Title: Florida Entomologist
ALL VOLUMES CITATION DOWNLOADS THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00121
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1977
Copyright Date: 1917
 Subjects
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
 Notes
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00121
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

Downloads
Full Text



The


FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

Volume 60, No. 2 June, 1977




CONTENTS

GORDH, G., AND D. M. DUNBAR-A New Anagrus Important in the Bio-
logical Control of Stephanitis takeyai, and a Key to the North
American Species ........................... ......... ....... ........... 85
WISEMAN, B. R., N. W. WIDSTROM, AND W. W. McMILLIAN-Ear Char-
acteristics and Mechanisms of Resistance Among Selected Corns
to Corn Earworm ... ................... ........... ...... .. .... 97
TSAI, J. H., AND M. ANWAR-Molting and JL.nip iity of Oncometopia
nigricans (Homoptera: Cicadellidae), a Suspected Vector of
Lethal Yellowing of Coconut Palms, on Various Host Plants ........ 105
DEL FOSSE, E. S.-Temperature Optima for Development of Neochetina
eichhorniae and Orthogalumna terebrantis.. ........... ......... 109
TINGLE, F. C., AND E. R. MITCHELL-Seasonal Populations of Army-
worms and Loopers at Hastings, Florida ...................................... 115
SCHICHA, E.-Two New Species of Phytoseius Ribaga from Australia
(Acarina: Phytoseiidae) ............................... .............. ............. ... 123
RABINOWITZ, D.-EI/f(, t. of a Mangrove Borer, Poecilips rhizophorae,
on Propagules of Rhizophora harrisonii in Panama ........................ 129
CALMBACHER, C. W.-The Nest of Zethus otomitus (Hymenoptera:
E um en id ae) ............................................. ................. .. ......... .......... ... 135
MAZOMENOS, B., J. L. N.ATION, W. J. COLEMAN, K. C. DENNIS, AND R.
E.s;FN I.-R.plroduction in Caribbean Fruit Flies: Comparisons
Between a Laboratory Strain and a Wild Strain........................... 139
Scientific Notes
KOEHLER, P. G., R. J. GOUGER, AND D. E. SHORT-Control of
Striped Grass Loopers and Armyuorms in Pasture .................. 103
SCHROEDER, W. J., AND R. A. SUTTON-Citrus Root Damage and
the Spatial Distribution of Eggs of Diaprepes abbreviatus...... 114
MEIFERT, D. W., AND G. C. LABRECQUE-Sterilization of House
Flies, Musca domestic L., with Liquid Baits Containing
Chem icals ........... ................ .. ....... .......... ................. ..... ......... 145

(Continued on Back Cover)


Published by The Florida Entomological Society






















THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY

OFFICERS FOR 1976-77

P resident.... ........... ..... ...... .......................................... ... C S L ofgren
Vice-President .......... ... ..... ..... ....... ........................... ............. J. B T aylor
S ecreta ry .................. ...................................... . .. ....... ...... .. .... ...... F W M ead
T rea su rer ...................... ....... ........ .................................... .. .. N C L ep p la

H. V. Weems, Jr.
E. C. Beck
Other Members of Executive Committee .......................... S. H. Kerr
C. W. McCoy
A. K. Burditt, Jr.
W. L. Peters

PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE

E ditor ............................ ....................... ............... S. H K err
A associate E ditors ........................... .......................... .................... E E G rissell
J. E. Lloyd
H. V. Weems, Jr.
Carol A. Musgrave
R. M. Baranowski
B business M manager .............................. ............ ......... ... ................ N C Leppla

THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST is issued quarterly-March, June, September, and
December. Subscription price to non-members $15.00 per year in advance, $3.75 per
copy. Entered as second class matter at the post office at Gainesville, Florida.
Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be sent to the Editor, Entomology
Department, University of Florida, Gainesville. Subscriptions and orders for back
numbers are handled by the Business Manager, Box 12425, University Station, Gaines-
ville, Florida 32604. The Secretary can be reached at the same address.
When preparing manuscripts, authors should consult "Instructions to Authors",
on the cover of most issues, and examine recent issues for details of form and style.
The page charge is $10.00 per page, partial pages proportionally. Page charges
are scaled upward for articles more than 10 printed pages long. One page of tables
is allowed free in every article. Beyond this allowance, tabular matter in excess
of 25% of the printed article's length is charged at $20.00 per page, partial pages pro-
portionally.
Reprints cost 2.5 per page for the first 1,500 pages and 1 per page thereafter. For
example, 200 reprints of a 3-page article total 600 pages; at 2.5t per page the charge
would be $15.00. The minimum reprint charge is $5.00. There are no free reprints of
articles of 1 page or longer. Twenty-five free reprints will be provided, if requested,
of partial page notes, book reviews, obituaries, etc. No covers for reprints will be pro-
vided.


This issue mailed July 29, 1977








The Florida Entomologist


A NEW ANAGRUS' IMPORTANT IN THE BIOLOGICAL
CONTROL OF STEPHANITIS TAKEYAI AND A KEY
TO THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES

GORDON GORDH' and DENNIS M. DUNBAR4

Systematic Entomology Laboratory, IIBIII, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA,
and Department of Entomology, Connecticut Agricultural
Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06504, respectively.

ABSTRACT
A new species of Anagrus Haliday is described, and biological informa-
tion is provided regarding the parasite's effectiveness in attacking eggs of the
introduced tingid Stephanitis takeyai Drake and Maa. We suspect that the
parasite was fortuitously introduced with its host and that it is not an en-
demic Anagrus. The parasite has the capability of reducing host egg popu-
lations by at least 35% in Connecticut. A key to the 6 species of North Amer-
ican Anagrus is given and taxonomic comments are made on these species.


The cosmopolitan mymarid genus Anagrus Haliday is composed of egg
parasites of various species of Homoptera, Hemiptera, and possibly Lepi-
doptera. Five species are known from North America; for extensive bibli-
ography on each species see Peck (1963). This paper describes a sixth species
which may be important in the biological control of the imported tingid
Stephanitis takeyai Drake and Maa. Investigative responsibilities have been
divided such that Gordh is responsible for taxonomic aspects and Dunbar is
responsible for biological information about the new species.

Anagrus Haliday, 1833
Type-species: Ichneumon atomus Linnaeus. Desig. by Westwood, 1840.
The number of Anagrus is questionable. Bakkendorf (1933) contends
that there is only 1 highly variable species; Soyka (1955) recognizes 44 spe-
cies in Europe. Part of the problem stems from the fact that the genus is
poorly known biologically and geographically. Past taxonomic studies
have placed emphasis on antennal characters, especially the relative
lengths of funicular segments. Sample sizes have been small, however, and
no effort has been made to quantify these data. Measurements of specimens
available for study reveal that these characters should be used with caution
because there is variation in absolute length of segments.
The following characters distinguish Anagrus from all other North
American genera of Mymaridae. For an explanation of various morphologi-
cal or taxonomic terms see Graham (1969): Female antenna 9-segmented
(1,1,0,6,1); medial surface of scape with parallel striae perpendicular to its
long axis. Metasoma broadly attached to propodeum and endosternal

'Hymenoptera: Mymaridae.
2Hemiptera: Tingidae.
'Mail address: c/o U.S. National Museum, Washington, D.C. 20560.
'Present address: FMC Corporation, Agricultural Chemical Division, P. O. Box 552, River-
side, California 92502.


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977










The Florida Entomologist


phragma projecting into the metasoma; lateral margins of terga 2-6 with
pairs of setae; base of ovipositor curved (bowed) inwards such that in lateral
aspect the ovipositor appears C. shaped; apical outer surface of each gono-
stylus with a single seta. Mandible 3-toothed; middle and posterior teeth
darkly pigmented, anterior tooth pale; middle tooth slightly longer than
others. Oral fossa darkly pigmented along gena; clypeal margin pale.
Metanotum with a pair of sclerotized lobes. Tarsi 4-segmented.


KEY TO NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF Anagrus
1. Second funicular segment longest (Fig. 4), ovipositor and
gonostylus markedly exserted beyond apex of metasoma;
gonostylus 0.86-0.98 times as long as hind tibia; body uni-
form ly pale .......................................... .............. A delicatus D ozier
1'. If second funicular segment is longest (some giraulti), then
ovipositor and gonostylus not markedly exserted beyond apex
of metasoma; gonostylus less than 0.70 times as long as hind
tibia; body not uniform ly pale ....................................... .............. 2
2. Second and third funicular segments subequal (Fig. 5), com-
bined length equal to fourth funicular; posterior margin of
pronotum medially emarginate (Fig. 2); mesoscutum without
a pair of setae near notaulices............ A. takeyanus Gordh, new species
2'. If second and third funicular segments subequal, then com-
bined length nearly 2 times length of fourth funicular; pos-
terior margin of pronotum not emarginate medially; meso-
scutum with a pair of setae near notaulices ............. ........... 3
3. Body dark brown; scape dusky, rhinaria on second and third
funicular segm ents ............................... ..... ............ A. puella Girault
3'. Body pale or not uniformly dark brown; scape concolorous
with pedicel and first funicular segment; rhinaria not on
second and third funicular segments ............. ................................... 4
4. First funicular segment about half as long as second; fore-
wing with wing blade sparsely setose, setae arranged in 2-3
irregular lines, posterior half of wing blade along distal third
asetose or with a few setae along posterior margin only..............
........................................... ................................. A ep os G irau lt
4'. If first funicular segment half as long as second (some arma-
tus), then posterior half of wing blade along distal third with
numerous setae; forewing with numerous setae; forewing with
numerous setae on wing blade arranged in 4-7 irregular lines ............ 5
5. Total length of funicular segments less than 2.75 times length
of club (Fig. 7); maximal width of forewing more than 2 times
width of wing at apex of venation .................... A. armatus (Ashmead)
5'. Total length of funicular segments more than 2.75 times
length of club (Fig. 8); maximal width of forewing less than 2
times width of wing at apex of venation ............... A. giraulti Crawford


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977









Gordh and Dunbar: New Anagrus Egg Parasite


Anagrus takeyanus Gordh, NEW SPECIES
Fig. 1-3, 5
FEMALE: Length 0.9 mm. Head, mesoscutum, anterior half of scapula,
axilla, metasoma, antennal funicular segments 2-6 and club dusky; scu-
tellum, metanotum, thoracic sterna, propodeum, antennal scape, pedicel,
first funicular segment, and legs straw colored. Forewing marginal vein
and wing blade posterior and slightly distad to marginal vein dusky; re-
mainder of forewing hyaline (Fig. 3). Hindwing venation at hamuli dusky;
remainder of hindwing hyaline.
Head in frontal aspect subtrapezoidal (Fig. 1); in dorsal aspect oval;
vertex with a few lightly incised striae laterad; area between ocelli smooth;
face below pigmented bar and between toruli with lightly incised striae;
ocelli forming an obtuse triangle, POL 0.65 times OOL. Compound eye
asetose, medial margins of compound eyes diverging ventrally. Torulus
adjacent to medial margin of compound eye and at imaginary transverse
line bisecting eye height. Head chaetotaxy as follows: 1 pair of setae lat-
eral to and 1 pair dorsolateral to occipital foramen, 1 pair of setae in sul-
cus extending from foramen to compound eye margin and adjacent to eye
margin, 2 pairs of setae along medial margin of compound eye dorsal to
toruli, 1 pair of setae between toruli (distance separating them equal to
width of pigmented portion of transverse frontal bar), 4 pairs of setae dis-
tributed over face and gena. Antenna (Fig. 5) sparsely setose, scape slightly


'1 #

-








\
~1~7 i



~//////I~Irj ,


Fig. 1-3. Anagrus takeyanus, new species (female): 1) Frontal aspect of
head, 100X (paratype); 2) Dorsal aspect of body, 100X (paratype); 3) Left
forewing, 120X.









The Florida Entomologist


expanded ventrally, mean ratio of relative length of antennal segments
beginning with pedicel (excluding scape): 1, 0.38, 0.65, 0.64, 1.12, 0.99, 1.17,
2.28 (n=41). Mandible with 3 apically acute teeth; maxillary and labial
palpi reduced.
Mesosoma (Fig. 2) 0.84 times as long as metasoma. Pronotum with
lightly incised reticulate sculpture, a pair of setae halfway between lateral
margin and midline, posterior margin at midline emarginate. Mesoscutum,
scapula asetose; scutellum, metanotum, propodeum smooth, asetose; en-
dosternal phragma projecting into metasoma to posterior margin of second
tergum.
Metasoma smooth, lateral margins of terga 2-6 each with 2 pairs of setae;
medial portion of tergum 7 with 4 setae; pygostylus with 4 setae subequal
in length and extending to apex of gonostylus; ovipositor and gonostylus
slightly exserted; gonostylus 0.56 times as long as hind tibia.
Forewing (Fig. 3) marginal vein with 3 robust and 1 small setae; 3 small
setae at apex of marginal vein; wing blade sparsely setose, setae arranged
in 3-4 irregular lines; marginal fringe dark, but pale near wing margin, 2.38
times as long as forewing width. Hindwing with anterior and posterior
margins parallel; wing blade with a single row of setae along posterior
margin.
MALE. Unknown.
ETYMOLOGY: The specific name alludes to the host species, Stephanitis
takeyai.
HOLOTYPE FEMALE: Connecticut, Mt. Carmel, summer 1975, ex. eggs S.
takeyai, D. M. Dunbar. Type-specimen (and some paratypes) deposited in
the U.S. National Museum (hereafter USNM), slide No. 73812.
PARATYPES: 63 females (same data as holotype except some collected
summer 1974): Canadian National Collection, Ottawa (3); British Museum
(Natural History), London (3); Zoological Institute, Leningrad (2); Plant
Protection Research Institute, Pretoria, South Africa (2); Ehime University,
Matsuyama, Japan (2).
VARIATION: The type-series is morphologically uniform, probably be-
cause all the specimens came from a single host species that was collected
in a geographically small area. Variation in lengths of antennal segments
is given in Table 3; maximal length of marginal fringe in ratio to forewing
width varies from 2.30-2.72 times; mesosoma is 0.71-0.88 times as long as the
metasoma.
COMPARATIVE COMMENTS: The taxonomic affinities of this species are
difficult to determine because of the morphological similarity among
Anagrus species. Biologically A. takeyanus is peculiar in that it is thely-
tokous; all other species of Anagrus in North America are arrhenotokous.
Morphologically, A. takeyanus resembles A. epos, A. armatus, and A.
giraulti. It may be distinguished from those species by the characters given
in the key.
DISCUSSION: The andromeda lacebug, S. takeyai, was introduced into
the United States near Greenwich, Connecticut from Japan about 1945
(Bailey 1950). It has since become a serious pest of Japanese andromeda,
Pierisjaponica (Thunberg) David Don, in 10 eastern and midwestern states
(Dunbar 1974). Schread (1968) was first to report natural enemies of this
pest in North America. He found that approximately 15% of overwintering
host eggs were parasitized by a small mymarid, Anaphes sp. Dunbar (1974)


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977








Gordh and Dunbar: New Anagrus Egg Parasite


found that 35.5% of overwintering host eggs in Mt. Carmel, Connecticut,
were parasitized by another mymarid, Anagrus sp. (= takeyanus, new spe-
cies). With our current information on parasites of S. takeyai, it is highly
probable that Schread's species was an Anagrus and not an Anaphes. Egg
parasites are not common on other species of Stephanitis in America; hence,
it is postulated that the new species of Anagrus was introduced with its host.
The parasite overwinters in the host egg and begins to emerge in Connec-
ticut during mid-June (Table 1). Emergence continues into early July. To
determine seasonal emergence, we collected 10 leaves infested with host
eggs from the field prior to any parasite emergence. These were placed in
cartons in an outdoor insectary and observed daily for parasite emergence.
During the period 17-23-VI-1975 maximum emergence occurred (81.52%).

TABLE 1. SEASONAL EMERGENCE (1975) OF Anagrus takeyanus NEW
SPECIES FROM FIELD RECOVERED Stephanitis takeyai EGGS
COLLECTED AT MT. CARMEL, CONNECTICUT.

Number Percentage Cumulative
Period Emerging Emerging Percentage

June
10-16 0 0 0
17-23 97 81.52 81.52
24-30 13 10.92 92.44

July
1-7 9 7.56 100.00
8-14 0 0


Further studies showed that less than 35% of the field-collected eggs of
S. takeyai hatch (Table 2). This figure was established in the following man-
ner. Leaves were collected from the field and examined for S. takeyai eggs.
Leaves with eggs were washed with water and the number of eggs per leaf
was determined by visual count. The leaf stems then were placed individu-
ally in plastic cups filled with water, held for 5-6 weeks (at 25+ 1C,
RH= 60-70%, and LD 16: 8), and leaves were inspected daily for tingid eclo-
sion and parasite emergence. From these studies we determined that para-
sitism ranged from 15.1-35.3%, egg hatch ranged from 1.8-28.6%, and egg in-
viability ranged from 36.6-83.0%. It is difficult to understand the poor host
egg hatch unless the parasite is somehow involved. Inviable eggs were not
dissected, but we suspect that parasite stinging and/or host feeding, in addi-
tion to other factors, were responsible for the high percentage of inviability
observed in field-collected eggs. The method of holding eggs probably was
not involved, with no observable differences in results because that was
checked several times by subjecting eggs to different conditions.
That parasite emergence reaches 35% in Connecticut suggests the parasite
is successful in reducing host populations and thus is of potential impor-
tance in biological control programs against this pest.









The Florida Entomologist


TABLE 2. EGG PARASITISM BY Anagrus takeyanus NEW SPECIES AT MT.
CARMEL, CONNECTICUT DURING SUMMERS OF 1974 AND 1975.


Collection Number/Number Percentage Percentage Percentage
Date Leaves/ Eggs Parasites Egg Hatch Inviable Eggs

28-VI-1974 18/381 35.3 21.1 43.6
8-VII-1974 22/722 16.8 14.3 68.9
15-VII-1974 17/1080 21.0 13.2 65.8
22-VII-1974 15/464 34.1 10.9 55.0
29-VII-1974 14/621 31.7 1.8 66.5
4-III-1975 93/3679 26.6 28.6 44.8
18-VI-1975 20/412 29.9 31.6 38.5
25-VI-1975 32/1548 32.3 31.1 36.6
3-VII-1975 28/1568 22.3 16.2 61.5
10-VII-1975 25/680 15.1 1.9 83.0


The mean, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation for the mea-
surements of antennal segments for each of the North American species of
Anagrus are presented in Table 3. One antenna was measured for each speci-
men, and the scape was not measured because in many instances antennae
were attached to uncleared heads and the radicle could not be seen clearly.
Variation probably can be attributed to season, host species, host size, and
geographical distribution.
The coefficients of variation provide an estimate of variation indepen-
dent of the magnitude of the means. Overall variation is greatest for A.
armatus (probably due to the heterogenous population that was sampled);
overall variation is least for A. takeyanus (probably due to the homoge-
nous population that was sampled). Future taxonomic studies of this group
should focus on establishing more precise limits of variation with regard
to various morphological parameters and the factors that are responsible
for generating the variation.

Anagrus armatus (Ashmead)
(Fig. 7)
Litus armatus Ashmead, 1887:193.
Eustochus xanthothorax Ashmead, 1887:193-194.
Anagrus columbi Perkins, 1905:198.
Anagrus spirits Girault, 1911a:209-210.
Anagrus armatus var. nigriventris Girault, 1911b:291-292.
Anagrus armatus var. nigriceps Girault, 1915:276.
Anagrus armatus armatus (Ashmead). In Muesebeck et al, 1951:415.
Type-locality: Florida.
Girault (1911b) describes a variety of armatus that he called nigri-
ventris (type-locality: Centralia, Illinois) based on dark pigmentation on
the head, pronotum, and metasoma. Specimens in the USNM collection
identified as nigriventris by Girault and Gahan show that variation in color-
ation is nearly continuous from dusky to almost black. We can find no


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977











Gordh and Dunbar: New Anagrus Egg Parasite


z







z

0



z
z


z



z
F-















z
Z

<


















0






0
Z









<

OV,




>W
cE

0o
t-^
2'


T- CfD





comi

(> 0 --
0cq C
C C C


0Ou


r-~Q -
~000 ~-0 zn
0.0y 0* ce3
oceddde


Noo
(M 0 mO
00 f
0 0 t


-O


&S

cci



EQ
3

5


6co





So .
10 0*<
0 0 t
dd^


cocm
000CO
q q 01


co I

+1

II II II

cviU


pq cq
tcom





00 C0
com
0CC






dd&





v'


o- -1
C) C)









92 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977

structural characters to differentiate nigriventris from the other "subspe-
cies" of armatus, and their geographical distributions overlap. The ratio
of gonostylar length to hind tibial length is somewhat lower in nigriceps
than nigriventris, but there is overlap among all 3 "subspecies". It seems
that the creation of subspecies in armatus is for nomenclatural convenience
rather than to indicate zoological relationship.

Anagrus delicatus Dozier
(Fig. 4)
Anagrus delicatus Dozier, 1936:177-178.
Type-locality: Elizabethtown, Illinois.
Dozier (1936) does not indicate the dispensation of the types designated
in that paper. His collection was acquired by the USNM following his
death, but the holotype was located in the Illinois Natural History Sur-
vey collection (hereafter INHS). This is a morphologically distinctive
species, characterized by an elongate gonostylus and ovipositor. Its biology
is unknown, but specimens in the USNM collection are labeled as para-
sites of Psallus seriatus (Reuter) eggs. Only 1 specimen is mounted well
enough to determine that the posterior margin of the pronotum is medially
emarginate. A. delicatus shares this character with takeyanus.
We cannot determine whether delicatus females have a pair of setae be-
tween the toruli because the specimens are poorly mounted. Head chaeto-
taxy appears constant among North American representatives of Anagrus,
and if delicatus does not have these setae, it is the only species that does
not.

Anagrus epos Girault
(Fig. 6)
Anagrus epos Girault, 1911b:292.
Type-locality: Centralia, Illinois.
This species is distributed throughout North America and has been re-
covered from several host species. We cannot see rhinaria on funicular seg-
ments 3 and 4 in some specimens. This may be due to character variability
or because the specimens are not well preserved in Canada balsam. In the
INHS collection are several slides containing specimens identified as epos.
Among these slides is one with a label in the hand of Girault reading
"Alaptus caecilli Girault Anagrus epos sep 4, 09 Centralia, Illinois 1 male
5 female's. Types male/female 44,222 s 1461". On the right hand side of the
slide are 3 labels reading "Lectotype Anagrus epos Girault female" (red),
"Allotype Anagrus epos Girault male" (blue), and "Paratype Anagrus
epos Girault female" in the hand of B. D. Burks. We here validate the lec-
totype designation. An etched circle in the coverslip surrounds the lecto-
type.

Anagrus giraulti Crawford
(Fig. 8)
Anagrus giraulti Crawford, 1913:259-260.
Type-locality: El Monte, California.
Crawford notes that the sixth funicular segment is shorter than the fifth.







Gordh and Dunbar: New Anagrus Egg Parasite


Measurement of the type-series with an eyepiece micrometer shows that the
sixth segment is slightly longer than the fifth (Table 3). The sixth segment
is slightly wider than the fifth, and this undoubtedly creates an optical il-
lusion.
In the original description Crawford compared this species to A. armatus
noting that the antennal structure differed between the species. These spe-
cies are exceedingly similar, and the only characters that we have found to
T2-3


6 5


~czzz~
6


7


Fig. 4-9. Female antennae, inner aspect (R= right, L= left), all at 100X:
4) A. delicatus (R); 5) A. takeyanus (L) (paratype); 6) A. epos (L); 7) A. ar-
matus (L); 8) A. giraulti (R) holotypee); 9) A.puella (L).









94 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977

separate them are based on ratios of linear measurement of antennal seg-
ments. It seems inadvisable to synonomize these species although this may
be necessary when hybridization tests are performed and their biologies are
better known.

Anagrus puella Girault
(Fig. 9)
Anagruspuella Girault, 1911b:293-294.
Type-locality: United States.
We have not examined the type-material of this species; it should be in
the INHS collection, but we were unable to locate it. Our concept of puella
is based on Girault's description and 5 females and 1 male in the USNM
collection (determined by Doutt and Gahan from material collected in
California by Doutt). The dark-brown body, dusky scape, rhinaria on funicu-
lar segments 2-6, and relatively large body size make this a distinctive spe-
cies.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
It is a pleasure to acknowledge Drs. E. E. Grissell and Z. Boucek for
reviewing this manuscript. We also thank Donald Webb (Illinois Natural
History Survey) for the generous loan of the type-specimens of Anagrus
epos Girault and A. delicatus Dozier.



LITERATURE CITED

ASHMEAD, W. H. 1887. Studies of the North American Proctotrupidae with
descriptions of new species from Florida. Can. Ent. 19(10):192-8.
BAILEY, N. S. 1950. An asiatic tingid new to North America (Heteroptera).
Psyche 57(4):143-5.
BAKKENDORF, O. 1933 (1934). Biological investigations on some Danish hy-
menopterous egg-parasites, especially in homopterous eggs, with tax-
onomic remarks and descriptions of new species. Ent. Meddel.
19(1):1-135.
CRAWFORD, J. C. 1913. Descriptions of new Hymenoptera. Proc. U.S. Nat.
Mus. 45(1979):241-60.
DOZIER, H. L. 1936. Several undescribed mymarid egg-parasites of the genus
Anagrus Haliday. Proc. Hawaiian Ent. Soc. 9(2):175-8.
DUNBAR, D. M. 1974. Bionomics of the Andromeda Lacebug, Stephanitis
takeyai (p. 277-289). In, Mem. Conn. Ent. Soc., R. I. Beard (ed.). 335 p.
GIRAULT, A. A. 1911a. A supposed occurrence of Anagrus incarnatus Hali-
day in the United States (Hym.). Ent. News 22(5):207-10.
GIRAULT, A. A. 1911b. Descriptions of North American MYMARIDAE with
synonymic and other notes on described genera and species. Trans.
Amer. Ent. Soc. 37:253-324.
GIRAULT, A. A. 1915. Some new chalcidoid Hymenoptera from North and
South America. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 8(3):272-84.
GRAHAM, M. W. R. DE V. 1969. The Pteromalidae of Northwestern Europe
(Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent.
Supl. 16.908 p.
MUESEBECK, C. W. F. et al. 1951. Hymenoptera of North America Synoptic
Catalog. USDA Agr. Monog. 2. 1420 p.










Gordh and Dunbar: New Anagrus Egg Parasite


PECK, 0. 1963. A catalog of the Nearctic Chalcidoidea (Insecta: Hymenop-
tera). Can. Ent. Supl. 30. 1092 p.
PERKINS, R. C. L. 1905. Leaf-hoppers and their natural enemies. Bull. Ha-
waiian Sugar Plant. Assoc. Div. Ent. 1(6):187-205, 3 pl.
SCHREAD, J. C. 1968. Control of lacebugs on broadleaf evergreens. Bull.
Conn. Agr. Expt. Sta. 684:1-7.
SOYKA, W. 1955 (1956). Uberlick iuber das Genus Anagrus Haliday (Alapti-
dae-Mymaridae, Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera). Ent. Nachr. Osterr.
Schweizer Entomologen 7(2):23-6.


-.. --~ -- -


., 1
-* ,,


V . f





PHOTO STORY-The torn intersegmental membranes of this hickory horned
devil pupa became thoroughfares, and 21 tachinid maggots emerged (Sarco-
dexia sternodontis Townsend, = Sarcophaga lambens not Wiedemann).
When put in a dish of sand the parasites dug in and pupated. Flies identified
by R. Sailer; photo by J. Lloyd.








The Florida Entomologist


MOHAMMAD G. RABBANI
1945-1977


Mohammad G. Rabbani died in Manaus, State of Amazonas-Brazil on
February 2, 1977. Mohammad was born 15 March 1945 in Faridpur, Bang-
ladesh. He received his early education in Bangladesh and was first in com-
petitive examinations for entrance to the Agricultural Institute, Dacca,
Bangladesh. In 1965 he graduated with high honors with a B. Ag. In 1967 he
obtained his M.Sc. (Ag.) from the Mymensingh campus of the same institu-
tion, again with honors. From there he pursued his higher education at the
University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, where, in 1972, he obtained his sec-
ond M.S. and in 1974 his Ph.D. His doctorate was directed by Professor James
B. Kitzmiller.
From 1967 till the time of his death, Mohammad maintained an active
career in teaching and research. During a year-long research trip with Dr.
James Kitzmiller, Mohammad came to know Brazil and its people, and
late in 1975 was invited to work at the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas de
Amaz6nia.
On 22 January 1976 he arrived in Manaus and initiated research on mos-
quito cytogenetics, his field of specialization. His outstanding research and
teaching capabilities won him respect and admiration of his colleagues and
of his students.
In addition to his research responsibilities, Mohammad was coordinator
for the Post Graduate Course in Entomology (INPA-University of Ama-
zonas) and was the head of the Malaria Section of the Division of Medical
Sciences.
He was a member of the Genetic Society of America, the American Mos-
quito Control Association, The Florida Entomological Society, The So-
ciety of Sigma Xi, and the Sociedade Brasileira para o Progresso da Ci6ncia.
Mohammad was an inspiration to students and co-workers alike. His
love for life was reflected in his paintings, his enthusiasm for work, and
fondness of his colleagues children. He is survived by his wife Nilva in
Manaus and his parents, 4 brothers and 2 sisters in Bangladesh.


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977








The Florida Entomologist


EAR CHARACTERISTICS AND MECHANISMS
OF RESISTANCE AMONG SELECTED CORNS
TO CORN EARWORM1,2,3

B. R. WISEMAN, N. W. WIDSTROM, AND W. W. MCMILLIAN

Southern Grain Insects Research Laboratory,
Agr. Res. Serv., USDA, Tifton, GA 31794

ABSTRACT
Some of the ear characteristics of selected corns resistant and suscept-
ible to the corn earworm, Heliothis zea (Boddie), are described. Some corns,
previously described as tolerant, had long, fairly tight silk channels,
and/or a large amount of silk that maintained a high moisture content over
the period of earworm larval development. However, 'Zapalote Chico' had
a long tight silk channel, but only a small amount of silk, and a low mois-
ture content over this period. Its mechanism of resistance is other than tol-
erance, and corn earworm larvae did not readily establish on it.


Investigations of host plant resistance to insects tend to deal with the
development and use of screening procedures for evaluation of the relative
resistance among lines. Some investigators have gone beyond initial screen-
ing, however, and have identified mechanisms of resistance such as nonpref-
erence, antibiosis, or tolerance (Painter 1968), and a few have attempted to
delineate factors associated with the mechanisms of resistance. For ex-
ample, Wiseman et al. reported (1972, 1974a) that certain "resistant" corn
lines were as much infested with corn earworm, Heliothis zea (Boddie), as
certain susceptible corn lines; thus, they identified the mechanism of re-
sistance as tolerance.
This report describes several ear characteristics, measured over several
sampling periods in 1973 and 1974, of selected corns classified previously in
the field as resistant or susceptible to the corn earworm, and illustrates
their respective ear damage.


METHODS AND MATERIALS
Selected corns were planted in plots consisting of six 20-ft rows, 3 ft
apart and arranged in a randomized complete block design with 5 replica-
tions. 'Dixie 18' and 471-U6 X 81-1 were selected as resistant (tolerant),
409 X 20 as intermediate, and 'Asgrow 204B', 'loana', and 'Stowell's Ever-
green' as susceptible. 'Zapalote Chico' was selected because of unpublished
reports that it possessed "lethal silks" and because it had the tightest husks.
When all the ears were in full silk (3 days past initial silk) 1 row of
each plot was infested (Wiseman et al. 1974b) with 30 corn earworm eggs/

'Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.
'In cooperation with the University of Georgia College of Agriculture Experiment Sta-
tions, Coastal Plain Station, Tifton, GA. Accepted for publication 25 Feb. 1977.
"Mention of a proprietary product in this paper does not constitute an endorsement by the
USDA.


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977









98 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977

silk aggregate/ear obtained from the laboratory. From another randomly
selected row, 5 silks from the top ears of 5 plants from each plot were har-
vested that same day (0-day), and the silk was separated into exposed silk
and nonexposed silk (that portion in the silk channel to ear tip). This pro-
cedure was repeated on other rows at 5, 10, 15, and 20 days past full silk. All
plants that were not in full silk at 0-day were discarded. Silk channels
were measured in cm lengths for each sampling period. The silks, as sepa-
rated, were weighed, oven-dried at 410C for 24 h, and the percentage mois-
ture determined. These same procedures were repeated at 5-day intervals
through the 20th day past full silk. Only the data for the 0, 10, and 15-day
sampling periods along with marginal means are shown. On the 20th day,
corn earworm damage was measured as the depth of penetration (cm) of the
earworm larvae into the infested ears.
Analyses of variance were made for each character measured, and data
were combined over the years.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Analyses of variance for data on corn earworm damage revealed that
significant differences existed among lines (Table 1). Zapalote Chico and
471-U6 X 81-1 were the least damaged. Dixie 18 and Asgrow 204B did not
differ in damage when data were combined over years, but significant differ-
ences were apparent in 1974. Zapalote Chico had the tightest husks, but the
other 2 resistant entries, Dixie 18 and 471-U6 X 81-1, also had fairly tight
husks.

TABLE 1. CORN EARWORM DAMAGE AND HUSK TIGHTNESS RATINGS FOR
SELECTED CORNS GROWN IN 1973 AND 1974.


Entry Husk tightness* Earworm damage**


Dixie 18 2.2 3.8 c
Asgrow 204B 1.4 4.3 bc
Zapalote Chico 3.3 1.6 d
loana 1.0 5.6 a
Stowell's Evergreen 1.4 5.2 ab
409 x 20 1.6 3.8 c
471-U6 x 81-1 1.6 1.8 d

*Average husk tightness ratings shown from other experiments. Ratings were based on
a visual scale of 0-5, where 0= loose husks with ear visible and 5= very tight husks that are tough
and difficult to shuck.
**Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at P=0.05. Earworm
damage rating was as follows: 0= no injury, 1= silk feeding, 2= injury to 1 cm beyond ear tip,
and 3, 4.... n= additional penetration into the ears in 1-cm increments.

The average lengths of the silk channel for each entry for each of 3
sampling periods are shown in Table 2. Analyses of variance revealed sig-
nificant differences for silk channel lengths among entries at the various
sampling periods. Asgrow 204B and loana had the shortest silk channels;
Stowell's Evergreen was next, and the resistant entries Dixie 18, Zapalote








Wiseman et al.: Corn Resistance to Corn Earworm


TABLE 2. AVERAGE LENGTH OF SILK CHANNEL (CM)* AT FULL SILK (0-
DAY) AND AT 10 DAYS AND 15 DAYS AFTER FULL SILK OF SE-
LECTED CORNS GROWN IN 1973 AND 1974.

Average length (cm) at indicated
Days after full silk

Entry 0 10 15 Mean

Dixie 18 9.5 a 6.6 a 7.7 a 7.7 a
Asgrow 204B 9.3 a 4.2 b 3.9 b 5.8 d
Zapalote Chico 9.4 a 7.2 a 6.8 a 7.5 a
loana 6.0 b 4.0 b 4.4 b 4.3 e
Stowell's Evergreen 9.9 a 6.1 a 5.0 b 6.7 c
409 x 20 8.2 ab 7.9 a 7.0 a 7.8 a
471-U6 x 81-1 10.2 a .6.4 a 5.5 ab 7.1 b

Mean 8.9 a 6.1 b 5.8 c

*Average silk channel lengths at any sample period or marginal means followed by the
same letter are not significantly different at P= 0.05.

Chico, 409 X 20, and 471-U6 X 81-1 had the longest silk channels. Silk chan-
nel lengths stabilized after a sharp decline from 0-day through 10 days.
The average weight of exposed silks (that portion beyond the silk chan-
nel) and nonexposed silks of all entries is shown in Table 3. Analyses of
variance revealed significant silk weight differences among entries within
sampling dates. On any sampling date, however, the differences were usu-
ally greater for nonexposed silks. With the exception of loana, the entries
previously classified as tolerant and as susceptible differed only slightly
among themselves through 15 days. Generally, loana tended to have a rela-
tively smaller amount of silk throughout the various sampling periods
than other entries, but Zapalote Chico always had even smaller quanti-
ties of both exposed and nonexposed silks than loana at all sampling peri-
ods. The resistant (tolerant) Dixie 18 and 471-U6 X 81-1 both possessed very
large quantities of silk, the one characteristic for which Dixie 18 and 471-
U6 X 81-1 differed drastically from the equally resistant Zapalote Chico.
The percentage of moisture in the exposed and nonexposed silks of each
entry at each sampling period is shown in Table 4. Moisture contents were
generally above 90% at 0-day except for the exposed and nonexposed silks
of Zapalote Chico, which had 82% and 87% moisture, respectively. Per-
centages for Zapalote Chico were low at all sampling periods, but this
was not true for Dixie 18 and 471-U6 X 81-1, which had a much higher mois-
ture content in their silks. Overall means showed that their 0-day silks were
about 90% moisture for both exposed and nonexposed silks and then dropped
steadily in moisture content through the 20th day.
Barber (1941) reported on behavioral observations of newly hatched
corn earworm larvae. He observed that by the time corn earworm eggs begin
to hatch and the silks to wilt, the larvae have penetrated into the still-
moist silks since they prefer to feed under the protection of a moist environ-










100 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977



--^ 0)

0. Z 01'OC-~o o
z, q Ci 0 0d qo oi Of
^ CO 1 r M C1 M CID


I-! Oq oqC q
L- coa MM 1- Lf D
Cl) Q*s CS








v~~ ~~ c. oi C.>- c
3~~~ roo (d N' io t- oo6 S
r-< Tcdid-I ^ ^ ^i- *

O c




00
O- q Cq C-q C
z CC
o o

9 Z) C 0 0O 0 z 0 lz














C4 0 E--7 t-I C'! C,, r- S
X M 14 Sq ko -1 00














OC
el cf cC UJ3 !X ca u? g ttoC




















cll
Cl) QQC1.) 1 i O O





















z. -% S
I Idu~ o a t1
0 r;: aS a- u ca cB ca a ) g
4 c co 2 LO ( a C) =
.D















CZ 0 :
4- co 5 M .
^S *- >ie a












c C, 4
WyM 'fSQ ^ rO~r;~-el Cc
Q') -S
W -4

os~o




X fe o3 cg o^; o3^2 ca .g1 n
W -a



ej' Z Q) w r". c' Cr. CD ). C Ci M



yi < I -I II aD.
"C )







W c mc8 ca c8c~ (S a 3's
-4 *m ~ ~ 4!~L I
_1 '--4 -^ I CS -4 -4' tf '









"^ w ooo Mtr- oo s


~ go > "
C a)
rt ) --
a Q~ o3 3 S
S g c
C.) ? 1
a g o CEC)
H o^ o -4

C"3 *ili
*< S ~~~~~-S '' ^S ^ *'
-^ H ^ ^ ^












Wiseman et al.: Corn Resistance to Corn Earworm


,2







0
E3



Q

z
Q




0
d



a




a










0



z






0











*

ZZ
Q
aC








Z











Nu
z
i,.



















U
M

























tC
(x
0
w
f:
5
r^
Q
K





a


Z
0
2^-

Z r-


*' ^

COc






s



S21
^ ^




a ;
u


fa


EM

^?


OS M0 OS I '-I
LCO 00 v CqM C11Oi



St- q q COI



























C.)
0 O CO t~~ C 0 N- <

0 0








SO ca .. o -o -a





U CD CO 0
00Ot~~- CT .C0 .0 O.







421 42 rd 42 42 42
iro :^ N0 if CM O CM






cB ca cfl 42 42 42 42



.0 0~ C^ -M .0 T-I -



'- ^C10 '-1 -







0$
o)

39 o a


2) C C<
.a 2
hl~ r~gX
QO <; J tc MM


a
a


6
I->
C)
C1


g
0
C)


>1
.0

0
C)
m

M
C)






2.
B



c,-.
B






1)

E.
,:1
'6 o
o il
*3.S


"*3,








The Florida Entomologist


ment. Thus, when earworm moths oviposit on silks of corn, the silks would
then normally possess moisture in excess of 90%, and since eggs usually
hatch in ca. 2 days, most corn would still have a silk moisture content of
90% or above. The exception would be corn of Zapalote Chico types.
A long, tight silk channel and a large quantity of silk that maintains a
high moisture content, such as Dixie 18 and 471-U6 X 81-1, provide an ideal
environment for successful establishment of corn earworm larvae and also
an adequate diet of silk for development (Wiseman et al. 1976). However,
the larvae stop and initiate feeding near the husk tip of Dixie 18 and 471-U6
X 81-1, probably because of a thigmotactic response. Susceptible corns
seem to allow the larvae to move deeper into the silk channel before they
begin feeding. Wiseman and McMillian (1973) also found differences in the
movement and feeding of corn earworm larvae on 2 susceptible sweet corns:
the susceptible corn, with the longer silk channel, had limited early ear
feeding.
Wiseman et al. (1976) found that when corn earworm larvae were fed
silks from certain tolerant and susceptible lines, their growth and mortal-
ity were essentially the same. They found this was not true for Zapalote
Chico: larval growth was retarded and mortality increased. Also, no pupa-
tion had occurred by the end of the 20th day as compared to 88% for suscept-
ible Stowell's Evergreen or tolerant 471-U6 X 81-1. Thus, these effects
measured for Zapalote Chico were quite different from those for the toler-
ant entries Dixie 18 and 471-U6 X 81-1. Zapalote Chico possesses the tightest
husk and a long silk channel, but it does not have a large amount of silk,
nor does it maintain a high moisture content in the silks. The exposed silks
dry rapidly and probably physically prevent most larval establishment
due to the matting of the silks, or chemically by an antibiosis factor and/or
by a combination of both.
In summary, the 3 resistant entries, Zapalote Chico, Dixie 18, and 471-
U6 X 81-1, had the least amount of earworm damage and tightest husks
(Table 1), and they had long silk channels over the entire sampling peri-
ods (Table 2). Thus, in these respects, no noticeable differences existed
among the 3 resistant entries. They differed in amount of silk mass, however,
(Table 3) and moisture content of silk (Table 4). Yet, they were fairly
equal for resistance in the field. The resistant (tolerant) entries, Dixie 18
and 471-U6 X 81-1, possessed long, tight silk channels and large amounts of
silks that maintained a high moisture content over the period of corn ear-
worm larval development. The resistant (either antibiosis and/or non-
preferred) Zapalote Chico had a long, tight silk channel and possessed very
small quantities of silk that sharply decreased in moisture over the period
of insect development. Therefore, as seen in the field, the resistance mech-
anism of Zapalote Chico, and of Dixie 18 and 471-U6 X 81-1, were quite
different.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Lila G. Adcock and Winfred N. Roberson of this laboratory are thanked
for their continued contributions to the Host Plant Resistance Project.

LITERATURE CITED
BARBER, G. W. 1941. Observations on the egg and newly hatched larva of the
corn earworm on corn silks. J. Econ. Ent. 34:451-6.


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977








Wiseman et al.: Corn Resistance to Corn Earworm


PAINTER, R. H. 1968. Crops that resist insects provide a way to increase
world food supply. Kans. Agr. Exp. Stn. Bull. 520, 22 p.
WISEMAN, B. R., W. W. MCMILLIAN, AND N. W. WIDSTROM. 1972. Tolerance
as a mechanism of resistance in corn to the corn earworm. J. Econ.
Ent. 65:835-7.
WISEMAN, B. R., AND W. W. MCMILLIAN. 1973. Response of instars of the
corn earworm, Heliothis zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to two sus-
ceptible sweet corn hybrids. J. Ga. Ent. Soc. 8:79-82.
WISEMAN, B. R., W. W. MCMILLIAN, AND N. W. WIDSTROM. 1974a. Tech-
niques, accomplishments, and future potential of breeding for resist-
ance in corn to the corn earworm, fall armyworm, and maize weevil;
and in sorghum to the sorghum midge. p. 381-93. In: Proceedings of
the Summer Institute on Biological Control of Plant Insects and
Diseases. Univ. Press of Miss., Jackson. 647 p.
WISEMAN, B. R., N. W. WIDSTROM, AND W. W. MCMILLIAN. 1974b. Methods
of application and numbers of eggs of the corn earworm required to
infest ears of corn artificially. J. Econ. Ent. 67:74-6.
WISEMAN, B. R., W. W. MCMILLIAN, AND N. W. WIDSTROM. 1976. Feeding
of corn earworm in the laboratory on excised silks of selected corn
populations with notes on Orius insidiosus (Say). Fla. Ent. 59:305-8.








CONTROL OF STRIPED GRASS LOOPERS AND ARMY-
WORMS IN PASTURE: 1976'- (Note). Florida has over 3 million acres
of improved pasture of which ca. 200,000 acres are grown for hay. Such
insect pests as the striped grass looper, Mocis latipes (Guen6e), and fall
armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), are capable of severely
damaging improved pasture and hay fields (Kelsheimer, E. G., D. W. Jones,
and E. M. Hodges, 1953, Agr. Exp. Sta. Cir. S-64). The economic literature
of the striped grass looper as a major pest of pasturegrass has been reviewed
by J. A. Reinert (1975; Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 68:201-4), and E. O. Ogunwolu
and D. H. Habeck (1975; Fla. Ent., 58:97-103).
Lepidopterous larvae in pasturegrass are usually controlled by aerial
applications of approved insecticides. This study was initiated to evaluate
the effectiveness of several new insecticides and formulations applied by
air for control of lepidopterous larvae in pasture.
Three insecticides were evaluated for pasture caterpillar control in
September 1976. These insecticides were permethrin (Ambush), carbaryl
(Sevin 4 Oil"), and carbaryl (Sevin 80S). All materials were applied by
air on 31 Aug. 1976 with a Cessna AG truck (188 series) aircraft equipped
with a Transland spray system. The carbaryl-oil formulation was diluted
1:1 in fuel oil and applied with 30 D3 nozzles at 1.0 lb AI/acre. The
carbaryl WP formulation and permethrin were applied in 3 gal of water
per acre at 1.0 and 0.2 lb AI/acre, respectively, with 60 D6 nozzles. Three
experimental plots were established in a 20 acre coastal bermuda, Cyna-
don dactylon (L.), pasture near Newberry, Fla. as 3 swaths, 60 ft. wide run-
ning the length of the pasture.


Fla. Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 487.









The Florida Entomologist


Lepidopterous larvae were sampled at 3 time intervals: 24 hr pretreat-
ment (30 Aug. 1976), 24 hr (1 Sept. 1976) and 72 hr (3 Sept. 1976) post-treat-
ment. Sampling was accomplished by throwing a 2 x 2 ft frame into each
treatment area 10 times on each sampling date. The grass within the 4 ft2 area
of the frame was shaken so the larvae would fall to the ground. All
lepidopterous larvae within the area of the frame were collected and re-
turned to the laboratory for determination of species and numbers. Percent
control figures were calculated by comparing pretreatment with post-
treatment larval counts.
A total of 946 lepidopterous larvae was removed from the pasture on 30
Aug. 1976, and the species determinations are presented in Table 1. The
armyworm portion was determined, in part, with keys developed by R. Levy
and D. H. Habeck, (1976; Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 69:585-8).

TABLE 1. SPECIES COMPOSITION OF LARVAL SAMPLES FROM FLORIDA
PASTURE.

Species # Determined % of Total

Striped grass looper 532 56.2%
(Mocis latipes)
Fall armyworm 216 22.8%
(Spodoptera frugiperda)
Anicla infecta 68 7.2%
True armyworm 28 3.0%
(Pseudaletia unipuncta)
Unidentified armyworms 78 8.2%
Other caterpillars 24 2.6%
TOTAL 946 100 %


All chemicals provided significant mortality of striped grass looper
larvae within 24 hr, ranging from 84% to 100% control, and provided virtu-
ally complete kill within 72 hr (no significant differences). All chemicals
provided significant mortality of armyworms, Spodoptera frugiperda,
Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth), and Anicla infecta (Ochsenheimer), within
24 hr, ranging from 42.9% to 91.7% control with Sevin 4 Oil giving the least
kill at this time. By 72 hr post-treatment all chemicals had provided greater
than 90% control (no significant differences).
Presently, carbaryl (Sevin 80I') is labeled and is the most commonly
used insecticide for the control of lepidopterous larvae in pasture. This
study indicates that carbaryl (Sevin 4 Oil) and permethrin (Ambush")
provide control of both grass loopers and armyworms as effectively as
carbaryl (Sevin 80S). P. G. Koehler, Department of Entomology and Ne-
matology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida; R. J. Gouger, ICI
United States Inc., Gainesville, Florida; and D. E. Short, Department of
Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville,
Florida.


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977








The Florida Entomologist


MOLTING AND LONGEVITY OF ONCOMETOPIA
NIGRICANS (HOMOPTERA: CICADELLIDAE), A
SUSPECTED VECTOR OF LETHAL YELLOWING OF
COCONUT PALMS, ON VARIOUS HOST PLANTS1

JAMES H. TSAI AND MAHMOOD ANWAR

Agricultural Research Center, University of Florida,
Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33314

ABSTRACT
Coconut and Veitchia palms along with periwinkle, lettuce, false
aralia, ixora, hibiscus, and lantana were tested to determine the relation-
ship of these locally grown plants to the biology of Oncometopia nigri-
cans (Walker), a possible vector of lethal yellowing in coconut palms.
Although the mortality of 0. nigricans is generally high on coconut and
Veitchia palms, some individuals can live 3 or more months on these 2
palms. This insect undergoes 5 molts and can complete its life cycle on
coconut palm, ixora, periwinkle, lantana, and lettuce. The average dura-
tion of nymphal stages varies with different test plants, but was 54 days
on leaf lettuce and 44 days on head lettuce. Lettuce plants are ideal for
rearing 0. nigricans colonies in the laboratory.


The outbreak of the lethal yellowing (LY) disease of coconut palms in
Dade County and its spread in the adjacent counties of South Florida dur-
ing the last 3 years has resulted in the death of more than 200,000 coconut
palms, once a valuable part of the subtropical landscape. The economic
loss of removing the hazardous dead palms and replacing them with re-
sistant varieties of palms or other trees in the affected areas is estimated to
be in the millions of dollars.
A mycoplasmalike organism (MLO) was proposed as the causal agent
of lethal yellowing in coconuts (Tsai 1975). Since leafhoppers are vectors
for many MLO-caused plant diseases, several cicadellid species were sur-
veyed for potential vector capabilities (Whitcomb and Davis 1970, Tsai
1977). Tsai (1975) reported Oncometopia nigricans (Walker) as one of the
suspected vectors of lethal yellowing due to its association with palms.
0. nigricans is an active, polyphytophagous leafhopper. The association
of this insect with LY susceptible plants species and unrelated species is of
great biological importance in order to understand disease spread.
The host range studies reported here were conducted to determine the
relationship of common plants to the biology of 0. nigricans in South
Florida.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Eight to 87 first nymphal instars of the leafhopper 0. nigricans were
released singly in cages containing the following host plants: leaf lettuce
(Lactuca sativa L. 'Grand Rapid'), periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus Don.),
head lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. 'Minetto'), coconut palm (Cocos nucifera


'Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. J. Ser. 195.


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977








The Florida Entomologist


L.), Veitchia palm (Veitchia merrillii Moore), ixora (Ixora coccinea L.),
false aralia (Dizygotheca elegantissima Vig. & Guill), hibiscus (Hibiscus
rosa-sinensis L.), and lantana (Lantana camera L.).
The average temperature was 24-28 C and the relative humidity was
45-55% during the 11 months study period in the laboratory corridor at Fort
Lauderdale, Florida.
In the longevity studies, insects were observed daily, beginning with
the first instar and continuing until death. Dead insects were removed, and
the longevity of each individual was recorded.
Oncometopia nigricans nymphs were studied in cylindrical plastic cages
(Tsai 1975). Host plant seedlings (except palms) were transplanted into
3-in. pots before the introduction of insects. Nymphs from rearing cages were
collected within 24 h of hatching and released singly into a 22 cm long (dia:
5 cm) plastic cage containing a host seedling of the various species. Because
the palms (C. nucifera and V. merrillii) were comparatively large plants,
sleeve cages were used to enclose portions of pinnae for nymph release. At
least 10 cages containing 1 first instar per cage were prepared for every host
plant. Cages or pots were arranged on the benches in a random manner.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 1 summarizes longevity studies of 0. nigricans on respective host
plants in the laboratory. More insects were tested on palms because of the
urgent need to determine the possible relationship of this insect to plants
susceptible to lethal yellowing. Insects survived longest on leaf lettuce,
where all the insects remained alive 130-170 days, while no insects sur-
vived more than 16 days on false aralia. Even though high mortality oc-
curred on coconut and Veitchia palms, some individuals lived more than
3 months on these 2 hosts.
Molting data concerning nymphs reared on various laboratory hosts are
presented in Table 2. Nymphs of 0. nigricans undergo 5 molts before reach-

TABLE 1. LONGEVITY OF Oncometopia nigricans (WALKER) ON VARIOUS
HOST PLANTS IN THE LABORATORY. INSECTS WERE OBSERVED
DAILY FROM THE FIRST INSTAR UNTIL DEATH.
Number
of insects Longevity in days
Host plant observed Min.-Max. Mean

Lactuca sativa 'Grand Rapid',
Leaf lettuce 10 130-170 145
Cocos nucifera, Coconut palm 87 1-140 2
Lactuca sativa 'Minetto',
Head lettuce 8 72-127 100
Lantana camera, Lantana 35 1-112 19
Veitchia merrillii, Veitchia palm 44 1-94 5
Cantharanthus rosea, Periwinkle 12 1-84 43
Ixora coccinea, Ixora 18 1-73 16
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Hibiscus 10 6-73 16
Dizygotheca elegantissima,
False aralia 12 2-16 11


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977











Tsai and Anwar: Biology of Oncometopia nigricans 107



o






b Cq
o o
S0 i N ^ Cl '-
z C








O CA


z N




0 m c
c a L cq a

0 0, (B 'M N O. *
DO 6; w .6 6 c6 6 *



0











< o 00 oCC14 7-4c
Z E ^ si 0 i t r-< i 0! Cl * I N









u C9
* aa-cr











- a5 ca a- 11 aN
W W






Sa








- N ,- 4 C9 4 C9-
0 M





E- c. -
a)d 00 a) c 2- a) S. 0t^ *'O -' : *














H f Q c .
" g' o rO '' ^ ^ c? ^ S
Z ^p^^O ^ m ^ '- C -llO M
0~c 1-1 i 0









The Florida Entomologist


ing the adult stage. Nymphs were unable to complete all molts on hibis-
cus, false aralia, and Veitchia palms. Even though some nymphs were able
to molt into the fifth instar on Cocos, Lantana, and Catharanthus, only
1 nymph molted into the adult stage in each case. Nymphal periods on these
3 plants were at least 20% longer than on lettuce plants. The nymphs com-
pleted normal molts in a normal manner on both leaf and head lettuce
plants. The average time required for nymph development on leaf lettuce
is 54 days and 44 days on head lettuce.
Although only 30% of the tested insects developed into the adult stage
on Ixora sp., it can reasonably be assumed that this plant which is exten-
sively planted as hedges serves as the breeding site of 0. nigricans. Further-
more, it is possible that the long survival period of the adults on the palms
would permit sufficient time for uptake of the disease agent. Taxonom-
ically 0. nigricans is designated to subfamily Cicadillinae (Nielson 1968)
or Tettigonellinae (DeLong 1948). Members of these 2 subfamilies are
better known as vectors of rickettsial agents (Nielson 1968) which reside
in the xylem tissues of plants. However, transmission of the MLO for West-
ern X of peach has been reported by a xylem feeder, Keonolla confluens
(Uhler) (Anthon and Wolfe 1951). More feeding and transmission studies of
0. nigricans are currently under way in this laboratory.
Other researchers found it difficult to rear this insect for transmission
studies of phony peach (Ball, J. C., Agricultural Research Center, Monti-
cello, Fla., 1976 personal communication). Our study has shown that let-
tuce plants are ideal for rearing a thriving colony of 0. nigricans for trans-
mission trials.


LITERATURE CITED

ANTHON, E. W., AND H. R. WOLFE. 1951. Additional vectors of Western X-
disease. USDA Agr. Res. Serv. Plant Dis. Reporter 35:345-6.
DELONG, D. M. 1948. The leafhoppers, or Cicadellidae of Illinois (Eury-
melinae-Balcluthinae). Bull. Ill. Nat. Hist. Survey 24:(2)1-377.
NIELSON, M. W. 1968. The leafhopper vectors of phytopathogenic viruses
(Homoptera, Cicadellidae) taxonomy, biology, and virus trans-
mission USDA Tech. Bull. 1382, 1-386.
TSAI, J. H. 1975. Transmission studies of three suspected insect vectors of
Lethal Yellowing of Coconut Palm. FAO(UN) Plant Protect.
Bull. 23:140-5.
TSAI, J. H. 1977. Vector transmission of mycoplasmal plant diseases. In
J. G. Tully and R. F. Whitcomb eds. Part B. Plant and Insect My-
coplasmas Vol. 2, Host-Parasite Relationships. The Mycoplasmas.
Academic Press. New York (in preparation).
WHITCOMB, R. F., R. E. DAVIS. 1970. Mycoplasma and phytarboviruses as
plant pathogens persistently transmitted by insects. Ann. Rev. Ent.
15:405-64.


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977









The Florida Entomologist


TEMPERATURE OPTIMA FOR DEVELOPMENT OF
NEOCHETINA EICHHORNIAE' AND
ORTHOGALUMNA TEREBRANTIS23

ERNEST S. DEL FOSSE4

Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611


ABSTRACT
Mottled waterhyacinth weevils, Neochetina eichhorniae Warner, and
waterhyacinth mites, Orthogalumna terebrantis Wallwork, were tested for
mortality, feeding, oviposition, and emergence at 4 temperature regimes,
viz. 5-25, 10-30', 15-350, and 20-400C. Highest mortality for both species
occurred at the 2 extreme regimes. Lowest weevil mortality, 41.2%, occurred
at 15-350C and lowest mite mortality, ca. 6-7%, at 10-30 and 15-350C.
Weevil oviposition and feeding were significantly (P<0.05) highest at 15-
35C. Mites laid significantly more eggs, >500/25 females, at the 3 highest
temperature regimes, and development from immatures to adults, 42.3%
emergence, was significantly highest at 10-300C. These data correspond gen-
erally to field observations.



Orthogalumna terebrantis Wallwork (1965), the waterhyacinth mite,
has been studied with respect to its biology, distribution, abundance, and
feeding mechanism (Bennett 1968a, Perkins 1973b, 1974, Cordo and DeLoach
1975, Del Fosse et al. 1975). It is specific to the Pontederiaceae, occurring
primarily on waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach
(Cordo and DeLoach 1975, 1976), and pickerelweed, Pontederia spp., and is
considered to be one of the 4-5 most promising biological control agents
on waterhyacinth (Bennett 1968a,b, Coulson 1971, Perkins 1973b).
Neochetina eichhorniae Warner (1970), the mottled waterhyacinth
weevil, is specific to waterhyacinth (Perkins 1973a, 1974, Andres and Bennett
1975), and has been shown to reduce size and density of waterhyacinth (Del
Fosse 1975, Perkins 1973b, 1974). In combination with 0. terebrantis, N.
eichhorniae has been shown to act synergistically with respect to damage
on waterhyacinth (Del Fosse 1975). N. eichhorniae lays more eggs in the
presence of 0. terebrantis (Del Fosse 1977).
Only casual observations have been made on temperature requirements
for these species. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to determine the
effect of temperature on mortality, feeding and oviposition of both species,
and effect of temperature on immature mite development and emergence.



'Coleoptera: Curculionidae.
'Acari: Galumnidae.
'Received for publication 5 Nov. 1976. Experiments conducted at the UF-ARC, USDA Aquatic
Plant Manage. Lab., 3205 SW 70th Ave., Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33314.
'Present address: Lee County Hyacinth Control District, Route 1, Ft. Myers, FL 33905.


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977









The Florida Entomologist


METHODS AND MATERIALS
Experiments were conducted in 4 Freas Model 818 incubators' cali-
brated to run at 2 temperatures in a given 24 h period. Temperature regimes
chosen (viz. 5-25, 10-30, 15-35, and 20-40C) were based on actual measured
temperatures in a waterhyacinth mat at different times of the year, not on
weather station data. A single fluorescent bulb in each chamber provided
an average of 113.8+4.8 ft-candles and a photophase of 8:00AM to 6:00PM.
The higher of the 2 temperatures in each regime (e.g. 25, 30, 35, and 40C)
corresponded to the photophase, and the lower of the 2 (e.g. 5, 10, 15, and
200C) corresponded to the scotophase.
Three pairs (3 males:3 females) of adult mottled waterhyacinth weevils
were added to each of 21 aluminum pans (22.5 cm dia. x 2.5 cm deep) con-
taining a fresh waterhyacinth pseudolamina inserted into a 7-ml test tube
containing tap water. A cotton plug was wrapped around the petiole to
prevent water loss from the test tube. Pans were covered with glass plates
(23.1 cm2 x 0.3 cm thick), and had rims coated with a thin layer of silicone
grease to prevent mite escape and keep relative humidity over 90%. To 1 pan
in each 5-pan set were added 0, 50, 100, 150, or 200 adult waterhyacinth mites,
respectively. Each incubator received 1 such 5-pan set.
An additional 5 pans were similarly prepared, supplied with a fresh
pseudolamina-test tube unit, and placed in each incubator. These pseudo-
laminae were collected from a waterhyacinth culture in a greenhouse in
Ft. Lauderdale, FL, and were chosen because of a high number (200-500) of
immature mite tunnels/pseudolamina.
Data were collected weekly for 10 weeks from both species at each tem-
perature regime on oviposition, mortality and feeding. In addition, imma-
ture mite development and adult mite emergence were also recorded
weekly. Dead arthropods were replaced each week.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
High and low extremes of temperature were most unfavorable to de-
velopment of both species (Table 1). Mottled waterhyacinth weevil mor-
tality was 100% at the low temperature regime (5-25C) and 79.4% at the
high temperature regime (20-400C) (compared to 50.0 and 41.2% mortality
at the middle 2 regimes). Adult waterhyacinth mite mortality was 100% at
both extreme regimes, compared to 6.5 and 6.6% at the middle regimes).
Weevils created significantly (P50.05) more feeding spots at 10-30 and
15-350C (19,127 and 19,836, respectively) than at 5-25 or 20-40C (58 and
14,149, respectively) (Table 1). The middle 2 regimes contain the maximum
and minimum temperatures that occur in waterhyacinth mats in southern
Florida. Del Fosse (1977) found that weevil oviposition was significantly
higher at 15-350C (4.2 eggs/female/week) (a range that contains the normal
summer temperatures in waterhyacinth mats in southern Florida) than at
the other regimes. Both feeding and oviposition of N. eichhorniae may be
stimulated by the release of a kairomone from waterhyacinth tissue (Del
Fosse and Perkins 1975).

'Mention of a trademark or proprietary product does not constitute a guarantee or warranty
of the product by UF or the USDA, and does not imply its approval to the exclusion of other
products that may also be suitable.


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977









Del Fosse: Waterhyacinth Weevil and Mite Biology


TABLE 1.


POPULATION PARAMETERS OF Neochetina eichhorniae WAR-
NER AND Orthogalumna terebrantis WALLWORK GROWN IN
INCUBATORS OVER 10 WEEKS. VALUES IN THE SAME HORIZONTAL
ROW FOLLOWED BY THE SAME LETTER ARE NOT SIGNIFICANTLY
DIFFERENT AT THE 5% LEVEL AS DETERMINED BY DUNCAN'S
MULTIPLE RANGE TEST.


Parameter Temperature Regime (C)
5-25* 10-30 15-35 20-40


N. eichhorniae
MORTALITY
Total No. Added 12.0a 60.0c
Total No. Dead 12.0a 30.0bc
%Mortality** 100.0d 50.0ab
FEEDING SPOTS
Total No. 58.0a 19,127.0c
Avg/weevil/wk 0.5a 31.9c
OVIPOSITION***
Total No. Eggs Laid 0.Oa 63.0c
Avg/female/wk 0.Oa 2.1c
0. terebrantis
MORTALITY
Total No. Added 1,500.0a 5,000.0b
Total No. Dead 1,500.0a 327.0a
% Mortality 100.Oc 6.5a
TUNNELS
Total No. Produced 0.Oa 1,061.0d
Avg/female 0.Oa 0.4d
OVIPOSITION (25 females)
Total No. Eggs Laid 6.0a 529.0b
Avg/female/wk 0.2a 21.2b
IMMATURE MITE DEVELOPMENT
Total No. Tunnels Provided
Containing Immature
Mites 625.0a 3,237.0bc
Total No. Adults Emerged 26.0a 1,398.0bc
% Emerged** 4.2a 43.2d


51.0b
21.0ab
41.2a

19,836.0c
39.0c

125.0d
4.2d


5,000.0b
330.0ab
6.6ab


126.0d
100.0c
79.4bc

14,149.0b
11.2b

4.0ab
0.lab


5,000.0b
5,000.0d
100.Oc


731.0bc 579.0b
0.3c 0.2b

598.0bc 599.0bc
23.9bc 24.0bc


3,083.0bc
704.Obc
22.8bc


1,890.0b
348.0b
18.4b


*Replicates at this regime were terminated after 3 weeks due to equipment malfunction.
**% Mortality (or emerged)= Total No. Dead (or Emerged)
x 100.
Total No. Added (or Provided)
***Data from Del Fosse (1977).

The mite mortality data compare favorably to that collected by Cordo
and DeLoach (1976) for 20-400C. These authors found high mortality (40%)
for 0. terebrantis at 390C for 8 h and 100% mortality at a 1 h exposure to
430C and state that the "... lethal high temperature for adults was between
39 and 43'C, depending upon exposure time". They recorded 96 and 100%


111









The Florida Entomologist


survival for waterhyacinth mites at 3 and 240C, respectively, but used a
maximum of 8 h exposure time. Whereas our exposure time was 21 times
longer (i.e., 7 days), our 100% mortality is not unexpected. Cordo and
DeLoach (1976) note that ". . mortality increased greatly at lower tem-
peratures and with longer exposures".
Mite tunnels produced at the different regimes were also affected by
temperature. As with weevil oviposition, the 2 extremes were most unsuit-
able for mite feeding, with no tunnels produced at 5-25oC, and an average
of 0.2 tunnels/mite/week at 20-400C (Table 1). Temperature regime 2 (10-
30C) was most favorable for mite tunnel development (Table 1), with a
significantly high total of 1,061 emerged adults as compared with 731 at
15-350C.
Mite oviposition and development showed a similar trend (Table 1).
Most eggs were laid at 20-400C (599) and 15-350C (598) followed by 10-30C
(529) and 5-250C (6). There was no statistical difference, however, between
number of eggs laid/female at the 3 highest regimes, with averages of 21.2,
23.9 and 24.0 eggs/female, respectively.
Number of mite nymphs and larvae developing to adults showed the
reverse correlation, with the significantly highest percent developing at
10-300C followed by 15-35, 20-40, and 5-250C, respectively. Average per-
cent developed from these regimes were 43.2, 22.8, 18.4, and 4.2, respectively
(Table 1).
These data correspond generally to known temperature tolerances of
mottled waterhyacinth weevils in the field. Mite data also correspond to
best development in the field (i.e., 20-30C) and mortality observations dur-
ing cold weather.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Sincere thanks are expressed to advisors Drs. D. H. Habeck and B. D.
Perkins for support and critical review. Mr. W. C. Durden provided tech-
nical expertise, for which I thank him. Drs. R. I. Sailer, R. C. Littell, J. A.
Reinert, D. L. Thomas, T. J. Walker, and L. Berner provided many helpful
suggestions. The Fla. Dep. of Natur. Resources and USDA-ARS SR pro-
vided partial support, for which I am grateful.


LITERATURE CITED

ANDRES, L. A., AND F. D. BENNETT. 1975. Biological control of aquatic
weeds. Annu. Rev. Ent. 20:31-46.
BENNETT, F. D. 1968a. Insects and mites as potential controlling agents of
waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms.). Proc. Brit.
Weed Contr. Conf. 9:832-5.
BENNETT, F. D. 1968b. Investigation of insects attacking waterhyacinth in
Florida, British Honduras and Jamaica, 1968. Mimeo. Rep. 9 p.
CORDO, H. A., AND C. J. DELOACH. 1975. Ovipositional specificity and feed-
ing habits of Orthogalumna terebrantis in Argentina, a biological
control agent of waterhyacinth. Environ. Ent. 4:561-5.
CORDO, H. A., AND C. J. DELOACH. 1976. Biology of the waterhyacinth mite
in Argentina. Weed Sci. 24:245-9.


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977








Del Fosse: Waterhyacinth Weevil and Mite Biology


COULSON, J. R. 1971. Prognosis for control of the waterhyacinth by arthro-
pods. Hyacinth Contr. J. 9(1):31-4.
DEL FOSSE, E. S. 1975. Interaction between the waterhyacinth mite, Ortho-
galumna terebrantis Wallwork, and the mottled waterhyacinth
weevil, Neochetina eichhorniae Warner. Doctoral Dissertation,
Univ. of Fla. 193 p.
DEL FOSSE, E. S. 1977. Effect of Orthogalumna terebrantis Wallwork on
Neochetina eichhorniae Warner eggs and oviposition. Entomophaga
(In Press).
DEL FOSSE, E. S., H. L. CROMROY, AND D. H. HABECK. 1975. Determination
of the feeding mechanism of the waterhyacinth mite. Hyacinth Contr.
J. 13:54-6.
DEL FOSSE, E. S., AND B. D. PERKINS. 1977. Discovery and bioassay of a
kairomone from waterhyacinth. Fla. Ent. (in press).
PERKINS, B. D. 1973a. Release in the United States of Neochetina eich-
horniae Warner, an enemy of waterhyacinth. Proc. Annu. Meet. S.
Weed Sci. Soc. 26:368 (Abstr.).
PERKINS, B. D. 1973b. Preliminary studies of a strain of waterhyacinth mite
from Argentina. Proc. Intern. Symp. Biol. Contr. Weeds. 2:180-4.
PERKINS, B. D. 1974. Arthropods that stress waterhyacinth. PANS 20:304-14.
WALLWORK, J. A. 1965. A leaf boring galumnid mite (Acari: Cryptostig-
mata) from Uruguay. Acarologia 7(4):758-64.
WARNER, R. E. 1970. Neochetina eichhorniae, a new species of weevil from
waterhyacinth, and biological notes on it and N. bruchi. Proc. Ent.
Soc. Wash. 72:487-96.



















SOUTHERN FOREST INSECT CONFERENCE
The 22nd Annual Southern Forest Insect Work Conference will be held
August 16-18 at the Arlington Hotel in Hot Springs, Arkansas. The 1977
meeting will include topics on education in forest entomology, insect pests
of southern shade trees, seed and cone pests, computer-aided data manage-
ment for research, and developments in insecticidal controls. For more in-
formation contact Dr. Jack. E. Coster, School of Forestry, Stephen F.
Austin State University, Nacogdoches, Texas, 75962.


113









The Florida Entomologist


CITRUS ROOT DAMAGE AND THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION
OF EGGS OF DIAPREPES ABBREVIATUS'-(Note): The sugarcane
rootstalk borer weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.), is an introduced insect
that is destructive to Florida citrus. The adult female deposits eggs on
mature leaves and subsequently cements the leaves together. Neonate
larvae fall to the ground, enter the soil, and feed on roots. Insecticides
incorporated into the surface of the soil could be used to prevent larvae
from entering the root area, and the toxicant should be placed where it is
most effective in preventing major root damage to minimize the amount of
insecticide required. We therefore investigated the spatial distribution of
eggs in the tree canopy relative to the potential for damage to the host tree.
The trees used in the study were 6-year-old grapefruit, Citrus paradise
Macf., grafted on rootstock of sour orange, Citrus aurantium (L.). The trees
were ca. 2 m high, crown diam 1.5 m, and were planted 3 m apart. Neonate
larvae from field-collected D. abbreviatus were placed on the soil adjacent
to the trunk (10 trees); on the soil 20 cm from the trunk (10 trees); and on
the soil at the crown drip line about 1 m from the trunk (10 trees). Each of
the trees was treated in this way with 100 larvae/week for 10 weeks between
August and November 1975. (This number represented the probable number
of larvae produced by a single female weevil feeding on citrus.) Six months
later all trees were removed, and the root systems were examined. A
numerical classification of tree damage was made independently by 2
members of our laboratory, and data were subjected to an analysis of
variance. Damage classifications were: Light= larval feeding confined to
lateral roots, tree growth probably not affected (0-3); Moderate= larval
feeding on the taproots and lateral roots, tree growth probably affected
(4-6); Severe= larval feeding on taproot with lateral roots girdled, tree de-
cline would probably occur (7-10).
The 3 treatments differed significantly (P 0.05) in the amount of tree
damage. When larvae were placed at the base of the tree, the greatest feeding
occurred on the taproot and the origin of major lateral roots: 8 of these
trees had severe damage, and 2 had moderate damage. When larvae were
placed 20 cm from the trunk, lateral root and taproot feeding decreased
appreciably: damage was severe on 5 trees, moderate on 3, and light on 2.
When larvae were placed at the tree drip line, the most distal area for
oviposition, larval feeding was limited to lateral roots and there was little
feeding on the taproot: 2 trees were damaged severely, 6 moderately, and 2
lightly.
Damage was clearly related to the spatial distribution of eggs in the
canopy. Horizontal migration of larvae on lateral roots seemed to be
limited, and root feeding usually occurred directly below the area of
larval placement. Because larvae from a single female can cause suffi-
cient root feeding to debilitate a young tree, any soil insecticides used to
protect young trees should be applied to the area adjacent to the trunk.
This would provide protection for the taproot and origin of major lateral
roots, and the amount of insecticide required would be minimized. W. J.
Schroeder and R. A. Sutton, U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory, Agr.
Res. Serv., USDA, Orlando, Florida 32803.


'Coleoptera: Curculionidae


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977









The Florida Entomologist


SEASONAL POPULATIONS OF ARMYWORMS
AND LOOPERS AT HASTINGS, FLORIDA'2

F. C. TINGLE, AND E. R. MITCHELL

Insect Attractants, Behavior and Basic Biology Research Laboratory,
Agric. Res. Serv., USDA, Gainesville, Florida 32604

ABSTRACT
Seasonal populations of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda
(J. E. Smith), beet armyworm, S. exigua (Hiibner), soybean looper, Pseu-
doplusia includes (Walker), and cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hib-
ner), were surveyed in the Hastings, Florida area with pheromone-baited
cylindrical electric grid traps. All 4 species survive the relatively mild
winter temperatures (5600F) occurring there most years; therefore, the Hast-
ings area may act as a reservoir for overwintering populations of these pest
species. Populations that build up in the spring may contribute to the num-
bers that migrate into other areas of the South and Northeast each spring
and summer.


Migration from an insect population of outbreak proportions in one
area often affects populations of the same species in other areas later in
the season. This sequence is particularly evident with the fall armyworm,
Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), one of the few species known to dis-
perse throughout the United States each year from areas in southern Flor-
ida and southern Texas (Luginbill 1928). In mild winters this insect can
survive in most of Florida, in a large area of Texas, and in southern Louisi-
ana (Snow and Copeland 1969). The fall armyworm, as well as several
other pest insects, may survive most winters at Hastings, Fla., a large agri-
cultural area in the northeastern part of the state where a variety of crops
are produced. If populations build up there, the area could serve as a locus
for migrations later in the season.
Little published data are available concerning populations and move-
ment of pest insects in the Hastings area. Although the beet armyworm,
S. exigua (Hiibner), is present, it is generally not an economic pest of crops
in the area. In spring 1970, this insect did cause damage and was difficult to
control on potatoes (Mead 1970). The soybean looper, Pseudoplusia in-
cludens (Walker), survives the winter in Florida. Later the moths move
northward into Georgia and South Carolina where they build up poten-
tially damaging populations on soybeans. As temperatures decrease in the
fall and host material disappears, the moths either perish or migrate south-
ward (Mitchell et al. 1975). Soybean loopers occur in the Hastings area,
but are not considered economic pests. In contrast, the cabbage looper, Tri-
choplusia ni (Hiibner), is the major pest of cabbage, a winter crop in the
Hastings area. Reid and Bare (1952) found cabbage loopers on commercial
cabbage plantings throughout the winter in South Carolina, but the num-

'Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.
'Mention of a commercial or proprietary product in this paper does not constitute an en-
dorsement of that product by the USDA. Received for publication 10 Nov. 1976.


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977








The Florida Entomologist


bers were greatly reduced after the weekly mean temperature fell below
ca. 50F.
We report here the results of surveys with pheromone or female-baited
traps of the fall armyworm and beet armyworm adult populations during
1974-75 and of the soybean looper and cabbage looper adults from July
1972-December 1975 at Hastings, St. Johns County, Fla.

METHODS AND MATERIALS
Cylindrical electric grid traps (Mitchell et al. 1972) were baited with
(Z)-9-dodecen-l-ol acetate (Z-9-DDA) to attract S. frugiperda (Mitchell
et al. 1974), (Z)-7-dodecen-l-ol acetate (Z-7-DDA) to capture P. includes
(Tumlinson et al. 1972) and T. ni (Berger 1966), and S. exigua females for
attracting males of this species (Tingle and Mitchell 1975). Traps were
placed along the edges of fields containing host plants. Additional trap-
ping studies in the area facilitated the location of survey traps. One survey
trap was maintained routinely for each insect species.
The chemicals (25-100 mg/trap) were dispensed from either a polyethyl-
ene vial (OS-6 natural polyethylene closures, Scientific Products) or a
polyethylene cap (Olympic Plastics). The compounds were released at a
rate of ca. 300 ng/min at 800F and 0.4 m/s wind velocity. Each trap for beet
armyworms was baited with 3 laboratory-reared 2-day-old virgin females.
Captured insects were collected and counted every 1-7 days. Moth captures
were expressed as the number of moths per trap per night and converted to
log, (n + 1). Daily minimum temperatures for 1972-75 (Fig. 1) in the Hastings
area (recorded at Palatka, Fla., by the NOAA weather reporting station)
were used in considering the data.

RESULTS
The rather high level of the fall armyworm population (Fig. 2) early
in the spring of 1975 persisted for the remainder of the year. After an ex-
tremely mild fall and winter (1974-75), the temperatures increased early in
the spring (Fig. 1), and the fall armyworm population built up rapidly.
This pest was unusually abundant during 1975 throughout Florida (Mead
1975).
Captures of beet armyworm moths for 1974-75 in female-baited traps are
shown in Fig. 3. (Data were not collected Sept.-Dec. 1974). In 1975, we did
not find beet armyworm larvae feeding on field corn (mid-whorl stage and
older) at Hastings though we observed large numbers of larvae on pigweed
(family: Amaranthaceae) growing in the corn fields. In early May 1976, lar-
vae were observed feeding on young corn, but most were in fields where pig-
weed was abundant. When larvae collected from pigweed were brought to
the laboratory and reared on artificial diet for species verification, all col-
lected in May (1975) were beet armyworms. By early June, almost 90% of
the larvae collected from pigweed were southern armyworms, S. eridania
(Cramer), and no beet armyworm larvae were found on pigweed after 30
June. Only 1 beet armyworm larva and no southern armyworms were found
on corn in the same field though the fall armyworm population on corn
plants was very high. Few fall armyworm larvae were collected from pig-
weed.


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977









Tingle: Seasonal Lepidoptera Populations


JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
Fig. 1. Daily minimum temperatures as recorded by the NOAA weather
reporting station, Jan. 1972-Dec. 1975, Palatka, Fla.








The Florida Entomologist


JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
Fig. 2. Fall armyworms captured in pheromone-baited electric grid
traps, number [as log, (n+l)]/night, Jan. 1974-Dec. 1975, Hastings, Fla.
Absence of line indicates no data.


JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
Fig. 3. Beet armyworms captured in female-baited electric grid traps,
number [as log, (n+ )]/night, Feb. 1974-Dec. 1975, Hastings, Fla. Absence
of line indicates no data.


Although high populations of the soybean looper (Fig. 4) occurred each
year (1972-75), their source remains obscure. Few known cultivated hosts for
the soybean looper are grown in the Hastings area, so those captured were
probably either migrants or adults produced from unidentified wild hosts
that are abundant in the area throughout most of the year.


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977









Tingle: Seasonal Lepidoptera Populations 119



S1972
3 -





4 1973





I I I I I I I I I i i
3-





JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC




4-
3*
2-












Fig. 4. Soybean loopers captured in pheromone-baited electric grid
traps, number [as log (n + 1)/night, Jul. 1972-Dec. 1975, Hastings, Fla.
Cabbage looper populations determined by use of pheromone traps for
3-
2 -




JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP O(T NOV DE(
Fig. 4. Soybean loopers captured in pheromone-baited electric grid
traps, number [as log, (n +1)]/night, Jul. 1972-Dec. 1975, Hastings, Fla.

Cabbage looper populations determined by use of pheromone traps for
1972-75 are shown in Fig. 5. Farmers in the area usually destroy residual
cabbage plants within 2 weeks after harvest, much sooner than in past years.
Our low trap catches during late summer (1975) may reflect this cultiva-
tion practice.

DISCUSSION
Chalfant et al. (1974) and Mitchell et al. (1975) surveyed populations
of the cabbage looper and soybean looper, respectively, in the tri-state area









The Florida Entomologist


1972






S1973 i
. 1973
Amr


I a a U


I I


JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC


' I 1 I I I I I I I I

3

sA I II lI



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
Fig. 5. Cabbage loopers captured in pheromone-baited electric grid
traps, number [as loge (n+ 1)]/night, Jul. 1972-Dec. 1975, Hastings, Fla.

of Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina. They reported that significant
adult activity, continuous reproduction, and development of these 2 species
was restricted to the southern part of Florida where winter temperatures
exceeded 60 F. In northern Florida, adult activity was not significant until
April and May; then it increased until October. The Hastings area, where
winter temperatures often are 7600F, was not included in their surveys.
Hastings is situated in North Central Florida ca. 20 miles inland from
the Atlantic Ocean; the farming area is bounded on the western edge by the
St. Johns River. Consequently, the winter months are characterized by gen-


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977









Tingle: Seasonal Lepidoptera Populations


erally milder temperatures than at Gainesville, which is ca. 55 miles west.
Because of more moderate winter temperatures, Hastings is the major
cabbage-producing area in the state. Farmers often follow the winter cab-
bage crops in the spring with potatoes used for chips. In recent years, many
farmers have stopped fallowing their land during the summer and have
shifted to planting corn for grain.
The early destruction of the cabbage residue shortly after harvest, fol-
lowed by the planting of potatoes or corn, appears to have reduced some-
what the buildup of tremendously large populations of cabbage looper
previously experienced by cabbage farmers with the onset of warm spring
weather. Corn is planted from mid-March through May, which allows the
buildup of large populations of both the beet and fall armyworm. The
beet armyworm is most abundant in corn fields heavily infested with pig-
weed. Since little profit is realized from the corn, little or no effort is made
to control these insects.
In summary, winter temperatures in the Hastings area are conducive to
the overwintering of cabbage and soybean loopers and beet and fall army-
worms. Recent changes in cultural practices appear to have reduced the
cabbage looper population size in the spring, but increased the potential
for large populations of beet and fall armyworms. These shifts certainly
affect insect populations in the Hastings area and possibly in other areas
to which these pests migrate.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We thank W. W. Copeland and R. W. Hines for collecting insects from
the survey traps, and C. W. Greene and I. A. Rodgers for rearing the bait in-
sects. These are all personnel of this laboratory.


LITERATURE CITED

BERGER, R. W. 1966. Isolation, identification, and synthesis of the sex at-
tractant of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am.
59:767-71.
CHALFANT, R. B., C. S. CREIGHTON, G. L. GREENE, E. R. MITCHELL, J. M.
STANLEY, AND J. C. WEBB. 1974. Cabbage looper: Populations in BL
traps baited with sex pheromone in Florida, Georgia, and South Caro-
lina. J. Econ. Ent. 67:741-5.
LUGINBILL, P. 1928. The fall armyworm. USDA Tech. Bull. 34, 89 p.
MEAD, F. W. 1970. Annual summary of economic insects in Florida. Flor-
ida Department Agriculture and Consumer Services. 18 p.
MEAD, F. W. 1975. Annual Summary of Economic Insects in Florida. Flor-
ida Department Agriculture and Consumer Services. 44 p.
MITCHELL, E. R., R. B. CHALFANT, G. L. GREENE, AND C. S. CREIGHTON.
1975. Soybean looper: Populations in Florida, Georgia, and South
Carolina, as determined with pheromone-baited BL traps. J. Econ.
Ent. 68:747-50.
MITCHELL, E. R., W. W. COPELAND, A. N. SPARKS, AND A. A. SEKUL. 1974.
Fall armyworm: Disruption of pheromone communication with syn-
thetic acetates. Environ. Ent. 3:778-80.
MITCHELL, E. R., J. C. WEBB, A. H. BAUMHOVER, R. W. HINES, J. M. STAN-
LEY, R. G. ENDRIS, D. A. LINDQUIST, AND S. MASUDA. 1972. Evalua-










The Florida Entomologist


tion of cylindrical electric grids as pheromone traps for loopers and
tobacco hornworms. Environ. Ent. 1:365-8.
REID, W. J., JR., AND C. O. BARE. 1952. Seasonal populations of cabbage
caterpillars in the Charleston, S.C. area. J. Econ. Ent. 45:695-9.
TINGLE, F. C., AND E. R. MITCHELL. 1975. Capture of Spodoptera frugiperda
and S. exigua in pheromone traps. J. Econ. Ent. 68:613-5.
TUMLINSON, J. H., E. R. MITCHELL, S. M. BROWNER, AND D. A. LINDQUIST.
1972. A sex pheromone for the soybean looper. Environ. Ent. 1:466-8.
SNOW, J. W., AND W. W. COPELAND. 1969. Fall armyworm: Use of virgin
female traps to detect males and to determine seasonal distribution.
USDA Prod. Res. Rep. 110 p.







BOOK REVIEW
It is a pleasure to know that the revised edition (1971) of Bristowe's "The World
of Spiders" has been reprinted and is now available to the American public. This
volume is one of the excellent British "New Naturalist" series and, as in most of the
others, restricts its subject matter to the British Isles and environs. In this way it is
comparable to and well complements W. J. Gertsch's "American Spiders" (which is
unfortunately out-of-print).
The first six chapters review the evolution, anatomy, classification, life history and
even the folklore of spiders. The next thirteen chapters discuss the natural history
of the British spiders by taxonomic group. Detailed observations supplemented by
descriptions of informal field experiments give the reader a vibrant and intimate view
of each group of spiders in its natural environment. No attempt is made to give a
systematic review of the taxa (i.e. no keys, formal taxonomic descriptions, etc.)
though discussions of the evolution of certain groups and their habits are found
throughout. The final chapter discusses the strategy and technique of collecting
spiders, an invaluable 8 pages of practical advice from a master. An appendix listing
all the species of spiders recorded in the British Isles through 1958 is supplemented
by an addendum (to 1968) but the bibliography unfortunately cites no work later
than 1958.
The 116 line drawings are among the clearest and most beautiful spider illustra-
tions in any work. They include facial views of representatives of every family, an
atypical angle from which the spiders take on added character and interest. These
drawings and 22 half-tone plates are accurately executed by Arthur Smith. Several
photographs (4 in color) are also incorporated.
The American reader will find that all the families but one (the Eresidae with
one species, Eresus niger, last found in England in 1906) are also found in North
America (as are many of the genera) so that the bulk of the ecological and behavioral
observations are applicable and relevant to the related American spider fauna.
One spider unique to Europe, the habits of which are described in elegant detail,
is the Water Spider (Argyroneta aquatica, an agelenid sometimes placed in its own
family, Argyronetidae). This spider, the only truly aquatic spider known, builds
an underwater silk diving bell which it fills with air and in which it lives, reproduces
and from which it ventures to capture prey. Here, as throughout the book, the en-
thusiasm and personal expertise of the author permeates the prose, and make this
handsome book a must for all those interested in natural history and arthropods.

Jonothan Reiskind
University of Florida


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977









The Florida Entomologist


TWO NEW SPECIES OF PHYTOSEIUS RIBAGA
FROM AUSTRALIA (ACARINA: PHYTOSEIIDAE)

E. SCHICHA

Senior Entomologist (Taxonomy), Biological and Chemical
Research Institute, Department of Agriculture,
Rydalmere, N.S.W., 2116, Australia

ABSTRACT
Females and males of 2 new phytoseiid mite species from New South
Wales, Australia, are described and illustrated: Phytoseius leaki sp.n. from
Solanum mauritianum Scop. and Phytoseius woolwichensis sp.n. from Eu-
patorium sp.


Phytoseius leaki sp.n. has been collected from the undersurfaces of
leaves of Solanum mauritianum Scop. west of Casino on the North Coast
of New South Wales, Australia. It was the only mite species present. Phy-
toseius woolwichensis sp.n. has been obtained from the undersurfaces of
leaves of Eupatorium sp. at Woolwich on the Central Coast of New South
Wales, where it appeared to feed on tydeid, phytoptipalpid, and tetrany-
chid mites. Denmark's (1966) system of setal nomenclature is adopted for
the description of the 2 new species. The dimensions listed are the range of
measurements in microns ([t) taken from 5 females and 2 males of each spe-
cies.

Phytoseius leaki Schicha, NEW SPECIES
(Fig. 1)
DIAGNOSIS: Phytoseius leaki is near Phytoseius honkongensis Swirski &
Shechter. Most setae of the dorsal shield are slightly shorter in leaki than
in honkongensis' (verticals 18-21) [25p], D2 51L [71i], D3 4-51i [7p], D4 51i [9Li],
clunals 6-7[L [8[t], M1 4-5[ [8fi], L1 58-641 [69p], L2 9-11i [14l], L3 40-431
[441i], IA 7j [13p], L5 79-87y [914] except for L7 56-58Ct [901i] and L8 62-64[i
[751i] which are considerably shorter, and L6 79-831 [75A] which is longer).
The macrosetae on basitarsus IV in leaki [28-301i] are longer than those in
honkongensis with [211]. The new species has 1 pair of large notocephalic
pores near Ml, in addition to 3 pairs of medium sized and 7 pairs of small
pores, whereas honkongensis has only 3 pairs of notocephalic pores.
P. leaki is also close to P. amba Pritchard & Baker especially because
of the nearly equal number and position of their dorsal pores. However,
half the number of setae on the dorsal shield are slightly shorter in leaki
than in amba2 (verticals 18-21t [25/p], D1 4-6it [71/], D2 5)u [7t/], D3 4-5/t
[7p], D4 5iA [7/], clunals 6-7[L [12p], L4 71i [13Ai], Ml 4-5[i [71]), with L8 62-64[
[791] considerably shorter, except for L2 9-11/i [7[i] and L7 56-58pt [5511] which
are slightly longer, and L1 58-64u [42p], L3 40-43t/ [16/i] and L6 .79-831/


'Measurements for honkongensis in brackets.
'Measurements for amba in brackets.


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977








The Florida Entomologist


Fig. 1. Female Phytoseius leaki new species: A) Dorsal shield; B) Ster-
nal shield; C) Ventrianal shield; D) Chelicera; E) Spermatheca; F) Pos-
terior peritremal and stigmatal development; G) Leg IV; H) Male ventri-
anal shield; K) Spermatodactyl.

[57[t] which are considerably longer). The macrosetae on genu IV 23-26p
[15[] and on tibia IV 28-30j [20t] are longer in leaki than in amba.
FEMALE.-Dorsum: Smooth dorsal shield (Fig. 1A) 276-279[i long, 131-1451t
wide at L5, with 16 pairs of setae, 4 dorsal, 8 lateral, and 1 pair each of me-


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977










Schicha: New Phytoseius Species


dians, anterior sublaterals, verticals, and clunals: D1 4-6p long, D2 5p,
D3 4-5p, D4 5i, L1 58-641, L2 9-11p, L3 40-431, L4 7p, L5 72-801, L6 77-81[t,
L7 50-601, L8 57-671, Ml 4-5ft, anterior sublaterals 40-41p, verticals 18-21p,
clunals 6-7A. L1, L3, L5 to L8, verticals and anterior sublaterals serrated;
all other setae smooth. L1, L3, L5 and L7 longer than, L2 and L4 as long
as, all other setae shorter than, distances between their bases and bases of
setae following next in series. One pair of large notocephalic pores near
M1; 3 pairs of medium sized pores and 7 pairs of small pores as figured. Pos-
terior sublaterals 13-14p, on interscutal membrane. Peritremes extend to
the verticals. Venter: Sternal shield (Fig. 1B) 77-8311 long, 100-1171 wide,
excavated posteriorly, with 3 pairs of long setae and 2 pairs of pores as
figured. Fourth pair of sternal setae and a pair of small pores on metaster-
nal shields. Genital shield 114u long, 71if wide, with 1 pair of setae. Smooth,
vase-shaped ventrianal shield (Fig. 1C) 105-106[1 long, 57-58Ct wide, with 3
pairs of preanal setae; 3 para-anal setae. Three pairs of setae, 4 pairs of
small plates, and 1 pair of elongate metapodal plates on posteroventral
integument; serrated ventrocaudal pair of setae 49-534t long. Chelicera (Fig.
1D): Fixed digit 26t long, with 3 large teeth anterior, and 2 small teeth pos-
terior of pilus dentilis. Movable digit 27-281 long, with 1 large backward
pointing tooth in addition to 2 small teeth.
Spermatheca (Fig. 1E): Tube-like cervix 18-21t long, 1-2[t wide; junction of
cervix and vesicle form a shallow convex sclerotized portion; atrium 4p
wide, bulbous; major duct 17-19[t long, 4-5[ wide.
Posterior peritremal and stigmatal development: (Fig. 1F) Leg IV (Fig. 1G):
With 3 slightly knobbed macrosetae: on genu 23-26[t long, on tibia 28-301,
on basitarsus 28-30[.
MALE. Dorsum: Smooth dorsal shield 222-227j1 long, 102-116L wide at L5,
with chaetotaxy resembling that of female, but all setae relatively shorter:
D1 to D4 41 long, L1 41-451, L2 5A, L3 32-331, L4 5iu, L5 55-561, L6 47-50p,
L7 32-35fi, L8 32u, M1 4,i, anterior sublaterals 28-301, verticals 19-201L, clu-
nals 5i, posterior sublaterals 9t. Venter: Smooth ventrianal shield (Fig.
1H) 85i1 long, 1141 wide, with 4 pairs of preanal setae. Spermatodactyl (Fig.
1K): Shaft 13-1511 long; foot 8-9i1 long, with toe rounded anteriorly and
pointed posteriorly. Leg IV: With 3 slightly knobbed macrosetae: on genu
and tibia 15-16pt long, on basitarsus 25-261.
TYPE MATERIAL.-NEW SOUTH WALES: Holotype female, allotype
male, 4 female paratypes, 1 male paratype from leaves of Solanum mauri-
tianum Scop., west of Casino on the North Coast, E. Schicha, 25-V-1976, in
Biological and Chemical Research Institute, Rydalmere.


Phytoseius woolwichensis Schicha, NEW SPECIES
(Fig. 2)
DIAGNOSIS: Phytoseius woolwichensis is closely related to Phytoseius ka-
puri Gupta because most setae of their dorsal shields are of equal length.
Only the measurements of some setae are slightly different. In woolwichen-
sis3 L3 34-38u [40p] and L5 84-92j [941] are shorter and the clunals 9iA [4[t],
L4 9tt [6,] and M1 5-6p [4u] are longer than in kapuri. However, the new


'Measurements for kapuri in brackets.










The Florida Entomologist


Fig. 2. Female Phytoseius woolwichensis new species: A) Dorsal shield;
B) Sternal shield; C) Ventrianal shield; D) Chelicera; E) Spermatheca;
F) Leg IV; G) Male ventrianal shield; H) Spermatodactyl.

species has 3 pairs of large pores (none near Ml) and 8 pairs of small pores,
whereas kapuri has only 1 pair of large pores (near Ml) and 3 pairs of small
pores. The macrosetae on genu IV 30-36p [27p], tibia IV 38-42t [30i] and
basitarsus IV 33-361/ [24ju] in woolwichensis are knobbed and longer than


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977









Schicha: New Phytoseius Species


those in kapuri, which are forked. In woolwichensis the fixed digit of the
chelicerae bears 3 large and 2 small teeth, while in kapuri the fixed digit
has only 3 teeth, and the movable digit 2.
FEMALE.-Dorsum: Smooth dorsal shield (Fig. 2A) 273-2981 long, 110-120u
wide at L5, with 16 pairs of setae, 4 dorsal, 8 lateral, and 1 pair each of me-
dians, anterior sublaterals, verticals, and clunals: D1 4-61 long, D2 4-5[,
D3 5f, D4 8-9p, L1 55-661, L2 9-17L, L3 34-38i, L4 9M, L5 84-921A, L6 81-891,
L7 73-761, L8 73-851, Ml 5-6p, anterior sublaterals 36-47/, verticals 22-301,
clunals 91. L1, L3, L5 to L8, verticals and anterior sublaterals serrated;
all other setae smooth. L1, L3, L5 and L7 longer than, L2 and L4 as long
as, all other setae shorter than, distances between their bases and bases of
setae following next in series. Three pairs of large pores and 8 pairs of
small pores as figured. Posterior sublaterals 17-201, on interscutal mem-
brane. Peritremes extending to L1. Venter: Sternal shield (Fig. 2B) 64-73[
long, 88-99[t wide, excavated posteriorly, with 3 pairs of long setae and 2
pairs of pores as figured. Fourth pair of sternal setae and a pair of small
pores on oval metasternal shields. Genital shield 113-1181 long, 71-751
wide, with 1 pair of setae. Smooth vase-shaped ventrianal shield (Fig. 2C)
88-105p long, 54-65p wide, with 3 pairs of preanal setae; 3 para-anal setae.
Three pairs of setae and 6 pairs of small plates on posteroventral integu-
ment; serrated ventrocaudal pair of setae 57-641 long. Chelicera (Fig. 2D):
Fixed digit 25-281 long, with 3 large teeth anterior and 2 small teeth pos-
terior of pilus dentilis. Movable digit 26-29t long, with 1 large backward
pointing tooth in addition to 2 small teeth. Spermatheca (Fig. 2E): Tube-
like cervix 17-18M long, 21 wide; junction of cervix and vesicle form a
shallow convex sclerotized portion; atrium 4[ wide, triangular; major
duct 17-211 long, 4-5p wide. Leg IV (Fig. 2F): With 3 knobbed macrosetae:
on genu 30-361 long, on tibia 38-421, on basitarsus 33-36t1.
MALE.-Dorsum: Smooth dorsal shield 213-2241 long, 102-105l wide at L5,
with chaetotaxy resembling that of female, but all setae relatively shorter:
D1 3-4[, D2 and D3 4f, D4 4-5p, L1 42-43M, L2 6-9[i, L3 28-30p, L4 7-81, L5
60-61[, L6 50-57t, L7 44-46[, L8 38p, M1 4p, anterior sublaterals 34f, verti-
cals 22-231, clunals 61, posterior sublaterals 9-11t. Venter: Smooth ven-
trianal shield (Fig. 2G) 87-901 long, 128-1311 wide, with 3 pairs of preanal
setae. Spermatodactyl (Fig. 2H): Shaft and foot 131 long, toe forming a
large knob. Leg IV: With three knobbed macrosetae: on genu 22-241 long,
on tibia 26[, on basitarsus 28-29p.
TYPE MATERIAL.-NEW SOUTH WALES: Holotype female, allotype
male, 4 female paratypes, 1 male paratype, from leaves of Eupatorium
sp., Woolwich on the Central Coast of New South Wales, E. Schicha, 5-
XI-1975, in Biological and Chemical Research Institute, Rydalmere.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I thank H. A. Denmark, Chief of Entomology, Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, for confirming the nov-
elty of the 2 new species.

LITERATURE CITED
DENMARK, H. A. 1966. Revision of the genus Phytoseius Ribaga, 1904 (Aca-
rina: Phytoseiidae). Fla. Dep. Agr. Cons. Ser., Div. Plant Ind. Bull.
6:1-105 (44 Fig.).










,NE


R :.r .
>


Growth.
That's what Chemagro
is all about:
The two new multi-million
dollar chemical manufacturing
plants just completed.
The new products recently
registered.
The expanded Research and
Development programs
designed to bring a number
of important experimental
compounds nearer to
registration.
All this activity and
investment is directed toward
one objective: to provide the
world's most productive farmers


with dependable, quality
pesticides to help them be even
more productive at the lowest
possible cost.
Thus, we at Chemagro play
an important role in winning the
struggle against world famine,
and help create a better life.
This is what keeps Chemagro
growing.
Chemagro Agricultural Division
of Mobay Chemical Corporation
Box 4913, Kansas City, Missouri
64120. 76190

SRESPONSEability
to you and nature


OEM


IQ


i
.9,

V


I
Aft
4









The Florida Entomologist


EFFECTS OF A MANGROVE BORER, POECILIPS
RHIZOPHORAE', ON PROPAGULES OF
RHIZOPHORA HARRISONII2 IN PANAMA

DEBORAH RABINOWITZ"

Department of Biophysics and Theoretical Biology,
University of Chicago, 920 East 58th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637

ABSTRACT
Larvae of the mangrove borer, Poecilips rhizophorae Hopkins (Cole-
optera: Scolytidae), attack the hypocotyl tissue of viviparous propagules
of the red mangrove, Rhizophora harrisonii Leechman (Rhizophoraceae),
on the Pacific coast of Panama. Production and growth of roots by infested
and uninfested propagules were observed in fresh and salt (sea) water
aquaria for 104 days. Infested propagules produce as many roots as unin-
fested propagules. The destructive effect of the beetles' mines is offset by
an increased tendency for infested propagules to produce roots on the hy-
pocotyl above the excavated regions.


Poecilips rhizophorae Hopkins is a scolytid beetle that infests vivip-
arous propagules of the red mangroves, Rhizophora mangle L., R. harri-
sonii Leechman, and probably other species as well (Woodruff 1970). Man-
groves are halophytic trees that occur in the intertidal zone on sheltered
tropical and subtropical coasts. Propagules in the genus Rhizophora are
a product of continuous growth of the embryo while still attached to the
parent tree (Gill and Tomlinson 1969). The dispersal unit is an elongated
hypocotyl, shaped like an enormous green bean, about 36 cm long in R.
harrisonii. The organism that P. rhizophorae attacks is not a seed in the
ordinary sense but a seedling which can grow and produce roots during its
seawater-borne dispersal.
The larvae of this borer excavate mines in the rod-shaped propagules,
and their presence is evidenced by circular holes about 2mm in diameter.
Signs of attack by P. rhizophorae can be observed while the mature prop-
agules still are hanging from their parents, but it is not known at what
stage in the propagule's development infestation is initiated. The life his-
tory of the adults is not known, but larvae are found in proproots as well
as in propagules (Daniel Simberloff, pers. comm.). The taxonomy of P.
rhizophorae has been discussed by Hopkins (1915), Eggers (1923), and Schedl
(1952). This paper describes the effects of the beetle on the appearance and
growth of roots on the propagule.
In mangrove swamps of the New World tropics, the lack of large-scale
silvicultural efforts contrasts with sustained timber production in the Old
World, initiated early in this century (cf. Watson 1928, Walker 1937,
Noakes 1952). Although the American mangroves are not viewed as a crop

'Coleoptera: Scolytidae.
2Rhizophoraceae.
'Present address: Division of Biological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michi-
gan 48109.


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977









The Florida Entomologist


by their human consumers, several species are harvested from natural
stands and utilized for scaffolding and the production of charcoal. On the
Pacific coast of Central America, Rhizophora harrisonii is the mangrove
most commonly put to these uses. If stocking a harvested swamp with prop-
agules collected from the wild is a central feature of a silvicultural pro-
gram, the excavations created by the beetle could have deleterious effects
on the initiation of management practices with species of Rhizophora in the
New World.

METHODS
Propagules of Rhizophora harrisonii were collected from the tidal
drift line on the Pacific coast of Panama, near Puerto Caimito, during
August 1974. Propagules were sorted randomly into 2 groups. One group of
32 propagules was placed in a tank (ca. 1 m:) of circulating fresh water, and
a second group of 32 was placed in a similar size tank of circulating salt
(sea) water. The proportion of beetle infested propagules in the 2 groups was
similar (initially, 16 propagules in fresh water and 15 in salt were infested).
The tanks were kept outside under awnings, at the Naos Laboratory of the
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. The propagules' growth was ob-
served for 104 days.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The distribution of emergence holes in the sample of propagules is
shown in Table 1. Approximately 62.5% of the propagules had been attacked
at least once by Poecilips rhizophorae. There was an average of 1.7+0.2
(R+_S.E.) emergence holes per propagule for all propagules, and 2.8+_0.3
holes per propagule for propagules with at least 1 hole. Beetles did not in-
fest the propagules at random. A chi-square test for fit to a Poisson distri-
bution (Table 1) showed that there are more propagules without beetle
infestations than expected.

TABLE 1. DISTRIBUTION OF HOLES PRODUCED BY ADULT Poecilips rhi-
zophorae IN PROPAGULES OF Rhizophora harrisonii. GROUPED
INTO 5 CLASSES, (0, 1, 2, 3, AND 4 HOLES), THE DATA SHOW A
NON-RANDOM DISTRIBUTION OF EMERGENCE HOLES BY A CHI-
SQUARE TEST FOR FIT TO A POISSON DISTRIBUTION.*

number of exit holes 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
number of propagules 24 9 12 11 1 3 3 1 0

*calculated: x= 21.57; table value: X1 ,,(3)= 11.34

The pattern of root production by propagules with and without beetle
infestation is shown in Fig. 1. The holes occur predominantly in the lower
third of the propagule. If there is no infestation, the roots usually appear
at the tip or radicle of the propagule. If there is an infestation, roots appear
either at the tip of the propagule, or just above the holes, or in both regions.
If the beetles' mines are sufficiently extensive, the tip of the propagule may
be severed; however, broken propagules still may produce roots.


130


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977








Rabinowitz: Effects of a Mangrove Borer


h.

r


a b c d
Fig. 1. Schematic of root development in propagules of Rhizophora
harrisonii with and without infestation by Poecilips rhizophorae. a. Roots
are produced at the radicle end in propagules without infestation. For prop-
agules with infestation, roots can appear in 3 ways: b. at the radicle end;
c. at the radicle end and above the hole or holes; and d. above the severed
tip weakened by mines. r= roots, h= hole.

Although there is no difference between infested and uninfested propa-
gules in their tendency to produce roots at the tip of the propagule (Table
2, test a), there is a greater tendency for an infested propagule to produce
roots above the tip (Table 2, test b). However, when these 2 modes of root
production are combined (Table 2, test c), there are no differences in the
overall pattern of where on the propagule the roots are produced.
The mean number of roots produced by attacked and unattacked propa-
gules in fresh and salt water is shown in Fig. 2. The top portion of the figure
shows the number of roots produced per propagule versus time for propa-
gules in fresh water; the bottom portion, for propagules in salt water.
Throughout the observation period, there were no differences between in-
fested and uninfested propagules in the number of roots produced.
A comparison of root production by propagules in fresh and salt water
is given in Table 3. More propagules produce roots in salt water than in
fresh. No mortality of propagules occurred during the observation period.
Infestation by Poecilips rhizophorae on Rhizophora harrisonii has
little effect, either harmful or beneficial, on total root production of the
propagules. Whether the success of establishment for the infested propa-
gules in the wild is decreased or enhanced is unknown. In aquaria, the pos-
sibly deleterious removal of tissue by the beetles' excavations is offset by
the increased tendency of attacked propagules to produce roots above the
radicle. This result holds for propagules in both fresh and salt water. As a
consequence, attacked propagules produce as many roots as do the propa-
gules free from the beetles' interference.
This compensatory growth by the propagule in response to infestation
is similar to a situation studied by Dyer (1975). He found that corn damaged
by red-winged blackbirds had a higher yield per inch of ear than undamaged










The Florida Entomologist


TABLE 2.


PRODUCTION OF ROOTS BY PROPAGULES OF Rhizophora har-
RISONII WITH AND WITHOUT INFESTATION BY Poecilips rhizo-
phorae AT DAY 80, A AND B. FISHER EXACT TEST, C. G-TEST WITH
YATES CORRECTION FOR CONTINUITY, X2 .,1(1)=3.84 (Sokal &
ROHLF 1969). SIGNIFICANCE LEVELS: N.S.=NOT SIGNIFICANT,
*= 0.05 20.01, AND ** = p<0.01.


Propagule condition

Salt water Fresh water

Test Position Not Notsted
of roots infested Infested infested Infested

a at tip
present 10 11 4 4
absent 3 8 13 11
p= 0.467, n.s. p= 0.848, n.s.
b above tip
present 4 15 1 14
absent 9 4 16 1
p=0.0176,* p=9.05 x 10-7,**
c present
at tip 10 11 4 4
above tip 4 15 1 14
G,d,= 1.04, n.s. Gadj= 1.69, n.s.



TABLE 3. NUMBER OF FRESH AND SALT(SEA) WATER PROPAGULES OF Rhi-
zophora harrisonii THAT DID OR DID NOT PRODUCE ROOTS.
PROPAGULES WITH AND WITHOUT INFESTATIONS OF Poecilips
rhizophorae WERE POOLED FOR THIS COMPARISON AT DAY 104.
FISHER EXACT TEST, **= p 0.01.



Number of propagules Propagule treatment

in fresh water in salt water

with roots 21 30
without roots 11 2

calculated p= 1.85 x 10-", **


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977









Rabinowitz: Effects of a Mangrove Borer



a T


np
-I


-4
- I


) 20 40 60 80 100
days


Fig. 2. Production of roots by propagules of Rhizophora harrisonii
with and without infestation by Poecilips rhizophorae. a. propagules in
fresh water; b. propagules in salt water. + 95% confidence interval. p= in-
festation present, np = infestation absent.


* 16


E
= 12



8




4



0


1









The Florida Entomologist


corn. He postulated that a stimulation of extra growth was due to the birds'
disturbance of the growing tips.
These results suggest that, in a program to re-establish stands in har-
vested areas by stocking propagules, the separation of infested from "clean"
propagules may be an unnecessary effort and expense.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author would like to thank Roslyn Metcoff for help in gathering
the data. The manuscript was improved by the comments of James E.
Carrel, Marlene K. Palmer, and Daniel Simberloff. This research was sup-
ported by N.I.H. Theoretical Biology Training Grant GM 2087 and the
Dougherty Fund at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.


LITERATURE CITED

DYER, M. I. 1975. The effects of red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus
L.) on biomass production of corn grains (Zea mays L.). J. Appl.
Ecol. 12:719-26.
EGGERS, H. 1923. Neue Indomalayische Borkenkafer (Ipidae). Zool. Mede-
deelingen 7:129-220.
GILL, A. M. AND B. P. TOMLINSON. 1969. Studies on the growth of red man-
grove (Rhizophora mangle L.). I. Habits and general morphology.
Biotropica 1:1-9.
HOPKINS, A. D. 1915. Classification of the Cryphalinae, with descriptions of
new genera and species. USDA Rep. 99 (Contr. Bur. Ent.):1-75.
SCHEDL, K. E. 1952. Zur synonymie der Borkenkafer. Ent. Blatter 47,
48:158-64.
SOKAL, R. R. AND F. J. ROHLF. 1969. Biometry, the principles and practice
of statistics in biological research. Freeman, San Francisco. 776 p.
WALKER, F. S. 1938. Regeneration of Klang mangroves. Malay. For. 6:71-8.
WATSON, J. G. 1928. Mangrove forests of the Malay Peninsula. Malay. For.
Rec. 6:1-275.
WOODRUFF, R. E. 1970. A mangrove borer, Poecilips rhizophorae (Hopkins)
(Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Fla. Dep. Agr. and Consumer Serv., Div.
Plant Indust., Ent. Circ. 98 (Bur. Ent. Contr. 186):1-2.


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977









The Florida Entomologist Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977 135

THE NEST OF ZETHUS OTOMITUS1
(HYMENOPTERA: EUMENIDAE)

CHARLES W. CALMBACHER2

Department of Biological Sciences, Fordham University,
Bronx, N. Y. 10458

ABSTRACT
This is the first description and illustration of the nest of Zethus oto-
mitus Saussure. Four nests were observed in a fallen log at Cola de Ca-
ballo in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Several other nesting sites were seen in the
same area. The nest suggests an intermediate nesting behavior between spe-
cies utilizing abandoned insect burrows and the subsocial behavior of Z.
miniatus Saussure in that it indicates a gregarious association of females
that attend separate nests.


Nothing previously has been reported about the nesting behavior of
Zethus otomitus Saussure. Bohart and Stange (1965) summarized published
accounts of known nest building for 15 of the 189 described species of New
World Zethus.
During 1-4 June 1974 the nest structure of Z. otomitus was observed at
Cola de Caballo near El Cercado in the Mexican State of Nuevo Leon.
Several nesting sites were seen in a densely wooded ravine near the Cola
de Caballo waterfall. The nests described were located in a partially de-
cayed but intact fallen tree trunk about 2 m long and 25-30 cm in diameter.
The surface of the log was soft and could be crumbled easily with the
fingers to about a 2 cm depth. The core was harder but soft enough to be dis-
sected readily with a pocket knife.
Two females of Z. otomitus were captured as they emerged from the en-
trance of separate nests in the log. Only 1 female attended each nest. Four
nest entrances were observed within 30-40 mm of each other. No interaction
between individual females was noted. Two of the 4 nests were dissected
and their structure observed.
The entrance of each nest was on the upper horizontal surface of the log
and constantly shaded. The entrances had a diameter of 0.8-1.0 cm. Just
outside the entrance hole fine wood material from the boring could be seen
on the bark of the log. A gallery of 0.7-0.9 cm diam extended perpendicu-
larly 2.5-3.5 cm into the log. The gallery terminated in an ovoid chamber
2.5-2.7 cm long by 1.6-1.8 cm diam. The long axis of this chamber was ap-
proximately parallel to the surface of the trunk. The cells were adjacent
to the chamber (Fig. 1,A). One of the 2 cells in the first nest was empty. The
other cell contained a Zethus larva about 3 mm long and 0.9 mm diam
and 40 lepidopterous larvae of the family Olethreutidae. The second nest
had 4 cells leading in different directions from the chamber. Two of the 4


'Contribution No. 342, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida De-
partment of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, Florida 32602.
'Student Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Florida Department of Agri-
culture and Consumer Services, Gainesville.








The Florida Entomologist


1cm----


Fig. 1. Nest of Zethus otomitus: A) side view showing 4 cells, chamber,
and entrance gallery with fine wood material at the surface; B) cell (left)
separated from chamber (right) by inner plug (stippled) of wood dust and
outer plug of hard fibrous plant material (hatched).

cells in the second nest were empty. One of the cells contained a small
larva of Zethus, 3-3.1 mm long by 0.9-1.0 mm diam, and 44 olethreutid lar-
vae. The remaining cell contained a larger wasp larva, 5 mm long and 1.5-
2.0 mm diam, plus 14 larval Olethreutidae. The prey larvae were immobile
when handled and were 6-6.5 mm long with a diameter of 1 mm. The wasp
larvae were situated in the distal third of the cells.
The cells (Fig. 1, B) were cylinders of 0.8-1.0 cm diam and 1.9-2.2 cm
long and closed by an inner plug of fine wood material 1.2-1.4 cm long.


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977









Calmbacher: Nest of Zethus otomitus


The cell had an outer closure 1-1.5 mm thick of hard, dried material that
appeared to be plant material. The surface of the plug facing the cell was
convex and rough. The surface facing the chamber was smooth and concave.

DISCUSSION
Two Z. otomitus larvae of different ages were found in the same nest,
and several prepared yet empty cells were found, suggesting that the fe-
male bores the nest in advance. The presence of larvae different in age, as
indicated by the difference in larval size and the number of prey consumed,
makes it evident that 1 cell is provisioned and sealed before the next cell is
utilized.
The description given by Bohart and Stange (1965) suggests that Zethus
brasiliensis fuscatus Bequaert makes a nest similar in basic structure to that
of Z. otomitus. The difference between the 2 species is that Z. otomitus does
not line its cell with resinous material and does not utilize a common en-
trance to the nests of individual females as does Z. brasiliensis fuscatus.
The general structure of the nests with initial galleries, a chamber and in-
dividual cells is otherwise similar.
The nest of Z. otomitus is intermediate between the less specialized and
more advanced nest structures described in Bohart and Stange (1965). The
nest is apparently initiated and constructed entirely by the female unlike
the less specialized forms which utilize abandoned insect burrows. This is
indicated by the observation of a female excavating a nest and the apparent
absence of previously existing borings in association with the dissected nests.
Z. otomitus females apparently are gregarious as indicated by the close
proximity of nests observed at each of the 3 different nesting sites seen in the
ravine. This is less specialized than the subsocial behavior of Z. miniatus
Saussure where several females construct a communal nest. The nest of
Z. otomitus is thus intermediate in structure between the use of abandoned
insect burrows and the construction of a communal nest, suggesting that
there is a continuum in the methods by which Zethus construct their nests.
It should be noted that this intermediate nesting behavior corroborates the
phylogenetic position of Z. otomitus given by Bohart and Stange (1965).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Dr. Lionel A. Stange of the Instituto Miguel Lillo of the Universidad
Nacional de Tucuman, Tucuman, Argentina, kindly identified the Zethus
collected during this study. The lepidoptera larvae were identified by D. M.
Weisman of the U. S. Department of Agriculture Systematic Entomology
Laboratory in Beltsville, Maryland. This work was done under a Fordham
University Faculty Research Grant awarded to Dr. Charles C. Porter of the
Department of Biological Sciences at Fordham University.


LITERATURE CITED

BOHART, R. M., AND L. A. STANGE. 1965. A revision of the genus Zethus
Fabricius in the western hemisphere (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae).
Univ. California Publ. Ent. 40:i-vi, 1-208.













FASCO


you'll find
all your pest control
needs under
the dependable
FASCO label...


Nematocides
Fumigation Covers
Soil Fungicides
and Insecticides
Foliar Fungicides
and Insecticides
Bulb, Tuber and Rizome
Fungicides and Dips
Herbicides


Delivered when you need them from one of
our warehouses that's near you.

Ji KERR-MCGEE CHEMICAL CORP.
POST OFFICE BOX 4459 JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA 32201









The Florida Entomologist


REPRODUCTION IN CARIBBEAN FRUIT FLIES:'
COMPARISONS BETWEEN A LABORATORY STRAIN
AND A WILD STRAIN2,3

B. MAZOMENOS, J. L. NATION, W. J. COLEMAN,
K. C. DENNIS, AND R. ESPONDA4

Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida, Gainesville 32611

ABSTRACT
Mating behavior and insemination were compared in a laboratory strain
and wild strain of Caribbean fruit flies, Anastrepha suspense (Loew), under
laboratory conditions. The laboratory strain began mating at an earlier
age and mated more readily in small screen cages in the laboratory than
the wild strain did. Sixty percent of the laboratory strain females mated
a second time, and some mated 3, 4, and 5 times. Most of the remating oc-
curred within 48 hr of the initial mating. None of 25 once-mated wild fe-
males remated within 5 days. Flies of both strains mated with each other.
Males of both strains failed to transfer sperm to females in about 25% of
the initial matings. The mean time spent in copulation by the wild strain
was 37.4 +2.0 min, and neither the laboratory strain nor crosses between
the strains differed from this time significantly.


Successful colonization of a wild insect strain results from the selec-
tion and survival of those genotypes best adapted to the laboratory and to
specific cultural practices. As a consequence laboratory adapted strains of
insects may differ in numerous ways from wild strains of the same species.
Raulston (1975) found that a laboratory adapted strain of Heliothis vires-
cens (F.) had a higher percentage of matings and mated more frequently
than a wild strain. The wild strain became more similar to the laboratory
strain, however, after only a few generations of laboratory culture. In re-
cent reviews Boller (1972) and Huettel (1976) described additional specific
examples of the effect of colonization. Both suggested that one measure of
the quality of reared insects should be comparisons between laboratory and
wild strains with respect to mating frequency, time of mating, insemination
rates, and general mating behavior.
Mating behavior of laboratory and wild strains of the Caribbean fruit
fly, Anastrepha suspense (Loew), has been studied (Nation 1972, Perdomo
1974), but no comparative data exist relative to mating frequency, insemina-
tion rates, or duration of mating. This is a report of experiments designed
to obtain data on these aspects of reproductive biology with a laboratory
and a wild strain of the Caribbean fruit fly.


'Anastrepha suspense (Loew), Diptera: Tephritidae.
'This work was partially supported by a fellowship (to B. M.) from the International Atomic
Energy Agency and a grant (to J. L. N.) from the Florida Citrus Commission.
'Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 425.
'Present address: Instituto Technologico y De Estudios Superiores De Monterrey, Mon-
terrey, Mexico.


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977









The Florida Entomologist


MATERIALS AND METHODS
Laboratory reared flies were taken from a stock colony maintained by
Dr. R. M. Baranowski at Homestead, Florida, for 10 years in the laboratory
without the introduction of wild stock (Baranowski, personal communica-
tion). Wild flies were reared from infested guava fruit collected in Home-
stead, Florida during September 1976. In the one experiment involving in-
tercrosses of laboratory females x wild males, the laboratory females
came from a subcolony (Dr. P. Greany, USDA, Gainesville, Florida) of
Baranowski's colony. Prior to experimentation adults were maintained in
cloth covered aluminum frame cages in incubators at 26 +1C with 14 hr
light and 10 hr darkness.
The first experiment was designed to determine remating in laboratory
colony insects, since wild insects were not available. Flies were trans-
ferred to 12.5 x 9 x 9 cm screen cages for mating at room temperature
(about 270C) under a combination of natural daylight supplemented by
fluorescent lights. Three virgin females and 1 virgin male were placed in
each of 50 cages to obtain once mated females. Remating of females was
studied by placing each mated female in a cage with 3 virgin males. Each
time a female remated she was transferred to a cage with 3 virgin males.
Remating of 25 once mated males was determined by placing each mated
male with 3 virgin females, and after each mating 3 virgin females were
again supplied. The flies were first given an opportunity to mate at 7 days
of age.
Cages were observed continuously from 0800 to 2000 hr for 14 days and
then, because the cumulative data on mating showed that nearly 70% oc-
curred after 1300 hours, cages were observed only from 1500 hours to 1950
hours for an additional 7 days. During the first 14 days males and females
were not separated at night (2000 hr to 0800 hr). We knew from experience
that flies were inactive in the dark. During the final 7 days males were re-
moved from the cages except during the hours of observation.
Wild strain flies that became available in September were treated in
the same manner for first matings and rematings as described for laboratory
colony flies, except that all cages were observed only from 1350 hr to
1900 hr. Males were allowed in the cages only during periods of observa-
tion. Wild flies were first given an opportunity to mate at 8 days of age.
Female insemination and duration of copulation tests were set up as
described for female first matings, and observations were made from 1350 to
1700 hr. Laboratory colony flies used in these tests were 9 or 10 days old.
Data from wild strain flies had to be collected from flies between 8 and
20 days old due to the limited number of flies of a given age available.
Insemination of females was determined by phase contrast microscopy
of the 3 spermathecae dissected from females and squashed in a saline (Na-
tion 1974).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Laboratory colony flies began mating at 7 days of age, and more than
75% of 50 females from the first experiment mated by the age of 10 days. A
few wild flies mated at 9 or 10 days, but the majority mated after 14 days
(Table 1). Wild females mated less readily than laboratory females at
every age. It was not uncommon to have 18-20 matings from 20 observa-


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977










Mazomenos et al.: Carib Fly Reproduction


TABLE 1. THE INFLUENCE OF AGE OF BOTH SEXES OF Anastrepha sus-
pensa UPON THE PERCENTAGE OF MATINGS OBTAINED DURING
3-1/2 HR OBSERVATIONS (BETWEEN 1350 AND 1700 HR) FROM
CAGES CONTAINING 1 WILD MALE AND 3 WILD FEMALES IN EACH
CAGE.


Age (days) 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
No. cages observed 20 20 20 20 40 40 20 23 88
No. mating pairs 0 2 3 2 7 8 8 13 45
% mating 0 10 15 10 17.5 20 40 56.5 51



tion cages within an hour when 9 or 10 day old laboratory flies were tested.
The maximum, however, was 10 matings from 20 cages observed during an
afternoon with 15-16 day-old wild flies. The laboratory environment and
the small screen cages may have inhibited wild flies, and there probably
has been a selection for greater readiness to mate by laboratory colony
flies under laboratory conditions.
Among laboratory colony flies observed from 0800 to 2000 hr, 30.8%
mated before 1300 hr (93 pairs), while 69.2% mated later in the day (209
pairs). The maximum number of matings during a 1 hr period fell between
1700 and 1800 hours. Perdomo (1974) observed no matings of Caribbean fruit
flies in the field during the morning hours although he spent equal time in
observations before and after noon. Therefore, we made observations on
wild flies only during the afternoon.
Multiple mating of females was common in the laboratory strain, but
not in the wild strain in these laboratory tests. Sixty percent of 50 labora-
tory strain females mated a second time, 28% mated 3 times, 14% mated 4
times, and 12% mated 5 times. A few (3) mated more than 5 times. More than
85% of the rematings occurred within 48 hr after the first mating, and 20% of
rematings occurred the same day as the first mating. None of 25 once-mated
wild females remated within 5 days after the first mating, and observations
were not continued longer. In similar studies about 60% of Mediterranean
fruit fly females (Nakagawa et al. 1971) and 74% of olive fruit fly females
(Tzanakakis et al. 1968) mated more than once. Multiple matings of the
Mediterranean fruit fly females occurred within 2-3 days of the first mating,
as we found in this study, but olive fruit fly females remated only after a
lapse of several weeks following the first mating. Both Mediterranean and
olive fruit flies in the studies cited were laboratory strain flies.
Both laboratory strain and wild males mated repeatedly, and often
up to 5 times a day if kept with receptive females. All of 25 laboratory
strain males observed from 0800 to 2000 hr daily from age 5 days to age 13
days mated once, over 90% mated 4 times, 76% mated 5 times, and 68% mated
more than 5 times. The first matings in these flies occurred when both males
and females were 7 days old.
About 25% of both laboratory and wild males failed to inseminate fe-
males in the initial mating (Table 2). Furthermore an additional 18% of
wild males and 27% of laboratory males failed to transfer more than 1
dozen sperm to females in the first mating. Thus in these flies approxi-
mately one-half of the females from initial matings could be essentially










The Florida Entomologist


TABLE 2. PERCENTAGE OF Anastrepha suspense FEMALES WITH SPERM
IN 1 OR MORE OF THE 3 SPERMATHECAE FOLLOWING THE FIRST
MATING.


Sperm Found

Cross N None Few* Moderate
to
many

Wild female x
wild male 49 24.5 18.4 57.1
Lab female X
lab male 62 22.6 27.4 50.0
Lab female X
wild male 20 25.0 30.0 45.0
Wild female x
lab male 19 57.9 10.5 31.6

*Fewer than a dozen sperm counted from the 3 spermathecae in each female.

infertile unless females mated again. The multiple matings of laboratory
strain females are functionally adaptive in view of the high rate of male
insemination failure. The lack of multiple mating of wild females in this
study is difficult to explain since the insemination success by wild males
was not appreciably different from that of laboratory males. A possible
explanation is that factors other than the presence of sperm influence
mating of wild females more than they influence the laboratory adapted
strain. Perdomo (1974) only observed mating pairs on the underside of
leaves of several varieties of plants. Thus it is not inconceivable that fac-
tors such as light quality and/or quantity, leaf texture, or leaf odors might
be important stimuli to wild flies. A variety of stimuli in addition to the
presence or absence of sperm do control receptivity of once mated females
of many insects (Leopold 1976).
Laboratory and wild flies readily mate with each other if wild flies are
at least 14 days old. Between-strain crosses were not statistically different
(chi-square test of independence, x' = 11.63, x2 .05, 6 d.f. = 12.59) from within-
strain crosses with respect to the degree of insemination (Table 2). The time
spent in the initial mating for all crosses is summarized in Table 3. Analy-
sis of variance indicated no significant differences among the mean times at
the 0.05 level.
Rossler (1975) found that 25% of either wild or laboratory strain Medi-
terranean fruit fly females were not inseminated by wild males in a 24 hr
mating period. Laboratory strain males did not inseminate 43% of the lab-
oratory females or 58% of the wild females in a 24 hr mating period. While
these percentages are similar, in some respects, to those we present from
Caribbean fruit flies, they cannot be directly compared to our data because
of significant differences in techniques. Rossler (1975) caged groups of males
and females for 24 hr, and thus non-inseminated females in his study would
include those that did not mate at all as well as those that may not have
received sperm during mating.


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977









Mazomenos et al.: Carib Fly Reproduction


TABLE 3. MATING DURATION OF Anastrepha suspense TESTED IN THE
LABORATORY. ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE REVEALS NO SIGNIFICANT
DIFFERENCES AMONG MEANS AT THE 0.05 level.


Cross N Time in copulo Min. S.E.

Wild female X wild male 89 37.4 2.0
Lab female x lab male 62 36.3 1.5
Lab female x wild male 21 34.5 2.7
Wild female x lab male 21 28.33.1


Our observations lead us to believe that the female Caribbean fruit fly
controls the mating process, and that she exercises control at several
levels. For example, she may or may not respond to the male produced
pheromone; she usually makes the first physical contact with a calling
male (Nation 1972); she can resist a persistent male by directing the ovi-
positor sheath downward toward the substrate, by kicking the male away,
and by simple flying away. We postulate that finally she can control
whether the male inseminates her during the mating. A plausible way she
might control insemination could be to control a chemical secretion within
the reproductive tract that is necessary for male ejaculation.
Two effects of colonization of the Caribbean fruit fly were identified in
this study. The laboratory stock flies mature and mate earlier (about 5
days) than wild flies, and laboratory flies mate much more readily in
small screen cages. The culture procedures used by Baranowski (personal
communication), who has routinely used eggs produced early by a cage of
mixed sexes to restock the colony, would tend to select for individuals that
matured and mated earlier, and for those that showed a readiness to mate in
the laboratory without stimuli of host plants, leaf odors and surfaces, or
natural lighting conditions.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank Dr. R. M. Baranowski (Univ. of Florida, Homestead, Fla.)
for pupae of both the laboratory and wild strain, and Dr. P. Greany (USDA,
Gainesville, Florida) for one group of laboratory females from his sub-
colony of Baranowski's colony. We thank Drs. R. M. Baranowski and
Carol Musgrave (Univ. of Fla.) and Dr. John Attaway (Florida Citrus
Commission, Lakeland, Fla.) for critical review of the manuscript.


LITERATURE CITED

BOLLER, E. 1972. Behavioral aspects of mass rearing of insects. Entomo-
phaga 17(1):9-25.
HUETTEL, M. D. 1976. Monitoring the quality of laboratory-reared insects:
A biological and behavioral perspective. Environ. Ent. 5:807-14.
LEOPOLD, R. A. 1976. The role of male accessory glands in insect reproduc-
tion. Annu. Rev. Ent. 199-221.








The Florida Entomologist


NAKAGAWA, S., G. J. FARIAS, D. SUDA, R. T. CUNNINGHAM, AND D. L. CHAM-
BERS. 1971. Reproduction of the Mediterranean fruit fly: Frequency
of mating in the laboratory. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 64:949-50.
NATION, J. L. 1972. Courtship behavior and evidence for a sex attractant in
the male Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspense. Ann. Ent. Soc.
Amer. 65:1364-7.
NATION, J. L. 1974. The structure and development of two sex specific
glands in male Caribbean fruit flies. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 67:731-4.
PERDOMO, A. J. 1974. Sex and Aggregation pheromone bioassays and mating
observations of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspense (Loew),
under field conditions. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Florida,
Gainesville 32611.
RAULSTON, J. R. 1975. Tobacco budworm: observations on the laboratory
adaptation of a wild strain. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 68:139-42.
ROSSLER, Y. 1975. The ability to inseminate: a comparison between labora-
tory-reared and field populations of the Mediterranean fruitfly
(Ceratitis capitata). Ent. Exp. & Appl. 18:255-60.
TZANAKAKIS, M. E., J. A. TSITSIPIS, AND A. P. ECONOMOPOULOS. 1968. Fre-
quency of mating in females of the olive fruit fly under laboratory
conditions. J. Econ. Ent. 61:1309-12.










PRINTING




Speialin in Boof aPrinting CEations




Storter Printing Co.


GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977










The Florida Entomologist


STERILIZATION OF HOUSE FLIES, MUSCA DOMESTIC
L., WITH LIQUID BAITS CONTAINING CHEMICALS'.-(Note).
When the use of gamma irradiation adversely affects insects or is not eco-
nomically feasible, chemicals can often be used instead to induce sterility.
The method of chemosterilization varies among insects. Against some, in-
corporation of the chemical in the food is preferred; with others, the steri-
lant is applied to the insect integument, or the insect is exposed to a treated
residue. However, particularly among flies, the technique of choice is in-
clusion of the sterilant in the diet since an accurate sterilizing dose is as-
sured in that the amount incorporated in the food can be closely regulated.
This technique is effective, rapid, and inexpensive and has been used with
success against a variety of species by many investigators (LaBrecque, G. C.
and C. N. Smith. 1967. Principles of Insect Chemosterilization. Appleton-
Century-Crofts, New York. 347 p.).
In our continuing screening of chemosterilants against the house fly,
Musca domestic L., we have evaluated over 7,600 chemicals. Of these,
over 700 have shown sterilant activity when combined in an adult diet
composed of 6 parts dry milk, 6 parts sugar, and 1 part dry egg yolk (La-
Brecque, G. C., et al., 1960, J. Econ. Ent. 53:802-5; Gouck, H. K. and G. C.
LaBrecque, 1964, J. Econ. Ent. 57:663-4; Fye, R. L., et al., 1965, J. Econ.
Ent. 58:446-8). Studies by Meifert et al. (1967, J. Econ. Entomol. 60:480-5)
indicated that liquid baits were safer to formulate and apply and also
elicited a faster feeding response in field populations of house flies than
conventional dry baits. We therefore incorporated into our screening pro-
gram a secondary evaluation of promising chemosterilants in an aqueous
sugar solution. Since 1968, 450 compounds have been investigated with this
approach. The results with those that were more effective are herewith
reported.
The flies used were taken from the insecticide-resistant colony at this
laboratory. They were separated according to sex at eclosion and were
immediately exposed to various concentrations of the chemosterilant, not
exceeding 1.0%, for 24 h. The treated bait was then replaced with untreated
fly food, and the following day 10 male flies from each treatment were
crossed with 10 virgin females of the same age that had fed on untreated
food only. The same procedure was followed for the reciprocal crosses
with treated females. Six to 7 days later, oviposition medium (Chemical
Specialities Manufacturing Association, Inc.) was placed in each cage for 4-6
h. After the medium was removed, a random sample of 100 eggs was taken
and placed on moist larval medium in a rearing container. The degree of
sterility was based on the number of progeny reaching the pupal stage. Each
test was replicated twice at each concentration tested.
The most effective chemosterilants to cause 100% sterility in both sexes
of house flies were: tepa (0.0001% for males and 0.05% for females), N,N'-
tetramethylenebis(l-aziridinecarboxamide) (0.0005% for males and 0.05% for
females), and P,P-bis(l-aziridinyl)-N-methylophosphinic amide (0.005%
for males and 0.05% for females). The following compounds required a con-
centration between 0.025% and 1.0% to achieve 100% sterility: N,N-hexa-
methylenebis(1-aziridinecarboxamide) (0.025% for males and 0.25% for fe-
males); N,N'-(o-phenylenedimethylene) bis (1-aziridinecarboxamide)
(0.025% for males and 0.5% for females); P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-P-ethyl-
phosphinothioic amide (0.025% for males and 1.0% for females); P,P-bis
(l-aziridinyl)-N-isopropylphosphinic amide (0.05% for males and 0.5% for
females); hydroxydimethylarsine oxide (0.1% for males and 0.025% for


'Diptera: Muscidae.


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977









The Florida Entomologist


females); P,Pbis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide (0.1% for
males and 0.05% for females); N,N-diallyl-P,P-bis(l-aziridinyl) phos-
phinic amide (0.1% for males and 0.25% for females); 2,5-bis(l-aziridinyl)-
3,6-bis(2-methoxyethyxy-p-benzoquinone (0.1% for males and 0.5% for
females); P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-butylphosphinic amide (0.1% for males
and 0.5% for females); N,N'-(4-methyl-m-phenylene)bis(l-aziridinecarbox-
amide) (0.05% for males and 1.0% for females); cycloheximide (0.5% for
males and 0.5% for females); P,P-bis(l-aziridinyl)-N-(3-methoxypropyl)
phosphinothioic amide (0.5% for males and 1.0% for females); propyl bis
(1-aziridinyl)phosphinate (0.5% for males and 1.0% for females); N,N'
-methylenebis(acrylamide) (1.0% for males and 0.5% for females); N,N
-diallyl-P,P-(l-aziridinyl)phosphinothioic amide (1.0% for males and 1.0%
for females). Compounds that effectively sterilized the male flies but were
ineffective against the females were tetramine and P,P-bis(l-aziridinyl)
-N-propylphosphinothioic amide (0.025%). The remaining 33 required a con-
centration between 0.05% and 1.0% to achieve 100% sterility. These are:
metepa (0.05%); bis(l-aziridinyl)ethylphosphine sulfide (0.05%); apholate
(0.1%); 2,4,6-tris(2-methyl-1-aziridinyl)-s-triazine (0.1%); 1,4-piperazin-
ediylbis[bis(l-aziridinyl)phosphine oxide] (0.1%); benzyl [bis(l-aziridinyl)
phosphinyl]carbamate (0.1%); porfiromycin (0.1%); N-[tris(1-aziridinyl)
phosphoranylidene]benzenesulfonamide (0.1%); ethyl bis(1-aziridinyl)
phosphinodithioate (0.1%); bis(l-aziridinyl)ethylphosphine oxide (0.1%); 4,
8-bis(l-aziridinyl)pyrimido[5,4-d]pyrimidine (0.25%); hempa (0.25%); P,P
bis (1-aziridinyl) -N- [4,6-bis (dimethylamino) -s- triazin 2yl] phosphinic
amide (0.25%); N2 ,N,N4,N -tetramethylmelamine monohydrochloride
(0.25%); ,N',N2 ,N',N-tetramethylmelamine (0.25%); N",N2 ,N,N'-tetra-
methylmelamine monohydrochloride (0.25%); 1,3-propanediol dimetha-
nesulfonate (0.25%); N2',N',N -trimethylmelamine monohydrochloride
(0.25%); isopropyl bis(l-aziridinyl)phosphinate (0.25%); S-ethyl bis(lazi-
ridinyl)phosphinothioate (0.25%); laziridinecarboxanilide (0.5%); 1-[bis
(2-methyl-l-aziridinyl)phosphinyl]-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea (0.5%);
hexamethylphosphorothioic triamide (0.5%); pentamethylmelamine hydro-
chloride (0.5%); chlorotriphenyl[tris(1-aziridinyl)phosphine oxide]
stannane (0.5%); N2 ,N2,N4-trimethylmelamine (0.5%); ethylene glycol
dimethanesulfonate (0.5%); N'-hydroxy-N,N' ,N ,N'-tetramethylmela-
mine monohydrochloride (0.5%); 2-(p-chlorophenyl)-l,3,2-benzodioxabo-
role (1.0%); methyl bis(1-aziridinyl)phosphinate (1.0%); butyl bis(l-
aziridinyl)phosphinate (1.0%); N,N'-pentamethylenebis[P,P-bis( 1 -aziridi-
nyl)phosphinothioic amide] (1.0%); S-methyl bis(l-aziridinyl)phosphino-
thioate (1.0%). The 5 compounds that sterilized the females only required
a concentration between 0.25% and 1.0%. They are 3,5-bis(dimethylamino)
-1,2,4-dithiazolium chloride (0.25%); thiourea (0.5%); disodium N-hy-
droxy-N-nitroso-f-alanine salt (0.5%); 2,4-diamino-6-(2-furyl)-s-triazine
monohydrochloride (1.0%); 5-amino-s-triazole-3-thiol (1.0%).-D. W. Mei-
fert and G. C. LaBrecque, Insects Affecting Man Research Laboratory,
Agr. Res. Serv., USDA, Gainesville, FL 32604.


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977









The Florida Entomologist Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977 147



CONTROL OF MOLE CRICKETS IN TURF'-(Note). In Florida
and other south-eastern states, mole crickets are one of the major turf
pests that damage grass by feeding on the roots. The characteristic burrowing
also damages the root system, uproots plants, and allows excessive soil
water evaporation.
Four species of mole crickets have been described in Florida but only 2,
Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder and S. acletus Rehn and Hebard, are consid-
ered economically important. They have similar life cycles and habits
(N. C. Hayslip; 1943, Fla. Ent., 26:33-46).
Chemical controls have not provided consistently good control.
Weather conditions and timing of applications greatly affect insecticide
performance. Short and Driggers (1973; Fla. Ent. 56:19-23) noted that al-
though sprays and granules may produce high mortality in the spring, toxic
baits normally fail to provide control at that time. They also proposed
that toxic baits would provide control in summer and early fall. Koehler
and Short (1976; J. Econ. Ent. 69:229-32) found that certain toxic baits
would provide high nymphal mortality when applied to pastures in sum-
mer. This report presents field evaluations of candidate insecticidal baits,
granules, and sprays for mole cricket control in turf.
Experiments were conducted on a heavily infested bermudagrass golf
course in Jacksonville, Fla. One hundred thirty plots measuring 10 X 10
ft separated by 3 ft borders were treated with candidate insecticidal baits
(B), granules (G), or sprays. Five control plots were not treated. A ran-
domized complete block design with 27 treatments replicated 5 times was
used.
Twelve insecticides were applied on 27 Aug. 1975 to determine their
efficacy for the control of mole crickets at various rates of application.
Baits and granules were applied by hand, and sprays were applied with a
2 gal watering can. Two gallons of formulated spray were applied to each
plot. Plots treated with sprays or granules were irrigated with ca. 1/4 in.
of water immediately following application. Plots treated with toxic
baits were irrigated with 1/4 in. of water prior to treatment.
For the first 3 days (28, 29, and 30 Aug. 1975) following application, dead
or moribund mole crickets found on the soil surface were counted and re-
moved from each plot. A total of 4,287 mole crickets was collected from
treated plots, and a representative sample of 88 was identified. All speci-
mens were S. vicinus. The data from number of dead or moribund crickets
were analyzed by Analysis of Variance, and Means were separated by Dun-
can's Multiple Range Test.
All chlordane applications failed to provide significant mole cricket
mortality. A commercially available bait containing chlordane + toxa-
phene also failed to provide significant mortality. It may be concluded
that chlordane is no longer providing adequate mole cricket control in
northeast Florida.
In general, bait formulations performed significantly better than most
sprays and granules when applied in late August. The only emulsion to
provide excellent mole cricket mortality was 0-[5-Chloro-l-(1-methyl-
ethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl]O,O-diethyl phosphorothioate (ENT-29128) at
a rate of 4 LB AI/acre. At 2 lb AI/acre it gave moderate mortality. Two
percent bait formulations of malathion, chlorpyrifos, propoxur, and primi-
fos ethyl gave excellent mortalities at rates of 0.5, 1.0, 1.0, and 2.0 lb
AI/acre, respectively. Chorpyrifos 0.5% B applied at the recommended
0.75 lb AI/acre also provided excellent control. Carbofuran 15% G (6 lb


'Fla. Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 9010.









The Florida Entomologist


AI/acre) and 2,3-(isopropylidenedioxy)phenyl methylcarbamate (Ficam')
80% WP (0.5 lb AI/acre) provided moderate mole cricket mortality. The
remaining materials did not provide significant mortality.
As a result of these and previous findings (Koehler and Short; 1976,
J. Econ. Ent. 69:229-32) several insecticide registrations have been peti-
tioned for mole cricket control. Two registrations have been granted and
Florida recommendations have been revised accordingly.
We thank Dr. F. G. Martin, IFAS Statistics Department, for the statisti-
cal analysis of the mole cricket data, Mr. J. P. Flavin of Chemagro, and
Mr. J. R. Mangold, Graduate Assistant in Extension, who assisted in the
field work, and Mr. W. P. Broome of Southern Mill Creek Products Co. for
formulating the baits. D. E. Short and P. G. Koehler. Department of
Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville,
Florida 32611.





















REDISCOVERY OF POLYSPHINCTA ALBIPES CRESSON
(HYMENOPTERA: ICHNEUMONIDAE).-(Note). Cresson (1880,
Ann. Rep. USDA for 1879, p. 208) described Polysphincta albipes from a
male reared from cocoons collected on an orange leaf at Rockledge,
Brevard Co., Florida. Hubbard (1885, Insects Affecting the Orange, p. 153)
gave a description, biological note and host (?Platynota rostrana). Townes
and Townes (1960, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. 216(2):255-256) could not locate
the holotype, and reported that "no specimen has since been collected which
fits the original description", which they cited. A female fitting the original
description was collected in a wall-type insect flight trap by G. B. Fair-
child at Paynes Prairie, Alachua Co., Florida on 16-18 March 1977. In
addition, the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville, has
specimens with the following data: FLORIDA: Sarasota Co., Sarasota,
10-III-1972, B. H. Strickland, Trap McPhail (male), 13-III-1972, L. L. Car-
penter, Trap McPhail (female); (Manatee Co.,) Palmetto, 22-II-1967, D. C.
Chancey, in Fruit Fly Trap (male). Apparently this species flies in early-
spring, since adult collection dates above are late-February through mid-
March. The FSCA specimens were determined by C. C. Porter; the Paynes
Prairie specimen is in the personal collection of the author. H. N. Green-
baum, Univ. Florida, Gainesville, 32611.


148


Vol. 60, No. 2, 1977




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs