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Title: Florida Entomologist
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Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1979
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Insects -- Periodicals
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The


FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

(ISSN 0015-4040)

Volume 62, No. 2 June, 1979

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Fall Armyworm Symposium
MITCHELL, E. R.-Preface 81
SPARKS, A. N.-A Review of the Biology of the Fall Armyworm __ 82
PERKINS, W. D.-Laboratory Rearing the Fall Armyworm ...... 87
MITCHELL, E. R.-Monitoring Adult Populations of the Fall Armyworm 91
BARFIELD, C. S., AND J. W. JONES-Research Needs for Modeling Pest
Management Systems Involving Defoliators in Agronomic Crop
System s . ............ ... ........ ..... .... ..... .. . .. ... 98
ASHLEY, T. R.-Classification and Distribution of Fall Armyworm
Parasites ...~........ ......... ............ ...... .. ........ .... 114
WISEMAN, B. R., AND F. M. DAVIS-Plant Resistance to the Fall Army-
worm ..~. ...... ... 123
YOUNG, J. R.-Fall Armyworm: Control with Insecticides ..._ 130

WIRTH, W. W.-Siolimyia amazonica Fittkau, an Aquatic Midge New
to Florida with Nuisance Potential .................... ..........-.... 134
BEAVERS, J. B., J. M. STANLEY, H. R. AGEE, AND S. A. LOVESTRAND-
Diaprepes abbreviatus Response to Light Traps in Field and
Cage Tests .. .. .... ...... ......--- ---........ .. .. 136
HAMBLETON, E. J.-New Information on the Rhizoecus of Florida In-
cluding Descriptions of Four New Species _.........~.... .......... 140
TAYLOR, J. B.-Presidential Address: Through the Looking Glass ........ 150
Scientific Notes
SCHMIDT, J.-A Record Population of Pseudomethoca simillima 152
McLAIN, D. K.-Terrestrial Trail-Following by Three Species
of Predatory Stink Bugs .. ----......... 152
KOEHLER, P. G., AND D. E. SHORT-Fall Armyworm in Florida
Pasturegrass: 1977 --- ------------------- 154
Annual Meeting, Notice to Members ... .. ..... 155
Minutes of the 61st Annual Meeting ............... ............ 156

Published by The Florida Entomological Society





















THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY


OFFICERS FOR 1978-79


President ---
Vice-President
Secretary ...-----
Treasurer


R. F. Brooks
N. C. Leppla
F. W. Mead
L. K. Wojcik


Other Members of Executive Committee


J. B. Taylor
R. E. Brown
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A. K. Burditt, Jr.
W. L. Peters


PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE


Editor ..
Associate Editors


C. A. Musgrave
---.. A. B. Hamon
J. E. Lloyd
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-..._ L. K. Wojcik


Business Manager


THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST is issued quarterly-March, June, Septem-
ber, and December. Subscription price to non-members is $15.00 per year in
advance, $3.75 per copy. Membership in the Florida Entomological Society,
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Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be sent to the Editor,
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officers can be sent to that individual at the University Station address above.
When preparing manuscripts, authors should consult "Instructions to
Authors" on the inside cover of all recent issues.


This issue mailed June 15, 1979













Fall Armyworm Symposium


SYMPOSIUM


PREFACE

NOTE
Reprints of the entire Fall Armyworm Symposium are available from
any of the authors. Readers are advised that they need to contact just one
of the authors in this group to receive a copy of the entire proceedings,
p. 81-133.


The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), overwinters
in Florida and in a few southern coastal areas. Each year the pest migrates
from these refugia to infest crops as far north as Canada and as far west as
Montana. Average annual crop losses by the fall armyworm in the United
States exceed $300 million; during particularly severe outbreaks as occurred
in 1975, 1976 and 1977, losses attributed to this pest exceeded $500 million
annually.
In the Southeastern United States interest is growing in the develop-
ment of a cropping system which will permit the production of 2 crops of
corn each year on the same piece of land. In this region such a program
conceivably could increase producers' income an estimated $600 million
annually. The additional grain would permit expansion of the cattle feeding
industry in the Southeast. Thus, the combined economic benefit from the
double cropping of corn theoretically could exceed $1 billion annually. The
primary obstacle to the successful development of this program is the fall
armyworm which shows a keen preference for corn; it is especially devastat-
ing to corn planted late in the spring and summer months. Control of the
fall armyworm is further complicated by the development of resistance to
most of the commonly used insecticides.
The fall armyworm's habit of surviving the winter months only in sub-
tropical areas of Florida and Texas offers an unique opportunity to develop
a population management and forecasting scheme which, if successful, could
have a tremendous effect on the numbers of adults which move into the more
temperate zones of the United States each growing season. The reduced
pressure from migrant moths could greatly reduce and, in some cases, possi-
bly eliminate the need for control measures in these areas.
The reports presented here were in a Symposium on the fall armyworm
at the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Branch of the Entomolog-
ical Society of America in Gainesville, Florida, 25 January 1978. The pur-
pose of the Symposium was to review selected topics on the biology, ecology,
and control of the fall armyworm to facilitate future planning of research
and control strategies.
EVERETT R. MITCHELL













The Florida Entomologist 62 (2)


June, 1979


A REVIEW OF THE BIOLOGY OF THE
FALL ARMYWORM1,2,3

ALTON N. SPARKS
Southern Grain Insects Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research,
Science and Education Administration, USDA,
Tifton, GA 31794

ABSTRACT
The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), is an agricul-
tural pest of tropical-subtropical origin in the Western Hemisphere. Since it
lacks any diapause mechanisms, it only can overwinter in the mild climates
of south Florida and Texas; annually it reinvades much of the continental
U.S. and southern Canada. Although its larvae feed on a variety of plants,
corn, peanuts, sorghum, and Bermudagrass are favored hosts. The FAW
adult is nocturnal in its feeding and mating activities; females may mate
several times and use pheromones to attract males. Larvae normally com-
plete 6 instars and pupate in the soil.


The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), re-
mains one of the more unusual lepidopteran pests in the United States. Un-
like most other insects in the temperate region, the FAW has no diapause
mechanism; the species overwinters in south Florida and Texas where hosts
are continually available and temperatures below 500F are rare (Luginbill
1928). During the following growing season, the insect disperses again
throughout the Eastern and Central United States and into southern Canada.
The FAW has been known as a sporadically occurring but devastating agri-
cultural pest since colonial times in the United States. In this review, I will
summarize previously published information and current data concerning
FAW biology and natural history.

DISTRIBUTION
According to Luginbill (1928) the species has a tropical-subtropical
origin in the Western Hemisphere. The U.S. seasonal distribution was il-
lustrated by Snow and Copeland, (1969, Fig. 1). In most winters, survival
is limited to the extreme southern tips of Florida and Texas. Hinds and Dew
(1915) reported that in mild winters the insect may survive along the Gulf
Coast.
Wiltshire (1977) suggested that FAW had become established in Israel.
He also indicated that morphological races of FAW may exist; genitalic
comparisons of specimens from Israel, Brazil, the British Museum, and draw-
ings from Luginbill (1928) indicated that the Israeli FAW populations
originated from a Caribbean-USA source and not South America (Brazil).
This difference in populations may not extend to pheromone responses. Snow
et al. (1968) successfully used lab-reared virgin female progeny from

'Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.
"In cooperation with the University of Georgia College of Agriculture Experiment Stations,
Coastal Plain Station, Tifton, GA.
3Mention of a proprietary product does not constitute an endorsement by the USDA.













Fall Armyworm Symposium


SURVIVAL IN MILD WINTERS
CONTINUOUS GENERATIONS


Fig. 1. Seasonal distribution of the fall armyworm in the United States.
Georgia stock as bait in sticky traps to estimate the FAW population on St.
Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. In 1978, Mitchell and Sparks4 found that the
FAW male population near Santa Cruz, Bolivia, responded to laboratory-
reared FAW females from Florida and to the FAW sex pheromone, (Z)-9-
dodecen-1-ol acetate, identified by Sekul and Sparks (1976) from Georgia
stock; the data obtained were very similar to trapping responses observed
in the U.S.

HISTORY OF OUTBREAKS

Outbreaks of the FAW have occurred in the U.S. at very irregular
intervals. The species was recorded as an injurious pest in Georgia as early
as 1797 (Smith and Abbott). The next outbreak was reported by Glover
(1856) who stated that "marching-worms" were causing damage in west
Florida extensive enough to warrant institution of the "ditching method"
for destroying the worms.
Luginbill (1928) noted numerous reports of FAW outbreaks in the U.S.
from 1856 to 1928. Severe damage to corn was reported for Missouri and
Illinois in 1870. Less extensive damage then occurred infrequently until 1899
when an outbreak was reported from the Carolinas west to Kansas and
Missouri. Walton and Luginbill (1917) reported, "a particularly severe out-
break occurred in the summer of 1912 when the pest swept almost the entire
U.S. east of the Rocky Mountains, utterly destroyed the corn and millet in
the southern U.S., severely injured cotton and truck crops, and destroyed
grass on lawns in cities as if by magic." Luginbill (1928) reported other
outbreaks in 1912, 1915, 1918, and 1920. Since 1928, there have been several

4Mitchell, E. R., and A. N. Sparks. 1978. Use of pheromones for trapping the fall army-
worm and other insect pests of Bolivia. CID Working Paper No. 002/78. P.O. Box 14565,
Gainesville, FL 32604.














The Florida Entomologist 62(2)


outbreaks of FAW. These outbreaks are not well documented, but entomolo-
gists" recall year- when FAW became a predominate and injurious general
pest and devastated crops in some southern areas.
Entomologists will remember 1975-1976-1977 as years of heavy FAW
infestations throughout the southeast and along the Atlantic coast. Although
there is no exact method to quantify crop losses or values for comparison,
the year 1977 certainly rivals any other year. Estimated dollar losses attrib-
uted to FAW on all crops in the southeastern U.S. in 1975 and 1976 were
$61.2 and $31.9 millions, respectively; the 1977 losses in Georgia alone were
estimated at $137.5 million.6

LIFE CYCLE

A very general review of the life cycle of S. frugiperda follows; it is
summarized from my own observations and published literature including
Walton and Luginbill (1917), Luginbill (1928), and Vickery (1929).
The adult of the FAW is nocturnal. At dusk, adults initiate early evening
movement near host plants that are suitable for feeding, oviposition, and
mating. If a population is near corn fields, this early evening movement is
generally with the wind and extends from a few feet up to 30 feet above the
canopy. This "with-the-wind" movement is followed by an "against-the-
wind" or "oblique-to-the-wind" movement at dark or shortly thereafter when
the adults are flying more slowly or hovering and feeding.
After the general feeding period, which extends from shortly after dark
to up to 2 hours after sunset depending upon temperature and time of year,
virgin females initiate calling. When calling, the female sits near the top of
the crop canopy, extends her ovipositor, and emits the sex pheromone to
indicate that she is available to mate. Males traveling at oblique angles to
the wind and just above the canopy height have been observed to respond to
a calling female from a distance of 30-40 feet; temperature and wind velocity
are very important in determining the distance from which males respond.
Generally, 2 to several males respond to the call of a female. Since the FAW
female mates only once a night, some very stringent tussles occur among
males. Rejected males revert to their oblique-to-the-wind movement. This
male action-reaction explains the occasional observation of as many as 50
males flying in groups. Generally, virgin females mate early in the night;
females mated once mate somewhat later; and multiple-mated females mate
last. Mating activities peak prior to midnight, depending on temperature and
time of season, but some mating pairs can be observed throughout the night.
Oviposition by mated females follows closely and may overlap with the
early evening feeding period; it certainly overlaps the mating period. In
corn fields where FAW population densities are low, the female normally
oviposits on the lower side of leaves. When FAW population density is high,
oviposition is rather indiscriminate--all over the corn plant, on obscure ob-
jects including practically any type of plant and foliage, on window panes,
and on flags, carts, and sheds on golf courses. Eggs are laid in clusters and


'Personal Communication. L. O. Morgan and H. H. Tippins, Univ. of GA, Ag. Expt.
Stations, Tifton and Griffin, respectively.
"Hunt, T. N. 1978. Insect detection, evaluation, and prediction committee; report of the
Southeastern Branch of the Entomological Soc. of America. Dept. Ent., NC State Univ.,
Raleigh 27650.


June, 1979














Fall Armyworm Symposium


protected by a dense covering of scales. Masses contain from a few to
hundreds of eggs which will hatch in 2-4 days if mean temperatures are
70-80 F.
As larvae hatch from the egg, they eat the shells, initiate feeding on the
host plant, and then continue to devour foliage until they have completed 6
instars and pupated. Luginbill (1928) reports records obtained by Samuel
Blum that indicate FAW larvae needed an average of ca. 14,000 sq. mm of
crabgrass per caterpillar to develop through 6 instars. The percent of this
intake per instar averages 0.1, 0.6, 1.1, 4.7, 16.3, and 77.2 for instars 1-6,
respectively. The first 3 instars are quite small and require less than 2% of
the total foliage consumed, which explains why a farmer will declare that
"those worms just ate my crop overnight."
The 6th-instar drops to the ground and pupates ca. 1-3 in. deep in the
soil, depending upon soil texture, moisture, and temperature. According to
Vickery (1929) length of pupal period varies from 7-37 days, again de-
pending on soil mean temperatures ranging from 59-840F.
When the insects emerge from the pupal cases, they find their way to the
soil surface where they cling to plants or plant debris, inflate their wings,
and become adult in appearance. I have observed this behavior in the field
from 2-3 h after sunset until about midnight. Teneral adults apparently do
not mate the first night. Single males and virgin females that appear newly
emerged (no loss of scales, reluctance to fly) have been collected while feed-
ing well after midnight; thus, the adults probably feed the first night of their
lives.
In warm weather (June-August) throughout the southeastern U.S. and
around the Gulf Coast states, the life cycle of the FAW requires ca. 4 weeks.
Naturally, the period is longer during colder seasons and during the coldest
part of the winter in its overwintering range, a FAW generation may take
as long as 80-90 days (Vickery 1929).
Luginbill (1928) listed more than 60 species of plants attacked by the
FAW and indicated the list was representative rather than inclusive. He
stated that the insect has a decided preference for plants such as crabgrass,
corn, sorghum, and Bermudagrass, and would probably confine its attacks to
these plants if they were always available.

WEATHER AND THE FAW
Luginbill (1928) summarized weather conditions conducive to the FAW
outbreaks thusly: invasion depends to a large extent upon the prevailing
weather conditions during the winter months in the region of overwintering.
Periods of cool weather and abundant rainfall result in luxurious growth of
grasses, check the multiplication of natural enemies, and create conditions
favorable for a thriving FAW population. By the time the conditions become
favorable for natural enemies, the pest has increased to enormous numbers
and migrated. Cool, wet spring seasons followed by warm, humid weather
and heavy rainfall create conditions favorable to propagation of FAW
populations capable of causing severe damage to summer crops.
In those years in which winter and spring conditions favor the FAW in
its overwintering range, the pest spreads northward (Walton and Luginbill
1917, Luginbill 1928, Vickery 1929). The rate has been estimated at 300
miles/generation in some years. The manner in which this migration occurs










The Florida Entomologist 62 (2)


is conjecture, but a convincing hypothesis implicating weather fronts as the
primary tool for dispersal of this insect and other lepidopteran pests can be
defended as follows: Concentrated masses of airborne organisms, including
insects, are known to be moved by weather fronts and deposited great
distances from their origin in numbers sufficient to cause serious losses to
crops (Greenbank 1957, Rainey 1973, Schaefer 1973, 1976; Joyce 1973, 1975).
For example, when 2 air masses converge on each other to form a weather
front, the air streams rise up near the earth's surface as they collide. The
warm air flows up and over the opposing cool, moist, denser air and con-
tinues movement along the sloping interface. This creates atmospheric con-
ditions such that insects can be carried toward the front of the opposing air
streams where they may fall out near the front. Greenbank (1957) has
shown the importance of storm convection cells in the transport of spruce
budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens); Schaefer (1973, 1976) and
Rainey (1973) have documented the importance of weather fronts in the
movements of insects in the Sudan.
Sparks and Jackson (unpublished data) placed light traps on unmanned
oil platforms up to 100 miles offshore in the Gulf of Mexico and due south of
Jennerette, LA, in 1973. During 3-7 September Hurricane Delia passed
through the study area. On 15 September, a cold front from the north moved
over the study area. Between 26-28 September skies were overcast or par-
tially cloudy and the wind was ESE at 10-12 mph. Trapping data collected
over 3-day intervals from 11-22 and 26-28 September indicate that FAW
adults do travel in or on fronts passing through the Gulf of Mexico, and
apparently large numbers of FAW can be transported as far as 100 miles
into the Gulf. There is little reason to doubt that the same type of weather
phenomena could move the same species northward in the spring.


LITERATURE CITED

GLOVER, T. 1856. Insects frequenting the cotton-plant. U. S. Comm. Patents
Rep. 1855 (Agr.): 64-115.
GREENBANK, D. 0. 1957. The role of climate and dispersal in the initiation of
outbreaks of the spruce budworm in New Brunswick. Can. Ent. 97:
1077-89.
HINDS, W. E., AND J. W. DEW. 1951. The grass worm or fall armyworm. Ala.
Agr. Exp. Stn. Bull. 186:61-92.
JOYCE, R. J. V. 1973. Insect flight in relation to problems of pest control.
Ciba-Geigy Agr. Aviation Res. Unit, 38 p.
JOYCE, R. J. V. 1975. The implications to control strategy of the observed
flight activity of pest species in the Sudan Gezira. Ciba-Geigy Agr.
Aviation Res. Unit, 15 p.
LUGINBILL, P. 1928. The fall armyworm. USDA Tech. Bull. No. 34. 92 p.
RAINEY, R. C. 1973. Airborne pests and the atmospheric environment.
Weather 28 (6) :223-39.
SCHAEFER, G. W. 1973. Radar studies of the flight activity and the effects of
wind fields on the disperal of Sudan Gezira insects. AARU Res. Rep.
No. 8/73, 16 p.
-- 1976. Radar observations of insect flight. Pages 157-97 in R. C.
Rainey, ed. Insect flight. Blackwell Publishing Company, London.
SEKUL, A. A., AND A. N. SPARKS. 1976. Sex attractant of the fall armyworm
Moth. USDA Tech. Bull. 1542. 6 p.


June, 1979










Fall Armyworm Symposium 87

SMITH, J. E., AND J. ABBOTT. 1797. The natural history of the rarer
lepidopterous insects of Georgia. V. 2 illus. London.
SNOW, J. W., W. C. CANTELO, R. L. BURTON, AND S. D. HENSLEY. 1968. Popu-
lations of fall armyworm, corn earworm, and sugarcane borer on St.
Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands. J. Econ. Ent. 61:1757-60.
---, AND W. W. COPELAND. 1969. Fall armyworm: Use of virgin female
traps to detect males and to determine seasonal distribution. USDA
Prod. Res. Rep. No. 110, 9 p.
VICKERY, R. A. 1929. Studies of the fall armyworm in the Gulf Coast district
of Texas. USDA Tech. Bull. No. 138. 64 p.
WALTON, W. R., AND P. LUGINBILL. 1917. The fall armyworm or "grass
worm," and its control. Farmers' Bull. 752. USDA, 16 p.
WILTSHIRE, E. P. 1977. Middle East Lepidoptera. XXXVII: Notes on the
Spodoptera litura (F.) group (Noctuidae Trifinae). Proc. Brit. Ent.
Nat. Hist. Soc. 9:92-6.



LABORATORY REARING OF THE FALL ARMYWORM1,2,3

W. DERYCK PERKINS
Southern Grain Insects Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research,
Science and Education Administration, USDA, Tifton, GA 31794

ABSTRACT
At the Southern Grain Insects Research Laboratory, capability for rear-
ing the fall armyworm, (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), has
increased from a few hundred per day in 1960 to 10,000 per day in 1978. The
potential capacity is 100,000/day if use is made of multi-cell form-fill-seal
equipment presently available. Cost of rearing 1,000 FAW pupae increased
from $16.50 in 1967 to $31.60 in 1978. The 1978 cost can be reduced 55% by
using form-seal equipment.


The fall armyworm, (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), has
been successfully reared for 18 years (250 generations) at the Southern
Grain Insects Research Laboratory. The colony was initially established from
larvae collected during the summer of 1960 from Bermudagrass in the vicin-
ity of Tifton, GA. These insects were fed on corn sprouts and plant parts
(whorls) from young corn. As the larvae became older and required more
food, mature ears of corn were used to supplement the diet.
Although larvae developed well on the plant material and adult emergence
and oviposition proved successful, large quantities of insects could not be
produced. Entomogenous diseases perpetuated by the use of fresh plant ma-
terial also became a problem at times.
In 1962, additional insects were collected from the field and added to the
colony. During the following 3 years, the culture was subjected to intense
selection pressure in an effort to increase fecundity. In 1965, the culture was
converted to a meridic diet (Burton 1967).

'Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.
2In cooperation with the University of Georgia College of Agriculture Experiment Stations,
Coastal Plain Station, Tifton, GA 31794. Received for publication 19 January 1979.
3Mention of a commercial or proprietary product does not constitute endorsement by the
USDA.










The Florida Entomologist 62(2)


REARING PROCEDURE

EGG PRODUCTION: Moths are allowed to emerge in the 1-oz. clear plastic cups
in which they are reared. The moths are sorted by sex, and pairings are made
by placing 8-10 pairs in each 1-gallon cylindrical cage lined with wax im-
pregnated paper. A 1-oz. souffle cup containing a dental roll saturated in a
beer-ascorbic acid solution (1.5 gm/828 ml beer) is placed in the cage; a
paper towel cover that serves as an oviposition site is held in place by the
cardboard ring portion of the container. The cages are maintained in an
environmental chamber with fluorescent lighting for 14 h/24 h day. Tem-
perature and relative humidity are held constant at 78-800F and 65-70%
RH, respectively.
For 5 days, eggs are collected daily by placing the cages in a cooling com-
partment so the moths are immobilized and then removing the paper towel
cover with eggs attached. An air filtering system removes moth scales from
the working environment. Any moths escaping during the process are at-
tracted to the fluorescent lighting in the cooling compartment so that they
can be recaptured easily. After each collection of eggs, the cages are im-
mediately returned to the environmental chamber. A centrifugal dust collec-
tor (Harrell and Perkins 1971) is used to remove moths from the cage after
the 5th day of egg collection.
Egg masses are clipped from the towel and liners on which they are at-
tached, placed in small clear plastic bags, and held in the same environ-
mental conditions as the adults (780F and 65% RH). Three days are allowed
for hatching; then the bags of larvae are placed in a chamber maintained at
55-600F until they are used for infesting artificial diet. If larvae must be
separated from unhatched eggs, the egg masses are placed in a dark con-
tainer and a transparent plastic bag is used to cover the opening. As the eggs
hatch, the larvae will move upward and into the clear plastic bags.
LARVAL STAGE: Several artificial diets are available that provide adequate
nutrition for good larval development (Shorey and Hale 1965, Vanderzant
1967). Three diets that have been successfully used at this laboratory are:
the casein wheat germ diet (Burton 1967), the pinto bean (Burton 1969) and
the WSB diet (Burton and Perkins 1972). All appear to be equal (Perkins
et al. 1973) in providing quality insects though there is considerable differ-
ence in cost. Cost and availability are, therefore, the major factors involved
in selecting 1 of these diets. The casein wheat germ diet is highest in cost,
followed by the pinto bean diet. WSB diet is presently unavailable. We,
therefore, use the pinto beam diet formulated and dispensed as described in
Burton (1969) and Burton and Cox (1966).
An artist's brush is used to place 3 first-instar larvae in each cup. After
the diet is infested and the rearing cups are capped, trays are stacked and
secured in bundles of 4-8 trays; these are carried into an environmental
room where they are held at 82-840F and 65-70% RH for the duration of
larval development, through the pupal stage, and until adult emergence. As
moths begin to emerge in the cups, the cups are moved to another room where
they are sorted and paired for use in egg production.
The technique described is relatively simple and is adequate for rearing
from 5000-10,000 insects per day when a packing machine is used to dispense
the diet into the cups (Burton and Cox 1966). Other methods are needed if
greater numbers of insects are required.


June, 1979









Fall Armyworm Symposium


MECHANIZATION
The acceptance of artificial diets (Adkinson et al. 1960, George et al.
1960) for insect rearing opened the way for mechanization. Two devices were
developed at the Tifton laboratory to aid in diet handling and infestation.
The first was a 6-quart stainless steel pressure cooker (Burton et al. 1966)
that was adapted to dispense diet into glass shell vials. The second device
was a means of placing individual larvae into vials containing diet (Burton
et al. 1966); this eliminated the need for the artist-brush method of trans-
ferring larvae. Later, disposable plastic cups and paperboard caps replaced
the glass vials and cotton plugs, but the plastic cups were still placed into
Cel-Pak trays by hand and filled with the desired amount of diet by using
the pressure cooker filler.
Labor requirements for this procedure were prohibitive when large
numbers of insects were needed. When increasing numbers of Lepidoptera
were needed for pheromone studies (Sekul and Sparks 1967, 1976), a food
packaging machine was purchased (Burton et al. 1966). With the aid of this
machine, up to 10,000 cups of diet could be processed each day. Also, attach-
ments made it possible to use the machine to infest diet with larvae and cap
the cup in 1 operation (Burton and Harrell 1966). Later, a machine was de-
vised to collect the pupae from plastic cups (Harrell et al. 1968). The cost
of rearing 1,000 FAW pupae with this equipment was $16.50 in 1967, but
inflation had increased the cost to $31.60 by 1978 (Table 1).

MULTI-CELL FORMING EQUIPMENT
Labor and containers still comprised 66% of the total cost of FAW rear-
ing in 1978. Thus, further mechanization is needed to economically mass
produce the quantity of insects required for research on biological control of
the FAW.
An inline form-fill-seal machine was purchased in 1971 and adapted for
mass rearing the corn earworm, Heliothis zea (Boddie), (Sparks and Harrell
1976). This machine forms plastic into a continuous web of cells at the rate
of 544 cells/minute, heat-seals a cover material over the formed cells, and
shears the web into desired lengths. Also, diet-filling equipment and an egg-
TABLE 1. COST OF REARING 1000 FALL ARMYWORM PUPAE BY 2 METHODS.

Plastic cup Form seal
method method

Pinto bean diet $ 3.61 $ 3.84
Container material 7.16 1.44
Labor:
Diet preparation, infesting,
handling 8.26 1.05
Egg production 1.30 1.99
Collecting pupae or adults 4.26 2.05
Operating cost .36
Miscellaneous expense 7.00 3.60
Total $31.60 $14.33









90 The Florida Entomologist 62 (2) June, 1979

infesting station were fabricated and synchronized to make a continuous
automated process. In 1974, this equipment was modified for mass rearing
the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Harrell et al. 1977). Three
consecutive years (1975, 1976, 1977) of heavy FAW infestation have in-
creased interest in developing new and better means for control. The form-
seal equipment is now being considered for use to mass rear FAW needed for
biological control studies.
The use of form-seal equipment could reduce the cost of rearing FAW by
55% based on a daily production of 100,000 pupae. The greatest single sav-
ings results from a reduction in labor and an 80% reduction in the cost of
container material.
Other improvements in FAW rearing methodology are essential. In the
immediate future, efforts will be made to find more efficient techniques for
egg production and automated larval injection into rearing cells. Adequate
storage facilities that maintain the proper environmental conditions are es-
sential. Although equipment and facilities have been designed for this pur-
pose, additional work will be required to maximize the use of storage space.
All figures given in this paper are based on less than the 80% efficiency
realized with the present plastic cup rearing method. As mechanization
processes are refined, it is reasonable to expect 70-75% efficiency as with
other species reared by the new method.

LITERATURE CITED
ADKINSON, P. L., E. S. VANDERZANT, D. L. BULL, AND W. E. ALLISON. 1960.
A wheat germ medium for rearing the pink bollworm. J. Econ. Ent.
53:759-62.
BURTON, R. L., E. A. HARRELL, H. C. Cox, AND W. W. HARE. 1966. Devices
to facilitate rearing of lepidopterous larvae. Ibid. 59:594-6.
BURTON, R. L. 1967. Mass rearing the fall armyworm in the laboratory,
USDA, ARS 33-117, 12 p.
- 1969. Mass rearing the corn earworm in the laboratory. USDA, ARS
33-134, 8 p.
BURTON, R. L., AND H. C. Cox. 1966. An automated packaging machine for
lepidopterous larvae. J. Econ. Ent. 59:907-9.
BURTON, R. L., AND E. A. HARRELL. 1966. Modification of a lepidopterous
larvae dispenser for a packaging machine. Ibid. 59:1544-5.
BURTON, R. L., AND W. D. PERKINS. 1972. WSB, a new laboratory diet for the
corn earworm and the fall armyworm. Ibid. 65:385-6.
GEORGE, B. W., E. S. RAUN, D. C. PETERS, AND C. MENDOZA. 1960. Aratificial
medium for rearing some lepidopterous corn insects. Ibid. 53:318-9.
HARRELL, E. A., AND W. D. PERKINS. 1971. A centrifugal dust collector used
in a laboratory vacuum system. Ibid. 64:1553-4.
HARRELL, E. A., W. W. HARE, AND R. L. BURTON. 1968. Collecting pupae of
the fall armyworm from rearing containers. Ibid. 61:873-6.
HARRELL, E. A., W. D. PERKINS, A. N. SPARKS, AND R. F. MOORE. 1977. Mech-
anizing techniques for adult boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
production. Trans. ASAE 20:450-3.
PERKINS, W. D., R. L. JONES, A. N. SPARKS, B. R. WISEMAN, J. W. SNOW,
AND W. W. MCMILLIAN. 1973. Artificial diets for mass rearing the
corn earworm (Heliothis zea). USDA Prod. Res. Rep. 154. 7 p.
SEKUL, A. A., AND A. N. SPARKS. 1967. Sex pheromone of the fall armyworm
moth: isolation, identification, and synthesis. J. Econ. Ent. 60:1270-2.










Fall Armyworm Symposium


-- AND 1976. Sex attractant of the fall armyworm moth. USDA
Tech. Bull. No. 1542. 6 p.
SHOREY, H. H., AND R. L. HALE. 1965. Hass rearing of the larvae of the nine
noctuid species on a simple artificial medium. J. Econ. Ent. 58:522-4.
SPARKS, A. N., AND E. A. HARRELL. 1976. Corn earworm rearing mechaniza-
tion. USDA Tech. Bull. No. 1554. 11 p.
VANDERZANT, E. S. 1967. Wheat-germ diets for insects: Rearing the boll
weevil and the salt-marsh caterpillar. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 60:1062-6.

-**- --- --^--- ---^-- ^C-- --^

MONITORING ADULT POPULATIONS OF THE
FALL ARMYWORM1,2

EVERETT R. MITCHELL
Insect Attractants, Behavior, and Basic Biology Research Laboratory,
Agricultural Research, Science and Education Administration,
USDA, P. O. Box 14565, Gainesville, FL 32604

ABSTRACT

Blacklight traps and pheromone-baited cylindrical electric grid traps were
used to monitor seasonal populations of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera
frugiperda (J. E. Smith), in Louisiana and Florida, respectively. Disposable
sticky traps baited with pheromone, (Z)-9-dodecen-l-ol acetate, also have
been used extensively in surveys for the adult fall armyworm (FAW) in
Georgia and Florida. These traps are relatively inexpensive, easy to trans-
port and assemble, and they can be deployed in situations where electric
power is unavailable. Sticky traps are generally most effective in capturing
FAW males when positioned ca. 1 m above the ground in and around pre-
ferred hosts such as corn, peanuts, and improved, highly fertilized grasses
such as coastal bermuda.


The number of adult fall armyworms, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E.
Smith), in any area is influenced by many factors including time of year,
distribution and abundance of wild and cultivated hosts, cropping patterns,
weather, and dispersal from or immigration into the area. It is desirable to
have a simple, inexpensive procedure for sampling adult fall armyworms
(FAW) which will reveal significant fluctuations in population density and
which can be used in conjunction with a developmental model and meteorolog-
ical data to forecast potential outbreak situations. This paper reviews the
different types of traps currently used for sampling adult FAW.

LIGHT TRAPS

Blacklight traps have been used for years as a tool for surveying many
insect pests including the FAW (Hienton 1974). This species is one of 20

'Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.
2This paper reports the results of research only. Mention of a pesticide does not constitute
a recommendation for use by the USDA nor does it imply registration under FIFRA as
amended. Also, mention of a proprietary product does not constitute an endorsement by the
USDA.














The Florida Entomologist 62 (2)


June, 1979


insects included in the weekly Cooperative Plant Pest Report3. The data
contained in this report is not necessarily indicative of actual FAW popula-
tions because of differences in collection intervals, frequency of reporting
trapping data, trap placement, and possible incorrect identifications.
The basic design of most blacklight traps is similar. The lamp is placed
between vertical baffles above a funnel. The light may be left on continuously
or turned off during the day with a photoelectric switch. Insects approach
the light and either dive into the funnel or strike the baffles and fall into the
funnel. The funnel directs the moths to a chamber (usually a bucket) where
they are killed by a fumigant. A relatively fast kill is necessary to maintain
an identifiable specimen. Harding et al. (1966) and Smith et al. (1974) de-
scribe in detail a 15-W blacklight trap recommended for survey purposes.
The size of light trap catches is influenced by the density and activity of
the insect population (Williams 1939, 1940). Also the insect's activity under
the pressure of changing environmental influences such as moonlight, baro-
metric pressure, surface wind velocity, humidity, temperature, and crop
phenology can cause light trap catches to fluctuate widely, even on an hourly
or nightly basis.
Except for the data included in the Cooperative Economic Insect Report,
there is virtually no published information on the effectiveness of light traps
for capturing FAW. P. S. Callahan4 and Joan Chafin5 (unpublished data)
conducted a survey of several noctuid pests with 15-W blacklight traps lo-
cated on the campus of Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge over a
4-year period (1957-60). Results of their investigations with the FAW are
shown in Figures 1 and 2. These data suggest that the FAW probably does
not overwinter in the Baton Rouge area, since it was not captured in light
traps until late spring of each year. Figure 2 shows that both sexes of the
FAW were attracted to light traps with ca. 63% of the captures being fe-
males. Approximately 55% of the females captured had mated 1 or more
times as evidenced by the presence of a spermatophore in the bursa
copulatrix.

PHEROMONE TRAPS

Female moths of the FAW produce a sex pheromone that attracts males
prior to courtship and mating; hence females can be used in traps as bait to
lure and capture males (Snow and Copeland 1969). Live females may not be
readily available, and rearing expenses are excessive compared to the cost of
synthetic pheromone. Although female moths used as bait in traps effectively
attract males, extreme environmental conditions may cause erratic and un-
predictable pheromone production behavior and a subsequent decrease in the
capture of male moths. The identification and synthesis of the sex pheromone
of the FAW has made large area surveys, dispersal studies, and on-site field
detection procedures a practical reality.'
Two compounds have been identified as sex pheromones for the FAW,
(Z)-9-tetradecen-l-ol acetate (Sekul and Sparks 1967) and (Z)-9-dodecen-


3Published by USDA, APHIS, Federal Building #1, Hyattsville, MD 20782.
4Research Entomologist, Insect Attractants, Behavior, and Basic Biology Research Labora-
tory, P. O. Box 14565, Gainesville, FL 32604.
5Taxonomist, Department of Entomology, Loulsiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA
70803.















Fall Armyworm Symposium


1900

1800-


TOTAL PO! -
TOTAL FEM. ----
MATED FEM. --- ////.
MALES NW


JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC.
SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA

1957-1958-1959-1960

Fig. 1. Seasonal occurrence of the fall armyworm at Baton Rouge, LA, as
determined with a 15-W blacklight trap (data provided courtesy of P. S.
Callahan, Insect Attractants, Behavior, and Basic Biology Research Labora-
tory, Gainesville, FL.)

1-ol acetate (Sekul and Sparks 1976). Mitchell and Doolittle (1976) demon-
strated that (Z) -9-tetradecen-l-ol acetate is not attractive to males in the
field although it is a sexual stimulant in laboratory bioassays (Sekul and
Sparks 1967). However, (Z)-9-dodecen-l-ol acetate (Z-9-DDA) is highly
attractive to male FAW in the field (Mitchell and Doolittle 1976). Rather
high levels of the E isomer (1-11%) of 9-dodecen-l-ol acetate can be present
in formulations without any appreciable loss in attractiveness to FAW,










The Florida Entomologist 62 (2)


June, 1979














21












9
S\ 6
.-g 0


Spodoptera frugiperda












Fall Armyworm Symposium 95
which is fortunate since commercial preparations of the Z isomer usually
contain some E isomer and removal is expensive and time consuming. When
a very high degree of attraction is required the use of highly purified ma-
terial is advantageous.
Several different types of dispensers including polyethylene vials and
bottle caps, rubber septa and laminated plastic dispensers (Hercon) have
been used to evaporate the FAW pheromone from traps. Plastic vials (1.25
ml, Olympic Plastic Co., Los Angeles, CA) and bottle caps (OS-6 natural
polyethylene closures, Scientific Products) have been used most extensively
in research and survey by the writer, and they have proven quite effective.
Both types of dispensers release the pheromone at the rate of ca. 300 ng/min
at 270C and 0.4 m/s wind velocity. The dispensers are usually loaded with
25 mg pheromone. This load will last 3 to 4 weeks in the field depending
upon the temperature.
Traps of various design have been used to detect or measure FAW popu-
lations and to evaluate chemical attractants against natural populations of
this species. To be effective, the trap must not only be capable of capturing
(or killing) the insects, but it must also have the capacity to contain an
accurate sample of the population. A trap that reaches capacity in 1 night
(or even in 1 h) may provide misleading information, depending on when
the trap is cleaned or replaced.
Tingle and Mitchell (1975) tested 7 trap designs (Fig. 3) for capturing
the FAW: an electrocutor grid trap (Mitchell et al. 1972); a double-cone
trap similar to that of Kaae and Shorey (1972) ; an omni-directional trap
for pink bollworms, [Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders)], designed from
that of Sharma et al. (1973); a modified pink bollworm trap; and 3 sticky
traps available from Zoecon Corp., Palo Alto, CA (Pherocon 1C, Sectar@
XC-26, and Sectar I). The electrocutor grid was the most effective of the
traps tested. It captured 10-12 times more FAW than any of the other traps,
and its capacity is limited only by the size of the collection container. Be-
cause of its effectiveness in capturing FAW, as well as many other moth
species, the electrocutor grid is used widely as a research and survey tool
even though it is expensive to construct and has the disadvantage of requir-
ing an electric power source (115-120V AC). The latter problem has been
overcome by the recent development of a 12V DC battery-powered unit
(Bodine model 12BZ, The Bodine Co., 236 Mt. Pleasant Road, Collierville,
TN 38017) designed to operate the electrocutor grid for ca. 2 weeks between
battery changes (Mitchell et al. 1978).
The Pherocon 1C stick trap was the most effective of the other 6 trap
designs tested by Tingle and Mitchell (1975). The effectiveness of these traps
is affected by many factors including the number of insects captured and the
accumulation of insect scales, dirt, and other debris. Also, the capacity and
efficiency of the sticky trap changes with insect populations and as a result
of deterioration by rain, dust, and wind. Birds also may remove insects from
these traps. The Pherocon 1C trap can be'used effectively as a research and



Fig. 2. Sex and mating status of fall armyworm moths captured in 15-W
blacklight traps, Baton Rouge, LA. (Data provided courtesy of P. S. Calla-
han, Insect Attractants, Behavior, and Basic Biology Research Laboratory,
Gainesville, FL.)












The Florida Entomologist 62 (2)


June, 1979


PBW




SD-CrW
GRID 'MPBW


Fig. 3. Pheromone traps evaluated for capture of fall armyworm males:
Electrocutor grid (grid), double-cone (D-C), pink bollworm (PBW), modi-
fied pink bollworm (MPBW), Pherocon 1C (PC), Sectar XC-26 (XC-26), and
Sectar I(S-1).
survey tool if its limitations are recognized and taken into account. For
example, new and used traps should not be mixed in quantitative experiments.
In survey studies, the trap's sticky liner (bottom) should be replaced on a
regular basis, preferably once a week when insect populations are low. When
moth catches increase, it may be necessary to change the liner daily. The top
of the Pherocon 1C trap can be changed less frequently.
Fall armyworm pheromone, purchased in 100 g lots currently costs ca.
$3.25/g. Since 25 mg will last about a month, pheromone would cost ca.
$0.08/month for each trap in operation (electrocutor grid or sticky trap). A
complete Pherocon 1C trap (top and liner) costs ca. $1.02; replacement liners
for these traps cost ca. $0.41 each. If one assumes that the top of each trap
will last a month and the liner must be changed weekly, then the cost at
current prices would be ca. $2.25/month for each trap in operation. It is
possible that homemade traps could be used in place of the commercially
prepared traps to reduce costs. Based upon my own experience it has gen-
erally been less expensive and time consuming to use commercially manu-
factured traps especially if a large number of traps is involved.
The location of pheromone traps and the number per unit area are both
important considerations in any trapping system. Host plant preferences of
the moths change depending upon the time of year, availability, and flower-













Fall Armyworm Symposium


ing cycles of the host plant. Tingle and Mitchell (1979) have conducted
studies on the placement of traps in and around preferred hosts of the FAW
including corn, peanuts, and improved pastures. In North Central Florida,
FAW generally are captured first in and around young corn during the
spring, in peanuts during mid- and late-summer and in areas planted to
improved, highly fertilized grasses such as coastal bermuda in the late sum-
mer and fall. Pheromone sticky traps are routinely positioned ca. 1 m above
the ground on metal poles in and around these crops. Studies have shown
this to be an effective and convenient height, and trap catches are not signif-
icantly affected as long as the host, e.g., corn, is at or below the level of the
trap. Traps positioned inside and around the periphery of corn fields are al-
most equally effective in capturing FAW moths. Traps located in fields where
the corn is >1 m in height are less effective in capturing FAW than similar
traps located along the periphery of the field. In peanuts, more FAW moths
are captured in sticky traps located inside the field (ca. 25 m) than along
the edges.
Pheromone trap densities of 1, 2, 4 and 10/4-ha were tested in field corn
early in the 1977 growing season when adult FAW populations were ex-
tremely low (captures ranged from 0 to 7.4/trap per night) (Tingle and
Mitchell 1979). Under these conditions, there was no significant difference in
the mean number of moths captured per trap whatever the trap density.
Hence, 1 trap/4 ha can be used to survey for the FAW when populations are
low. Further research must be conducted before this type of data can be
used to predict egg and larval populations of the FAW or schedule insecticide
applications in a control program.

LITERATURE CITED
HARDING, W. C., JR., J. G. HARTSOCK, AND G. G. ROHWER. 1966. Blacklight
trap standards for general insect surveys. Bull. Ent. Soc. Am. 12:31-2.
HIENTON, T. E. 1974. Summary of investigations of electric insect traps.
USDA Tech. Bull. No. 1498. 136 p.
KAAE, R. S., AND H. H. SHOREY. 1972. Sex pheromones of Lepidoptera:
XXIX. An improved double-cone trap for males of Trichoplusia ni.
Environ. Ent. 1:675-7.
MITCHELL, E. R., AND R. E. DOOLITTLE. 1976. Sex pheromones of Spodoptera
exigua, S. eridania, and S. frugiperda: bioassay for field activity. J.
Econ. Ent. 69:324-6.
E. W. HAMILTON, AND S. MASUDA. 1978. A 12-volt DC power pack for
electrocutor grid traps. Fla. Ent. 61(3) :189-92.
J. C. WEBB, A. H. BAUMHOVER, R. W. HINES, J. M. STANLEY, R. G.
ENDRIS, D. A. LINDQUIST, AND S. MASUDA. 1972. Evaluation of cy-
lindrical electric grids as pheromone traps for loopers and tobacco
hornworms. Environ. Ent. 1:365-8.
SEKUL, A. A., AND A. N. SPARKS. 1967. Sex pheromone of the fall armyworm
moths: Isolation, identification, and synthesis. J. Econ. Ent. 60:1270-2.
AND -- 1976. Sex attractant of the fall armyworm moth. USDA
Tech. Bull. No. 1542. 6 p.
SHARMA, R. K., R. E. RICE, H. T. REYNOLDS, AND R. M. HANNIBAL. 1973. Ef-
fect of trap design and size of hexalure dispensers on catches of pink
bollworm males. J. Econ. Ent. 66:377-9.
SMITH, J. S., J. M. STANLEY, J. G. HARTSOCK, AND L. E. CAMPBELL. 1974. S-1
blacklight insect-survey trap, plans, and specifications. USDA ARS-
S-31. 9 p.













The Florida Entomologist 62 (2)


June, 1979


SNOW, J. W., AND W. W. COPELAND. 1969. Fall armyworm: Use of virgin
female traps to detect males and to determine seasonal distribution.
USDA Prod. Res. Rep. No. 110. 9 p.
TINGLE, F. C., AND E. R. MITCHELL. 1975. Capture of Spodoptera frugiperda
and S. exigua in pheromone traps. J. Econ. Ent. 68:613-5.
AND 1979. Factors affecting pheromone trap catches in corn
and peanuts. Environ. Ent. (In Press).
WILLIAM, C. B. 1939. An analysis of four year's capture of insects in a light
trap. Part I. Trans. R. Ent. Soc. Lond. 89:79-132.
1940. An analysis of four year's capture of insects in a light trap.
Part II. Trans. R. Ent. Soc. Lond. 90:227-306.



RESEARCH NEEDS FOR MODELING
PEST MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS INVOLVING
DEFOLIATORS IN AGRONOMIC CROP SYSTEMS1

C. S. BARFIELD2 AND J. W. JONES3

ABSTRACT
A framework for stepwise construction of a pest management model is
presented and placed in context with the so-called systems approach. Labora-
tory and field data from 1 year's studies involving a defoliator, a foliar patho-
gen and the peanut plant, Arachis hypogea L. cv. 'Early Bunch', are pre-
sented as examples of primary research information needed to construct an
IPM model. Developmental information on the fall armyworm, Spodoptera
frugiperda (J. E. Smith), is presented.
Measurements have been made on the alterations in peanut plant growth
rate processes as functions of defoliation and/or pathogen, Cercospora leaf-
spot, infection. Suggestions for future experiments that will provide data
critical to model construction and validation are given.


The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), is a member
of a complex of defoliators annually inflicting damage to crops in the south-
east and central U.S. (Luginbill 1928). The severe infestation of fall army-
worm in field corn in 1977 resulted in devastation to many crops secondarily
attacked by this pest. Scientists were once again reminded of their lack of
knowledge on the ecology and natural history of fall armyworm dispersal
and host plant selection. Others have called attention to the potential of the
fall armyworm as an economic, polyphagous pest (Chittenden 1900, Hinds
and Dew 1915, Luginbill 1928, Vickery 1929, Labrador 1967).
Research has been conducted on several aspects of fall armyworm bio-
nomics. Hinds and Dew (1915), Luginbill (1928), and Lincoln and Isley
(1945) wrote general articles on fall armyworm biology and control. Host
plant resistance has been utilized against the fall armyworm on millet
(Leuck 1970, 1972), Bermuda grass (Leuck et al. 1968, Leuck and Skinner
1970), maize (Widstrom et al. 1972) and peanuts (Leuck and Skinner 1971).

'Florida Agric. Exp. Sta., Journal Series No. 1114.
'Ass't. Prof., Department of Entomology and Nematology, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville
32611.
3Assoc. Prof., Department of Agricultural Engineering, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville 32611.













Fall Armyworm Symposium


Chemical controls have been described by Roberts (1965), Bowman and
Young (1969), Hamm and Young (1971), Cantu and Wolfenbarger (1972),
and Janes (1975). Greene et al. (1971) and Mitchell et al. (1974) studied
adult dispersal. Greene and Morrill (1970) and Morrill and Greene (1973)
discussed the in-field distribution of immatures. Characteristic damage in-
flicted by fall armyworm larvae has been described (Hinds and Dew 1915,
Lincoln and Isley 1945). Bardner and Fletcher (1974) reviewed the concepts
and literature associated with characteristic types of damage and general
effects on crop yield. Wood (1977) presented data on overwintering pupae
and Tingle and Mitchell (1977) explored 1 possible overwintering site in
Florida.
Published fall armyworm data are either too general or too few to allow
the derivation of population models representative of fall armyworm-host
plant interactions. Barfield et al. (1978) applied a temperature-driven devel-
opmental model to this species. J. W. Smith, Jr.4 collected data on fall army-
worm consumption rates and subsequent effects on Spanish-type peanut de-
foliation and yield, and Barfield et al. (unpubl.) collected similar data on
fall armyworm consumption, developmental, and reproduction rates for 3
phenological states of Runner-type peanuts and vegetative field corn. Al-
though not enough research has been completed, these 3 studies provide
critical information for modeling the fall armyworm-host plant interactions.
The construction of a flexible pest management model for the fall army-
worm demands detailed information of (1) basic development and reproduc-
tion, (2) mortality factors, (3) overwintering and dispersal dynamics, (4)
timing and magnitude of movement among various host plants, (5) effects
on host plant growth processes and, subsequently, yield, and (6) interac-
tion (s) with damages inflicted simultaneously or sequentially by other pests.
We resolved that a logical approach to this complex problem would be to
research and to study a system involving a host plant, a defoliator and a
foliar pathogen. Once the relationships among these components were under-
stood, dispersal phases and other pests, each with varied seasonal oscilla-
tions, could be added to a basic model. Provided a structure were adopted
which specified how the components would couple to the basic model, this
approach would allow flexibility to expand the model, eventually to a regional
level, and to adjust model structure or parameters for a broad spectrum of
specific cases.
The present paper is not directed toward producing new facts or
philosophy concerning modeling methodology. Rather, an attempt is made to
summarize our philosophy and approach to modeling a complex ecological
system. Paramount to our approach are research needs, both in terms of data
being collected and data to be acquired in future experimentation. Thus,
several citations appear as "unpublished." This is unavoidable, as the pur-
pose of the present symposium is to summarize the most recent information
available.
Several sections of this paper present philosophical arguments. We feel
that our philosophy of modeling methodology dictates our experimental
formats. Thus, it is imperative that we share both philosophical and scientific
information.


4Assoc. Prof., Department of Entomology, Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX 77841.













The Florida Entomologist 62 (2)


June, 1979


A PROTOTYPE SYSTEM
SYSTEMS APPROACH. The systems approach used to study pest and crop
management has gained national attention (Bowen et al. 1973, DeMichele
1975, Giese et al. 1975, Rudd et al. 1979, Ruesink 1976). Basically, pest man-
agement systems consist of biotic (crop, pests, beneficial organisms), abiotic
(climate and weather parameters) and management components (strategies
and tactics for altering biotic and/or abiotic components). The systems ap-
proach requires mathematical models of those components most important in
determining cause-effect relationships within the system. Integration of
component models provides a tool for study of system behavior. An objective
or purpose for the models must be stated explicitly and usually is the study
of control strategies and tactics for maximizing grower profits.
Many pest management studies fall short of stated objectives. We see 2
possible reasons that contribute to an apparent lack of success of some sys-
tems pest management efforts. First, research programs might be designed
and implemented without sufficient interaction with potential users of the
proposed system. Second, the overall objective might not be identified clearly,
resulting in unilateral research on components not important in the total
model. Without a concerted effort to integrate the component research into a
pest management system with explicitly defined objectives, the systems ap-
proach cannot be complete. To date, most research efforts have placed em-
phasis on development of needed component models of pests and crops.
Notable exceptions include broader pest management studies in alfalfa
(Giese et al. 1975), soybean (Rudd et al. 1979) and cotton (Gutierrez et al.
1977, Brown et al. 1977). Here, we discuss in general fashion the approach
we plan to use in developing models and parameterizing them for the fall
armyworm.
Due to seemingly confusing literature, we wish to re-emphasize 2 funda-
mental approaches to model development. First, the "bottom-up" or research
modeling method can be described best by its analogy with research. Bio-
logical systems are organized hierarchically (Fig. 1), and knowledge of the
system at a particular level is used to explain behavior at higher organiza-
tional levels. For example, growth of a leaf can be described by knowledge of
cell division and expansion dynamics. Characteristic to this approach is an
emphasis on rate processes at all levels of organization (G. H. Smerage)5,
and modeling becomes an integral part of a research program of this type.
This hierarchical structure provides links between research and models at
all levels of organization and among traditional research disciplines. The
second approach is referred to as the "top-down" or management modeling
method. Using this method, one would start at the hierarchical level defined
by the objective (e.g., regional management of pests) and develop a crude
model, adding mathematical and biological detail only as required for de-
sired accuracy (see Rudd et al. 1979). Whereas the distinction between these
2 fundamentally different approaches may not be readily apparent, its im-
portance is focused by current controversy over adoption of the "better"
method. Table 1 gives some advantages and disadvantages of both ap-
proaches.

5Smerage, G. H., S. L. Poe, and C. A. Musgrave. Systems analysis of insect population
dynamics: conceptual modeling. Univ. of Florida, MS in review.


















Fall Armyworm Symposium 101




Regional Model |-- Economic Research
Social Research



Ecosystem ----- Community Model --- Economic
Research (Spatial Arrangements, Ecosystem) Research
(Space and Time
Considerations)

Concepts, parameters,
simplified relationships



Field Population Models -- Economics
Plot (Crops, Insects, etc. eg. Economic
Research For Unit Land Area of Field Thresholds
A (over time only)


Concepts, parameters,
simplified relationships



H Organism Organism Models
I Research (Plant, Insect, etc.)
G I
H
E
R Concepts, parameters,
simplified relationships
L
E
V
E Organ -- Organ Models
L Research (Leaf, Root, Ovary, etc.)
S


Concepts, parameters,
.----------- simplified relationships



Cellular ---Cellular Models
Research


Molecular Molecular Models
Research

Fig. 1. Heirarchial levels in research and modeling.

Our work focuses on developing research models which provide a funda-
mentally sound foundation for application to long range research goals and
on developing management models for specific applications to explicit ob-
jectives. We do not see the aforementioned approaches as conflictive; rather,
they are complementary. At each level in Fig. 1, simplification should be en-
couraged so that "users" at the next higher level can suitably interpret re-
search information. As the hierarchical level is increased (e.g., cell to
organ, organism to population, etc.), model detail normally decreases;
whereas, model scope increases. Application at more complex levels, such as
the regional level, can be improved as research and models at lower levels
become available.














The Florida Entomologist 62 (2)


June, 1979


TABLE 1. TYPICAL ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF 2 MODELING AP-
PROACHES.

Modeling
Approach Advantages Disadvantages


a. evolution of a common
conceptual framework
whereby a common objec-
tive can be pursued by
all research disciplines
involved
b. complex interactions can
be studied using suitable
component models, such
as multiple pest damage
to crop
c. model analysis will help
identify fundamentally
sound and crucial re-
search needs

a. the objective is stated
explicitly


b. the scope of the system
is specified for a known
user and simplified
models are adapted

c. model can be implemented
in short time period using
existing knowledge with
improvements made as
research results become
available


a. the ultimate objective of
such models may not
always be apparent


b. time is required to con-
duct research to quantify
all model parameters


c. the model may become
unwieldy and cost pro-
hibitive because of detail


a. models at times are based
on limited knowledge
and may be academic
exercises
b. models may not have
biologically meaningful
parameters and thus,
they may be difficult to
scrutinize
c. it may not be possible to
validate such models


CROP-PEST COUPLING.. The purpose of the present crop-pest modeling effort
is to provide a tool for studying the effect of fall armyworm (and other pest)
damage on peanut growth and yield. The primary hypothesis underlying this
approach is that pests destroy crop biomass and/or alter crop growth proc-
esses which, over time, can be translated into changes in crop yield. As crop
growth is a complex function of crop-environment (biotic and abiotic) inter-
actions, the "bottom-up" approach will be used. Emphasis is to be placed on
effects of pest damage on crop growth processes and the effects of crop state
on pest populations. A schematic diagram of our concept of crop-pest inter-
actions is shown in Fig. 2. Central to this concept is crop state, pest popula-
tion state, and associated rate processes.
Crop state is a quantitative description of the crop at a point in time and
usually includes biomass of leaves, stems, roots and fruit as well as canopy


102


"Bottom-up"
or
Research


"Top-down"
or
Management













Fall Armyworm Symposium


Fig. 2. Schematic of key components of a typical crop-pest model.
geometry and leaf area. Rate processes consist of photosynthesis, respira-
tion, transpiration and growth. Crop rate processes conceptually are affected
by crop state, the abiotic environment, and pest damage. Crop state values
are changed by integration of rate processes over time.
Pest state is a quantitative description of pest population at a point in
time and includes density of egg, larval, pupal and adult life stages of, in
our example, the fall armyworm. Rate processes altering pest population
state include reproduction, mortality (by many factors), stage transitions,
and dispersal. Conceptually, crop state affects some pest rate processes (e.g.,
reproduction and mortality), and research is needed to identify the magni-
tude of these relationships. Types and rates of crop damage provide key
links for coupling crop and pest models. Cultural practices and other control
methods, such as pesticide application, alter pest population state.
Considerable literature on related research and models provides a sound
basis for utilizing this approach. Models of light interception and photo-
synthesis are available (Duncan et al. 1967, Mann et al. 1977, Mann and
Curry 1977). Crop growth models exist for corn (Duncan 1974), peanut
(Duncan 1974, 1974a, Young 1977) and soybean (Curry et al. 1975). A
soybean growth model is being developed under Cooperative State Research
Service Regional Project S-107, and we are contributing to that effort.
Whereas these models form a strong background, modifications will be es-
sential for use in the present effort. Research necessary for modifying the
peanut model was initiated during 1977 (see below) and concentrated on the
effects of pest damage on crop canopy description and rate processes. The
generalized developmental models of Sharpe and DeMichele (1977) and













The Florida Entomologist 62 (2)


Sharpe et al. (1977) have been used in present efforts. Numerous population
dynamics models have provided useful information (Rudd et al. 1979, Stin-
ner et al. 1974, Jones et al. 1977). Present efforts will lead to a generalized
pest model framework able to be made species-specific by suitable structural
or parametric alterations. Barfield et al. (1978) used this approach to model
fall armyworm development (see below).
The crop-pest model as outlined in Fig. 2 applies to a homogeneous land
area of crop and does not account for spatial non-homogeneity of crops,
pests, environment, and management. Application of the model will require
monitoring or estimating population fluxes across boundaries of the area.
This model will provide useful studies of crop response to temporal pest
damage and tactics for pest control within a field. It will be used also to
provide simplified crop response functions for higher level models of
ecosystem-level pest management systems where focus is on the non-
homogeneity of crops and pests.
Our prototype system involved a defoliator, the fall armyworm; a foliar
pathogen, Cercospora leafspot; and the peanut plant, Arachis hypogea L.
cv. 'Early Bunch'. Laboratory and field research were initiated in 1977 to
understand the basic interactions within the prototype system. Data re-
ported in the next section illustrate some results of these initial research
efforts.


LABORATORY AND FIELD DATA

FALL ARMYWORM DEVELOPMENT. Any attempt to model plant-pest inter-
actions presupposes interrelated functional developmental models for the
various plants and pests involved. Usually, this involves developmental time
and rate data collected over a broad range of constant and variable tem-
peratures and validated under real world conditions. Validation of the
temperature-development function calls attention to ecological components
important in the development process yet missing from the model.
Barfield et al. (1978) collected data on fall armyworm development over
9 constant temperatures and variable temperatures simulating a typical
cropping season at Gainesville, FL (Table 2). These data were used to esti-
mate constants for the models of Sharpe and DeMichele (1977) and Sharpe
et al. (1977). Basically, their models hypothesized a causal mechanism
governing any poikilotherm's temperature-dependent development rate and
the resulting distribution of emergence times. A comparison of observed and
predicted fall armyworm development times at 2 variable temperatures is
shown in Fig. 3. Table 3 depicts an overall comparison of model-versus-
observed fall armyworm development.
The generality of the poikilothermic models allows an alteration in pre-
dicted developmental times to be accomplished by a change in kinetic con-
stants. This appears simpler than interfacing separate developmental models
for each member in the pest complex. Further, Barfield et al. (unpubl.) are
researching stage-specific development of the fall .armyworm over the tem-
perature ranges in Table 2. For example, at 23.,' + 10C, mean duration of
6 arbitrary larval size classes and the pupal stage is 2.3, 3.5, 2.4, 3.2, 4.2, 3.6,
and 12.5 days, respectively. These data can be used in the fall armyworm
developmental model to predict the distribution of emergence times for a


104


June, 1979













Fall Armyworm Symposium


105


range of immature stages, providing 1 important component needed for
linking fall armyworm and crop dynamics.
FALL ARMYWORM REPRODUCTION. Data collected on fall armyworm reproduc-
tion (Table 4) illustrate the type data necessary to validate a basic repro-
duction model. Curry et al. (1978) presented a general, temperature-
dependent population model, including reproduction.
Insect reproduction can be divided into 4 basic components: (1) a variable
pre-oviposition period, (2) a period of increase in egg production, (3) some
peak reproduction period, and (4) a period of gradual decline in reproduc-
tive capability. Using these criteria, Dr. G. L. Curry6 (unpubl.) constructed
the following simple model:

R (d, K) = B (oK) Prob (T>d) Prob (P [1]
where R = mean reproductive rate,
B = a temperature-dependent normalizing constant,
d = insect developmental state,
P = pre-oviposition period (random variable),
T = factor for functionality of reproductive system (random vari-
able),
Ps = insect survival probability,
OK = absolute, constant temperature, and
r (oK) = maximum total mean reproduction for insects at 'K.

The underlying hypothesis of the model is that the probability of an in-
sect's egg production is the product of the probabilities that it (1) has
exceeded the pre-oviposition period, (2) is alive and (3) has a functional
reproductive system (e.g., is not in a post-reproductive phase). The reproduc-
tive rate thus depends on both age and temperature. Barfield (1976) and
Barfield et al. (1977) demonstrated the utility of the model in describing the
age-specific reproduction of a parasite, Bracon mellitor Say, of the boll
weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman. Curry et al. (1978) depict boll weevil
reproduction-versus model prediction curves.
Data as in Table 4 must be (and are being) collected over a wide range
of constant and variable temperatures to allow derivation of the reproduc-
tive constants associated with equation [1] or any analogous model. Age- and
temperature-specific fecundity and survivorship, adult longevity, pre-
oviposition periods and numbers of times mated (as determined by
spermatophore counts), across a broad temperature range, will be essential
information in deriving a fall armyworm reproductive model. Information
not presented in Table 4 includes longevity and age-specific fecundity.
PEANUT CANOPY DESCRIPTION. Efforts were undertaken (Boote el al.7 un-
publ.) to determine canopy and layer (top, middle, bottom) peanut plant
photosynthetic capabilities as a function of 4 characteristic conditions: (1)
mechanical defoliation, (2) foliar pathogen infection, (3) both and (4)
neither. In field plots, peanuts, A. hypogea, were established in a RCB ex-
perimental design for the above 4 treatments. Fungicide and insecticide were

6Assoc. Prof., Department of Industrial Engineering, Division of Biosystems Research,
Texas A&M Univ., College Station.
7Boote, K. J., J. W. Jones, G. H. Smerage, C. S. Barfield, and R. D. Berger. Photosynthesis
of peanut canopies as affected by leafspot and artificial defoliation. Univ. of Florida, MS in
review.














The Florida Entomologist 62 (2)


June, 1979


TABLE 2. SUMMARY OF CONSTANT TEMPERATURE DEVELOPMENT DATA FOR
COHORTS OF Spodoptera frugiperda REARED ON ARTIFICIAL DIET AT
A PHOTOPERIOD OF 14L:10D. DATA TAKEN FROM BARFIELD ET AL.
(1978).*

Development
No. Individuals times (days)
Temperature Standard
(oC) Initial Surviving Sex Mean deviation

15.6 > 100 0 M&F** -
18.3 100 21 M 66.5 2.79
47 F 66.6 4.04
21.1 100 20 M 53.3 2.07
35 F 52.3 2.36
23.9 100 38 M 39.0 2.19
44 F 37.8 2.27
26.7 100 49 M 29.6 1.37
40 F 28.1 0.88
29.4 100 40 M 22.1 1.27
31 F 22.5 0.85
32.2 100 41 M 19.3 0.91
44 F 19.7 0.80
35.0 100 22 M 18.5 0.98
31 F 18.4 1.26
37.8 100 0 M&F -t -

*Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 71:70-4.
**No egg hatch at this regime.
fNo adult emergence at this regime.


TABLE 3. COMPARISON OF MODEL AND OBSERVED Spodoptera frugiperda DE-
VELOPMENT TIMES AT SEVERAL VARIABLE TEMPERATURE REGIMES.
DATA FROM BARFIELD ET AL. (1978).*

Number
of Observed Predicted Observed Predicted
Temperature observa- mean mean range range
regime tions (days) (days) (days) (days)

32.3/21.1C 67 25.5 26.1 24-28 23-29
"Summer"t 87 26.9 28.8 25-30 24-29.5
"Random 1"t 90 39.6 38.4 36-45 35-43
"Random 2"t 71 29.7 30.5 28-33 28-34
"Spring"t 0** -


*Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 71:70-4.
**No adult emergence here.
t CAM-controlled temperatures
original publ. for details).


representing 20 yr. averages or non-patterned cycles (see












Fall Armyworm Symposium


.45


L .35
U
(9
z



.15
LI

.05



I--

Ii.35


z .25
LU
r .15
0-
Ii
rl


.05


27 30 33 36 39 42 45
DAYS FROM OVIPOSITION


Fig. 3. Histogram plot and model predicted distribution of Spodoptera
frugiperda adult eclosion times under 2 non-patterned, widely fluctuating
temperature regimes and 14L:10D photoperiod. (A) maintained less ampli-
tude in temperature fluctuation than did (B). Figure from Barfield et al.
(1978), Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 71:70-4.

utilized to maintain insect and disease levels within workable ranges in
treatment plots.
In nature, insect defoliation occurs mostly in the upper canopy, while
leafspot infection is predominant in the lower canopy. In terms of light
interception, there is a natural interaction between these 2 types of damage.
Present experiments were designed to quantify this interaction in terms of
photosynthetic activity at 3 canopy layers. Hand defoliation was used in
initial experimentation to provide base line data. Future experiments could
then relate fall armyworm defoliation at various densities and canopy layers













The Florida Entomologist 62 (2)


June, 1979


TABLE 4. DATA ON Spodoptera frugiperda REPRODUCTION AT 23.90 10C
AND 14L:10D PHOTOPERIOD. FROM BARFIELD ET AL. (UNPUBL.).*

Female # # Egg Massest Total Eggs # Spermatophores

1 15 290 4
2 45 1322 6
3 10 429 4
4 7 281 2
5 15 542 3
6 4 69 **
= 16 488.8 3.3

*Studies of C. Barfield, C. Carlysle (Ent. & Nema.), and E. Mitchell (USDA), Univ. of
Florida.
**Not recorded.
tOf 9 Y's, 3 laid 0 eggs.


to photosynthetic activity. Smith4 and Barfield et al. (unpubl.) acquired data
on fall armyworm consumption of peanut foliage. Present experiments pro-
vided quantitative estimates of leafspot infection and defoliation rates.
Table 5 is a summary of data taken in a detailed experiment where the
peanut canopy was exposed to 14C02 in 1-m2 chambers. Afterwards, each of
the 3 foliage layers was removed separately and a subsample taken for
scintillation counts. The most obvious result was that Cercospora leafspot
infection resulted in a disproportionately large reduction in plant photo-
synthesis over defoliation. This occurred despite defoliation levels exceeding
those observed under "typical" field conditions. These results were cross-
checked by a draw-down technique analyzing ambient CO2 taken from above
1-m2 sections of treatment canopy. Details of this technique are in Boote
et al. (unpubl.). Typical data from this study are presented in Table 6.
Data necessary to estimate parameters for the peanut growth model of
Duncan (1974a, 1975) or to alter that model were taken. At regular inter-
vals, data were recorded for stem and leaf weights, leaf area index (L.A.I.),
percent leaf, stem and pod weight present, etc. These measurements were
important for parameter estimation, and similar data will be needed for
independent validation of the final plant growth model. Current research
(Ms. Gail Wilkerson et al., Department of Entomology & Nematology,
,University of Florida, unpubl.) includes attempts to capture the essence of
existing models for plant growth and light interception in a plant growth
model usable in our pest management modeling efforts for coupling peanut
plant-pest dynamics. From this effort will come direction as to needed
validation data for the plant growth model and for plant-pest interactions.

FUTURE NEEDS

Present research has been designed to establish a foundation for long-
term research efforts at modeling a regional IPM system, validating the
component models and interfacing these components. Future efforts, we feel,
must concentrate in 3 areas, if we are to achieve the quality of usable models
desired. These are (1) ecologically sound field validation, (2) a renaissance


108














Fall Armyworm Symposium


TABLE 5. BIOMASS AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC CHARACTERISTICS OF 3 CANOPY
LAYERS OF 99-DAY-OLD PEANUTS, Arachis hypogea L. cv. 'EARLY
BUNCH', AS AFFECTED BY ARTIFICIAL DEFOLIATION AND Cercospora
LEAF SPOT. DATA FROM BOOTE ET AL. (UNPUBL.).*

Treatment
Diseased
Characteristic Foliage De- &
measured layer Control Diseasedt foliatedtt defoliated

Leaf Area Index T** 1.31 0.53 0.70 0.21
M 1.00 0.08 0.85 0.06
B 0.75 0.00 0.74 0.00

% Leaf Area T 42.5 88.3 30.0 78.9
M 32.8 11.7 37.1 21.1
B 24.7 0.0 32.9 0.0
% 14CO2 Uptake T 63.1 90.7 50.6 85.0
M 24.5 9.3 30.9 15.0
B 12.4 0.0 18.5 0.0

*Studies of K. Boote (Agronomy), J. Jones, G. Smerage (Agric. Engin.), C. Barfield (Ent.
& Nema.) and R. Berger (P1. Path.), Univ. of Florida.
**T = top 1/3
M = middle 1/3
B = bottom 1/3
tLeafspot ratings of T and M layers = 14.6 and 28.1, respectively. B layer completely de-
foliated from leafspot.
ttMechanical defoliation = 75% of T layer (= 25% of total canopy).


TABLE 6. NET PHOTOSYNTHESIS RATES (MG C02/DM2/HR) IN 4 TREATMENTS
OF 99-DAY-OLD PEANUTS, Arachis hypogea L. cv. 'EARLY BUNCH',
DETERMINED BY DRAW-DOWN TECHNIQUE. DATA FROM BOOTE ET AL.
(UNPUBL.).*

Replication
Treatment I II III Averagett

Control 25.01 18.28 17.16 20.15a
Diseased** 0.19 3.38 0.41 1.33c
Defoliatedt 14.28 13.42 11.50 13.07b
Diseased & defoliated 3.28 -0.90 1.14 1.17c

*Studies of K. Boote, J. Jones, G. Smerage, C. Barfield, and R. Berger, Univ. of Florida.
**Cercospora leafspot ratings of top and middle canopy = 14.6 and 28.1, respectively.
Bottom (1/3) layer of canopy completely defoliated from leafspot.
tMechanical defoliation = 75% of T (top 1/3) layer = 25% of total canopy.
ftMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different according to Duncan's
New Multiple Range Test at the 0.05 level. ANOVA resulted in significant F-value of 37.83.

of basic biology/natural history studies, and (3) philosophically sound
student education.
A basic requisite of systems methodology is the selection of system
boundaries. This selection is difficult in that crop, management and pest
boundaries are rarely coincidental. Boundaries may be drawn around a field
(ex. Fig. 1), a farm enterprise, or a state, depending on model objectivess.













The Florida Entomologist 62 (2)


June, 1979


The challenge of research efforts at the current state of the art is the
modeling of key components of the crop-pest ecosystems. We have discussed
some of these components and an approach for modeling crop-pest systems
at a field level. Here, the purpose was for studying effects of pest and damage
levels on crop growth and yield and on pest population processes. Obviously,
many pest management objectives have a scope that extends beyond the field
level. These objectives may be related, in a rough way, to the hierarchical
levels of Fig. 1. At the farm level, a producer may have constraints that must
be considered. Economic considerations must be included in the objective for
evaluation of various private as well as societal management alternatives
(see Regev et al. 1976). We must be prepared to accept the idea that 1
model of a particular crop pest will not suffice for all objectives and to face
the challenge of model simplification for application to multilevel pest man-
agement objectives.
In implementing a model, one must describe pest population fluxes across
the boundaries. Pest population dynamics inside the system may vary
spatially and temporally and usually are related, among other things, to crop
and wild host mixtures. We propose to study pest population dynamics in an
area where corn, peanuts and soybean are grown. Models of pest population
density and distribution over host crops and space must be developed to
determine the cause-effect relationships between crop and pest states and
pest population dispersal. A major objective of the proposed work is to pro-
vide a tool for studying target pest population dynamics affected by spatial
and temporal variations in crops, environment and beneficial organisms.
Thus, the key to success in developing a regional fall armyworm pest man-
agement model lies in our future research efforts in 4 areas: (1) overwinter-
ing and dispersal dynamics, (2) timing and magnitude of movement among
native and agronomic crops in a regional system, (3) further investigation of
the effects of combinations of damage on host plant rate processes, and (4)
the effect of biological, cultural and chemical controls in agronomic crop
systems.
The need for field validation of any model has been elucidated by many
authors. We want only to re-emphasize the need for what DeMars (1967), in
another setting, called "ecological integrity." Present models must be tested
with data obtained from an acceptable range of meteorological conditions,
cultural practices and management strategies to allow incorporation of
underlying ecological and biological principals which dictate real world be-
havior. The present approach appears to be a good first-step in this direction.
Characterizing plant photosynthetic capability in terms of visible types of
above ground damage (and in various combinations) appears "realistic" and
has "general" properties (see Levins 1966) which we seek. In time, other
peanut pests, as well as other host plants and respective pest complexes, can
be incorporated into the present model framework. This will involve basic
laboratory experimentation, followed by carefully designed field validation,
for critical pests, crops and pest-crop interactions.
Most early entomological researchers were at least as gifted as natural-
ists as they were as entomologists. As but one example, Luginbill (1928)
wrote a very comprehensive report on the fall armyworm and demonstrated
his ability to observe as well as quantify. Data he presented will be useful
for validation of some of the present models. These models cannot predict


110













Fall Armyworm Symposium


on a regional basis without a detailed knowledge of the mating, feeding,
dispersing and overwintering habits of study species. For instance, we can
develop models predicting yield in peanuts dependent upon certain levels of
defoliation at specific canopy locations; however, if we do not know where
specific pests are actually feeding in the canopy, this knowledge is of limited
use. It is easy to get absorbed in superfluous quantification only to lose sight
of the need for the gifts of a keen observer. We feel a substantial amount of
time should be devoted to basic natural history studies, where such informa-
tion is limited or absent. These studies, accompanied with model formulation
and field plot work, will lead to more realistic models expandable to regional
IPM systems.
The topic of student education presents another problem. We have found
many potential research cooperators want multidisciplinary research pro-
grams; thus, they provide much "lip-service" and little real energy. A smaller
group wants interdisciplinary programs. The difference, according to Boger
and Boyd (1976), is that the former group will share materials, while the
latter goes behind that shallow, peripheral level of cooperation to share the
deep-rooted philosophical and conceptual foundations realistically common to
their respective disciplines. We feel the former "cooperation" is superficial,
supported by skeptics of a challenging interdisciplinary effort, and over the
long haul, detrimental to sound student training.
Any scientist's philosophy and approach to research is solidified prior to
academic appointment. Thus, if students want to absorb usable cross-
disciplinary concepts and approaches, they should be exposed to these in a
graduate school experience. If programs like the present one are to have
formidable impact, we should be training students as much in the philosophy
and approach of interdisciplinary research as in the knowledge of their major
discipline area. This can be accomplished, in part, by a new spirit among
faculty-one of well-founded scientific philosophy, open to critical analysis.
In the future, we must abandon the superficiality of the multidisciplinary
efforts now so predominant.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We thank Drs. K. Boote, Agronomy; R. Berger, Plant Pathology; and
G. Smerage, Agricultural Engineering, University of Florida, for sharing
unpublished data pertinent to this paper. Thanks to Dr. S. Poe, Entomology
and Nematology, University of Florida, for providing ideas and financial
support for some of the technical assistance used in this study. Appreciation
is extended to graduate students G. Wilkerson, S. Walker, J. Mangold,
G. Childs, and J. O'Bannon, and to technicians S. Burgess, S. Matthews,
J. Plaut, C. Carlysle and L. Daniels for field and laboratory assistance.
Thanks to Drs. E. Mitchell, N. Leppla, and Mr. R. Hines, USDA, Insect
Attractants Lab, Gainesville, Florida for assistance in fall armyworm rear-
ing and developmental and reproductive studies. Lastly, thanks go to Drs.
J. Stimac, J. Allen and S. Poe, Entomology & Nematology, University of
Florida, for critically reviewing this manuscript.
LITERATURE CITED
BARDNER, R., AND D. E. FLETCHER. 1974. Insect infestations and their effects
on the growth and yield of field crops: A review. Bull. Ent. Res. 64:
141-60.














The Florida Entomologist 62 (2)


June, 1979


BARFIELD, C. S. 1976. Temperature-dependent development and fecundity
models for Bracon mellitor Say, primary parasite of the boll weevil.
Ph.D. Dissertation, Dept. of Ent., Texas A&M Univ., College Station.
100 p.
D. G. BOTTRELL, AND J. W. SMITH, JR. 1977. Influence of temperature
on oviposition and adult longevity of Bracon mellitor reared on boll
weevils. Environ. Ent. 6(1) :133-7.
E. R. MITCHELL, AND S. L. POE. 1978. A temperature-dependent
model for fall armyworm development. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 71:70-4.
BOGER, R. P., AND V. T. BOYD. 1976. Institutional policy and operational issues
affecting interdisciplinary research. Inst. for Family and Child Study,
Coll. Human Ecol., Mich. St. Univ. 19 p.
BOWEN, H. D., R. F. COLWICK, AND D. G. BATCHELDER. 1973. Computer
simulation of crop production-potential and hazards. J. Agric. Engin.
54:42-5.
BOWMAN, M. C., AND J. R. YOUNG. 1969. Persistence and degradation of
residues of Ciba C-9491 and their control of fall armyworms and corn
earworms. J. Econ. Ent. 62:1468-72.
BROWN, L. G., J. W. JONES, J. D. HESKETH, J. D. HARTSOG, F. D. WHISLER,
R. W. MCCLENDON, F. A. HARRIS, D. W. PARVIN, AND H. N. PITRE.
1977. The use of simulation to predict cotton yield losses due to insect
damage. Proc. Beltwide Cotton Prod. Res. Conf., National Cotton
Council, Memphis, TN, p. 131-5.
CANTU, E., AND D. A. WOLFENBARGER. 1972. Toxicity of esters of cistrans-
(+)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylpropenyl) cyclopropanecarboxylic acid to
the tobacco budworm, fall armyworm and bollworm. J. Econ. Ent. 65:
615-7.
CHITTENDEN, F. H. 1900. The fall armyworm in 1899. USDA Div. Ent. Bull.
(n.s.) 23:78-85.
CURRY, R. B., C. H. BAKER, AND J. G. STREETER. 1975. SOYMOD I: a dynamic
simulator of soybean growth and development. Trans. ASAE 18:963-8,
974.
CURRY, G. L., R. M. FELDMAN, AND K. C. SMITH. 1978. A stochastic model of
a temperature dependent population. J. Theo. Pop. Biol. 13(2):197-
213.
DEMARS, C. J., JR. 1967. Quality control in entomological sampling. Proc. Ins.
Pop. Dynam. Workshop (West Haven, CT), 23-7 Jan. 1967. p. 97-9.
DEMICHELE, D. W. 1975. An evaluation of modeling, systems analysis, and
operations research in defining agricultural research needs and prior-
ities in pest management. Iowa State J. Res. 49:597-621.
DUNCAN, W. G. 1974. Mimetic modeling for predicting growth, development
and yield of corn and peanuts. Agron. Abstracts, 1974:171.
1974a. PENUTZ, a simulation model for predicting growth, develop-
ment and yield of a peanut plant. Am. Peanut Res. and Ed. Assoc.
Proc. 6:72.
R. S. LOONIS, W. A. WILLIAMS, R. HANAU. 1967. A model for simu-
lating photosynthesis in a plant community. Hilgardia 38:181-205.
GIESE, R. L., R. M. PEART, AND R. T. HUBER. 1975. Pest management. Science
187:1045-52.
GREENE, G. L., M. J. JANES, AND F. W. MEAD. 1971. Fall armyworm,
Spodoptera frugiperda, males captured at three Florida locations in
traps baited with virgin females. Fla. Ent. 54:165-6.
GREENE, G. L., AND W. L. MORRILL. 1970. Behavioral responses of newly
hatched cabbage looper and fall armyworm larvae to light and gravity.
J. Econ. Ent. 63:1984-6.













Fall Armyworm Symposium


113


GUTIERREZ, A. P., G. D. BUTLER, Y. WANG, AND D. WESTPHAL. 1977. The
interaction of pink bollworm, cotton, and weather: A detailed model.
Can. Ent. 109:1457-68.
HAMM, J. J., AND J. R. YOUNG. 1971. Value of virus presilk treatment for
corn earworm and fall armyworm control in sweet corn. J. Econ. Ent.
64:144-6.
HINDS, W. E., AND J. A. DEW. 1915. The grass worm or fall armyworm. Ala.
Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. No. 186:61-92.
JANES, M. J. 1975. Corn earworm and fall armyworm: Comparative larval
populations and insecticidal control on sweet corn in Florida. J. Econ.
Ent. 68:657-8.
JONES, J. W., H. D. BOWEN, R. E. STINNER, J. R. BRADLEY, JR., AND J. S.
BACHELER. 1977. Simulation of boll weevil population dynamics as
influenced by weather, crop status and management practices. Trans.
Amer. Soc. Agric. Engin. 20:121-5, 131.
LABRADOR, J. R. 1967. Estudios de biologia y combat del quasano cogollero
del maiz. Universidad del Aulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela. 83 p.
LEUCK, D. B. 1970. The role of resistance in pearl millet in control of the fall
armyworm. J. Econ. Ent. 63:1679-81.
--- 1972. Induced fall armyworm resistance in pearl millet. J. Econ. Ent.
65:1608-11.
-- C. M. TALIAFERRO, G. W. BURTON, AND M. C. BOWMAN. 1968. Re-
sistance in Bermuda grass to the fall armyworm. J. Econ. Ent. 61:
1321-2.
AND J. L. SKINNER. 1970. Resistance in Bermuda grass affecting con-
trol of the fall armyworm. J. Econ. Ent. 63:1981-2.
AND --- 1971. Resistance in peanut foliage influencing fall army-
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general law for direct sunlight penetration. Math. Biosci. 34:63-78.
MANN, J. E., AND G. L. CURRY. 1977. A sunflect theory for general foliage
location distributions. J. Math. Bio. 5:87-97.
MITCHELL, E. R., W. W. COPELAND, AND A. N. SPARKS. 1974. Fall armyworm:
Nocturnal activity of adult males as indexed by attraction to virgin
females. J. Ga. Ent. Soc. 9:145-6.
MORRILL, W. L., AND G. L. GREENE. 1973. Distribution of fall armyworm
larvae. I. Regions of field corn plants infested by larvae. Environ. Ent.
2:195-8.
REGEV, U., A. P. GUTIERREZ, AND G. FEDER. 1976. Pests as a common property
resource: A case study of alfalfa weevil control. Am. J. Agr. Econ.
May, 186-97.
ROBERTS, J. E. 1965. The effects of larval diet on the biology and susceptibil-
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secticides. Ga. Agric. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. N.S. 44. 22 p.
RUDD, W. G., W. G. RUESINK, L. D. NEWSON, D. C. HERZOG, R. L. JENSON,
AND N. F. MARSOLAN. 1979. The systems approach to research and
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press).
RUESINK, W. G. 1976. Status of systems approach to pest management. Ann.
Rev. Ent. 21:27-44.













The Florida Entomologist 62 (2)


June, 1979


SHARPE, P. J. H., AND D. W. DEMICHELE. 1977. Reaction kinetics of poikilo-
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G. L. CURRY, D. W. DEMICHELE, AND C. L. COLE. 1977. Distribution
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VICKERY, R. A. 1929. Studies on the fall armyworm in the Gulf Coast district
of Texas. USDA Tech. Bull. 138. 64 p.
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Tech. Paper No. 77-3035, Amer. Soc. Agric. Engin., St. Joseph, Mich.



CLASSIFICATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF
FALL ARMYWORM PARASITES

T. R. ASHLEY
Insect Attractants, Behavior and Basic Biology Research Laboratory
Agricultural Research, Science and Education Administration, USDA
Gainesville, FL 32604

ABSTRACT
Fifty-three species of parasites from 43 genera and 10 families have been
reared from larvae of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E.
Smith). Only 24% of the collection records identify the host plant from
which the fall armyworm larvae were gathered. Parasite distributions indi-
cate that importations from Central and South America into Florida and
Texas may significantly reduce the overwintering fall armyworm popula-
tions. Apanteles marginiventris (Cresson) and Chelonus texanus (Cresson)
are the most frequently recovered parasites.


The persistent abundance of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda
(J. E. Smith), during the past several years has increased efforts to achieve
a more comprehensive understanding of the ecology of this pest so that effec-
tive monitoring and control strategies can be developed. Information con-
cerning the way parasites affect the population dynamics of this pest is
essential if these natural mortality agents are to become significant com-
ponents of an integrated management program. The initial step in attaining
this objective is to classify and define the distributions of those parasites
attacking the fall armyworm (FAW).
The purpose of this paper is to summarize the published data on parasites
reared from field-collected FAW larvae throughout the entire range of this
pest. Articles merely stating that a particular parasite is known to be an
















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enemy of the FAW were not included. Thus, all of the data presented can be
traced to actual collection records. Omission of pertinent literature is the
author's responsibility and was unintentional.
Fifty-three species (43 genera and 10 families) have been recorded as
FAW parasites (Table 1). The braconids, ichneumonids, and tachinids ac-
counted for 16, 19, and 47% of the genera and 15, 17, and 53% of the species,
respectively. Apanteles marginiventris (Cresson) and Chelonus texanus
(Cresson) are the parasites recovered most frequently from FAW larval
collections.
The number of parasites unique to either North or South America (Table
2) is indicative of the need for more larval collections so as to establish
whether differences in distributions actually are present or are simply a
function of inadequate records. If these differences in distributions do exist,
then the ecologies of selected parasites should be investigated to determine
candidate species for future importations.
Approximately 50 non-economically and 30 economically important plants
are attacked by FAW larvae (Luginbill 1928, Vickery 1929, Metcalf et al.
1962). However, 76% of the collection records for determination of parasiti-
zation do not document the host plant from which the larvae were collected
and when documentation does occur, only corn, peanuts, alfalfa, and un-
identified grasses are listed.
Future research objectives relative to FAW parasites should be concen-
trated in 3 general areas. First, parasite introductions from South and
Central America may reduce overwintering populations in Texas and Florida
and would thus decrease the damage caused by this pest as it moves north-
ward each season. It is also reasonable to assume that parasites attacking
the FAW in North America could be imported into South and Central
America. Second, the relationships between parasites and host plants of the
FAW need better definition. Third, ecological research concentrated on the
natural enemies of the FAW must be conducted in order to provide the in-
formation needed to evaluate the potential for using them in pest manage-
ment programs.

TABLE 2. NUMBER OF SPECIES OF FALL ARMYWORM PARASITES UNIQUE OR
COMMON TO NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA.

North America South America North and South
Family only* only** America

Braconidae 2 1 5
Ichneumonidae 2 5 2
Tachinidae 9 13 6
Other 5 2 1
Total 18 21 14

*Continental United States.
**Includes South and Central America as well as the islands along the perimeter of the
Gulf of Mexico.














The Florida Entomologist 62(2)


June, 1979


LITERATURE CITED
ALLEN, H. W. 1921. Notes on a bombylid parasite and a polyhedral disease of
the southern grass worm, Laphygma frugiperda. J. Econ. Ent. 14:
510-1.
BIANCHI, F. A. 1944. The recent introduction of armyworm (S. exempta, S.
exigua, S. frugiperda) parasites from Texas. Hawaii. Plant. Rec. 48:
203-12.
BUTLER, G. D. 1958a. Braconid wasps reared from lepidopterous larvae in
Arizona. Pan-Pac. Ent. 34:221-3.
-- 1958b. Tachinid flies reared from lepidopterous larvae in Arizona. J.
Econ. Ent. 51:561-2.
CAMPOS, J. 1965. Investigaciones sobre el control biologico del "Cogollero" del
maiz, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) y. Otros Noctuideos. Rev.
Peru. Ent. 8:126-31.
CURRAN, C. H. 1927. A new tachinid parasitic on armyworms in Mexico. Proc.
Hawaii. Ent. Soc. 6:497-8.
DEW, J. A. 1913. Fall armyworm, Laphygma frugiperda. (S. & A.). J. Econ.
Ent. 6:361-6.
ENKERLIN, D. 1975. Review of Spodoptera in Latin America. Summary of
research at Monterrey Tech. Inst., N.L., Mexico. 13 p.
ETCHEVERRY, M. 1957. Laphygma frugiperda (Smith and Abbot) en Chile
(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Rev. Chil. Ent., (Santiago) 5:183-92.
HOFMASTER, R. N., AND C. E. GREENWOOD. 1949. Fall armyworm control on
forage and truck crops. J. Econ. Ent. 42:502-6.
JONES, T. H. 1913. Some notes on Laphygma frugiperda (S. and A.) in
Puerto Rico. J. Econ. Ent. 6:230-6.
LUGINBILL, P. 1928. The fal larmyworm. USDA Tech. Bull. 34. 91 p.
MARIN, J. C. 1966. Nota sobre Euplectrus plathypenae How., Ectoparasito de
Laphygma frugiperda S. y A. y Prodenia eridania (Cramer). Agron.
Trop. (Maracay, Venez.) 16:155-9.
METCALF, C. L., W. P. FLINT, AND R. L. METCALF. 1962. Destructive and use-
ful insects. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York. 1087 p.
MOREY, C. S. 1971. Biologia de Campoletis grioti (Blanchard) (Hymen.:
Ichneumonidae) Parasito de la "Lagarta Cogollera del Maiz"
Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Rev. Peru. Ent. 14:263-71.
MYERS, J. G. 1932. Biological observations on some neotropical parasitic
Hymenoptera. Trans. Ent. Soc. London 80:121-36.
NICKLE, D. A. 1976. The peanut agroecosystem in Central Florida: Economic
thresholds for defoliating noctuids (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) ; asso-
ciated parasites; hyperparasitism of the Apanteles complex
(Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Ph.D. Dis., University of Florida. 131 p.
NOTZ, P. A. 1972. Parasitismo de Diptera e Hymenoptera sobre larvas de
Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) recolec-
tadas en Maiz, Maracay, Venez. Rev. Fac. Agron. 6:5-16.
PAINTER, R. H. 1955. Insect on corn and teosinte in Guatemala. J. Econ. Ent.
48:36-42.
PARKER, H. L. 1953. Miscellaneous notes on South American dipterous para-
sites. Lab. di Ent. Agr. "Filippo, Silvestri." 12:45-73.
P. A. BERRY, AND A. S. GUIDO. 1953. Host-parasite and parasite-host
lists of insects reared in the South American parasite laboratory.
Montevideo, R.O. del Uruguay. 100 p.
PIERCE, W. D., AND T. E. HOLLOWAY. 1912. Notes on the biology of Chelonus
texanus Cress. J. Econ. Ent. 6:425-8.
VAN DINE, D. L. 1913. The insects affecting sugar cane in Puerto Rico. J.
Econ. Ent. 6:251-7.


122













Fall Armyworm Symposium


123


VICKERY, R. A. 1929. Studies on the fall armyworm in the gulf coast district
of Texas. USDA Tech. Bull. 138. 63 p.
WALL, R., AND R. C. BERBERET. 1975. Parasitoids associated with lepidopter-
ous pests on peanuts; Oklahoma fauna. Environ. Ent. 4:877-82.
WALTON, W. R. 1913. Efficiency of a tachinid parasite on the last instar of
Laphygma. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 15:128-31.
WILSON, C. E. 1923. Insect pests of cotton in St. Croix and a means of
combating them. Virgin Islands Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 3:1-20.
WOJCIK, B., W. H. WHITCOMB, AND D. H. HABECK. 1976. Host range testing
of Telenomus remus (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae). Fla. Ent. 59:195-8.



PLANT RESISTANCE TO THE FALL ARMYWORM1,2

B. R. WISEMAN3 AND F. M. DAVIS4

Agricultural Research
Science and Education Administration, USDA

ABSTRACT
A review of the history and state of the art of plant resistance to the fall
armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), is presented. Sources of
resistance to the fall armyworm have been found in corn ('Antigua 2D',
'MP496'), millet ('Inbred 240'), Bermudagrass ('Coastal Bermudagrass'),
and peanuts ('Southeastern Runner 56-15').


The purpose of this paper is to relate the history and describe the present
state of the art of host plant resistance to the fall armyworm, Spodoptera
frugiperda (J. E. Smith). A general summary of plant resistance along with
biological information on the fall armyworm is presented. Also, infestation
techniques, rating procedures, and a discussion of the resistance known for
several crops (corn, millet, Bermudagrass, peanuts, and sorghum) are re-
ported. Lastly, we have included a brief discussion of studies involving plant
nutrition and its effect on expressions of resistance.

HOST PLANT RESISTANCE

Luginbill (1969) stated that "the most effective and ideal method of
combating insects that attack plants is to grow insect-resistant varieties."
Resistance is a phenomenon that reflects the interaction of the plant and
insect. Painter (1951) defined resistance as ". . the relative amount of
heritable qualities possessed by the plant which influence the ultimate degree
of damage by the insect." He went on to point out that in order to be a use-
ful character, resistance must be inherited. The resistant plant is always
resistant under the same environmental conditions. If the environment
changes, the resistance level may change, but not always.

'Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. In cooperation with the University of Georgia College of Agricul-
ture Experiment Stations, Coastal Plain Station, Tifton, GA 31794. Received for publication
19 January 1979.
2Mention of a proprietary product does not constitute an endorsement by the USDA.
'Research Entomologist, Southern Grain Insects Research Laboratory, Tifton, GA 31794.
4Research Entomologist, Plant Science Laboratory, Mississippi State, MS 89762.













The Florida Entomologist 62 (2)


June, 1979


Painter (1951) also classified plant resistance into 3 categories and de-
fined them as 3 mechanisms of resistance: nonpreference, antibiosis, and
tolerance. Nonpreference results when a plant or variety does not possess the
normal attractive substances or qualities for oviposition, food, and/or shelter.
Antibiosis is the term used to denote those adverse effects on the insect when
the pest uses the resistant variety or plant for food. Tolerance, the third
resistance mechanism, is probably the most neglected. A tolerant plant is one
that is able to produce well despite infestations that seriously damage
susceptible plants. Tolerant plants have the ability to grow and reproduce,
repair injury, or recover from damage to a marked degree in spite of sup-
porting a population about equal to that damaging a susceptible host
(Painter 1951, 1968). Tolerant varieties are valuable in that no selective
pressure is applied to the insect population. Thus, biotype production is
eliminated. In addition, plant tolerance is valuable in combination with other
control measures, such as in a pest management scheme in which chemical
control or predators and parasites are used.
Most consider nonpreference resistance as the weakest of the 3 types,
probably because it is so difficult to quantitate when grown alone. But in fact,
nonpreference may be the strongest of the resistance mechanisms when fully
understood and developed toward the absolute. The variety that is nonpre-
ferred when grown alone will be the most valuable source of resistance. Thus,
there are 2 types of nonpreference: relative (in the presence of other vari-
eties) and absolute (nonpreferred when grown alone). A plant or variety
that carries a high level of nonpreference for oviposition, food, or shelter
could eliminate losses of production and populations of the pest insect with-
out selecting for new biotypes.
The resistance mechanism that generally results in biotype production is
antibiosis. Researchers prefer investigating this resistance mechanism simply
because of the dramatic effect on the insect: mortality, weight loss, and
abnormal length of life. Painter stated (1968) that many examples thought
to be antibiosis were actually extreme nonpreference and that it was almost
impossible to determine if young larvae starved to death or were killed as a
result of feeding on resistant plants.
Painter (1951) described the relationship of the 3 resistance mechanisms
as a triad. Owens (1975) illustrated this relationship so that it might be
more easily understood. A plant exhibiting a specific level of resistance may
possess any combination of traits for nonpreference, antibiosis, and/or
tolerance.

THE FALL ARMYWORM
More than 175 years have passed since the fall armyworm, Spodoptera
frugiperda (J. E. Smith), was first recognized as a serious economic pest
(Luginbill 1928). It is 1 of only a few insects that periodically disperse and
breed throughout the United States. The fall armyworm plagues many food
crops and grasses and can limit production of many crops in various areas of
the southeastern United States, Mexico, and Central and South America.
Wiseman, Painter, and Wassom (1967) noted that the fall armyworm has
been studied less from an insect-plant relationship than most other insects
that attack corn. This statement probably applies to this insect on all crops,
even though it often may be a serious pest.


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125


INFESTATION AND RATING TECHNIQUES
One of the most important phases of any host plant resistance program is
the artificial rearing of the insect (Wiseman et al. 1974). A continuous
supply of insects in the desired stage is necessary during infestation periods,
and uniformity of infestation is essential. Populations build up in the grow-
ing season and late crop plantings may be rapidly evaluated; but in most
cases populations are overwhelming. When only an intermediate level of
resistance is suspected, artificial infestations in lesser numbers are required
to demonstrate resistance. Also, when resistance is needed at more than 1
plant growth stage, for example, whorl stage and ear stage, artificial in-
festations can enhance the search whereas natural infestations usually mask
the resistance expressed at various growth stages.
Usually, artificial infestations of the various crops have been ac-
complished by manipulation of larvae with a camel's hair brush (Wiseman
et al. 1966). Recently, Wiseman et al. (unpub.) pinned medium-sized egg
masses in the whorl to produce both seedling and whorl infestations. Ortega
et al. (1979) and Mihm et al. (1978) developed a manual dispenser pre-
calibrated to deliver a uniform amount of larvae in a corncob-grits mixture
to each plant. Roberson et al. (1978) also have used a manual larval dis-
penser to infest sorghum seedlings in the greenhouse to evaluate sorghum
for resistance to the fall armyworm. These new techniques are important
because of the reduction in labor and/or number of larvae required to pro-
duce uniform infestations. Detectable differences among genotypes are more
obvious when artificial infestation techniques and procedures have been suc-
cessfully completed.
A prerequisite to resistance studies is a method of classifying or measur-
ing damage. Generally, such classifications involve some sort of visual rating
scale, e.g., 0-3, 0-5, and 0-10, but the 0-9 rating scale seems to be used more
recently. Also, the 0-9 scale separates relative differences better than the
more restrictive 0-3 or 0-5. It also provides for the separation of the ratings
into the resistant (0-3), intermediate (4-6), and susceptible (7-9) categories.
Wiseman et al. (1966) was first to develop a visual rating scale for fall
armyworm damage. Wiseman, Wassom, and Painter also (1967) were among
the first to capitalize on an outbreak of fall armyworm and to detect dif-
ferences among corn genotypes by counting the number of nodes damaged.
Other researchers use the amount of leaf damage in percentages, such as
0 = 0-10% area damaged, etc. Rating systems should be developed for
rapidity, at least those used in the screening phases of testing. When high
levels of only resistant or susceptible genotypes exist, rating techniques must
be refined.

CORN

Corn, Zea mays L., is 1 of the major sources of animal and human food
in the United States and is a staple in many countries throughout the world.
Corn is attacked by many pests, but possibly the most destructive in the
southeast is the fall armyworm. Production is often limited because of
severe injury or complete destruction of the corn seedlings, but the fall army-
worm also may attack the corn plant at any growth stage. Crumbs (1927)
reported that the fall armyworm preferred cereals and grasses even though













The Florida Entomologist 62 (2)


June, 1979


it attacked other crops. Bertels (1956) stated that the most promising
genetic sources of resistance to the fall armyworm in Brazil were corn
varieties with the "Amargo" character. Horovitz (1960) was unsuccessful
in Venezuela in his search for a variety or an individual plant with re-
sistance to the fall armyworm. In the United States, Ditman and Cory
(1936) reported that there were differences among corn strains in injury or
infestation by the fall armyworm. Also, Dicke (1977) reported tests in
Virginia that showed northern inbreds were generally more subject to fall
armyworm attack on husk, ear, and shank than other lines having southern
corn in their parentage. In the Director's Report of the Mexican agricultural
program (Anonymous 1959), 'Guerrero 169,' 'Guerrero 115,' 'Cuba 30,' and
'Yucatan 15' were reported as the varieties least affected by the fall army-
worm. In addition, varieties resistant to the fall armyworm among 81 lines
tested at Tepalcingo were 'Coastal Tropical Flints,' 'Antigua 2D,' and
'Antigua 8D' from the island of Antigua, and 'Zapalote Chico' varieties
from the dry coastal region of Oaxaca and Chiapas (Anonymous 1965).
Brett and Bastida (1963) stated that resistance of sweet corn varieties tested
was largely due to tolerance and that larvae preferred succulent plant tissue
in good physical condition.
Wiseman et al. (1966) began an extensive and intensive search for
seedling resistance to the fall armyworm by screening several thousand corn
lines. They found a selection of 'Antigua 2D x (B10 x B14)' to be among the
most resistant. In another test, at the mature plant stage, Wiseman, Wassom,
and Painter (1967) found that 'Cuba Honduras 46-J' and 'Eto Amarillo'
were the least damaged of ca. 81 lines tested. They also reported that corn
was preferred over Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L., a related species. Inter-
estingly, no fall armyworm egg masses or feeding have ever been observed
in the various Tripsacum plots grown at the International Maize and Wheat
Improvement Center in Mexico or at Tifton, GA.
Scott et al. (1977) were the first to release corn germplasm ('MP496')
with known resistance to the fall armyworm. This germplasm has 'Antigua
Gp2' in its background and withstands tremendous pressure by fall army-
worms. Generally, all resistance characters presently known can be traced
to 'Antigua' corns and to similar 'Coastal Tropical Flints' from Antigua and
the coastal tropical areas.
The only genetic work with resistant corn thus far reported was that of
Widstrom et al. (1972). The results of studies in which they used a modified
diallel mating design showed that for 8 inbred lines and their F1 progeny,
additive gene action was most important in conditioning leaf-feeding re-
sistance to the fall armyworm with dominance and/or specific combining
ability as relatively unimportant factors.

MILLET, BERMUDAGRASS, PEANUTS, AND SORGHUM

Pearl millet, Pennisetum americanum (L.) Lecke, is one of the most im-
portant annual forage grasses grown in the southeastern United States.
Burton (1966) reported that at Tifton, GA, this grass has been under in-
tensive investigation; the result has been the release of superior forage
lines. Leuck et al. (1968b) first reported resistance to the fall armyworm in
millet: 4% of the lines tested were rated resistant to larval feeding in the
seedling stage, 28% intermediate, and 68% susceptible. Nonpreference was


126













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127


present in some lines that were more thoroughly investigated, and one in-
bred had antibiosis. When Leuck (1970) subsequently investigated nonpre-
ferred millet, 'Inbred 240,' he found that the cumulative effects of non-
preference resulted in lower pupal weights, longer times to first moth emer-
gence and to peak moth emergence, and more days to develop from egg to
egg. These cumulative effects continued through the 4 generations that fall
armyworm larvae were fed on the millet inbred. In a later study, Leuck et al.
(1977) showed that leaf pubescence was an important factor in oviposition
nonpreference: 'Tift 23S' (tr tr), which possesses the recessive genes for
nonpubescence, received less than half as many egg masses as did its counter-
part, 'Tift 23H' (Tr Tr).
Development of improved varieties of Bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon
(L.) Pers., has provided the southern half of the United States with some of
its most important perennial pasture grasses. One such cultivar, 'Coastal
Bermudagrass,' is grown on more than 6 million acres in the United States,
from southeast Virginia to Florida and as far west as California. Leuck et al.
(1968a) evaluated 441 Bermudagrass clones and found 11 resistant to inter-
mediate larval feeding; the rest were susceptible. Subsequently, Leuck and
Skinner (1970) compared the development and mortality of larvae reared on
the susceptible Coastal Bermudagrass and on a nonpreferred Bermudagrass
clone, 'Georgia accession No. 239.' They found that larval and pupal mortal-
ity was higher on the nonpreferred clone and suggested that the factors of
resistance could be combined in future breeding programs; the constant
pressure on the insect would prevent population buildup.
Personal observation (Wiseman) revealed a great difference between the
resistance of Bermudagrass and centipede grass. During the onslaught of the
fal larmyworm in 1975, a neighbor's Bermudagrass lawn was completely
destroyed up to the centipede grass growing next door. Even patches of
Bermudagrass within the centipede grass were defoliated.
Peanuts, Arachis hypogaea L., are an extremely important crop in several
states and especially in Georgia. Leuck and Skinner (1971) reported re-
sistance in peanuts to the fall armyworm. In addition to being nonpreferred
in the field, the resistant cultivar ('Southeastern Runner 56-15') reduced
adult emergence and extended the development period of larvae fed on the
resistant cultivar in the laboratory. The effects were cumulative through
several generations.
Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, is an extremely diverse plant
species. This genetic variability makes it an attractive candidate for breeding
programs to develop insect-resistant varieties. Mayo and Chada (1969)
screened 355 Indian sorghums in the greenhouse and field for fall armyworm
resistance. Six entries had consistently low damage ratings. McMillian and
Starks (1967) screened 30 sorghum lines in the greenhouse and found sig-
nificant differences among the lines in leaf-feeding damage.

PLANT NUTRITION AND RESISTANCE

Nutrition of the host crop can have some influence on the expression of
host plant resistance to the fall armyworm (Wiseman et al. 1973a, b; Leuck,

5Resistance of native sorghum from India to the corn earworm and fall armyworm (un-
published).













The Florida Entomologist 62(2)


Wiseman, and McMillian 1974). Both showed that resistance levels could be
either increased or decreased depending on the manipulation of the host crop
nutrition. Also, insect behavior and biological development on a host plant
can be influenced by crop nutrition. The insect's life could be lengthened, or
high mortality could be produced. In fact, it is conceivable that any cultivar
presently designated resistant or susceptible could be induced by plant
nutrients to exhibit a slightly lesser, higher, or opposite expression (non-
preference, antibiosis, or tolerance) of resistance to insect attack. Thus,
manipulation (Leuck and Hammons 1974a, b) of host crop nutrients can in-
duce some detrimental effects of plant resistance to the fall armyworm
among a number of crop cultivars.

FUTURE OF FALL ARMYWORM PLANT RESISTANCE RESEARCH

Most investigations of resistance to the fall armyworm have not been in-
tensive enough or of sufficient duration to achieve results that could lead to
further research. Some studies are ongoing. The work on identification of
resistant germplasm reported by Wiseman et al. (1966), Scott et al. (1977),
and Ortega et al. (1979) have shown visible results in that they have found
and/or released resistant germplasm. The program at the International
Maize and Wheat Improvement Center is more extensive than most and thus
may be more successful in the long run because of the access to diverse germ-
plasm and ability to test in the tropics.
In the United States, infestation and rating techniques should be rapidly
developed or refined for fall armyworm beyond the use of the camel's hair
brush technique. We need to emphasize the search for resistance to leaf
feeding and to ear and husk feeding in corn. We need to introduce more
germplasm of each crop researched into the respective resistance programs
to evaluate a broader germplasm base. As a result, the chance of identifying
high levels of resistance and of locating new sources of resistance would be
enhanced.

LITERATURE CITED
ANONYMOUS. 1959. Director's annual reports of the Mexican Agricultural
Program, September 1, 1957-August 31, 1958. The Rockefeller Founda-
tion, New York. 225 p.
ANONYMOUS. 1965. The Rockefeller Foundation program in the agricultural
sciences. Annual report, 1964-1965. The Rockefeller Foundation, New
York. 262 p.
BERTELS M., ARDREZ. 1956. Pragas do milho metados de defina. Inst. Agron.
Sul. (Pelotas.) Bol. Tec. 16: 1-18.
BRETT, C. H., AND R. BASTIDA. 1963. Resistance of sweet corn varieties to the
fall armyworm, Lyphygma frugiperda. J. Econ. Ent. 56:162-7.
BURTON, G. W. 1966. Pearl-millet breeding. African Soils 11:39-42.
CRUMBS, S. E. 1927. The armyworm (Lep. Noctuidae). Bull. Brooklyn Ent.
Soc. 22:41-55.
DICKE, F. F. 1977. The most important corn insects. In George F. Sprague
(ed.) Corn and corn improvement. Agronomy 18:501-90.
DITMAN, L. P., AND E. N. CORY. 1936. The corn earworm. Maryland Agric.
Exp. Stn. Bull. 399:77-90.
HOROVITz, S. 1960. Trabajos en morcha sobre resistencia a insects en el maiz.
Agron. Trop. 10:107-14.


128


June, 1979














Fall Armyworm Symposium


LEUCK, D. B. 1970. The role of resistance in pearl millet in control of the fall
armyworm. J. Econ. Ent. 63:1679-80.
-- AND R. O. HAMMONS. 1974a. Nutrients and growth media: Influence
on expression of resistance to the fall armyworm. J. Econ. Ent. 67:564.
-- AND 1974b. Nutrient foliar sprays: Effect on insect resistance
by the peanut. J. Econ. Ent. 67:565.
-- AND J. L. SKINNER. 1970. Resistance in bermudagrass affecting con-
trol of the fall armyworm. J. Econ. Ent. 63:1981-2.
-- AND -- 1971. Resistance in peanut foliage influencing fall army-
worm control. J. Econ. Ent. 64:148-50.
,G. W. BURTON, AND N. W. WIDSTROM. 1977. Insect oviposition and
foliage feeding resistance in pearl millet. J. Ga. Ent. Soc. 12:138-40.
-- C. M. TALIAFERRO, G. W. BURTON, R. L. BURTON, AND M. C. BOWMAN.
1968a. Resistance in bermudagrass to the fall armyworm. J. Econ. Ent.
61:1321-2.
R. L. BURTON, G. W. BURTON, AND M. C. BOWMAN. 1968b.
Fall armyworm resistance in pearl millet. J. Econ. Ent. 61:693-5.
----, B. R. WISEMAN, AND W. W. McMILLIAN. 1974. Nutritional plant
sprays: Effect on fall armyworm feeding preferences. J. Econ. Ent.
67:58-60.
LUGINBILL, P. 1928. The fall armyworm. USDA Tech. Bull. 34. 92 p.
LUGINBILL, P., JR. 1969. Developing resistant plants-the ideal method of
controlling insects. USDA, Prod. Res. Rep. 111. 14 p.
MCMILLIAN, W. W., AND K. J. STARKS. 1967. Greenhouse and laboratory
screening of sorghum lines for resistance to fall armyworm larvae.
J. Econ. Ent. 60:1462-3.
MIHM, J. A., F. B. PEAIRS, AND A. ORTEGA. 1978. New procedures for ef-
ficient mass production and artificial infestation with lepidopterous
pests of maize. In CIMMYT Review. CIMMYT. 138 p.
ORTEGA, A., S. K. VASAL, JOHN MIHM, AND CLAIR HERSHEY. 1979. Breeding
for insect resistance in maize. In F. G. Maxwell and P. Jennings, eds.,
Breeding plants for insect control. John Wiley and Sons.
OWENS, J. C. 1975. An explanation of terms used in insect resistance to
plants. Iowa State J. Res. 49:513-7.
PAINTER, R. H. 1951. Insect resistance in crop plants. The MacMillan Co.,
New York. 520 p.
1968. Crops that resist insects provide a way to increase world food
supply. Kansas Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 520. 22 p.
ROBERSON, W. N., B. R. WISEMAN, AND W. W. McMILLIAN. 1978. Screening
seedling sorghum for resistance to the fall armyworm. Sorghum News-
letter 21:98.
SCOTT, G. E., F. M. DAVIS, G. L. BELAND, W. P. WILLIAMS, AND S. B. KING.
1977. Host plant resistance is necessary for late-planted corn. Miss.
Agric. Forest. Exp. Sta. Res. Rep. 3:1-4.
WIDSTROM, N. W., B. R. WISEMAN, AND W. W. MCMILLIAN. 1972. Resistance
among some maize inbreds and single crosses to fall armyworm. Crop
Sci. 12:290-2.
WISEMAN, B. R., D. B. LEUCK, AND W. W. MCMILLIAN. 1973a. Effect of crop
fertilizer on feeding of larvae of fall armyworm on excised leaf sec-
tions of corn foliage. J. Ga. Ent. Soc. 8:136-41.
AND 1973b. Effects of fertilizers on resistance of
'Antigua' corn to fall armyworm and corn earworm. Fla. Ent. 56:1-7.
W. W. MCMILLIAN, AND N. W. WIDSTROM. 1974. Techniques, ac-
complishments, and future potential of breeding for resistance in corn
to the corn earworm, fall armyworm and maize weevil; and in
sorghum to the sorghum midge. Pages 381-93 in F. G. Maxwell and













The Florida Entomologist 62 (2)


June, 1979


F. A. Harris, eds. Proceedings of a summer institute on biological
control of plant insects and diseases. Univ. Press of Mississippi,
Jackson.
R. H. PAINTER, AND C. E. WASSOM. 1966. Detecting corn seedling dif-
ferences in the greenhouse by visual classification of damage by the
fall armyworm. J. Econ. Ent. 59:1211-4.
AND 1967. Preference of first-instar fall armyworm
larvae for corn compared with Tripsacum dactyloides. J. Econ. Ent.
60:1738-42.
-- C. E. WASSOM, AND R. H. PAINTER. 1967. An unusual feeding habit
to measure differences in damage to 81 Latin American lines of corn
by the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Agron.
J. 59:279-81.




FALL ARMYWORM1: CONTROL WITH INSECTICIDES2,3

JOHN R. YOUNG
Southern Grain Insects Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research,
Science and Education Administration, USDA, Tifton, GA 31794

ABSTRACT
Control measures for fall armyworm, (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda
(J. E. Smith), vary with the crop and its stage of development. Generally,
seedling plants sustain economic damage with fewer larvae/unit area than
do more mature plants. Resistance to insecticides for control of the FAW
has been demonstrated for carbaryl and trichlorfon, but not for methomyl.
New insecticides that have been shown effective are chloropyrifos, Larvin
(dimethyl N,N'-[thiobis[(methylimino) carbonyloxy]]bis [ethanimidothioate]),
and monocrotophos.


Insecticidal control of fall armyworm, (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda
(J. E. Smith), is often necessary in producing Bermudagrass, soybeans, corn,
sorghum, millet, cowpeas, alfalfa, rye, rice, cotton, and peanuts; many other
crops occasionally must be protected (Luginbill 1928, Straub and Hogan
1974, Bass 1978). Techniques used with these and similar crops are dictated
by the stage of development and growth characteristics of the particular
crop as well as the available methods of insecticide application. For example,
crops are most susceptible to FAW larval damage when they are either in
the seedling stage or in the regrowth stage following cutting for hay. As
such crops develop, the height and density of the canopy become a limiting
factor for efficient insecticidal control because it is difficult to obtain canopy
penetration with spray materials.
Generally, control of FAW larvae in seedling corn, millet, sorghum and
southern peas is achieved by using a systemic insecticide applied at planting
(Kuhn et al. 1975). This is particularly true in areas having large FAW

'Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.
2In cooperation with the University of Georgia College of Agriculture Experiment Stations,
Coastal Plain Station, Tifton, GA 31794. Received for publication 19 January 1979.
3Mention of a proprietary product does not constitute an endorsement by the USDA.














Fall Armyworm Symposium


populations, thus requiring protection of seedlings to assure retention of
sufficient foliage for growth. Control in the later stages of growth of these
crops is obtained with ground or air applications.
The equipment used in making ground applications includes tractor-
mounted broadcast booms, high-clearance sprayers, granular applicators,
and metering of insecticides into irrigation systems. In the case of low-
growing crops such as Bermudagrass and seedling soybeans, control can
usually be achieved by using a tractor or high-clearance sprayer to make
broadcast applications since feeding larvae are usually found on the terminal
growth. When the canopy is dense, as with millet, corn, sorghum, etc., the
insecticide should be directed into the whorl of the corn or sorghum plant,
which is the feeding site. In this case, FAW feed so deeply inside the whorl
of the developing plant that a relatively large volume of insecticide solution
is required to penetrate to them: at least 15-25 GPA are needed for open-
canopy plants like Bermudagrass and as much as 40 GPA for whorl-stage
corn or sorghum (Luginbill 1950). On the other hand, with metering into
irrigation systems, limitation on the volume of water that can be used is
eliminated and maximum coverage is obtainable (Keisling et al. unpublished
data)." Also, preliminary data (Young et al. unpublished data) indicate that
oil and particulate solutions (flowables and wettable powders) are best ap-
plied via irrigation.
Other methods of control include applying granular formulations to the
whorl or on the terminals. Aerial applications are costly, so no more than
2-5 GPA can be applied. As a result, they generally will not give the degree
of control that can be obtained with ground equipment without multiple
applications (Deonier 1955, Burnett et al. 1966). Multiple applications (a
daily schedule during silking) to sweet corn will result in larval and adult
suppression (Young et al. 1972). Baits and ultra-low volume formulations
have been used and are alternatives to the use of large quantities of a water
carrier (Harrell et al. 1977).
Fall armyworm infestation levels that produce economic damage vary
with a given crop and for the stage of development. There are guidelines-or
thresholds of sorts-for some crop and growth stages: seedling plants may be
economically damaged by 1 medium-to-mature larva per row foot of soybeans,
sorghum, corn, and southern peas but later stages can tolerate 1 or more
caterpillars per plant. Bermudagrass pasturage or broadcast small grains
will sustain economic damage if there are 3 medium-to-mature larvae per
sq ft. After 3 weeks of growth rice can tolerate 19-29 larvae per sq ft
(Navas 1974). These values need to be validated in field research, par-
ticularly early in the annual cycle with predation, parasitization, disease,
and spotty larval distribution within a field as variables. Other variables
that should be considered before implementing control measures are: the
number of egg masses on a given amount of foliage since larvae will dis-
perse to cover an area 20 ft in radius froni a single egg mass and are subject
to parasitism by Chelonus texanus (Luginbill 1928); quantity of feeding
(Wiseman et al. 1966); and the percentage of whorls having visible damage.
Chemicals approved by the Environmental Protection Agency for FAW
control on corn, sorghum, and pasturage include carbaryl, trichlorfon,

4Keisling, T. C. Insecticide application with sprinkle irrigation (unpubl.). Univ. of Arkan-
sas, UAM campus, P.O. Box 3508, Monticello, AR 71655.













The Florida Entomologist 62 (2)


June, 1979


methyl and ethyl parathion, diazinon, and methomyl. The chemicals that can
be used to control a specific FAW population depend partly on the popula-
tions. Generally, infestations occurring in the mainland US are considered
to come into the country on winds (Luginbill 1928, Franceschini 1954, Rose
et al. 1975) blowing from either the Florida-Caribbean Islands area, the
Texas-Mexico area, or, following mild winters, from along the coastal area
of the Gulf of Mexico. Larval collections made from several sites within
Florida, Georgia, and Texas before 1977 were therefore characterized by
their response to carbaryl and methomyl: those collected from Florida and
Georgia were resistant to carbaryl and tolerant to methomyl since LD1oo,
were greater than 250 gg/in.2 and 50 ug/in.2 of meridic diet, respectively
(Burton 1969, Young unpublished data) ; however, a collection from Texas
was susceptible to carbaryl (LDo00, of 25 /ig/in.2) and methomyl (LD,,,,
of 1 ag/in.2). Since this variability is a means of determining the source of
FAW infestations in the US, colonies obtained from Georgia, Ohio, Kentucky,
North Carolina, Maryland, Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi in 1977
were monitored and characterized by their susceptibility. Carbaryl (2 lb
AI/A) was effective in the Mississippi River Valley; there were only oc-
casional failures reported. Reports from areas east of the Mississippi River
Valley and toward the Gulf and East Coast indicated some sites with poor
(60% reduction in number of larvae) or no control with carbaryl (2 lb
AI/A), especially in Florida, Georgia, Alabama, South Carolina, North
Carolina, and Maryland. Meanwhile, collections from these same areas were
found in laboratory tests to be resistant to carbaryl; the LD100o were similar
to those collected in prior years from Florida and Georgia. At the same time,
methomyl at recommended rates (0.45 lb AI/A) was demonstrating effective
control throughout the infested area. Thus the 1977 infestations along the
Eastern Seaboard could have come from both Texas and Florida, and those
in the western portion of the infested area came primarily from Texas and
Mexico. We cannot say that the distribution pattern in 1977 was normal;
additional studies are warranted.
Field studies at Auburn, Alabama, demonstrated resistance to tri-
chlorfon, diazinon, and methyl and ethyl parathion (Bass 1978). This leaves
methomyl as the only insecticide that is effective over the entire area infested
by the FAW.
Screening studies that are presently being conducted indicate that several
new compounds may be effective in controlling the FAW infesting corn,
sorghum, and Bermudagrass. These include chloropyrifos, Larvin (=thiodi-
carb) 5, and monocrotophos. These same studies have also demonstrated that
the synthetic pyrethroids, at doses that control other insects, are not effective
against the FAW (Harrell et al. 1977).
Management of FAW requires a concerted effort to improve the applica-
tion methods for maximizing the control achieved with an insecticide; to
understand the origin, distribution, and method of dispersal over infested
areas; and to recommend insecticides that prevent the buildup of resistance.
This will require continuous monitoring of the general population for re-
sistance as well as a continuous search for more effective methods of control
and a detailed knowledge of the origin of the FAW.

"Proposed trade and common name of UC-51762, dimethyl N,N'[thiobis[(methylimino)
carbonyloxy] ]bis [ethanimidothioate ].


132













Fall Armyworm Symposium


LITERATURE CITED
BASS, M. H. 1978. Fall armyworm: Evaluation of insecticides for control.
Ala. Agric. Exp. Stn. Leafl. 93. 7 p.
BURNETT, G. F., C. W. LEE, AND P. O. PARK. 1966. Aircraft applications of
insecticides in East Africa. XV.-Very low-volume treatments of a
seed-bean crop with DDT in oil solution. Bull. Ent. Res. 56:701-14.
BURTON, R. L. 1969. Mass rearing the corn earworm in the laboratory.
USDA, ARS 33-134. 8 p.
DEONIER, C. E. 1955. Penetration of the foliage canopy of corn and potatoes
by aerial spray. J. Econ. Ent. 48:629.
FRANCESCHINI, G. A. 1954. Modifications in tropical air crossing the Gulf of
Mexico toward the United States. Project 44-Contract AF19(604)-
169. Scientific Report No. 3, A&M Reference 54-345, Texas A&M,
College Station, TX.
HARRELL, E. A., J. R. YOUNG, AND W. W. HARE. 1977. Insect control on late-
planted sweet corn. J. Econ. Ent. 70:129-31.
KUHN, C. W., M. D. JELLUM, AND J. N. ALL. 1975. Effect of carbofuran treat-
ment on corn yield, maize chlorotic dwarf and maize dwarf mosaic
virus diseases and leafhopper populations. Phytopathology 65:1017-20.
LUGINBILL, P. 1928. The fal larmyworm. USDA Tech. Bull. No. 34, 92 p.
LUGINBILL, P., JR. 1950. Habits and control of the fall armyworm. USDA
Farmers' Bull. No. 1990. 11 p.
NAVAS, D. 1974. Fall armyworm in rice. Tall Timbers Res. Bull. No. 6:99-166.
ROSE, A. H., R. H. SILVERSIDES, AND O. H. LINDQUIST. 1975. Migration flight
by an aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Homoptera: Aphididae) and a
noctuid, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidopterda: Noctuidae). Can. Ent.
107:567-76.
STRAUB, R. W. AND H. J. HOGAN. 1974. Feasibility of fall armyworm,
Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), control on late-planted dent
corn. N.Y. Food Life Sci. Bull. No. 49. 4 p.
WISEMAN, B. R., R. H. PAINTER, AND C. E. WASSOM. 1966. Detecting corn
seedling differences in the greenhouse by visual classification of dam-
age by the fall armyworm. J. Econ. Ent. 59:1211-4.
YOUNG, J. R., E. A. HARRELL, AND W. W. HARE. 1972. Mortality of adult corn
earworms treated with insecticidal formulations in sweet corn fields
and in the laboratory. Ibid. 65:786-9.













The Florida Entomologist 62 (2)


June, 1979


SIOLIMYIA AMAZONICA FITTKAU, AN AQUATIC MIDGE
NEW TO FLORIDA WITH NUISANCE POTENTIAL1

WILLIS W. WIRTH
Systematic Entomology Laboratory, IIBIII, Agric. Res., Sci. & Educ. Admin.,
USDA, c/o U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 20560

ABSTRACT
A mass emergence in August 1977 of the aquatic midge, Siolimyia
amazonica Fittkau, is reported in Kendall, Dade County, Florida, near a
small canal in a residential area. The species previously was known only
from Brazil, Nicaragua, and Peru. Additional records are reported from the
Bahamas, Mexico, and the Panama Canal Zone. On Lake Nicaragua mass
emergences of this species, called "Sayule" by the local people, cause a serious
nuisance problem. The males possess greatly enlarged genitalia that are in-
verted, suggesting that the species does not swarm but mates while running
around on the substrate. It is problematical whether the species occurs
naturally in tropical Florida, or whether it has recently been introduced by
commerce; in the latter case it may potentially become a pest species.


In August 1977 I set up a light trap and a malaise trap in a residential
area of Kendall, Dade County, Florida, near the intersection of SW 109th St.
and SW 107th Ave. This location was at the terminus of a small canal that
was ca. 40 feet wide and several feet deep; the water was nearly covered
with a floating mat of algae and debris formed by grass clippings, etc. The
water in this canal could definitely be classed as eutrophic. Each night the
traps were operated, nearly half a pint of insects were captured, the great
majority of which were Chironomidae. About 90% of the chironomids con-
sisted of a single species, which because of its very distinctive taxonomic
characters was readily determined as Siolimyia amazonica Fittkau.
Fittkau (1968) described Siolimyia amazonica as a new genus and species
from specimens collected in Brazil, Peru, and Nicaragua. The type series
from Belterra, Rio Tapajos, Para, Brazil was taken by H. Sioli on 16-II-1949
in a light trap. Neither the immature stages nor their habitat were located.
In Peru, H. Luling collected adults and larval and pupal exuviae of this
species on the water surface of the Yarina Cocha, an old cutoff oxboww) of
the Rio Ucayali at Pucallpa, 19-VII-1966, during a mass chironomid emer-
gence. In Nicaragua, E. C. Bay observed several mass emergences of S.
amazonica in April and December 1964 at San Carlos and Riva on Lake
Nicaragua; the local people had given these chironomids the common name
"Sayule" (Frommer 1967). These habitats were characterized as production-
rich standing waters. The species was not encountered in the nutrient-poor
waters of the central Amazon Basin.
Adults of S. amazonica are characterized by an unusual oblique and
strong development of the tibial combs of the middle and hind legs; they also
have extremely broadened and cuplike male dististyles. Along with these
features is an inversion of the male genitalia which Fittkau (1968) sug-


1Diptera: Chironomidae.













Wirth: Siolimyia amazonica in Florida


135


gested might be associated with loss of the swarming habit and replacement
with copulation on the water surface or nearby resting places. This unusual
mating behavior presumably would be an advantage in more rapid coloniza-
tion of new habitats and extension of the species' range.
Based on characteristics of the adults and immature stages, Fittkau
(1968) concluded that Siolimyia was most closely related to the neotropical
genus Goeldichironomus Fittkau, which was more intermediate in relation
to typical Chironomus Meigen. In Florida, Chironomus crassicaudatus Mal-
loch is a common nuisance species (Beck and Beck 1969) that may be con-
fused with S. amazonica because of its massive male genitalia, but the
tibial combs of the latter are not so large and oblique. Both species are
medium-sized, yellowish to greenish insects, but in crassicaudatus the leg
joints and fifth tarsomeres are darkened, the thorax has dark mesonotal
vittae, and there are distinct dark bands on the abdomen. Chironomus at-
tenuatus (Walker) and Goeldichironomus holoprasinus (Goeldi) are also
common in Florida and could be confused with S. amazonica.
We can only speculate whether Siolimyia amazonica is part of the native
fauna of Florida, or has recently been introduced by commerce. A search
through the chironomid collections of the U. S. National Museum uncovered
specimens from the following localities that extend the known range of the
species:
BAHAMA ISLANDS: Marsh Harbour, Abaco, IV-1968, G. M. Stokes, light trap,
4 S.
MEXICO: Catemaco, Veracruz, 9-VIII-1964, P. J. Spangler, light trap, 2 3.
PANAMA: Barro Colorado Island, C. Z., 24-V-1964, S. and D. Duckworth, light
trap, 1 $ ; VII-1967, W. W. Wirth, light trap, 1 $. Gamboa, C. Z., Pipeline
Road, VII-1967, W. W. Wirth, light trap, 1 $; Rio Agua Salud, VII-1967,
W. W. Wirth, light trap, 2 5.
Because of the Bahamas record it seems likely that the species occurs
naturally in the tropical parts of extreme southern Florida, perhaps varying
in abundance in correlation with climatic cycles of temperature. If so, it is
strange that a species found in such abundance in Kendall in 1977 has not
received attention before. On the other hand, if the Kendall population rep-
resents a recent introduction, possibly by air transport or commerce in trop-
ical fish or fish food, the potential exists for its increase to a population level
and distribution which would class it as a nuisance or pest species. In either
case, and also because of its unusual biological characteristics, the species
merits high priority for a careful study by limnologists and by pest abate-
ment agencies in southern Florida. The abundance of eutrophic shallow lakes
and canals in southern Florida would probably provide a potential habitat
for this species to support populations of severe nuisance levels.

LITERATURE CITED
BECK, E. C., AND W. M. BECK, JR. 1969. The Chironomidae of Florida II. The
nuisance species. Fla. Ent. 52:1-11.
FITTKAU, E. J. 1968. Siolimyia amazonica n. gen. n. spec., eine flugfiihige
Chironomide (Diptera) mit einem Hypopygium Inversum. Ama-
zoniana 1:259-65.
FROMMER, S., 1967. Review of the anatomy of adult Chironomidae. California
Mosquito Control Assoc. Tech. Ser. Bull. 1:1-40, 31 plates.














The Florida Entomologist 62 (2)


June, 1979


DIAPREPES ABBREVIATUS1 RESPONSE TO
LIGHT TRAPS IN FIELD AND CAGE TESTS2

J. B. BEAVERS3, J. M. STANLEY4, H. R. AGEE4 AND S. A. LOVESTRAND3

ABSTRACT
Using electroretinogram techniques spectral sensitivity of the compound
eyes of Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) was determined as 510-550 nm with peak
sensitivity at 530 nm. Cage and field tests of gravity and electrocutor light
traps with a fluorescent lamp having maximum output of light in this
spectral region were made to develop a survey method for this weevil. Of 4
types of traps tested, an electrocutor trap equipped with a funnel and hold-
ing chamber collected more weevils in cage and field tests than omnidirec-
tional gravity light traps, stainless steel electrocutor traps, or tree traps.
The capture efficiency of the electrocutor trap is not considered sufficient to
recommend it as a survey tool for D. abbreviatus.


An exotic curculionid, the sugarcane rootstalk borer weevil, Diaprepes
abbreviatus (L.), an economically important pest of sugarcane and citrus
in the West Indies, was first found infesting citrus near Apopka, Orange
County, Florida, in 1964. By 1968, a quarantine area of ca. 2600 ha contain-
ing ca. 1000 ha of citrus was established (Woodruff 1968). The original
quarantine area has been extended 3 times and now encompasses ca. 31,000
ha, which includes 4000 ha of citrus. The pest may have spread even farther,
since the present detection technique consists of visual inspection to locate
infested areas.
Because an excessive amount of time is required to survey for D.
abbreviatus-infested areas using the visual inspection method for adults on
host plants, we initiated a series of tests with a variety of traps for collecting
weevils. Preliminary studies of light traps as a detection method for D.
abbreviatus were initiated with a single stainless steel electrocutor light trap
(Stanley et al. 1977). Seven colors of fluorescent lamps were each tested for
3 nights at Apopka and 3 nights at Mayaguez, PR. Results were not en-
couraging; no weevils were caught in Apoka and only 3 weevils were caught
at Mayaguez. Four types of traps were tested to develop a more efficient
technique for detecting infestations and surveying populations of D. ab-
breviatus than the visual inspection method. Three designs of light traps
were tested in screen cages and in the field. A 4th trap was tested only in
the field.

METHODS AND MATERIALS

Spectral sensitivity of the compound eyes of 13 field-collected males was
determined using the electroretinogram techniques of Agee (1973). Weevil

'Coleoptera: Curculionidae.
2This paper reports the results of research only. Mention of a commercial or proprietary
product does not constitute an endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture nor does it
imply registration under FIFRA as amended.
3U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory, Agricultural Res., Sci. and Educ. Adm., USDA,
Orlando, FL 32803.
4Insect Attractants, Behavior and Basic Biology Research Laboratory, Agricultural Res.,
Sci. and Educ. Adm., USDA, Gainesville, FL 32604.


136













Beavers et al.: Diaprepes Traps


137


eyes were most sensitive to wavelengths of 510-550 nm with peak sensitivity
at 530 nm, the yellow-green region of the spectrum. For our trapping trials
we selected a green lamp (General Electric F15T8) that had a maximum
output of light in the spectral region to which the weevil eye was most sensi-
tive.
SCREEN-CAGE TESTS-Three light trap designs were individually tested for
effectiveness in collecting D. abbreviatus for 1-2 night intervals between
June and October 1976. In the late afternoon of each trial 100 adults were
released into a 12 x 6 x 2 m screen cage. A potted citrus tree, ca. 1 m tall,
was placed at each end of the cage. The 3 types of traps used were: Type A,
an omnidirectional gravity light trap similar to that described by Harding
et al. (1966) (Fig. 1A); Type B, a stainless steel electrocutor trap (Stanley
et al. 1977) (Fig. 1B) ; and Type C, an electrocutor trap (Rid-O-Ray Model
S15-D-15, Hudson, NH) (Fig. IC) that contained 2 fluorescent lamps and
had been modified by placing a sheetmetal funnel (61 cm diameter at the
top and 7.6 cm diameter at the bottom) on the bottom of the trap. An escape-
proof, 1.9-liter plastic canister perforated with small holes was taped to the
bottom of the funnel to collect the weevils.
FIELD TESTS-Tests were made between June and October of 1976 near
Apopka in a 10-ha weevil-infested grove of 2.5- to 3-m-tall 'Hamlin' variety
orange trees, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck. In 1 section of the grove, 1 Type
A (Fig. 1A) light trap was placed in each of the 4 cardinal directions
(W,N,E,S) at a distance of 30 m from a central power supply. Two addi-
tional Type A traps were placed 39 m east (X) and west (Y) of a 2nd
power source that was 76 m south of the 1st source. From 23-25 June Type
A traps were placed between the trees (trees spaced at 7.6 m) with the top
of the traps 1.5 m above the ground. From 25-28 June a Type B electrocutor
trap (Fig. 1B) was substituted for the Type A trap at position E. From 28
June-13 July, the trap in position W was raised to a height of 2.6 m; the
remaining traps were left in their original positions. From 13-20 July, all
traps except the Type B electrocutor trap were placed within the canopy of
trees at a height of 2.6 m. On 19 July, panels painted with Pittsburg Paint@
No. 3391, 3392, and 3394, which had peak light reflectances of 540, 535, and
530 nm, respectively, (measured with a Beckman@ Ratio Recording spectro-
photometer with reflectance unit) were placed on the baffles of gravity traps
in positions N, S, and X. On 20 July 2 Type D tree traps (Tedders and
Edwards 1974) were added at positions W and Y. The total output of the
15-W lamp in these traps was reduced by covering each end with tape a
distance of 6.4 cm, thereby exposing only the portion of the lamp within the
funnel. Finally, between 9 September-1 October, 3 Type C electrocutor traps
containing 2 15-W F15T8/G fluorescent lamps (Fig. 1C) were substituted for
the Type A traps in positions N, S, and X.
SMALL-PLOT FIELD TESTS-Tests were made in a plot (ca. 0.5 ha) of small
citrus trees (1-1.5 m tall). From 17 May-30 August, 1 Type A light trap
(Fig. 1A) was placed in the plot, and a 2nd Type A trap modified by spray-
ing the baffles with a reflective paint (White 7216, 3M Co.@, St. Paul, MN)
was placed ca. 30 m west from the 1st trap. From 30 August-1 October, one
Type C electrocutor trap (Fig. 1C) was substituted for the 2 Type A traps.














138 The Florida Entomologist 62 (2) June, 1979













HIG
VOLTAGE



IV I






; :.r- ~. o _-' ,-- .


Fig. 1. Four types of modified light traps used in cage and field trials for
attracting adult Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.): A: gravity, B: stainless steel
electrocutor, C: modified Rid-O-Ray electrocutor, and D: tree trap.













Beavers et al.: Diaprepes Traps


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The period during which the tests were conducted, from 17 May to 1
October, corresponds to the higher adult populations of D. abbreviatus in the
infested area of Florida (Beavers and Selhime 1976).
In the screen-cage tests, the Type C electrocutor trap was the most
effective. Of the 100 adults/night released on each of the 2 nights, 38 and
28% were collected, respectively by the 2 Type C models. The Type A and
the Type B traps each collected 8 adults/night. The Type D tree trap
(Tedders and Edwards 1974) was not tested in the screen cage.
Results of the field grove tests indicated little response of D. abbreviatus
to the 4 types of traps tested with green fluorescent lamps as attractants.
The number of D. abbreviatus caught in the various traps during the test
period were 1, 1, 6, and 18 for the Type D, Type B, Type C, and the Type A
traps, respectively. The Type C traps were in position from 9 September to
1 October, while the Type A traps were in place throughout the test period.
In the small-plot tests, a total of 38 D. abbreviatus was collected with the
Type A and the Type C traps. The Type A trap caught 26 D. abbreviatus
from 24 May-27 August; the Type A trap with the white reflective paint on
the baffles caught 8 weevils from 19 July-23 August; the Type C trap caught
4 weevils from 30 August-1 October.
Studies of the flight behavior and dispersal of D. abbreviatus (Beavers
and Selhime 1978) indicated that the insect flies short distances from a re-
lease site. The maximum single flight observed was 45 m. The weevils were
quite sedentary; many of the adults remained on the same tree up to 16 days.
The weevils were attracted to light traps at night, exhibiting some nocturnal
activity. The Type C modified electrocutor traps caught larger numbers of
insects per trap night than the other types tested.
At present, we do not consider the efficiency of any of the traps great
enough to merit recommendation for detection of infestations or for popula-
tion survey for D. abbreviatus.

LITERATURE CITED
AGEE, H. R. 1973. Spectral sensitivity of the compound eyes of the field col-
lected bollworms and tobacco budworms. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 66:
613-5.
BEAVERS, J. B., AND A. G. SELHIME. 1976. Population dynamics of Diaprepes
abbreviatus in an isolated citrus grove in central Florida. J. Econ. Ent.
69:9-10.
-- AND 1978. Flight behavior and dispersal of Diaprepes ab-
breviatus. Fla. Ent. 61:89-91.
HARDING, W. C., JR., J. G. HARTSTOCK, AND G. G. ROHWER. 1966. Blacklight
trap standards for general insect surveys. Bull. Ent. Soc. Amer. 12:
31-2.
STANLEY, J. M., J. C. WEBB, W. W. WOLF, AND E. R. MITCHELL. 1977. Elec-
trocutor grid insect traps for research purposes. Trans. Amer. Soc.
Agric. Eng. 20:175-8.
TEDDERS, W. L., AND G. W. EDWARDS. 1974. A blacklight trap for surveys of
hickory shuck-worm moths. J. Ga. Ent. Soc. 9:176-81.
WOODRUFF, R. E. 1968. The present status of a West Indian weevil Diaprepes
abbreviata (L.) in Florida. Fla. Dep. Agric., Div. Plant Ind. Ent. Circ.
30:1-2.













The Florida Entomologist 62 (2)


NEW INFORMATION ON THE RHIZOECUS OF FLORIDA
INCLUDING DESCRIPTIONS OF FOUR NEW SPECIES1

EDSON J. HAMBLETON

Cooperating Scientist,
Systematic Entomology Laboratory, IIBIII,
Fed. Res., Sci. Educ. Admin., USDA2

ABSTRACT
Four new species of Rhizoecus from Florida are described and illustrated:
keysensis, ladoniae, pseudocacticans and spicatus. Rhizoecus leucosomus
(Cockerell) and R. mexicanus (Hambleton) are reported for the first time
from Florida. Rhizoecus palestineae (Hambleton), an introduced species, is
redescribed and a lectotype is designated. A revised key is presented to the
Florida species of Rhizoecus.


The addition of 6 mealybugs (4 of them new species) to the Rhizoecus
fauna of Florida brings the total to 15 species for the State. This number
includes Rhizoecus leucosomus (Cockerell) and R. mexicanus (Hambleton),
here reported for the first time from Florida, and R. palestineae (Hamble-
ton), an introduced species recorded by Dekle (1974). A revision of Hamble-
ton's (1973) key is presented to facilitate identification of these species new
to Florida.

Rhizoecus keysensis Hambleton, NEW SPECIES
Figs. 1-6
ADULT FEMALE: Oval elongate. Length, 0.87-1.35 mm; width, 0.38-0.67 mm.
Antennae 6-segmented, rather stout, average length of segments in p: I, 26;
II, 16; III, 29; IV, 14; V, 18; VI, 40; apical segment less than twice as long
as wide, with 3 elongate, moderately stout, bluntly tapered sensory setae and
1 spinelike sensory seta; segment V with 1 short, narrow sensory seta.
Interantennal space equal to length of antennal segment VI. Eyes hemi-
spherical, 5-6k wide. Rostrum elongate, 63[ long, 40/ wide; rostral loop
extending to insertion of 2nd coxae. Cephalic plate irregularly triangulate,
301 long, 35[L wide, with 2 vacuoles near center and 4 body setae on or near
borders. Dorsal ostioles inconspicuous, weakly sclerotized.
Legs well developed, length of segments of hind pair in /p: trochanter, 37;
femur, 87; tibia, 77; tarsus, 50; claw, 18; claw digitules slender, weakly
dilated at tips, extending to end of acute claws.
Circulus conical, about 22t at base, orifice reticulate. Anal lobes un-
sclerotized, each lobe area with 3 subeqtial, elongate setae, longest about 55/k,
few short body setae, few pores and 1 or 2 cerores. Anal ring about 56[ wide,
its 6 slender setae averaging 80/ long, stouter than largest anal-lobe seta;
outer portion of anal ring with 25-28 oval or irregularly rounded cells, some
with minute spicules, the cells nearly touching end-to-end; inner portion of

'Homoptera: Pseudococcidae.
2Mail Address: 5140 Worthington Dr., Washington, D. C. 20016.


140


June, 1979













Hambleton: Florida Rhizoecus


anal ring with 14 large variform cells adjacent to darkened cellular area.
Tritubular cerores small, their ducts about 7u long, 40-48 uniformly distrib-
uted on both surfaces, more common submarginally. Multilocular disk pores
absent. Tubular ducts 4-51 long, widely distributed but not abundant on
either surface. Trilocular pores sparse across intersegmental areas, elsewhere
nearly evenly distributed. Body setae inconspicuous, mostly short, slender.
HOLOTYPE ADULT FEMALE-Florida: Middle Torch Key, 20-X-1972, W. H.
Pierce, on Erithalis fruticosa (Rubiaceae), in USNM. PARATYPES, 6, one
taken with holotype, 2 from Upper Sugarloaf Key, 19-X-1972, on Eugenia
myrtoides (Myrtaceae), in Florida State Collection of Arthropods (FSCA);
3 from Key Largo, 5-IV-1974, R. F. Denno and D. R. Miller, on Morinda roioc
(Rubiaceae), in USNM.
Rhizoecus keysensis closely resembles R. simplex (Hambleton) but may
be readily distinguished by its larger appendages and more elongate anal-
ring and anal-lobe setae. In keysensis a few oval cells of the outer anal ring
contain abbreviated spicules but in most cells they are absent.

Rhizoecus ladoniae Hambleton, NEW SPECIES
Figs. 7-14
ADULT FEMALE: Ovate. Length, 0.90-1.22 mm; width, 0.59-0.82 mm. Anten-
nae 6-segmented, widely separated, average length of segments in u: 1, 25;
II, 21; III, 26; IV, 18; V, 21; VI, 46; apical segment approximately twice as
long as wide, with 3 elongate, tapered sensory setae and 1 shorter, spinelike
sensory seta; segment V with 1 small, elongate seta. Interantennal space
equal to combined length of segments V-VI. Eyes absent. Rostrum short,
stout, 66A long, 57, wide; rostral loop extending to or slightly beyond inser-
tion of 2nd coxae. Cephalic plate irregular in outline, weakly sclerotized,
sometimes difficult to discern. Dorsal ostioles apparently absent.
Legs robust, average length of segments of hind pair in /: trochanter,
48; femur, 98; tibia, 78; tarsus, 52; claw, 28; claw digitules elongate,
capitate, extending beyond apex of claws.
Circulus small, conical, faveolate, about 14/ wide at base. Anal lobes
simple, unsclerotized, without elongate setae. Anal ring conspicuous, averag-
ing 791 wide, sometimes appearing angulate in outline, its setae averaging
100, long; outer portion of anal ring with 32-38 large irregularly quadrate,
rounded or triangulate, rather loosely arranged cells, most bearing indi-
vidual spicules; inner portion of anal ring with 18-24 large, mostly ir-
regularly triangulate cells adjacent to darkened area; cells surrounding
posterior anal-ring setae more elongate, crowded. Tritubular cerores of
medium size, about 5t at base, their ducts 6-7, long, tapered, strongly
divaricated, 150-200 widely distributed over derm, more abundant ventrally.
Multilocular disk pores absent. Tubular ducts short, stout, with broad collars,
their diameter about equal to that of trilocular pore, present on both sur-
faces, more common on abdominal area. Trilocular pores fairly numerous,
evenly distributed. Body setae short, 4-5/ long, stout, mostly bristlelike,
uniformly distributed.
HOLOTYPE ADULT FEMALE-Florida: 4 mi E. Ozello, Citrus Co., 13-IV-1974,
D. R. Miller and R. F. Denno, on Gramineae, in USNM. PARATYPES, 6, 3
taken with holotype, in USNM; 1 Gainesville, 31-X-1965, in Quercus duff,
Ladonia O'Berry, in Florida State Collection of Arthropods; 1, 4 mi SE













The Florida Entomologist 62(2)


4 I


4-~


2




5 6


Figs. 1-6. Rhizoecus keysensis n. sp., 9. 1, Anal-ring, right half. 2, Termi-
nal segments of antenna. 3, Rostrum. 4, Cephalic plate. 5, Hind claw. 6,
Circulus. Figs. 7-14. Rhizoecus ladoniae n. sp., 9. 7, Tubular duct, 8, Tri-
tubular ceroris, lateral. 9, Terminal segments of antenna. 10, Anal-ring,
right half. 11, Rostrum. 12, Circulus, lateral. 13, Hind claw. 14, Body setae,
ceroris and trilocular pores on anal lobe.
Floral City, Sumter Co., 27-IV-1974, R. F. Denno, J. A. Davidson and D. R.
Miller; 1, 3 mi E. Silver Springs, Marion Co., 25-IV-1974, R. F. Denno, J. R.
Davidson and D. R. Miller, on Gramineae, in USNM.
The absence of elongate anal-lobe setae and presence of short, bristlelike
body setae separate this unique species from any known member of


June, 1979












Hambleton: Florida Rhizoecus


Rhizoecus. The oval body shape, size and structure of anal ring and large
number of cerores are also distinguishing characters.
I take great pleasure in naming this interesting mealybug in honor of
Ladonia O'Berry of the Florida Department of Agriculture who first col-
lected it in 1965.

Rhizoecus leucosomus (Cockerell)
This widely distributed species was collected for the first time in Florida
1 mi N. of Southbend, Lower Matecumbe Key, Monroe Co., 6-IV-1974, R. F.
Denno and D. R. Miller on unknown grass. Additional records include:
Center of Grassy Key, Hwy #1, 7-IV-1974, R. F. Denno and D. R. Miller, on
Distichlis sp. (Gramineae); Sugar Loaf Key, Route 939, 7-IV-1974, D. R.
Miller and R. F. Denno, on grass; Everglades National Park, near Pineland
Trail, 9-IV-1974, D. R. Miller and R. F. Denno, on Muhlenbergia sp.
(Gramineae); Cedar Key, Levy Co., 25-IV-1975, D. R. Miller and R. F.
Denno, on Spartina patens (Gramineae); 2 mi S. Corkscrew Swamp Sanc-
tuary, Collier Co., 30-IV-1975, R. F. Denno, D. R. Miller and J. A. Davidson,
on Juncus sp. (Juncaceae).

Rhizoecus mexicanus (Hambleton)
This species, identified and recorded as a new State record by Avas B.
Hamon (personal communication), was collected at a nursery in Seffner,
Hillsborough Co., 5-VII-1978, by C. W. Hale, on roots of Mammillaria
leucocentra (Cactaceae). It was later collected at Middleburg, Clay Co.,
20-VII-1978, by C. B. Lieberman, on leaves of Christmas cactus, Zygocactus
truncatus. The latter unusual habitat is not characteristic of Rhizoecus.
Another departure from the root-feeding habitat is that of R. palestineae
(Hambleton) first reported by Dekle (1974) on narcissus bulbs in storage.

Rhizoecus palestineae (Hambleton)
Figs. 15-20

Ripersiella palestineae Hambleton, 1946: 71.
Rhizoecus palestineae: Dekle, 1974: 41.

ADULT FEMALE-Oval elongate. Length, 1.40-2.14 mm; width, 0.62-0.96 mm.
Antennae 6-segmented, widely separated, average length of segments in [:
I, 36; II, 22; III, 41; IV, 20; V, 21; VI, 48; apical segment twice as long as
wide, with 3 rather narrow, elongate, tapered sensory setae and 1 slender,
spinelike sensory seta; segment V with 1 short sensory seta. Interantennal
space about equal to combined length of segments I-III. Eyes protuberant,
pigmented. Rostrum 771 long, 61l wide; rostral loop extending to or slightly
beyond insertion of 2nd coxae. Cephalic'plate relatively small, irregular in
outline, about 23/ long, 19, wide, with 2 large vacuoles, 3-4 setae on its
borders. Dorsal ostioles with narrow, weakly sclerotized rims.
Legs well developed, of moderate size; average length of segments of
hind pair in /t: trochanter, 44; femur, 113; tibia, 97; tarsus, 63; claw, 15;
hind tibiae each with 2 large vacuoles; claw digitules elongate, capitate, ex-
tending beyond tip of short, stout claws.













The Florida Entomologist 62 (2)


June, 1979


Normally 2 conical circuli present on segments III and IV, occasionally a
third on V, the large one 30-364 wide at base. Anal-lobes unsclerotized, with
3 slender setae, the longest averaging 6041 long. Anal-ring about 484 wide,
its setae averaging 681 long, slightly stouter than lobe setae; outer portion
of anal-ring with 12-14 narrow, elongate cells, each with a spicule; inner
portion of ring with 12 large, irregularly elongate cells adjacent to clouded
area of rounded triangulate cells. Bitubular cerores small, their individual
ducts 9-104 long, 23-25 on head and thorax, 33-36 on abdomen, widely dis-
tributed but more common dorsally along median line and submarginal
borders. Multilocular disk pores numerous ventrally, approximately 150 on
abdominal segments VI-IX, few on V, scattered on head opposite mouth
parts, dorsally few on posterior abdominal area. Tubular ducts smaller in
diameter than trilocular pore, scattered over entire derm, more common
ventrally. Trilocular pores more numerous on head, sparse in ventral thoracic
area, elsewhere evenly distributed. Body setae mostly short, fine, incon-
spicuous.
LECTOTYPE ADULT FEMALE-From the syntypes, I have selected and marked
as "lectotype" a slide containing 1 specimen labelled as follows: "In Iris
vartanii, Palestine at D. C., Limber, Colr., Nov. 2, 1937, E. Q. A. 43646".
PARALECTOTYPES, 19, 3 taken with lectotype mounted on separate slide; 16
from Palestine intercepted at Washington, D. C. as follows: 5 on Arum
palaestinum (Araceae), 10-X-30, H. Y. Gouldman; 2 on Colchicum decaisnei
(Liliaceae), 2-XI-1937, D. P. Limber; 4 on Sternbergia clusiana (Amaryl-
lidaceae), 27-VIII-1934, C. E. Prince, Jr.; 5 on Arum dioscorides, Iris sp.,
Sternbergia sp., 6-X-1934, D. P. Limber. All in USNM.
Several immature females were also intercepted from Palestine on
Cyclamen sp. (Primulaceae) in 1936 and from Iris sofarana from Syria in
1938. One interception was made at Washington, D. C. on lily bulbs from
Greece, 12-IX-1957.
Dekle (1974) first recorded R. palestineae in the United States near
Doctor's Inlet, Clay Co., Florida. Its Florida hosts include Narcissus tagetta
var. papyraceus (Amaryllidaceae), Narcissus sp., Paspalum urvillei and
Sporobolus poiretii (Gramineae), Rumex crispus (Polygonaceae), Sonchus
oleraceus (Compositae), and unknown grasses.
Rhizoecus palestineae is a fairly large species distinguished by its mul-
tiple circuli, small bitubular cerores and narrow, elongate, spiculate cells in
the outer portion of the anal-ring. Some measurements of Florida specimens
are larger than specimens received from the Middle East, but morpholog-
ically the series are identical. R. palestineae, R. mexicanus (Hambleton)
and R. spicatus Hambleton, new species, are the only Florida species with
bitubular cerores. Diagnostic characters for separating the 3 species are
given in the key below.

Rhizoecus pseudocacticans Hambleton, NEW SPECIES
Figs. 21-6

Rhizoecus cacticans Hambleton, 1976:18. Misidentification in part.
ADULT FEMALE: Ovate elongate. Length, 1.85-2.53 mm; width, 0.61-1.20 mm.
Antennae 6-segmented, widely separated; average length of segments in P :
I, 38; II, 22; III, 38; IV, 19; V, 22; VI, 50; apical segment twice as long as












Hambleton: Florida Rhizoecus


wide, with 3 slender, elongate sensory setae, and 1 spinelike sensory seta near
distal extremity; segment V with 1 narrow, elongate sensory seta. Inter-
antennal space less than combined length of segments I-III. Eyes fairly
prominent, wider than long. Rostrum of medium size, averaging 79/ long,
52t wide; rostral loop reaching to or slightly beyond halfway to 2nd coxae.
Cephalic plate irregularly triangulate, 51/1 wide at base, central area with
2 vacuoles, 6 short setae on or near its borders. Dorsal ostioles with thin
rims, lightly sclerotized.


23


24


25


26


Figs. 15-20. Rhizoecus palestineae (Hambleton), Y. 15, Anal-ring, right
half. 16, Terminal segments of antenna. 17, Rostrum. 18, Hind claw. 19,
Cephalic plate. 20, Bitubular ceroris, lateral. Figs. 21-26. Rhizoecus
pseudocacticans n. sp., 9. 21, Anal-ring, right half. 22, Terminal segments of
antenna. 23, Hind claw. 24, Rostrum. 25, Circulus, lateral. 26, Cephalic plate.


145













The Florida Entomologist 62 (2)


June, 1979


Legs relatively short, stout, average length of segments of hind pair in
/: trochanter, 40; femur, 102; tibia, 91; tarsus, 57; claw, 18; claw digitules
elongate, dilated at tips, extending beyond stout, weakly curved claws.
Circulus conical, broader than long, about 31[ at base, orifice narrow,
7-8L wide. Anal lobes unsclerotized, each with 1 elongate seta about 72/
long, 2 shorter setae. Anal-ring prominent, average width 65/, its setae about
781t long, longer and stouter than anal-lobe setae; outer portion of anal-ring
with 30-33 diversiform cells of various sizes, poorly arranged; inner portion
of ring with 10-16 large irregularly elongate cells bordered by an indistinct
darkened area. Tritubular cerores small, uniformly distributed, 5 on head,
15-17 on thorax, 23-27 on abdomen, more common dorsally, those on venter
occurring submarginally. Multilocular disk pores absent. Tubular ducts
minute, 5-6) long, narower than trilocular pores, confined to abdomen, more
common ventrally. Trilocular pores numerous, evenly distributed. Body setae
mostly short, fine, inconspicuous.
HOLOTYPE ADULT FEMALE-Florida: Gainesville, Alachua Co., 9-1-1975, A. E.
Graham, on Crassula sp. (Crassulaceae), in USNM. PARATYPES, 25, 3 taken
with holotype; 6, Gainesville, 15-1-1975, G. W. Dekle, on Crassula sp.; 6,
Gainesville, 18-IV-1975, G. W. Dekle; 4, St. Petersburg, 9-II-1973, C. K.
Hickman, on Kalanchoe tomentosa (Crassulaceae) ; 3, Lake City, 16-III-1978,
C. H. Webb, on Aloe sp. (Liliaceae) ; 3, Laurel, Maryland, 27-XI-1976, W. F.
Gimpel, on Sedum sp. (Crassulaceae). Nineteen paratypes deposited in the
FSCA, Gainesville, 6 in USNM.
The first specimens of R. pseudocacticans collected on Kalanchoe
tomentosa erroneously were identified as R. cacticans (Hambleton) (1976).
Rhizoecus pseudocacticans is closely related to R. cacticans but is smaller,
has shorter appendages, fewer tritubular cerores, smaller rostrum and anal
ring. Moreover, the cellular structure of the outer portion of the anal ring
consists of diversiform cells. In contrast, R. cacticans has more numerous,
larger subtriangulate to quadrate cells in the anal ring.

Rhizoecus spicatus Hambleton, NEW SPECIES
Figs. 27-33
ADULT FEMALE: Elongate ovate. Length, 1.38-1.88 mm; width, 0.58-0.78 mm.
Antennae 6-segmented, moderately long, average length of segments in /p:
I, 31; II, 19; III, 31; IV, 17; V, 20; VI, 45; apical segment less than twice as
long as wide, with 3 slender sensory setae and 1 spinelike sensory seta near
apex; segment V with 1 short, narrow sensory seta. Interantennal space
comparable to length of segment VI. Eyes prominent, 11-14/ wide. Rostrum
elongate, 691, long, 45/L wide; rostral loop extending halfway or more to
insertion of 2nd coxae. Cephalic plate weakly sclerotized, irregular in out-
line, about 281 long, usually longer than wide, with 4 body setae along its
periphery. Dorsal ostioles sclerotized, with some accumulation of pores and
setae near rims.
Legs rather long, average length of segments of hind pair in /: tro-
chanter, 36; femur, 91; tibia, 84; tarsus, 53; claw, 17; claw digitules weakly
dilated at extremities, extending beyond rather stout, acute claws.
Circulus truncate, variable in size, about 12[t wide across finely reticulate
orifice. Anal lobes each with some sclerotization and 3 elongate setae, the
longest about 52/, long, and 4-5 trilocular pores at their base. Anal-ring












Hambleton: Florida Rhizoecus


about 50[ wide, its setae slightly stouter and longer than anal-lobe setae,
averaging about 60A long; outer portion of anal-ring with 12-19 oval elongate
cells, each with a spicule, anterior portion may be indistinct; inner portion
of ring with approximately same number of larger, more irregular cells next
to darkened area of subcircular cells. Bitubular cerores similar to those of
R. disjunctus McKenzie but larger, about 11t long, appearing as conical,
tapering spicules over entire body surface, distal portion of exposed ducts
shorter than their basal inner structure, more numerous dorsally, scattered
on head and thorax and occurring across abdominal segments. Multilocular
disk pores on both surfaces, between 66 and 135 on abdominal segments
VI-IX, few on dorsum, absent on head and thorax. Tubular ducts smaller in
diameter than trilocular pore occurring dorsally and ventrally, more numerous
across dorsum of abdominal segments, apparently absent on head and thorax.
Few scattered, tiny, mushroomlike bodies on dorsum of head and thorax.
Trilocular pores abundant on head, prothorax and posterior abdominal
segments, elsewhere evenly distributed except for some poreless clear areas
near legs and across intersegmental areas of abdomen. Body setae slender,
mostly short, sparse.
HOLOTYPE ADULT FEMALE-Florida: St. Petersburg, Pinellas Co., 8-XI-1972,
C. K. Hickman, on Pleiospilos bolusii (Aizoaceae), in USNM. PARATYPES, 4,
1 taken with holotype in FSCA, 3 taken at same location, same host, 5-1-1973,
C. K. Hickman, 2 in FSCA, 1 in USNM.
Rhizoecus spicatus may be mistaken for R. disjunctus McKenzie because
their bitubular cerores are of similar shape. The major differences separat-
ing these 2 species are as follows: in the larger cerores of R. spicatus, the
exposed portion of their ducts is shorter than the internal portion. In R.
disjunctus the reverse of this condition exists. R. spicatus has about 3 times
as many multilocular disk pores on the venter; its truncate circulus is
reticulate, that of the conical circulus of R. disjunctus is simple. Also, the
tubular ducts occur only on the abdomen in R. spicatus, whereas in R. dis-
junctus they are present over the entire body.










28 i 29
I i' -..f '


27
30 31 '32 33
Figs. 27-33. Rhizoceus spicatus n. sp., 9. 27, Anal-ring, right half. 28,
Terminal segments of antenna. 29, Rostrum. 30, Hind claw. 31, Circulus,
dorsal. 32, Bitubular ceroris, lateral. 33, Cephalic plate.













The Florida Entomologist 62 (2)


June, 1979


Rhizoecus spinipes (Hambleton)

One specimen of an aberrant female of this species was collected on an
unidentified grass on Noname Key, Monroe Co. by D. R. Miller and R. F.
Denno, 6-IV-1974. This species normally possesses 23-25 large tritubular
cerores. Of the 24 cerores present in this specimen, 21 are of the bitubular
type, the remaining 3 are tritubular. No other abnormalities were observed.

KEY TO THE FLORIDA SPECIES OF Rhizoecus

1. Multilocular disk pores present ..... ....................... 2
1'. Multilocular disk pores absent ......... ............. ...... 8
2. Bitubular cerores present ...---....... ......................- ~3..............-- .-- 3
2'. Tritubular cerores present ---- .-- -- 5
3. Bitubular cerores similar to conical spicules, their ducts usually
appearing fused -. .--......-................... spicatus, new species
3'. Bitubular cerores of usual design, their ducts divaricated ....-....-.. 4
4. With 1 truncate, faveolate circulus; cerores large, their ducts
stout .- ...... -......... -..... .. .. mexicanus (Hambleton)
4'. Normally with 2 conical, non-faveolate circuli, occasionally
with 3; cerores small, their ducts slender palestineae (Hambleton)
5. Antennae 5-segmented; eyes absent; anal-lobes roundly pro-
truding, each with 5-7 elongate setae .-- falcifer Kiinckel d'Herculais
5'. Antennae 6-segmented; eyes present; anal-lobes simple or only
weakly protruding, each with less than 5 elongate setae ----....-----.. 6
6. Anal-ring setae short, stout, about 35 long; tritubular cerores
large, of 1 size; multilocular disk pores mostly with 7 loculi --....
spinipes (Hambleton)
6'. Anal-ring setae more elongate, 70-90 I long; tritubular cerores
of 2 or 3 sizes; multilocular disk pores mostly with 10 loculi .--....-. 7
7. Multilocular disk pores relatively sparse, occurring only ven-
trally near vulva; tritubular cerores of 2 sizes; cephalic plate
apparently absent -- --.. ... ----------- pritchardi McKenzie
7'. Multilocular disk pores more numerous, occurring dorsally and
ventrally over entire derm; tritubular cerores of 3 sizes;
cephalic plate present a-.. -- ..- .... americanus (Hambleton)
8. Eyes absent ..- .....- .....- ..... .-- ... .. 9
8'. E yes present ---- -----... .-------. -------... .......... ..... .... 10
9. Anal-lobes without elongate setae; body setae short, stout,
bristlelike -... .-. ...... ... ..---- ...... .. -- ...- ...---- ladoniae, new species
9'. Anal-lobes each with 3 elongate setae; body setae of normal size
and shape, not bristlelike ......----- floridanus Hambleton
10. Rostrum moderately short, between 50-631 long, 35-40u wide;
outer portion of anal-ring containing 17-28 cells ... .. .-.....-.------.-- 11
10'. Rostrum stout, between 74-84I long, 52-65/[ wide; outer portion
of anal-ring containing 28-40 cells ...................... ..... ...... .. 12
11. Cells of outer portion of anal-ring mostly small, elongate oval,
with spicules; anal ring averaging 46, wide, its setae about
50uP long ---- ----- .... -.------. ..---- .. simplex (Hambleton)
11'. Cells of outer portion of anal-ring larger, mostly ovate to
roundly triangulate, usually without spicules; anal-ring av-


148













Hambleton: Florida Rhizoecus


149


eraging 561 wide; its setae about 80, long --.
.- ~.-.. ---.----.-- ------ --- -------------------- keysensis, new species
12. Claw digitules setose, at least 1/ as long as claws; claws nar-
row, elongate, about 40ft long; anal-ring averaging 871, wide,
its setae about as long as its width ... .. maaritimus (Cockerell)
12'. Claw digitules usually capitate and exceeding tip of claws;
claws stout, averaging 18-25[k long; anal-ring averaging 68/
wide, its setae longer than its width .. -. ... .. .. .... ---- 13
13. Cells of outer portion of anal-ring subtriangulate to quadrate,
rather compactly arranged, in places forming double row;
rostrum about 881, long; with 50-55 tritubular cerores ----
-. ...- --- -----------------------------cacticans (Hambleton)
13'. Cells of outer portion of anal-ring mostly oval, irregularly
elongate rounded, more loosely arranged, not forming double
row; rostrum 74-78/ long; with 24-48 tritubular cerores ..- --....-_ 14
14. Rostrum elongate; rostral loop reaching to or slightly beyond
2nd coxae; cells of outer portion of anal-ring irregular shaped,
mostly of small size, often isolated .--------- --
.... .- ..--- .........-... .---- .....----------- -.. pseudocacticans, new species
14'. Rostrum stout; rostral loop very short, seldom reaching 2nd
coxae; cells of outer portion of anal-ring uniformly shaped,
larger, often touching end to end ... .... ...- leucosomus (Cockerell)

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I am grateful to George W. Dekle, formerly of the Bureau of Entomology,
Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture, Gainesville,
and his successor, Avas B. Hamon for loan of specimens. I appreciate the
assistance of the following individuals for reviewing the manuscript:
Douglass R. Miller, Manya B. Stoetzel and Richard E. White, Systematic
Entomology Laboratory, and Steve Nakahara, Plant Pest Quarantine Di-
vision, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD.

LITERATURE CITED
DEKLE, G. W. 1974. A root mealybug, Rhizoecus palestineae (Hambleton)
(Pseudococcidae: Homoptera). 30th Bien. Rpt. Div. of P1. Ind., Fla.
Dept. Agr. July 1972-June 1974, 41-2.
HAMBLETON, E. J. 1946. Studies of hypogeic mealybugs. Rev. de Ent. (Rio de
Janeiro) 17 (1-2) :1-77.
-- 1973. Florida mealybugs of the genus Rhizoecus with description of
a new species. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 75 (1) :62-71.
-- 1976. A revision of the New World mealybugs of the genus Rhizoecus.
U. S. Dept. Agri. Tech. Bull. 1522, 88 p.













150 The Florida Entomologist 62 (2) June, 1979

THROUGH THE LOOKING GLASS1

JOHN B. TAYLOR
Ciba-Geigy Corporation
1032 North Boulevard, Deland, FL 32720


The title of my talk, "Through The Looking Glass" is perhaps a
plagiarism of Lewis Carroll. When I first went to college in Gainesville, it
was required that I read "Alice Through The Looking Class." I thought to
myself, here I am all the way through this much schooling, and this "dumb"
professor wants me to read this. Nonetheless, I did read it because students
did not argue very successfully with their professors in those days. It was
amazing, after reading it, how much it changed my perspective. I thought,
perhaps this story is something that should go with me throughout my life-
time.
When I first became associated with The Florida Entomological Society
I did so out of need more than desire. I had recently started to work for "the
giant corporation" and they said I should participate in these activities be-
cause it would look good for the company; and so I did. I participated to the
extent that I was an active member just as everyone of you sitting here today
is an active member. Society activities sometimes are overwhelming. I
handled local arrangements twice, and that in itself, should endear one to
the Society so that they would give one life membership without any charges.
When I became more involved in this Society 2 years ago, I suddenly
changed my attitude, and it reminded me of "Through The Looking Glass."
I would like to leave you this morning with a few of my impressions that
focus attention on the Society, . and it is YOUR Society. This has been a
year of change with us, and not change for change's sake. I think there were
changes that, perhaps, were already in the making, changes that were
needed, and changes that naturally will occur in any organization. We
established a Sustaining Membership Committee this year headed by my
loyal brother, James, who has done a remarkably good job soliciting funds
from industry representatives.
We undoubtedly became more responsive to the needs of our members this
year because of a growing discontent with some aspects of our organization
and perhaps with our philosophy. Unfortunately, and yet fortunately, we had
a change in the Editorship of The Florida Entomologist. Dr. Strat Kerr, who
did an outstanding job for a number of years, elected to "retire" early; I
said that was unfortunate. On the other hand and fortunately for us, Dr.
Carol Musgrave assumed the Editorship and did so in a magnificent fashion.
She has added some new faces to the Editorial Committee. It now appears
that we are headed in a direction that the majority of the members would
like to see.
We established another working group, formed out of the Executive
Committee and headed by Dr. Bill Peters, that wrote and distributed a
Questionnaire on publication policies in The Florida Entomologist. I can
assure all of you this was no small task. This came at a time when we were

'Presidential address, 61st annual meeting of The Florida Entomological Society, St.
Augustine, 6 September 1978.













Taylor: Presidential Address


151


short on time, but fortunately long on talent. I consider the response to the
Questionnaire to be substantial and very good. Most experienced people will
tell you that when questionnaires are mailed, a 10% response is good; the
response to this questionnaire was ca. 32%. We consider the results of this
particular Questionnaire a very important issue. We also consider question-
naires as one of the best ways we can communicate with you, the members of
our Society. For that reason, tonight at the "Bull Session" the entire time
will be devoted to a discussion of the Questionnaire and a summary of re-
sults analyzed by Dr. Peters.
In the final analysis, what do we have and what can we do to keep this
Society vital? I would urge each and every one of you to become more active
in Society affairs and to let your officers know what you would like to have
done. I also would urge each and every one of you to at least know who the
members are of the Executive Committee. These people are here to represent
the Society and unless you as individuals come to them with your ideas or
your complaints, and hopefully sometimes your compliments, we have no way
of knowing what is going on within our Society. A questionnaire hopefully
will open the door, and I certainly hope that more of you will feel like com-
municating with us. We can be a Society of a chosen few or of all of you, and
I personally would prefer ALL of you. Thank you.













The Florida Entomologist 62 (2)


June, 1979


SCIENTIFIC NOTES
A RECORD POPULATION OF PSEUDOMETHOCA SIMILLIMA
(SMITH) (HYMENOPTERA: MUTILLIDAE)--(Note). Mutillid wasps
are often encountered in the field as isolated individuals or as several indi-
viduals within a small area. Reports in the literature describing collections
of large numbers of mutillid wasps are usually totals taken over a period of
time, often from areas of several acres or more (C. E. Mickel, 1928. U. S.
Nat. Mus. Bull. 143:351 p.; W. E. Ferguson, 1962. Univ. Calif. Publ. Ent.
27:1-92.) The purpose of this note is to report a large, isolated, extremely
dense population of Pseudomethoca simillima (Smith) in Highlands County,
FL ca. 6.4 km west of Sebring. The area, ca. 10 by 5 m in a semicircular
shape, consisted of fine white sand with a light scattering of dead live oak
leaves. On 20 March 1978, 12 females were taken in a few minutes. On 25
March 263 females were collected in 1.5 hr (1:30-3:00 PM EST)-a collec-
tion rate of 1 female every 41 seconds per collector. The average density
collected during that time was almost 1.7 individuals/m2 surface area. The
individuals exhibited almost no variation in size, shape, or coloration sug-
gesting that they represent a small isolated gene pool and that all may have
fed as larvae on one species of uniformly sized host bee or wasp. No indi-
viduals were collected in the woods surrounding the area nor on the other
side of the paved road forming the central boundary of the semicircular area.
During the collecting we did not observe a single male mutillid wasp, nor did
we see any individuals or burrows of potential hosts. A voucher series from
this collection is placed in the University of Georgia Collection. We believe
this represents not only the largest single reported collection of a mutillid
species but also a population with the greatest density of individuals per
unit area. This population would provide an excellent opportunity to
study the population dynamics of a parasite-host relationship.-JUSTIN O.
SCHMIDT AND ALLAN W. HOOK, Dept. of Entomology, University of Georgia,
Athens, GA 30602.




TERRESTRIAL TRAIL-FOLLOWING BY THREE SPECIES OF
PREDATORY STINK BUGS-(Note). Entomophagous insects use a vari-
ety of cues to find their hosts. Some use aerial trails in prey location; various
predators locate trees infested with bark beetles by utilizing air born
pheromones released by the beetles (Camors, F. B., Jr. and T. L. Payne.
1973. Environ. Ent. 2:267-70). Airborne kairomes stimulate searching be-
havior in the predator Chrysopa carnea Stephens which preys upon the eggs
of Heliothis zea (Lewis, W. J. et al. 1977. J. Chem. Ecol. 3:483-7). Some
parasitoids utilize terrestrial trails in host location. The parasitoid Solenotus
begin (Ashmead) follows the leaf mine of its host, Phytomyza atricornis
Meigen (Doutt, R. L. 1957. J. Econ. Ent. 50:373-4). Apanteles melanoscelus
(Ratzeberg) locates its moth host, Lymantria dispar L. by following silk
webbing (Weseloh, R. M. 1977. Environ. Ent. 5:1128-32). However, there
are no published accounts of predatory insects using terrestrial trails to
locate prey. This laboratory study was conducted to determine if 3 species of
predatory stink bugs can follow terrestrial trails which consist of either


152













Scientific Notes


hemolymph of cabbage looper pupae, Trichoplusia ni Hiibner, or frass of the
eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum F.
The stink bugs Euthyrhynchus floridanus L., Alcaeorrhynchus grandis
Dallas, and Podisus maculiventris Say are polyphagous predators, feeding on
various lepidopterous and chrysomelid larvae, pentatomid nymphs, cur-
culionids, and grasshopper nymphs (Mead, F. W. 1976. Fla. Dept. Agric. and
Consumer Serv. Ent. Circ. 174). The stink bugs were collected as 2nd and 3rd
instars along the wooded perimeters of Lake Alice in Gainesville, FL. They
were fed geometrid moth pupae and fresh string beans. They were not fed
pupae 1 week prior to exposure to the terrestrial trails. Experiments were
conducted during the 12th and 13th hours of a 14h photophase.
Artificial frass trails were formed by mixing 0.25 ml water with 7.5-15 mg
of frass from 4th instar eastern tent caterpillars. The mixture was then
painted onto paper with a small brush. Hemolymph trails were formed by
macerating a cabbage looper pupa in a drop of water and then painting this
mixture onto paper. All trails were L-shaped with axes of 15 cm and 9 cm.
Tap water trails were used as controls.
The stink bugs followed frass trails in ca. half of the trials. A trial
consisted of presenting a single bug with a single frass or hemolymph trail
and a water trail. Three different A. grandis individuals were employed in
8 trials. One individual was used in 4 trials and the other 2 individuals were
used in 2 trials each. The frass trails were followed completely in 6 of the 8
trials. Twenty-three different E. floridanus individuals were employed in 64
trials. Eighteen E. floridanus individuals were each used in 3 trials and 5
individuals were each used in 2 trials. The E. floridanus bugs followed frass
trails completely in 31 of the 64 trials. Eighteen different P. maculiventris
bugs were used in 40 trials in which 19 trails were followed completely. In
these 40 trials, 6 bugs were used 3 times, 10 bugs were used twice, and 2 bugs
were used once.
The amount of time taken to follow a frass trail varied greatly. The A.
grandis individuals followed trails in 1.1 1.0 min. The E. floridanus fol-
lowed trails in 1.9 1.4 min. and P. maculiventris individuals required 2.7
2.2 min. Analysis of variance yielded no significant difference among the
species.
Hemolymph trails were followed less consistently than frass trails. Five
different A. grandis bugs were presented with a hemolymph trail, but the
trail was followed only once. Seven different E. floridanus individuals fol-
lowed hemolymph trails completely in 8 of 20 trials. Six E. floridanus indi-
viduals were each used in 3 trials and 1 individual was used in 2 trials. Water
trails, used as controls in each trial were never followed.
Stereotyped behavior typified the responses of the stink bugs to artificial
terrestrial trails. The antennae were swept across the trail or tapped along
the surface of the trail. The rostrum was protruded and slowly tapped along
the trail in front of the predator. Occasionally, the stink bugs would pause
to groom the antennae or rostrum by simultaneously running the tibial
spines of the forelegs down the antennae or rostrum. Frequently, E.
floridanus would shake its abdomen rapidly and violently when it encountered
a trail as it does when it encounters food. Frequently, the predators defecated
on the trail. The possibility that defecation inhibits other predators from
following the trail is being investigated.














154 The Florida Entomologist 62(2) June, 1979

The employment of antennae and rostrum in the detection of terrestrial
trails may greatly enhance the ability of predatory pentatomids to locate
prey. Selection for utilization of kairomones in prey location may be espe-
cially strong in predators with small eyes, like these pentatomids.-D. K.
MCLAIN, Dept. of Biology, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA 30322.


FALL ARMYWORM IN FLORIDA PASTUREGRASS: 19771,2-(Note).
Armyworms are a cyclical pasture pest characterized by population out-
breaks in certain years. In 1977, Florida pastures, hay fields and forage
crops were attacked by large numbers of fall armyworms, Spodoptera
frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Damaging populations of record densities were
reported by researchers, especially in the drought-stricken (Northern) areas
of Florida (Anon. 1977, Coop. Plant Pest Rep. 2(31). 584).
Effectiveness of armyworm control in Florida pastures with certain in-
secticides was reported by P. G. Koehler, R. J. Gouger and D. E. Short (1977;
Fla. Ent. 60:103-4). This study was conducted to determine the extent of the
armyworm problem on pastures and forages and to evaluate the effective-
ness of certain insecticides.
Three insecticides were evaluated for fall armyworm control in August
1977. The insecticides included in the present study were: permethrin (Am-
bush), carbaryl (Sevin 4 Oil) diluted in water and oil, carbaryl (Sevin
80% S), and methomyl (Lannate L). All materials were applied by air
with a Cessna Ag-Truck (188 series) equipped with a Transland spray sys-
tem. The carbaryl-oil formulation was applied 2 ways: diluted 1:1 in fuel
oil and diluted 1:1 in water with 1.89 liter emulsifier (Blend). Both were
applied at 1.12 kg AI/ha with 30 D4 nozzles. Permethrin, methomyl, and
carbaryl WP were applied in 28.03 liters of water/ha at 0.112, 0.252, and 1.12
kg/AI/ha, respectively. Six experimental plots were established within a
pasture as 6 swaths, 18.29 m wide running the length of the pasture. One
plot was left as a check area; the others were treated with insecticides on 13
August 1977.
Armyworm populations were sampled in a coastal bermudagrass, Cynodon
dactylon (L.), pasture near Hague, FL, at 4 time intervals: 1 h pretreat-
ment, 24, 48, and 72 h posttreatment. A frame (237 cm2) was randomly
thrown into each treatment area 10 times on each sampling date. The grass
within the area of the frame was shaken so the armyworms would fall to
the ground. All armyworm larvae were collected from the area within the
frame and taken to the laboratory for identification and counting. All the
specimens collected were S. frugiperda. Percent control was calculated by
comparing pretreatment with posttreatment larval counts.
A telephone survey of county agents was conducted on 11 August 1977,
involving 35 counties in the designated drought-stricken areas of Florida.
The remaining 32 counties were surveyed by mail. The purpose of the sur-
vey was to determine the extent of the fall armyworm problem in pastures
and the effectiveness of control measures which were being implemented.
On 24 May 1978, a follow-up survey was conducted in all 67 counties to
determine the amount of methomyl applied for armyworm control.

'Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.
2Univ. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 1390.













Scientific Notes


On 30 August 1976, pretreatment counts in the test pasture indicated a
mean population density of 34.97 fall armyworms/m2 (Koehler, P. G., et al.
1977; Fla. Ent. 60:103-4). On 13 August 1977, pretreatment counts on a
similar pasture indicated a mean density of 646.7 fall armyworms m2. Un-
sprayed check areas were completely defoliated within 48 h of pretreatment
counts.
All insecticides provided significant mortality of fall armyworm larvae
within 24 h, ranging from 85 to 100%. After 72 h, all materials except Sevin
4 Oil@ diluted in water provided 95% control.
A survey of Florida's 67 counties indicated a total of 912,118.6 ha of im-
proved pasture and 146,625.5 ha of hay pasture. In the 35 drought-stricken
counties, 58% of the improved pasture acreage and 78% of the hay pastures
were attacked by fall armyworms. Outside the drought-stricken area only
3% of the improved pasture and 12% of the hay acreage were infested.
Statewide, 258,232 ha (28%) of improved pasture and 71,512 ha (48%) of
hay pasture were severely attacked by fall armyworms. Control efforts were
widespread throughout the state in early August with 258,242 ha sprayed by
ground equipment and 80,437 ha sprayed by aircraft. Carbaryl was applied
to 78% of the ha treated prior to 16 August. Eighty-seven % of the county
agents felt that carbaryl provided poor to moderate control. Due to the re-
ported poor control with carbaryl, a crisis exemption of the use of methomyl
on pasture and forage in Florida was issued 10 August 1977. Subsequently,
32,421 ha of pasture and hay were treated in 33 Florida counties with 17,064
kg AI of methomyl (R. L. Lipsey, unpublished data).
Presently, carbaryl (Sevin 80S) is labeled and is the most commonly
used insecticide for control of lepidopterous larvae in pastures. This study
indicates that carbaryl (Sevin 4 Oil), methomyl, and permethrin (Am-
bush) control the fall armyworm as effectively as carbaryl (Sevin 80S).
As a result of this study, methomyl and carbaryl (Sevin 4 Oil) have
been registered in Florida for control of fall armyworms in Bermudagrass
pasture.-P. G. KOEHLER AND D. E. SHORT, Department of Entomology and
Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611.

ANNUAL MEETING
The 62nd Annual Meeting of the FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SO-
CIETY will be held 4-7 September 1979 at the Ramada Inn West, 2121
Tennessee Street (904-576-6121, 800-228-2828) in Tallahassee, FL. See the
March issue, Fla. Ent. 62(1) for details and the entry form for submitting
papers.

NOTICE TO MEMBERS
The Honors and Awards Committee will welcome nominations from the
membership for candidates for the following categories of awards:
a) Entomologist of the Year
b) Certificate of Appreciation
If you care to submit a name for nomination, please include: category
suggested, and, briefly, what the nominee has done to warrant recognition.
Send information as soon as possible but no later than 14 July 1979, to:
A. G. Selhime; 2120 Camden Road; Orlando, FL 32803.













The Florida Entomologist 62(2)


MINUTES OF THE 61st ANNUAL MEETING OF
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY

The 61st Annual Meeting of The Florida Entomological Society was held
at the Ponce de Leon Lodge and Country Club, St. Augustine, Florida 5-8
September 1978.
The meeting was brought to order by Local Arrangements Chairman
Ralph B. Workman on 6 September 1978 at 8:37 AM. The invocation was by
Fowden G. Maxwell, Chairman, Department of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida. The welcome was by Eddy Mussallem, Mayor of St.
Augustine. Workman introduced John B. Taylor, Ciba-Geigy Corporation,
who presented the Presidential address: "Through the Looking Glass." Dur-
ing the remainder of the 3-day meeting approximately 37 papers were pre-
sented in addition to 3 symposia. The latter were on Modeling Insect Popula-
tions, Aquatic Plants (as weeds), and Turfgrass Entomology.
The "Bull Session" was held at 7:00 PM, Wednesday evening and except
for announcements, was devoted entirely to a discussion of a recent question-
naire dealing with publication policies and status of The Florida Entomolo-
gist. The Moderator was W. L. Peters, Chairman of a special committee that
developed, mailed, and analyzed the Questionnaire. Two mimeographs were
distributed that summarized the findings from the Questionnaire. Also at the
"Bull Session", the winners of the graduate student paper contest were an-
nounced by Chairperson Carol A. Musgrave; she presented the cash prizes
to the winning students. At least 58 persons attended the "Bull Session"
which was adjourned at 9:00 PM. An Industry-sponsored hospitality hour
followed the "Bull Session".
The preliminary business meeting was called to order by President Taylor
on 7 September 1978 at 11:30 AM. Forty-five members were present. Secre-
tary Mead presented the minutes of the 60th Annual Meeting at Cape Coral
31 August-2 September 1977, as published in The Florida Entomologist
61(2) :101-10, June 1978. A. K. Burditt moved that the Secretary's report be
accepted; second by D. H. Habeck; motion carried. Mead presented high-
lights from Executive Committee meetings that were held during the fiscal
year.

REPORT OF THE BUSINESS MANAGER AND TREASURER
FOR THE YEAR ENDING 1 AUGUST 1978

RECEIPTS
Dues $ 4,611.00
Subscriptions 3,533.10
60th Annual Meeting:
Banquet 835.00
Registration 946.00
Advertising 290.00
Publication Charges:
Page Charges 2,034.14
Reprints 882.30
Back Issues 1,241.17
Postage 128.50
Interest on Savings 109.38
Bank Credit (Void Check) 225.00
$14,835.59
Checking Account Balance 1 August 1978 3,785.95
$18,621.54


156


June, 1979












Minutes of Annual Meeting


DISBURSEMENTS
Printing $ 7,853.16
Postage 787.14
Assemble Reprints 123.33
Secretarial Help 750.00
First Federal Savings & Loan (Deposit) $ 3,000.00

Annual Meeting:
Cash for change 100.00
Storter Printing (programs) 179.08
Office Mart (name tags) 16.85
Banquet 1,188.48
Invocation 25.00
Awards 154.16
Miscellaneous Cash Purchases 128.32
Checking $14,305.52
Checking Account Balance 1 August 1978 4,313.08
Cash on hand not deposited 2.94
$18,621.54

ASSETS
First Federal Savings & Loan Balance $ 6,109.38
Cash Balance 1 August 1978 4,316.02
Total Cash on Hand 1 August 1978 $10,425.40

Norman C. Leppla
Treasurer and Business Manager

REPORT OF THE AUDITING COMMITTEE
The Auditing Committee has examined the financial report of the Busi-
ness Manager and found it to be accurate and in good order.
The Committee wishes to express its appreciation to Dr. Leppla for his
time spent in carrying out his duties, and for the excellent manner in which
he has kept the books these past 3 years. The Society has reached its goal of
a savings account in the amount of $10,000.00.

Respectfully submitted,
C. C. Childers
J. L. Knapp, Chairman

A. G. Selhime moved that report of the Auditing Committee be accepted;
second by A. K. Burditt. Motion carried.
D. H. Habeck moved that the report by N. C. Leppla, Treasurer and
Business Manager, be accepted; second by J. A. Reinert. Motion carried.

REPORT OF THE MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE
The Chairman thanks other members of the Committee for their help in
soliciting prospective members. Subscriptions to The Florida Entomologist
totaled 486 in the United States for 1978, the same as in 1977. Foreign sub-
scriptions totaled 19 in 1978 up 5 from the 14 in 1977. Thirty-one Florida
libraries received the journal in 1978, down 3 from the 34 in 1977. Libraries
elsewhere in the U.S.A. totaled 121 subscriptions, up 2 from the 119 of 1977.


157













The Florida Entomologist 62 (2)


June, 1979


Foreign libraries totaled 94 subscriptions in 1978, an increase of 2 over the
92 in 1977. Total subscriptions in 1978 were 751, an increase of 6 over the
745 of 1977. These figures show that Society membership was stable during
1978; however, they do not reflect the 21 new members gained during the
fiscal year because 77 members were dropped from the mailing list between
1976 and 1978 due to delinquent dues.
F. W. Howard
P. G. Koehler
J. A. Mulrennan, Sr.
D. R. Wilson
J. A. Reinert, Chairman

STUDENT PAPERS CONTEST

The Committee considered 7 student presentations at the 61st Annual
Meeting of the Florida Entomological Society. Judges awarded points in 11
different areas relating to presentation, organization, and development of
the main ideas. As in the past, summaries of these results (minus the names)
will be mailed to the addresses that the students listed on their entry forms.
This year, students had to be present to receive their prizes. Although we
initially planned to announce the winners at the luau, a quick change in
plans was made at the Executive Committee meeting on 5 September. By
awarding the prizes the same day as the competition, we managed to de-
crease the time factor and financial hardship for several students. All of the
student participants were invited to attend the luau on Thursday evening as
guests of the Society.
The winners were instructed to use their prizes for the purchase of
entomological books and supplies. Award winners in this year's competition
include:
First ($50) Michael A. Keller-"Notes on the life history of Liriomyza
trifoliearum Spencer, a serpentine leafminer on alfalfa."
Second ($30) Tom H. Atkinson-"Seasonal reproductive activity of Pissodes
nemorensis Germar in North Florida."
Third ($20) Miguel A. Altieri & W. H. Whitcomb-"Manipulation of insect
populations through seasonal disturbances of weed communities."
Our congratulations go to not only these winners but all of the students
who presented a fine series of papers at the Annual Meeting. The Society
also thanks the Florida agrichemical industries for their contributions which
made the prizes for this competition possible.

E. S. Del Fosse
R. G. Koehler
C. A. Musgrave, Chairperson

ANNUAL REPORT-SUBTROPICAL BRANCH
THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY: 1977-78

Officers for 1977-1978 were as follows:

Chairman-John Lilly
Vice Chairman-C. A. Benschoter
Secretary-Treasurer-D. B. Shibles
Representative to the Executive Committee-A. K. Burditt Jr.
The following meetings were held during the 1977-78 year at the Cox
Science Building on the University of Miami campus:


158














DATE

18 October 1977

15 November 1977
20 December 1977
17 January 1978


21 February 1978

21 March 1978

18 April 1978

16 May 1978


Minutes of Annual Meeting 159

SPEAKER AND TOPIC

Discussion of State Society Meeting held in Cape Coral,
Florida-September, 1977
Mr. Don Dody: Training Program for APHIS
No meeting held.
Greg Lotorto, Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry: Citrus
Blackfly.
Jorge Pena: Insects and Mites Attacking Cassava in
Colombia.
Drs. King, Benschoter and Burditt: Fumigation Misad-
ventures in Mexico
Norman Goldenberg: Commercial Pest Control in South
Florida
Dennis Leston: Insects and Seasons in the Wet Tropics.


At the 16 May 1978 meeting new officers were elected for the 1978-79
year:
Chairman-John Lilly
Vice Chairman-Van Waddill
Secretary-Treasurer-D. B. Shibles
Representative to the Executive Committee-A. K. Burditt Jr.
It was also resolved at this meeting that the 1978-79 meetings would be
held on the 3rd Thursday of each month at the USDA Subtropical Horti-
cultural Research Station, 13601 Old Cutler Road, Miami, FL 33158.

Treasurer's Report


Balance year ending May 1977
Debits
Receipts
Balance year ending May 1978


$86.00
35.00
11.00
$62.00


The next meeting of the Subtropical Branch is scheduled for 19 October
1978 at the Subtropical Horticultural Research Station at 2:30 P.M.

D. B. Shibles, Secretary-Treasurer
The preliminary business meeting was adjourned at 12:23 PM.


REPORT OF THE HONORS AND AWARDS COMMITTEE
(Report and presentations were made at the luau)
Before I present the awards for the Committee, I am going to spend a
moment to chide you, the members of the Florida Entomological Society. Our
Society has three types of awards which it can bestow upon members . .
Honorary Membership, Certificate of Appreciation, and Entomologist of the
Year. Choices are made by the Honors and Awards Committee from nomina-
tions by members. This year we had few nominations and a poor response
from you. In the future, please make a better effort to provide nominations
to this Committee.
For Honorary Membership in the Florida Entomological Society, no one
was nominated, and the Committee did not feel the onus to submit a name.
The maximum number of Honorary Memberships possible is nine, and we
have eight. At the present time the Committee preferred to leave open one
space, which gives an option to next year's Committee.













The Florida Entomologist 62(2)


June, 1979


CERTIFICATE OF APPRECIATION
Our first honoree howls from Wolf Point, Montana, where he was born
25 July 1945. He was educated in the desert, receiving the BS degree in 1968
and the MS degree in 1970 from Arizona State University. The PhD degree
was earned at the University of Arizona in 1972.
His major interests lie in behavior, ecology and the culture and rearing
of insects. He has recently co-edited a book on the latter subject. Among
other things, he enjoys photography, traveling and sports.
Academically he holds a position as Adjunct Professor in the Department
of Entomology and Nematology where he has served on student committees
and provided counsel and help to students and faculty alike. He is a member
of the USDA staff at the Insect Attractants, Behavior, and Basic Biology
Research Laboratory in Gainesville.
In spite of all this, we show our appreciation today for his service to the
Florida Entomological Society as Business Manager for the past three years.
He has brought to our Society a keen sense for organization and meticulous
attention to detail, which has convinced the Auditing Committee to give us a
clean bill of health.
The Florida Entomological Society presents this Certificate of Apprecia-
tion to Norman Carey Leppla for services rendered in the field of entomology.
Our second honoree was born in Rome, Georgia, 11 April 1922. He re-
ceived a Bachelor of Arts degree at Emory University in 1946, a Master's
degree from the University of Florida in 1948, and the PhD degree from
Ohio State in 1953.


Fig. 1. Dr. Sidney L. Poe (left) presents a CERTIFICATE OF APPRECIATION
to Dr. Norman C. Leppla for services rendered in the field of entomology.
Photograph by Frank W. Mead, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Depart-
ment of Agriculture and Consumer Services.


160













Minutes of Annual Meeting


Fig. 2. Dr. Sidney L. Poe (left) presents a CERTIFICATE OF APPRECIATION
to Dr. Howard V. Weems, Jr. for services rendered in the field of entomology.
Photograph by Frank W. Mead.
He is a Life Member and Fellow of the American Association for the
Advancement of Science, a Life Member of the American Forestry Associa-
tion, and a member of a host of organizations including the Ecological So-
ciety of America, Association for Tropical Biology, Sociedade Braziliera
Entomologia, and the Washington Entomological Society. His name appears
in Who's Who in the South and Southwest, American Men of Science, and
Leaders in American Science. He has traveled widely in the U.S. and Carib-
bean, having visited almost every state.
By training and interest, our honoree is a taxonomist, specializing in
Diptera, Syrphidae. His contributions to entomology in this state are
numerous. Noteworthy is his service as Curator of the Florida State Collec-
tion of Arthropods and his initiation of the bulletin series: Arthropods of
Florida and Neighboring Lands for which he serves as editor. He serves as
Associate Editor of The Florida Entomologist and is a Past President, Vice-
President and Program Chairman. As if that isn't enough, he also chaired
the Honors and Awards Committee for five consecutive years, a feat for
which he has earned my unfaltering admiration. He is also an avid and loyal
Gator fan, and subscribes to the "wait 'til,next year" hope club. The Florida
Entomological Society presents this Certificate of Appreciation to Howard
Vincent Weems, Jr. for services rendered in the field of entomology.
SPECIAL AWARD
This year, the Florida Entomological Society has an opportunity to rec-
ognize and honor one of its members, who, for more than a decade has had
much impact on the caliber and function, if not the general philosophy of the
organization.













The Florida Entomologist 62 (2)


June, 1979


Our third honoree was born 17 May 1924 in Springfield, Massachusetts.
He received the BS degree from the University of Massachusetts in 1949 and
the PhD degree from Cornell in 1953. He served in the U.S. Air Force where
he attained the rank of 2nd Lieutenant. He became a faculty member at the
University of Florida and served as Assistant Professor from 1953-1963, as
Associate Professor from 1963-1968, and as Professor from 1968 to the
present. He has been engaged in research and teaching at both undergradu-
ate and graduate levels, and has served as advisor and counselor to numerous
students in the entomology department.
Our honoree is a member of Sigma Xi, the Entomological Society of
America, the Florida State Horticultural Society, and the Florida Entomo-
logical Society. He has served the Society as an executive, holding offices for
Secretary, Program Chairman, Constitution Revision Committee Chairman,
and as Associate Editor and finally Editor of The Florida Entomologist.
He has brought to this publication the same high ideals and principles by
which his career has been characterized. This journal has advanced under
his leadership, to its present international stature, primarily because of the
stringent policy requirements placed by this man on the quality of its manu-
scripts.
While the subject editor system presently in operation provides much
needed help, this has not always been the case and our honoree has at times
faced demanding and precedent-setting decisions without benefit of colleague
support or obvious concern.
There is no doubt that our Society owes a greater debt than we are able


Fig. 3. Dr. Stratton H. Kerr (left) receives a SPECIAL AWARD from Dr.
Sidney L. Poe in the form of a plaque inscribed, "To Dr. S. H. Kerr For
Service To The Florida Entomologist As Editor 1967-1978." Photograph by
Frank W. Mead.


162













Minutes of Annual Meeting


163


to pay to Dr. Stratton H. Kerr for his unselfish and tireless effort to make
our Society and its publication something we can acclaim with pride.
The Honors and Awards Committee offers a special award to Editor Kerr
as a token of its appreciation. This gift is inscribed with the Society logo and
a plaque which reads "To Dr. S. H. Kerr for Service To The Florida En-
tomologist as Editor 1967-1978"

RECOGNITION OF THE PRESIDENT
Finally, the Honors and Awards Committee recognized the yoeman's job
done by its 1977-1978 president, John B. Taylor. As you heard in his address,
"Through the Looking Glass," several major changes were instituted . .
changes which required tough decisions and key appointments which only
the President could make. These were faced with courage and forthrightness
of which all members should be justly proud. So to our President, John
"The-Buck-Stops-Here" Taylor, we provide this gavel to serve as a reminder
of Lewis Carroll, elephant quarterbacks and barefoot millipedes.
Ladies and gentlemen, fellow members, this completes the report of the
Honors and Awards Committee.
Respectfully submitted,
J. E. Brogdon
R. J. Gouger
S. L. Poe, Chairman


Fig. 4. Outgoing President John B. Taylor (left) and Incoming President
Robert F. Brooks share congratulations at the conclusion of the 61st Annual
Meeting. President Taylor earlier had received special presidential recogni-
tion of a job well done in the form of an engraved gavel. Photograph by
Frank W. Mead.













The Florida Entomologist 62 (2)


June, 1979


The final business meeting was called to order by President Taylor at
10:57 AM on 8 September 1978. Forty-two members were present.

REPORT OF THE PUBLIC RELATIONS COMMITTEE
This report is given by the Public Relations Committee whose primary
responsibilities are to promote the Florida Entomological Soicety and the
profession of entomology.
A professionally prepared news release on the 61st Annual Meeting of the
Society was sent to all newspapers, radio, and TV stations in Florida. Also
the announcement of the annual meeting was sent to many state and national
publications. During the meeting in St. Augustine several local newspapers,
radio, and TV stations conducted interviews.
Much time was spent by several committee members on the Questionnaire
concerning The Florida Entomologist and various other matters promoting
our journal.

Respectfully submitted,
R. W. Flowers
W. B. Gresham, Jr.
R. L. Lipsey
F. G. Maxwell
W. L. Peters, Chairman

REPORT OF THE PROGRAM COMMITTEE
There were few changes in the program. Total cost for mailing out the
program came to $131.10.
C. S. Barfield
E. S. Del Fosse
J. A. Reinert
R. F. Brooks, Chairman

REPORT OF THE LOCAL ARRANGEMENTS COMMITTEE
We wish to thank Industry, Society members, and all those volunteers who
readily assumed responsibility for the many tasks necessary for holding the
61st Annual Meeting. Special acknowledgements are due to Jim Flavin and
Ray Maltby (Hospitality Hour), Warren Adlerz (golf), Bill Denton (ten-
nis), the Florida A & M University students handling mail-outs, and Janet
Del Fosse and Helen Workman (registration) for their generous efforts.
Industry representatives contributing to the Hospitality Hour expenses
of $323.68 included Bill Bear (DuPont), Dave Benson (Uniroyal), Tom
Bridges (Hoffman-La Roche), Bob Clark (Abbott), Jim Christie (Agrico),
Jim Flavin (Mobay), Dennis Hale (Dow), Ray Maltby (Stauffer), Ted
McClary (ICI), Bill Moore (Pennwalt), Ken Muzak (American Cyanamid),
Dick Shaw (Union Carbide), Bill Stone (Upjohn), John Taylor (Ciba-
Geigy), Kent Taylor (Nor-Am), and William Touchton (Majestic Pest
Control). Unused funds of $1.32 were given to the Society.

W. C. Adlerz
J. R. Christie
W. H. Denton
J. P. Flavin
R. H. Maltby
R. B. Workman, Chairman


164













Minutes of Annual Meeting


A postscript to this report was supplied by the new Business Manager
E. S. Del Fosse. His records showed that 80 rooms were occupied by people
attending the 61st Annual Meeting; that 148 persons registered for the meet-
ing; and that 280 persons attended the meeting at some time or other during
5-8 September 1978.-F. W. Mead

NECROLOGY REPORT
Four members passed away during this last year.
Mr. Harvey J. Crawford of Cocoa Beach died on 22 June 1978.
Dr. Melvin Joseph Janes (1909-1978) died early in the summer of 1978 at
his home in Jacksonville. He was recently retired from his job with the De-
partment of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Agricul-
tural Research and Education Center at Belle Glade.
Mr. William H. Pierce (1925-1978) was a combination Entomologist-
Quarantine and Training Supervisor with the Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville. He
passed away in April. Mr. Pierce was formerly with USDA-APHIS as a
Plant Quarantine Inspector.
Dr. Maurice W. Provost (1914-1977) died 1 December at his home in
Vero Beach. He was Director of the State of Florida Medical Entomological
Laboratory at Vero Beach from its inception in 1954 until he passed away.
Frank W. Mead, Secretary

REPORT OF THE RESOLUTIONS COMMITTEE
Resolution No. 1
WHEREAS the Florida Entomological Society, meeting at the Ponce de
Leon Lodge and Country Club, St. Augustine, Florida, has found the facil-
ities to be convenient and attractive and the staff to be hospitable and
courteous, which has greatly contributed to the success of the meeting,
THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that the Society express its appreciation to
the Hotel management and staff,
AND BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Society be instructed to write a
letter of appreciation to the Hotel management.
Resolution No. 2
WHEREAS Eddy Mussallem, Mayor of St. Augustine, willingly gave of his
time and efforts to give the welcome to the Society for the City of St.
Augustine, which effectively opened the 61st Annual Meeting of the Florida
Entomological Society,
THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that the Society express its appreciation to
Mayor Mussallem,
AND BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Society be instructed to write a
letter of appreciation to him.
Resolution No. 3
WHEREAS the Local Arrangements Committee has provided excellent or-
ganization and facilities for the 61st Annual Meeting of the Soociety,
AND WHEREAS the speakers who submitted papers have taken time and
effort to share with us their work and thoughts,
AND WHEREAS the committee on student papers once again encouraged
and promulgated an excellent program on the research of our student en-
tomologists,













The Florida Entomologist 62(2)


June, 1979


AND WHEREAS support from Industry provided a social hour that en-
couraged fellowship and was enjoyed by all participants,
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that the Society commend and express its ap-
preciation to those individuals who helped make the meeting a success.
Resolution No. 4
WHEREAS the following individuals, John B. Taylor, Robert F. Brooks,
Frank W. Mead, and other Executive Committee members have served the
Society in many different ways this past year,
AND WHEREAS Norman C. Leppla has capably served as Business Man-
ager for the past 3 years and has unselfishly given his time, effort, and
knowledge for the Society,
AND WHEREAS Dr. S. H. Kerr has served as Associate Editor for 3 years
and Editor of The Florida Entomologist for the past 12 years and has been
instrumental in developing this publication into an entomological journal of
national and international reputation,
THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that the Society commend these individuals
and express its appreciation for their services to the Society and to the sci-
ence of entomology.
Resolution No. 5
WHEREAS the Florida Entomological Society is in a period of self-
evaluation and transition with a new slate of officers,
THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that the Society be instructed to continue
efforts towards strengthening the national and international reputation of
the Society and its publication The Florida Entomologist.
Resolution No. 6
WHEREAS each state and federal agency issues numerous policy state-
ments on the impact of chemicals, especially pesticides, on human cancer,
AND WHEREAS each of these agencies has its own guidelines for what
constitutes a human cancer threat,
BE IT RESOLVED that the Society support Congressman Andy Ireland's bill
calling for a unified federal cancer assessment policy,
AND BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Society be instructed to write a
letter in support of H. R. 1032A.
D. E. Short
P. G. Koehler, Chairman
D. H. Habeck moved that the report of the Resolutions Committee be
approved; second by A. G. Selhime. Motion carried.

REPORT OF THE NOMINATING COMMITTEE
The Nominating Committee met 6 September 1978. We are pleased to
submit the following names as candidates for the various offices. All candi-
dates have been contacted and have expressed their willingness to serve the
Society.
President: R. F. Brooks
Vice President: N. C. Leppla
Secretary: F. W. Mead
Treasurer and Business Manager: E. S. Del Fosse
Executive Committee Member-at-Large: R. E. Brown (to replace E. C.
Beck whose 2-year term expires this year)
J. C. Allen
R. I. Sailer
A. G. Selhime, Chairman













Minutes of Annual Meeting


D. H. Habeck moved that the nominations be closed and the slate of
nominees be approved; seconded. Motion carried.
Incoming President Brooks was escorted to the podium by 2 ex-Presidents.
Outgoing President Taylor presented the gavel to President Brooks. Brooks
called for any old or new business. H. V. Weems, Jr. moved that the Society
adopt a resolution stating that it be mandatory for the Presidential Address
to be published in The Florida Entomologist. Motion was seconded and ap-
proved to become effective with the next annual meeting.
The final business meeting adjourned at noon 8 September 1978.
Other committees functioning during this fiscal year were: SUSTAINING
MEMBERSHIP, James L. Taylor, Chairman; special ad hoc QUESTIONNAIRE
COMMITTEE: R. C. Bullock, A. K. Burditt, Jr., N. C. Leppla, C. A. Musgrave,
and W. L. Peters, Chairman.

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MEETINGS, 1977-1978


22 November 1977
7 February 1978
28 February 1978
26 April 1978

16 May 1978
18 July 1978

26 July 1978
5 September 1978
8 September 1978


USDA Insects Affecting Man Lab., Gainesville.
University of Florida AREC, Lake Alfred.
USDA Attractants Lab., Gainesville.
USDA Attractants Lab., Gainesville; unofficial organiz-
ing meeting.
USDA Attractants Lab., Gainesville.
USDA Attractants Lab., Gainesville; unofficial organiz-
ing meeting.
USDA Attractants Lab., Gainesville.
Ponce de Leon Lodge and Country Club, St. Augustine.
Ponce de Leon Lodge and Country Club, St. Augustine.
Frank W. Mead, Secretary




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