Whitcomb. Motion carried.

REPORT OF THE AUDITING COMMITTEE
The Auditing Committee has examined the financial report of the Busi-
ness Manager and has found it to be in good order. It is the feeling of this
committee that Dr. Leppla should be commended for the excellent manner
in which he has kept the books of the Society.
W. C. Adlerz
H. A. Denmark
E. C. Beck, Chairperson

President Weems added a special note of commendation to Dr. Leppla.
Dr. Weems said that Dr. Leppla and some people helping him have put in
an unusual amount of time and effort into this job, and that the affairs of
the Society are in the best order they have been in the history of the organi-
zation as far as he knows. Leppla has been using a revised accounting pro-
cedure that shows from day to day what the financial situation is, and the
library has been totally reorganized. Weems also extended appreciation to
Secretary Mead for his services as Secretary and as a free photographer of
Society functions.
President Weems brought up the subject of changes in the Bylaws. He
said that during this last year 10 members in good standing had presented
a petition to the Executive Committee to make minor changes in the By-
laws. The Executive Committee on 20 May 1976 approved this petition. The
President then followed protocol by appointing a special committee to
study the proposed amendment and report its recommendation at the next
meeting. Furthermore, each Society member was mailed a copy of the pro-
posed changes more than 10 days ahead of the annual meeting as required
by the Governing Documents of the Society. Secretary Mead was called
upon to give the report of the special Bylaws Amendments Committee.
Mead said the Committee approved the changes which in essence were that
the Editor of The Florida Entomologist should be a permanent member of
the Executive Committee. It was agreed that publishing the journal is the
most important business of the Society and that the Editor should be a
"full-fledged" voting member of the Executive Committee. Counsel from
the Editor has been so vital that on many occasions he has been invited to
sit in on the deliberations of this Committee. The other amendment in-
volved the numbers of Associate Editors. Both the Special Committee and
President Weems explained that the work of being Editor has become so
burdensome that more Associate Editors are needed than provided for in the
Bylaws. Editor Kerr for the last year or more has been obtaining extra edi-
torial assistance on an informal basis. It was felt by those directing Society
affairs that the Bylaws should be changed in such a way that the Editor
could have all the Associate Editors he needs.
There being a quorum present, President Weems placed the matter be-










The Florida Entomologist


fore the Society members, asking for a separate vote on each of the two
amendments. It was moved by W. H. Whitcomb that the Society approve
Amendment No. 1 in which the Editor of The Florida Entomologist would
be added to the Executive Committee. Seconded by R. C. Wilkinson, Jr.
Motion carried unanimously. President Weems read the proposed Amend-
ment No. 2 that would allow the Editor to recommend for approval by the
Executive Committee as many Associate Editors as are needed to get the job
done. It was so moved by D. O. Wolfenbarger and seconded by W. A. Siman-
ton. Motion carried unanimously. Official wording of the changes is as fol-
lows:
Amendment No. 1 of the 59th Annual Meeting. Refer to The Florida
Entomologist 49(2):134 (June 1966) III. Executive Committee, Section 1.
Change the first sentence (only) to read: There shall be an Executive Com-
mittee consisting of the President; the Vice-President; the Secretary; the
Treasurer; two Active Members, one of whom shall be elected each year
to serve for two years; a representative of each Branch; the Chairman of
the Public Relations Committee; the immediate Past President; and the
Editor of The Florida Entomologist.
Amendment No. 2 of the 59th Annual Meeting. Refer to The Florida
Entomologist 56(2):154 (June 1973) Section 2. Change the first sentence
(only) to read: The direction of The Florida Entomologist shall be en-
trusted to the Board of Publications. This Board shall consist of a Busi-
ness Manager, who shall be the Treasurer of the Society, the Editor, and
one or more Associate Editors.
The next report was by D. H. Habeck who presented details on the spe-
cial moneysaving tour to Hawaii for the annual meeting of the Entomo-
logical Society of America.
Sidney L. Poe was called upon to give the report of the Honors and
Awards Committee. Before making his presentations, he expressed sincere
appreciation to Joseph J. Minihan, Jr., Staff Illustrator with the Division
of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Serv-
ices, Gainesville, who not only designed the certificate but also composed
and did the lettering of the certificates for the Society. He also expressed
indebtedness to his Technician, Ms. Gail Childs, Mrs. Wojcik, and Presi-
dent Weems for their assistance to the Committee.
















Fig. 1. Dr. D. O. Wolfenbarger Fig. 2. Dr. W. G. Eden
HONORARY MEMBERSHIP
The Honors and Awards Committee proposed 2 names for Honorary
membership this year: Dr. D. O. Wolfenbarger and Dr. W. G. Eden (Fig.
1, 2). The Society membership voted overwhelmingly to accept both named


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977









Minutes of 59th Annual Meeting


persons as Honorary Members. The Committee, at the suggestion of Presi-
dent Weems, then proposed to provide each honorary member with a certi-
ficate which reads: "The Florida Entomological Society presents this certi-
ficate of Honorary Membership to (named member) for Distinguished
Service in the Field of Entomology in Florida." It was suggested that the
gesture be retroactive and that certificates be presented to the additional 5
honorary members of our Society. This suggestion will be followed. The
complete list of 7 surviving Honorary Members of The Florida Entomo-
logical Society (with date elected) is as follows:
Dr. A. N. Tissot, 24 September 1964
Dr. Carroll N. Smith, 10 September 1970
Mr. William B. Gresham, 5 September 1974
Dr. Lawrence A. Hetrick, 4 September 1975
Dr. Martin H. Muma, 4 September 1975
Dr. William G. Eden, 9 September 1976
Dr. D. O. Wolfenbarger, 9 September 1976


CERTIFICATE OF APPRECIATION TO DR. DONALD EUGENE SHORT


CI
'., ; '

\ '"

-"- .I
,- .


9'


Fig. 3. Dr. Donald E. Short, recipient of CERTIFICATE OF APPRECIATION.
Photograph by Frank W. Mead.


1~1~13111*4*
""1"IPFg


"*I(f










The Florida Entomologist


Don was born 11 June 1935 in Green Ridge, Missouri. He attended the
University of Missouri and received the B. S. in Agriculture in 1961, and
the M. S. in Entomology in 1963. After 5 years with the Missouri Farm Asso-
ciation, this boy from the "Show-Me-State" had been shown, so he became a
"Cornhusker" and earned the Ph. D. in Entomology from the University of
Nebraska in 1970.
Don became Assistant Entomologist in the Florida Cooperative Ex-
tension Service in 1970, was appointed to the Graduate Faculty in 1973 and
promoted to Associate Professor status in 1975. In addition to innumerable
short courses, field days, panels, and grower talks, he has published many
circulars, bulletins, and recommendations for control of urban and in-
dustrial pests. Somehow Don found time to offer a course in the Depart-
ment of Entomology and Nematology dealing with household, structural,
and ornamental pests. As so often is true of extension personnel, he also
does the research to obtain data which generate extension recommendations.
Dr. Short is a member of Sigma Xi, Gamma Sigma Delta, the Entomo-
logical Society of America, and the Florida Entomological Society. He
served our Society from 1973-75 as Treasurer and Business Manager, a job
for which we honor him today. It is with pleasure that I, on behalf of the
Society, present to Dr. Donald E. Short this Certificate of Appreciation.



CERTIFICATE OF APPRECIATION TO DR. LOUIS C. KUITERT

Professor Louis C. Kuitert was born 20 August 1912 in Spring Lake,
Michigan. He received the B. A. degree in Biology from Kalamazoo Col-
lege in 1939, and the M. A. in Entomology from the University of Kansas
in 1940. From 1942-46 he served the U. S. Army as an Entomology Sani-
tation Officer, where he attained the rank of Major. He received the Bronze
Star for Meritorious Service in Burma, 1946. Dr. Kuitert then returned to
the University of Kansas where he earned his Ph. D. in Entomology in 1947.
He joined the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station in 1948 and en-
dured until 1965 when the department as we know it coalesced. He has con-
tributed greatly to entomology research, teaching, and extension and to
the phenomenal growth of entomology statewide. He has always been
ready counsel for graduate students and a sounding board for research ideas.
He has taught numerous courses and studied insects in greenhouse, orna-
mental, pasture, fruit, vegetable, tropical culture, and lately, that charm-
ing couple-the lovebugs. He has to his credit, circulars and bulletins deal-
ing with pests of roses and orchids along with the numerous other journal
series and popular articles.
A member of the Entomological Society of America, Kansas Entomo-
logical Society, of which he served as Vice President, Wilson Ornithologi-
cal Society, and the Florida Entomological Society, he is also a card
carrying member of the American Registry of Professional Entomologists.
He has served as President of this Society, on the Governing Board of the
ESA, President of the Florida Chapter of Sigma Xi, President of Kiwanis,
and Vice President of the Gainesville Rose Society. He is also a member of
Phi Sigma and Gamma Sigma Delta and a Research Associate of the Florida
State Collection of Arthropods.
After 28 years of service to the University of Florida, Professor Kuitert
retired on 31 May 1976, and was immediately recommended for Professor
Emeritus status. We hope that his contributions to entomology will con-


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










Minutes of 59th Annual Meeting


Fig. 4. Dr. Louis C. Kuitert, recipient of CERTIFICATE OF APPRECIATION.
Photograph by Frank W. Mead.
tinue in the years ahead. On behalf of the Florida Entomological Society,
it is an honor to present this Certificate of Appreciation to Dr. L. C. Kuitert
for services rendered in the field of Entomology.



RECOGNITION TO DR. HOWARD V. WEEMS, JR.

Last but not least the Honors and Awards Committee felt it fitting to
recognize the arduous and prolonged tenure of the Society President, Dr.
Weems. As Vice-President, Dr. Weems presided over the 1975 meeting and
has organized and brought to fruition the many facets of the current session.
President Weems has worked diligently to fulfill his duties, and his atten-
tion to all details of Society business and to major committees is nothing
less than remarkable. If he contributed as much to other committee work as
to the one I serve he almost single handedly supervised the management
of our Society.
On behalf of the Florida Entomological Society and the authority of
the Honors and Awards Committee, it gives me great pleasure to present to
President Howard V. Weems, Jr., this gavel in recognition of a job well
done.
D. A. Benson
C. O. Calkins
G. L. Greene
S. L. Poe, Chairman










The Florida Entomologist


Fig. 5. President Howard V. Weems, Jr. (left) being congratulated and
given gavel by Honors and Awards Chairman S. L. Poe for an outstanding
job as Society President. Photograph by Frank W. Mead.

Editorial Note: Mr. G. W. "Wally" Dekle was honored as FLORIDA'S MAN
OF THE YEAR IN ENTOMOLOGY, receiving an engraved plaque. The full text
of the Honors and Awards Committee report on him appears elsewhere in
this issue.


ANNUAL REPORT-SUBTROPICAL BRANCH
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY: 1975-76

Officers for 1975-76 were as follows:
President-D. L. von Windeguth
Vice-President-William Beck
Secretary-Treasurer-Van Waddill
Representative to the Executive Committee-A. K. Burditt, Jr.
The following meetings were held during the past fiscal year 1975-1976 at
the Cox Science Building on the University of Miami campus:
DATE SPEAKER AND TOPIC
14 October 1975 Mr. Don von Windeguth. Fumigation of grape-
fruit.
11 November 1975 Dr. Van Waddill. Research at the Homestead
AREC dealing with potato insect control.
9 December 1975 Dr. John Lilly. Applied entomology in India.


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977










Minutes of 59th Annual Meeting


13 January 1976 Dr. A. A. Duncan. The Homestead heritage.
10 February 1976 Mr. Don von Windeguth. Summary of a recent
seminar on head lice.
9 March 1976 Dr. D. 0. Wolfenbarger. Pest control discussion.
13 April 1976 Mr. Honel Mero. History of the East African
Agriculture & Forestry Research Division.
11 May 1976 Dr. D. O. Wolfenbarger. Dispersal of small
organisms.

Officers elected for the year 1976-77, who assumed office in September 1976
were:
President-Dr. Van Waddill
Vice-President-Mr. Jim Kearnegy
Secretary-Treasurer-Dr. David Shibles
Delegate to Executive Committee-Dr. Arthur Burditt, Jr.

Treasurer's Report
$ 80.00 Balance 30 September 1975
+ 22.00 dues
102.00
-8.00 post cards
$ 94.00 Balance
Van H. Waddill, Secretary-Treasurer
This report was read to the Society by A. K. Burditt, Jr.



REPORT OF THE PUBLIC RELATIONS COMMITTEE
This report is given by the Public Relations Committee whose primary
responsibilities are to promote the Florida Entomological Society and the
profession of entomology.
One prime activity of the Committee during 1976 was to survey the mem-
bers concerning their efforts in public relations. A 2-page questionnaire
was sent to the entire Florida membership for this purpose. To date about
30% of the questionnaires have been completed and returned to us, and more
are being received almost daily. Our first assessment of their questionnaires
indicates a wide range of promotional efforts. The questionnaire will be
analyzed, and results will be published in The Florida Entomologist.
The Society was one of the co-sponsors in cooperation with Pfipharmecs
Division of Pfizer Pharmaceuticals in a symposium on "Head Lice Trans-
mission and Treatment" 26 January 1976 at Miami. Other co-sponsors were:
Dade County Medical Association, Dade County Pharmaceutical Asso-
ciation, and the University of Miami School of Medicine. Members of our
Society in the southeastern states were sent invitations to attend the sym-
posium. The Florida Entomological Society was represented officially by
President Weems.
Through the efforts of R. L. Lipsey, the 59th annual meeting at Cypress
Gardens was widely advertised throughout the state well before the meet-
ing. Further the committee cooperated with N. C. Leppla to provide a dis-
play of the Society's activities at the XV International Congress of Ento-
mology, Washington, D. C.










80 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977

The Committee is just beginning work to survey major abstracting serv-
ices concerning the inclusion of The Florida Entomologist.
W. B. Gresham, Jr.
R. L. Lipsey
F. G. Maxwell
D. A. Palmer
W. L. Peters, Chairman
President Weems acknowledged with gratitude the elaborate display in
the lobby of the Cypress Gardens Sheraton Inn that was set up by Ernest
Collins and his assistants at the Florida Department of Agriculture &
Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry. This display featured the
citrus blackfly, which has become established in 3 southeastern Florida
counties.
The preliminary business meeting was adjourned at 12:30 PM.
(The minutes of the final business session of the 59th annual meeting
will appear in the June issue.)









The Florida Entomologist


FIRST ANNOUNCEMENT AND CALL FOR
PAPERS FOR THE 60TH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY


The Florida Entomological Society will hold its 60th Annual Meeting
at the Cape Coral Country Club Inn on 31 August-2 September, 1977.
Room rates are $16.00 single and $18.00 double occupancy. The CCCCI is
located in southwestern Florida near Fort Myers, and is surrounded by
many family-oriented activities. A sit-down Awards dinner ($5.00) with
bingo afterwards, a golf tournament (green fees $4.12/person/18 holes; cart
fees $6.18/2 persons/18 holes), and several wives' activities including a tour
of Thomas A. Edison's Winter Home, a Jungle Cruise on the Caloosa-
hatchee River, a luncheon and visits to area shopping malls are planned.
Registration fees will be $7.00 ($3.00 student).
Questions concerning local arrangements should be directed to:
Ernest S. Del Fosse, Local Arrangements Chairman
Lee County Hyacinth Control District
Route One, Fort Myers, FL 33905
If you plan to present a paper, the form on the tear-out sheet must be
completed and postmarked no later than 20 June, 1977 and sent to:
John B. Taylor, Program Chairman
CIBA-GEIGY Corporation
1032 North Boulevard
Deland, FL 32720
Papers for the Student Award Contest should be mailed to:
Donald E. Short
Dept. of Entomology and Nematology
214 Newell Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
A maximum of 10 minutes will be allotted for submitted papers. Ab-
stracts will be distributed at the meeting. The best 3 student papers (based
on content and delivery) will be awarded monetary prizes.
Projection equipment for 2 x 2 slides only will be available. If possible,
bring your slides to the meeting in a carousel reel ready for projection.
Slides should be simple, concise and uncluttered, with no more than 7 lines
of type filling a rectangle 2 units high by 3 units wide.


Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977




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