Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00117
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1978
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00117
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

Full Text



Volume 61, No. 2 June, 1978


SLATER, J. A., AND J. E. O'DONNELL-A New Species of Cistalia from
Brazil and Comments on Systematic Characters in the Lethaeini
(H em iptera: L i .............................. .......... ...... ......... 49
MANGOLD, J. R.-Attraction of Eiiplhiiiopteri ochracea, Corethrella
sp., and Gryllids to B,;iudhar.t Songs of the Southern MI,re
Cricket ............ ........ .. ............. ...... 57
HALL, D. W., AND S. W. AvERY--Hemocytes of Mosquito Larvae ........... 63
PORTER, C. C.-Periceras (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in Mr.r:,i.
d.ith Comments on Insect Distribution in the Nrrthern Neo-

EnD A l, s. G. B.-Two New Southern Phidippus (Araneae: Salticidae)
... ........................................................................... ....... 77
SLATER, J. A., AND R. M. BARANOWSKI-A New Sp,. ie., of Bromeliad
L if ri from Jam aica ........ ................ ... ...... .. .............. 83
BEAVERS, J. B., AND A. G. SELuME-Flight Behavior and Dispersal of
Diaprepes abbreviatus ......... ............... ...... ................. 89
LA', hLN, t, P. 0., P. D. GREANY, J. L. N.%.\ irN AND H. O lF I SLt:R-
Influence of Hydroprene on t i'.,irtdlin i', Irr Fly Suitahilitf for
Parasite Development .... ............................ 93
Scientific Notes
BL]L.L..,i, R. C.-Greenhouse ',litlb,,r of Frlior ,Mtl, rhos for
Control of Hi nanl Mite on Citrus ...... ......... ..... 62
LEMA, K. M., AND S. L. PoE-Juvenile Hormone Analogs: Effects
of ZR-777 on Liriomyza sativae and Its Parasite ................... 67
tential of Resistant Corn to Reduce Corn Earworm Produc-
tion .. ..... ............. .............. ......... ............ 92
SIVINSKI, J.-Eggs and Oviposition of the Stick Insect Parabacillus
coloradus (Phasmatodea: Heteronemiidae)............................... 99
Minutes of the 60th Annual Meeting of The Florida Entomological
S society ....... .............. ....... ............................. ....... ....... ...... 101
B ook R review .......................................... ..................... ............................ .. 55

Published by The Florida Entomological Society

r OUND"\


P resident............................... ........ ................................ ............ .. J.. B T aylor
Vice-President ............................................. ....... .... R. F. Brooks
Secretary .... ........ ....................... ............. ... .......... ............ F. W M ead
T rea su rer ............................................................... ......................... N C L ep p la

C. S. Lofgren
E. C. Beck
Other Members of Executive Committee ........... ....... S. H. Kerr
R. C. Bullock
A. K. Burditt, Jr.
W. L. Peters


E ditor................... ........ ...... .. ... .... ......... ... ... ...... ...... ....... .. S. H K err
A ssocia te E d itors ............................................................ .......... .... E E G rissell
J. E. Lloyd
H. V. Weems, Jr.
Carol A. Musgrave
R. M. Baranowski
Business Manager......................................... N. C. Leppla

THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST is issued quarterly-March, June, September, and
December. Subscription price to non-members $15.00 per year in advance, $3.75 per
copy. Entered as second class matter at the post office at Gainesville, Florida.
Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be sent to the Editor, Entomology
Department, University of Florida, Gainesville. Subscriptions and orders for back
numbers are handled by the Business Manager, Box 12425, University Station, Gaines-
ville, Florida 32604. The Secretary can be reached at the same address.
When preparing manuscripts, authors should consult "Instructions to Authors",
on the cover of most issues, and examine recent issues for details of form and style.
The page charge is $10.00 per page, partial pages proportionally. Page charges
are scaled upward for articles more than 10 printed pages long. One page of tables
is allowed free in every article. Beyond this allowance, tabular matter in excess
of 25% of the printed article's length is charged at $20.00 per page, partial pages pro-
Reprints cost 2.54 per page for the first 1,500 pages and 14 per page thereafter. For
example, 200 reprints of a 3-page article total 600 pages; at 2.54 per page the charge
would be $15.00. The minimum reprint charge is $5.00. There are no free reprints of
articles of 1 page or longer. Twenty-five free reprints will be provided, if requested,
of partial page notes, book reviews, obituaries, etc. No covers for reprints will be pro-

This issue mailed July 31, 1978

The Florida Entomologist


Section of Systematic and Evolutionary Biology,
University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06268

Cistalia micans a new species from Brazil, is described and figured. The
highly modified nature of the sperm reservoir in the Lethaeini is discussed.
The potential importance of sperm reservoir morphology in understanding
phylogenetic relationships within the tribe is noted. The iridescent head
patches of Cistalia are discussed in relation to other genera and to sperm
reservoir modifications. Figures of the sperm reservoir, clasper, genital cap-
sule, and SEM photographs of the iridescent head patches are included.

The genus Cistalia StAl is a small genus of chiefly Neotropical lygaeids.
The systematics of the genus has been reviewed by Slater and Baranowski
(1973). Recently a striking new species from Brazil has become available
for study. The male phallus of this species is so strikingly different from
those of other lethaeines with which we were familiar that we were led to
investigate representatives of several additional genera in an effort to
better understand the position of Cistalia within the tribe.

Cistalia micans Slater & O'Donnell NEW SPECIES
(Fig. 1, 4, 6, 7, 8)
HOLOTYPE: male, BRAZIL, Espiritu Santo: Linhares, IX-1972. M. Alva-
renga. In American Museum of Natural History.
PARATYPES: 2 males, 8 females same data as holotype. In American
Museum of Natural History and J. A. Slater collections.
General coloration dark reddish brown; clavus and corial veins mesad
of radius yellow-brown, contrasting with chocolate brown color of re-
mainder of corium except for a small white macula at basal curve of
cubitus; membrane concolorous with corium. First antennal segment
orange yellow with a narrow black distal end; antennal segments 2 and 4,
and basal 1/4 to 1/3 of segment 3 dark chocolate brown; distal 2/3 to 3/4
of segment 3 a strongly contrasting white or very pale yellow. Pleural and
sternal surfaces uniformly shining reddish brown. Entire fore femora and
distal 1/3 to 1/2 of mid and hind femora tan, and proximal 1/2 to 2/3 white;
tibiae brown, becoming darker distally; middle and hind tarsi yellow; api-
cal segment of these tarsi and all fore tarsal segments darker, nearly con-
colorous with tibiae.
Head, pronotum, scutellum and area of corium laterad of radial vein
strongly shining, corial shining area contrasting strongly with pruinose
surface of clavus and inner 1/2 of corium. Clothed above with short yellow

'This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid from the National Science Foundation.

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

The Florida Entomologist





: 1

' .i


Fig. 1. Cistalia micans n. sp. dorsal view.

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978


Slater and O'Donnell: New Cistalia Species

semierect to decumbent hairs; antennal segments clothed largely with de-
cumbent pubescence, several upright hairs present but these shorter than
diameter of an antennal segment.
Head moderately convex across vertex, non-declivent anteriorly; tylus
evenly rounded, not quite attaining middle of first antennal segment; lat-
eral margins of juga carinate. Compound eyes large, touching antero-
lateral margins of pronotum. Length head 0.75 (all measurements in milli-
meters), width head 0.92, interocular space 0.52. Pronotum with transverse
impression shallow, obsolete; posterior lobe distinctly punctate, more
heavily so than anterior lobe, calli impunctate; scattered punctures pres-
ent near anterior pronotal margin; lateral margins evenly narrowing an-
teriorly, carinate; posterior margin shallowly concave. Pronotum 1.02
long, 1.60 wide. Scutellum shallowly rugose, distinctly and evenly punc-
tate, ecarinate. Scutellum 0.92 long, 0.85 wide. Claval commissure 0.45
Hemelytra with lateral corial margins feebly sinuate, nearly straight,
tapering posteriorly; clavus with 4 distinct rows of punctures; corium with
cubitus strongly elevated above surface, membrane extending to or
slightly beyond end of abdomen; distance apex-clavus to apex-corium 1.05;
distance apex-corium to apex-abdomen 0.75. Metathoracic scent gland au-
ricle nearly straight or slightly curving caudad distally, apex subtrun-
cate; evaporative area large, occupying ventral 2/3 of metapleuron, the
lateral (dorsal) margin truncate but sloping ventrad posteriorly. Fore
femora slightly incrassate, armed below with 2 short stout spines distally
and several elongate prominent hairs proximal to these on ventral sur-
face; middle and hind femora mutic. Labium extending posteriorly to meta-
coxae, first segment reaching base of head; length labial segments I 0.70,
II 0.70, III 0.55, IV 0.38. Antennae moderately stout, first segment some-
what enlarged on distal 1/2; segments 3 and 4 slightly fusiform. Length
antennal segments: I 0.80; II 0.98; III 0.82; IV 0.92. Total length 4.90.
This species is closely related to Cistalia binotata Slater and Bara-
nowski and will run to binotata in Slater and Baranowski's (1973) key.
Three species of Cistalia (alboannulata Stal, binotata S. & B., and micans
n.sp.) form a distinct group within the genus because of the nearly straight,
evenly narrowed lateral pronotal margins. C. binotata and micans are the
only Cistalia species that have the outer portion of the corium polished and
shining and the inner half a strongly contrasting dull pruinose.
C. micans can readily be distinguished from binotata by having a pol-
ished and shining rather than pruinose scutellum, by lacking prominent
white spots near the posterior end of the corium and distally on the clavus,
by having an appreciably longer first antennal segment and by having the
shining area of the corium extending further mesad.
The sperm reservoir of Cistalia micans is so highly modified from the
generalized lygaeid type that morphological relationships are difficult to


The generalized condition in the Lygaeidae is of a sperm reservoir with
a bulb, the ventral portion of which is cup-shaped and strongly sclerotized
(sclerotized cup) with a pair of "wings" projecting from the membranous

The Florida Entomologist


Fig. 2-8. Dimorphopterus zuluensis, Fig. 2-3: 2) sperm reservoir, dorsal
view; 3) sperm reservoir, lateral view. Fig. 4. Cistalia micans, genital cap-
sule, dorsal view. Fig. 5. Lophoraglius sp. nr. guttulatus, sperm reservoir,
lateral view. Fig. 6-8. Cistalia micans: 6) clasper; 7) sperm reservoir, dorsal
view; 8) sperm reservoir, lateral view.

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

Slater and O'Donnell: New Cistalia Species

dorsal portion of the bulb (Fig. 2, 3). From the base of the sclerotized cup
arises a large strongly sclerotized ejaculatory duct (=seminal duct) that
passes ventrad of the sclerotized cup (Fig. 3) and continues distally through
the aedeagus (see Slater and Harrington 1970 for a definition of terms and a
more detailed discussion of function).
In Cistalia the sclerotized portion of the "bulb" appears to have become
greatly enlarged and to be continued distad of the membranous area of the
bulb as a complete tubular or cylindrical structure (Fig. 7, 8). Within this
large heavily sclerotized "cylinder" lies a coiled tube that emerges dis-
tally from a large opening in the sclerotized "cylinder." This coiled tube
appears to arise near the base of the bulb. The sclerotized wings are reduced
to small strips (Fig. 8) that curve ventrad around the sclerotized portion
of the bulb. Ventrad of the bulb and attached to the bulb near the base is a
peculiar sheath-like, somewhat corrugated structure that becomes evanes-
cent distally. This structure definitely does not carry a tubular connection
to the distal portion of the aedeagus.
The sperm reservoir of Cistalia is so modified that it is difficult to un-
derstand the relationship of the ejaculatory duct to that of the generalized
condition. It is our belief that the ejaculatory duct has become incorporated
within the enormous "cylinder" which actually seems to have been formed
from an enlargement of the sclerotized cup and an enlargement of a basal
ventral sclerotized "spur" (see below). It is tempting because of its basal
connection to view the peculiar sheath-like ventral structure as the non-
functional original ejaculatory duct. We do not believe this to be the case.
Not only is there no evidence of a tubular duct associated with this corru-
gated structure but more importantly such an interpretation would neces-
sitate the development of a completely new duct within the sperm reservoir
whereas the corrugated sheath-like structure could be developed merely
by modification of already existing membranes in the phallus.
A structurally similar modification of the sperm reservoir area occurs
in Cryphula and in Petissius.
In species of the Lophoraglius guttulatus "complex" (Old World
Tropics) the sperm reservoir area is very different (Fig. 5), yet it, too, is not
of the generalized lygaeid type. In this complex the ejaculatory duct in-
stead of curving ventrad "below" the sclerotized "cup" curves in exactly
the opposite direction so that it passes above or "in front of' (dorsad of) the
membranous portion of the bulb. Since these structures are completely and
rigidly sclerotized at their point of basal attachment, this cannot result
from merely a "flipping over" of the ejaculatory duct to enable it to run
on the opposite side of the bulb from the plesiomorphic position. It is pos-
sible that the sclerotized cup portion of the bulb has developed in these
insects on the opposite side from where it originally was, and that the orig-
inally sclerotized area has become membranous. Some support for this
hypothesis might appear to come from the "wings" which in many lygaeids
curve around the sclerotized cup toward the ejaculatory duct below. In the
Lophoraglius complex the wings extend strongly from the membranous
bulb toward the ejaculatory duct. Attractive as this hypothesis might be,
there does not seem to us any evident adaptive advantage for such a drastic
structural modification.
In many Lygaeinae and some Blissinae the sclerotized basal area from
which the bulb and ejaculatory duct arise is enlarged and often has a ven-

The Florida Entomologist

tral sclerotized spur. It is possible that the guttulatus-type modification
has been achieved by the reduction of the cup so that the bulb arises directly
from the basal sclerotization. The peculiar position of the wings (Fig. 5)
would seem to support this hypothesis. If this is so it will also account for
the modifications found in Cistalia where the spur-like ventral develop-
ment of the basal area of the sperm reservoir presumably enlarges, sur-
rounds the ejaculatory duct, and becomes fused with the cup. The above
interpretation seems to us to be the most parsimonious explanation for the
striking modifications of the sperm reservoir area found in these lethaeines.
From a systematic viewpoint the most important considerations are
these: (1) The Lophoraglius type of sperm reservoir also occurs in species
of Valtissus, Xestocoris, and Lipostemmata, all of which are Western
Hemisphere genera. (2) The "Cistalia-type" and the "Lophoraglius-type"
reservoirs are both highly apomorphic conditions. (3) Neither of these types
of sperm reservoir modifications can be directly derived from the other.

Fig. 9-12. Lethaeus africanus: 9) head, dorsal view showing "iridescent"
area, (SEM) X240; 10) same X1000; 11) pronotum showing "iridescent" area,
(SEM) X500; 12) same X1000.

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978


Slater and O'Donnell: New Cistalia Species

Ashlock (1964) notes that 6 New World genera of Lethaeini have a syn-
apomorphic feature at the base of the head dorsally. The 6 genera have a
single median iridescent area whereas in other genera 2 iridescent areas are
present. It is significant that all 3 genera with a single iridescent area that
we have investigated have the Cistalia-type sperm reservoir (Cistalia, Cry-
phula, Petissius), further evidence that a holophyletic group is involved.
We have made a few preliminary observations on the nature of the
"double iridescent head patches" as compared to thoracic lethaeine irides-
cence. The iridescence of these 2 surfaces is very different. SEM photographs
(Fig. 9, 10) of the head patches show that they are formed of a series of fine
corrugations arranged in 4 rows to form a circle: only a semicircle is visible
when the head is intact. The pronotal iridescence by contrast is formed by a
field of minute pegs scattered across the cuticular surface (Fig. 11, 12).
The corrugated rows that form the iridescent head patches are visible
under high power of a good light microscope. We have not been able to de-
tect these corrugations in species with a single median basal iridescent head
patch. As with the sperm reservoir these iridescent areas appear to offer val-
uable characters for a more mature understanding of phylogenetic rela-
tionships within the Lethaeini.

We wish to extend our appreciation to Drs. R. T. Schuh and P. Wygod-
zinsky (American Museum of Natural History) for the loan of material;
to Mr. Stephen Thurston (University of Connecticut) for execution of the
dorsal view illustration; and to Alex Slater (University of Kansas) for aid
in the interpretation of the modifications in the sperm reservoir.


ASHLOCK, P. D. 1964. Two new tribes of Rhyparochrominae: a re-evaluation
of the Lethaeini (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). Ann. Ent. Soc.
Amer. 57:414-22.
SLATER, J. A., AND R. M. BARANOWSKI. 1973. A review of the genus Cistalia
StAl (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). Fla. Ent. 56:4:263-72.
SLATER, J. A., AND J. E. HARRINGTON. 1970. A revision of the genus Ischno-
demus Fieber in the Ethiopian Region (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae: Blis-
sinae). Ann. Transvaal Mus. 26:11:211-75.

Richards and R. G. Davies. 1977. Chapman and Hall, London. 1354 p,
consecutive pagination with 418 p in Vol. 1. (Vol. 1, $25.00 hard, $13.50
paper; Vol. 2, $60.00). Contents: Organization is identical to that of the
previous (9th, 1957) edition. Part 1, Anatomy and Physiology, Part 2, De-
velopment and Metamorphosis (in Vol 1); and Part 3, The Orders Of In-
sects, without keys to families formerly included. Chapter titles and se-
quence are virtually identical to those of the former edition: the order of

The Florida Entomologist

treatment of endopterygote insects has been changed so that the 9 Panorpoid
orders are together. Each volume has an extensive, independent index.
Bibliographies follow each chapter and have occasional citations as recent
as 1974-76, though in general the research preparation for this edition seems
to have wound down in 1970-71. A quick survey of the references of 4 chapters
in Vol. 1 revealed a mean increase of 118% with a mean of 64% published
since 1957.
"The tenth edition of this standard reference text, covering all aspects of
entomology, has been revised and extensively rewritten, reflecting the
broader scope of entomology today while retaining the features responsible
for its past success ... the structure and physiology of the insects are treated
in a series of general chapters, each describing a major organ-system and
incorporating the results of much recent research. Where the advances in
our knowledge have been the greatest, as in the chapters on the cuticle,
nervous-system, sense-organs and glandular structures, large sections have
been rewritten ...."
A general textbook of entomology is almost if not impossible to write
today. With over 8,000 publications (Imms' count) on the subject each year,
who could claim to be sufficiently knowledgeable in all areas to synthe-
size and summarize them, to bring each up to date and keep them there
while writing other sections? I think it amazing that anyone would try,
but of course these authors were not starting from scratch. Updating and
following the format of a classic old book could be worse than doing a
fresh one: the key to the new Imms' is that it is still a classic old book,
constructed along the same lines, with much of the old core, and dominated
by things rather than ideas. For example, while more than a page is given
to a discussion of reproduction in aphids, and special terminology and life-
cycles are given, nothing is said of the biological significance of sexual
and asexual phases, or the possibilities for research on evolutionary phe-
nomena, or of the use of certain theoretical considerations for making pre-
dictions to guide further study. While there are more than 90 pages on the
Hymenoptera, and several pages indexed for "social life", nothing is said of
the more than 10-year discussion and development of kin selection which
has altered thinking and direction in the field considerably, and the dis-
coverer W. D. Hamilton (one of their guys) isn't even mentioned. The index
gives no entry for "sex ratios"-I note also that it gives only 1 for sex
pheromones. "There are about 1700 species (actually 1891 as of 1966) of
"glow-worms" and "fire-flies" (note the quaint quotation marks and hy-
phens) and 2 are British" (The European Continentals who have done far
more research on the 2 species than the British, don't know they are British.)
Although an extensive study was made on the 2 in Germany by Schwalb
(1960), the new Imms' cites Newport (1837; should be 1857). I note "Lloyd
(1971) has reviewed communication by means of light-signals", but I might
add that he did more viewing than reviewing, none of which got mentioned,
alas. There is no chapter dealing with behavior (or ecology for that matter),
not even a descriptive one, or even one on insect ethology, Tinbergen him-
self being cited but once (1951). The "new" Imms' may be a necessity for
any entomological library, but if you wish to use it as a core text for an
entomological program it must be supplemented extensively, and students
will need a government subsidy to buy it in hardback. JEL

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

The Florida Entomologist


Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Females of the parasitic tachinid Euphasiopteryx ochracea (Bigot), the
culicid Corethrella wirthi Stone or ally, and 7 gryllid species were at-
tracted to broadcast calling songs of the southern mole cricket, Scapteris-
cus acletus Rehn and Hebard, in Florida. A 14 month study of E. ochracea
attraction to S. acletus calling song indicated E. ochracea was attracted
from May through December, with greatest numbers attracted in September,
October, and early November.

Soper (1974) and Soper et al. (1976) first showed that a parasite can find
its host by sound; the sarcophagid Colcodamyia auditrix Shewell can lo-
cate its cicada host, Okanagana rimosa (Say), by the male cicada's song.
The tachinid Euphasiopteryx ochracea (Bigot) has also been attracted to
the calling song of males of its host, Gryllus integer Scudder (Cade 1975).
Female flies of both species larviposit on their hosts, usually adult males.
On 29 May 1975 Dr. T. J. Walker, Department of Entomology and
Nematology, University of Florida, collected an E. ochracea female 1 h
after sunset from the speaker of a tape recorder broadcasting the calling
song of Scapteriscus acletus Rehn and Hebard in Alachua Co., Florida.
The host(s) of E. ochracea in Alachua Co., were unknown-i.e., Alachua Co.
is outside the range of Gryllus integer (Nickle and Walker 1974). Also, no
parasites of S. acletus, an important agricultural pest, are known; a simi-
lar fly, E. depleta (Wied.), has been reared from the Changa mole cricket,
S. vicinus Scudder in Brazil (Wolcott 1940, 1948). A study was made to con-
firm auditory attraction and to determine the seasonal attraction of E.
ochracea to S. acletus calling song.

Recordings of the natural calling song of S. acletus males at 250C soil
temperature were broadcast using equipment like that described by Ula-
garaj and Walker (1973). At this temperature S. acletus calling song has a
pulse rate of 60 pulses/sec, a carrier frequency of 2.8 kHz, and an intensity
range of 42-106 dB as measured 15 cm above the male burrow entrance (Ula-
garaj and Walker 1973, Ulagaraj 1976).

'Diptera: Tachinidae.
'Diptera: Culicidae, Chaoborinae.
3Scapteriscus acletus Rehn and Hebard (Orthoptera: Gryllidae, Gryllotalpinae).
4Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 742.

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

58 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

) 10 -


5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
aa a a a a a a bc c ab a
Fig. 1. Mean number of Euphasiopteryx ochracea females per week at-
tracted to broadcast calling song of Scapteriscus acletus; breaks in the ab-
scissa indicate weeks of no observations. Lack of significant monthly differ-
ences at the 5% level of error based on Duncan's multiple range test at site
2 are indicated by same letter underneath a month.

Two test locations were used: (1) from 9 July 1975 to 3 September 1975,
a pasture surrounded by mesic hammock near Gainesville, NW 1/4, Sec.
31, T9S, R19E, the site of the fly captured by Walker, (site 1) and (2) from
16 September 1975 to 16 September 1976, SE 1/4, Sec. 23, T9S, R19E, 1.6 km
NE of site 1 (site 2). The second site was a residential yard bordering mesic
hammock; it was selected because more E. ochracea were collected here
than at site 1.
To determine whether E. ochracea could be attracted to broadcast song,
a 0.5 m X 0.5 m white cloth was placed under the speaker and a cylindrical
electric grid, described by Mitchell et al. (1972), was placed over the
speaker. An identical apparatus including a speaker was not connected to
calling song output and served as a check. The electrical grid and speaker
combination used to broadcast calling song was alternated with each suc-
cessive test date. The speakers were modified by removal of the flared-horn
end and were placed on their sides, 3 m apart. Broadcasts began ca. 30 min
after sunset. Both grids and ground cloths were inspected with a flashlight
for an equal length of time every 30 mih for the first 1 and 1.5 h after sunset
at sites 1 and 2, respectively. The intensity of the broadcast songs was main-
tained at ca. 96 dB and 105 dB as measured 15 cm from the speaker front, at
sites 1 and 2, respectively, using a sound level meter (General Radio Model
No. 1551-B). Broadcasts were made at least 3 times monthly, except for 2
observations in January. All broadcasts were made on evenings when the
air temperature was > 140C at 30 min after sunset. An analysis of variance
was calculated to test for significant monthly differences in the 41 nights of

Mangold: Tachinid Attraction to Gryllid Songs 59

E. ochracea attraction observations to sound source at site 2; the data were
transformed to /x + 0.5 for analysis.

Euphasiopteryx ochracea-A total of 97 E. ochracea females was collected
from the broadcasting apparatus. No E. ochracea were collected from the
check. E. ochracea females were sometimes observed flying to the broad-
casting speaker at the beginning of a broadcast. On some occasions these
tachinids were collected on evenings when no Orthoptera were taken. E.
ochracea were attracted in significantly greater numbers during September,
October, and November than other months, although the number attracted
in September was not significantly different from the number attracted in
November (Fig. 1). These results agree with Sabrosky's (1953) report that
E. ochracea adults apparently fly in late summer through fall. Lower
temperatures at broadcast time during the winter probably did not con-
tribute to an absence of attracted tachinids since Cade (1976) found E. och-
racea in Texas flew to Gryllus integer calling song at temperatures as low
as 10.6C.
As a preliminary test of the host suitability of S. acletus and the south-
ern field cricket, Gryllus rubens Scudder, for E. ochracea development, lar-
vae dissected from a female E. ochracea abdomen were placed on males of
these crickets by touching cricket abdomens to larvae.
E. ochracea successfully developed to adulthood on 1 of 5 S. acletus
males and on the 1 G. rubens male artificially infested. Since there are nu-
merous examples of parasites developing on factitious hosts (Simmonds
1944), the rearing of E. ochracea on S. acletus does not prove that the latter
is a natural host. The rearing of 5 E. ochracea adults from an adult Gryllus
sp. collected on 22 October 1976 (J. R. Mangold unpubl.) may indicate that
Gryllus spp. are important hosts in the fall.
The reduction in Gryllus spp. calling song activity during the peak period
of E. ochracea attraction to S. acletus calling song may indicate that the
seasonal patterns of Gryllus calling songs in north central Florida are in-
fluenced through parasitism by E. ochracea. Directional or disruptive se-
lection against Gryllus calling during September to November caused by
E. ochracea parasitism may be partially responsible for reduced calling
during this period. Calling by G. rubens males is most frequent during Jan-
uary to April in Alachua Co. (T. J. Walker unpubl.), but the greatest num-
bers of adults are found in the fall in north Florida (Veazy et al. 1976).
Similarly, Veazy et al. (1976) found 2 peaks of G. firmus Scudder adults,
June to mid-August and September to November, but calling males were
present in peak numbers only during June to late August (T. J. Walker
unpubl.). Calling males of G. fultoni (Alexander) are heard throughout the
year except for October to mid-December (Walker 1974). Furthermore G.
ovisopis Walker, the only Gryllus sp. known to lack a calling song, occurs
as an adult from September to mid-December (Walker 1974) which is during
the time E. ochracea is attracted to S. acletus calling song in greatest num-
Gryllidae-The following 7 species of crickets were collected from the
broadcasting speaker apparatus: Neonemobius nr. mormonius, N. cubensis
(Saussure), Oecanthus niveus (De Geer), 0. celerinictus Walker, S. acletus,

The Florida Entomologist

S. vicinus, and G. rubens. Ulagaraj and Walker (1973) previously reported
the latter 4 cricket species and N. cubensis have calling songs similar to
S. acletus and were attracted to S. acletus calling song. Eighteen female
and 12 male 0. niveus and 2 female and 1 male N. nr. mormonius were
found at the broadcasting speaker; 3 female and 3 male 0. niveus were
found at the check. Neonemobius nr. mormonius and 0. niveus also have
calling songs similar to S. acletus (T. J. Walker pers. comm.).
Corethrella Species-On 2 September 1975 I noticed small midges on and
within 20 cm of a broadcasting speaker after the normal broadcast period.
These flies were later identified as females of Corethrella wirthi Stone or
ally, culicids of the subfamily Chaoborinae. On the following night and on
9, 17, 23, 31 July and 15 September 1976 ca. 4-30 midges were observed at the
broadcasting speaker at 1.5 h after sunset, while no midges were observed
at the check.
Recently, McKeever (1977) reported Corethrella brakelyi (Coquillet)
and C. wirthi females feeding on 3 species of tree frog, Hyla spp. in Georgia
and presented circumstantial evidence of their attraction to host (frog)
calls. It seems plausible that Corethrella sp. were attracted to mole cricket
calling song because of its similarity to tree frog calls.

I thank Dr. Thomas J. Walker for identification of crickets and review
of the manuscript and Dr. Curtis W. Sabrosky and Dr. David G. Young for
identification of Tachinidae and Chaoborinae, respectively.


CADE, W. 1975. Acoustically orienting parasitoids: fly phonotaxis to cricket
song. Science 190:(4221)1312-3.
CADE, W. 1976. Male reproductive competition and sexual selection in the
field cricket Gryllus integer. Ph.D. dissertation. Univ. of Texas. 89 p.
MCKEEVER, S. 1977. Observations of Corethrella feeding on tree frogs
(Hyla). Mosquito News. 37(3):522-3.
tion of cylindrical electric grids as pheromone traps for loopers and
tobacco budworms. Env. Ent. 1(3):265-8.
NICKLE, D. A., AND T. J. WALKER. 1974. A morphological key to field
crickets of southeastern United States (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Gryl-
lus). Fla. Ent. 57:8-12.
SABROSKY, C. W. 1953. Taxonomy and host relationships of the tribe Or-
miini in the Western Hemisphere, II. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 55(4):289-
SIMMONDS, F. G. 1944. The propagation of insect parasites on unnatural
hosts. Bull. Ent. Res. 35:219-26.
SOPER, R. S. 1974. The genus Massospora Peck entomopathogenic for ci-
cadas. Ph.D. dissertation. Dissertation Abst. Int. B 35:2801.
SOPER, R. S., G. E. SHEWELL, AND D. TYRRELL. 1976. Colcondamyia audi-
trix nov. sp. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), a parasite which responds to
the mating song of its host Okanagana rimosa. (Say) (Homoptera:
Cicadidae). Can. Ent. 108:61-7.

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

Mangold: Tachinid Attraction to Gryllid Songs

ULAGARAJ, S. M. 1976. Sound production in mole crickets (Orthoptera:
Gryllotalpidae: Scapteriscus). Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 69:299-306.
ULAGARAJ, S. M., AND T. J. WALKER. 1973. Phonotaxis of crickets in flight:
attraction of male and female crickets to male calling songs. Sci-
ence 182(4118):1278-9.
Seasonal abundance, sex ratio, and macroptery of field crickets in
northern Florida. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 69:374-80.
WALKER, T. J. 1974. Gryllus ovisopis n. sp.: a taciturn cricket with a life
cycle suggesting allochronic separation. Fla. Ent. 57:13-22.
WOLCOTT, G. N. 1940. A tachinid parasite of the Puerto Rican change. J.
Econ. Ent. 33(1):202.
WOLCOTT, G. N. 1948. The insects of Puerto Rico. J. Agr. Univ. Puerto Rico



1540 Waldo Road
Gainesville, Florida 32602
Phone (904) 376-2658

Printing and Binding
Flat Sheet Work
Finished Hard Bound Books

The Florida Entomologist

only material currently recommended for control of the broad mite,
Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks), on citrus in Florida (J. R. King 1960:
Ann. Rep. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. p. 200). Since its repeated use against this
pest is contrary to the program of reduced sulfur advocated by citrus pest
management specialists, a miticide less harmful to beneficial insects is
Alternative compounds were sought among 13 candidates tested in the
fall of 1974 for efficacy against broad mites infesting immature foliage
of 'Key Lime' seedlings, Citrus aurantifolia, grown in the Research Center's
Seventy seedlings, naturally infested with broad mites, were removed
from the greenhouse and randomly assigned to 14 groups of 5 plants each.
Tender terminals of each plant were inspected under 30X magnification to
determine pre-treatment mortality for the first 20 adult or nymphal forms
encountered on each plant. Per cent mortality was determined in a similar
manner 1, 5, and 14 days after treatment to assess performance of test
compounds and an untreated check.
The plants were inverted and immersed for 10 sec in 5 gal of treatment
solution. Control plants were immersed in tap water. After treatment,
plants were positioned on the center bench in a 2nd greenhouse in a ran-
domized block design.
No moribund or dead individuals were found in the pretreatment search
of tender terminals. One day after treatment, mite death due to the follow-
ing 4 compounds (tested at the indicated grams AI/378 liters) had exceeded
the 90% mortality level arbitrarily considered acceptable for initial kill
and effective control: 357 g DS-20630 (12% tetranactin + 30% 2-secondary-
butylphenyl-N-methyl carbamate), 170 g MalonobenTM (3, 5-di-t-butyl-4-
hydroxybenzylidenemalononitrile), 226.8 g dicofol, and 93.7 g PGP-102
(trihexyl(phenylsulfonyl)stannane). Two weeks after treatment, only
Malonoben, dicofol, and PGP-102 were effective enough to suggest that a
single application would suffice for control of field populations.
Tricyclohexylhydroxytin 85 g, 113.4 g chlordimeform, 56.7 g chloro-
benzilate, 119.3 g propargite, 113.4 g azinphosmethyl, 181.8 g dialifor,
226.8 g phosalone, 56.7 g oxamyl, and 51.1 g formetanate were not effective
at the rates tested.
Hamlen (1974:J. Econ. Ent. 67:791-2) reported significant reduction of
broad mites within 2 weeks with 2 applications of oxamyl in his green-
house study. Several compounds in the current test might, if applied twice,
provide control comparable to Malonoben, dicofol, and PGP-102. How-
ever, the current strategy in citrus pest management is to reduce further the
number of sprays applied to the crop, thereby favoring materials that would
control the pest with a single application.
When Malonoben was applied as a "clean-up" spray in the greenhouse
at the completion of the experimental work, it was found to be phyto-
toxic to foliage of 'Etrog' citrons (Citrus medical var. etrog).-R. C. Bullock,
Univ. of Fla. Agr. Res. Center, Ft. Pierce, Fla. 33450.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 9011.

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

The Florida Entomologist



Plasmatocytes, oenocytoids, and granular hemocytes inside the anal
papillae of larval Culex tarsalis Coquillett, Psorophora ciliata (F.),
Aedes aegypti (L.) and A. atlanticus Dyar and Knab were described follow-
ing examinations by light and electron microscopy. Observation of these
hemocytes is a convenient method of monitoring changes in hemocyte num-
bers in vivo.

Most hemocytes of mosquitoes are sessile and adhere to other tissues,
thus making counts and histological studies of them difficult (Jones 1953,
1962). Amouriq (1960) described the hemocytes of Culex hortensis Ficalbi
from panchrome-stained smears. Bhat and Singh (1975) obtained hemocytes
of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) by rupturing the heart and applying pressure to
the abdomen. Jones (1958) reported that the hemocytes of 4th-instar larvae
of Aedes aegypti (L.) could be readily observed in vivo by light microscopy
through the thin transparent cuticle of their anal papillae. In this paper we
describe the types and structure of the hemocytes found in the anal papillae
of 4 species of mosquitoes.

The hemocytes of larvae belonging to all 4 species of mosquitoes were
examined by light microscopy. Two species, A. aegypti and Culex tarsalis
Coquillett, were obtained from laboratory colonies maintained at the In-
sects Affecting Man Research Laboratory, Gainesville. The other species,
Aedes atlanticus Dyar and Knab and Psorophora ciliata (F.), were col-
lected from the field. Hemocytes of A. aegypti and A. atlanticus also were
examined by electron microscopy.
For light microscopy, larvae were narcotized in a 1% solution of pro-
caine-HC1 and the anal papillae were examined with phase-contrast. For
electron microscopy, anal papillae were excised and fixed overnight in cold
Karnovsky's fixative. They were then post-fixed in 1% Os0, in 0.1M cacody-
late buffer for 1 h, dehydrated and infiltrated with either epon or Spurr's
low viscosity medium (Spurr 1969). Prior to polymerization, each papilla
was examined by light microscopy, and those containing few hemocytes
were discarded. Papillae containing numerous hemocytes were then em-
bedded 1 per block and oriented so they could be sectioned in the longitudi-
nal plane. Thin sections were stained in uranyl acetate and lead citrate
(Reynolds 1963).
Fourth instar A. aegypti were exposed to 100 ppm of neutral red, and
the hemocytes were examined for concentrations of the dye as an indicator
of lysosomes.

'Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series Number 1015.
2Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
3Insects Affecting Man Research Laboratory, USDA, Gainesville, Fla. 32604.

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

The Florida Entomologist

Three classes of hemocytes were observed: plasmatocytes, oenocytoids,
and granular hemocytes. Only plasmatocytes and oenocytoids were ob-
served in A. aegypti (Fig. 1). Granular hemocytes were observed in some
specimens of A. atlanticus (Fig. 2), P. ciliata and C. tarsalis.

Fig. 1-2. Hemocytes in anal papillae. Fig. 1. Anal papilla (phase-con-
trast) from Aedes aegypti with plasmatocytes (PI) and oenocytoids (0)
(330X); Fig. 2. Granular hemocyte (G) in anal papilla (phase-contrast) of
Aedes atlanticus (450X).

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

Hall and Avery: Hemocytes of Mosquito Larvae


P* J f ~i:

Fig. 3-4. Hemocytes in anal papillae. Fig. 3. Cross section of fusiform
plasmatocyte from Aedes aegypti (15,000X); Fig. 4. Plasmatocyte with
newly formed phagocytic vacuole (V) and numerous phagosomes (P) from
Aedes aegypti (11,350X).


The Florida Entomologist

Plasmatocytes are by far the most common hemocytes in mosquitoes.
Those in the anal papillae are usually fusiform and are found adhering to
the papillar epithelial cells or to tracheae. The ultrastructure of these
cells is similar to that of plasmatocytes of other insects as described by
Arnold (1974). They have a relatively large nucleus, and the cytoplasm
contains numerous mitochondria and ribosomes (Fig. 3).
Most plasmatocytes and oenocytoids rapidly sequestered neutral red
in vivo, which suggests the presence of lysosomes (Allison and Young 1969,
Holtzman 1976). Some plasmatocytes contain numerous membrane-bound
phagosomes, and are presumably phagocytic (Fig. 4).
Oenocytoids are hyaline, ovoid to spherical cells which are highly re-
fringent when viewed with phase-contrast microscopy (Fig. 1). They are char-
acterized by the presence of numerous microtubules and a few mitochondria
and Golgi elements (Fig. 5).
Granular hemocytes differed slightly in appearance in the different spe-
cies examined, primarily in the size and appearance of the granules. Granu-
lar hemocytes of A. atlanticus contained large lipid droplets. Granular
hemocytes and oenocytoids were relatively uncommon in mosquito larvae
when compared to plasmatocytes.
Counting the hemocytes of the anal papillae of mosquito larvae is a
convenient method of monitoring the hemocyte condition of living larvae.
Anal papillae may also be excised in fixative, and hemocytes counted at
leisure. Andreadis and Hall (1976) have utilized this method to estimate
changes in total hemocyte numbers and changes in dopaoxidase-positive
hemocytes of A. aegypti larvae parasitized with a neoaplectanid nematode.

Fig. 5. Oenocytoid from Aedes aegypti (5,000X).


ALLISON, A. C., AND M. R. YOUNG. 1969. Vital staining and fluorescence
microscopy of lysosomes, p. 600-28. In: Lysosomes in Biology and
Pathology. Part 2. J. T. Dingle and H. B. Fell (eds.). Frontiers of
Biology, Vol. 14B. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York. 668 p.

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

Hall and Avery: Hemocytes of Mosquito Larvae

AMOURIQ, L. 1960. Formules hemocytaires de la larvae, de la nymphe et
de l'adulte de Culex hortensis (Dipt., Culicidae). Bull. Soc. Ent.
Fr. 65:135-9.
ANDREADIS, T. G. AND D. W. HALL. 1976. Neoaplectana corpocapsae: en-
capsulation in Aedes aegypti and changes in host hemocytes and
hemolymph proteins. Exp. Parasit. 39:252-61.
ARNOLD, J. W. 1974. The hemocytes of insects p. 201-254. In: The Physiol-
ogy of Insecta, Vol. 5, 2nd edition, M. Rockstein (ed.) Academic Press,
Inc. New York. 648 p.
BHAT, U. K. M. AND K. R. P. SINGH. 1975. The haemocytes of the mosquito
Aedes albopictus and their comparison with larval cells cultured in
vitro. Experientia 31:1331-2.
HOLTZMAN, E. 1976. Lysosomes: a survey. Cell Biology Monographs. Vol.
3. Springer-Verlag. New York. 298 p.
JONES, J. C. 1953. On the heart in relation to circulation of hemocytes in
insects. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 46:366-72.
JONES, J. C. 1958. Heat fixation and the blood cells of Aedes aegypti lar-
vae. The Anatomical Record 132:461.
JONES, J. C. 1962. Current concepts concerning insect hemocytes. Amer.
Zool. 2:209-46.
REYNOLDS, E. W. 1963. The use of lead citrate at high pH in electron mi-
croscopy. J. Cell. Biol. 17:208-12.
SPURR, A. R. 1969. A low viscosity epoxy resin embedding medium for elec-
tron microscopy. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 26:31-43.

Several authors (Wright, J. E., and G. E. Spates. 1972. Science 178: 1292-3;
Wilkinson, J. E., and C. M. Ignoffo. 1973, J. Econ. Ent. 66:643-5) have found
that juvenile hormone analogues (JHA) adversely affect host insects, with-
out disrupting the development of internal parasites. Others (Vinson, S. B.
1974. J. Econ. Ent. 67:335-6; Granet, J., et al. 1975. Ent. Exp. & Appl.
18:377-83; Riviere, J. L. 1975. Entomophaga 20:373-9) have reported adverse
effects on host as well as parasite when parasitized hosts were treated
with JHA. S.L. Poe (1974. Fla. Ent. 57:415-7) reported that ZR-777, at high
rates, not only greatly reduced adult emergence of Liriomyza sativae
Blanchard, but also suppressed Opius dimidiatus (Ashmead) emergence.
The experiment reported here was conducted to determine if the effects of
ZR-777 were sustained at lower doses on L. sativae and 0. dimidiatus.
Insects for treatment were obtained from a greenhouse colony on bean
plants. Parasites were confined, for 24 h, with caged plants containing
3-day-old host larvae. Then the plants were removed from the "parasitiza-
tion cage", and host larvae allowed to grow in leaves for 2 days after
parasitization. Leaves were excised and placed in paper cartons in which
host larvae pupated. Pupae were collected and brought to the laboratory
where they were treated with the JHA ZR-777 (Pro-2 ynyl 3, 7, 11- trimethyl
- (2E, 4E) 2, 4 dodecadienoate) Ent. No. 70531, synthesized by Zoecon
Research Laboratory.

The Florida Entomologist

The JHA was used at 1,000, 1,250, 1,500, 2,000, and 3,000 ppm. Pupae
were divided into 6 groups, placed on separate paper towels, and sprayed
with 5 dosages (Table 1) of JHA with a small hand sprayer. The 6th
group was sprayed with water. After treatment, pupae were placed in paper
cartons and kept in the laboratory (temperature 20-250C, RH:46-74%). The
experiment was replicated 3 times.

TABLE 1. EMERGENCE OF Liriomyza sativae BLANCHARD AND Opius dimi-

Dosage No. pupae % Emergence
(ppm) treated Liriomyza Opius

Check 170 44.96a* 10.89a
1,000 166 44.28a 4.25b
1,250 155 36.78ab 2.55b
1,500 160 37.14a 4.06b
2,000 157 45.87a 2.18b
3,000 159 31.90b 2.55b

Values in each column not followed by the same letter are significantly different at 95%
level by Duncan's MRT.

Counts of emerged insects were made 20 days after treatment. Adult
insect emergence was relatively low in the control (Table 1) probably a
result of rearing conditions. Only at 3,000 ppm JHA, was adult L. sativae
emergence reduced significantly. Each dose of JHA significantly reduced
parasite emergence, but observed effects among doses were not significant
(Table 1). These data confirm that JHA at rates sufficient to disrupt host
development are also detrimental to natural enemies. K. M. Lema, and S.
L. Poe, Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Flor-
ida, Gainesville, Florida 32611.

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

The Florida Entomologist



Department of Biological Sciences, Fordham University,
Bronx, N. Y. 10458

Xorides (Periceros), previously known from Perfi, Brasil, and Argentina,
now is reported for northeast M6xico. X. (Periceros) cerbonei n. sp. is de-
scribed from Cola de Caballo near Monterrey, and a key is given to all
Neotropic Xorides. Besides Periceros, many other insects traditionally be-
lieved restricted to tropical wet forests actually reach northern Mexico.
Zoogeographic implications of this distributional pattern are discussed.

The cosmopolitan genus Xorides, which parasitizes wood-boring co-
leopterous larvae, is well represented in most zoogeographic regions, in-
cluding, for example, 21 Nearctic species, but seems to have a meagre al-
though widely distributed and in part trenchantly distinctive Neotropic
fauna. Townes (1960:497) gives 1 Mexican record for the basically Nearctic
X. (Exomus) humeralis (Say), but no other Xorides heretofore have been
cited from Middle America. Porter (1975:51-6) reviewed the South American
species, citing X. xanthisma Porter and X. euthrix Porter from northeast
Argentina, X. plumicornis (Smith) from Amazonian Brasil and Peri, and
X. magnificus (Mocsary) from southern Brasil and adjoining Argentina.
Xanthisma is an aberrant member of the otherwise mostly Holarctic sub-
genus Xorides Latreille, while euthrix and plumicornis belong to the
specialized and endemically Neotropic Periceros Schultz, and magnificus
is the sole representative of the South American subgenus Pyramirhyssa
In June 1976, during fieldwork supported by United States National Sci-
ence Foundation Grant DEB-75-22426, I collected 3 males of an unde-
scribed Periceros at Cola de Caballo in Nuevo Le6n State of northeastern
Mexico. These records not only constitute a dramatic range extension for
the subgenus but are equally surprising because the South American Peri-
ceros inhabit subtropical and tropical wet forests, while the Mexican spe-
cies was taken at the northern extreme of the Neotropics where the climate
is humid but practically warm-temperate and the flora resembles that of
the southeastern United States.
Herewith, I describe the new Mexican Periceros and adduce some ex-
amples of other distributionally similar insect taxa.

'Contribution No. 407, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Depart-
ment of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, Florida 32602.
2Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Florida Department of Agri-
culture and Consumer Services, Gainesville.

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

The Florida Entomologist

(Female of cerbonei and males of magnificus and plumicornis un-

1. Front trochantellus with a sharp apical tooth on front side;
central lobe of mesoscutum with a broad median longitudinal
groove....................................... ........... ..................... X hum eralis (Say)
1'. Front trochantellus without a tooth; central lobe of meso-
scutum without a median longitudinal groove ...................................... 2
2. Propodeum transversely wrinkled but not areolated, with
strong lateral subapical tubercles and the apical rim pro-
duced into a strong tooth behind each tubercle; tip of female
flagellum gently curved .................................... X. magnificus (Mocsary)
2'. Propodeum completely areolated and without subapical tu-
bercles, although often with a tooth at apex of 2nd lateral
area; tip of female flagellum abruptly elbowed.................................... 3
3. Hind trochantellus in front view 2.3 as long as trochanter;
basal 1/2 of female flagellum with small appressed hairs;
2nd lateral area of propodeum with a weak tooth at apex;
lower metapleuron finely puncto-rugulose; no baso-lateral
expansion on 1st tergite ....................................... X. xanthisma Porter
3'. Hind trochantellus in front view 2.5-3.0 as long as trochanter;
basal 1/2 of female flagellum with long, dense, more or less
erect and shaggy hairs; 2nd lateral area with a large tooth at
apex; lower metapleuron coarsely wrinkled; 1st tergite with a
triangular or rounded baso-lateral expansion ...................................... 4
4. Gaster with broad yellowish-white apical bands on tergites
1-8; hind orbit broadly white; hind coxa and femur marked with
black and white; mesopleuron becoming very sparsely punc-
tate centrad ................................................................... X cerbonei n. sp.
4'. Gaster uniformly dull red or orange; no white on hind orbit;
hind coxa and femur uniformly red or orange; mesopleuron
with abundant and almost uniformly distributed small punc-
t u r e s ........................................................................... 5
5. Epomia strongly oblique; mesopleural punctures separated
by less than 2X their diameters; setae of female 1st flagello-
mere long and coarse, only a little finer than those of follow-
ing segments; temple, sides of pronotum, mesopleuron and
lower metapleuron covered with very dense, long, silvery
hairs that obscure the surface; head and mesosoma black with

Fig. 1-4. Xorides (Periceros) spp. Fig. 1. Xorides (Periceros) cerbonei,
male Holotype. Dorsal view of propodeum and 1st gastric segment. Fig.
2. Xorides (Periceros) euthrix, male, Gobernador Virasoro, Corrientes, Ar-
gentina. Dorsal view of propodeum and 1st gastric segment. Fig. 3. Xorides
(Periceros) cerbonei, male Holotype. Dorsal view of gaster, showing color
pattern. Fig. 4. Xorides (Periceros) cerbonei, male Holotype. Lateral view
of hind leg, showing color pattern.

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

Porter: Periceros in Mexico 71


The Florida Entomologist

reddish on thoracic sterna and below on pleura...................
................................... ..................................... X p lum icornis (Sm ith ).
5'. Epomia almost vertical; mesopleural punctures separated
generally by more than 2X their diameters; setae of female 1st
flagellomere relatively fine and short in comparison to those
of succeeding segments; temple, sides of pronotum, meso-
pleuron and lower metapleuron with long but only moder-
ately dense, silvery pubescence that does not obscure the sur-
face; head and mesosoma dull reddish with black staining, es-
pecially on front, top of head, and thoracic dorsum.................
.................................................. ................................... X eu th rix P orter.

Xorides (Periceros) cerbonei Porter, NEW SPECIES
(Fig. 1, 3, 4)
FEMALE: Unknown.
MALE: Color: antenna black with a white annulus on flagellomeres
9-13; palpi white with dusky on last 2 labial palpomeres and less strongly
on last maxillary palpomere; head with black on mandible, sometimes
briefly on dorso-lateral corner of clypeus, on lower 1/2 of malar space,
on a contiguous band extending on and along hypostomal carina to junc-
ture with occipital carina, on a narrow line reaching lower margin of eye
in upper malar space, on a rather broad median vertical area below inter-
antennal lamella, on much of front and vertex, on most of occiput, on
upper 1/2-2/3 of hind part of temple, and on most of postocciput, as well
as with white on most of clypeus, on most of face, on broad frontal and
vertical orbits to level of hind ocelli, on very broad hind orbits which be-
come progressively wider below and on most of lower 1/3-1/2 of temple
extending rearward to occipital carina, and on about lower 1/4 of post-
occiput; mesosoma black with white on axillary sclerites and dull white
on mesepimeron, especially dorsad, on apex of lower metapleuron, and on
propodeal cristae as well as with conspicuous areas of very long and dense,
silvery pubescence on pronotum laterally, on broad lateral margins of
scutellum, extensively dorsad, ventrad, and apicad on mesopleuron, and
on lower metapleuron; gastric tergites black with yellowish white on
about basal 1/9 and much of apical 1/4 of 1st, with broad yellowish-white
apical bands on 2-7, and brownish on 8, claspers varying from dull yellow
to brownish, and gastric sternites largely dull yellow to brownish yellow;
fore leg with coxa, trochanter and trochantellus pale yellow with brown-
ish, especially above, on apex of trochantellus; femur yellow with ful-
vous staining dorsally, except near apex, and with a little brown on base;
tibia yellowish with an irregular brownish annulus, almost fading out
below, at basal 1/3; and tarsus with 1st segment rather dull yellow to
dusky brown and segments 2-5 progressively darker brown; mid leg similar
to fore leg except with brown a little, better developed on base of femur
and sub-basally on tibia; and hind leg with coxa black basally and yellow
apicad, the yellow reaching far basad anteriorly and dorso-posteriorly and
the black extending far apicad medio-dorsally and, especially, posteri-
orly and ventrally where it reaches apex, as well as with apical rim more
or less narrowly black; trochanter and trochantellus black; femur black
with a broad, almost percurrent yellow blotch on anterior face; tibia
yellow with some brownish on basal 1/6 and slightly on apex; and tarsus

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

Porter: Periceros in Mexico

yellow with brown on claws and briefly on apex of 5th segment; wings hya-
line with a faint yellowish tint, dark brown venation, a dull yellow tinge
medially and again near base on stigma, and briefly white on base of both
fore and hind costal veins.
Length of fore wing: 6.9-8.0 mm. Labial palpus: last segment subglobu-
lar. Head: interantennal lamella high and strong, its anterior edge
grooved; front smooth and shining with scattered punctures and wrinkling;
vertex and occiput with small, sparse punctures; ocellar area a little
raised, set off by a shallow impression anteriorly and laterally and with
a short groove reaching rearward from median ocellus; temple with sparse,
tiny punctures and long, pale setae which become moderately denser ven-
trad. Pronotum: epomia vertical; laterally behind epomia with abundant,
fine setiferous punctures. Mesoscutum: shining and more or less extensively
smooth, central lobe laterad with some coarse to very coarse transverse
wrinkles, anteriad with increasingly dense fine punctures, and mesad with
variably sparser medium-sized to large punctures and sometimes wrinkled,
lateral lobes peripherally with rather dense medium-sized to large punc-
tures and meso-apicad also with some coarse, variably developed
wrinkling. Mesopleuron: discally polished and almost impunctate but
peripherally with increasingly numerous small, setiferous punctures. Hind
coxa: stout, convex in dorsal outline, 2.8-3.5 as long as wide at widest
point. Hind trochantellus: in front view 2.7-3.0 as long as its trochanter.
First hind tarsomere: 0.91-0.95 as long as tarsomeres 2-5 combined. Pro-
podeum: completely areolated; 2nd lateral area at apex with a large, ligu-
late tooth; area-basalis 1.0-1.3 as long as wide at base, both it and areola
smooth and shining with some irregular wrinkling. First gastric tergite:
rather stout and strongly expanded apicad, postpetiole 1.2-1.5 as long as
wide at apex; petiole with a prominent subtriangular or rounded baso-
lateral expansion; postpetiole with very coarse reticulate wrinkling; dor-
sal carinae more or less well defined on basal 1/2 of postpetiole; dorso-
lateral carina traceable and often strong throughout. Second gastric ter-
gite: 0.75-0.85 as long as wide at apex; setae sparse on disc; shining, on basal
2/3 with considerable coarse wrinkling and large, slurred punctures but on
apical 1/3 smoother and more sparsely punctate; baso-lateral corner cut
off by a deep oblique groove that reaches lateral margin of tergite about
1/3 the distance to apex and that turns meso-apicad as a broader but still
strong impression that, with the basal grooves, delimits a broadly raised,
ovoid median area on basal 2/3 of tergite and this median raised area itself
subdivided into a pair of transversely rounded, anterio-lateral swellings
and a smaller, medio-apical, triangular zone; apical 1/3 of tergite rather
strongly and evenly swollen. Third gastric tergite: similar to 2nd but less
strongly sculptured and contoured.
TYPE MATERIAL. Holotype male: MEXICO, Nuevo Le6n State, Cola
de,Caballo nr. El Cercado, 18-VI-1976, C. Porter. Paratypes: 2 males,
MEXICO, Nuevo Le6n State, Cola de Caballo nr. El Cercado, 18-VI-1976,
C. Porter. Holotype in Museo de Historia Natural de la Ciudad de Mexico,
M6xico City. First paratype in Florida State Collection of Arthropods,
Gainesville, and 2nd paratype in collection of Charles C. Porter at Mc-
Allen, Texas.
RELATIONSHIPS. Cerbonei shows affinity to both South American species
of Periceros.

The Florida Entomologist

Comparison with plumicornis is tentative because we have no females of
cerbonei and no males of plumicornis, but the characters already mentioned
in the key probably hold true for both sexes. Furthermore, the oblique
epomia, smooth and polished 1st gastric tergite, and very densely and uni-
formly setose temple and mesopleuron of plumicornis likewise should
prove diagnostic with respect to cerbonei, in whose males at least the
epomia is vertical, the 1st gastric tergite strongly wrinkled, the temple
rather sparsely setose, and the mesopleuron becomes less densely setose
On the other hand, having examined 8 males of euthrix, I find, in addi-
tion to the key characters, numerous differences from cerbonei and these
may be summarized as follows.
Last labial palpomere securiform; front with almost uniformly strong
puncto-reticulation; anterior edge of interantennal lamella sharp and
ungrooved; temple with setae throughout extensively overlapping; ocel-
lar area not definitely discrete from rest of vertex, no longitudinal groove
behind mid ocellus; vertex and occiput with numerous medium-sized punc-
tures; pronotum laterally with numerous but well separated large punc-
tures that emit long but only moderately overlapping white setae; scu-
tellum with moderately dense setae; hind coxa almost parallel-sided and
very elongate, 5.8 as long as wide at widest point; 1st hind tarsomere 1.2
as long as tarsomeres 2-5 combined; area-basalis of propodeum 2.2 as long
as wide at base, it and areola with rather regular coarse transverse wrinkles;
1st gastric tergite long, slender, and only gently expanded apicad, post-
petiole 2.0 as long as wide at apex and with moderately fine, trans-biased
reticulate wrinkling; dorsal carinae not extending onto postpetiole; dorso-
lateral carinae obsolete on petiole, becoming sharp apicad on postpetiole;
2nd gastric tergite 1.1 as long as wide at apex, its setae sparse but in part
overlapping on disc, smooth and shining with numerous but sparse small
punctures and a little restricted weak wrinkling, its sharp, oblique, baso-
lateral grooves and fainter posterio-transverse impression defining on
basal 2/3 a moderately swollen, almost circular, and scarcely subdivided
median area.
FIELD NOTES. All specimens were found in deep forest. Two were netted
from herbaceous undergrowth, while the 3rd was collected from a recently
dead tree trunk.
SPECIFIC NAME. For Mr. Anthony Cerbone of Fordham University in
recognition of his assistance during my Mexican fieldwork.

Cola de Caballo, the type locality of X. cerbonei, is a deep ravine lo-
cated about 40 km south of Monterrey at approximately 500 m altitude on
the eastern slopes of the Sierra Madre Oriental. It has a permanent stream
and, facing east to west, gets little direct sun. Further shade is provided by
the thick forest that clothes its floor and sides. These factors create a humid
micro-environment whose lush vegetation contrasts with the surrounding
sparser woods and Thorn Scrub.
The Cola de Caballo flora has many northern genera, although numer-
ous species are Mexican endemics. Conspicuous trees are Acer, Carya, Jug-
lans, Platanus, Pinus, Quercus, and Taxodium. On the other hand, subtropi-

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

Porter: Periceros in Mexico

cal epiphytes grow on these temperate trees, including not only the familiar
Tillandsia usneoides and other much bulkier "tank" bromeliads but also
orchids, ferns, and Cactaceae.
Collecting since 1974 at Cola de Caballo and other sites in Nuevo Le6n
State has yielded a complex ichneumonid fauna in which 60% of the genera
are Neotropic. Besides Xorides (Periceros), previously recorded only from
South America, I have also obtained in Nuevo Le6n Zonopimpla, Ganodes,
Rhinium, Toechorychus, Latosculum, Cestrus, Nonnus, Oedicephalus,
Cryptojoppa, Joppocryptus, Microsage, Joppa, Eurydacus, and Diacan-
tharius, taxa for the most part hitherto unknown from north of C6rdoba,
1400 km south in tropical M6xico and all of which range far into South
America. As for other Neotropic genera of the area, Epirhyssa, Bicristella,
Carinodes, Dilopharius, and Macrojoppa reach only the southern fringe
of the United States but attain Argentina on the south; whereas, A crotaphus,
Grotea, Lymeon, Polycyrtus, Cryptanura, Messatoporus, Thyreodon, Me-
topius (Peltales), Trogomorpha, and Ambloplisus have 1 or a few species
widely distributed in temperate North America, particularly in the east, as
well as a greater representation in the tropics of both Middle and South
America. In addition to the foregoing ichneumonids, some other noteworthy
"tropical" elements among the Nuevo Le6n insect fauna are the euglossine
bee genera Eulaema and Euplusia and the pseudostigmatid zygopteron
genus Mecistogaster, whose nymphs develop in water that collects at the
base of the leaves of epiphytic tank bromeliads.
It is thus apparent that many Neotropic insects occur far north (and
south) of the tropical climates with which we instinctively associate them.
For example, the average January temperature at Monterrey, M6xico is
14.60 C, and Cola de Caballo suffers numerous winter frosts and some
snow. Moreover, 40 Neotropic ichneumonid genera (23% of the total fauna)
reach as far north as Maryland or New Jersey in the eastern United States,
where they generally are represented by 1 or a few species endemic to the
Temperate Deciduous Forest. Rainfall rather than temperature thus would
appear to be the major limiting factor for much of the Neotropic entomo-
fauna, and, indeed, the Thorn Scrub and Desert of Texas and northern M6x-
ico constitute a largely effective barrier to present-day interchange be-
tween the Mexican and southeast North American Neotropic faunas.
Furthermore, most Neotropic ichneumonid genera have vast geographic
ranges. Fully 67% (116) extend, like Periceros, at least from Mexico or
Central America to Brasil. Ample distributions of this type have been
noted for diverse groups of organisms. Raven and Axelrod (1975:427) re-
ferred to them in vertebrates and angiosperm plants. Hershkovitz (1972:240)
documented them for Neotropic recent mammals and, therefore, rejected
the traditional thesis that a substantial water gap separated South from
Middle America during the later Mesozoic and all of the Tertiary until
the Pliocene. Halffter (1976:40), mainly on the basis of scarabaeid beetles,
also believed that "ideas are changing about the Central American Land
Bridge and, therefore, with regard to the possibilities of Pre-Pliocene fau-
nistic exchanges between North and South America".
Analysis of Neotropic ichneumonids in any marginal area, such as
Nuevo Le6n or even the southeastern United States, helps strengthen the
above zoogeographic postulates. One is impressed by the immense distribu-
tions of so many Neotropic ichneumonid genera and by the uniformity of

The Florida Entomologist

the present-day Neotropic fauna in all regions from M6xico to Argentina.
This assemblage certainly does not appear to have evolved for scores of
millions of years in strongly isolated South and North American tropical
land masses. Indeed, there are only 4 (out of 174) endemic Neotropic ich-
neumonid genera in all the New World north of South America. The evo-
lutionary center for the Neotropic ichneumonid fauna was and is South
America. The assemblage probably originated there during the Cretaceous
and early Tertiary and then, essentially as a unit, rapidly overspread
almost the whole New World in moist, warm Palaeocene and Eocene
times, only to be pushed gradually out of North America by post-Eocene
climatic cooling and drying and finally decimated there by the Pleistocene
glaciations. It is not and never has been a "really tropical" fauna but
rather a humid-adapted forest element capable of surviving moderate and
regular winter frost but not the really harsh cold and invernally frozen
soil of genuinely boreal climates.
It is thus easy to see why Periceros should occur both in the subtropical
forests of northeast Argentina and the mountains of north M6xico. At vari-
ous times in the Tertiary such taxa could and did cross land bridges be-
tween South and Middle America. Since Xorides is best represented at pres-
ent in the Oriental Region, we may suggest for it a Palaeotropic origin with
various invasions of the New World via the Bering Land Bridge. The highly
differentiated, warm-adapted, and endemically Neotropic Periceros and
Pyramirhyssa probably are descendants of early, perhaps Palaeocene or
Eocene invaders, while the mostly Holarctic and more eurythermic Xorides
may have reached South America later in the Tertiary during a cooler
climatic epoch.


HALFFTER, G. 1976. Distribuci6n de los insects en la zona de transici6n
mexicana . Relaciones con la entomofauna de Norteambrica ...
Folia Entomologica Mexicana 35:1-64.
HERSHKOVITZ, P. 1972. Neotropic recent mammals, p. 311-431 In Keast,
A., F. C. Erk, & B. Glass (eds.), Evolution, mammals, and southern
continents, State University of New York Press, Albany.
PORTER, C. 1975. Argentine Xorides. Rev. Chilena de Ent. 9:51-6.
RAVEN, P. AND AXELROD, D. I. 1975. History of the flora and fauna of Latin
America. Amer. Scientist 63(4):420-9.
TOWNES, H. K. 1960. Ichneumon-flies of America north of Mexico: 2. Sub-
families Ephialtinae . Bull. United States Natl. Mus. 216, pt. 2,
p. 1-676.

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

The Florida Entomologist



Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611

Two new species of Phidippus are described, P. xeros from Florida and
P. toro from the Chiricahua Mts. of Arizona.

This paper describes and provides a name for a new species of Phidippus
as part of an ongoing study by the author into the ecology of those species
of Phidippus that occur in Florida. Also, a new species of Phidippus is de-
scribed from the Chiricahua Mts. of Arizona (reported by Jung and Roth
1974, as P. n. sp.). Another new species occurring in the Chiricahua Mts. was
recently described by Gertsch and Riechert (1976).

Phidippus xeros Edwards, NEW SPECIES
Fig. 1-4
DESCRIPTION. HOLOTYPE MALE: total length 8.75 mm; carapace length
4.22 mm, width 3.36 mm; width anterior eye row 2.27 mm, width posterior
eye row 2.73 mm; PLE-PME 0.78 mm, ALE-PME 0.39 mm, PLE-PME/
ALE-PME = 2.00. Eye-to-eye distances measured from nearest edges, widths
of eye rows measured to farthest edges.
Dorsum of carapace and abdomen as in Fig. 1. Carapace integument
burgundy red, ocular quadrangle black; patches of white, scale-like setae
(hereafter referred to as scales) extending from below to behind PLE, other-
wise carapace covered densely with short, black setae and sparsely with
long, black setae, the latter forming rows on clypeus and overhanging front
eyes; hair tufts absent. Chelicerae iridescent gold-green.
Sternum and coxae brown, labium and endites dark brown, endites with
pale anteromedian edges. Integument of palpi red-brown, dorsum of palpal
femur densely covered and patella sparsely covered with white scales,
cymbium covered with long, black setae. Leg formula I, IV, II, III; integu-
ment of legs dark brown, covered with long, black setae; femur I much
larger and femur II slightly larger than femora III and IV; white scale
patches on dorsum of distal tips of all femora, proximal halves of all
metatarsi, and proximal halves of tibia III and IV. Leg I with long, black
setal fringes on dorsum and venter of femur, ventral distal half of meta-
tarsus, and heavy black setal brush on' pro- and retrolateral sides and ven-
ter of tibia; white fringes on venter of patella and proximal half of meta-
tarsus; spination typical, ventral tibia 2-2-2, metatarsus 2-2, dorsal distal
femur 3.

'Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 892.
2Student Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Florida Department of Agri-
culture and Consumer Services, Gainesville.

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

The Florida Entomologist

Abdominal integument red-brown, covered with long, black setae;
markings consisting of white scale patches with a few white setae; iridiscent
black scales scattered sparsely in dorsal black areas; venter brown with
dark brown central stripe, 2 rows of tan punctate dots within central stripe,
1 row of similar dots on each lateral edge of central stripe, tan dots
throughout lateral brown areas; spinnerets brown covered with black setae.
Male palpus (Fig. 2) with slightly recurved embolus.
Thirteen males ranged from 5.9-10.2 mm in length, with a mean of 7.7
mm; however, all males at the small end of the range were laboratory-
reared from field-collected immatures, and at least some were probably
smaller than normal; 5 field-collected adult males averaged 8.8 mm in
length. The only other variation observed in males was in the size of the
white scale patches on the carapace.

- k.A,

,*. -|. -;;'"



Fig. 1-4. Phidippus xeros, new species. 1. dorsal view of male; 2. palp of
male; 3. dorsal view of female; 4. epigynum of female.

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

Edwards: New Phidippus

Female: total length 9.84 mm; carapace length 4.37 mm, width 3.44 mm;
width ALE row 2.42 mm, width PLE row 3.05 mm; PLE-PME 0.81 mm, ALE-
PME 0.47 mm, PLE-PME/ALE-PME= 1.72.
Dorsal view as in Fig. 3. Structure and color pattern similar to male
with following differences: distinctive, white spot in center of ocular area,
all other markings orange-yellow; wide band encircling abdomen except
posteriorly; iridescent black scales more numerous than on male; leg for-
mula IV, I, II, III, much more extensive scale cover on legs, covering all
except distal ends of most segments and majority of femora I, II, and IV;
clypeus covered with long, white setae medially, orange-yellow scales
laterally; 4 small hair tufts, located 1 below and 1 behind each PME.
Epigynum (Fig. 4) with small anterior openings, extensive spermathecae.
Thirteen females ranged from 8.6-11.7 mm in length, with a mean of 10.2
mm. Considerable variation in dorsal pattern was encountered: scale
patches on carapace may be joined in middle and/or may connect with cly-
peus, at extreme completely encircling ocular area; carapace scale patches
may be light gray or yellow instead of orange-yellow; abdominal band
may be red-orange, may vary in width (sometimes covering most of central
black area), and in 1 female was absent, with only a pale yellow basal
band present.
DIAGNOSIS. Small carapace scale patches that are wider than long are
found, among southeastern U. S. species, only in P. xeros and P. pulcher-
rimus Keyserling, the latter being a much redder species. Female resembles
P. insignarius Koch, but is the only eastern species with a distinctive ocular
spot like that of P. workmani Peckham & Peckham from Arizona; male
resembles small P. audax (Hentz). The genitalia also distinguish P. xeros
from the other above-mentioned species.
ETYMOLOGY. Specific epithet from Greek, masculine; xeros, meaning
xeric, referring to the xeric habitats frequented by this species.
TYPE LOCALITY. Florida, Marion Co., Ocala National Forest, 0.8 km
west of Central Tower, 100 m north of St. Rd. 40; timbered sandpine scrub
(area cleared for powerline), primary succession, adults and subadults
collected on 0.5-1.5 m young oaks, smaller immatures on small woody
shrubs near ground level to less than 0.5 m in height. Holotype collected
RECORDS. Florida: type locality, 16-VII-75 (G. B. Edwards) penulti-
mate male (matured 8-VIII-75), 22-III-77, 13-V-77 (G.B.E., D.E. Hill, D.B.
Richman) several immatures (reared), 1-VII-77 (G.B.E., D.B.R.) 3 males, 3
pen. females (mat. 14-VII, 4-VIII, 15-VIII-77); Marion Co., Ocala National
Forest, near Big Prairie, 22-III-77 (G.B.E.) immature male (reared); Orange
Co., 5-IX-24 (H.K. Wallace) female; Santa Rosa Co., Pensacola, 24-VI-
34 (H.K.W.) male; Alachua Co., Gainesville, 15-VI-34 (W.J. Gertsch) fe-
male, 6-VII-76 (G.B.E.) male, 9 km west of Gainesville on St. Rd. 24, 13-
XII-75 (G.B.E.) imm. female (reared), 20-V-76 (G.B.E.) pen. male (mat. 15-
VI-76), antepen. female (mat. 16-VII-76); Putnam Co., Interlachen, 6-IV-
75 (G.B.E.) imm. male (reared).
DISPOSITION. Museum of Comparative Zoology: holotype male, 1
male, 2 female paratypes. American Museum of Natural History: 3 male, 3
female paratypes. Florida State Collection of Arthropods: 3 male, 3 fe-
male paratypes. Collection of D. B. Richman: 1 male, 1 female paratypes.
Collection of author: 4 male, 4 female paratypes, several immatures.

The Florida Entomologist

Phidippus toro Edwards, NEW SPECIES
Fig. 5-10
DESCRIPTION. HOLOTYPE MALE: total length 9.22 mm; carapace length
4.69 mm, width 3.59 mm; width ALE row 2.66 mm, width PLE row 3.12 mm;
PLE-PME 0.78 mm, ALE-PME 0.55 mm, PLE-PME/ALE-PME= 1.42,
ratio atypically small for genus.





Fig. 5-10. Phidippus toro, new species. 5. dorsal view of male; 6. prolat-
eral view of leg I of male; 7. palp of male; 8. carapace of male, lateral
view; 9. carapace of female, lateral view; 10. epigynum of female.


Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978


~P~f h

Edwards: New Phidippus

Dorsum of carapace and abdomen as in Fig. 5. Carapace integument dark
red-brown, ocular quadrangle black; broad, horizontal ridge anterior to
PLE (Fig. 8), covered at crest with suberect, elongate, yellow scales; at
each side of crest, behind PME, is large, elongate tuft of black setae curv-
ing forward above ALE to distance equal with AME; dense covering of
short, black setae between crest and anterior eye row; anterior eyes over-
hung by many yellow and white setae of moderate length and fewer long,
black setae; anterior eyes encircled by white scales; clypeus sparsely cov-
ered with long, white setae; chelicerae with long, white setae on lateral
and medial edges and covering proximal half, distal half iridescent green-
blue; lateral edges of carapace margined with thin row of white scales, sides
covered with short, black setae, thoracic slope with moderate length black
setae appressed with tips pointed posteriorly, with a few long, white setae
pointed anteriorly.
Sternum and coxae yellow-brown, labium and endites brown with pale
anterior edges. Integument of palpi and legs red-brown; palpus with long
white setal fringes on lateral edges of patella, distal end of tibia, and dis-
tal end of cymbium, long and short yellow setae covering proximal half
of cymbium. Leg formula I, IV, II, III, femur I larger than femora II-IV;
legs sparsely covered with black setae; lateral and distal parts of femora,
patellae, and tibiae of legs II-IV covered with light yellow scales. Leg I
as in Fig. 6, all scale patches light yellow, median femoral band yellow,
subventral band white, rest of femur covered with short, black setae; long,
dense white fringe on venter of patella, tibia, metatarsus and tarsus; spina-
tion, ventral tibia 2-2-2, metatarsus 2-2, dorsal distal femur 3, dorsal sub-
distal spine on femur elongate.
Abdominal integument red-brown, covered with short, gray setae and
very long, heavy black setae; markings of elongate white scales and a few
long, white setae; basal band thin, extending half length of abdomen, may
or may not join lateral stripe, lateral stripe becomes broken line to join
3rd spot pair. Venter yellow-brown with 4 rows of pale dots. Spinnerets
red-brown, covered with black setae.
Male palpus (Fig. 7) with long, recurved embolus.
A second male was 9.5 mm in length.
Female: total length 10.39 mm, carapace length 5.00 mm, width 3.75
mm; width ALE row 2.69 mm, width PLE row 3.19 mm; PLE-PME 0.73 mm,
ALE-PME 0.48 mm, PLE-PME/ALE-PME = 1.52.
Female like male except: integumental carapace ridge lacking (Fig. 9),
crest of scales white, appressed; weak to moderate band of white scales ex-
tending posteriorly from PME; leg formula IV, I, II, III, fewer scales on
legs, femur I covered with short, black setae, but otherwise leg I like legs
Epigynum (Fig. 10) with large, widely separated openings.
Eight females ranged from 9.4-10.4 mm in length, with a mean of 9.9 mm.
Variation: central abdominal spot often broken in middle.
DIAGNOSIS. The modifications of the carapace and leg I in the male, and
the dorsal patterns and genitalia of both sexes are distinctive. In life, the
yellow scales and hairs are orange-pink (D. B. Richman, pers. comm.). This
species is related to P. mystaceus (Hentz).
ETYMOLOGY. Specific epithet from Spanish, masculine; toro, meaning

The Florida Entomologist

bull, an allusion to the "bull-like" appearance of the raised crest and
large hair tufts of the male; used as a noun in apposition.
TYPE LOCALITY. Arizona, Cochise Co., Chiricahua Mts., South Fork of
Cave Creek, South Fork forest camp. Holotype collected 6-VII-73 (D. B.
Richman), pen. male (mat. by 22-VII-73), sweeping bushes.
RECORDS. Arizona, Cochise Co., Chiricahua Mts.: South Fork of Cave
Creek, 24-IV-70 (D. B. R.) female (eggsac made in lab., 102 young); mouth
of Price Canyon, 12-VIII-68 (G. Batista) male; East Turkey Creek, 11-V-72
(W. J. Gertsch) 4 females, 7-VII-72 (W. J. G.) female, pen. female, pen.
male, 1-VIII-72 (D. Ubick) female, pen. male, 12-VIII-71 (A. Jung) female
(with 47 young under rock). For elevations of localities, see Jung and Roth
DISPOSITION. Museum of Comparative Zoology: holotype male, 1 fe-
male paratype. American Museum of Natural History: 1 male, 5 female
paratypes, immatures. Southwestern Research Station: 1 female paratype.
Collection of D. B. Richman: 1 female paratype with young.

I would like to thank Drs. Jonathan Reiskind and David B. Richman,
University of Florida, for reviewing the manuscript, and Mr. Vincent D.
Roth, Southwestern Research Station of the American Museum of Natural
History, Portal, Arizona, for loaning most of the specimens of P. toro.


GERTSCH, W. J., AND SUSAN E. RIECHERT. 1976. The spatial and temporal
partitioning of a desert spider community, with descriptions of new
species. Amer. Mus. Novit. 2604:1-25.
JUNG, A. K. S., AND V. D. ROTH. 1974. Spiders of the Chiricahua Mountain
area, Cochise Co., Arizona. J. Ariz. Acad. Sci. 9:29-34.

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978



5 ". .

J *


The Florida Entomologist



Systematic and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut,
Storrs, Connecticut, and University of Florida Agricultural Research
and Education Center, Homestead, Florida, respectively.

A new species of Ozophora from Jamaica, West Indies is described and
figured. The immature stages are also described. This species appears to be
restricted to mature seed heads of bromeliads in the genus Hohenbergia.
This restricted habitat is unusual since most species in the Rhyparochro-
minae are litter insects that feed upon fallen seeds on the ground.

The diverse and abundant bromeliad flora of the Neotropics presents a
series of habitats to which many different animals have become adapted.
Within the Heteroptera most associated species either suck the sap from
leaves and flowers (Tingidae, Miridae etc.), are predaceous upon other in-
sects associated with bromeliads (Anthocoridae) or live on the surface of
the water present in the "cups" of many species (Veliidae).
In this paper we report a species of rhyparochromine lygaeid that lives
on the mature seed of large Jamaican bromeliads while the seed heads are
still present on the plant. This represents a marked modification of habits
as the species belongs to a genus and subfamily the majority of whose mem-
bers are litter insects that feed upon fallen seeds on the ground.

Ozophora hohenbergia Slater and Baranowski, NEW SPECIES
(Fig. 1)
Head and anterior pronotal lobe chiefly dark chocolate brown, the
former with a conspicuously paler red brown median stripe on vertex and
reddish yellow tylus, anterior pronotal lobe with a broad yellow macula
on anterior collar on either side of meson and with inner area of calli red-
dish brown. Posterior pronotal lobe with a broad ovoid median dark choco-
late brown fascia, a 2nd longitudinal stripe midway between meson and a
sublateral stripe also chocolate brown these latter semi-coalescing pos-
teriorly but leaving posterior margin yellow, intervening areas yellow to
light reddish yellow. The scutellum dark chocolate brown, apex white
and a large yellowish white macula laterally midway from base. Hemely-
tra marked in rather typical Ozophora variegated fashion; clavus with a
pale elongately trianguloid macula on either side of distal half of claval
commissure, somewhat suffused with reddish brown at level of anterior
half of claval commissure. Corium with a conspicuous subapical dark mac-
ula, a 2nd broad macula along lateral margin at distal 3rd extending in-

'This work was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation and the Division
of Sponsored Research, University of Florida.
2Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 886.

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

The Florida Entomologist



4o th1 Schmnt\

Fig. 1. Dorsal view of Ozophora hohenbergia, holotype.

s1 9 I






r1 )


Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978



Slater and Baranowski: Ozophora hohenbergia n. sp. 85

ward to at least level of radial vein, inner angle of corium with a large
yellow macula surrounded by dark chocolate brown, this dark marking
extending antero-laterad to level of middle of claval commissure, a 2nd
dark chocolate macula between radial vein and media at level of distal
half of scutellum. Membrane chiefly pale fumose slightly infuscated with
darker subbasally, the veins nearly white; apical corial margin pale
yellow at apex and in middle, otherwise suffused with dark brown both an-
teriorly and adjacent to subapical dark patch. Ventral and pleural surfaces
dark reddish brown, acetabula slightly paler, caudo-dorsal angle of meta-
pleuron pale yellow. Abdomen reddish brown. Legs and labium nearly
uniformly pale yellow, apex of labium reddish brown, an obscure ill-de-
fined dusky annulus present near distal ends of hind femora. First antennal
segment, distal end of segment III and distal one-half to two-thirds of seg-
ment IV plus extreme proximal end of segment IV dark reddish to choco-
late brown, segment II and all but distal end of segment III yellowish, a
very broad conspicuously differentiated white annulus present subproxi-
mally on segment IV. Punctures typical for Ozophora. Nearly glabrous
above, at most with extremely minute inconspicuous hairs arising from
punctures, lacking distinct upstanding hirsute appearance.
Head elongate, acuminate, nondeclivent; tylus reaching to or slightly
beyond middle of 1st antennal segment, vertex moderately convex; eyes
set slightly away from antero-lateral pronotal angles; head length 0.75
(all measurements in millimeters), width 0.88, interocular space 0.43. Pro-
notum with lateral margins prominently calloused, not sharply carinate,
deeply sinuate; transverse impression deep and complete; posterior margin
nearly straight, very slightly sinuate, humeral angles not prominently
notched, pronotum length 0.95, width 1.78; scutellum anteriorly depressed
in meson, calloused areas not strongly differentiated, scutellum length
0.80, width 0.78; hemelytra with lateral corial margins serrated anteriorly,
moderately explanate, not strongly reflexed and slightly sinuate, apex
clavus-apex corium distance 1.25, apex corium-apex membrane distance
0.88; fore femora moderately incrassate, armed below with 4 or 5 sharp red-
dish brown spines. Labium elongate extending far beyond hind coxae and
onto anterior portion of abdominal sternum 4, 1st segment slightly ex-
ceeding base of head, 3rd segment reaching well between and nearly to pos-
terior end of hind coxae, labial segments I 0.90, II 0.93, III 1.05, IV 0.25 long,
respectively. Antennae typical, terete, slender, antennal segments I 0.48,
II 1.35, II 1.0, IV 1.30 long, respectively; total length 5.50.
HOLOTYPE: male Jamaica: Faith's Pen 1.1 mi. S., Parish St. Ann, 10-XII-
1970. (J. A. Slater & R. M. Baranowski). In National Museum of Natural
History, no. 73788.
PARATYPES: Jamaica: 20 males 27 females Linstead, Parish of St. Cather-
ine 2-VII-1971 (Slater, Baranowski, Harrington)-5 males same 7-IV-1971
(R. M. Baranowski) blacklightt trap)-2 iales 3 females same data as holo-
type-2 males 1 female same 20-VII-1972 (R. M. Baranowski)-2 males 7
females Mandeville, Parish of Manchester 1-VII-1971 (Baranowski, Slater,
Harrington). In Florida State Collection of Arthropods, National Mu-
seum of Natural History, American Museum of Natural History, James A.
Slater and Richard M. Baranowski collections.
Many specimens have the posterior lobe of the pronotum much more ex-
tensively darkened than does the holotype so that it gives the appearance

The Florida Entomologist

of 3 large chocolate brown lobes, 1 mesal and 1 on each side laterally
with an irregular pale yellow longitudinal streak between them. Some-
times this streak is separated into a pair of maculae on the anterior portion
of the posterior lobe and a pair along the posterior margin similar to the
condition found in Ozophora burmeisteri (Guerin) and other species. In the
majority of specimens the membrane is somewhat more fumose or darkened
than in the holotype and has a conspicuous white trianguloid apex. The
number of fore femoral spines is somewhat variable and in a number of cases
the 3rd from the proximal spine is absent leaving a distinct gap.
Despite the frequently dark appearance of the pronotum, hohenbergia
is closely related to Ozophora quinquemaculata (Barber). It is readily
distinguishable, however, by the more acuminate head and especially by the
elongate labium which, in this species, reaches the 4th abdominal sternum
whereas in quinquemaculata it at most only slightly exceeds the hind coxae.
So far as is known this species is restricted to the mature seed heads of
species of bromeliads of the genus Hohenbergia. At Faith's Pen it was taken
on H. polycephala (Baker) Mez.; at Linstead it was taken on H. penduliflora
(A. Rich) Mez.; and at Mandeville on H. urbaniana Mez. Both polycephala
and urbaniana are endemic while penduliflora is also known from Cuba.
FIFTH INSTAR NYMPH (Linstead, Jamaica): Body broadened, elliptical.
General coloration light testaceous yellow with intermixed darker mark-
ings but these latter still a light brown. Head nearly uniformly yellowish
brown with a conspicuous pale stripe running through vertex to base of
tylus and a pale macula behind each epicranial arm. Pronotum yellowish
brown mesally, laterally and midway between meson and margin, these 2
latter brown markings coalescing anteriorly and becoming relatively dark
brown near antero-lateral angles but not including explanate margin.
Scutellum and wing pads variegated with yellowish brown and nearly
white testaceous. Abdomen extremely conspicuously irrorate, segments 2
and 3 not completely fumose or dark gray as in many species of Ozophora
but uniformly irrorate. Legs completely pale yellow. Antennal segments
I, II and III yellow, 1st segment slightly infuscated, distal end of II very
slightly infuscated, distal 5th of III dark chocolate brown as is distal two-
thirds of IV, a conspicuous broad white annulus on proximal 3rd of segment
IV. Body below reddish brown on pleural area except dorso-lateral edges
of metapleuron and white to pale yellow on extreme meson of vertex. Ab-
domen below also uniformly irrorate.
Form and color as in most Ozophora. Labium very elongate, usually
extending to sternum 6, tylus reaching at least to distal 3rd of 1st anten-
nal segment. Fore femora often with only 3 ventral spines present. Head
length 0.75, width 0.83, interocular space 0.48; pronotum length 0.68, width
1.28; wing pad length 1.25; abdomen length 1.93; labial segments I 0.83,
II 0.88, III 0.90, IV .45 long, respectively; antennal segments I 0.35, II 0.95,
III 0.78, IV 1.10 long, respectively; total length 4.10.
INSTAR FOUR (same): General form and color as in instar 5. Labium rela-
tively more elongate usually reaching to abdominal sternum 7 with seg-
ment 3 reaching sternum 4. Head length 0.60, width 0.68, interocular space
.40; pronotum length 0.43, width 0.88; wing pad length 0.53; abdomen length
1.80; labial segments I 0.60, II 0.65, III 0.70, IV 0.38 long, respectively; an-
tennal segments I 0.28, II 0.60, III 0.53, IV 0.80 long, respectively; total
length 3.40.

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

Slater and Baranowski: Ozophora hohenbergia n. sp. 87

INSTAR THREE (same): Form and color similar to instar 4. Irrorate mark-
ings on abdomen frequently suffused with reddish. Infuscate distal end of
antennal segment II more prominent. Head length 0.50, width 0.58, inter-
ocular space 0.35; pronotum length 0.33, width 0.75; abdomen length 1.23;
labial segments I 0.50, II 0.55, III 0.55, IV 0.38 long, respectively; antennal
segments I 0.23, II 0.50, III 0.45, IV 0.63 long, respectively; total length
INSTAR TWO (same): Form and color similar to instar 3. Head length
0.40, width 0.42; interocular space 0.30; pronotum length 0.20, width 0.52;
abdomen length 1.02; labial segments I 0.44, II 0.44, III 0.40, IV 0.30 long,
respectively; antennal segments I 0.18, II 0.20, III 0.36, IV 0.46 long, re-
spectively; total length 1.74.
INSTAR ONE (same): Form and color similar instar 2. Head length 0.30,
width 0.28; interocular space 0.20; pronotum length 0.14, width 0.32; ab-
domen length 0.46; labial segments I 0.32, II 0.30, III 0.24, IV 0.40 long, re-
spectively; antennal segments I 0.14, II 0.26, III 0.26, IV 0.42 long, respec-
tively; total length 1.10.
We are aware of only a few references to Rhyparochrominae associated
with bromeliads. Mumford (1965) reported Ozophora concava (Distant) as
intercepted in Texas in quarantine on bromeliads and Hunt (1958) reported
a similar occurrence for Cryphula apicalis (Distant) [sic] apicata. Neither
of these establish the species as more than casually associated with bromeli-
ads. Champion (1913) in an important paper which treated many bromeliad
insects described a new lygaeid as Pamera alboannulata (now in the genus
Lygofuscanellus) which was definitely associated with bromeliads in Costa
Rica. A breeding population was present as a male, 3 females and 2 nymphs
are mentioned in the original description. Unfortunately Champion does
not mention where these insects occurred on the host plants. He did not ac-
tually collect the insects but received them from a Monsieur C. Picado of
It is interesting that both 0. concava and L. alboannulata belong to the
tribe Ozophorini (there has been some confusion concerning 0. concava and
Mumford's (1965) record may actually refer to Peggichisme consanguinea
(Distant), also an ozophorine).
Our acquaintance with Ozophora hohenbergia began on 10 December
1970 when we were collecting along a very steep hillside 1 mi. S. of Faith's
Pen, near the base of Mt. Diablo in the interior of Jamaica. We were sur-
prised that upon striking Hohenbergia seed heads over our nets several
specimens of Ozophora dropped into the nets. Eventually we were able to
obtain several nymphs, indicating that the species was indeed breeding in
the seed heads. The insects were scarce, however, and while most rhyparo-
chromines have food preferences and some are very restricted in food utili-
zation, others are more oligophagous and occasional breeding takes place
on peripheral, almost accidental, food sources.
In July 1971 we returned to Jamaica and attempted to discover how
closely associated with bromeliads this species of Ozophora actually was.
In most habitats the giant Hohenbergia bromeliads grow high in the trees
and it is difficult to reach them. At Linstead and Mandeville as well as
Faith's Pen by climbing into the trees and throwing the seed stalks into nets
below we were able to obtain many adults and many more nymphs. The
insects were not present in "green" seed heads nor in stalks from which the

The Florida Entomologist

seeds had fallen but were restricted to relatively fresh but completely
mature heads.
Adults are very similar in appearance to many other species of Ozophora
but the nymphs are quite distinctive. The nymphs of most species of Ozo-
phora are dark chocolate brown to almost black on the head and pronotum
with a strongly contrasting variegated abdomen. The nymphs of Ozophora
hohenbergia by contrast are almost uniformly pale yellowish brown. The
"typical" Ozophora color pattern is still present but has become so pale
that the nymphs appear unicolorous to the eye in the field and are very
cryptic among the seed heads of the bromeliads. Not only is the color in-
dicative of specialization to the host plant but the latter instar nymphs
(especially the 5th instar) are noticeably more flattened dorso-ventrally
than are most species of Ozophora.
The adaptation of rhyparochromines to habitats well above the ground
will probably prove to be relatively common in tropical rainforests. We
already know of species feeding upon seeds in bird droppings on leaves, in
the leaf axils of palms, in the understory, etc. The forest floor with its high
humidity that causes fallen seeds to either germinate rapidly or be destroyed
by fungi makes the litter habitat a very temporary one for lygaeids. It is
thus not surprising that various species adapt to the abundant food supply
present on plants above the ground particularly where the plants retain
their seeds for a considerable period of time after they become mature.
Although we have examined bromeliads in several genera over the past
7 years on many of the West Indian islands we have not found any other
hemipteran associated with the seed heads.

We wish to thank Dr. Jane Harrington (University of Wisconsin) for
her assistance in collecting in Jamaica, Dr. Richard Proctor (Institute of
Jamaica, Kingston Jamaica) for identifying the bromeliads, and Mrs. Kathy
Schmidt (University of Connecticut) for the preparation of the illustration.


CHAMPION, G. C. 1913. Coleoptera, etc. in Bromeliads. Ent. Mon. Mag.
HUNT, JUDITH. 1958. List of intercepted plant pests, 1957. USDA. Agr. Res.
Ser. Plant Quarantine Division. p. 1-66.
MUMFORD, B. C. 1965. List of intercepted plant pests, 1964. USDA. Agr. Res.
Ser. Plant Quarantine Division. p. 1-76.

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

The Florida Entomologist



U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service,
USDA, Orlando, Florida 32803

From July to October 1975, marked adult Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.)
(Coleoptera: Curculionidae) were released in an isolated orange grove near
Apopka (Orange County), Florida. Specimens were recovered for 50-52 days
following each of 2 releases. Multiple sightings were made of 42% of the
released females and 34% of individually coded males. Nearly 80% of the
sightings were made within 5 days of release.

An exotic curculionid, the so-called sugarcane rootstalk borer weevil,
Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.), was first found infesting citrus near Apopka
(Orange County), Florida, in 1964. The original quarantine area of ca. 2,000
ha established in 1968 has been extended 3 times to encompass ca. 13,350
ha by 1975 (Woodruff 1968, Selhime and Beavers 1972). In 1975, an infested
area was found near Forest City (Seminole County), Florida, ca. 14 km from
the Orange County area, and an additional 2,400 ha were placed under
Because the 2 quarantined areas are separated by a considerable distance
and infested groves within the quarantine areas are not necessarily contigu-
ous, flight behavior and dispersal of D. abbreviatus were studied. This in-
formation would be helpful in establishing management and control pro-
grams for this relatively new pest.

Two tests were conducted near Apopka, Florida, in an isolated 20-ha
grove of 'Hamlin' oranges; the grove consisted of ca. 2,000 3 to 4-m tall
trees in a 7.6 x 7.6 m planting. No chemical treatments had been applied
there since 1969. Adult D. abbreviatus were field-collected and coded with
enamel paints (Cross and Mitchell 1964) 1-2 days before each of the 2 re-
leases were made on calm days (wind speed less than 1.6 km/h) in July and
October 1975. Adult weevils were placed on top of a 0.3-m-high cardboard
box in the center of a row (same site for each release).
On each release date we observed the flights and measured distances
flown from the release site for as many weevils as possible. Visual searches
of the trunks and lower canopies of at least 50-150 trees around the release
site were made at various intervals during the 8 weeks following each study.
The entire grove was examined weekly for the marked weevils.
Test I. Fifty males and 50 females, each individually color-coded, were
released 14 July to determine distances flown by adult weevils during a
period when little or no new growth (the preferred food source for the

'Coleoptera: Curculionidae.

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

90 The Florida Entomologist Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

adults) was present. The release coincided also with the period when the
weevil population generally begins to increase (Beavers and Selhime
1976). First observations were made 4 h after release. Subsequent observa-
tions were made daily during the first week, 3 times in the second week, and
once per week until 3 September. Individual adults were identified by color
code and then replaced on the tree.
Test II. Sixty-one males and 61 females were released 8 August to de-
termine adult weevil flight distances during a period when considerable
new foliage was present. These adults were marked with enamel paints so
that sex could be determined without disturbing the adults; i.e., a single
spot on males' elytra and 2 spots on the elytra for females. Observations
began 5 days after the release. Data were recorded at weekly intervals for
the first 5 weeks and at 2-5-day intervals for the last 3 weeks of observa-

Test I. A total of 82 sightings was made during the 50 days following
the July release (Table 1). Many individuals in the original group of 100
were recovered more than once; 21 females accounted for 43 observations
(Table 1), and 17 males produced 30 observations. Data from these indi-
viduals were not extensive enough to demonstrate a sexual difference in dis-
persal distances through time. Some individuals (Male "8", Female "6")
consistently stayed close, within 9 m to the release site, while others flew
either greater distances (Female "18" at 99 m) after 30 days or changed lo-
cations more frequently (Male "11" at 3 m after 4 h, 18 m at 2 days, 236 m
at 9 days and 228 m at 50 days). The numbers of adults sighted decreased
markedly by 4 days after the release (Table 1).


TEST I. Release date: 14 July 1975. Fifty male and 50 female adults,
each individually color-coded.
Days after No. adults observed Distance (m) from release site
release (dates) Females Males Minimum Maximum

0.2 (14 July) 12 14 3 11
1 (15 July) 9 9 3 18
2 (16 July) 4 6 3 23
4 (18 July) 6 4 3 26
7-16 (21-30 July) 11 3 11 236
30-50 (13 Aug.-3 Sept.) 1 '3 18 228

TEST II. Release date: 8 August 1975. Sixty-one male and 61 female
adults color-coded by sex only.
5-7 (13 Aug.-4 Sept.) 4 7 11 148
31-52 (9-30 Sept.) 8 4 18 208

Beavers and Selhime: Diaprepes abbreviatus Dispersal 91

Test II. The adults used in Test II were coded only for sex. Observa-
tions could be made without disturbing the adults, although use of this
method meant that the movement of individual weevils could not be fol-
lowed. Since observations were not begun until 5 days after release, the
bulk of weevil dispersal activity may have occurred in the interim period.
The numbers of individuals observed and the flight distances observed are
in accord with those observed over comparable time intervals in the July
In dispersing from the release site, most of the adult weevils took flight
immediately, although some first crawled a short distance away from the
box. Before flight, the posterior of the abdomen was lowered, the elytra
were elevated, and the flight wings were fully extended. Most weevils flew
directly to the nearest tree from the release site or landed on weeds around
the tree canopy. Those flying longer distances (38-45 m) flew to ca. twice
the tree height and appeared to hover a few seconds before landing.
When disturbed, some adults feigned death by dropping to the ground
and remaining motionless; others hid in the trash on the ground. Still others
dropped off the leaves and took flight before hitting the ground. They usu-
ally landed on the first weeds or tree branches contacted.
From our limited field observations, D. abbreviatus is capable of strong
flight of short duration and distance. Once they have landed, they appar-
ently will remain in one place for long periods unless disturbed. Although
the releases were made on calm days, wind could also be a potential fac-
tor affecting the distance moved.
Once they invade an area, D. abbreviatus populations probably tend to
disperse rather slowly. Major modes of dispersal could involve a series
of short flights or mechanical transport during shipment of plants, on fruit-
hauling trucks, and on grove machinery. This hypothesis is supported by:
(1) our observations on the locations of weevil-infested groves within a
quarantine area; (2) the distance separating the 2 quarantine areas; (3) find-
ing immatures in the soil of plants shipped to other areas; and (4) finding
adults clinging to tractors used in infested groves.

We thank W. McCloud of this laboratory and R. Tubb, Florida Divi-
sion of Plant Industry, for assistance in this study.


BEAVERS, J. B., AND A. G. SELHIME. 1976. Population dynamics of Diaprepes
abbreviatus in an isolated citrus grove in central Florida. J. Econ.
Ent. 69:9-10.
CRoSS, W. H., AND H. C. MITCHELL. 1964. Color chart for marking insects.
J. Econ. Ent. 57:301.
SELHIME, A. G., AND J. B. BEAVERS. 1972. A new weevil pest of citrus in
Florida. Citrus Ind. 53:4-5.
WOODRUFF, R. E. 1964. A Puerto Rican weevil new to the United States
(Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Fla. Dep. Agr. Ent. Circ. 30:1-2.
WOODRUFF, R. E. 1968. The present status of a West Indian weevil Dia-
prepes abbreviatus (L.) in Florida (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Fla.
Dep. Agr. Ent. Circ. 1-4.

The Florida Entomologist

WORM PRODUCTION-(Note). Resistance in corn, Zea mays L., to corn
earworm, Heliothis zea (Boddie), has been known for many years (W. W.
McMillian and B. R. Wiseman, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Monogr. Ser. 2., 1972,
131 p). Wiseman et al. (J. Econ. Ent. 1972, 65:835-7) described one of the
mechanisms of resistance in 2 corns ('Dixie 18' and '471-U6 X 81-1') to be
tolerance. They also reported (Fla. Ent., 1976, 59:305-8) that the resistance
of 'Zapalote Chico #2451' was either antibiosis and/or nonpreference. Wise-
man et al. (Fla. Ent., 1977, 60:97-103) delineated the physical character-
istics of the 3 resistant corns and later studied the behavior of the corn
earworm larvae on the resistant and susceptible corns (Wiseman et al., in
Dahms (M. G. Jotwani and W. R. Young (Eds.) Control of the Shoot-
fly, 1972, p. 152-167) explained the theoretical role of host plant resistance
in an integrated insect control program, demonstrating the direct and in-
direct value of all 3 mechanisms of resistance (nonpreference, antibiosis,
and tolerance), and giving examples of how resistant varieties reduced in-
sect populations. Schalk and Ratcliff (Bull. Ent. Soc. Amer., 1976, 22:7-10)
recently reported in an evaluation of programs of the Science and Educa-
tion Administration (USDA) that the use of insect-resistant cultivars has
been successful in controlling insect pests and in reducing the use of insecti-
cide. They were unable to find evidence showing reduction of earworms when
resistant corn cultivars were used. Hence this study involves a resistant
corn, Zapalote Chico #2451 and its impact on the potential population
buildup of corn earworm.
Two corn entries, Zapalote Chico #2451 (resistant) and White Cross
Bantam sweet corn (susceptible), were planted alternately in halves of
three 30 X 100-ft cages for each of 2 years, 1975-76, and in 2 cages in 1977.
At full silk (2 days past initial silk), 1 corn earworm first-instar larva
was placed on each silk, and the number of emergence holes was counted
21 days later to indicate the survival or impact of each corn entry on ear-
worm buildup. An average of 780 and 1060 plants of Zapalote Chico #2451
and White Cross Bantam, respectively, were infested each year.
In 1975, emergence holes were found in 91% of the White Cross Bantam
sweet corn ears and in 27% of the Zapalote Chico #2451 ears. In 1976,
even though the apparent corn earworm establishment was low for White
Cross Bantam, it still produced 3 times as many corn earworms as Zapalote
Chico #2451. In 1977, however, emergence holes were found in 77% of the
White Cross Bantam ears and in only 12% of the Zapalote Chico #2451.
Only 16% of the ears of Zapalote Chico #2451 produced corn earworms
over the 3-year period, whereas 66% of the White Cross Bantam ears had
emergence holes. This finding agrees with earlier data by the authors (J.
Econ. Ent. 1972, 65:835-7) in which ca. 70% of the susceptible 'Ioana' and
intermediate '409 x 20' ears were infested with corn earworms. Therefore,
the resistance of Zapalote Chico #2451 did affect the establishment and
the sustained level of the corn earworm. If we can approach this level of
resistance in the commercial corn hybrids, corn earworm problems may be
greatly decreased.-B. R. Wiseman, W. W. McMillian, and N. W. Widstrom,
Science and Education Administration, USDA, Tifton, GA.

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

The Florida Entomologist



Onset of the critical period (with respect to pupation) for larvae of
Anastrepha suspense (Loew) was associated with decreased success in para-
sitization by the endoparasite, Biosteres (= Opius) longicaudatus Ashmead.
A significantly greater proportion of adults emerged from hosts parasitized
during the pre-critical period (94.1%) than from hosts parasitized during the
post-critical period (48.1%). Parasite emergence increased to 60.5% in host
larvae treated early in the 3rd instar with the insect growth regulator hy-
droprene and parasitized 2 days later, when they would otherwise be beyond
the critical period. Non-parasitized controls treated similarly with hydro-
prene pupated ca. 1 day later than usual, indicating that hydroprene de-
layed the onset of the critical period. The duration of the parasite egg stage
was 2.0 days in pre-critical period hosts and 4.1 days in post-critical period
hosts. Parasite egg duration in hydroprene-treated hosts was also 2.0 days.

Biosteres (Opius) longicaudatus Ashmead was introduced into Florida
in 1969 for control of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspense (Loew)
(Baranowski and Swanson 1971). Studies on the host-parasite relationship
were initiated to improve the efficiency of mass-rearing efforts intended to
supply parasites for field releases. During these studies Lawrence et al.
(1976) found that 5-day-old A. suspense larvae which were in the 1st day of
the 3rd instar were more suitable for parasite development than were 7-
day-old larvae (late 3rd instar) that were about to pupate. In many insect
species, the amount of juvenile hormone relative to ecdysone (the growth
and maturation hormone) decreases with increased age (Schooley et al.
1976). The period during which the amount of ecdysone exceeds that of ju-
venile hormone and achieves a level sufficient to initiate pupation, is re-
ferred to as the critical period (DeBach 1939). Thus, the observed change in
suitability with increased age of A. suspense larvae suggested possible en-
docrine involvement. Endocrine influences on host suitability have been
demonstrated in other host-parasite systems (Bradley and Arbuthnot 1938,
Cals-Usciati 1969, 1975, Smilowitz and Iwantsch 1973, and Smilowitz 1974).
Nenon (1972a,b) has also demonstrated that juvenile hormone and ecdy-
sone influenced the survival of embryos and larvae of an Ageniaspis spe-
cies under in vitro rearing conditions. The subject of host hormone influ-
ences on insect parasites was recently reviewed by Riddiford (1975).
The objective of the present study was to relate physiological events
occurring during maturation of 3rd (last) instar larvae of A. suspense to
their suitability for development of the parasite B. longicaudatus. The

'Diptera: Tephritidae.
'Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 343.
'Department of Zoology, 223 Bartram, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611.
'Insect Attractants, Behavior and Basic Biology Research Laboratory, Agriculture Research
Service, USDA, Gainesville, Florida 32604.
'Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

The Florida Entomologist

onset of the critical period was determined as an indicator of larval ma-
turity. Success in parasitization of pre and post-critical period larvae was
evaluated. Since changes in the juvenile hormone titer are known to occur
concomitant with the onset of the critical period and host maturation (Rid-
diford 1975), we also evaluated juvenile hormone influences on host suit-
ability for successful parasite development. In the absence of authentic
host juvenile hormone, hydroprene (ethyl-3,7,11-trimethyl-2,4-dodeca-
dienoate), an insect growth regulator that mimics juvenile hormone (Staal
1975) was applied to host larvae to influence host suitability. Since earlier
work on this host-parasite system (Lawrence et al. 1976) showed that B.
longicaudatus emergence and duration of the egg stage were influenced by
the age of host larvae, these 2 factors were compared in untreated and hy-
droprene-treated hosts.

Cultures of A. suspense and B. longicaudatus were maintained as de-
scribed by Lawrence et al. (1976) and Greany et al. (1976). Tests were con-
ducted at 26 + 20C and 60 + 5% RH under a 14:10 L:D regimen.

Determination of the Critical Period in A. suspense Larvae
About 54 A. suspense larvae (3 replicates of 14-18 larvae each) were
ligated with surgical thread posterior to the ring gland on each of the 1st
two days of the 3rd instar. Larvae were 5 and 6 days old, respectively. Simi-
lar numbers of unligated larvae of corresponding ages were used to com-
pare pupation times. Larvae were observed at least twice per day for 3 days
to count those that had pupated. Ideally, larvae ligated posterior to the
ring gland before the critical period should pupate only anterior to the
ligature while those ligated after the critical period should pupate both
posterior and anterior to the ligation (Debach 1939). These criteria were
used to determine the critical period of A. suspense.

Effect of Host Maturity and Hydroprene Treatment
on Successful Parasite Development
Each A. suspense larva was topically treated with 2 ul of an acetone-
hydroprene solution that provided 2.8 ug active hydroprene/g of larval
weight. Applications were made twice, on the 1st day of the 3rd instar (5
days old) and again 12-15 h later. This technique was used to maintain host
hormone levels despite possible enzymatic inactivation, as noted by Gil-
bert and Schneiderman (1958) for other species. No deleterious effects due to
solvent applications were observed in the controls. All larvae were anaes-
thetized with CO, for 2 min prior to treatment.
Two groups of larvae were utilized. These consisted of hydroprene-
treated larvae and their untreated counterparts. Each group initially con-
sisted of 3 replicates of 130-190 larvae per replicate. From each of these
groups, 50-80 larvae per replicate were removed to determine time of pu-
pation. When the remaining larvae in both groups were 7 days old, they
were exposed for 24 h to 5 to 6-day-old female parasites at a host: parasite
ratio of 30:1. A third group of untreated 5-day-old larvae was parasitized
similarly to facilitate comparison of data from untreated 5-day-old and

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

Lawrence et al.: Hydroprene Effect on Biosteres

7-day-old larvae with data from hydroprene-treated individuals. A total
of 52,131, and 58 parasitized larvae were removed at random from the un-
treated 5-day-old, 7-day-old and hydroprene-treated groups, respectively.
These samples were dissected to determine the duration of the parasite egg
stage. We determined earlier that a host:parasite ratio of 30:1 usually re-
sulted in 1 parasite egg/host. Only those 1st instar parasites that were lo-
cated were used to determine egg duration. The latter was based on the oc-
currence of 1st instars in samples taken 0-8 days after parasitization. Re-
maining hosts were held for up to 21 days after parasitization for emergence
of adult parasites.

Determination of the Critical Period of A. suspense Larvae
The results (Table 1) indicate that the critical period occurred during
the 6th day of development for most of the A. suspense larvae observed.
The data indicate that 5-day-old larvae were in the pre-critical period stage,
while 7-day-old larvae were in the post-critical period stage. Lawrence et
al. (1976) noted a decline in the suitability of A. suspense larvae for de-
velopment of B. longicaudatus when hosts were older than 5 days. These
data correlate well with the onset of the critical period.


Location Percent larvae pupating in hour Total %
of pupation 12 24 48 72 pupating

5-day-old larvae
to ligature: 0 4.2 54.2 0 58.4
Entire body*: 0 2-1(10-4) 8-3(81-3) 2-1(8-3) 12-5(100)

6-day-old larvae
to ligature: 16-6 2-1 0 0 18-7
Entire body*: 22(22-9) 33-4(66-7) 0(6-2) 0(4-2) 55-4(100)

* Numbers in parentheses represent percent of unligated controls pupating.

Effect of Host Maturity and Hydroprene Treatment
on Successful Parasite Development
The data in Table 2 show that the suitability of untreated A. suspense
larvae was related to their maturity at the time of parasitization. Parasite
egg duration was significantly (P<0.05) shorter and emergence rates were
correspondingly higher in untreated pre- than in untreated post-critical

The Florida Entomologist

period host larvae (Table 2). These data are in agreement with the findings
of Lawrence et al. (1976).
Most of the hydroprene-treated larvae pupated when they were 8 days
old while the majority of untreated larvae pupated at 7 days of age (Fig.
1). Hydroprene treatment also affected parasite emergence and the duration
of the parasite egg stage in treated hosts (Table 2). The mean duration of the
parasite egg stage was the same in hydroprene-treated larvae and untreated
5-day-old, pre-critical period larvae, but was significantly (P< 0.05) longer
in untreated 7-day-old, post-critical period hosts (Table 2). Dissections re-
vealed that hydroprene-treatment did not affect acceptance of hosts for
parasitization, as equivalent numbers of parasite eggs were found in treated
and untreated parasitized hosts. Thus, hydroprene-treated hosts were more
suitable for egg development than were untreated, 7-day-old, post-critical
period larvae.
Comparison of mean parasite emergence rates from untreated 7-day-old
hosts and hydroprene-treated 7-day-old hosts showed that hydroprene treat-
ment improved parasite emergence from 48.1% in the former to 60.5% in the
latter (Table 2). However, untreated 5-day-old larvae were still the most
suitable of all hosts used in the experiment, yielding 94.1% emergence
(Table 2).

These studies show that the onset of the critical period coincided with
decreased host suitability for parasite development. The latter may be re-
lated to hormonal, nutritional or other host mechanisms. Although hor-
mone levels in the host were not measured, it is significant that hydroprene-
treated larvae took longer to pupate than untreated controls and yielded
parasite egg duration and adult emergence results similar to those observed
in young, pre-critical period larvae. Normally, pre-critical period larvae

FOR Biosteres longicaudatus*.

Condition of host larvae**

Untreated pre-critical Untreated post-critical Hydroprene
period (5-day-old) period (7-day-old) treated 7-day-
host larvae host larvae old larvae

Mean ( SE)
duration of egg
stage (days) 2.00-2 (34) a 4.12-0 (34) b 2.00 (24) a
Mean( SE)%
emergence 94.1 0-6 (218) a 48.1 +04 (139) c 60.54 (122) b
60.5+0*4 (122) b
Numbers in the same horizontal row followed by the same letter are not signifi-
cantly different at the 0.05 level by Duncan's new multiple range test.
** Numbers in parentheses represent sample size.

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

Lawrence et al.: Hydroprene Effect on Biosteres

of many insect species have a relatively high juvenile hormone content
(Schooley et al. 1976). We do not know whether hydroprene treatment al-
tered juvenile hormone levels of the larvae. The improvement in parasite
emergence due to hydroprene treatment may be attributable to increased
egg hatch (Lawrence et al. 1976, observed < 50% egg hatch in untreated 7-
day-old hosts) concomitant with the normalization of parasite egg develop-
ment times. Although treatment of the host with hydroprene affected para-
site development, it is not yet known whether the host's own juvenile titer
in the hemolymph at the time of parasitization is critical for proper devel-
opment of the parasite. The mechanisms by which hydroprene or host hor-
mones affect the parasite's development deserve further investigation. Since
Nenon (1972a,b) observed that juvenile hormone and ecdysone are impor-
tant for embryo development of certain parasitic species, in vitro studies
might be useful in elucidating the role of hormones and the times during

70- \--*- -Topicall treated






7 8 9
Fig. 1. Delayed pupation of non-parasitized Anastrepha suspense lar-
vae due to treatment at 5 days of age with hydroprene, a juvenile hormone
analog at a dosage of 2.8 pg/g of larval weight (vertical lines denote stan-
dard error of the mean).

The Florida Entomologist

parasite development when these hormones and their relative titers are
most critical.

We thank the Zoecon Corporation (Palo Alto, California) for supply-
ing the hydroprene (Altozar) used in these experiments. We are grateful
to the following persons for reviewing the manuscript: Dr. Sidney Poe, De-
partment of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gaines-
ville; Dr. S. B. Vinson, Department of Entomology, Texas A&M Univer-
sity, College Station; and Dr. Zane Smilowitz, Pesticide Research Labora-
tory, Department of Entomology, Pennsylvania State University, Univer-
sity Park, Pennsylvania.


BARANOWSKI, R. M., AND R. W. SWANSON. 1971. The utilization of Para-
chasma cereum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as a means of suppress-
ing Anastrepha suspense (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations. Proc.
Tall Timbers Conf. on Ecol. Anim. Contr. by Habitat Manage. Feb.
25-27, 249-52.
BRADLEY, W. G., AND K. D. ARBUTHNOT. 1938. The relation of host physi-
ology to development of the braconid parasite, Chelonus annulipes
Wesmael. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 31:359-65.
CALS-USCIATI, J. 1969. Influence de 1' 6tat physiologique de l'h6te Cera-
titis capitata Weid. (Diptera) sur le d6veloppement du parasite
Opius concolor Szepl. (Hymenoptera). Acad. Sci. Compt. Rend. Sbr.
D. 269:342-4.
CALS-USCIATI, J. 1975. Repercussion de la modification du cycle normal de
Ceratitis capitata Weid. (DiptBre Trypetidae), par irradiation y et in-
jection d'ecdysone, sur le developpement de son parasite Opius con-
color Szepl. (Hym6noptBre Braconidae). Acad. Sci. Compt. Rend.
S6r. D. 281:275-8.
DE BACH, P. 1939. A hormone which induces pupation in the common house
fly, Musca domestic L. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 32:743-6.
GILBERT, L. I., AND H. A. SCHNEIDERMAN. 1958. The inactivation of juvenile
hormone extracts by pupal silkworms. Anat. Rec. 131:557-8.
1976. Rearing and life history studies on Biosteres (Opius) longi-
caudatus. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Entomophaga 21:207-15.
LAWRENCE, P. O., R. M. BARANOWSKI, AND P. D. GREANY. 1976. Effect of
host age on development of Biosteres (= Opius) longicaudatus, a
parasitoid of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspense. Fla. Ent.
NENON, JEAN-PIERRE. 1972a. Culture in vitro des embryos d'un Hymen-
optere endoparasite polyembryonnaire: Ageniaspis fuscicollis (= En-
cyrtus fuscicollis). RSle des hormones de synthese. Acad. Sci. Compt.
Rend. Ser. D. 274:3299-302.
NENON, JEAN-PIERRE. 1972b. Culture in vitro des larves d'un Hym6nop-
tere endoparasite polyembryonnaire: Ageniaspis fuscicollis. R1le
des hormones de synthese. Acad. Sci. Compt. Rend. Ser. D. 274:3409-
RIDDIFORD, L. M. 1975. Host hormones and insect parasites. pp. 339-353.
In: (K. Maramorosch and R. Shope, Eds.) Mechanisms of Inverte-
brate Immunity. Academic Press, N.Y.

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

Lawrence et al.: Hydroprene Effect on Biosteres

1976. Determination of the physiological levels of juvenile hor-
mones in several insects and biosynthesis of the carbon skeletons of
the juvenile hormones. In: Lawrence I. Gilbert (Ed.) The Juvenile
Hormones, Plenum Press, New York.
SMILOWITZ, Z. 1974. Relationships between the parasitoid Hyposoter exi-
guae (Viereck) and the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hilbner).
Evidence of endocrine involvement in successful parasitism. Ann.
Ent. Soc. Am. 67:317-20.
SMILOWITZ, Z., AND G. F. IWANTSCH. 1973. Relationships between the para-
sitoid Hyposoter exiguae and the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni:
Effects of host age on developmental rate of the parasitoid. Environ.
Ent. 2:759-63.
STAAL, G. B. 1975. Insect growth regulators with juvenile hormone activity.
Annu. Rev. Ent. 20:417-60.

DAE)-(Note). The eggs of Phasmatodea have historically attracted in-
terest by their bizarre shapes and alleged seed mimicry. Oviposition in
most species is simply the dropping of single eggs in a seemingly random
manner, or propelling them some distance by a flick of the abdomen,
although several species glue their eggs to substrates (Bedford, 1978, Ann.
Rev. Ent. 23:125-49). In Parabacillus coloradus, egg laying is atypical and
egg form unusual.
Three female nymphs were obtained from the arid grasslands of Berna-
lillo Co., New Mexico, and raised to maturity in the laboratory (in the
absence of males) on the foliage of the shrub Dalea scoparia (Leguminosae).
Eggs are relatively large, e.g., those produced by a 55 mm female av-
eraged 6.2 mm by 1.2 mm, and gray shading to white in the region of the
micropylar plate. General appearance is similar to a smooth fusiform grass
seed. (Nymphs and adults can be found on grasses as well as herbs and
shrubs.) Oviposition occurred at night.
Eggs were frequently found lodged in the wire cage screening. Accidental
insertion is improbable. Eggs in the screening and those on the cage floor
often had an adhesive on them that made removal without rupture difficult.
After 3 months, 1 of 14 eggs kept indoors in a closed petri dish hatched,
demonstrating "accidental" parthenogenesis, a common phenomenon in the
Phasmatodea (Bergerard, 1962, Endeavour 21:137-43).
A female with 2 eggs adhering to the abdominal tip is deposited in the
Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville. John Sivinski, Uni-
versity of Florida, Gainesville.

During the past quarter-
century, Chemagro's top-
performing pesticides have
come in packages bearing
our famous Blue Bullseye.
Now, Chemagro products
will be packaged in bright new
containers bearing the symbol
of Mobay Chemical Corporation.
We are also continuing to
use our old familiar name,
Chemagro, so you'll know
you are still doing business
with old and trusted friends.
The new symbol gives us
a banner under which we can
continue to grow in service
to you.

Chemagro Agricultural Division
Mobay Chemical Corporation
Box 4913, Kansas City, Missouri 64120


The Florida Entomologist


The 60th Annual Meeting of The Florida Entomological Society was
held at the Cape Coral Country Club Inn, Cape Coral, Lee County, Florida
31 August-2 September 1977.
The meeting was brought to order by President Clifford S. Lofgren on
Wednesday 31 August 1977 at 1:05 PM. The invocation was offered by Rev.
Wayne Johnson. The welcome was by Mr. Edward C. Coleman, Mayor
pro tempore, Cape Coral. Announcements by E. Del Fosse included presen-
tation of some comic slides. He introduced C. S. Lofgren who made the
Presidential Address. Following this, the Society launched into its schedule
of Invitational and regular paper presentations. The annual "Bull Ses-
sion" was held Wednesday evening and was moderated by Norman C.
The preliminary business meeting was called to order by President
Lofgren at 12:01 PM 1 September 1977. Forty-two members were present.
Secretary F. W. Mead presented the minutes of the 59th Annual Meeting
held at Cypress Gardens 8-10 September 1976 as published partially in The
Florida Entomologist Vol. 60, No. 1, 1977. The remainder of the minutes
were in press for Vol. 60, No. 3. Several copies of the manuscript were made
available to the membership and were earmarked to be voted on at the final
business meeting along with the printed portion.

Dues $4669.00
Subscriptions 3015.00
59th Annual Meeting:
Banquet and Industry 632.00
Registration 782.00
Advertising 342.41
Publication Charges 3528.25
Reprints 1743.81
Back Issues 953.80
Postage 61.53
Checking Account Balance 1 August 1976 5164.22
Printing $10898.44
Postage 593.64
Assemble Reprints 216.00
Secretary Help 800.00
First Federal Savings & Loan (open account) 3000.00
William Peters (butterfly stamp project) 285.00
Misc. Items 235.98
59th Annual Meeting:
Banquet 300.00
Cash for change 100.00
Morgan's Office Supply (name tags, etc.) 40.46
Trophy Shop 43.48
Garden Center (rent for banquet) 62.00

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

The Florida Entomologist

Sheraton 323.44
Speaker 75.00
Frames for honorary certificates 13.87
Awards 100.00
Misc. cash purchases 18.76
Checking Account Balance 1 August 1977 3785.95
Total Cash on Hand 1 August 1977 $6785.95
Norman C. Leppla
Treasurer and Business Manager

The Auditing Committee has examined the financial report of the Busi-
ness Manager and found it to be in good order. The Committee wishes to
express its appreciation of the manner in which Dr. Leppla has conducted
this office of our Society, the time he spends in carrying out his duties,
and for the excellent manner in which he has kept the books these past 2
years. Under his guidance our Society has been able to establish a savings
account once again.
Respectfully submitted
R. S. Patterson
D. E. Short
H. A. Denmark, Chairman
It was moved, seconded, and approved unanimously to accept the Treas-
urer's and Auditing Committee Reports.

The Chairman thanks other members of the Committee for their help in
getting membership applications into the hands of prospective members. A
total of 516 invitations to membership was mailed, and an additional 100
were sent through campus mail. Reproduction and typing were donated by
an anonymous organization. The only cost incurred was $43.95 for postage.
Twenty-eight new members were obtained, 22 of which were full members,
8 of whom are pest control operators. There were 6 new student members.
E. C. Beck
B. W. Clements
W. B. Gresham, Jr.
F. W. Mead
J. L. Nation
C. T. Adams, Chairman

Officers for 1976-77 were as follows:
President-V. Waddill
Vice President-J. F. Kearney
Secretary-Treasurer-D. B. Shibles
Representative to the Executive Committee-A. K. Burditt, Jr.
The following meetings were held during the past 1976-1977 year at the
Cox Science Building on the University of Miami campus:

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

Minutes of Annual Meeting


12 October 1976

9 November 1976
14 December 1976

11 January 1977
8 February 1977

8 March 1977

12 April 1977
10 May 1977

Dr. C. A. Benschoter. Entomological research and
the Apollo Moon Shot Space Program at
Dr. Don Hall. Insect iridescent viruses.
Mr. Tom Gilliland, USDA, APHIS. Plant Pro-
tection and Quarantine Citrus Blackfly-Survey,
control and regulatory activity.
Open discussion on 1976 ESA meeting in Hawaii.
Mr. Jim Kearney. Quarantine clearance at the source
of the problem.
Dr. Van Waddill. Film presentation, "Biology of
an earwig Labidura riporia."
Mr. Steve Ryan. Dade County Extension.
Mr. W. N. Sullivan. Research to prevent the trans-
port of insects on common carriers.

At the 10 May 1977 meeting new officers were elected for the 1977-1978
President-John Lilly
Vice President-C. A. Benschoter
Secretary-Treasurer-D. B. Shibles
Representative to the Executive Committee-A. K. Burditt, Jr.
It was also resolved that the 1977-78 meetings would be held on the
3rd Tuesday of each month rather than the 2nd Tuesday.

Treasurer's Report
Balance year ending May 1976
Balance year ending May 1977


The next meeting of the Subtropical Branch is scheduled for 18 October
1977 at the Cox Science Building, University of Miami.
D. B. Shibles, Secretary-Treasurer
This report was read to the Society by A. K. Burditt, Jr.

The Entomology in Action slides were used by only 2 individuals this
past year: by Dr. David Reed, Vincennes, Indiana and Dr. Daniel Wojcik,
Gainesville, Florida.
The Committee used the slides and the Caramate projector at the 1977
meeting of The Florida Entomological Society. The slide presentation and
the 2 exhibits of Biological Control and Entomology in Florida were on
display in the mezzanine of the Cape Coral Country Club Inn.
The slides, Caramate projector, and exhibits are available for use by
any member for presentation before any type of group. In addition to the pre-
pared slide presentation, the Committee plans to develop a set of slides
depicting insects in natural settings. These types of slides interspersed in
an informal presentation create much more interest especially among
children. If anyone can donate duplicates of such slides to the Committee,
we will catalogue them so that they may be used by the membership.


The Florida Entomologist

The exhibits and slides will be displayed at the Southeastern Branch
Meeting in January 1978. If anyone wishes to add a display for that meeting
please contact Frank Mead or any member of the Committee.
M. D. Huettel
D. P. Wojcik
C. O. Calkins, Chairman
The preliminary business meeting was adjourned at 12:25 PM 1 Sep-
tember 1977.
The final business meeting was called to order by President Lofgren
at 12:42 PM 2 September 1977. Thirty-eight members were present.
A. K. Burditt moved that the report of the Secretary for last year's
annual meeting be approved; second by A. G. Selhime; motion carried.

Dr. Mohammad G. Rabbani (1945-1977). On 2 February he died at
Manaus, Brasil of acute renal failure following a severe infection of mixed
Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax The infection was acquired while he
was doing research on Anopheles darlingi for the Instituto Nacional de
Pesquisas da Amazonia. He would have been 32 on the 15th of March. He
was a native of Bangladesh. In 1974 he obtained his Ph.D. at the University
of Illinois under the direction of Prof. J. B. Kitzmiller. Mosquito cyto-
genetics was his field of specialization, and he was considered an outstand-
ing researcher and teacher. Obituaries have been published in the June 1977
issue of the Florida Entomologist 60(2):96 and the June 1977 issue of Mos-
quito News 37(2):308.
Dr. Milledge Murphey (1912-1977). On 15 February he died from leu-
kemia at the age of 64. He was a native of Georgia and had been a Professor
of Entomology at the University of Florida, Gainesville, for 30 years. Nu-
merous awards and honors had come his way. He was a Past President of
The Florida Entomological Society. For a fuller account of Dr. Murphey's
life see The Florida Entomologist 60(4):305-306 (Dec. 1977).
Dr. Loren F. Steiner (1904-1977). On 13 May he died from a heart attack
while visiting friends in Vincennes, Indiana. Dr. Steiner was especially well
known for his knowledge of fruit flies developed when he was Leader of
the USDA Hawaiian Fruit Flies Laboratory. Techniques based upon his
research were used to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly in Florida
and Texas and have been adapted for world-wide applications. He was a
native of Ohio and in 1967 received an honorary Doctor of Science degree
from Ohio State University, his Alma Mater. For further information see
the obituary in The Florida Entomologist 61(1):41-42 (March 1978 issue).
F. W. Mead, Secretary
President Lofgren called for moment of silence in memory of the de-
parted members.

This report is given by the Public Relations Committee whose primary
responsibilities are to promote the Florida Entomological Society and the
profession of entomology.
One prime activity of the Committee during 1977 was to survey the
members concerning their efforts in public relations. A 2-page questionnaire
was sent to the entire Florida membership for this purpose. Our first as-
sessment of the 1977 questionnaires indicates a wide range of promotional
efforts. The 1976 questionnaires have been analyzed and results from both
years will be published soon in The Florida Entomologist.

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

Minutes of Annual Meeting

A professionally prepared news release on the 60th annual meeting of
the Society was sent to all newspapers, radio, and TV stations in Florida.
During the meeting in Cape Coral several local newspapers, radio, and TV
stations conducted interviews. A summary article on the 60th annual
meeting is being prepared for a local agricultural magazine.
A postal cover commemorating the 60th annual meeting was prepared
in a limited edition of 500. The cover contains the Society's logo and a
block-of-4 U.S. butterfly stamps. The cover was sold at the annual meeting
and will also be sold at the national meeting of the Entomological
Society of America. All remaining covers will be sold on the philatelic
markets. Proceeds will be sent to the Business Manger for deposit.
R. W. Flowers
W. B. Gresham, Jr.
R. L. Lipsey
F. G. Maxwell
W. L. Peters, Chairman

(Report and presentations were made at the banquet)
Before making the presentations, the Honors and Awards Committee
expresses appreciation to all members of the Society who made helpful
suggestions and gave assistance in the work of the Committee. Special
appreciation is expressed to Mr. Joseph J. Minihan, Jr., Staff Illustrator
for the Division of Plant Industry, who did the lettering for the certificates.
The Honors and Awards Committee proposed the name of Dr. John A.
Mulrennan, Sr., for Honorary Membership this year. Biographical informa-
tion was included with the ballot. The Society membership voted over-
whelmingly in favor of the nominee. It is with sincere pleasure that we
provide the new honorary member with a certificate which reads, "The
Florida Entomological Society presents this certificate of Honorary Mem-
bership to Dr. John A. Mulrennan, Sr. for Distinquished Service in the Field
of Entomology in Florida" (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1. Acting Chairman of the Honors and Awards Committee Dr. S. L.
Poe (left) presents the certificate of HONORARY MEMBERSHIP to Dr. John
A. Mulrennan, Sr. Photograph by Frank W. Mead, Div. of Plant Industry.

The Florida Entomologist

For the Certificate of Appreciation, this year we depart from the usual in
that tonight we express Society Appreciation not to an individual, but to a
couple. This couple, displaced from New Jersey to Florida about 1966, has
contributed to numerous Society functions in many ways. They have served
separately as well as together on various committees and have for the 2
past years worked tirelessly on local arrangements to perfect every de-
tail of our Society meeting. Their work in the Society has earned for them
this recognition.
The Honors and Awards Committee presents this Certificate of Apprecia-
tion which reads, "To Daniel and Bernie Wojcik for services rendered in
the field of Entomology" (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2. L. K. "Bernie" Wojcik and Dr. Daniel P. Wojcik received a joint
award in the form of a CERTIFICATE OF APPRECIATION for services rendered
in the field of Entomology. Photograph by Frank W. Mead, Div. Plant

The Florida Entomological Sodiety honors Dr. Milledge Murphey,
who passed away 15 February, as its ENTOMOLOGIST OF THE YEAR. Secre-
tarial note: Please see The Florida Entomologist 60(4):305-306 (December
1977) for the text of the award to Dr. Murphey.
Last but not least the Honors and Awards Committee recognizes the
leadership by the Society President, Dr. Lofgren. His duties require a con-
siderable amount of work and involve many details of Society business.

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

Minutes of Annual Meeting

On behalf of the Florida Entomological Society, it is with pleasure that
the Honors and Awards Committee presents to President Clifford S. Lofgren
this gavel in recognition of a job well done (Fig. 3).
R. J. Gouger
S. L. Poe
J. E. Brogdon, Chairman
-. 1


Fig. 3. President C. F. Lofgren (left) receives inscribed gavel as award
for a job well done from Acting Honors and Awards Chairman Dr. S. L. Poe.

It is the recommendation of the Honors and Awards Committee that each
year the outgoing President of The Florida Entomological Society be pre-
sented a gavel and certificate of recognition. If the response to this is un-
favorable, we recommend that either the gavel or the certificate of recog-
nition be presented.
R. J. Gouger
S. L. Poe
J. E. Brogdon, Chairman

(Report and presentations were made at the banquet)
In this year's competition there were 9 papers submitted by student au-
thors. The Committee commends these students for their efforts.
Before reviewing the prizes and this year's winners, I would like to out-
line the procedure that committee members followed. In early August,
2 general information sheets and a copy of the judging form were mailed
to each competitor; these items were intended to help in the student's final
preparation for his presentation. The sheet that was returned to the judges
was not only a confirmation of the student's interest in competition but
also an update on his current mailing address. The student's presentation
was independently judged by the 3 committee members; points were awarded
for organization, delivery, and poise. The total points for each student were

The Florida Entomologist

tallied after competition and the top 3 scores were awarded prizes. Again
this year we plan to mail each student his scores as well as a summary of
his competitors' scores. We hope these scores and comments will be useful
to the student in preparation for later presentations.
The prizes are supposed to be used by the student for purchasing books
and supplies useful to his research. We thank "Industry" for contributing
the following prize money.
The winners in this year's competition are:
THIRD PRIZE: T. H. Atkinson, "Pheromone baited live traps for sampling
southern pine beetle adult populations to estimate the incidence of selected
SECOND PRIZE: M. A. Altieri. "Insect prevalence in maize (Zea mays)
and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) polyculture systems in tropical Colombia."
FIRST PRIZE: G. Dodson and C. Kleyla. "A field study on the calling
behavior of mole crickets."
Congratulations to these winners and thanks again to all of those who
E. S. Del Fosse
W. L. Peters
C. A. Musgrave, Chairman

The Program Committee met twice during the year, and the Chairman
met with individual members several times concerning their areas of as-
signed responsibilities.
A total of 60 papers was presented at the 60th Annual Meeting, with 12 of
these being invitational. The Chairman is especially appreciative of the
efforts of the other committee members and Dr. Lofgren for his assistance
and guidance.
C. W. McCoy
A. G. Selhime
D. E. Short
R. B. Workman
J. B. Taylor, Chairman

Special thanks are due Industry and volunteers who worked on the var-
ious phases of the 60th Annual Meeting. We would like to acknowledge
several people for their help: Dr. Bill Bear (Hospitality hour); Dr. Bob
Brooks (Golf tournament); Dr. & Mrs. Dan Wojcik (mail-outs); Mr. Darryl
Turner and Mr. Robert Crocker (projectionists); Mrs. Pat Newland, Mrs.
Janet F. Del Fosse, and Mrs. Rosilie Meyers (Registration).
The following Industry representatives contributed $20.00 each toward
Hospitality Hour expenses: Bob Turner (Del Monte Corp.); Bob Clark
(Abbott Labs.); Bob Metz (Niagara Chem. Co.); Jim Flavin (Chemagro);
James Taylor (Thompson-Hayward); Bill Moore (Zoecon Ind.); Ken
Muzyk (Amer. Cyanamid Co.); Bill Bear (DuPont); John Taylor (Ciba-
Geigy); Bill Wilner (ICI); Dave Benson (Uniroyal); Webb Wright (Webb
Wright Corp.); and Tom Farmer (Union Carbide). Also Ciba-Geigy and
DuPont companies contributed several nice prizes for or Awards Dinner-
Bingo Night. We sincerely thank all these people and companies for their
continuing support of The Florida Entomological Society.

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

Minutes of Annual Meeting

Hospitality Hour expenses were $259.00. Since $260.00 was collected
for this activity, $1.00 was returned to the Society.
W. H. Bear
R. F. Brooks
R. L. Crocker
J. F. Del Fosse
P. M. Newland
D. H. Turner
E. S. Del Fosse, Chairman

Resolution No. 1
WHEREAS the Florida Entomological Society meeting at the Cape
Coral Country Club Inn, Cape Coral, Florida, has found the facilities to
be convenient and attractive, and the staff to be hospitable and courteous,
which has greatly contributed to the success of the meeting,
THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that the Society expresses its appreciation
to the Country Club Inn Staff and its Management and especially to Mrs.
Lucy K. Pinkney.
AND BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Society be instructed to write
a letter of appreciation to these individuals.
Resolution No. 2
WHEREAS the Reverend Wayne Johnson, First United Methodist Church
of Ft. Meyers, and Mr. Edward C. Coleman, Mayor Pro Tem of Cape Coral,
Fla. willingly gave of their time and efforts to give the Invocation and to
welcome the Society to the city of Cape Coral which effectively opened the
60th Annual Meeting of the Florida Entomological Society,
THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that the Society express its appreciation
to Reverend Johnson and Mr. Coleman.
AND BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Society be instructed to write
a letter of appreciation to these individuals.
Resolution No. 3
WHEREAS representatives of the Florida Citrus Commission, Mr.
William F. Jones, Mr. William DeHaven, and Ms. Debbie Adair, Miss
Florida Orange Juice of 1977, served orange juice to members of the Society
throughout the day of 1 September 1977, thereby making that meeting day
more enjoyable, and certainly more healthful,
THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that the Society extend its thanks and
appreciation for these services,
AND BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Society be instructed to write
letters of appreciation to Mr. Jones, Mr. DeHaven, and Ms. Adair for
their helpfulness and cheerful cooperation.
Resolution No. 4
WHEREAS the local arrangements committee has provided excellent or-
ganization and facilities for the 60th Annual Meeting of the Society, and
WHEREAS the local arrangements committee has provided excellent or-
ganization and facilities for the 60th Annual Meeting of the Society, and
WHEREAS the invitational speakers and 'those who presented submitted
papers have taken time and effort to share with us their work and their
thoughts, and
WHEREAS the committee on student papers once again encouraged and
promulgated an excellent program on the research of our student ento-
mologists, and
WHEREAS support from industry provided an attitude adjustment period
and social hour, that encouraged fellowship, and was enjoyed by all par-

The Florida Entomologist

THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that the Society commend and express its
appreciation to these committees, their chairpersons and to the many indi-
viduals who helped to make the 60th Annual Meeting of the Society a
most successful one.
Resolution No. 5
WHEREAS the following individuals: Mrs. Jan Calkins, Dr. Dan Wojcik,
Bernie Wojcik, Dr. C. T. Adams, and Dr. Robert Woodruff have given of
their time, their effort, and their knowledge to unselfishly serve the Florida
Entomological Society and its executive officers in many ways during the
last year,
THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that the Society commend these indi-
viduals and express its appreciation for their service to the Society and for
the science of Entomology.
D. W. Anthony, Acting Chairman
A motion was made by R. C. Wilkinson to accept the report of the
Resolutions Committee. It was seconded and motion carried.

The Nominating Committee would like to submit the following names
for the membership to consider:
President: John B. Taylor
Vice President: Robert F. Brooks
Secretary: Frank W. Mead
Business Manager: Norman C. Leppla (to complete the 3rd year of a
3-year term)
Member-at-large to the Executive Committee: Robert C. Bullock
Candidates have been contacted and have given their consent to be con-
J. C. Allen
R. I. Sailer
A. G. Selhime, Chairman
Dan Wojcik moved that the nominations be closed and that the slate
of officers be approved; second by R. C. Wilkinson; motion carried.
A motion was made by L. K. "Bernie" Wojcik as follows: "I move that
the following proposal be adopted: that there be the establishment of a
Florida Entomological Society Women's Auxiliary upon approval of the
Executive Committee. This Auxiliary shall be called the Florida Ento-
mological Society Lovebugs and will have a full complement of officers
operating independently of the Society. Its main purpose shall be to aid
in the planning and operation of the annual meeting."
The motion was seconded by A. K. Burditt, Jr.; motion carried.
The final business meeting was adjourned at 1:15 PM.
During the course of the annual meeting the following RULES OF ORDER
COMMITTEE served: A. J. Rogers and R. H. Roberts, Chairman. At this
meeting registrations totaled 143 of which 128 were regular members and 15
were student members. At the awards banquet 111 members were present.

10 September 1976. Cypress Gardens Sheraton Inn, Cypress Gardens.
19 January 1977. USDA Insects Affecting Man Lab., Gainesville.
13 April 1977. USDA Insects Affecting Man Lab., Gainesville.
22 June 1977. USDA Insects Affecting Man Lab., Gainesville.
30 August 1977. Cape Coral Country Club Inn, Cape Coral.
Frank W. Mead, Secretary

Vol. 61, No. 2, 1978

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs