Title: Florida Entomologist
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Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1977
Copyright Date: 1917
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Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
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The


FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

Volume 60, No. 4 December, 1977




CONTENTS

O'BRIEN, C. W.-Cercopeus komareki, New Species from Florida and Georgia
(Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Otiorhynchinae) .. 257
CUNNINGHAM, H. B., AND J. B. HARPER-A Funnel-Trap for Monitoring Fallout
from Forest Canopies after Insecticide Applications ..... 263
BUSCHMAN, L. L., W. H. WHITCOMB, T. M. NEAL, AND D. L. MAYS-Winter Sur-
rival and Hosts of the Velvetbean Caterpillar in Florida ....267
JOUVENAZ, D. P., G. E. ALLEN, W. A. BANKS, AND D. P. WOJCIK-A Survey for
Pathogens of Fire Ants, Solenopsis spp., in the Southeastern United States 275
MUTT, J. A. M.-Fifteen New Records and a New Species of Collembola from
the Dominican Republic ... 281
TYsowsKY, M., AND T. GALLO-Ovicidal Activity of Ambush", a Synthetic Py-
rethroid Insecticide, on Corn Earworm, Fall Armyworm, and Cabbage
Looper ... ...... .. 287
KISH, L. P., I. TERRY, AND G. E. ALLEN-Three Fungi Tested Against the Love-
bug, Plecia nearctica, in Florida. ..... ... ....... 291
WILLIAMS, D. F., G. C. LABRECQUE, AND R. S. PATTERSON-Effect of Gamma Rays
and/or Fluorescent Pigments on Sterility and Survival of the Stable Fly .. 297
GREENBAUM, H. M.-A Revised Key to the Adults of Florida Acantholyda,
with a Description of the Male and Discussion of Acantholyda bicolorata
(Hymenoptera: Pamphiliidae) .. ...... 301
Scientific Notes
HOWARD, F. W., AND G. A. HuTCHINSON-TTanglefoot for Collecting Homop-
tera Associated with Palms, and Plastic Tubes for Specimen Storage .. 280
WALKER, T. J.-Japanese Burrowing Cricket Widely Established in South-
eastern United States 309
Dr. Milledge Murphey Named Entomologist of the Year . .. 305
Photo Stories .. 307, 309
Book Reviews ... 286, 296, 300
Notice to Members 261


Published by The Florida Entomological Society





















THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY

OFFICERS FOR 1977-78

P resident. ...... .................................. ..................................... ..... J. B T aylor
Vice-President .................................... ..................... R F. Brooks
Secretary ..... .... ... .............. .......... ............. .............. F W M ead
Treasurer ..... ....... ... ...... ........... ................. N. N C. Leppla

C. S. Lofgren
E. C. Beck
Other Members of Executive Committee.......................... S. H. Kerr
R. C. Bullock
A. K. Burditt, Jr.
W. L. Peters

PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE

E ditor.... . ... .. . .. ... ........... .. ................ ... . ............. ..S. H K err
A ssocia te E editors .... ................. .......... .................. ............ ...... E E G rissell
J. E. Lloyd
H. V. Weems, Jr.
Carol A. Musgrave
R. M. Baranowski
B business M manager ........ ....... ....... .. ...................................... ... N C Leppla

THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST is issued quarterly-March, June, September, and
December. Subscription price to non-members $15.00 per year in advance, $3.75 per
copy. Entered as second class matter at the post office at Gainesville, Florida.
Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be sent to the Editor, Entomology
Department, University of Florida, Gainesville. Subscriptions and orders for back
numbers are handled by the Business Manager, Box 12425, University Station, Gaines-
ville, Florida 32604. The Secretary can be reached at the same address.
When preparing manuscripts, authors should consult "Instructions to Authors",
on the cover of most issues, and examine recent issues for details of form and style.
The page charge is $10.00 per page, partial pages proportionally. Page charges
are scaled upward for articles more than 10 printed pages long. One page of tables
is allowed free in every article. Beyond this allowance, tabular matter in excess
of 25% of the printed article's length is charged at $20.00 per page, partial pages pro-
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Reprints cost 2.50 per page for the first 1,500 pages and 1 per page thereafter. For
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of partial page notes, book reviews, obituaries, etc. No covers for reprints will be pro-
vided.
This issue mailed December 16,1977












The Florida Entomologist


CERCOPEUS KOMAREKI, NEW SPECIES FROM FLORIDA
AND GEORGIA (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE:
OTIORHYNCHINAE)

CHARLES W. O'BRIEN'

Laboratory of Aquatic Entomology, University P.O. Box 111
Florida A and M University, Tallahassee, Fla. 32307

ABSTRACT
The southward range of Cercopeus now extends to northern Florida with
the description of komareki O'Brien, new species. Males are described for
this bisexual species in a usually parthenogenetic group. C. komareki is
separated by a series of diagnostic characters from related or similar species,
e.g. clispus Sleeper, strigicollis Sleeper, bolli Burke, and chrysorrhoeus
(Say). Illustrations of the female 8th sternite and the male phallus and
endophallus of komareki are included. Also figured are the foretibia of the
above named species.


The genus Cercopeus is known from much of the eastern United States,
west to Arkansas and Texas. Previously in the East it was not known south
of central Georgia. Nine species have been described, but the male is known
for only isquitus Sleeper, and that only one specimen (Sleeper 1955).
Cercopeus have been collected most often by sifting woodland litter.
Burke (1963) collected 1 species in Texas (bolli) from beneath boards and
debris on the ground around farm buildings.
I have taken komareki n. sp. from berlesed mixed hardwood litter and
have numerous specimens collected in pitfall traps. Males are quite com-
mon for the first time in studies of this tribe, Trachyphloeini. For a key to
separate the genus see Kissinger (1964) or Sleeper (1955), and the latter
keys the then known species.

Cercopeus komareki O'Brien, NEW SPECIES
Body oblong-oval; integument shining, dark reddish brown; clothed
densely with dark brown, pale whitish brown, and few black, round to
broadly oval, recumbent scales and with moderately sparse, distinct, erect
to suberect, coarse, scalelike setae.
HOLOTYPE FEMALE-Rostrum weakly curved, dorsal line slightly
curved in lateral view; median area shallowly depressed from base to
apical 1/3; basal 2/3 densely clothed with recumbent, round scales nearly
or completely concealing punctures, apical 1/3 glabrous, rugosely punc-
tate, substriate with median carina from strongly keeled margin of nasal
plate. Head with frons densely clothed between eyes with recumbent
scales, concealing punctures, dorsally with scale bearing punctures
clearly visible, becoming distinct strigae towards vertex and genae, there
glabrous to subglabrous; eyes strongly convex; antennae stout; scape


'This study was supported in part by the following grants in aid: USDA Cooperative State
Research Service Grant Nos. 716-15-22 and 416-15-16 to Florida A. and M. University.


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977












The Florida Entomologist


strongly clavate, clothed with dense, dark, recumbent scales and mod-
erately dense, long, coarse, erect, scalelike setae; funicular segment 1 one-
sixth longer than 2, 3 through 6 subequal, one-half as long as 1, 7 one-
fourth longer than 6; club short, broadly oval, as long as funicular seg-
ments 1 and 2 together, broader than 1. Prothorax less than 1/10 wider than
long; sides strongly rounded from base to widest point at apical 1/3, then
rather strongly constricted to subtubulate apex; disc coarsely punctate,
usually apical 1/2 to 2/3 with distinct to moderately distinct strigae, often
partially obscured by recumbent scales in punctures, and posterior 1/3 and
lateral margins lacking strigae, with punctures concealed by scales; with
moderately sparse, distinct, suberect scalelike setae; scales brown to black
with distinct broad lateral and uneven, narrow, usually medially inter-
rupted, longitudinal, pale lines. Scutellum small, triangular, scarcely or
not visible. Elytra oval, sides rounded from base to apex, subparallel in
middle; median area of disc dark brown to black with uneven pale margin
from humeri to declivity; suture fused, sutural line concealed by scales,
10 striae visible, strial punctures shallow, elongate and distinct; intervals
broad, nearly flat, each with row of suberect scalelike setae and densely
clothed with round, recumbent scales. Venter of pro- and mesothorax and
fore- and midcoxae with dense recumbent plumose scales; metathorax with
mixture of plumose and few normal striate recumbent scales; abdominal
sterna mainly with sparse recumbent non-plumose scales, most dense on
posterior margins; with rather sparse subrecumbent setae; and with some
plumose scales only on lateral areas of sternum 1; most of area im-
punctate except median anterior area of sternum 1 and much of sternum 5
with sparse, very large, coarse punctures, remainder with at most, sparse,
fine punctures, sternum 1 weakly depressed in anterior 1/2, convex poster-
iorly; 2 nearly flat, shorter than 1; 3 and 4 flat, subequal to 2; 5 flat,
slightly longer than 3 and 4 together. Legs stout; femora strongly clavate;
with dense, recumbent, non-imbricate scales, and subrecumbent coarse setae;
tibiae expanded at apices; fore tibia (Fig. 1) usually with 5 or 6 short coarse
spines and inner uncus, and weakly but clearly curved on inner margin
near apex; inner margin weakly dentate; hind tibia with 2 dark anterior
apical spines, and lateral apical margin with 10 or more coarse pale spines,
short anteriorly, becoming longer posteriorly. Apical plate of 8th sternite
(Fig. 10) strongly ventrally convex; spermatheca (Fig. 11.) Length, pro-
notum and elytron:3.0 mm.
ALLOTYPE MALE.-Differs from female in its usually smaller, more
slender form. Venter with sterna 1 and 2 broadly strongly impressed; all
sterna with rather dense, subrecumbent setae. Legs with fore tibia (Fig. 2)
with deeply strongly curved inner margin; outer apical margin rounded,
not expanded outward; apical spines very small. Endophallus with paired
apical sclerotized rods, each with apex forming broad flattened plates,
and basally with heavily pigmented, sclerotized hook (Fig. 8, 9). Length,
pronotum and elytron:2.7 mm.
MATERIAL EXAMINED.-On hand for this study were 264 specimens.
RANGE.-Known only from northern Florida and southern Georgia.
HOLOTYPE FEMALE, allotype male, and 15 female, 13 male paratypes,
Florida, Leon Co., Tallahassee, 11-XI-1976 C. W. O'Brien & G. B. Marshall,
berlese mixed hardwood litter.
PARATYPES.-FLORIDA. Gadsen Co.: 1 mi. E. Havana, 6-1-1977, C. W.


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977










O'Brien: Cercopeus komareki, N. sp.


2



rr===:)


~1ZZ0
fI=


ii








11


1mm
Fig. 1-11. Cercopeus species. Fig. 1-6. Lateral view of foretibia: 1) ko
mareki, female; 2) komareki, male; 3) bolli, female; 4) strigicollis, female;
5) chrysorrhoeus, female; 6) clispus, female. Fig. 7-11. Genitalia of ko-
mareki: 7) lateral view of phallus; 8) dorsal view of phallus; 9) apical
1/3 of phallus, including apical part of endophallus; 10) 8th sternite,
female; 11) spermatheca.

O'Brien et al., berlese pine-hardwood litter (3 females). Leon Co.: Talla-
hassee, 21-1-1976, G. B. Marshall, berlese mixed hardwood litter (1 male);
same except 4-II-1976 (10 females, 8 males); same except 15-II-1976 (1
female); same except 15-II-1977, G. B. Marshall and L. D. Justice (21 fe-
males, 8 males); same except 16-II-1976, C. W. O'Brien, berlese hardwood
litter (8 females, 3 males); same except 4-III-1976, G. B. Marshall, berlese
mixed hardwood litter (3 females, 4 males); same except 27-X-1976, L. D.


7









9


~3--==3












The Florida Entomologist


Justice, berlese hardwood litter (1 female); same except 19-XI-1976, G. B.
Marshall and L. D. Justice (12 females, 6 males); same except 2-XII-1976,
G. B. Marshall (2 females); same except 6-XII-1976, berlese mixed hard-
wood litter (20 females); same except 17-XII-1976 (5 females, 3 males).
2 mi. N.W. Tallahassee, 6-1-1977, C. W. O'Brien et al. berlese mixed hard-
wood litter (9 females, 12 males). Hwy. 157, near Lake Jackson, 6-1-1977,
C. W. O'Brien et al., berlese mixed hardwood litter (6 females, 2 males).
Tall Timbers Res. Sta., Loc. W35C, pine hardwood forest, unburned 13 yrs.,
17-24-1-1972, D. L. Harris, pitfall trap (1 female, 2 males); same except 31-
I to 7-II-1972 (1 female, 2 males); same except "thick needle duff" (3
females, 1 male); same except (next 3 lack "thick needle duff") 22-24-XI-
1971 (3 females); same except 13-20-XII-1971 (2 females, 4 males); same ex-
cept 27-XII-1971 to 3-1-1972 (3 females, 2 males); Tall Timbers Res.
Sta. Woodyard Hammock, 3-10-1-1972, D. L. Harris, pitfall trap (1 female);
same except 23-1-1976, C. W. O'Brien and Marshall, berlese beech magnolia
litter (2 females, 1 male); same except 31-III-1977, C. W. O'Brien and G.
Wimber (6 females, 3 males); same except 9-15-V-1972, D. L. Harris, pitfall
trap (1 female); same except 24-XI-1972, C. W. O'Brien, berlese funnel (1
female, 2 males); same except 25-XII-1976, C. W. O'Brien and G. Wibmer,
berlese beech magnolia litter (11 females, 15 males). GEORGIA. Decatur
Co.: 4 mi. N. Faceville, 28-II-1977, C. W. O'Brien and G. B. Marshall,
berlese mixed hardwood litter (1 female).
The holotype, allotype and numerous paratypes are deposited in the
author's collection. Paratypes are also in the following collections:
British Museum (Natural History), London, England; Dr. Horace Burke,
Texas A & M University, College Station, TX.; California Academy of
Science, San Francisco, CA.; Florida State Collection of Arthropods,
Gainesville, FL.; Dr. E. L. Sleeper, Long Beach, CA.; Tall Timbers Re-
search Station, Tallahassee, FL.; and the National Museum of Natural
History, Washington, D.C.
DiscussION: In Sleeper (1955) this species will key to couplet 5 with
strigicollis and clispus. The presence of a spine above the outer apical
angle on the foretibia and the distinct median pronotal tumidity readily
distinguishes strigicollis (Fig. 4) from komareki (Fig. 1). The straight fore-
tibia (Fig. 6) and very coarse, not longitudinal, thoracic strigae of clispus
are diagnostic. Another species also similar to komareki which would key
to the same couplet is bolli Burke. The presence of a median posteriorly
projecting spine on the hind margin of the prothorax and the presence of nar-
rower scales on the midline of the disc of the prothorax compared to lateral
rounded scales will separate bolli from all 3 species.
The extensive series of more than 250 specimens makes it possible to
observe and record the rather extensive variation in this species. In addition
to the wide range in size (length, pronotum and elytron: 2.3 to 3.8 mm.),
there is extensive variation in scale color. The color patterns range from a
generally tessellated light and dark overall pattern to that described
for the holotype and allotype with various intermediate patterns as well.
The pattern found in the types is most common, however. The number and
position of the spines on the apex of the foretibia also are variable, though
again those figured are most common. The length and width of the spines
varies up to double the sizes figured and the number may be the "typical"
5 or may be 6, 7 or very rarely 8. In no case is there a preapical (Fig. 4, 5)


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977













O'Brien: Cercopeus komareki, N. sp.


outer spine as in strigicollis and the rather common eastern species chry-
sorrhoeus (Say)(1831). The denticles on the inner foretibial margin range
from broad, rather acute and distinct, to very fine and scarcely visible. The
prothoracic strigae vary from coarse and clearly visible to very fine and
moderately distinct. The strigae may be nearly concealed by the recumbent
scales. The posterior area of the prothorax, clothed with large, dense, round
scales which may form a small median spot or may cover the posterior 1/2
of the disc.
I take pleasure in naming this species for Dr. Edwin V. Komarek, Sr.,
Director of Tall Timbers Research Station, whose cooperation and gener-
osity in the use of facilities at the Station made possible the early research
on this species and on many others.


LITERATURE CITED

BURKE, H. R. 1963. New species of Texas weevils, with notes on others
(Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Southwest. Nat. 8(3):162-72, illus.
KISSINGER, D. G. 1964. Curculionidae of America North of Mexico, a key
to the genera. i-v, 1-143, illus. Taxonomic Publications, South Lan-
caster, MA.
SAY, T. 1831. Descriptions of North American Curculionides. 30 p. New
Harmony.
SLEEPER, E. L. 1955. A review of the Trachyphloeini of America North of
Mexico (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Ohio J. Sci. 55(5):279-92, illus.




CONFERENCE ON STORED-PRODUCT ENTOMOLOGY

The Second International Working Conference on Stored-Product Ento-
mology will be held in Ibadan, Nigeria, 10-16 September 1978 at the Con-
ference Centre on the campus of the University of Ibadan.
The purpose of the Conference is to provide a forum for intellectual and
practical discussions on current research and future research needs in the
context of the World Food Economy.
For information, inquiries should be addressed to: Organizers, Working
Conference on Stored-Product Entomology, c/o Director, Institute of Agri-
cultural Research and Training, P.M.B. 5029, Moor Plantation, Ibadan,
Nigeria.










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The Florida Entomologist


A FUNNEL-TRAP FOR MONITORING FALLOUT
FROM FOREST CANOPIES AFTER
INSECTICIDE APPLICATIONS

HUGH B. CUNNINGHAM AND JAMES D. HARPER
Department of Zoology-Entomology,
Auburn University Agricultural Experiment Station
Auburn, Alabama 36830

ABSTRACT
Descriptions of materials and methods used in designing a 1 m' trap for
collecting fallout samples from forest canopies after treatment with in-
secticides are presented. These traps were quite effective in collecting the
target caterpillars, non-target arthropods, frass, and plant material.


A simple collecting device was manufactured to sample fallout from
forest canopies after aerial application of insecticides to forest environ-
ments. The device consists of a large hoop from which a polyethylene
funnel is suspended, with a collecting container mounted in the funnel
tip. This entire apparatus is suspended from the boles of 3 trees by cords
attached to the hoop, providing a very stable collecting device (Fig. 1).
Other drop traps have been described for similar purposes (Connola et al.
1966, Peterson 1934, Southwood 1966), but none have combined the stability,
ridigity, ease of sample collection, protection of samples from molestation
by scavengers and predators, and permanence that this trap provides.


Fig. 1. Three funnel traps positioned for collecting insects and frass in a
forest insect control project.


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977













The Florida Entomologist


The frame of the trap consists of a hoop manufactured from 1/2 in. ID
flexible, black polyethylene pipe. Pipe was cut to a length of 3.545 m,
and the hoop was formed by forcing each end of the tubing over a 1/2 in.
dowel ca. 20 cm long. Two small nails were driven into the dowels at each
end of the tube to prevent slippage. The completed hoop provided a col-
lecting area of 1 m2.
The funnel was made from 3-mil polyethylene film sheets. Our tech-
nique for cutting material for a funnel is illustrated in Fig. 2. Once cut, the
funnel was formed by heat bonding the 2 straight edges together. A variety of
sealers are available at relatively low cost for this purpose. The funnel
was then attached to the hoop (seam edge to the outside) by lapping the
top edge of the funnel over the hoop. The overlapped edge to the funnel
was bonded by heat sealing, thus forming a tube around the hoop.

o b c



0.9m /
I.m----------Ie---- -II ---- * ____

1.8m I





)J-0.9m--- (
Fig. 2. Method used to cut funnels from polyethylene film sheet. L-
shaped piece in 2a is folded on the dotted lines to give the square in 2b.
By cutting along the arc (dotted line) of 2b, the funnel blank (2c) is pro-
duced. The position of the center point is indicated by the circle.

The device for holding the collected material was constructed of a thin,
molded plastic cup with a 40-mm hole cut in the bottom. The bottom of
a 40-dr clear plastic prescription vial with a snap cap, which measured
50 x 80 mm, was cut off with a band saw. The cut end was then bonded to
the bottom opening of the cup with ethyl acetate. A hole slightly smaller
than the diameter of the lip of the cup was then cut in the bottom of the
funnel. The entire retaining apparatus was then dropped into the hole and
pulled into position. The polyethylene funnel stretched sufficiently to
provide a tight, continuous surface with the cup lip, which was then taped to
the funnel with duct tape applied to the outer surfaces of both funnel and
cup. As seen in Fig. 3, this resulted in a funnel with simple accessibility
at the bottom (via the snap cap). Prior to assembly, holes were drilled
around the periphery of the cup to provide for escape of rain water which
might fill the traps (Fig. 3).
In operation, these traps worked remarkably well for collecting dead
caterpillars, frass, nontarget organisms, and plant material. The major
problem in their use was provision for water drainage. Initially, 12 3-mm
openings were drilled into the cups. These allowed the loss of 1 liter of


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977












Cunningham and Harper: Trap to monitor fallout


Fig. 3. Detail of the collecting device which is taped in the bottom of
the funnel.

water per min. In practice, small pieces of bark and other debris clogged
these holes and prevented drainage. Enlarging them to 6 mm diam elimi-
nated this problem. The traps were suspended by parachute cord and were
able to hold several cubic feet of water without loss of samples when
drainage failed. When this occurred the collected material was obtained
by holding a fine sieve under the trap which allowed rapid discharge of
water with complete sample retention when the snap cap was removed.
We tried 3 different polyethylene films. One was transparent, one trans-
lucent, and one was black. The transparent sheeting was sticky and less
flexible than the other two. The black sheeting did not allow easy visual
recognition of collected larvae or debris within the traps. The translucent
material had neither problem and was judged best for our use.
The snap cap provided a very tight seal, allowing alcohol to be used
as a collecting fluid. Dead insects slid or could be easily brushed down the
smooth surfaces of the funnel into the collecting vial. Polypropylene
squirt bottles containing alcohol were used to wash down any fine material
into the collecting vial.
Approximately 300 of these traps were constructed at a material cost of
$1.50 per trap. In addition, approximately 144 man-hours were required for
their assembly, or approximately 0.5 hr per trap when made in an assembly
line fashion.

LITERATURE CITED
CONNOLA, D. P., F. B. LEWIS, AND J. L. MCDONOUGH. 1966. Experimental
field techniques used to evaluate gypsy moth, Porthetria dispar,
control in New York. J. Econ. Ent. 59:284-7.









The Florida Entomologist


PETERSON, A. 1934. A manual of entomological equipment and methods-
Pt. 1. Edward Bros, Inc., Ann Arbor.
SOUTHWOOD, T. R. E. 1966. Ecological methods. Methuen and Co., Ltd.,
London. 391 p.


STORTER
PRINTING CO.,
INC.


1540 Waldo Road
Gainesville, Florida 32602
Phone (904) 376-2658

Printing and Binding
Flat Sheet Work
to
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Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977












The Florida Entomologist


WINTER SURVIVAL AND HOSTS OF THE
VELVETBEAN CATERPILLAR IN FLORIDA'

L. L. BUSCHMAN, W. H. WHITCOMB, T. M. NEAL, AND D. L. MAYS

Department of Entomology and Nematology
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611

ABSTRACT
Velvetbean caterpillar larvae, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hilbner, were
collected throughout the winter at Homestead, Lake Worth, Ruskin, and
Bartow, Florida. Year-round oviposition and larval development are in-
dicated in South and Central Florida. Larvae were collected as late as
March at Turtle Mound and Anclote in Central Florida, but were scarce,
and the populations may not have survived the winter in these areas. No
larvae were collected after Dec. or Jan. at Sanford, Yankeetown, and
Gainesville, Florida; thus, velvetbean caterpillar populations did not
appear to survive the winter in Northcentral Florida.
Velvetbean caterpillars were found most frequently on the following
winter hosts: Vigna luteola (Jacq.), Phaseolus lathyroides L., Dolichos
lablab L. (hyacinth bean), and Pueraria lobata (Willd.) (kudzu). They were
also found on the following plants: Indigofera hirusta L., Desmodium
floridanum Chapm., Galactia spiciformis Torr & Gray, Rhynchosia minima
(L.), Pachyrizus erosus (L.), Canavalia miritima (Aub.), and Phaseolus
speciosus H. B. K.


Extensive defoliation of soybeans each year in Southeastern United
'States by the velvetbean caterpillar (=VBC), Anticarsia gemmatalis
Hiubner, is a serious threat to soybean production in this region. Large
quantities of insecticides are directed against this pest each year. Watson
(1916) suggested that because the VBC lacked the ability to remain dormant,
it did not survive the winter in the soybean production areas of North
Florida. He suggested that the VBC reinvaded southeastern U.S. each year
from overwintering refuges in South Florida and Cuba. Since little is known
about the winter biology of the VBC, the objective of this research was to
identify the hosts on which it lived during the winter and to determine
how far north the VBC survived during the winter.

WINTER SURVIVAL
We sampled a variety of leguminous plants during the 4 winters 1971-75.
Sample techniques remained consistent at each site but differed somewhat
at different sites. At locations where host material was abundant, we
sampled for 5 min with a D-vac At locations where host material was
limited we sampled the available host with a D-vac" for 5 min or less.


'This publication was supported in part by the National Science Foundation and the En-
vironmental Protection Agency, through a grant (NSFGB-34718 later known as BMS 75-
04223), to the University of California. The findings, opinions, and recommendations expressed
herein are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the University of California, the
NSF, or the EPA. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 458.


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977









The Florida Entomologist


At locations where host plants were widely scattered we sampled with a
sweepnet. Larvae were laboratory-reared to adults to confirm their identity
as A. gemmatalis.
VBC were found on wild hosts during the winter 1971-72 near Bartow
(Polk Co.), Lake Worth (Palm Beach Co.), Homestead (Dade Co.), and Key
Largo (Monroe Co.). The next winter, 1972-73, the hosts at these locations
were sampled at 2 week intervals. VBC were collected throughout the
winter at Homestead and were absent in Bartow only in April (Table 1.).
Larvae were collected at Lake Worth until the host was destroyed by road
crews. Since VBC appeared to survive the winter in Central Florida, we
extended the search to potential winter hosts in Central and Northcentral
Florida during the winter, 1973-74. We collected VBC in: Gainesville
(Alachua Co.), Anclote (Pasco Co.), Ruskin (Hillsborough Co.), Turtle
Mound (Volusia Co.), and Sanford (Seminole Co.). In March 1974 we trav-
eled through North Florida and southern Alabama (Franklin, Liberty, and
Bay counties in Florida and Baldwin Co. in Alabama) and sampled the
following hosts but found no VBC: Vigna sp., Vicia spp., Galactia spp.,
Desmodium spp., and kudzu (Pueraria lobata (Willd.)). During the winter,
1974-75, we sampled wild hosts at the following locations in peninsular
Florida: Gainesville (Alachua Co.), Yankeetown (Levy Co.), Turtle
Mound (Volusia Co.), Hudson and Anclote (Pasco Co.), Ruskin (Hills-
borough Co.), Turtle Mound (Volusia Co.), Sanford (Seminole Co.), Bar-
tow (Polk Co.), Lake Worth (Palm Beach Co.), Homestead (Dade Co.),
and Key Largo (Monroe Co.). The number of VBC collected at these lo-
cations is summarized in Table 1.
VBC of all sizes were collected throughout the winter at Homestead
(1972-73 and 1974-75), Lake Worth (1974-75) and Ruskin (1974-75). All sizes
of larvae were also collected throughout the winter (1972-73 and 1974-75)
at Bartow in spite of the nearly complete defoliation of the host. The VBC
populations increased rapidly when the host recovered. We concluded that
there was oviposition and larval development throughout the winter in
these areas. At Turtle Mound and Anclote, larvae were collected as late
as March, but larvae were scarce, so VBC populations may not have sur-
vived the winter in these areas. At Sanford, Yankeetown, and Gainesville,
large larvae were collected as late as Dec. or Jan. These larvae had
apparently survived from the fall oviposition and small larvae were not
observed at these locations until May. We concluded that except during
unusually mild winters, VBC did not survive the winter in these areas, and
larvae were absent after Dec. or Jan. Watson (1932) concluded that because
there were no killing frosts, VBC survived in Gainesville during the winter
of 1931-32. The distribution of VBC populations surviving the winter in
Florida is presented in Fig. 1.
In 1927 it was concluded that VBC did not survive in North Florida be-
cause its host plants were frost sensitive and the VBC could not lie dormant
(Anonymous 1927). We observed a severe reduction in available hosts, but
small patches of host survived the winter. VBC appear to be sensitive to
direct exposure to cold temperatures. After a -3'C freeze in Nov. 1974,
dead VBC were observed hanging from frost-killed host (Indigofera hirsuta
L.), but some larvae may have survived in the leaf litter. G. R. Green
(personal communication) found that few VBC moths emerged from larvae
that were field-reared during the winter in North Florida. Watson (1916)


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977















Buschman et al.: Anticarsia gemmatalis overwintering


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The Florida Entomologist


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SNo winter populations
of VBC larvae

Winter populations of
VBC larvae sparce

SWinter populations of
lJ VBC larvae


o KEY
'LARGO


Fig. 1. Distribution of winter populations of velvetbean caterpillars
(= VBC) in Florida.

reported a pupal period of 10-11 days for VBC pupating in Sept., but a
pupal period of 47-48 days for larvae pupating in late Nov. He suggested
that VBC could survive the winter as pupae with only a slight increase
in pupal period. He also found that pupae survived when placed on the
ground overnight during a -6C freeze. Small numbers of pupae may survive
some winters in Northcentral Florida.
In 1975, VBC moths apparently reinvaded North Florida in early May
since small larvae were collected in Hudson and Gainesville in early
May after extensive samples in March and April yielded no larvae. Watson
(1916) reported that the first VBC moths were usually collected in light
traps in North Florida in July and Aug. He recovered a moth in Gainesville
as early as March 4 during an unusually mild winter (Watson 1932).


WINTER HOSTS

We collected VBC on the following host plants:
1. Vigna luteola (Jacq.). This small vine grows in ditches and other weedy
situations throughout Florida. Vines in protected situations remained green
throughout the winter. Single vines were usually scattered among other
vegetation but extensive mats were located in Yankeetown, Anclote, Rus-
kin, and Turtle Mound. Since this plant was so widespread and abundant












The Florida Entomologist


and VBC were found on it so consistently, we believe it is the most im-
portant winter host of the VBC.
2. Phaseolus lathyroides L. This weed grows in orchards and along fence
rows in South Florida. Large numbers of VBC were collected from this
plant, so we believe it is also an important winter host of the VBC.
3. Dolichos lablab L. or hyacinth bean. This is a large coarse vine much
like kudzu (P. lobata). It is sometimes planted as a ground cover or as
a forage plant. It was an important overwintering host for Heliothis spp.
in Georgia (Gross, Young, and Forbes 1975). In Homestead a 16 ha field of
hyacinth bean supported large VBC populations in Dec. and Jan. 1974-75,
and was severely defoliated. In March the foliage became stunted and
chlorotic, but it recovered somewhat by April and May. VBC populations
were present all winter. This plant is an excellent winter host for VBC,
but it is not widely distributed in South Florida.
4. Peuraria lobata (Willd.) or kudzu. This is a well-known host of the
VBC (Watson 1916, Ford et al. 1975). It has been widely planted as a ground
cover and as a forage plant and grows wild in many areas. Over most of its
range this vine was defoliated in winter, but in Central and South Florida
it sometimes escaped defoliation. In Gainesville, 3 kudzu patches were
observed: the first patch was on low ground and was completely killed
back on the first night of freezing temperatures (-30C); the second patch was
on high ground and was severely defoliated, but some vines were protected
under pine trees and survived the winter; the third patch was on a downtown
construction site and survived both winters (1973-74, 1974-75) with minimal
frost damage, and new foliage was present all winter. A large VBC was
recovered at the construction site in January 1974 and 1975. At Hudson,
kudzu remained completely defoliated until Feb. 1975. At Homestead, the
kudzu remained defoliated from December until Feb. 1972-73 and 1974-75.
At Bartow, the kudzu was severely defoliated in Dec. all 3 winters, but a
few vines with old leaves survived at the top of the hill. In 1973 the kudzu
was killed back a second time in March. At Bartow new foliage appeared
within a few weeks following defoliation and VBC populations appeared to
survive the winter. Kudzu does not appear to be a reliable winter host for
VBC in most areas, but it appears to be very important as an early spring
host on which VBC populations develop during their northward dispersal.
Kudzu apparently supports them until they invade susceptible crops such
as soybeans during the summer.
5. Indigofera hirsuta L. and 6. Desmodium floridanum Chapm. Large num-
bers of VBC were collected from these weeds in fall.
7. Galactia spiciformis Torr and Gray. Large numbers of VBC were col-
lected from this vine on Key Largo, Fla., in Nov. and Dec. 1972 and 1974,
but the populations disappeared in Jan. and Feb. even though the host
remained in good condition all winter.
8. Rhynchosia minima (L.) and 9. Pachyrizus erosus (L.). VBC were found
on these ornamental plants on Key Largo, Fla. in the fall.
10. Canavalia maritima (Aubl). This is a common vine in coastal regions
of Florida. VBC were collected from this plant at Juno Beach and at other
locations. Larvae of Anticarsia repugnalis (Hiibner), a congener of the VBC,
also occur on this plant. C. maritima does not seem to be an important
VBC host.


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977













Buschman et al.: Anticarsia gemmatalis overwintering 273

11. Phaseolus speciosus H. B. K. Only 1 VBC was collected from this vine
at Anclote in a D-vac sample.
In addition to the 11 hosts just listed, VBC are known to occur on the
following leguminous crops: soybeans, peanuts, velvetbeans, cowpeas, and
alfalfa. The first 4 crops are generally planted in spring and VBC popula-
tions reach economically damaging levels in July and August. In Gaines-
ville, alfalfa remained in good condition all year but the VBC were not
found on it during the winter. Ellison (1942) also reported that alfalfa
remained in good condition all winter in Louisiana, but no VBC could be
found on it during the winter. Ford et al. (1975) listed several additional
hosts for VBC in other parts of the Western Hemisphere. Watson (1916)
listed velvetbeans, kudzu, and Canavalia sp. as hosts of VBC in Florida.
All known VBC hosts are legumes but under some conditions VBC have
been found on other plants. Douglas (1930) observed that VBC migrated
from a defoliated soybean field to a nearby cotton field. Heppner and
Habeck (1976) reported finding a VBC on Polygonum punctatum Elliot and
suggested it migrated there from some other host in the vicinity. A VBC
was observed molting on coffee weed, Cassia obtusifolia L., in a soybean
field but it was not observed feeding on the weed. It is notable that all
the important VBC hosts in Florida are non-native plants. This suggests
that the VBC is also a non-native insect in Florida.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We gratefully acknowledge: G. L. Greene, Univ. Fla., Agr. Exp. Sta.,
Quincy, Fla., for cooperating in this research, and for permission to cite his
unpublished VBC rearing data; and D. W. Hall, and D. B. Ward, Univ. Fla.,
Herbarium, Agr. Exp. Sta., Gainesville, Fla., for plant determinations.


LITERATURE CITED
ANONYMOUS. 1927. Factors determining northern limits of Anticarsia
gemmatilis. Fla. Ent. 11:10-2.
DOUGLAS, W. A. 1930. The velvet bean caterpillar as a pest of soybeans
in southern Louisiana and Texas. J. Econ. Ent. 23:684-90.
ELLISOR, L. 0. 1942. Notes on the biology and control of the velvetbean
caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatilis Hbn. La. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull.
350:17-23.
FORD, B. J., J. R. STRAYER, J. REID, AND G. L. GODFREY. 1975. The litera-
ture of arthropods associated with soybeans, IV. A bibliography of
the velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatilis Hibner (Lepid-
optera: Noctuidae). Biol. Notes No. 92. Illinois Natural History
Survey. Urbana, Illinois.
GROSS JR., H. R., J. R. YOUNG, AND IAN FORBES. 1975. Heliothis spp.:
Seasonal occurrence and overwintering on the hyacinth bean plant
in Tifton, Ga. J. Econ. Ent. 68:169-70.
HEPPNER, J. B., AND D. H. HABECK. 1976. Insects associated with Poly-
gonum (Polygonaceae) in North Central Florida. I. Introduction
and Lepidoptera. Fla. Ent. 59:231-9.
WATSON, J. R. 1916. Life-history of the velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia
gemmatilis Hiibner). J. Econ. Ent. 9:521-8.
WATSON, J. R. 1932. Further notes on the velvetbean caterpillar. Fla. Ent.
16:24.













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The Florida Entomologist


A SURVEY FOR PATHOGENS OF FIRE ANTS, SOLENOPSIS
SPP.,' IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

D. P. JOUVENAZ', G. E. ALLEN W. A. BANKS', AND DANIEL P. WOJCIK-

ABSTRACT
In a survey conducted in the Southeastern United States, one colony
in a sample of 1,007 colonies of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta
Buren, was infected with a microsporidium (Protozoa: Microsporida). The
normal host of this parasite appears to be the tropical fire ant, Solenopsis
geminata (F.). A benign or very mildly pathogenic yeast was associated
with 93 (9.24%) of the S. invicta colonies, and was most common in areas
which have been infested with this ant for the longest periods. No pathogens
were associated with 83 colonies of the black imported fire ant, Solenopsis
richteri Forel. The apparent rarity of bona fide pathogens in imported
fire ants in the United States is in marked contrast to the abundance of
pathogens in these and other Solenopsis spp. in South America.
Four species of microsporidia (possibly new genera) were detected in 22
(7.2%), 12 (3.9%), 6 (2.0%), and 4 (1.3%) of 307 colonies of the tropical fire
ant, S. geminata. One colony of this species was infected by a neogregarine
(Sporozoa: Neogregarinida). No pathogens were found in a small sample
(53 colonies) of the Southern fire ant, Solenopsis xyloni McCook.


The first observation of a microsporidian infection in ants was made
during a taxonomic study of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta
Buren (Allen and Buren 1974). While examining alcohol-preserved speci-
mens from Mato Grosso, Brazil, Buren observed subspherical, cyst-like
bodies in the gasters of worker ants. Microscopic examination of the cysts
showed that they contained spores of a new species of Thelohania (Protozoa:
Microsporida), recently described by Knell et al. (1977). The discovery of
this microsporidium renewed interest in the search for pathogens of fire
ants. Earlier, limited surveys for pathogens of imported fire ants had been
unsuccessful in northern Florida (B. A. Federici, Div. Biological Control,
Dep. of Entomology, Univ. Cal., Riverside, Cal. 92502, personal com-
munication) and in Mississippi (Broome 1974).
Following Buren's observation, Allen and Silveira-Guido (1974) re-
ported microsporidian infections in the black imported fire ant, Solenopsis
richteri Forel, from Uruguay and Argentina and in an unidentified Solen-
opsis sp. from Uruguay. Recently, Avery et al. (1977) reported virus-like
particles in an undescribed Solenopsis sp. from Brazil. In addition to the
infections in ants from South America, preliminary studies revealed two
species of microsporidia and a neogregarine (Sporozoa: Neogregarinida)
that infect the tropical fire ant, Solenopsis geminata (F.), in Florida (un-
published data). We, therefore, conducted a'more extensive survey of Solen-
opsis spp. in the Southeastern United States to determine whether the
S. invicta there is indeed free of disease and to identify the major micro-
organisms associated with other Solenopsis spp.

'Hymenoptera: Formicidae.
Insects Affecting Man Research Laboratory, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA, Gainesville, Fla. 32604.
*Dep. of Entomology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla. 32611.


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977













The Florida Entomologist


METHODS AND MATERIALS

COLLECTION AND MAINTENANCE OF COLONIEs.-Collections were made
from a total of 1,007 nests of S. invicta from 285 sites in South Carolina,
Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. In addition, we ex-
amined 83 collections of S. richteri from 22 sites in Mississippi and Ala-
bama, 307 collections of S. geminata from 74 sites in Florida and Georgia,
and 53 collections of the southern fire ant, Solenopsis xyloni McCook,
from 11 sites in Georgia (Fig. 1).


oao
0o 0


* invicta
a geminata
o richteri
o S. xyloni


Fig. 1. Sites at which collections of fire ants, solenopsis spp., were made
for survey for diseases.

Ants were collected by excavating mounds with shovels and transport-
ing the soil and ants to the laboratory in plastic buckets. The inner surfaces
of the buckets were dusted with inert talc to prevent escape of the ants.
The buckets were left undisturbed overnight to allow the ants to reestab-
lish tunnels and to collect buried immatures. Water was then slowly
dripped from medical intravenous fluid tubes into the buckets. This pro-
cedure forced the ants to move to the surface of the soil as the water level
rose. When the soil was completely submerged, the ants (including im-
matures which the workers rescued) floated or clung in masses to the sides
of the bucket, and were easily transferred with a ladle to new talc-lined
plastic tubs. In the new tubs the ants escaped desiccation by moving into
moistened nests constructed of 90% plaster of Paris and 10% builder's


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977













Jouvenaz et al.: Pathogens of fire ants


cement. All colonies were screened (described below) for pathogens and
those suspected of being diseased were maintained for further study in plastic
nests similar to those described by Wilson (1962). These colonies were fed
our standard ant diet which is composed of macerated laboratory-reared
insects, pureed beef, eggs, and vitamins in agar.
A sample of adult workers from each colony was preserved in 70%
isopropanol for verification of species and for examination for gross ab-
normalities.
SCREENING FOR PATHOGENS.-A sample of 1,000-2,000 mixed adult and im-
mature ants from each colony was triturated in a glass tissue homogenizer
with water sufficient to just cover the mass of ants. One drop of the crude
aqueous extract was placed on a microscope slide, covered with a 22 mm
coverslip, and examined by scanning 5 different fields across the preparation
at a magnification of 600X using a phase-contrast microscope.
The sensitivity of the procedure for detecting microsporidian spores was
estimated by examining an extract prepared by triturating one diseased pupa
of S. geminata with 499 disease-free pupae of S. invicta in 1.0 ml water.
Two slides were prepared and each scanned 5 times. Since totals of 286 and
262 spores (57.2. 9.4 and 52.4 4.8 per 22 mm scan, respectively) were
obtained, microsporidian spores from a single infected specimen in our
samples would be detectable with this method. We found this technique
useful for detecting other microsporidia or associated yeasts present in low
numbers. On occasion, ingested microsporidian spores were found in ex-
tracts, and care was taken, through examination of individual specimens,
to determine whether infections actually existed within these colonies. In-
gested spores are confined to the lumen of the gut and may be seen in
intact larvae under low (150-300X) magnification. The presence of vege-
tative stages of a protozoan indicates infection.
The sensitivity of the procedure for detecting bacteria or occluded viruses
is less certain. These organisms would probably not be detached unless
they occurred in relatively high numbers. Unfortunately, we know of no
rapid, sensitive method of screening large numbers of ants for these organ-
isms. Observations of mortality or morphological abnormalities in in-
dividual specimens, particularly immatures, from laboratory and field
colonies have been conducted on a continuing basis, and our insectary has
been under surveillance for ca. 2 years for colonies having unusually high
mortality. (Approximately 175-200 colonies are maintained in culture at
all times with irregular turnover.)
Individual adult and immature ants from colonies selected by screening
were examined by phase microscopy (whole gasters and smears) and by
stained slides. Giemsa stained smears were prepared from the extracts and
from squashes of individual ants by air drying the slides, fixing them in
methanol for ca. 5 min, staining them with 10% Giemsa in buffered distilled
water (pH 7.41) for 10 min, and rinsing with tap water. In addition, living
immature ants from these colonies were 'examined with a dissecting micro-
scope for abnormalities.


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Bona fide disease appears to be rare in imported fire ants in the United
States. Only 1 microsporidian infection (possibly a new genus) was found in













The Florida Entomologist


1,007 colonies of S. invicta that were examined. Since this species of parasite
infected 4 S. geminata colonies (in a sample of 307) from collection sites
in 3 Florida counties, it is probable that S. geminata is the normal host.
(We have transmitted 1 of the other microsporidian parasites of S. geminata
to S. invicta in laboratory tests; it does not persist in S. invicta colonies,
however.) Although they are of doubtful pathogenicity, gregarines were as-
sociated with only 5 colonies of S. invicta. The occurrence of a few fungal
mycelia in a mass extract on one occasion is not significant since individual
ants in thriving colonies may occasionally harbor nonspecific entomoge-
nous fungi.
A benign or very mildly pathogenic unidentified yeast was associated
with 93 (9.23%) of the S. invicta colonies. With proper care, laboratory
colonies harboring this organism thrive; however, with neglect or stress
such as pesticide screening, some colonies appear to have slightly increased
mortality rates. The yeast cannot be cultured on standard mycological
media, but some growth has been obtained in insect tissue culture media.
In living ants, yeast cells are free in the hemolymph.
A relationship may exist between the incidence and geographic distri-
bution of the yeast and the pattern of spread of the ant. In Mobile Co.,
Alabama, the introduction site of S. invicta, the yeast was present in 34
(60.7%) of 56 colonies. In 3 counties in northern Alabama, 6 (30%) of 20
colonies harbored this organism. In 9 northwest Florida counties and one
adjacent Georgia county, it was present in 23 (26.7%) of 86 colonies. The
incidence declined to 16 (13.7%) of 117 colonies from 6 northeast Florida
counties; in 7 counties in southern Florida, 11 (8.9%) of 123 colonies were
positive. These 2 areas in Florida probably were infested by disjunct ant
populations which might have been introduced in nursery stock from Mo-
bile. All 93 colonies which were positive for the yeast were found in 30
counties from which 424 colonies were collected. The remaining 583 col-
onies were collected in 140 counties or parishes. This suggests that the
yeast may have been associated the longest with S. invicta in Mobile Co.
and has spread less efficiently than the ants. We have not yet observed
yeasts in fire ant colonies from South America.
Five colonies of S. invicta harbored yeasts other than the above type.
These apparently benign microorganisms were observed in the guts of in-
tact gasters also.
All colonies of S. xyloni and S. richteri that were examined were free
of potential pathogens; however, the number of S. xyloni (53) samples
was small. The examination of 83 colonies of S. richteri actually repre-
sents more intensive sampling of this species than of S. invicta, since S. rich-
teri is restricted to a very small area in northeastern Mississippi and north-
western Alabama. Our essentially negative results with the imported
species agree with those obtained in Florida by Federici and in Mississippi
by Broome.
Four species of microsporidia, probably in new genera, infected (respec-
tively) 22 (7.2%), 12 (3.9%), 6 (2.0%), and 4 (1.3%) of the 307 colonies of S.
geminata which were examined. A neogregarine (possibly a new species)
which causes pupae to blacken and die infected 1 colony of this species.
(In preliminary studies, we repeatedly collected the neogregarine in 1 lo-
cality, and 2 of the microsporidia in other localities. In the survey, we
avoided areas in which we already knew diseases occurred in S. geminata in


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977













Jouvenaz et al.: Pathogens of fire ants


order to better estimate the prevalence of disease in this species.) One
microsporidium, Burenella dimorpha, which causes distinct symptoms and
death to pupae has been described by Jouvenaz and Hazard (1977); the other
microsporidia (as yet undescribed) cause increased mortality in adults in
laboratory colonies and are under study.
The rarity of bona fide disease in imported fire ants in the United States
is in striking contrast to the prevalence of disease in these ants in South
America. In several trips to South America, we found 20-25% or more of
the colonies infected with microsporidia, and other pathogens also occurred.
Diseases have been found in 22 described and undescribed species of the
Solenopsis complex in Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Argentina. (Due to
uncertainties concerning the taxonomy of the ants and the pathogens, a
report of the results obtained in exploratory trips to date would be pre-
mature.) Our present populations of imported fire ants are evidently de-
scended from 1 or a few healthy colonies of each species. The introduction of
pathogens from South America, the possible use of the pathogens of our
native species, and perhaps the discovery and use of other types of natural
enemies of Solenopsis, may reduce the pest status of imported fire ants to
that of our native species.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We wish to thank Denise K. LaBrecque, University of Florida, and John
D. Atwood, Insects Affecting Man Research Laboratory, USDA, for ex-
cellent technical assistance in the laboratory. We also thank Dorman M.
Hicks, Insects Affecting Man Research Laboratory, and Ralph Brown,
Div. of Plant Industry, Fla. Dep. of Agriculture and Consumer Services,
for assisting with the collection of ants.


LITERATURE CITED

ALLEN, G. E., AND W. E. BUREN. 1974. Microsporidan and fungal diseases
of Solenopsis invicta Buren in Brazil. J. N.Y. Ent. Soc. 82:125-30.
ALLEN, G. E., AND A. SILVEIRA-GUIDO. 1974. Occurrence of microsporida
in Solenopsis richteri and Solenopsis sp. in Uruguay and Argentina.
Fla. Ent. 57:327-9.
AVERY, S. W., D. P. JOUVENAZ, W. A. BANKS, AND D. W. ANTHONY. 1977.
Virus-like particles in a fire ant, Solenopsis sp., (Hymenoptera:
Formicidae) from Brazil. Fla. Ent. 60:17-20.
BROOME, J. R. 1974. Microbial control of the imported fire ant, Solenopsis
richteri Forel. Ph.D. Dissert. Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi
State, Miss. Dissert. Abst. Int. B 35:3954.
JOUVENAZ, D. P., AND E. I. HAZARD. 1977. New family, genus, and species
of Microsporida (Protozoa: Microsporida) from the tropical fire ant,
Solenopsis geminata (F.) (Insecta; Formicidae). J. Protozool. (In
Press).
KNELL, J. D., G. E. ALLEN, AND E. I. HAZARD. 1977. Light and electron
microscope study of Thelohania solenopsae sp. n. in the red imported
fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 29:192-200.
WILSON, E. O. 1962. Chemical communication among workers of the fire
ant, Solenopsis saevissima (Fr. Smith). I. The organization of mass-
foraging. Anim. Behav. 10:134-47.












The Florida Entomologist


TANGLEFOOT' FOR COLLECTING HOMOPTERA ASSO-
CIATED WITH PALMS, AND PLASTIC TUBES FOR SPECI-
MEN STORAGE.'-(Note). A survey of phytophagous insects associ-
ated with palms in Florida is being conducted as a part of an interdisci-
plinary study of the lethal yellowing disease, the causal organisms of
which are apparently transmitted by an insect vector.
The sampling technique utilizes the natural attraction of host plants
to lure insects into an adhesive substance. The Tanglefoot" is applied to
the surfaces of palm leaves with an ordinary grease gun by moving the gun
nozzle over the leaf surface and simultaneously pumping the handle. With
a little practice, the operator can apply streaks of uniform width and thick-
ness. Application with a grease gun minimizes the contamination of instru-
ments, clothing, etc., a criticism often associated with the use of Tanglefoot.
At the end of the sampling period, insect specimens are removed from
the adhesive with a probe (a nail or small stick is best) and placed in glass
screw-capped vials containing kerosene. Having been immersed in the kero-
sene solvent, specimens are usually free of the adhesive by the end of a day's
field trip, and can be transferred to alcohol or dried on absorbent paper and
pinned.
This method was developed for collecting Auchenorrhynchous Homop-
tera. Specimens of this family are in satisfactory condition for identifica-
tion if collected within 2 weeks after application of the Tanglefoot, al-
though they are often discolored or have broken parts. Longer sampling in-
tervals result in poorer specimens, which nevertheless may be adequate for
some studies.
During routine collections, a large number of specimens are stored dry
for future examination in 2.5 cm tubes made by cutting plastic drinking
straws into segments. Small wads of non-absorbent cotton are used as
stoppers for both ends of each tube. Collecting data are written on the tube
with indelible pencil. These small tubes are cheaper and occupy less
storage space than glass vials. If desired, the dry specimens may be mounted
on points when convenient.-F. W. Howard and G. A. Hutchinson, Agricul-
tural Research Center, Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33314.












'Tanglefoot Co., 314 Straight Avenue S.W., Grand Rapids, Michigan 49504.
'Mention of a trademark name or a proprietary product does not constitute a guarantee or
warranty of the product by the University of Florida and does not imply its approval to the
exclusion of other products that may also be suitable.
"Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 705.


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977












The Florida Entomologist


FIFTEEN NEW RECORDS AND A NEW SPECIES OF
COLLEMBOLA FROM THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

JosE A. MARI MUTT

Department of Entomology, University of Illinois and
Illinois Natural History Survey, Urbana, 61801

ABSTRACT
Fifteen collembolan taxa are reported for the first time from the
Dominican Republic and Ptenothrix dominicana n. sp. is described. The new
combination Metasinella subfusa (Wray) is proposed. The neotropical dis-
tribution is given for those taxa determined to species.

Through the kindness of Dr. Eric Smith of the Field Museum of Natural
History (FMNH), Chicago, Illinois, and Mrs. Mignon Davis of the United
States National Museum of History (USNM), Washington, D.C., I have
studied a series of springtails from the Dominican Republic. Fifteen new
records are reported herein and a new species is described. Prior to this
contribution the collembolan fauna of the Dominican Republic was known
from a single species: Drepanocyrtus dowlingi Wray (1953a).
All specimens are deposited in the FMNH except for the single speci-
men of Troglopedetes delamarei which is in the USNM and a paratype of
Ptenothrix dominicana n. sp. to be found in the Illinois Natural History
Survey.
In order to avoid needless repetition under the treatment of each species,
the 5 locations at which specimens were collected are listed below. The
number of specimens studied and the location number follow the species
name.

LOCATIONS
1. Provincia La Vega, La Cienaga, 1,000 m, 4-II-1975, W. L. & D. E. Brown,
leaf litter. FMNH (HD) #75-280.
2. Provincia La Vega, El Rio Bonao, 24 kms, 600-800 m, 7-II-1975, W. L.
Brown, ravine leaf litter. FMNH (HD) # 75-281.
3. Provincia La Altagracia, 3 km NW Boca de Yuma, 13-II-1975, W. L. &
D. E. Brown, humus from sink hole in dry coastal forest. FMNH
(HD) #75-282.
4. Provincia Barahona, 4 km N of Polo, 900-1, 100 m, Feb. 9-II-1975, W. L. &
D. E. Brown, coffee litter. FMNH (HD) #75-284.
5. Distrito Nacional, Cueva Cofresf, 1.5 km N of Boca Chica, 15 m in twi-
light zone, 14-V-1973, Don and Mignon Davis. USNM.

FAMILY PODURIDAI SENSU LA TO

Hypogastrura (Ceratophysella) armata
(Nicolet) 1841 (7 spec., loc. 4)
This species, of apparent cosmopolitan distribution, has been recorded in
the Neotropical Region from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Mexico,
and Uruguay.


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977













282 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977

Brachystomella parvula (Schaffer)
1896 (5 spc., loc. 3, 4).
This is another species with a wide geographic distribution. In the neo-
tropics it is known from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Jamaica,
Peru, Surinam, and Venezuela.

FAMILY ISOTOMIDAE
Cryptopygus sp. (1 spec., loc. 2)
Additional specimens from this locality are being studied by Mr. Peter
N. Lawrence of the British Museum (Natural History) who is revising the
genus.
Folsomides americanus Denis 1931 (2 spec., loc. 4)
The species is known in the neotropic from Argentina, Chile, Costa
Rica, Cuba, Guatemala, Peru, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela.
Isotomiella minor (Schaffer) 1896 (2 spec., loc. 4).
A species with a cosmopolitan distribution, in the Neotropical Region
known from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Gilatemala, Mexico,
Peru, and Puerto Rico.
Isotomurus sp. (4 spec., loc. 1)

FAMILY ENTOMOBRYIDAE SENSU LA TO
Dicranocentrus sp. (7 spec., loc. 2)
This species is described in a revision of the genus now in press. It is
known also from Cuba and Haiti.
Lepidocyrtus sp. (9 spec., loc. 3, 4)
Metasinella subfusa (Wray) 1953b new combination (8 spec., loc. 1, 4)
The evidence leading to this new combination will be discussed in an
upcoming review of the genus. It suffices to say here that the species is also
known from Puerto Rico and that this is the first record of the genus outside
caves.
Metasinella rapoporti Massoud & Gruia 1973 (9 spec., loc 3)
This species was known previously only from the type locality in Cuba.
It is reported for the first time outside caves.
Cyphoderus similis Folsom 1927 (1 spec., loc. 3)
Species previously known from Argentina, Costa Rica, Panama, and
Peru.
Troglopedetes delamarei Massoud & Gruia 1973 (1 spec., loc. 5)
Species known previously only from the type locality in Cuba.
Campylothorax sp. (1 spec., loc. 4)
Paronella sp. (11 spec., loc. 1, 2, 3, 4)











Mutt: New Collembola records


'5
Fig. 1-6. Ptenothrix dominicana n. sp.: 1) head chaetotaxy; 2) dental
chaetotaxy, dorsal view; 3) mucro; 4) claw structure, metathoracic (leg 3);
5) macrochaeta, leg 3; 6) sensilla leg 3.












The Florida Entomologist


!-
























9



Fig. 7-9. Ptenothrix dominicana n. sp.: 7) habitus showing distribution of
purple pigment; 8) chaetotaxy of lateral anal valve; 9) chaetotaxy of
dorsal anal valve.


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977












Mutt: New Collembola records


FAMILY SMINTHURIDAE SENSU LA TO
Sphyrotheca sp. (1 spec., loc. 1)
Ptenothrix dominicana Mari Mutt, NEW SPECIES
All specimens females. Length excluding antennae and furcula up to
1.4 mm. Background color of head and body light yellow. Distribution of
purple pigment upon antennae, head and body as in Fig. 7. Legs and fur-
cula deeply pigmented throughout. Distal 1/2 of third antennal segment
(Ant. 3) composed of 6 subsegments. Ant. 4 not clearly subsegmented but
with setae arranged in circular whorls. Eight eyes on each side of head.
Head chaetotaxy as in Fig. 1. Metathoracic tibiotarsi with a pair of deeply
serrated macrochaetae (Fig. 5). Tibiotarsi with several short sensillae (Fig.
6), without spines of any size. Structure of claws as in Fig. 4. Chaetotaxy
of lesser abdomen as in Fig. 8 and 9. Anal appendages apically smooth.
Abd. 6 with internal teeth of type described by Delamare Deboutteville
& Massoud (1963) in Ptenothrix argentina and P. brasiliensis. Dental
chaetotaxy as in Fig. 2. Mucro as in Fig. 3.
Diagnosis: The new species is morphologically closest to Ptenothrix
brasiliensis. It can be readily separated from the latter by the head chae-
totaxy, color pattern, claw structure and absence of short spines on the
tibiotarsi of P. dominicana.
Material Examined: Holotype and 3 paratypes, location no. 2.


LITERATURE CITED

DELAMARE DEBOUTTEVILLE, C. AND Z. MASSOUD. 1963. Collemboles
Symphypleones. Biol. Amer. Australe, C. Delamare Deboutteville
& E. H. Rapoport, eds., CNRS, Paris, 2:169-289.
DENIS, J. R. 1931. Contribute alla conoscenza del "microgenton" di Costa
Rica II. Collemboles de Costa Rica avec une contribution au species
de 1'ordre. Boll. Lab. Zool. Agr. Portici 25:69-170.
FOLSOM, J. W. 1927. Insects of the subclass apterygota from Central Amer-
ica and the West Indies. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 72:1-25.
MASSOUD, Z. AND M. GRUIA. 1973. Collemboles Arthropleones de Cuba
r6colt6s en 1969 par la mission Cubano-Roumanie. Resul. exp6d.
biosp6ol. Cubano-Roumanies A Cuba, Editura Acad. Rep. Socialiste
Romania, Bucaresti, p. 327-243.
NICOLET, H. 1842. Recherches pour servir A l'histoire des Podurelles. Nouv.
Mem. Soc. Helvet. Sci. Nat. 6:1-88.
SCHXFFER, C. 1896. Die Collembolen der ungebung von Hamburg und
benachbarter Gebietes. Mitt. nat. Hist. Mus. Hamburg 13:149-216.
WRAY, D. L. 1953a. Some new species of springtail insects (Collembola).
Nature Notes Occ. Papers 1:1-7.
WRAY, D. L. 1953b. New Collembola from Puerto Rico. J. Agr. Univ.
Puerto Rico 37:140-150.












The Florida Entomologist


BOOK REVIEW

MOSQUITO ECOLOGY: FIELD SAMPLING METHODS. M. W. Service. Pub-
lished in the U.S.A. and Canada by Halsted Press, A Division of John Wiley
& Sons, Inc., New York. Applied Science Publishers Ltd., Ripple Road,
Barking Essex, England. 1976. 583 p., 23 tables, 75 illus. $75.00. As the title
suggests this volume covers field sampling methods for mosquitoes with
information added relating to ecology, life history and population dy-
namics. It is an excellent and comprehensive review which must have re-
quired considerable effort. The volume is divided into 11 chapters. Four
deal specifically with sampling methods for the various life stages of mos-
quitoes-Chapter 1, eggs; 2, larvae; 3, resting adults; and 7, emerging adults.
Three deal with the types of trapping systems used-Chapter 4, adults with
non-attractant traps; 5, adults, with animals as bait; and 6, carbon dioxide,
light, visual and sound traps. The last 4 chapters deal with special sub-
jects: Chapter 8, experimental hut techniques for insecticide evaluations;
9, mark-recapture methods and dispersal; 10, immature and adult mor-
tality; and 11, association and diversity between species.
This volume of 583 pages is not light and entertaining reading. It will
serve as an excellent reference work for mosquito researchers and control
operators. It includes not only ar.subject index, but also an author index
and a species index. The extent of the coverage provided is best indicated by
these indexes. The species index includes 204 species in 16 genera including
Aedes (61); Anopheles (63); Armigera (1); Culex (44); Culiseta (7); Deino-
cerites (1); Eratmopodites (1); Haemagogus (1); Mansonia (11); Mimomyia
(1); Arthopodomyia (1); Psorophora (4); Sabethes (1); Toxorhynchites (2);
Uranotaenia (3) and Wyeomyia (2). The author index includes 1,416 names
of senior and junior authors involved in a total of 1,636 referenced articles
or publications. The book covers results throughout the world.
Service describes in detail a multitude of sampling techniques for a va-
riety of species, stages and ecological habitats. He points out advantages
and limitations and, in some cases, provides methods of data analysis. He
goes into considerable detail in the chapters on mark-recapture, mortality,
species association, and evaluation of insecticides applied to huts.
Although the book is too expensive for most individuals, it should be
available to mosquito workers as a reference to provide a wealth of de-
tailed information on mosquito sampling techniques, biology, ecology,
life history, population dynamics, and other related information. Re-
searchers and control specialists will find the book an excellent reference
source when designing experiments or new survey techniques. With a sub-
ject matter as complex as this one, all of the answers to specific needs and
problems may not be readily available, but this volume provides a wealth
of background information.


Donald E. Weidhaas


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977












The Florida Entomologist


OVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF AMBUSHT", A SYNTHETIC
PYRETHROID INSECTICIDE, ON CORN EARWORM,
FALL ARMYWORM, AND CABBAGE LOOPER'

MICHAEL TYSOWSKY AND TOM GALLO

ICI United States Inc., Biological Research Center,
Goldsboro, North Carolina 27530

ABSTRACT
Laboratory bio-assays with Ambush" (m-phenoxybenzyl ()-cis, trans-
3-(2, 2-dichlorovinyl)-2, 2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate) and chlor-
dimeform (Ga le rimn ) insecticides were conducted on eggs of the corn ear-
worm, Heliothis zea (Boddie), the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda
(J. E. Smith) and the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hubner). Ambush
displayed ovicidal activity on the 3 pest species comparable to that achieved
with Galecron.


Synthetic pyrethroid insecticides are being hailed by many investigators
in the field as a panacea for control of lepidopterous larvae on a number
of crops (Rutz 1976). Although the structure and activity relationships have
been well defined (Elliott et al. 1973) in the laboratory and reports on the
contact action against cotton bollworms and tobacco budworms are just
beginning to appear in the literature, the full spectrum of the inherent
properties of the pyrethroids has yet to emerge. A substantial amount of
work has been in progress with Ambush (m-phenoxybenzyl ()-cis, trans-
3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate), a synthetic
pyrethroid being developed by ICI United States, to elucidate those prop-
erties of the compound which would be of value in the field.
This manuscript reports the results of tests conducted in the laboratory
to demonstrate the ovicidal activity of Ambush insecticide on eggs of
selected lepidopterous pests of economic importance on agricultural crops.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Eggs of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hubner), the fall army-
worm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and the corn earworm, Helio-
this zea (Boddie), used in these tests were collected from adults reared in
the insectary. The eggs were deposited by females on paper towels collected
from the rearing cages. All eggs were surface sterilized with sodium hy-
pochlorite to prevent a build-up of fungi and bacteria.
Eggs of T. ni and S. frugiperda deposited on 1 in.-square pieces of paper
toweling were counted. Each piece of paper contained approximately 100
looper eggs and 120 fall armyworm eggs. The toweling was then immersed
in solutions of Ambush 2EC and Galecron for 5 sec. The concentrations
of Ambush evaluated were 37.5, 75.0, 150.0, 300.0, and 600.0 ppm and the
concentrations of chlordimeform (Galecron) were 600 and 1,200 ppm. The
pieces of toweling containing the eggs were allowed to dry before they were


'Lepidoptera: Noctuidae


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977












The Florida Entomologist


inserted in 1 oz plastic cups supplied with pieces of filter paper moistened
with water. The moistened paper provided a high humidity level thus en-
hancing the opportunity for optimum egg hatch. The cups were monitored on
a daily basis until the eggs hatched.
The eggs of H. zea were treated somewhat differently. They were sprayed
with a traversing, boom-type laboratory sprayer instead of being immersed
in chemical solutions containing the toxicant. The sprayer was calibrated
to deliver 60 gal/A at a speed of 1.5 mph. The spray chamber was pro-
grammed for a wind velocity of 6 mph to simulate outdoor conditions.
One in2. pieces of paper toweling containing the H. zea eggs were sprayed
with 0.03, 0.06, and 0.12 lb ai/A of Ambush. Each piece of paper treated
contained approximately 75 eggs. Galecron was used as the standard at 1.0
lb ai/A. The toweling with the eggs was permitted to dry before being in-
serted into 1 oz plastic cups containing moistened filter paper. The cups
were observed 3 days later to determine the percentage of the egg hatch.
The eggs of all insect species were incubated at 270C. At this tempera-
ture they would normally hatch in 2-4 days. All of the treated eggs were
retained for 7 days to make certain that there was no delayed hatch as a
result of the chemical treatments.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The results from the dipping test (Table 1) showed that all concentra-
tions of Ambush and Galecron prevented the eggs of the cabbage looper
from hatching. In the untreated control only 15% of the eggs did not hatch
during the 4-day period of observation.
Ambush exhibited a mortality-dosage response against S. frugiperda in
the same test (Table 1). Fewer eggs hatched as the dosage increased. At a
concentration of 37.5 ppm, approximately one-third of the eggs hatched; at
75-150 ppm concentrations, only approximately one-fifth of the eggs
hatched. Complete egg kill was achieved at a concentration of 300 ppm.
Both Galecron treatments (600 and 1200 ppm) produced 100% mortality of
the eggs. All of the eggs in the control hatched.
The difference in susceptibility of S. frugiperda and T. ni to Ambush may
be the result of each insect's inherent egg tolerance or ovipositional dif-
ferences in egg placement. With regard to the latter possibility, T. ni fe-
males lay eggs singly on paper toweling and thus enable the chemicals
to contact each egg easily. S. frugiperda, however, deposits eggs in globose
masses which are covered with scales from the female's body. This could
have prevented a lethal dose of the active ingredient from reaching the
surface of the egg especially at the lower Ambush concentrations.
When Ambush was applied to H. zea eggs under simulated field appli-
cation conditions, a mortality-dosage response was obtained (Table 2). The
0.12 lb ai/A rate was superior to Galecron at 1.0 lb ai/A. The 2 lower rates
of Ambush were also effective in preventing eggs from hatching.
In a subsequent experiment, eggs of H. zea were used to answer a few
questions concerning egg hatch and larval survival-i.e., would more
treated eggs hatch if incubated for a longer period of time and do emerging
larvae survive?
The eggs were handled similarly to those in the previous experiment
except that both toweling and eggs were placed on synthetic rearing media.


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977














Tysowsky and Gallo: Activity of Ambush


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The Florida Entomologist


TABLE 2.-THE OVICIDAL EFFECTS OF AMBUSH"T AND GALECRON" 7 DAYS
AFTER TREATMENT ON EGGS OF THE CORN EARWORM* IN THE
LABORATORY USING A TRAVERSING BOOM-TYPE SPRAYER TO
SIMULATE A FIELD APPLICATION.

CHEMICAL FIELD RATE % OF EGGS HATCHING**
(lb ai/A)

Ambush 0.03 45
0.06 34
0.12 11
Galecron 1.00 23

* Heliothis zea
** Values corrected by Abbott's formula

The eggs were observed for 19 days and no additional hatch was seen after
the first 4 days. Most of the treated eggs reached the brown ring or germ
band stage 24 hr after treatment. The eggs which did not hatch progressed
to the black head stage and remained in that state for the duration of the
experiment.
Similar effects were seen with the standard, Galecron, although more
larvae emerged from these eggs than from those receiving the Ambush treat-
ments. Those few larvae which did emerge from Ambush treated eggs died
shortly after emergence. Larvae emerging from Galecron treated eggs sur-
vived.
From all of these trials, it appears that Ambush, at rates of 0.05-0.2 lb
ai/A currently being recommended for field evaluations, has substantial
ovicidal activity which should be of benefit in controlling Lepidoptera.
The ovicidal action was demonstrated when Ambush was in contact with
the egg. Since the insecticide is neither a systemic compound nor does it
have significant translaminar movement, it would not provide ovicidal
action on eggs laid inside the plant tissues or on the undersides of leaves
when spray deposits do not contact them.


LITERATURE CITED

ELLIOTT, M., A. W. FARNHAN, M. F. JAMES, P. H. NEEDHAM, D. A. PULMAN,
AND J. H. STEVENSON. 1973. A photo stable pyrethroid. Nature.
246:169.
RUTZ, G. 1976. Synthetic pyrethroid: New hope against cotton insects? In
Southeast farm press. 3(40):1.


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977













The Florida Entomologist


THREE FUNGI TESTED AGAINST THE
LOVEBUG, PLECIA NEARCTICA, IN FLORIDA'

LESLIE P. KISH-, IRENE TERRY' AND GEORGE E. ALLEN'

ABSTRACT
Reinfectivity studies were conducted on late instar lovebug larvae,
Plecia nearctica Hardy (Diptera-Bibionidae), inoculated with Tolypoclad-
ium cylindrosporum Gams, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch.) Sor. and
Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. which were isolated and identified from
dead larvae. Two tests demonstrated that each fungus apparently affected
larval mortality; however, data analyses indicated that only B. bassiana
caused significant mortality levels (27% to 33%). Problems related to re-
infectivity tests are discussed. Nine additional fungi are reported from dead
and moribund larvae collected in the field.

Each year in Florida, large numbers of adult lovebugs, Plecia nearc-
tica Hardy (Diptera-Bibionidae), emerge from grass litter where they de-
velop for 3 to 9 months through the larval and pupal stages. Adults be-
come a nuisance and a traffic hazard during May and September when their
bodies coat windshields an opaque white as they are struck by motor ve-
hicles.
Seasonal sampling revealed a decrease in larval population numbers in
the spring of 1973 and a subsequent reduction of adults in the May flight.
Samples of larvae taken prior to emergence demonstrated a high percentage
of late instars apparently killed by fungi.
Kish et al. (1974) reported 7 fungi isolated from dead larvae and adults.
Since then 9 additional species have been identified from lovebug cadavers
found during larval surveys. Reinfectivity studies were initiated to test 3 of
the most frequently encountered fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill.
Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch.) Sor., and Tolypocladium cylindrosporum
Gams, for pathogenicity to lovebug larvae.

METHODS AND MATERIALS
Larvae used for testing were collected from various locations in
Alachua County, Florida. Larvae for each replicate were taken from the
same locality, rinsed thoroughly with sterile water and placed in Petri
plates (25 larvae per plate) containing a steam sterilized, soil-detritus mix-
ture.
Axenic cultures of the fungi were established by isolating conidia or
hyphae from infected lovebug larvae collected in the field. Fungal cul-
tures were maintained on Sabouraud Maltose Agar containing 1% yeast
extract. Inoculum utilized for the tests was collected from the first pure
culture obtained from the field collected larvae.
Inoculations were made by dusting the fungus directly onto the integu-
ment. Although the inoculum concentration was not standardized, an ap-
proximately equivalent amount was applied for each test.
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series Number 546
'Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611
'CIBA-GIEGY Chemical Corporation, Vero Beach, Florida


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977



















The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977


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Inoculated larvae were maintained in the Petri plates under ambient
laboratory conditions of light and temperature throughout the test period.
Two tests with 3 replicates each were completed for each fungus. One
replicate consisted of 25 larvae in 1 plate. Controls, which consisted of
6 replicates per test, were established by the previously described methods
except the inoculum was omitted.
The plates were periodically observed for dead and moribund larvae.
Soil was kept moist with sterile water. Cumulative counts of larval mor-
tality caused by fungi were made during the test period which lasted 35
days. Larvae and adults apparently infected with fungi were removed im-
mediately and the fungus was identified.


RESULTS

Infection levels for each test are presented in Table 1. Exposure to B.
bassiana resulted in infection levels of 27% and 33% for tests I and II,
respectively. Results for the other 2 fungi were inconsistent and infection
levels were lower. Some larvae became infected with more than the test
organism and these fungi are listed in Table 1.
A Chi Square analysis with a 2 x 2 contingency table compared each
treatment to the control (Table 2). Results of both tests were combined
for this analysis. Because larvae began pupating and adults emerging before

TABLE 2.-CHI SQUARE 2 x 2 CONTINGENCY TABLE ANALYSIS OF INFEC-
TION LEVELS OF 3 FUNGI TESTED AGAINST THE LOVEBUG'.

Treatment X2 of Infection Level2

Beauveria bassiana (larvae) 9.17**
Beauveria bassiana (adults) 11.10***
Metarhizium anisopliae3 n.s.
Tolypocladium cylindrosporum3 n.s.

'Data from both tests are combined
IX' values are calculated by the formula
X'= (Observed-Expected)
Expected
Where: Observed is the number infected by the treatment
Expected is the number infected in the controls
3X' values for both larvae and adults were not significant
SP<.01
*** P<.001
n.s. not significant

the end of the test, the number of infected larvae and adults was compared
to the non-infected control population. Numbers of both adults and lar-
vae infected by B. bassiana were significantly greater. Infection levels of
both larvae and adults inoculated with T. cylindrosporum and M. aniso-
pliae were not significant.
All the fungi isolated and identified from dead larvae and adults to
the present time are listed in Table 3.











The Florida Entomologist


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Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977













Kish et al.: Fungi on the lovebug


DISCUSSION
Beauveria bassiana appeared to be pathogenic to the lovebug and to
cause significant mortality among larvae and adults. Although larvae
inoculated with M. anisopliae and T. cylindrosporum did become infected,
levels were quite low.
Several problems exist concerning interpretations of the data. Larvae
used in this test were not reared under stringent, aseptic laboratory con-
ditions, which could have altered the results. Although larvae were dipped
into mixtures of fungicides in other tests, contaminants persisted, probably
surviving in gut and fecal material. Additionally, at best, only B. bassiana
showed evidence of potential as a control agent. Many field experiments
which have tested fungi, including B. bassiana, as biological control agents,
were failures or had minimal success owing largely to our ignorance of the
dynamics of the biotic and meteorological influences existing for any given
insect-pathogen relationship.
Among the additional fungal species reported from lovebugs in Table 3
are 3 entomogenous forms: Beauveria brongniartii (Sacc.) Petch, closely
related to B. bassiana and an effective insect pathogen; and 2 members of
the genus Paecilomyces, P. javanicus (Friederichs & Bally) Brown & Smith
and P. ramosis Samson & Evans. Paecilomycesjavanicus has been reported
as an effective natural control agent of scale insects of citrus in Florida,
(Watson and Berger 1937) and in Puerto Rico, (Wolcott 1955).
Additional information concerning the nutritional needs of the lovebug
is needed in order that these insects can be reared and tested under more
aseptic conditions.


LITERATURE CITED

HETRICK, L. A. 1970. Biology of the "Lovebug", Plecia nearctica (Diptera:
Bibionidae). Fla. Ent. 53:23-6.
KISH, L. P., G. E. ALLEN, J. W. KIMBROUGH, AND L. C. KUITERT. 1974. A
survey of fungi associated with the lovebug, Plecia nearctica, in Flor-
ida. Fla. Ent. 57:281-4.
WATSON, J. R., AND E. W. BERGER. 1937. Citrus insects and their control.
Fla. Agr. Ext. Ser., p. 13-61.
WOLCOTT, G. N. 1955. Experiences with entomogenous fungi in Puerto Rico.
Puerto Rico Sta. Bull. 130.












The Florida Entomologist


BOOK REVIEW

THE BIOLOGY OF INSECTS. C. P. Friedlander. 1977. Pica Press. New York.
189 p. $12.50. In the good old days most entomology texts were compre-
hensive and balanced with respect to taxonomy and biology. Today there
are several forms available, including the traditional (e.g., The Insects of
Australia). One popular American text is long and strong on systematics
but short (and mediocre) on biology. Another is long (but mediocre) on
biology and omits systematics entirely. Two recent books, perhaps more
appropriately called texts than the others because of their more reason-
able lengths, emphasize biology but do also include taxonomic surveys
and sections on economic entomology. "Friedlander" is yet another option
for the instructor, but the available niche may be small.
The strong feature of this book, for teachers with similar interests and
emphasis, is its "whole animal," functional-systematics theme: while 14
pages are given to a general morphology-physiology survey, 110 are de-
voted to behavior, ecology, evolution, variety, and adaptive radiation-
about 50 pages deal with the economic importance of insects, including a
brief survey of insecticides, resistance, control methods, and medically and
agriculturally important insects. These emphases are to be expected from
the author's preface: "This book sets out partly to fill the very large gap
that exists in the information available to students about the nature of in-
sects as animals that are perfectly and widely adapted to life on land, and
the influence on man's economy that stems from the perfection of the adap-
tation." One could say that coverage is spotty, often superficial, provincial
(meaning that American authors are not cited as often as they could be),
and idiosyncratic. Again from the preface, "The field is so vast that I have
been highly selective, choosing those aspects of insect biology which either
interest me or are of very general application."
The illustrations make a poor impression; although they have the primi-
tive appearance of an "in-house" lab manual, they are usually instructive.
(But one has the promoter and remotor muscles of a leg drawn with inser-
tion that would result in the collapse of the thorax, and leave the leg
dangling, p. 68.) There are instances of Lamarckian explanation (e.g., p. 78)
as well as group (good-of-the-species) selection. ("The insect species draws
special attention to itself by its aposematic features, suffers heavy initial
loss through attack by inexperienced predators and, finally, gains by being
shunned." p. 118. On Mullerian mimicry, "The result is a complex of spe-
cies which benefit collectively from the resemblance because predators
avoid the general pattern and the net loss from any one species is reduced,"
p. 123.) Clearly Friedlander does not understand natural selection, or see
the distinction to be made between function and effect (see Williams, G. C.
1966. Adaptation and Natural Selection, Princeton). This book should be
available to you, at your library if not in your own collection.
J. E. Lloyd


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977













The Florida Entomologist


EFFECT OF GAMMA RAYS AND/OR FLUORESCENT
PIGMENTS ON STERILITY AND SURVIVAL
OF THE STABLE FLY'

D. F. WILLIAMS, G. C. LABRECQUE, AND R. S. PATTERSON

Insects Affecting Man Researih Laboratory,
Agr. Res. Serv. USDA, Gainesville, Florida 32604

ABSTRACT
Comparative studies on the relative effectiveness of two ""Co irradiators
differing only in dose rate showed that both were equally effective in pro-
ducing sterility in the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Survival was
superior, however, in those flies irradiated with the higher dose rate unit.
Marking with fluorescent pigments produced an increase in daily mortali-
ties regardless of whether or not the flies had been irradiated.


It has been demonstrated on numerous occasions that the stable fly,
Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), can be controlled with sterile-male releases
(LaBrecque et al. 1972, 1975a). However, despite inundative releases, na-
tive flies were always in evidence, and their presence was usually attrib-
uted to infiltration from adjacent breeding sites. An island-wide pilot study
was initiated on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, in the summer of 1974 to de-
termine the economic practicality of the sterile-male approach as a con-
trol measure. Among the primary investigative areas under consideration
were integrated control and population dynamics (Patterson et al. 1975).
Since St. Croix is isolated by over 40 miles of water, the factor of immigra-
tion is considered minimal and a native fly residual, if present after sus-
tained releases, would be attributable to other causes.
The program consists essentially of mass rearing stable flies on the is-
land, sterilizing 24 to 48-hr-old adults at 2 kR in a ""Co irradiator and re-
leasing them at the many sites of fly infestation. Sterility and fly popula-
tion densities are subsequently assessed by egg hatch evaluations, by the
number of flies captured in animal traps, and by a count of the number of
flies resting on a random sample of dairy cattle.
Two gamma irradiators are available on St. Croix. They are for all pur-
poses comparable except that one (Gammacell 220) has a dose rate of
5088 r/min while the dose rate of the other (Radocell) is 560 r/min. Be-
cause the more powerful source necessitates an exposure time of only ca.
30 sec to produce sterility at 2 kR, it was considered to be the preferred unit
for use in the program. Nevertheless studies were conducted with both ir-
radiators to select one of the units for daily use in the program.
In the first study groups of 100 adult'stable flies of mixed sex, 24 to 48
hr old were anesthetized in a cold room at 1"C, placed in irradiation con-
tainers, and exposed to gamma rays in each irradiator for intervals cal-
culated to produce doses of 2.0 kR, 2.25 kR, and 2.5 kR. Subsequently, 20
irradiated or unirradiated males were crossed with either irradiated or unir-
radiated females. On the 7th, 8th, and 9th days following the crosses, eggs


'Diptera: Muscidae.


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977












The Florida Entomologist


were collected when available from each cross and hatch determinations
made 72 hr after each collection. Each test was replicated twice; the re-
sults are presented in Table 1.
Both irradiators produced about the same degree of sterility in males.
It was observed, however, that some of the females sterilized in the higher
dose rate irradiator oviposited, but the eggs failed to hatch.

TABLE 1.-EFFECT OF 2.0, 2.25, AND 2.5 KR ON THE STERILITY (%) OF STABLE
FLIES EXPOSED AS 24 TO 48-HR-OLD ADULTS IN A GAMMACELL
220 OR RADOCELL IRRADIATOR. (NO= NO OVIPOSITION.)

Percentage sterility of stable flies
Sex exposed to indicated dose (kR)
irradiated 2.0 2.25 2.5

Gammacell 220
Male 98 99 99+
Female NO NO 100
Both 100 100 100
Radocell
Male 97 99 99+
Female NO NO NO
Both NO NO NO


In the second study, groups of 1,000 flies of mixed sexes, 24 to 48 hr of age
that were irradiated at 2.0 kR, 2.25 kR, and 2.5 kR, were placed in holding
cages and checked for sterility and longevity. Sterility was determined as in
the previous study. Each test was replicated twice at each dose. Complete
sterility was observed in all flies irradiated in the Radocell source com-
pared to 99+ to 100% for those irradiated in the Gammacell 220. In the
longevity study mortality was recorded from 6 to 9 times over a 12-day
period, and the daily loss rate (DLR) was computed. The DLR observed for
those flies irradiated in the Gammacell 220 averaged 14.0%; the range was
13.5 to 14.3%. The DLR for the flies exposed in the Radocell was markedly
higher averaging 23.1% with a range of 21.0% to 25.6%. Check flies unexposed
to gamma irradiation died at a daily rate of 12.5%. Because of the superior
survival in the flies and of the shorter exposure period necessary to produce
relatively the same degree of sterility, the Gammacell 220 was selected
for use in the program.
To facilitate field determinations released to native fly ratios, all flies involved in the releases on the island
were marked with daylight fluorescent pigment. The technique used is as
follows. After irradiation, the flies were transferred to a screened release
container. The container was then placed in a chamber into which 3 g of the
fluorescent pigment were introduced and circulated via an exhaust blower.
Ten seconds later the release container was removed and the flies trans-
ported to the field for release (Patterson, unpublished).


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977












Williams et al.: ""Co irradiators against stable fly


It had been observed in previous studies by LaBrecque (1975b) that mark-
ing with a hand-held duster increased mortality in stable flies; thus a study
was initiated to determine whether the marking procedure described in this
paper had any deleterious effect on survival.
Groups of 450 to 675 flies of mixed sexes exposed to either a 2 kR dose of
irradiation in the Gammacell 220 or to fluorescent pigment marking or to
both were released in outdoor cages (3 x 4 x 2.4 m). Calves, penned in each
cage served as a blood source. Counts of surviving flies were made daily for
3 days after the releases, and the DLR was calculated. Each test was repli-
cated 1 or 2 times. The results were as follows:

Treatment DLR (%)
Irradiated and marked 30.4
Irradiated only 20.5
Marked only 26.9
No treatment 15.1
Marking had a slight detrimental effect on survival: The DLR of marked
flies was ca. 10% above that of unmarked flies. Irradiation also had only a
minimum effect on survival: The increase in DLR was ca. 5.0% above that
of the unirradiated insects. The 20.5% mortality of the irradiated unmarked
flies was similar to the mortality in the second study (14.0%) for flies held
in the laboratory.


LITERATURE CITED

LABRECQUE, G. C., D. W. MEIFERT, AND J. RYE, JR. 1972. Experimental
control of stable flies Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) by
release of chemosterilized adults. Can. Ent. 104:885-7.
LABRECQUE, G. C., D. W. MEIFERT, AND D. E. WEIDHAAS. 1975a. Potential
of the sterile male technique for the control and eradication of
stable flies Stomoxys calcitrans L. Pages 449-60 in Proc. Symposium
Sterility Principle for Insect Control, Innsbruck, Austria, 22-26 July
1974.
LABRECQUE, G. C., DONALD L. BAILEY, D. W. MEIFERT, AND D. E. WEID-
HAAS. 1975b. Density estimates and daily mortality rate evaluations
of stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) populations
in field cages. Can. Ent. 107:597-600.
PATTERSON, R. S., G. C. LABRECQUE, AND D. F. WILLIAMS. 1975. Use of the
sterile male technique to control stable flies on St. Croix Virgin Is-
lands. Agr. and Food Fair. February 15-17. p. 53-5.












The Florida Entomologist


BOOK REVIEW

LARVAE OF THE NORTH AMERICAN CADDISFLY GENERA (TRICHOP-
TERA). Glenn B. Wiggins. 1977. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.
xi+401 p., profusely illustrated. $25.00. Dr. Wiggins states in his preface
that "This is a reference work to the identity, structure, and biology of lar-
vae of North American caddisfly genera. More precisely perhaps, it is a stage
in the evolution of such a reference, for a definitive work even at the generic
level is still well beyond the information now available." Nevertheless,
aquatic entomologists will be grateful to Dr. Wiggins for preparing this
beautifully executed up-to-date work on a most important order of aquatic
insects.
During the summer of 1977, when I was teaching a course in aquatic en-
tomology at the University of Minnesota Biological Station, I promised
my students that they would have the opportunity of using this new caddis-
fly book, which was already long overdue from the publishers. We waited
impatiently for its arrival, but the wait was well worth it because the keys,
magnificent illustrations prepared by Anker Odum, and descriptive ma-
terial provided us with significant help in identifying caddisfly larvae. My
experience with use of the book in a classroom demonstrated to me that it
has achieved the author's objectives.
Obviously this book will become a required item in the library of every
aquatic ecologist, who must know the insects living in any habitat he in-
vestigates. The excellent keys, clear and accurate drawings, and the brief
summary of information about the larvae will enable the user to identify
his specimens with a feeling of confidence.
The book begins with a brief introductory chapter, followed by a short
one discussing classification and phylogeny of the Trichoptera. The next
includes a summary of larval habitat diversity, respiratory requirements
of the larvae, feeding, case building, and life cycles. Chapters describing
morphology and collecting techniques, the association of larval stages,
and instructions for preserving, storing, and shipping specimens are in-
cluded. The bulk of the book is composed of larval keys, descriptive ma-
terial, and illustrations.
Dr. Wiggins is to be congratulated on this most useful volume.
Lewis Berner


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977













The Florida Entomologist


A REVISED KEY TO THE ADULTS OF FLORIDA
ACANTHOLYDA, WITH A DESCRIPTION OF THE MALE
AND DISCUSSION OF ACANTHOLYDA BICOLORATA'
(HYMENOPTERA: PAMPHILIIDAE)

HAROLD N. GREENBAUM'
Department of Entomology
University of Arkansas
Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701'


ABSTRACT
The previously published key to the adults of the Florida species of
Acantholyda is revised, the male of A. bicolorata is described, and some
observations of the habits ofA. bicolorata are discussed.


Greenbaum (1975) published keys to the adults and larvae of the species
of Acantholyda A. Costa known from Florida. Subsequently, 3 females of
the little known and infrequently collected Acantholyda (Itycorsia) bi-
colorata (Norton) were collected in Alachua County, Florida, necessi-
tating revision of the key to adults to include this species.

KEY TO ADULTS OF FLORIDA Acantholyda
1. Last abdominal sternite divided by a sheath (females) .............. 2
1'. Last abdominal sternite entire (males) .. .. .. ......... ........... 5

2(1). Genal carina absent (subgenus Acantholyda); head and thorax
black marked with yellow; clypeus yellow; mesoscutum with
a lateral yellow spot on each side of mesoscutellum; ab-
domen ferrugineous above, with tergites 7-9 (sometimes tergite
6) broadly black... .. .... ... .... ....... ... .... apicalis (Westwood)
2'. Genal carina present (subgenus Itycorsia Konow). ........ ............ 3

3(2'). Head and thorax mostly ferrugineous; hind femora ferru-
gineous; abdominal sternites broadly banded yellow apically
............. ............................. floridana Greenbaum
3'. Head mostly black or yellow; thorax mostly or entirely
black; hind femora partially to entirely black; some ab-
dominal sternites mostly black or entirely yellow ......... ......... 4

4(3'). Head and thorax black marked with white; hind femora black
with apical 0.25-0.33 yellow; abdomen black with each sternite
with a narrow transverse yellow mark near the posterior
m argin ................................... .. ... ... circum cincta (Klug)

1. Published with approval of the Director, Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station.
2. Research Assistant, University of Arkansas, and Research Associate, Florida State Collec-
tion of Arthropods, Gainesville.
3. Present Address: Department of Entomology and Nematology; University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32611.


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977












The Florida Entomologist


4'. Head yellow with ocellar area, occiput medially, and upper
posterior margin of compound eyes marked with black; thorax
entirely black; hind femora entirely black; abdomen yellow
with only basal plates and apical segments black..........
................ .................. ... bicolorata (N ortod )

5(1'). Genal carina absent (subgenus Acantholyda); head and thorax
black, marked with yellow; clypeus yellow; coxae and
femora black above, yellow below ... ....... . apicalis (Westwood)
5'. Genal carina present (subgenus Itycorsia)' ...... .......... . 6

6(5'). Head and thorax black marked with white; clypeus black,
sometimes with a pair of white spots; coxae and femora black
with the apices partially to entirely white ...... circumcincta (Klug)
6'. Body black, with the head mostly yellow, including entire
clypeus; legs entirely black ......... ......... bicolorata (Norton)


Acantholyda bicolorata (Norton)
The first known male of A. bicolorata was collected on Pinus taeda
L. (loblolly pine) in Calhoun Co., Arkansas, on 9 April 1976 by W. T.
Wingfield. Since this paper deals with the Florida species, which include
A. bicolorata, I thought it best, to describe the male at this time. The
specimen is in the collection of the U.S. National Museum of Natural
History, Washington, D.C. Middlekauff (1958) adequately described the fe-
male of A. bicolorata.
Male: Length: 8 mm. Head (Fig. 1) yellow with the following parts black;
vertex, post-ocular areas, ocellar area, occiput, spot at upper margin of
each compound eye, and triangular spot surrounding each antennal fora-
men. Thorax entirely black. Abdomen yellow with basal plates and hy-
pandrium black. Antennae, mouth parts including labrum and legs en-
tirely black. Wings deeply infuscated dark brownish-purple. Cenchri
yellowish. Genitalia black except mesial apical 0.25 of harpe.
Head about 1.3 times wider than high when viewed from anterior as-
pect, about 2.75 times wider than deep when viewed from dorsal aspect.
Distance between compound eyes at base about twice the length of com-
pound eye. Head distinctly punctate, those on vertex and upper temples
large and distinct, those on frons, clypeus and genae small; each puncture
with a single seta; para-antennal fields and occiput impunctate, polished,
without setae except 3-4 setae near upper margin of para-antennal fields.
Genal carina present. Malar space as wide as length of third segment of
front tarsi. Vertical furrows distinct, diverging anteriorly, obliterated pos-
teriorly; median furrow very indistinct, a fine line. Clypeus moderately
elevated, separated from frontal crest by a depression; frontal crest ele-
vated just dorsad of antennal foramina. Median frontal tubercle present,
elongate (slightly infuscate). First flagellar segment of antenna slightly
longer than scape and as long as following 3 segments combined. Thorax
impunctate, shagreened except following areas: dorsolateral areas of pro-
notum with a few large, distinct punctures and numerous setae; an "I"-
shaped band of large, close, distinct punctures on each mesoscutal lobe
4. Males of A. floridana are unknown; they will probably not key out in this key.


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977













Greenbaum: Florida Acantholyda


Fig. 1-4. Acantholyda bicolorata, male. 1) head, dorsal view. 2) hypan-
drium. 3) Genitalia. 4) Penis valve. (e: ergot, h: harpes, v: virga, va:
valciceps, vl: valvura).
extending from mesoprescutal sutures to axillary depressions, each punc-
ture with a single seta; mesopleurae somewhat aciculate, densely seta-
ceous; posterior half of mesoprescutum elevated, polished, with a fine lace-
like surface sculpture (present also on female); metascutellum polished,
glabrous. Abdomen polished dorsally, shagreened ventrally except for
polished hypandrium. Hypandrium (Fig. 2) short, broadly rounded at apex.
Genitalia (Fig. 3) with harpe elongate, slightly less than twice longer
than wide, parallel-sided for most of its length, broadly rounded apically.
Penis valve (Fig. 4) with virga of valviceps long and bulbous, valciceps
bearing a long ergot on anteroventral corner, the ergot bent ventrally
about 0.67 its length; valvura strongly sinuate, the apical 0.25 strongly
curved ventrally.












The Florida Entomologist


A. bicolorata is a rarely collected species known previously from only
the female holotype collected in New York and a second female collected
in Maine (Middlekauff 1958). Other additional locality records include a
female in the USNM collection from Maryland, Prince Georges Co.,
Patuxent Wildlife Refuge (D. R. Smith, personal communication), and
the male from Arkansas described above. The females from Florida bear
the following data: (1) Alachua Co., UF Hort. Unit-SR 232, 26-27-III-
1975, G. B. Fairchild, Insect flight trap (personal collection of author);
(2) Alachua Co., Austin Cary Forest, 1-2-IV-1975, G. B. Fairchild, Malaise
Trap (Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville); and (3)
Alachua Co., Gainesville, 17-III-1976, J. R. Mangold, swimming pool
(personal collection of author). The larva, host and biology are unknown.
Probably hosts are Pinus taeda, from which the male in Arkansas was
collected, and P. glabra Walt. (Spruce pine) which was near the collec-
tion site of female (1) from Florida mentioned above.
Florida adults apparently emerge in late March and early April (cf.
August in Maine), and development occurs in the spring. As with other
species of Acantholyda, this species is probably single-brooded.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I extend my sincere appreciation to G. B. Fairchild and J. R. Mangold
(Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida,
Gainesville) for the female specimens from Florida, and to H. V. Weems,
Jr. (Curator, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville) for
loan of the third female. I also wish to thank D. R. Smith (Systematic
Entomology Laboratory, USDA, Washington, D.C.) for loan of the male
from Arkansas, and for his advice and suggestions. I also extend my grati-
tude to my colleagues at the University of Arkansas for their comments
and suggestions.

LITERATURE CITED
GREENBAUM, H. N. 1975. A new species of Acantholyda from Florida, with
keys to the adults and larvae of Florida species (Hymenoptera:
Pamphiliidae: Cephalciinae). Fla. Ent. 58:45-52.
MIDDLEKAUFF, W. W. 1958. The North American sawflies of the genera
Acantholyda, Cephalcia, and Neurotoma (Hymenoptera, Pamphili-
idae). Univ. Calif. Pub. Ent. 14(2):51-174.


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977












The Florida Entomologist Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977 305

DR. MILLEDGE MURPHY
NAMED ENTOMOLOGIST OF THE YEAR














t- ,-t










Dr. Milledge Murphey, 1912-1977.


The Florida Entomological Society honors Dr. Milledge Murphey,
who passed away February 15, as its ENTOMOLOGIST OF THE YEAR.
Dr. Murphey was born 15 December 1912 in Augusta, Georgia. After gradu-
ating from the Junior College of Augusta in 1932, he entered the University
of Florida where he earned the Bachelor of Science in Agriculture in 1935.
Employment with the USDA, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quaran-
tine followed and continued until 1937.
Milledge was employed by the Georgia Department of Entomology
from 1937 until 1942. He was Entomologist and Assistant State Entomolo-
gist. His duties included writing bulletins, making educational films and
exhibits, and developing the insect collection. From there he entered the
U.S. Army where he served as an officer until his discharge in early 1946.
In February 1947, Milledge joined the faculty of the Department of En-
tomology at the University of Florida as Assistant Professor. He earned
the rank of Associate Professor in 1953, the year he received the Doctor of
Philosophy degree from Oklahoma State University. He was promoted to
Professor in 1965.
Dr. Murphey conducted research, wrote publications, presented papers
at scientific meetings, and prepared exhibits, but he is known foremost as a
teacher. He dedicated his life to teaching and a master teacher he was! The
infectious enthusiasm in his instruction was a source of marvel for students
and colleagues alike. His teaching philosophy encompassed lecture and
laboratory methods, testing and measurement methods, visual aids, edu-













306 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977

national psychology, lecture notes, curriculum organization and counsel-
ing-to mention some of the more important.
Milledge especially excelled in the area of visual aids. He was respon-
sible for constructing more than 80 charts that are applicable to ento-
mological instruction as well as numerous film strips. His work in pho-
tography has resulted in slides unsurpassed for visual aids.
Not only was Dr. Murphey a great teacher, he was a man of exceptional
ethics, high standards, great compassion, and was a wonderful human being.
His willingness to help students was unending. During his last few days a
recent student placed the following note on the door to his hospital room.
"Dr. Murphey-
I stopped by to say hello and to wish you the best, but these darn nurses
wouldn't let me see you.
I just wanted you to know that you have been the single most important
person in my education and career. I want to thank you for all the encour-
agement, care, and motivation you have given me during the last few years.
You'll always be the one that will stand out in my mind as the man who
kept me going when I began having doubts about what I was doing and
where I was going. I will be grateful always.
Thank you again for everything and remember this-I love you like a
father. For the time you guided me through school, you were the father I
never had.
Now you just hurry up and get out of this place, so I can come visit. I
wish you a speedy recovery and keep in mind that my thoughts and love are
with you always."
Milledge received the first PROFESSOR OF THE YEAR AWARD
given by the University of Florida Chapter of Alpha Zeta, 1956-57. He was
given the DISTINGUISHED ACHIEVEMENT AWARD IN TEACHING
by the Southeastern Branch for the Entomological Society of America in
1974. Dr. Murphey was cited again by students when he received the
TEACHER OF THE YEAR AWARD in the College of Agriculture by the
Student Agricultural Council for the academic year 1975-76.
Dr. Murphey was a member of Alpha Zeta, Sigma XI, Phi Kappa Phi,
Phi Sigma, Alpha Phi Omega, the Entomological Society of America, and
the Florida Entomological Society. He was a very active and hard working
member of this society. He served on numerous committees, was Secretary
1949-56, Vice-President 1956, and President in 1957. He was very active in the
Gainesville Area Boy Scouts and served as President of the Court of Honor
for the Alachua District for many years.
The Florida Entomological Society takes pride in recognizing the con-
tributions and faithful service of Dr. Milledge Murphey with the honor of
ENTOMOLOGIST OF THE YEAR. The plaque reads, "For His Unselfish
Devotion and Contributions in the Field of Entomology to the Nation,
the State and the Florida Society."
S. L. Poe
R. J. Gouger
J. E. Brogdon, Chairman
Honors and Awards Committee












The Florida Entomologist


PHOTO STORY-When the older hands in the Department of Entomology
& Nematology at the University of Florida look back to quieter times, a
humble man-and superb entomologist-epitomizes the 40's and 50's: Dr.
Archie N. Tissot. Archie maintains an office in Newell Hall where he uses
his favorite vintage microscope which is still functioning well, as is he. He
and his wife, Hilda, have a flourishing hobby raising daylillies at their
home in one of the historic sections of Gainesville.-Photos by Mary Lou
Schreiber


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977














308 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977




JAPANESE BURROWING CRICKET WIDELY ESTABLISHED IN
SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES-(Note). In August 1959, in Hunts-
ville, Alabama, R. D. Alexander collected several crickets of a species not previ-
ously known from the New World. Alexander and I (1962, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer.
55:90-94) reported that these crickets belonged to the African and oriental genus
Scapsipedus (Gryllinae) and tentatively identified them as S. micado Saussure,
originally described from Japan and Celebes. We coined the common name Japa-
nese burrowing cricket from its presumed area of origin and its digging habits.
No more recent publication deals with the Japanese burrowing cricket in the New
World, but R. L. Randell (1964, Can. Ent. 96:1565-1607) changed its presumed sci-
entific name to Velarifictorus micado (Saussure) by making S. micado Saussure the
type-species of the new genus Velarifictorus.
I here report that V. micado is now established in the District of Columbia and
at least 23 counties in 6 southeastern states. Most of the new locality records are
from field work this year. Similar field work in 1965 and earlier yielded few records.
The Japanese burrowing cricket is apparently rapidly spreading throughout the
Southeast.
The distinctive calling song of males (R. D. Alexander, 1961, Behaviour 17:130-
223) makes V. micado easy to locate and identify. Calling occurs throughout the
night. By careful listening while traveling at night in the calling season, one can
determine where colonies do and do not occur. Northern records of V. micado are
chiefly from suburbs and small towns and are of spotty distribution. In western Flor-
ida and southernmost Alabama and Mississippi the species is widespread in rural areas,
where it is especially abundant in wet or mesic, wooded and partially wooded habi-
tats. Here it has probably occupied most sites that are suitable.
The winter apparently is spent in the egg stage, and a single generation occurs
each year. Earliest and latest dates for adults are 9 August and 23 October.
The extensive nurseries in the area between Pensacola, Fla. and Mobile, Ala.
suggest a means both of original importation and of subsequent spread of V. micado.
The eggs may have arrived in soil on the roots of ornamental shrubs from the Orient,
somehow surviving plant quarantine procedures. Once established in the nurseries,
V. micado would be shipped-as eggs in the soil on burlap-wrapped roots-to local-
ities throughout the Southeast. No soil fumigation is required for domestic shipment
of ornamental shrubs. The largely suburban and spotty distribution of Japanese
burrowing cricket agrees with this scenario.
The first macropterous specimens, males from Florida and North Carolina, were
noted this year. If macropterous females occur and fly, as in Gryllus spp., the spread
of V. micado into all its potential range should be rapid. There is little basis for
predicting what that range will be. The absence of colonies in sandhill habitats
(turkey oak and longleaf pine) in panhandle Florida suggests that inadequate soil
moisture may eventually provide a barrier westward.
New records (Records only by song and by T. J. Walker except where noted. Speci-
mens micropterous and in Florida State Collection of Arthropods, unless otherwise
indicated.): WASHINGTON, D. C., 25 Aug. 1976. VIRGINIA, Fairfax Co., 17 and 23
Oct. 1968 (1 male); Dismal Swamp nr. Lake Drummond, 5-6 Sept. 1970 (3 male, 11
female, 1 last instar juv. female; D. C. Rentz, D. A. Nickle, A. B. Gurney; USNM
collection). NORTH CAROLINA, Cabarius, Duplin, Mecklenburg, Robeson, Scot-
land, Stanley,, and Wake Counties, 23-24 Aug. 1977 and 12-13 Sept. 1977 (1 macrop-
terous male, Raleigh). SOUTH CAROLINA, Chesterfield Co., Cheraw, 26 Aug. 1965
(2 male). FLORIDA, Santa Rosa Co., 31 Aug. 1965 (1 male, Milton), 9 Aug. 1975, 1
'Oct. 1977; Walton Co., 31 Aug. 1965, 21 Aug. 1971, 30 Sept. 1977; Washington Co., 21
Aug. 1971; Bay, Holmes, Jackson and Okaloosa Counties, 18-20 Aug., 30 Sept.-2 Oct.
1977 (1 macropterous male, Cottondale; TJW and R. C. Paul). ALABAMA, Jeffer-
son Co., Birmingham, 5 Sept. 1970, 20 Aug. 1971, 29 Aug. 1977; Marengo Co., Chicka-
saw St. Pk., 23 Aug. 1973; Mobile and Baldwin Counties, 1 Oct. 1977. MISSISSIPPI,










The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977


Hancock Co., 17 Aug. 1965 (1 female, Waveland, R. E. Love).-T. J. Walker. Dep.
of Ent. and Nem., University of Florida, Gainesville.










's-s'^~ y~fy


.*. .......... ... .


PHOTO STORY-Can you identify this? It was collected in Gainesville.
The answer, as well as readers' speculations, will be given in the next issue
of the Fla. Ent.-J. E. Lloyd.














The Florida Entomologist


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977


THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST
Index to Volume 60, 1977


Acantholyda, key to Florida adults,
301
Agraulis vanilla, flight height, 30
Allen, G. E., article by, 233, 275, 291
Amblysieuspravus, new name, 171
Anagrus takeyanus, n. sp., 85
spp., key, 85
Anastrepha suspense, reproduction,
139
Control, 211
Winter survival and hosts, 267
Anicla infecta, control, 103
Anthony, D. W., article by, 17
Anticarsia gemmatalis, virus of, 233
Anwar, M., article by, 105
Aphytis theae, redescription, 1
Archipsocus, spp., morphology, 41
Ashley, T. R., article by, 65
Avery, S. W., article by, 17

Balciunas, J., article by, 37
Banks, W. A., article by, 17,275
Bick, G. H., article by, 149
Bick, J. C., article by, 149
Brueck, Jr., III, article by, 211
Burditt, A. K., Jr., article by, 211
Buschman, L. L., article by, 193, 200,
267
Calmbacher, C. W., article by, 135
Cercopeus komareki, n. sp., 257
Coleman, W. J., article by, 139
Collembola, new records, 281
Conomyrma insana, egg predation, 193
Crocker, R. L., article by, 25
Cunningham, H. B., article by, 263
Cylindromus, n. gen., 21
uniporus, n. sp., 21

DeBach, P., article by, 1
Del Fosse, E. S., article by, 109, 207
Dennis, K. C., article by, 139
Denmark, H. A., article by, 171
Diaprepes abbreviatus, root damage,
egg distribution, 114
Diphleps, new synonymy, 201
maldonadoi, n. sp., 201
similaris, n. sp., 201
Dunbar, D. M., article by, 85
Dunkle, S. W., article by, 187, 223

Edwards, G. B., article by, 30
Eichhornia crassipes, kairomone in,
217


Endangered insect program, 57
Epilachna varivestis, response to Dimi-
lin, 55
Erythroneura (Erythridula) pfrimmeri,
n. sp., 49
navoides, n. sp., 49
quadratoides, n. sp., 49
vartyi, n. sp., 49
velutinae, n. sp., 49
hamiltoni, n. sp., 49
pagodifoliae, n. sp., 49
rubiphylla, n. sp., 49
meridiana, n. sp., 49
isei, n. sp., 49
phelliphylla, n. sp., 49
nigriphylla, n. sp., 49
lyratiphylla, n. sp., 49
leucophylla, n. sp., 49
Esponda, R., article by, 139
Feltia subterranea, damage, 173
Frank, J. H., article by, 31
Frost, S. W., article by, 186
Funicularis group of Aphytis, 1
Gallo, T., article by, 287
Gomphaeschna, larvae, 223
Gordh, G., article by, 85
Gouger, R. J., article by, 103
Greenbaum, H. N., article by, 148,
301
Grogan, W. L., Jr., article by, 177
Gryllus, spp., phonotaxis, 67

Habeck, D. H., article by, 167
Hamlen, R. A., article by, 66,166
Harper, J. D., article by, 263
Heliothis zea, corn resistance to, 97
Control, 287
Henry, T. J., article by, 201
Hepner, L. W., article by, 49,167
Heteromyia wokei, n. sp., 177
clavata, n. sp., 177
Homoptera, collecting, 280
Hornuff, L. E., article by, 149
Howard, F. W., article by, 280
Hutchinson, G. A., article by, 280
Hyperica postica, predation on, 192

Jouvenaz, D. P., article by, 17, 275
Junonia coenia, migration, 25
lavinia, flight height, 30


Kay, C. A. R., article by, 193
Kish, L. P., article by, 291














The Florida Entomologist

Knell, J. D., article by, 233
Knopf, K., article by, 37
Koehler, P. G., article by, 103,147

LaBrecque, G. C., article by, 145, 297
Leppla, N. C., article by, 65
Loomis, H. F., article by, 21

Mays, D. L., article by, 267
Mazomenos, B., article by, 139
McLaughlin, J. R., article by, 27
McMillian, W. W., article by, 97
McPhail trap, history and use, 11
McWhorter, R., article by, 56
Meifert, D. W., article by, 145
Metasinella subfusa, n. comb., 281
Mitchell, E. R., article by, 115
Mocis latipes, control, 103
Mockford, E. L., article by, 41
Musca domestic, sterilization, 145
Mutt, J. A. M., article by, 281
Myrmecosaurus ferrugineus, new rec-
ord, redescription, 31
Myzuspersicae, control, 166

Nation, J. L., article by, 139
Neal, T. M., article by, 267
Neochetina eichhorniae, biology, 109
Nickerson, J. C., article by, 193

O'Brien, C. W., article by, 257
Odonata, new records, 149
Oncometopia nigricans, biology, 105
Orthogalumna terebrantis, biology,
109

Patterson, R. S., article by, 297
Paul, R. C., article by, 67
Pediobius foveolatus, response to
Dimilin, 55
Perkins, B. D., article by, 217
Phenacoccus solani, control, 166
Phoebis sennae, flight height, 30
Migration, 37
Photinus tanytoxus, life span, 200
collustrans, life span, 200
Phytoseius leaki, n. sp., 123
woolwichensis, n. sp., 123
Platyurodesmus, n. gen., 21
parallelus, n. sp., 21
Plecia nearctica, pathogens, 291
Poe, S. L., article by, 173
Poecilips rhizophora, damage, 129
Polygonum, spp., insects of, 167
Polysphincta albipes, rediscovery, 148
Precis coenia, migration, 37
Price, J. F., article by, 173


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977


Pseudaletia unipuncta, control, 103
Pseudoplusia includes, seasonal
populations, 115
Ptenothrix dominicana, n. sp., 281
Rabinowitz, D., article by, 129
Richman, D. B., article by, 30,192
Rosen, D., article by, 1

Sambucus simpsonii, insects of, 186
Scapteriscus vicinus, control, 147
Schicha, E., article by, 123
Schroeder, W. J., article by, 114
Schuster, D. J., article by, 227
Sharp, J. L., article by, 27
Shepard, M., article by, 55
Short, D. E., article by, 103, 147
Solenopsis, sp., virus-like particles in,
17
geminata, egg predation, 193
spp., pathogens, 275
Somatochlora filosa, larva, 187
Sphaeriodesmus secundus, n. sp., 21
Spissistilus festinus, affecting ant pre-
dation, 193
Spodoptera frugiperda, control, 103
Seasonal populations, 115
eridania, damage, 173
Collection of eggs, 215
Control, 287
Stephanitis takeyai, parasite of, 85
Steyskal, G. C., article by, 11
Stiretrus anchorage, predation, 192
Stomoxys calcitrans, sterilization, 297
Sutton, R. A., article by, 114
Synanthedon pictipes, response to
pheromone, 27

Terry, I., article by, 291
Tetranychus urticae, control, 66, 166
Tingle, F. C., article by, 115
Tomato, cultivar effect on insect
damage, 227
Trap, for monitoring fallout from for-
est canopies, 263
Tsai, J. H., article by, 105
Trichoplusia ni, seasonal populations,
115
Control, 287
Tumlinson, J. H., article by, 27
Typhlodromus helveolus, new type
species, 171
Tysowsky, M., article by, 287

Urbanus proteus, flight height, 30
Migration, 37

Velarifictorus micado, new record, 309














The Florida Entomologist


Waddill, V. H., article by, 215
Walker, T. J., article by, 308
Waterhyacinth, kairomone in, 217
Weems, H. V., Jr., article by, 57
Whitcomb, W. H., article by, 193, 267
Widstrom, N. W., article by, 97


Vol. 60, No. 4, 1977


Williams, D. F., article by, 297
Wirth, W. W., article by, 177
Wiseman, B. R., article by, 97
Wojcik, D. P., article by, 275

Zethus otomitus, nest, 135




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