Title: Florida Entomologist
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00111
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1979
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00111
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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(ISSN 0015-4040)

Volume 62, No. 4 December, 1979

HYDORN, S. B., AND W. H. WHITCOMB-Effects of Larval Diet on
Chrysopa rufilabris ...-..............- ------.--------- 293
COSCARON, S., AND G. B. FAIRCHILD-Identity of Silvius rufipes ......... 298
COSCARON, S., C. B. PHILIP, AND G. B. FAIRCHILD-Further Notes on the
Pangoniini of the Austral Region of South America (Diptera:
Tabanidae) ...-----....... ------.--------------- 301
LANCIANI, C. A.-A New Species of Water Mite Parasitizing the Back-
swimmer Buenoa scimitra ------------------------------. ------ 304
Diaprepes abbreviatus Larvae on Selected Native and Orna-
mental Florida Plants ----------------- --. 309
MUCHMORE, W. B.-Pseudoscorpions from Florida and the Caribbean
Area. 8. A New Species of Bituberochernes from the Virgin
Islands (Chernetidae) .----... --------- ---....- ---..-... 313
MUCHMORE, W. B.-Pseudoscorpions from Florida and the Caribbean
Area. 9. Typhloronchus, a New Genus from the Virgin Islands
(Ideoroncidae) .- -.-..... --- --..---...... ------- --.... 317
MUMA, M. H.-Arid-Grassland Solpugid Population Variations in
Southwestern New Mexico -..---- ------------..... --- ........ 320
FRANK, J. H.-A New Species of Proteinus Latreille (Coleoptera:
Staphylinidae) from Florida -------..---.... ---- ..-........- 329
FROST, S. W.-A Preliminary Study of North American Insects Asso-
ciated with Elderberry Blossoms ----------.---.--------------.--...- ..-..... 341
REGAS-WILLIAMS, K. A., AND D. H. HABECK-Life History of a Poison-
Ivy Sawfly Arge humeralis (Beauvois) (Hymenoptera:
Argidae) -------..------- ---.-------------- ........ 356
ROHANI, I. B., AND H. L. CROMROY-Taxonomy and Distribution of
Chiggers (Acarina: Trombiculidae) in Northcentral Florida -_. 363
LESTON, D.-The Species of Dagbertus (Hemiptera: Miridae) Asso-
ciated with Avocado in Florida -...-.----- -- ---------...---.._. 376
HOWARD, F. W.-Studies of the Host Plant Suitability of Ardisia
solanaceae and Citrus jambhiri for Citrus Blackfly and Citrus
W hitefly .-------.. -------- ...--- .............----- -............... 380
Continued on Back Cover

An International Journal Published by
The Florida Entomological Society



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..... E. C. Beck
. F. W. Mead
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Editor ... .
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This issue mailed November 29, 1979

Hydorn & Whitcomb: Chrysopa Larval Diets



Department of Entomology
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611

Larvae of the polyphagous predator (' ,y .', rufilabris Burmeister
were reared at constant temperature on several prey regimes including:
Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera), Drosophila melanogaster
Meigan (Diptera), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera), and several
aphid species. As adults the test lacewings were all maintained on a similar
diet comprised of a water paste of Wheast and sucrose. Larval diet sig-
nificantly affected larval mortality, developmental rate, and adult weight,
but did not affect adult body length. Under the test conditions, the aphid and
Phthorimaea regimes were superior to either Drosophila or Tribolium as
larval diets for C. rufilabris. Apparently, prey species which stimulate a high
feeding rate in C. rufilabris may even so be nutritionally inadequate.

Chrysopids, or green lacewings, are important predators of arthropods in
various crops, both in the context of indigenous natural enemies as well as
in inundative release programs (Doutt and Hagen 1950, Lingren et al. 1968,
Ridgway and Kinzer 1974, Whitcomb and Bell 1964).
Hydorn (1971) found that (C/ ,.,s .,fiil.,.. Burmeister, a lacewing
distributed throughout much of the United States and into Canada, was
abundant in the vicinity of Gainesville, FL, where it occurred commonly in
citrus, cereal, forage and row crops. The major predatory impact of this
species occurs during the larval stage, the larvae preying on a wide spectrum
of soft-bodied insects and other arthropods (Ewing and Ivy 1943; Griffiths
1951; Putman 1937, 1955; Smith 1922; Wilson and Simberloff 1969).
Putman (1932, 1937) found that C. ,.rl,!i reared on certain prey
species thrived better than it did on others, in terms of larval survival and
development rate. Thompson (1951) stressed the importance of investigating
host specificity of predacious insects, and it is increasingly apparent that
polyphagous predators are more specific in their host relations than was
formerly believed (Hagen et al. 1976). Clearly, investigations of the effects
of different prey species on predator development and reproduction are
prerequisites for successful utilization of these predators in biological control
The present study evaluates performance of C. rufilabris on several larval
prey regimes in terms of juvenile mortality, developmental rate, adult size,
and longevity and fecundity of adult females.

Chrysopa rufilabris was reared and maintained as described by Hydorn

'Neuroptera: Chrysopidae. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No.

The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

December, 1979

and Whitcomb (1972). To minimize error due to variation in parental diet,
progeny of field collected lacewings were maintained on a larval diet of
Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and their progeny (F,) were used as the
test specimens. The F1 adults were maintained in groups of 15 or fewer
specimens per adult maintenance unit and were fed an artificial diet of
Wheast, sucrose, and sufficient water to give a paste consistency. Eggs
produced within 3 weeks following the onset of oviposition were removed
from the adult units at 48 h intervals and placed individually in 7 dram
plastic snap-cap vials for rearing.
Upon eclosion, the F, larvae were randomly placed on these prey regimes
in the numbers indicated: Drosophila melanogaster adults freshly killed by
freezing (n = 34), pupae and prepupae of Tribolium castaneum (n = 85),
Phthorimaea operculella eggs and coddled mature larvae (Doutt and Finney
1947) (n = 42), and nymphs and adults of the aphids Myzus persicae
(Sulzer), Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris), Aphis spiraecola Patch, A. rhamni
Fonscolombe, and A. craccivora Koch (total reared on aphids = 56).
The test specimens were maintained in a controlled light and temperature
chamber under conditions of 14 h L: 10 h D, and 26 + 20C. Humidity was
kept more or less uniform among the various diet treatments with the in-
clusion of moist cellu-cotton in vials with the drier prey types, Drosophila
and Tribolium (Hydorn 1971). Prey was provided in excess amounts and was
renewed as necessary at 12 to 48 h intervals until the onset of cocoon produc-
Immediately following emergence from the cocoon, adults were sexed and
weighed on an automatic analytic balance, and body length from labrum to
abdominal apex was measured against a straight edge. Females were coded
with acrylic paint on the wings to allow identification of individual speci-
mens. Test adults were confined in adult maintenance units and fed Wheast-
based artificial diet. To permit mating and facilitate handling, adults were
maintained together in small bisexual groups of 5 or fewer specimens per
unit, segregated according to larval diet. Adults were transferred to new
units at 24 to 48 h intervals, depending on number of eggs deposited. Daily
fecundity rate for each female in units containing more than 1 female was
estimated by dividing the number of eggs deposited/day by an estimated
number of females ovipositing each day. Additional information concerning
procedures is given by Hydorn (1971).
Statistical methods are given in the text; results are expressed according
to the 5% level of significance.


Larval diet exerted a marked effect on juvenile mortality of C. rufilabris
(Fig. 1). Analysis of number of instars survived by ANOVA and Scheffe's
test indicated that survival was significantly less in specimens reared on
Tribolium than in those given any other diet.
Aphids and Phthorimaea, the prey regimes associated with the highest
survival to maturity in test specimens, promoted rapid larval development
especially in early instar lacewings (Fig. 2). Analysis of the duration of the
post-ecolosion juvenile period by ANOVA and Scheffe's test for all specimens
surviving to maturity indicated that development in lacewings reared on
Tribolium was significantly prolonged as opposed to those fed Phthorimaea.

Hydorn & Whitcomb: Chrysopa Larval Diets




Survival to maturity

Mortality within

O Pupation without
cocoon construction

SExternal 3rd instar

2nd instar mortality

1st instar mortality

Fig. 1. Analysis of juvenile mortality of Chrysopa rufilabris reared on 4
basic prey regimes.

12- Larval prey regime; no. lacewings tested

S10- Phthorimaea;17 Drosophila; 31

) 8- Aphids: 39 Tribolium; 27

Q)4 -
E X4
a> 1

Stadium 1 Stadium 2 Stadium 3 Cocoon

Fig. 2. Mean durations of larval stadia and the cocoon period in Chrysopa
rufilabris reared at 26.0 + 20C on 4 basic prey regimes. S.E. = standard
error, X = mean.


The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

December, 1979

The prolongation of larval development in lacewings reared on Tribolium
may have contributed to increased adult size (Table 1). Although analysis
by ANOVA and Scheffe's test of the body length data did not indicate sig-
nificance, similar analysis of weight data indicated that specimens given
Tribolium weighed significantly more as adults than did those reared on
The longevity of mated females reared on aphids was significantly pro-
longed relative to that of females reared on Drosophila, as determined by
ANOVA and Scheffe's test (Table 2). Similar analysis indicated that the
average estimated duration of the oviposition period was significantly longer
for lacewings reared on aphids than for those reared on either Drosophila or
Tribolium. Estimated total fecundity/female (Table 2) was derived by sum-
mation of all estimated daily fecundity values for each specimen. Subjection
of the estimated total fecundity data to the above statistical procedures in-
dicated that the fecundity of the specimens reared on aphids was significantly
greater than for those reared on Drosophila.


Smith (1922) proposed that C. rufilabris is primarily aphidophagous, and
results of the present study tend to support this hypothesis. The adequacy of
the aphid regimes as prey for C. rufilabris did not result from a mixed
species effect, since most specimens reared on aphids received only 1 species
as prey. Data obtained from specimens reared on various aphid species were
combined for the purpose of analysis, since differences in results obtained
with specimens reared under the stated conditions on the given aphid species
were small.
The adequacy of the Phthorimaea regime as a diet for C. rufilabris and
the frequency of feeding records on various Lepidoptera indicate that mem-


Larval Body length Adult weight
prey No. (mm) (mg)
regime reared Sex (X S.E.) (X - S.E.)

Phthorimaea 5 &$ 10.3 0.37 5.8 0.22
7 9 9 10.6 + 0.34 6.5 0.30
12 Total 10.5 0.27 6.3 0.28
Aphids 10 $ S 10.6 0.25 5.7 0.12
17 9 9 10.9 0.25 6.6 0.25
27 Total 10.8 0.18 6.2 0.20
Drosophila 7 8 3 10.4 0.05 5.3 0.06
11 9 9 10.7 0.18 5.8 0.41
18 Total 10.5 0.13 5.6 0.22
Tribolium 9 S& 10.5 0.16 6.1 0.23
11 9 9 10.9 0.14 7.1 0.31
20 Total 10.7 0.12 6.7 0.22


Hydorn & Whitcomb: Chrysopa Larval Diets



Larval No. Adult oviposition
prey mated longevity-days period-days Eggs/female
regime 9 9 ( _ S.E.) (K S.E.) (X S.E.)

Phthorimaea 7 56.2 10.9 38.8 9.3 111.5 37.2
Aphids* 12 71.6 9.0 59.3 8.2 188.7 26.5
Drosophila 7 29.1 4.0 14.7 3.7 29.3 13.25
Tribohum 11 45.6 7.0 24.6 3.3 72.2 7.75

*Aphis craccivora, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

bers of this order may be important prey of this lacewing under natural
conditions. Putman (1932) found that survival to maturity of larvae of
C. rufilabris and C. plorabunda Fitch reared on eggs of oriental fruit moth
was higher than that for specimens given other (unspecified) diets.
Reduced survival to maturity and decreased fecundity of specimens
reared on Tribolium and Drosophila regimes indicated these to be relatively
inferior as prey sources for C. rufilabris. Performance of the lacewings
reared on Tribolium apparently was uninfluenced by a second generation
effect, since juvenile mortality and rate of development did not differ sta-
tistically by the t test from corresponding data for first generation lacewings
given the same diet. Relative inadequacy of Tribolium as prey for the lace-
wings may have derived in part from its low acceptability as prey for the
young larvae; several first instar specimens given this regime died of ap-
parent starvation. However, the majority of lacewings reared on this regime
that failed to survive to maturity appeared to have fed normally, and died
as a result of molting distress.
Avid consumption by C. rufilabris of any prey species did not necessarily
indicate that such prey was nutritionally adequate. This was clearly shown
when 10 specimens that were given Drosophila during the first instar were
changed after molting to a diet of Tetranychus gloveri Banks. Although the
lacewings fed avidly upon the mites, this diet failed to support development
and all larvae died before undergoing a second molt.
The situation was similar although less extreme in specimens reared only
on Drosophila. Observations indicated this to be highly acceptable prey for
the lacewings throughout the larval feeding period, yet specimens reared on
Drosophila suffered a high incidence of pupal mortality, and surviving adults
were small and shortlived with low fecundity.
The results of this study indicate that efficiency of pest control programs
involving mass releases of rapid-developing, general predators such as C.
rufilabris, may be increased with adequate preliminary research. This should
confirm nutritional adequacy of target species, as well as their acceptability
as prey to the predator in question. This would especially be important in
situations where alternative prey is scarce, and the target species remains
susceptible to predation for sufficient duration to permit effective numerical
response by the predator.

The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

December, 1979

DOUTT, R. L., AND G. L. FINNEY. 1947. Mass-culture technique for Dibrachys
cavus. J. Econ. Ent. 40: 577.
-- AND K. S. HAGEN. 1950. Biological control measures applied against
Pseudococcus maritimus on pears. J. Econ. Ent. 43: 94-6.
EWING, H. W., AND E. E. IVY. 1943. Some factors influencing bollworm
populations and damage. J. Econ. Ent. 36: 602-6.
GRIFFITHS, J. T. 1951. Insect parasitism and related biological factors as
concerned with citrus insect and mite control. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Rep.
(1951): 154.
HAGEN, K. S., S. BOMBOSH, AND J. A. MCMURTRY. 1976. The biology and
impact of predators. Pages 93-142 in C. B. Huffaker and P. S. Mes-
senger, eds., Theory and Practice of Biological Control. Academic
Press, Inc., New York.
HYDORN, S. B. 1971. Food preferences of Chrysopa rufilabris Burmeister in
north central Florida. M.S. Thesis (unpublished). Univ. of Florida,
Gainesville. 79 p.
AND W. 1H. WHITCOMB. 1972. Effects of parental age at oviposition
on progeny of Chrysopa rufilabris. Fla. Ent. 55: 79-85.
LINDGREN, P. D., R. L. RIDGWAY, AND S. L. JONES. 1968. Consumption by
several common arthropod predators of eggs and larvae of two
Heliothis species that attack cotton. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 61: 613-8.
PUTMAN, W. L. 1932. Chrysopids as a factor in the natural control of the
oriental fruit moth. Can. Ent. 64: 121-6.
S1937. Biological notes on the Chrysopidae. Can. J. Res. 15: 29-37.
S1955. Bionomics of Stethorus punctillum Weise (Coleoptera: Coc-
cinellidae) in Ontario. Can. Ent. 87: 9-33.
RIDGWAY, R. L., AND R. E. KINZER. 1974. Chrysopids as predators of crop
pests. Entomophaga, Mem. H. S. 7: 45-51.
SMITH, R. C. 1922. The biology of the Chrysopidae. Cornell Univ., Ithaca,
New York. Mem. 58: 1291-372.
THOMPSON, W. R. 1951. The specificity of host relation in predaceous in-
sects. Can. Ent. 83: 262-9.
WHITCOMB, W. H., AND K. BELL. 1964. Predaceous insects, spiders and
mites of Arkansas cotton fields. Univ. Ark. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 690.
84 p.
WILSON, E. 0., AND D. SIMBERLOFF. 1969. Experimental zoogeography of
islands. Ecology 50: 267-96.



Restudy of the holotype of Silvius rufipes Macquart 1850 proves that it
belongs in Protodasyapha Enderlein. The species was described from Cor-

'University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series Number 1642.
2Universidad Nacional de la Plata, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Paseo del
Bosque, La Plata, Argentina.
3Dept. of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611, U.S.A.


Coscaron & Fairchild: Silvius rufipes

rientes, Argentina in error; it is actually Chilean. Genitalia and head struc-
tures of the unique female type are figured.

This species was described by Macquart in 1850 as from "Bresil, Cor-
rientes, d'Orbigny." Kriber (1934) did not recognize it or study the type.
Fairchild (1956) studied the 9 type in Paris, but due to its exceedingly





Figs. 1-8. Protodasyapha rufipes (Macquart), holotype 9. 1, head in
front view; 2, head in side view; 3, antenna; 4, palpus; 5, sternite VIII and
gonapophysis; 6, cerci, tergites IX, X and hypoproct; 7, spermatheca; 8,
genital fork and bases of spermathecal ducts.


The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

dirty condition and his unfamiliarity with the temperate Neotropical fauna,
he placed it in Veprius with a query, a treatment repeated in the Neotropical
Catalogue (Fairchild 1971). Neither of us was satisfied with this tentative
placement; Coscaron in particular was intrigued by the locality, since Cor-
rientes is mostly a plains region in northeastern Argentina, far from the
known habitat of other species of Veprius. Fortunately, a restudy of the
type in Paris by Luis Alberto Pereira, an assistant of Coscaron's and a
competent entomological illustrator, has enabled us to present here illustra-
tions of the type which clarify its position. Sr. Pereira with admirable acuity
also checked the number 15/43 on the type with the old registers of the
Museum, which Fairchild had neglected to do, and discovered that the speci-
mens under this number were Chilean insects given to the Museum by
Claudio Gay. The D'Orbigny, Corrientes locality published by Macquart thus
seems to be an error. The collector, Gay, according to Papavero (1971: 148)
spent many years in Chile, but is not known to have visited Argentina or
Brazil, except in passing.
In spite of the dirt-encrusted condition of the type, it agrees structurally
with Protodasyapha hirtuosa Philippi 1865, as figured by Coscaron (1976:
82), except for the curious ventral apical spur on the 2nd antennal segment,
and the apparently more protuberant frontal callus and ocellar tubercle
when seen in side view. Should further detailed comparisons prove the 2
names synonymous, rufipes would have priority by 15 years. We prefer
merely to place rufipes in Protodasyapha, leaving for the future the de-
termination of its possible conspecificity with hirtuosa. We present Figs. 1-8
of head structures and genitalia of the holotype for comparison with those of
P. hirtuosa given by Coscaron (1976, Fig. 2).
We are most grateful to Dr. Loic Matile of the Laboratoire d'Entomologie
of the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris for allowing us to
study and dissect the unique type of Silvius rufipes.


COSCARON, S. 1976. Contribucion al conocimiento de los Tabanidae neo-
tropicales II. Los Pangoniini del sur de Sudamerica y datos sobre la
tribu Scepsidini. Rev. Mus. de la Plata, n.s. 12(114) : 75-116.
FAIRCHILD, G. B. 1956. Synonymical notes on neotropical flies of the family
Tabanidae (Dipt.). Smithson. Misc. Collect. 131(3) : 1-38.
FAIRCHILD, G. B. 1971. Family Tabanidae in A catalogue of the Diptera of
the Americas south of the United States, Fasc. 28, 1-163. Mus. Zool.,
Univ. S. Paulo.
KRSBER, 0. 1934. Catalogo dos Tabanidae da America do Sul e Central, in-
cluindo o Mexico e as Antilhas. Rev. Ent. (Rio de J.) 4(2-3): 222-76,
PAPAVERO, N. 1971. Essays on the history of Neotropical Dipterology, with
special reference to collectors (1750-1905). Vol. 1. Mus. Zool., Univ.
S. Paulo, p. i-vii, 1-216, illust.

December, 1979

Coscaron et al.: South American Pangoniini





The study of new material available since Coscaron's publication on the
same subject (1976) enables us to describe 2 new species of Veprius from
Chile, and to furnish additional records, also from Chile, for 2 species of
Protodasyapha and 1 of Chaetopalpus.

The primitive Pangoniini occurring in the southern part of South Amer-
ica are of particular interest on account of possible transantarctic relation-
ships with Australia and Southern Africa. The present publication completes
and supplements work previously published by the senior author (Coscaron

Veprius apatolesteus Coscaron, Philip, and Fairchild, NEW SPECIES
A blackish species with grayish pollinosity on head and its appendages.
Frons laterally elevated. Hairs of ventral part of body and eyes grayish,
tibiae yellowish brown.
HOLOTYPE : Body length 11.5 mm, wing 9.0 mm. Head (Figs. 1 and 2)
blackish, eyes black with greenish reflections but no bands (relaxed). Frons
black, shiny laterally; subcallus, face, occiput, palpi, and scape and pedicel
of antenna black with grayish pollinosity. Third antennal segment with style
black, basal plate grayish brown basally. Proboscis black, fleshy. Hairs of
frons, basal antennal segments, and proboscis black; hairs of eyes, occiput,
palpi, and beard light gray. Thorax and abdomen black with brownish-gray
tones dorsally and grayish pollinosity ventrally; hairs whitish gray, as are
those on legs. Wings with veins dark brown and membrane brown tinted.
Coxae, femora, apices of tibiae and tarsi blackish, tibia otherwise light
brown. Frons divergent below, with basal portion elevated, 3 large ocelli at
vertex, subcallus elevated, frontal index 1.3 (height/basal width).
Antennae with robust scape, basal plate well-differentiated, with in-
distinct annulations; style 4-segmented. Palpi subcylindrical, quite straight,
apically pointed and similar to those of Veprius presbiter Rond. Proboscis
short and membranous. Wings with short appendix on vein R,.
Paratype females of similar coloration with body lengths 11 to 11.5 mm
and wing lengths 10 mm.
Genitalia (9) : Very similar to Veprius presbiter, but showing differences
in the genital fork, which has the base and lateral arms less sclerotized in
the new species. Sternite VIII is darker on the posterior border and paler on
the midline.

1University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series Number 1641.
2Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museu, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, Paseo del
Bosque, La Plata, Argentina.
3California Academy of Sciences, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, CA 94118, U.S.A.
4Dept. Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville. 32611, U.S.A.

302 The Florida Entomologist 62 (4) December, 1979

3 f) [" hed "'fi4 t el sp. 5) \ frons;

) a f h' ro
\ ...: ,,

>T .

s 7 H .

Figs. 1-7. Veprius apatolesteus n. sp. 1) 9 head, front view; 2) fronts;
3) 8 head, front view; and 4) 8 antenna. Veprius fulvus n. sp. 5) 9 frons;
6) Y antenna; and 7) 9 palpus. Figures of heads, fronts, and appendages
are each to the same scale; the heads are least enlarged, and the antennae
and palpus are most enlarged.

ALLOTYPE n : Body length 12 mm, wing 11 mm. Agrees in color with the
female, but since dorsal pilosity is denser, the lighter colors are more ap-
parent. Eyes iridescent violet black with more bluish tones in the area of
small facets, with abundant gray pilosity. Head structures (Figs. 3, 4), in
profile flatter than illustrated for Veprius presbiter (Coscaron 1967, Fig. 5).
Antennae with scape and pedicel robust (Fig. 4) and basal plate relatively
slender with pseudoannulations. Shape of palpus as in Veprius presbiter.
Paratype males show no differences from the allotype except for small dif-
ferences in size. Body lengths 10.5 to 12 mm and wing lengths 10 to 11 mm.
Genitalia ( ) : No appreciable differences from Veprius presbiter observed.
MATERIAL EXAMINED: CHILE, Coquimbo, Pefion, 8-XII-1952, holotype 9.
Illapel, Canela Baja, 23, 24-X-1961, Pefia coll., allotype 8, plus 2 9 1 S
paratypes; other paratypes, Illapel, El Calabazo, 21, 22-XI-1961, Pefia coll.,
1 3 ; 8 km N San Pedro, 16, 17-XI-1961, Pefia coll., 2 9 4 8, Fray Jorge, 15

collection of L. L. Pechuman; and remaining paratypes, 2 9, 1 S in
)..r-T-. ^ ^ -.. _
-* '. /

collection of L. L. Pechuman; and remaining paratypes, 2 $, 1 $ in

Coscaron et al.: South American Pangoniini 303

Canadian National Collection and in Museo de la Plata, La Plata, Argentina,
1 & 1 9.
Veprius presbiter differs from the present new species in being darker,
the pilosity of eyes and body dark greyish brown, body and appendages
black. The face and head appendages with blackish pollinosity, legs wholly
black, and wings darker. The head is relatively narrower with the frons
flatter. The scape and pedicel of the male antennae are less robust and the
basal plate without pseudoannulations. There are also slight differences in
the sclerotization of the female genital fork and 8th sternite.

Veprius fulvus Coscaron, Philip, and Fairchild, NEW SPECIES
A dark brown species with antennae, legs and anterior border of wings
HOLOTYPE : Body length 10 mm, wing 9 mm. Eyes violaceus black. Frons
blackish brown; occiput, subcallus and face brown with dark gray pollinosity.
Antennae yellowish, palpi and proboscis dark brown. Hairs on the eyes,
occiput and antennae light brown, on face and palpi blackish brown. Frons
divergent below, elevated meso-basally and with smooth, transverse median
depression. Ocelli prominent (Fig. 5). Frontal index 1.6. Basal plate of 3rd
antennal segment with pseudoannulations (Fig. 6), the style not clearly
distinguishable from basal plate. Palpus subcylindrical (Fig. 7). Thorax,
abdomen, coxae and femora dark brown, with concolorous hairs. Tibiae and
tarsi yellow with yellowish brown hairs. Wing membrane lightly tinted with
veins C, Sc, R1 and M yellowish, the remainder brown.
Genitalia ( ): Very similar to Veprius presbiter, with slight differences in
sternite VIII which shows a deeper concavity in the distal border, and cerci
with the internal sides somewhat longer, giving a subtriangular appearance.
MATERIAL EXAMINED: "CHILE, Valparaiso, November, 1900" (from Reed
coll.). Holotype 9 deposited in California Academy of Sciences, CAS Ent.
Type No. 13132.
Veprius fulvus differs in color from V. presbiter, the latter being totally
blackish brown, without yellowish tones in antennae, legs and wings. The
frons of fulvus is somewhat narrower and with darker sublateral spots well-
differentiated. Veprius apatolesteus may be separated from fulvus by having
blackish antennae with grayish scape and pedicel, frons shorter without
median depression, the legs blackish with the exception of the distal portions
of the tibiae, which are light brown, and wing without yellowish veins.
We have examined another female from "Valparaiso, December, 1916,
Reed coll." which is similar in some respects, but whose darker coloration
does not permit it to be placed with fulvus, nor with any other known spe-
cies; the fact that it is not well preserved and is somewhat discolored does
not allow us to decide its identity.

Protodasyapha (P.) hirtuosa (Philippi)

Two specimens in CAS, 1 & 1 9 collected by Reed with "Chile" as only
locality, are paler (perhaps more faded with age) than other material seen
by us. The frontal callus of the 2 is light brown and the body light grayish
brown. Since the specimens are not in good condition, it seems better for the
present to retain them in the above species.

The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

December, 1979

Protodasyapha (Curumyia) lugens (Philippi)

A single additional & in the collection of L. L. Pechuman has been seen.
It is labelled "Chile, Linares, Estero De Leiva, 8/12-1-1953, Pefia coll."
Chaetopalpus annulicornis (Philippi)
A single & from "Ercilla, 22-XII-1949, J. Levis R. coll." is smaller than
any previously seen. It has a wing length of 5.5 mm, and is somewhat paler
than usual. The anterior borders of the abdominal tergites have narrow gray
margins with gray hairs. The antennae show 5 well-differentiated, apical
annuli in the flagellum and pseudoannulations basally. However, the genitalia
show no differences from C. annulicornis. Due to the great morphological
variation in this species, we do not believe it advisable to separate this speci-
men as a distinct taxon.
We thank Miss Nelida Caligaris for making the accompanying figures.


Department of Zoology,
University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611

Hydrachna virella (Acari: Hydrachnellae), a new species of water mite
that parasitizes backswimmers of the species Buenoa scimitra Bare
(Hemiptera: Notonectidae), is described. Adults and nymphs are char-
acterized by a pronounced elongation of the posteromedial portion of the 4th
coxae. Larvae are distinguished by the relative sizes of the coxal plates and
by the positions and relative sizes of the coxal plate setae.

Water mites of the genus Hydrachna are common, usually red mites that
inhabit mostly standing bodies of water. The nymphs and adults are preda-
tory on insect eggs (Davids 1973, Lanciani 1978) but the larvae are ecto-
parasitic on aquatic Coleoptera and Hemiptera (Smith and Oliver 1976).
This paper presents information on a new species of Hydrachna (subgenus
Hydrachna) that parasitizes backswimmers of the genus Buenoa.
Measurements, except those on the body dimensions of live mites, were
made on a sample of 5 specimens. The mean is presented first and is followed
in parentheses by the minimum and maximum values.
Holotypes, allotypes, and paratypes have been deposited in the Florida
State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville, FL.

'Acari: Hydrachnellae.
2Hemiptera: Notonectidae.

Lanciani: New Parasitic Water Mite

Figs. 1-3. Hydrachna virella Lanciani, new species. 1) venter of 9; 2)
venter of nymph; 3) venter of S.


The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

December, 1979

Hydrachna virella Lanciani, NEW SPECIES
MALE: (Figs. 3, 4, and 8). Color of live mite usually green but occasionally
red; live mite 1700p (1500-1930u#) long and 1520$ (1360-1780i) wide just
after metamorphosing to adult stage (sample size = N= 4).
Length between anterior end of 1st coxa and posterior end of 4th coxa
725$ (591-806p); posteromedial portion of 4th coxa greatly extended;
chaetotaxy of coxae as in Fig. 3; genital field 244p (203-274p) long and 266g
(228-304p) wide, with many acetabula and small setae, with a conspicuous
projection surrounding the gonopore.
Dorsum with a single anterior plate 712t (524-883A) long and 1030p (823-
1300p) wide; chaetotaxy of dorsal plate as in Fig. 4, but pair of setae in
membrane adjacent to plate is incorporated into plate in some specimens.
Proportions and chaetotaxy of palp as in Fig. 8, but number of setae on
P-I varying from 1 to 2 and number on P-II varying from 6 to 8;
dorsal setae on P-II finer than corresponding setae of ; dorsal lengths
of palpal segments: P-I, 191p (155-225) ; P-II, 134p (107-153/); P-III,
150/ (130-165A); P-IV, 71$ (61-80#); P-V, 38$ (35-41p); chelicera 647/1
(585-696/) long.
FEMALE: (Figs. 1, 6, and 10). Color of live mite usually green but oc-
casionally red; live mite 19001 (1780-2040#) long and 1740A (1660-1810/)
wide just after metamorphosing to adult stage (N= 3) but growing to at
least 2500A long and 2270/ wide in nature.
Length between anterior end of 1st coxa and posterior end of 4th coxa
771p (657-867A); posteromedial portion of 4th coxa greatly extended;
chaetotaxy of coxae as in Fig. 1; genital field 203j (168-221A) long and 315p
(268-3538) wide, with many acetabula and small setae.
Dorsum with a single anterior plate 842# (795-938p) long and 1124i (983-
1325p1) wide; chaetotaxy of dorsal plate as in Fig. 6, but pair of setae in
membrane adjacent to plate is incorporated into plate in many specimens.
Proportions and chaetotaxy of palp as in Fig. 6, but number of setae on
P-I varying from 1 to 2 and number on P-II varying from 6 to 10; all but
the most distal 1 of dorsal setae of P-II much thicker than corresponding
setae of ; dorsal lengths of palpal segments: P-I, 200A (168-236A); P-II,
122/ (108-146A); P-III, 190p (168-214A); P-IV, 77A/ (68-87t); P-V, 38p
(34-41) ; chelicera 708t (635-715p) long.
NYMPH: (Figs. 2, 7, and 9). Color of live mite green; live mite 1120% (770-
1630p) long and 940% (640-14001) wide just after emerging from host
(N = 26).
Length between anterior end of 1st coxa and posterior end of 4th coxa
553A (442-690A); posteromedial portion of fourth coxa greatly extended;
chaetotaxy of coxae as in Fig. 2; immature genital field composed of 2
separate acetabular plates, each having a length of 189$ (160-226$) and a
width of 11 (89-144p).
Dorsum with 2 anterior plates, each having a length of 510$ (420-718U)
and a maximum width of 260$ (204-403p) ; chaetotaxy of dorsal plates as in
Fig. 7, but 2nd pair of setae located in membrane instead of plate in 1
Proportions and chaetotaxy of palp as in Fig. 9, but number of setae on
P-II varying from 6 to 7; dorsal lengths of palpal segments: P-I, 107$ (87-


Lanciani: New Parasitic Water Mite

Figs. 4-10. Hydrachna virella Lanciani, new species. 4) dorsal plate of S ;
5) venter of idiosoma of larva; 6) dorsal plate of ; 7) dorsal plates of
nymph; 8) left palp of ; 9) left palp of nymph; 10) left palp of 9.

The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

155p); P-II, 88$ (81-98) ; P-III, 141$ (125-163p) ; P-IV, 55p (47-65g) ; P-V,
28/ (23-35A); chelicera 511/ (458-607p) long.
LARVA: (Fig. 5). Length of idiosoma 198$ (182-203) ; length of gnathosoma
142p (133-149) ; length of coxal plates along midline: I, 49/ (47-50A); II,
22p (19-23p); III, 59u (57-61/); positions and sizes of coxal plate setae as
in Fig. 5.
HOLOTYPE: Adult $, reared from the host insect Buenoa scimitra Bare col-
lected from a temporary pond in Gainesville, FL on 13-V-1978.
ALLOTYPE: Adult 9, same data as holotype.
PARATYPES: 1 $, same data as holotype; 1 9, offspring of parents reared
from Buenoa scimitra collected from a temporary pond in Gainesville, FL on
HOST: Parasitic larvae were found in nature attached to a variety of sites
on the notonectid Buenoa scimitra. In the laboratory, the larva also sucess-
fully developed on B. confusa Truxal.
DIAGNOSIS: Hydrachna virella can be distinguished from other North Amer-
ican species of the subgenus Hydrachna by the posteromedial elongations of
the 4th pair of coxae in nymphs and adults and by the pronounced projec-
tion surrounding the male gonopore. The only other known species of this
subgenus possessing the elongated 4th coxa is H. analis Viets, a species de-
scribed by Viets (1935) from Sumatra on the basis of nymphal charac-
teristics. The nymph of H. virella differs from that of H. analis in having
much larger acetabular plates.
The diagnostic importance of the larval coxal plates of Hydrachna has
been emphasized by Davids (1973). Although the larva of H. virella is some-
what similar to that of H. magniscutata Marshall (Prasad and Cook 1972)
and H. cruenta Miiller (Davids 1973) in ventral aspect of the idiosoma, it
can be distinguished from the larvae of these and other species by the rela-
tively large size of the 3rd pair of coxal plates, the relatively small size of
the 2nd pair of coxal plates, and the size and position of the coxal plate setae.

I thank Dr. David R. Cook for his helpful advice concerning the taxo-
nomic status of this mite and Esta Belcher for her assistance in the prepara-
tion of the illustrations.

DAVIDS, C. 1973. The water mite Hydrachna conjecta Koenike, 1895 (Acari,
Hydrachnellae), bionomics and relation to species of Corixidae
(Hemiptera). Neth. J. Zool. 23: 363-429.
LANCIANI, C. A. 1978. The food of nymphal and adult water mites of the
species Hydryphantes tenuabilis. Acarologia 20: (in press).
PRASAD, V., AND D. R. COOK. 1972. The taxonomy of water mite larvae.
Mem. Amer. Ent. Inst., No. 18, 1-326.
SMITH, I. M., AND D. R. OLIVER. 1976. The parasitic associations of larval
water mites with imaginal aquatic insects, especially Chironomidae.
Can. Ent. 108: 1427-42.
VIETS, K. 1935. Die Wassermilben von Sumatra, Java and Bali nach den
Ergebnissen der Deutschen Limnologischen Sunda-Expedition. Arch.
Hydrobiol., Supp. 13: 484-594.


December, 1979

Schroeder et al.: Survival of Diaprepes Larvae



U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory,
Agric. Res., Science and Education Admin., USDA,
Orlando, FL 32803

Of 65 ornamental nursery and 6 native plant species examined during
1976-7 at Plymouth, FL, only 9 species of nursery plants and 1 native plant
species other than citrus and sugarcane appeared suitable for the develop-
ment of larvae of Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.). Transport of infested orna-
mental plants could convey the weevil within and outside of the regulated
area in south and central Florida. Native host species could contribute to
local weevil populations in Florida.

Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) is an important agricultural pest in the West
Indies, where it attacks a wide variety of economically important plant
species (Martorell 1976). This weevil was first observed attacking citrus in
central Florida in 1964; presently it is found in ca. 2000 ha of citrus in that
general area. The present study was done in 1976-7 to identify tropical and
subtropical plant species growing in Florida that would support the develop-
ment of the larvae. The test species included ornamental nursery plants
produced in Florida for distribution throughout North America and native
plant species found adjacent to citrus groves that could be a source of
incipient local weevil populations.

All ornamental tropical foliage and landscape plants were held in 15-cm-
diam pots in a medium of 1 part peat and 1 part sand (v/v); potted plants
were maintained on raised benches under shade or in a fiberglass-covered
screenhouse. There was a minimum of 10 plants/species examined during
1976-7 at Plymouth, FL. Each species was exposed to neonate larvae
(September-October) reared from the eggs of field-collected adults at a
rate of 100 larvae/pot. In general, from 10 to 50 larvae were placed in a
pot on a given day, and additional larvae were introduced over a period of
2 weeks or more. Three months after introduction of larvae, the plants were
removed from the pots; the soil was examined for larvae, and the roots were
examined for feeding damage. Citrus rootstocks grown in Florida, rough
lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.), sour orange (C. aurantium (L.)),
Carrizo citrange (C. sinensis (L.) Osb. X Poncirus trifoliata Raf.), Milam
rough lemon (C. limon (hybr. ?)), and Cleopatra mandarin (C. reticulata
Blanco), that are not resistant to damage by D. abbreviatus (Norman et al.
1974) were included as a check for each group of plants.

1Coleoptera: Curculionidae.
2University of Florida, IFAS, Agric. Res. Center, Apopka, FL 32703.
'U.S. Hortic. Res. Lab., Orlando, FL 32803.

The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

December, 1979

The following native plants were challenged with more than 10,000
neonate larvae/plant during September-October 1976 in the field: Common
persimmon, Diospyros virginiana L.; Chinaberry, Melia azedarach L.; choke-
cherry, Prunus virginiana L.; laurel oak, Quercus imbricaria Michx.; live
oak, Q. virginiana Mill.; and smooth sumac, Rhus glabra L. All larvae were
placed adjacent to the main stem. There were 10 plants/species. Plants were
removed from the soil and examined for feeding damage 3 months after the
last larval introduction. Although D. abbreviatus has a 1-year life cycle, 3
months would be sufficient time for larval development and root damage. No
attempt was made to recover larvae. Also, neonate larvae were placed on
6-year-old grapefruit, Citrus paradisi Macf., grafted on rootstock of sour
orange for checks; the results are reported as part of another study
(Schroeder and Sutton 1977).


The ornamental potted-plant species challenged with neonate larvae were
divided into 2 groups: those with >1% larvae recovered and those with <1%
larvae recovered (Table 1). The plants classified as hosts, i.e., >1% larvae
recovered, were dead or in a state of decline when examined. If there were
adequate plant material available, these hosts would probably be suitable
for development of D. abbreviatus to the adult stage. Conversely, the few
larvae recovered from poor hosts were small; poor hosts probably would not
support development to the adult stage. Consequently, infested species listed
as hosts could be transported outside of the regulated area; the probability
of transporting D. abbreviatus as larvae on poor or nonhost plant species
would be less.

CHALLENGED WITH NEONATE Diaprepes abbreviatus LARVAE (100/

Scientific name Common name Larvae recovered

Plants that support larval development (>1% larvae recovered)

Aloe barbadensis Mill. Aloe 5.4
Ardisia crenata Sims Coralberry 11.8
Citrus sp. Citrus 19.2
Codiaeum variegatum var.
pictum (Lodd.)
Miill. Arg. Croton 1.2
Dizygotheca elegantissima
(Hort. ex. Vietch)
R. Vig. & Guill. False-aralia 1.1
Hoya carnosa (L.f.) R. Br. Waxplant 1.2
Juniperus conferta Parl. Shore juniper 2.4
Juniperus virginiana L. Red cedar 2.5
Liriope sp. Lilyturf 1.5
Maranta leuconeura E. Morr. Prayerplant 9.4
Saccharum officinarum L. Sugarcane 15.3


Schroeder et al.: Survival of Diaprepes Larvae

Plants that do not support larval development (<1% larvae recovered)

Scientific name


Scientific name

Aechmea fasciata
(Lindl.) Bak.
Aglaonema commuta-
tunm Schott
Aphelandra squarrosa
Nees 'Dania'

*Araucaria heterophylla
(Salisb.) Franco

Asparagus densiflorus
Jessop 'Sprengeri'
Begonia rex Putz.
*Brassaia actinophylla

Calathea lancifolia
*Chamaedorea elegans

lutescens H. Wendl.
Cissus rhombifolia Vahl

Cordyline terminalis
(L.) Kunth

Cordyline terminalis
L.) Kunth 'Tricolor'

Crassula argentea
X 'Exotica'

Urnplant Hemerocallis fulva
(L.) L.

Silver ever-
Zebra plant


Rex begonia

*Hibiscus sp.
Howeia forsterana
(C. Moore & F. J.
Muell.) Becc.
Iris sp.

Ixora sp.

Ligustrum lucidum Ait.
Maranta leuconeura var.
erythroneura Bunt.

Calathea Monstera deliciosa

Areca palm

Grape ivy

Nephrolepis exaltata
(L.) Schott
*Peperomia obtusifolia
(L.) A. Dietr.

Ti plant Philodendron scandens
subsp. oxycardium
(Schott) Bunt.
Tricolor Philodendron selloum
Mada- K. Koch.

Jade plant


Dieffenbachia maculata Dumbcane
(Lodd.) G. Don
Dracaena fragrans (L.) Cornplant

Dracaena marginata

*Dracaena sanderiana
Hort. ex Sander
ex. M.T. Mast.


Pilea cadierei Gagnep.
& Guill.
Pittosporum tobira
(Thunb.) Ait.

Podocarpus macrophyllus
(Thunb.) D. Don
Polyscias balf ouriana
(Hort. ex Sander)
L. H. Bailey
Pteris ensiformis
Burm. f. 'Victoriae'

*Rhododendron indicum
(L.) Sweet


Day lily










The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

December, 1979


Common Common
Scientific name name Scientific name name

Duranta repens L.

Epipremnum aureum
(Linden & Andr6)
Episcia cupreata
(Hook.) Hanst.
*Ficus benjamin L.

Ficus elastic Roxb.
ex Hornem.

Fittonia verschaffeltii
(Lem.) Coim.

Gardenia sp.

Gynura procumbens
(Lour.) Merrill

Hedera helix L.



Nerve plant


English ivy

*Rosa sp.


Rumohra adiantiformis
(G. Forst) Ching

Saintpaulia ionantha
H. Wendl.
Sansevieria trifasciata
Prain 'Hahnii'

*Schlumbergera bridgesii
(Lem.) L5fgr.

X 'Mauna Loa'

Stromanthe amabilis
(Linden) E. Moor.
Syngonium podophyllum



Mauna Loa


Viburnum odoratissimum Viburnum
Yucca elephantipes Regel Spineless

*From 0.1 to 0.5% recovery of Diaprepes larvae for these species; for all other plants no
larvae were recovered.
Of the native species challenged with neonate larvae, only common
persimmon had root-feeding damage. The 2 species of oak that were tested
are the most common tree species other than citrus found in the central
Florida weevil area; they had no sign of root feeding.
Citrus rootstock is the primary host tree for D. abbreviatus larvae in
central Florida. When grown near citrus, persimmon would probably con-
tribute to the weevil population. None of the other tree species examined had
larval-feeding damage and, therefore, would not contribute to a weevil in-


MARTORELL, L. F. 1976. Annotated food plant catalog of the insects of
Puerto Rico. Dept. Ent., Univ. of P.R., P.R. Agric. Exp. Stn. 303 p.
NORMAN, P. A., A. G. SELHIME, AND R. A. SUTTON. 1974. Feeding
damage to five citrus rootstocks by larvae of Diaprepes abbreviatus
(Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Fla. Ent. 57: 296.
SCHROEDER, W. J., AND R. A. SUTTON. 1977. Citrus root damage and the
spatial distribution of eggs of Diaprepes abbreviatus. Fla. Ent. 60:


Muchmore: New Bituberochernes 313


Department of Biology, University of Rochester
Rochester, NY 14627


A new species, Bituberochernes jonensis, from St. John, U.S. Virgin
Islands, is described. It has a protuberance only on the palpal chela, and
none on the tibia. The generic diagnosis is revised to reflect this and other

Among the pseudoscorpions which I collected in 1974 and 1975 on St.
John, U.S. Virgin Islands, were some chernetids which appeared similar to
the genus Bituberochernes Muchmore (1974) but differed in that the male
had a protuberance only on the palpal chela and none on the tibia. Both sexes
were taken, but as B. mumae, the type species of Bituberochernes, was known
from the male only, it was impossible to make complete and accurate com-
parisons. More recently, Dumitresco and Orghidan (1977) reported B.
mumae from Cuba and described the female in detail; and I also studied
some females from Cuba and the Cayman Islands. It is now obvious that the
2 species are very similar in most respects and can be considered congeneric.
Genus Bituberochernes Muchmore

The original generic diagnosis of Bituberochernes Muchmore (1974: 77)
required some revision as a result of the description of the female of B.
mumae Dumitresco and Orghidan (1977) and the description of B. jonensis
n. sp. below. The following changes and additions must be made:
-carapace may have 1 or 2 transverse furrows.
-11th sternite may be entire or divided.
-11th tergite may have 2 or 4 distinct tactile setae.
-genitalia generally as shown by Dumitresco and Orghidan (1977,
Figs. 11 and 12).
-palpal tibia of male with or without a distinct rounded, setiferous
protuberance on medial side.
-palpal chela of male with a small, bare, conical protuberance on
medial side at base of finger.
-palp of female unspecialized, but with tibia nearly equal to femur
in length.
-number of "sense spots" on chelal hand varying from 50 to ca. 100.
-nodus ramosus of venom duct in movable finger of chela at or
proximal to level of trichobothrium t.

'Contribution No. 432, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Depart-
ment of Agriculture and Consumer Service, Gainesville, FL 32602.
2Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Florida Department of Agri-
culture and Consumer Service, Gainesville, FL 32602.

314 The Florida Entomologist 62 (4) December, 1979

-trichobothrium ist at level of or proximal to est.
-leg I of male may have some specially long setae on tibia and
tarsus in addition to the short, specialized sensory setae.
-leg I of female unspecialized.

Bituberochernes jonensis Muchmore, NEW SPECIES
Figs. 1-4

MATERIAL: Holotype male (WM 3706.03001) and many paratypes of both
sexes and all 3 nymphal stages collected from under bark of fallen trees
along the Reef Bay Trail, Virgin Islands National Park, St. John, U.S.
Virgin Islands, 11-VI-1974 (W. B. Muchmore); many others found at same
location on 20-VII-1975. The types are in the Florida State Collection of
Arthropods, Gainesville.
DIAGNOSIS: Generally similar to B. mumae, but male with a protuberance
only on the chelal hand, none on the palpal tibia.
Description of Male: With the revised generic characters as outlined above,
and with the following particular features. Carapace longer than broad;
with a shallow median furrow only; surface granulate; 2 distinct eyespots
present; 65-70 short, dentate vestural setae, with 4 at anterior and 8 at
posterior margin. Tergites 1 and 11 entire, 2 partly divided, 3-10 divided;
sternites 4-11 divided. Tergal chaetotaxy of holotype 10:9:9:10:12:13:13:14:
12:11:T11T:2; sternal chaetotaxy 59: (2) 4-5/9 (2) : (1) 7 (1) :12:15:18:17:15:
15:T3T5T3T:2; setae generally as in B. mumae, but anterior genital
operculum with 10 long, heavy setae centrally, flanked by 49 smaller ones,
and 11th tergite with only 2 clearly tactile setae (T), laterally situated.
Chelicera 1/3 as long as carapace; hand with 5 setae, sb and b terminally
denticulate, es long, acuminate; flagellum of 3 setae, the distal one dentate;
galea slender, with 3-4 very small subterminal rami; serrula exterior with
23 blades.
Palp relatively slender; tibia longer than femur (Fig. 1). Trochanter
1.75-1.8, femur 2.75-2.9, tibia 2.65-2.7, and chela (without pedicel) 2.9 times
as long as broad; hand (without pedicel) 1.5-1.6 times as long as deep;
movable finger 0.85-0.87 as long as hand. All surfaces heavily granulate,
except chelal fingers, which are smooth. Tibia normal, that is, without any
medial protuberance. Chelal hand with a small, conical, bare protuberance
on medial side at base of finger; without any special setae flanking the
protuberance; with a field of about 100 conspicuous "sense spots" on the
medial surface behind the protuberance. Each chelal finger with 50-55
marginal teeth, the distal 6-8 larger and sharper than the others and borne
on a projecting, curved ridge; each finger with 10-12 external accessory
teeth; only fixed finger with an internal accessory tooth. Only movable
finger with well developed venedens and venom duct; nodus ramosus
distinctly proximal to trichobothrium t. Trichobothria positioned as shown
in Fig. 2, much as in B. mumae, but ist proximal to est rather than at same
Legs moderately slender; leg IV with entire femur 2.7-2.8 and tibia 3.9-
4.0 times as long as deep. Leg I with tibia bearing 5-6 short, truncate, sen-
sory (?) setae along ventral side toward distal end, and tarsus with 12-15
short, heavy, acuminate setae similarly placed toward the distal end (see

Muchmore: New Bituberochernes



Figs. 1-4. Bituberochernes jonensis Muchmore, new species. 1) Dorsal
view of palp; 2) Lateral view of chela; 3) Tibia and tarsus of Leg I, show-
ing sensory setae; 4) Female, spermathecae and related structures.

Fig. 3). Leg IV: tarsus with very long tactile seta 1/3 length of segment
from proximal end.
Description of Female: Much like male'in most respects, but with the fol-
lowing particular measurements or features. Slightly larger overall. A few
more setae on abdominal segments; anterior genital operculum with about
35 setae arranged in a broad triangular field (as shown in Dumitresco and
Orghidan, Fig. 12A); posterior operculum with a row of about 10 setae.
Internal genitalia as illustrated in Fig. 4; this is similar to the situation in
B. mumae (as shown by Dumitresco and Orghidan in their Fig. 12B) and is
also basically similar to the situation in Pachychernes shelfordi (cf. Much-

The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

December, 1979

more, 1975, Fig. 9). Cheliceral galea slightly longer and with longer rami
than in male. Palp much like that of male, but without a protuberance or
"sense spots" on the chelal hand, and tibia about equal in length to femur.
Leg I not modified, that is, without sensory setae on tibia and tarsus.
MEASUREMENTS (mm): Figures for males given first, followed in
parentheses by those for females. Body length 3.12-3.25 (3.20-4.30). Carapace
length 1.00-1.02 (1.04-1.16). Chelicera 0.325-0.34 (0.33-0.37) long. Palpal
femur 0.89-0.95 (0.88-0.98) by 0.325 (0.32-0.36); tibia 0.96-1.00 (0.89-
0.99) by 0.36-0.38 (0.37-0.42); chela (without pedicel) 1.35-1.42 (1.45-1.64)
by 0.46-0.49 (0.495-0.55); hand (without pedicel) 0.75-0.79 (0.83-0.95 by
0.49-0.51 (0.47-0.51); pedicel ca. 0.09 long. Leg IV: entire femur 0.82-0.835
(0.84-0.96) by 0.30-0.31 (0.31-0.355); tibia 0.64-0.67 (0.67-0.73) by 0.16-0.17
ETYMOLOGY: The species is named for St. John (Jon), where it is found.
REMARKS: In spite of the fact that the new species lacks a protuberance
on the palpal tibia, it certainly is closely related to Bituberochernes mumae.
All other characters of the male and the genitalia of the female are so sim-
ilar that the 2 species can be considered congeneric, as above. It would be
possible to recognize 2 genera, based upon the presence or absence of the
prominent tibial protuberance, but I feel that such splitting is unwarranted
in the face of the large number of similarities.
In all of the male specimens of Bituberochernes I have examined (from
Florida, Cuba, Little Cayman Island, and St. John), the characteristic pro-
tuberance on the chelal hand is bare, contrary to the assertion of Dumitresco
and Orghidan that it is provided with setae like that on the tibia of B.
mumae (1977: 109). In fact, there are setae inserted around the base of the
elevation, but not on it.
The "sense spots" on the chelal hand are undoubtedly some sort of sen-
sory organs. It is not clear that they are the same as the "poroides" recog-
nized by Athias in gamasid mites (see Dumitresco and Orghidan 1977: 109).
The exact nature of these and other such organs must await more detailed
study using electron microscopy.
Along with B. jonensis under the loose bark were a few specimens of
Aphelolpium sp. and Olpiolum sp. and a single specimen of Peripatus sp.


I would like to express appreciation to Mr. William Webb, Superintendent
of the Virgin Islands National Park, for permission to collect pseudoscorpions
within the boundary of the Park. Many thanks are also due to C. H. Alteri,
who prepared the illustrations.


DUMITRESCO, M., AND T. N. ORGHIDAN. 1977. Pseudoscorpions de Cuba. Res.
Exp. Biospeol. Cubano-Roum. Cuba 2: 99-122.
MUCHMORE, W. B. 1974. Pseudoscorpions from Florida. 2. A new genus and
species Bituberochernes mumae (Chernetidae). Fla. Ent. 57: 77-80.
1975. Use of the spermathecae in the taxonomy of chernetid
pseudoscorpions. Proc. 6th Int. Arachn. Congr., Amsterdam. 1974:


Muchmore: Typhloroncus



Department of Biology, University of Rochester
Rochester, NY 14627

The genus Typhloroncus is defined with T. coralensis Muchmore, new
species, from St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands, as the type species. This is the
first ideoroncid pseudoscorpion reported from the West Indies.

Among pseudoscorpions which I collected recently on St. John, U. S.
Virgin Islands, was a single specimen of a new genus and species belonging
to the Ideoroncidae. As this family has not heretofore been reported from
the West Indies, it seems appropriate to describe the new taxa at this time.

Typhloroncus Muchmore, NEW GENUS

TYPE SPECIES: Typhloroncus coralensis Muchmore, NEW SPECIES.
DIAGNOSIS: The genus is defined by the characters of the type species
(female only) as described below. It is typical of the family Ideoroncidae
except that it has no eyes. Tergites and sternites entire, middle ones bearing
8 or 9 setae. Both fingers of chelicera bear marginal teeth; flagellum of 4
dentate setae; galea a long, slender stylet. Venom apparatus well developed
in both fingers of palpal chela; chela bearing many more than 12 tri-
chobothria, with 5 on dorsum of hand, the 3 more proximal ones close to-
gether at the base of a slight elevation and describing an obtuse triangle
(Fig. 2), and with 3 on lateral side of hand in a vertical row (Fig. 3).
Pedal tarsi with subterminal setae dentate near tip; arolia undivided and
shorter than claws.
In being eyeless, Typhloroncus differs from all other genera in the
Ideoroncidae, which typically have 2 well developed eyes with bulging
corneas. This character is considered very important, because the eyes are
retained (though reduced) even in otherwise distinctly modified cavernicolous
ideoroncids such as Negroroncus aelleni Vachon (1958) and Albiorix bolivari
Beier (1963). Aside from the lack of eyes, the new genus appears most
similar to Negroroncus Beier (1932) from Africa and Dinoroncus Beier
(1932) from Chile, especially in the close grouping of 3 trichobothria on the
dorsum of the chelal hand; however, in neither of these genera are the
trichobothria accompanied by an elevation of the surface of the hand as in
Typhloroncus. Geographically the nearest reported representatives of the
family are species of Albiorix in Mexico and Central America (Hoff 1945);
from these Typhloroncus differs particularly in having the arolia on pedal

1Contribution No. 440. Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Depart-
ment of Agriculture and Consumer Service, Gainesville, FL 32602.
2Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Florida Department of Agri-
culture and Consumer Service, Gainesville, FL 32602.

The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

December, 1979

tarsi shorter than the claws rather than longer, and entire rather than
bifid (Hoff 1956).
Typhloroncus coralensis Muchmore, NEW SPECIES
MATERIAL: Holotype female (WM 4982.03001), found under a rock on a
wooded hillside above Coral Bay, St. John, U. S. Virgin Islands, 12-III-1978,
by the author. The type is deposited in the Florida State Collection of
Arthropods, Gainesville.
DESCRIPTION: A small species, generally light tan in color. Carapace
longer than broad; anterior margin with a small triangular epistome; no
eyes present; surface finely reticulated, especially at sides; a distinct
transverse furrow near the posterior margin; with about 16 fine setae, 4 at
both anterior and posterior margins. Coxal area typical. Abdomen elongate;
tergites and sternites entire, weakly sclerotized, smooth; pleural membranes
smoothly, longitudinally striate. Tergal chaetotaxy 4:4:6:8:8:8:9:9:8:13:
T1TT1TT2T:2; sternal chaetotaxy 6: )(1)(1) :(1)7(1) :9:8:9:8:11:14:T1T3
T1T:2; genital opercula as in Fig. 1.

51 /'7 -\ \A /'--

3 2

Figs. 1-5. Typhloroncus coralensis Muchmore, new genus and new spe-
cies. 1) Genital opercula of female; 2) Left palp, dorsal view; 3) Right
chela, lateral view; 4) Leg IV, lateral view; 5) Tip of telotarsus showing
arolium, and claw and subterminal seta on 1 side.


Muchmore: Typhloroncus


Chelicera a little more than half as long as carapace; hand with 6 setae,
es very long, straight; flagellum of 4 subequal setae, all dentate along 1
edge; fixed finger with 8-10 and movable finger with 5-6 irregular teeth;
galea long, slender, gently curved.
Palp fairly slender (Fig. 2); femur 1.2 and chela 1.95 times as long as
carapace. Trochanter 2.3, femur 4.35, tibia 3.2 and chela (without pedicel)
3.5 times as long as broad; hand 1.75 times as long as deep; movable finger
1.32 times as long as hand. Surfaces are smooth except for small granula-
tions over trochanter, on the proximal and medial parts of femur, medial
side of tibia, and medial side of chelal hand and bases of fingers. Tri-
chobothria of chela as shown in Fig 2 and 3; as there are many of varied
sizes, it is difficult to distinguish between some trichobothria and some
vestural setae and to make an exact count of the former; however, there
are 5 prominent trichobothria on the dorsum of the hand and 3 on the
lateral side of the hand; the 3 proximal ones on the dorsum are somewhat
isolated, and describe an obtuse triangle around the base of a low, but
distinct, elevation of the surface; movable finger with 46 low, flat, contiguous
teeth, becoming obsolescent proximally; fixed finger with 54 contiguous
teeth, low and rounded distally, but with distinct cusps proximally; both
fingers with well developed venom apparatus, the nodus ramosus in each
finger ca. 1/3 of the distance from the distal end.
Legs rather robust; leg IV with entire femur 2.6 and tibia 4.6 times as
long as deep (Fig. 4); metatarsus and telotarsus each with a prominent
tactile seta; subterminal tarsal setae dentate near tip; arolia not divided,
shorter than claws (Fig. 5).
MEASUREMENTS (mm): Body length 2.37. Carapace length 0.59.
Chelicera 0.33 by 0.16. Palpal trochanter 0.32 by 0.14; femur 0.695 by 0.16;
tibia 0.56 by 0.175; chela (without pedicel) 1.14 by 0.325; hand (without
pedicel) 0.49 by 0.28; pedicel 0.075 long; movable finger 0.65 long. Leg IV:
entire femur 0.495 by 0.19; tibia 0.37 by 0.08; metatarsus 0.185 by 0.065;
telotarsus 0.29 by 0.06.
ETYMOLOGY: The species is named for Coral Bay on St. John where it was
REMARKS: This is the 1st representative of the Ideoroncidae to be reported
from the West Indies if Bochica Chamberlin is excluded from the family, as
I believe correct. However, it might be expected that others will be found,
because several species of Albiorix occur in Mexico and Central America,
and an unidentified ideoroncid from Cuba is at hand.
Under similar rocks on the same hillside were found specimens of as yet
unidentified species of Olpiolum and Planctolpium (Olpiidae).


Many thanks are due to C. H. Alteri who prepared the figures.

BEIER, M. 1932. Pseudoscorpionidea I. Subord. Chthoniinea et Neobisiinea.
Tierreich 57: 1-258.
1963. Eine neue Art der Pseudoscorpioniden-Gattung Albiorix aus
Hbhle Acuitlapan, Gro., Mexico. Ciencia, M6x. 22: 133-4.

320 The Florida Entomologist 62(4) December, 1979

HOFF, C. C. 1945. The pseudoscorpion genus Albiorix Chamberlin. Amer.
Mus. Novitates 1277: 1-12.
1956. Diplosphyronid pseudoscorpions from New Mexico. Amer.
Mus. Novitates 1780: 1-49.
VACHON, M. 1958. Sur deux pseudoscorpions nouveaux des caverns de
l'Afrique Equatoriale. Notes Biosp6ol. 13: 57-66.


Silver City, NM 88061


This paper extends and corrects the arid-grassland solpugid population
data for southwestern New Mexico. Can-trapping has been continuous, April
through November, from 1972 through 1977. Data analysis indicates that
solpugid populations vary in gross levels from year to year and seasonally
within years. Such fluctuations may be the result of variations in the popula-
tions of 4 arid-grassland species of Eremobates which undoubtedly are in-
fluenced by abiotic factors such as temperature, rainfall, and humidity, and
biotic factors such as seasonal adult activity, fall immature activity, and
food supply.

Several studies have demonstrated solpugid population variations in
North America. Muma (1963) tabulated seasonal variations of the abun-
dance of specimens and species of adult solpugids at Mercury, Nevada, from
1960 through 1962 as estimated by pit traps (large, dry cans). He also cited
apparent habitat associations of 8 common species. Allred and Muma (1971)
tabulated seasonal and habitational variations on the abundance of speci-
mens and species of immature and adult solpugids at the National Reactor
Testing Station in Idaho for 15 months in 1966 and 1967 as estimated by pit
traps. Brookhart (1972) cited abundance of adult specimens and species of
solpugids in Colorado as estimated by pit traps and miscellaneous collecting.
Muma (1974a) discussed seasonal and habitational variations of adult
solpugids that affected reproductive isolation of common North American
species, all estimated by pit traps, can traps (large cans containing a killing-
preserving medium), and miscellaneous collecting. Muma (1974b, 1975a)
tabulated and discussed seasonal, annual, and habitational variations of
specimens and species of immature and adult solpugids in southern New
Mexico during 1972 and 1973 as estimated by can traps.
Although not specifically stated, all of the above studies were conducted
on the premise that solpugids actively running over the surface of the

'Contribution No. 418. Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida De-
partment of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, FL 32602.
2Western New Mexico University Research Contribution No. 343.
3Entomologist Emeritus, IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville. Research Associate,
Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services, Gainesville, and-Western New Mexico University, Silver City>

Muma: Solpugids in New Mexico

ground or hiding under ground-surface debris, either artificial or natural,
were representative of the entire population, active or inactive, subterranean
or ground-surface, and ground-surface or arboreal. This is also true of the
present paper. No one has attempted, as yet, to estimate or compare the
total populations of solpugid species in a given area.
This paper is an extension and correction of the arid-grassland solpugid
population data published by Muma (1974b). Can-trapping of grassland
solpugids now has been continuous, April through November from 1972
through 1977. Accumulated data permit analyses, discussions, and specula-
tions that previously were unwarranted.

Two arid-grassland study areas, 1 near Lordsburg, NM and 1 near
Hurley, NM, were utilized in this study. The topography and plant associa-
tions of the 2 plots were adequately described by Muma (1974b).
Can traps provided with a killing-preserving medium of a 1:1 mixture of
70% isopropyl alcohol and commercial ethylene glycol were utilized as col-
lecting devices. These are the traps statistically evaluated by Muma (1975b).
On 1 April 1972, 10 traps were set in each study area; 5 in a north-south
transect at ca. 10 m intervals and 5 in an east-west transect at similar
intervals. Since Muma (1975b) demonstrated that 10 traps per plot were
inadequate for evaluating solpugid populations, 2 traps were added to each
of the north-south transects on 1-IV-1974.
Traps were visited every 2 weeks, 1-IV to 1-XII, from 1-IV-1972 to
1-XII-1977. At each visit, the specimens were screened from the killing-
preserving medium, the medium reconstituted with a 3:1 mixture of alcohol-
glycol, and the trap collections pooled into a plot per period (e.g. Lordsburg
1-15-IV-1972) sample. Solpugid specimens were sorted, identified, and
counted in the laboratory at 10X magnification.
Early instar immatures, those with 3 pairs of malleoli, were identified
only to family. Middle and late instar immatures were identified only to
genus, but if the genus proved to be represented in the area by only 1
species, they were relegated later to that species. Only adults or easily rec-
ognized and sexed penultimate instars were identified to species.


Table 1 presents the accumulated data summarized on plot, annual, and
total bases. Figure 1 presents the same data summarized on a seasonal basis,
for each year compared, to means for the 6 year period. Table 2 cites the
seasonal distribution of recorded adult solpugids.


Prior to discussion of the population data presented here, identification
errors committed by Muma (1974b) should be corrected. The species re-
ferred to in that paper as Eremobates new species (palpisetulosus-group)
is in reality 2 species, E. n. sp. #1 and E. n. sp. #2. The species referred to
as Eremobates pallipes (Say) is a newly recognized New Mexican species
E. n. sp. #3. Taxonomic papers involving these species are presently being
prepared for publication.













December, 1979

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The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

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Muma: Solpugids in New Mexico

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The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

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December, 1979

Muma: Solpugids in New Mexico 325




4 4 -5
30 2

CA --
S-7 -6 -
S10 6 3- X5 2-
3 6
-5 2--
0-- x Z
3 2
7 7 6 3-


Fig. 1. Seasonal variations in annual and mean solpugid populations on
arid-grasslands near Hurley and Lordsburg, NM from 1-IV-1972 through
1-XII-1977. Numbers 2-7 represent the last digit in the years 1972-1977; lack
of particular numbers for monthly data indicate no collections were made in
that year.

The most obvious population phenomenon exhibited by the data shown in
Table 1 is an apparent alternate year fluctuation in the level of the local,
gross, solpugid population. This variation is related directly to a similar
variation, on both the Hurley and Lordsburg plots, in the number of trapped
young and adult Eremobates which represented more than 40% of the total
trapped population from both plots. Alternate year fluctuation in population
levels of other immatures and specific adults did not occur consistently on
either of the 2 plots. Muma (1974b) noted the drastic, gross, population de-
creases between 1972 and 1973 on the Hurley study area and speculated that
heavy rains in late 1972 and early 1973 were indicated as the causal factor.
Such rains did not occur in 1974-75 or 1976-77, so an additional complicating
factor must be involved. This factor presently remains an enigma, but may
be associated with or responsible for a gradual shift from a predominance
of termites reducing ground-surface litter at Hurley to a predominance of
ants in and under such litter during 1974 and 1975. At the Lordsburg study
area termites have remained the predominant invertebrate involved in the
reduction of ground-surface litter, and the gross solpugid populations on
that plot have not drastically decreased or increased during the past 4 years.
Another obvious population variation is exhibited among the 4 species of
Eremobates found in the local arid-grasslands. At the Hurley study area,
E. hessei (Roewer) and E. n. sp. #3 were the most common species in 1972,

The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

December, 1979

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Muma: Solpugids in New Mexico 327

E. n. sp. #3 and E. n. sp. #2 were the only species collected in 1973, and
E. n. sp. #3 was the only common species in 1974. No species was signif-
icantly more common from 1975 through 1977. At the Lordsburg study area,
E. n. sp. #2, E. hessei, and E. n. sp. #3 were equally common in 1972; only
E. hessei was common in 1973; E. n. sp. #1 and E. n. sp. #2 were common
in 1974; E. n. sp #3 was distinctly more common in 1975 and 1976; and E.
hessei, E. n. sp. #2 and E. n. sp. #3 were equally common in 1977. The
above statements are based on the statistical findings of Muma (1975b). On
the basis that the mean populations can be considered different only if they
differ by greater than 30% of their own values, the total sampled popula-
tions were not significantly different from each other. Despite obvious dif-
ferences then, it appears that although 1 or more species of Eremobates
may be more abundant than others on any given plot during any given year,
they also may be equally abundant, and over a series of years probably are
complementary in abundance.
Another apparent variation should be noted and discussed. That concerns
E. n. sp. #1 and E. n. sp. #2. Although they are closely related, E. n. sp.
#1 is a smaller, paler, more slender, distinctive species that lives in the
foothills and pinyon-juniper plant association; it matures in April and May
with females living into June. Eremobates n. sp. #2 is a larger, darker,
more robust species that lives on the bajadas and open plains in grassland
communities and matures in May, June, and July, with females living into
August. This accounts for the fact that 48 of 52 specimens of sp. #1 taken
in the study were from the Lordsburg study area, which is adjacent to the
Burro Mountains, whereas only sp. #2 was collected regularly from the
Hurley plot, which is considerably farther from the Cook Mountains.
The preponderant abundance of Eremobates spp. over the other genera
and species of solpugids confirms Muma's (1974b) conclusion that members
of this genus in this area are predominantly arid-grassland species.
Seasonal variations within years, although unquestionably moderated by
abiotic factors such as temperature, rainfall, humidity, etc., appear to be
largely an expression of differences and similarities in the annual life cycles
of the common species of solpugids in the area. In most years, population
peaks are attained in late May or early June, in July and August, and in
late October or November. The May-June increase is the result of the
maturation and sexual activity of E. n. sp. #1 and E. n. sp. #2. The July and
August peak coincides with the maturation and sexual activity of E. n. sp.
#2, E. hessei, and E. n. sp. #3, (Muma 1974a, 1974b). The October-
November increase is the result of unexplainable ground-surface activity of
Eremobates young. A population depression consistently occurred in late
September or early October. The September-October depression is obviously
the result of the death of adult E. n. sp. #2, hessei, and n. sp. #3, and the
egg incubation and subsurface development of the early instars of these
species (see Muma 1966). In 1972, samples were collected at 2-week
intervals during the entire year, but only 6 immatures were taken, 5 in
December and 1 in March, indicating that there are no periods of extensive
activity through the winter.
Seasonal variations between years may be caused by year to year varia-
tions in rainfall, humidity, and temperature which may act directly or in-
directly upon solpugid populations. Direct influence of rainfall seems to have

The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

December, 1979

been the case in 1973 when heavy rains in the late fall of 1972 and in the
spring of 1973 appear to have depressed populations of most species,
especially on the Hurley study area where extensive flooding occurred
(Muma 1974b). It should be pointed out that fall immature activity was as
great or greater that year than in any other year except 1974. Indirect
influence of abiotic factors is much more difficult to ascertain. Since im-
matures of the genus Eremobates feed predominately upon termites, the
sharp reduction of solpugid populations on the Hurley plot during 1975 may
have been due to a decrease in food supply. However, termite food, dead
plant materials, has not decreased noticeably on the study area. So it is
possible that the 1975 shift from a predominance of termites to a pre-
dominance of ants was caused by an increase in soil moisture brought about
by the flooding of 1972 and 1973. The sudden increase in the populations of
E. n. sp. #1 and E. n. sp. #2 on the Lordsburg study area during 1974 and
1975 and, equally as sudden, decrease in 1977 may have been either the re-
sult of an indirect influence of an abiotic factor or possibly some inherent
biotic factor common to these 2 species.

ALLRED, D. M., AND M. H. MUMA. 1971. Solpugids of the National Reactor
Testing Station, Idaho. Great Basin Nat. 31(3): 164-8.
BROOKHART, J. 0. 1972. Solpugids (Arachnida) in Colorado. Southwest.
Nat. 17(1) : 31-41.
MUMA, M. H. 1963. Solpugida of the Nevada Test Site. Brigham Young
Univ. Sci. Bull., Biol. Ser. 3(2) : 1-13.
1966. The life cycle of Eremobates durangonus (Arachnida:
Solpugida). Fla. Ent. 49: 233-42.
1970. An improved can trap. Notes Arachnol. Southwest 1: 16-8.
.1974a. Maturity and reproductive isolation of common solpugids in
North American deserts. J. Arachnol. 2(1) : 5-10.
-- 1974b. Solpugid populations in southwestern New Mexico. Fla. Ent.
57(4): 385-92.
1975a. Two vernal ground-surface arachnid populations in Tularosa
Basin, New Mexico. Southwest. Nat. 20(1): 55-67.
--- 1975b. Long term can trapping for population analyses of ground-
surface, arid-land arachnids. Fla. Ent. 58(4): 257-70.


Frank: New Proteinus



Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, P. O. Box 520
Vero Beach, FL 32960


A new species, Proteinus thomasi, from Ocala, FL, is described on the
basis of the structures of a series of adult individuals. The structures (in-
cluding the aedeagus) and color of these individuals are used to distinguish
them from individuals of other New World species of Proteinus. Illustrations
of adult habitus and of the aedeagus are provided.
Proteinus parvulus LeConte is redescribed and removed from synonymy
with P. atomarius Erichson. Proteinus collaris Hatch is redescribed.

No key for the identification, nor comparative study of adults of all New
World species of Proteinus has been published. Keys were prepared for some
geographical areas by Fauvel (1878) and Hatch (1957). No species of
Proteinus are catalogued by Moore and Legner (1975) as occurring in the
southeastern United States. Catalogued ranges nearest to Florida appear to
be Massachusetts and California (loc. cit), and Costa Rica (Blackwelder
1944). A revision of the subfamily Proteininae of the world, begun by
Steel (1966), was completed for only 2 of the 3 tribes (Anepiini and
Nesoneini) before his death (Anon. 1970, Southwood 1970), and the tribe
Proteinini was not revised.
When Michael C. Thomas (Ocala, FL) asked me to identify some
staphylinids he had collected in 1977 at Ocala, and some of these proved to
belong to Proteinus, I was unable to comply.


According to Scheerpeltz & Hifler (1948), Proteinus almost exclusively
inhabits strongly redolent or decaying fungi, and is seldom found in other
decaying plant material; its food appears to be the fungi. Steel (1963) re-
ported that adults of Proteinus are saprophagous, feeding readily on dead
material of both animal and vegetable origin, while the food of the larvae
has yet to be ascertained. Steel (1966) and Kasule (1966) reviewed pub-
lished descriptions of Proteinus larvae.


The generic name Proteinus Latreille, 1796, was originally published
without any species included. A type species, P. pulicarius (Linnaeus), was
fixed by Latreille (1802) by subsequent monotypy; however, P. brachypterus
(Fabricius) was cited by Latreille (1810) as the "genotype", and this cita-

1Contribution No. 409, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Depart-
ment of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, FL 32602.
2Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Division of Plant Industry,
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, FL.

330 The Florida Entomologist 62 (4) December, 1979

tion was followed by subsequent authors. Blackwelder (1952) noted that,
because P. pulicarius (Linnaeus) must be considered the type species under
the International Rules of Zoological Nomenclature and because P. pulicarius
(L.) belongs to the family Nitidulidae, then Proteinus Latreille, 1796, 1802,
must also belong to the Nitidulidae. Thus, the staphylinid genus formerly
known as Proteinus Latreille, 1810, was left without a name, and the new
generic name Pteronius Blackwelder, 1952, with type species Pteronius
brachypterus (Fabricius) was proposed to fill this need (Blackwelder 1952,
Arnett 1961). Subsequently, following a request by Jelinek and Steel (1966),
the generic name Proteinus Latreille, 1796, was placed on the "Official List
of Generic Names in Zoology", and Dermestes brachypterus Fabricius, 1792,
was designated type species, under Opinion 876 of the International Com-
mission on Zoological Nomenclature. Thus Pteronius Blackwelder became a
synonym of Proteinus Latreille, 1796.

Proteinus brachypterus (Fabricius), 1792: 235, a Palearctic species, was
recorded as occurring in North America (British Columbia) by Hamilton
(1894b: 376) and Keen (1895: 172); both authors indicated that this identi-
fication was made by James Fletcher of Ottawa or by a specialist enlisted by
Fletcher. Fletcher, in Keen (1895: 166), acknowledged help from T. L.
Casey, C. A. A. Fauvel, and G. H. Horn among others, but did not state who
had identified what material. Fauvel (1872: 30) noted that P. brachypterus
had been confused in collections (? whose) with P. limbatus Maklin. Hatch
(1957: 106) stated that he had not seen any examples of P. brachypterus
from the Pacific Northwest. Leng (1920: 93) catalogued the species as
occurring also in Alaska (? on what evidence), while no additional localities
were listed by Moore and Legner (1975: 176).
Proteinus atomarius Erichson, 1840: 904, a Palearctic species, appears
1st to have been recorded as occurring in North America in the following
way: (1) P. parvulus LeConte, 1863: 58, was described from the vicinity of
Lake Superior; (2) P. parvulus and P. atomarius were placed together as
synonyms of the Palearctic P. clavicornis Stephens by Fauvel (1872: 31)
without discussion; (3) evidently realizing that the synonymy with P.
clavicornis had been at fault as a result of misidentification of P. clavicornis,
Fauvel (1878: 196) corrected the former synonymy and placed P. parvulus
together with P. clavicornis Fauvel (not Stephens) as synonyms of P.
atomarius, again without discussion. Hubbard and Schwarz (1878: 632)
reported P. basalis Miklin from Michigan, but Fauvel (1878: 195) attributed
this record to P. atomarius. Additional records of the occurrence of P.
atomarius in North America were provided by Hamilton (1889: 121) for
Ontario and Massachusetts, and by Stace-Smith (Hatch 1957: 106) for
British Columbia. No additional localities were catalogued by Moore and
Legner (1975: 176). Mention of the occurrence of P. atomarius in Canada
is made by Scheerpeltz and Hbfler (1948: 150) ; however, this mention, with-
out indication that a new collection record is involved and without attribu-
tion to earlier authors, appears to be only an indication that Scheerpeltz
and HSfler were aware of some of the North American literature. Brimley
(1938: 138) recorded it in North Carolina.

Frank: New Proteinus

Proteinus limbatus Miklin, 1852: 323, was described from Alaska with
"varieties" "b" and "c" in addition to the typical form "a". The original,
brief description suggested that the "varieties" are distinguishable from the
typical form only by differences in adult coloration. Fauvel (1869: 494)
named "variety b" as Proteinus maeklini, but later (1878: 195) placed it as
a synonym of P. limbatus, indicating that he "preferred to maintain it as a
race of P. limbatus . because he possessed only a single example". Yet
later, Fauvel (1889: 128) had apparently changed his mind again, and
listed P. maeklini as distinct from P. limbatus; the former was distributed
in Alaska, California, and Nevada, and the latter in Alaska, British Colum-
bia, and New Hampshire, but he did not indicate the origin of these records.
Both Hamilton (1894a, b) and Keen (1895) kept up with these changes in
status of "variety b", and Keen (1895: 172) reported the collection of
specimens of both P. limbatus and P. maeklini in British Columbia. Later
North American cataloguers (Leng 1920, Moore and Legner 1975) listed
P. maeklini as merely a "variety" of P. limbatus, while Hatch (1957: 106)
added Washington, Idaho, and Oregon to the distribution of P. limbatus
without discriminating between the forma typical and "var. maeklini" and
without discussion of the status of the name P. maeklini beyond its mention
as a "variety". Meanwhile, P. crenulatus Pandell6 (Palearctic) was placed
as a synonym of P. limbatus by Fauvel (1872: 30) without discussion, thus
suggesting a Holarctic distribution of P. limbatus; he further noted that
P. limbatus was confused in collections with P. brachypterus. Although
Bernhauer (1912: 678) and Horion (1963: 28) indicated P. limbatus and
P. crenulatus to be distinct species, thus removing any suggestion of a
Holarctic distribution of P. limbatus, some subsequent authors overlooked
this and continued to state that P. limbatus has a Holarctic distribution.
Another synonymy possibly causing confusion, is that of P. oblongus Petri
(Palearctic), a synonym of P. crenulatus, but which has been variously
confused in the literature as a synonym of both P. limbatus and P. atomarius.
Proteinus nigriceps Fauvel, 1868: 55, was described from Santiago
(Chile), and no additional records appear to have been published. Steel
(1966: 300) removed P. nigriceps from the genus Proteinus and made it the
type species of the monotypic new genus Alloproteinus, placing it in the new
tribe Nesoneini along with 5 other genera.
As presently defined, all other New World species described in the genus
Proteinus remain in that genus and, because of the few references to them,
present no confusion of nomenclatural or distributional records. They are
listed in Table 1 according to the current published synonymies and distribu-
tional records. The list includes all New World Proteinus species heretofore
known to me and has been checked by reference to several abstracting
As presently defined, adults of Proteinus are separated from adults of
Metopsia Wollaston and Megarthrus Stephens by the simple (vs. excised)
hind angles of the pronotum. It seems to me that alternative classifications,
based on more than a single structure, could be devised.
Proteinus parvulus LeConte 1850: 221 is a nomen nudum. Coiffait and
Saiz (1968: 456) stated that there are 14 species of Proteinus in North
America and 1 in Venezuela, but the list above indicates only 10 species

The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

December, 1979




1. P. atomarius Erichson 1840: 904
(P. parvulus LeConte 1863: 58)

2. P. basalis Maklin 1852: 324

3. P. brachypterus Fabricius 1792:
4. P. collaris Hatch 1957: 107
5. P. densipennis Bernhauer 1912:
6. P. flavocaudatus Bierig 1940: 374
7. P. limbatus Miklin 1852: 323
(P. maeklini Fauvel 1869: 494)

8. P. salebrosus Casey 1885: 323
9. P. sulcatus Fauvel 1878: 195

Canada: Ontario, British Columbia;
USA: Massachusetts, Michigan,
North Carolina (and Palearctic
Canada: British Columbia; USA:
Alaska, Washington, Idaho, Oregon
?Canada: British Columbia: ?USA:
Alaska (and Palearctic region)
USA: Washington
USA: California

Costa Rica: Heredia
Canada: British Columbia; USA:
New Hampshire, Alaska, Washing-
ton, Idaho, Oregon, California (not
in Palearctic region)
USA: California
USA: California

names (reduced to 8 by synonymy) for North American species, 1 species in
Costa Rica, and none known to me in Venezuela.
This article describes an additional species, P. thomasi Frank, removes
P. parvulus LeConte, 1863, from synonymy with P. atomarius, and raises
doubts on the occurrence of P. atomarius in the New World.

The keys to adults of European Proteinus species by Tottenham (1954)
and Lohse (1964) have used size, color pattern, presence or absence of a
basal pronotal raised margin, structure of the antennal club, relative length
und width of the pronotum, structure of the aedeagus, and distribution of
peg setae, in specific determination. The structure of the aedeagus is gen-
erally highly diagnostic in Staphylinidae. Hammond (1972) noted that Steel
considered the distribution of peg setae to be highly diagnostic in Pro-
teininae. However, the aedeagus of none of the species described from the
New World has been illustrated nor, except by Blackwelder (1936) for P.
limbatus, has the distribution of peg setae been recorded.
In the expectation that specificity of size, pronotal proportions, and color
pattern would reduce the number of described New World species to be con-
sidered in attempting to identify the Ocala specimens, I was able to remove
from close consideration all except P. collaris and P. atomarius (= P.
parvulus) by reading the published descriptions. It seemed necessary to


Frank: New Proteinus

examine reliably identified material of these 2 species. Comparisons of the
aedeagi of several of the Ocala specimens indicated that this structure did
not match the illustrations for the aedeagus of P. atomarius provided by
Tottenham (1954) and Lohse (1964). The question of the possibly uncertain
synonymy of (the Nearctic) P. parvulus with (the Palearctic) P.
atomarius remained. Therefore I requested loans of type material of P.
parvulus and of P. collaris, and made comparisons with the Ocala specimens.

Proteinus thomasi Frank, NEW SPECIES
The type series consists of 25 specimens with the following collection
labels: "U.S.A., Fla., Marion Co., Ocala, 1-6-III-1977 yeast-baited pitfall
trap, coll. M. C. Thomas". The holotype is a male and is labelled: "Proteinus
thomasi Frank, J. H. Frank, HOLOTYPE". All other specimens are para-
types and are labelled: "Proteinus thomasi Frank, J. H. Frank PARA-
TYPE". The holotype and 1 paratype are deposited in the Museum of Com-
parative Zoology, Harvard University and have been allotted M.C.Z. Type
No. 32404; 2 paratypes in the U. S. National Museum; 2 in the Department
of Entomology, Oregon State University; 2 in the Canadian National Collec-
tion; 2 in the British Museum (Natural History); 2 in the Florida State
Collection of Arthropods; 2 in the Field Museum (Chicago); 2 in the
American Museum of Natural History, the remainder in my collection. A
description follows based on the holotype but checked by reference to the
remainder of the type series. The habitus is illustrated by Fig. 1.
Length 1.5 mm. Pronotum 1.70x broader than long. Elytra 1.25x broader
than pronotum. Antenna with penultimate article 2.75x broader than long.
Protarsus with articles successively narrower distally, article I about 0.5x
length of next 3 articles together; penultimate article of maxillary palpus
quadrate; last article cylindrical, ca. 3x length of penultimate, 0.6x as broad
as penultimate. Body convex. Head, elytra and abdomen brunneous with
abdominal apex flavescent; pronotum flavobrunneous; articles I and II of
antenna flavous, the remainder progressively darker, more infuscate distally
and last 4 articles (forming a stout club) very dark; legs and trophi
flavous. Head and pronotum with shagreened microsculpture, rather closely
punctate; elytra more coarsely and closely punctate. Pronotum without
raised basal margin. Anterior coxal cavities partially closed behind by
separate post-coxal sclerites; prosternum with median longitudinal carina;
mesosternum with median longitudinal carina narrowly separating the
mesocoxae; metasternum without carina, metacoxae contiguous. All tarsi
with 5 articles; legs without any darkly-pigmented peg setae; femora and
tibiae normal except that metafemur of males is expanded ventrally and
distally (Fig. 7) and this expansion bears numerous fine setae. Aedeagus
(Fig. 2) slender and strongly curved in lateral view; the curvature invari-
able among all males examined; the structure is well sclerotized and not
The collection of the type series was made in yeast-baited pitfall traps
in turkey oak (Quercus laevis Walter) woodland with deep leaf litter on
sandy soil. The association of Proteinus with fungi may explain the efficacy
of the yeast bait. Nine additional specimens had been collected earlier, 5 on
18-20-II-1977 and 4 on 20-24-II-1977, from the same pitfall traps.
After reading a manuscript version of this article, A. F. Newton

The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)




Fig. 1. Habitus of adult Proteinus thomasi Frank. Length is 1.5 mm
from anterior margin of head to apex of abdomen. The illustration shows
the insect a little more elongate than in life, when the abdomen would be
more contracted and the elytra would cover an additional abdominal segment.

December, 1979

Frank: New Proteinus 335


2 6 8


3a 3b 5
Figs. 2-8. Structures of adult male Proteinus. 2) lateral view of aedeagus
of P. thomasi; 3) aedeagus of P. collaris, (3a) ventral showing basal open-
ing, (3b) lateral; 4) mesotrochanter (showing row of 4 stout setae) and
base of mesofemur of P. collaris; 5) inner aspect of apex of mesotibia (show-
ing 4 peg setae) and article I of mesotarsus of P. collaris; 6) lateral view of
aedeagus of P. parvulus; 7) metafemur (showing distal, ventral expansion)
and base of metatibia of P. thomasi; 8) mesofemur (showing ventral expan-
sion with 4 stout setae) of P. parvulus.

(Museum of Comparative Zoology) sent me 8 additional specimens of P.
thomasi with the following collection data: "New Jersey, Burlington Co.,
Lebanon State Forest, 27-VIII-1976, A. Newton, M. Thayer, on decaying
mushrooms, sandy oak-pine forest; Proteinus thomasi Frank, A. Newton
det. 1978". This represents a considerable northward range extension for
P. thomasi, but the macrohabitat of both collection sites was oak woodland
on sandy soil. The New Jersey specimens do not seem distinguishable from
the Florida specimens.

Proteinus parvulus LeConte, REDESCRIPTION
The holotype (in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard Uni-
versity) bears the following labels: (pale blue disc) /"Type 6602" (on red

The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

December, 1979

paper) /"P. parvulus LeC.". I am fairly certain that it is a male, although I
have not dissected it. The right anterior tarsus and left posterior tarsus are
missing, while the right posterior tarsus appears to be connected only by a
thread of glue. It is difficult to measure precisely because it is slightly
drooped over the card point and cannot be seen in a single plane. However,
I believe it measures about 1.7 mm from anterior margin of head to apex of
abdomen. I have examined 4 paratypes from the same collection, each of
which was on a card point on a single pin bearing a pale blue paper disc.
The paratypes appeared similar in habitus to the holotype. One paratype
was confirmed to be a male, when the aedeagus was dissected out and
mounted in Canada balsam (together with the left mesofemur, tibia and
tarsus) on a small celluloid rectangle in much the same way as described
by Smetana (1971: 10). This paratype, after examination, was mounted
with water-soluble glue on a 3 x 10 mm card rectangle, and placed on a
separate pin, above the celluloid rectangle and above the label: "Proteinus
parvulus LeC. paratype J. H. Frank diss. 1977". A description of this
specimen, checked by reference to the holotype and remaining 3 paratypes,
Length 1.7 mm. Pronotum 1.85x broader than long. Elytra 1.35x broader
than pronotum. Antenna with penultimate article 1.6x broader than long.
Protarsus with articles successively narrower distally, article I about as
long as next 3 together. Body convex. Head piceous; pronotum, elytra, and
abdomen pale castaneous, the pronotum slightly paler than elytra; legs and
trophi pale ferruginous; articles I-VII of antenna pale ferruginous, the
remaining articles (forming a less stout club than in P. thomasi) slightly
infuscate. Head and pronotum with shagreened microsculpture, rather
sparsely punctate; elytra more coarsely and closely punctate. Pronotum
without raised basal margin. All tarsi with 5 articles; legs without any
darkly-pigmented peg setae; femora and tibiae normal except that meso-
femur of male expanded ventrally and with 4 stout, pointed setae (Fig. 8).
Aedeagus slender, the apex not curved (Fig. 6).
The aedeagus does not resemble that of P. atomarius illustrated by
Tottenham (1954: 14, Fig. 23) and Lohse (1964: 24, Fig. 5) and in the
belief that its structure is highly diagnostic, I remove P. parvulus from
synonymy with P. atomarius. This raises the question of whether P.
atomarius occurs in the New World.
Adults of P. thomasi may be distinguished from those of P. parvulus by:
(1) smaller size and less ovate form, (2) paler color, (3) stouter and
darker antennal club, and (males) by (4) different structure of meso- and
meta-femur, (5) different structure of the aedeagus.

Proteinus collaris Hatch, REDESCRIPTION

The holotype and single paratype borrowed from Washington State
Museum, Seattle, were examined. The type is labelled: "WASH.:Seattle
ex alder litter, Feb. 15, 1955, D. W. Boddy, Type Proteinus collaris 1955-
M. Hatch" (on red paper); I believe it is a female, but have not dissected it.
The paratype is labelled: "WASH.:Seattle Pine litter, April 19, 1955, D. W.
Boddy; Paratype Proteinus collaris 1955-M. Hatch (on red paper)", and
is a male. Both specimens were mounted originally on card points, but I
removed the paratype from its point in alcohol, dissected out the aedeagus,


Frank: New Proteinus

examined the specimen before remounting it with water-soluble glue on a
3 x 10 mm specimen card, then mounted the aedeagus in Canada balsam on
a celluloid rectangle and pinned the specimen and celluloid rectangle above
the original labels. The type and paratype are in good condition, though the
type is drooped over its card point so cannot be seen in a single plane and
cannot be measured easily. A description of the paratype, checked by ex-
amination of the holotype, follows.
Length 1.75 mm. Pronotum 1.85x broader than long. Elytra 1.35x broader
than pronotum. Antenna with penultimate article 1.6x broader than long.
Protarsus with articles successively narrowed distally, article I longer than
next 3 articles together. Body convex. Head piceous, elytra, and abdomen
castaneous with apex of latter rufescent, pronotum bright flavo-rufous;
articles I and II of antenna pale ferruginous, the remaining articles becom-
ing gradually castaneous distally so that club (the last 4 articles form a less
stout club than in P. thomasi) is rather darker than base; legs and trophi
pale ferruginous. Head and pronotum with shagreened microsculpture,
rather sparsely punctate; elytra more closely and coarsely punctate.
Pronotum without raised basal margin. All tarsi with 5 articles; male with
a row of 4 darkly pigmented peg setae present at apex of mesotibia (Fig. 5),
no other peg setae present, femora and tibiae of normal shape; mesotro-
chanter (but not pro- or metatrochanter) with a row of 4 spinules (Fig. 4).
Aedeagus (Fig. 3) stout.
Adults of P. thomasi may be differentiated from those of P. collaris by:
(1) smaller size and less ovate form, (2) paler color, (3) stouter and darker
antennal club, and (males) by (4) different structure of metafemur, (5)
lack of peg setae, (6) different structure of aedeagus.
Adults of P. parvulus may be differentiated from those of P. collaris by:
lack of brightly differentiated flavo-rufous pronotum; males also by: lack of
peg setae at apex of mesotibia, expanded mesofemur, and different structure
of the aedeagus.


It is not possible to provide a very useful key to the identification of all
the New World species without a thorough revision. Nevertheless, adults of
P. thomasi may be distinguished from adults of other species described in the
literature as follows.
In each of the keys to Palearctic species given by Tottenham (1954) and
Lohse (1964) adults of P. thomasi key to a couplet containing P. atomarius
and P. macropterus (Gyllenhal). They may be distinguished from those of
P. atomarius by: larger size (1.5 mm c.f. 1.0-1.3 mm), and aedeagus of dif-
ferent form, strongly curved at apex (Fig. 2, c.f. Fig. 23, p. 14 of Tottenham;
Fig. 5, p. 25 of Lohse). They may be distinguished from those of P.
macropterus by: absence of peg setae at inner face of apex of mesotibia;
mesotibia not "thickened and indented in middle of anterior margin"; article
I of protarsus not strongly broadened, not about as long as next 3 articles
together; aedeagus of different form, more slender (Fig. 2, c.f. Fig. 22, p. 14
of Tottenham; Fig. 6, p. 25 of Lohse). Using the same keys (loc. cit.) they
may be distinguished from adults of P. brachypterus by: articles I and II of
antenna pale (c.f. only article I of antenna pale); mesotibia without peg
setae at inner face of apex; aedeagus of different form (Fig. 2, c.f. Fig. 21,


The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

December, 1979

p. 14 of Tottenham; Fig. 4, p. 5 of Lohse); pronotum without raised basal
The original description of P. densipennis by Bernhauer (1912) suggests
that adults of P. thomasi differ from those of the former by: articles I and
II of antenna both pale (c.f. only article I pale); pronotum ca. 1.7x as broad
as long (c.f. > 2x as broad as long).
The original description of P. flavocaudatus by Bierig (1940) suggests
that adults of P. thomasi differ from those of the former by: head darker
than pronotum (c.f. pronotum darker than head); antenna with club very
dark (c.f. antenna entirely pale); elytra jointly 1.25x as broad as pronotum
(c.f. at least 1.5x as broad as pronotum) ; pronotum with hind angles not
acute (c.f. hind angles acute, acuminate, and directed posteriorly).
The original description of P. salebrosus by Casey (1885) suggests that
adults of P. thomasi differ from those of the former by: legs entirely flavous
(c.f. "legs piceous, knees, and tarsi paler, testaceous"); antenna with
strong, distinct club (c.f. "antennae very slender"); pronotum 1.7x as broad
as long (c.f. 2.3x as broad as long).
The original description of P. sulcatus by Fauvel (1878) suggests that
adults of P. thomasi differ from those of the former by: basal antennal
article pale (c.f. dark, nigro-piceous); pronotum without raised basal
margin; pronotum ca. 1.7x as broad as long (c.f. 3x as broad as long).
The original description of P. limbatus by Mhklin (1852), indicates that
the typical adult form of this species is black with thorax in part and legs
piceo-testaceous; adults of P. thomasi are paler than this. The peg setae of
the middle trochanter of the male of P. limbatus, as illustrated by Black-
welder (1936: 75), distinguish this species clearly from P. thomasi whose
males lack peg setae. Adults of "variety b" (or P. limbatus var. maeklini)
were indicated by Miklin to be yet darker than the typical form thus they
could not be confused with adults of P. thomasi. Adults of "variety c" were
indicated by Miklin to be paler than the typical form, and may approach the
coloration of adults of P. thomasi; however, the presence or absence of peg
setae in the males should distinguish the 2 taxa.
Mdklin's original description of the adult of P. basalis suggests that this
is a darkly-colored insect with the base of the elytra pale, a color pattern
quite unlike that of adults of P. thomasi.

During the preparation of this manuscript, the insect collection previ-
ously housed at Washington State Museum, Seattle, was transferred to
Oregon State University, Corvallis. The type material of P. collaris and 2
paratypes of P. thomasi are deposited at the latter museum.

I am grateful to S. A. Rohwer (Washington State Museum) for the loan
of types of P. collaris, to A. F. Newton for the loan of types of P. parvulus,
for a critical reading of the manuscript of this article, and for the gift of
specimens of P. thomasi from New Jersey, and to L. H. Herman (American
Museum of Natural History) for reviewing the manuscript. Michael C.

Frank: New Proteinus


Thomas not only provided the types of P. thomasi, but very kindly drew the
habitus illustration (Fig. 1).


ANONYMOUS. 1970. Bibliography of W. O. Steel. Ent. Mon. Mag. 105: 146-9.
ARNETT, R. H. 1961. Staphylinidae. Pages 233-310, Part 1, Fascicle 15, in:
The beetles of the United States (a manual for identification.)
Catholic Univ. America Press; Washington, D. C.
BERNHAUER, M. 1912. Zur Staphylinidenfauna von Nordamerika. 5. Beitrag.
Pomona Coll. J. Ent. 4: 678-83.
BIERIG, A. 1940. Proteinini (Col. Staph.) Costaricensis (28a contribution).
Revta Ent., Rio de J. 11: 373-80.
BLACKWELDER, R. E. 1936. Morphology of the coleopterous family Staphy-
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1944. Checklist of the coleopterous insects of Mexico, Central Amer-
ica, the West Indies and South America. Pt. 1. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull.
185: i-xii+1-188.
1952. The generic names of the beetle family Staphylinidae with an
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BRIMLEY, C. S. 1938. The insects of North Carolina, being a list of the in-
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CASEY, T. L. 1885. New genera and species of Californian Coleoptera. Bull.
Cal. Acad. Sci. 1: 285-336 + 1 pl.
COIFFAIT, H., AND F. SAIZ. 1968. Les Staphylinidae (sensu lato) du Chili.
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1'Amerique Australe. Centre Natl. Recherche Sci.; Paris, 4: 339-468.
ERICHSON, W. F. 1840. Genera et species Staphylinorum Coleopterorum
familiar. Morin, Berlin (2) : 401-954.
FABRICIUS, J. C. 1792. Entomologia systematic emendata et aucta . .
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FAUVEL, C. A. A. 1868. Faune du Chili. Insectes, col6opteres, staphylinides.
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1869. Remarques synonymiques sur les Staphylinidae du Catalogus
Coleopterorum de M. M. Harold et Gemminger. Abeille 5: 479-94.
1872. Faune Gallo-Rh6nane . Col6opteres. Fauvel; Ca6n, 3(3):
1-214 + pls. I, II.
1878. Les staphylinides de l'Amerique du Nord. Bull. Soc. Linn.
Normandie, Series 3, 2: 167-266 (also in Notices Entomologiques 7:
1889. Liste des col6opteres communs a l'Europe et a l'Amerique du
Nord. Revue Ent. 8: 92-174.
HAMILTON, J. 1889. Catalogue of the Coleoptera common to North America,
northern Asia and Europe, with the distribution and bibliography.
Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 16: 88-162.
1894a. Catalogue of the Coleoptera of Alaska, with the synonymy
and distribution. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 21: 1-38.
1894b. Catalogue of the Coleoptera common to North America,
northeastern Asia and Europe, with distribution and bibliography.
Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 21: 345-416.
HAMMOND, P. M. 1972. The microstructure, distribution and possible func-
tion of peg-like setae in male Coleoptera. Ent. Scand. 3: 40-54.
HATCH, M. H. 1957. The beetles of the Pacific Northwest, pt. 2: Staphylini-
formia. Univ. Washington Press; Seattle, ix + 1-384.
HORION, A. 1963. Faunistik der mitteleuropiischen Kafer. Horion;
iJberlingen-Bodensee, xii + 1-412 p.

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December, 1979

HUBBARD, H. G., AND E. A. SCHWARZ. 1878. The Coleoptera of Michigan.
Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 17: 593-669 + pl. 15.
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(Coleoptera) with keys to the larvae of the British genera of Steninae
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composant les classes des crustacds, des arachnides et des insects ..,
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Frost: Insects on Elderberry Flowers


Frost Entomological Museum
The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA 16802


This is the second part of a study of insects associated with North
American species of elderberry (Sambucus). Based on original observations
by the author, additional records by other entomologists, and recourse to
published records, over 150 species of insects are known to visit the flowers
of Sambucus.

Literature on the relation of insects and plants is enormous; however,
according to Kingsolver and Sanderson (1967), no particular studies deal
with Sambucus. The first portion of this 3 part study involved insects at-
tracted to the extrafloral nectaries of Sambucus simpsonii (Frost 1977).
The current contribution includes observations made of arthropods associated
with blossoms of that species with supplementary records on other species of
Sambucus as indicated. The third part will deal with insects of more eco-
nomic importance: feeders of leaves, stems, roots, and berries.
Elderberry grows throughout the world especially in the Northern
Hemisphere, and is conspicuous in North America, Europe, northern Africa,
Siberia, and Japan. Approximately 40 species of Sambucus have been de-
scribed worldwide (Willis 1966). Only 5 species are common in North
America: Sambucus simpsonii Rehder, S. canadensis L., S. racemosa L.
(= S. pubescens Persoon), S. caerulea Rafinesque-Schmaltz, and S. micro-
botrys Rudberg (Fernald 1950).
Sambucus simpsonii differs from the other northern species in that it
blooms all winter except during periods of extremely low temperatures but
recovers quickly when warm weather returns. The northern species blooms
for only a comparatively short period, scarcely 3 weeks, limiting the period
for flower visitations and observations. This may account, in part, for the
relatively few insects known to be attracted to these flowers.
As early as 1800, large elderberry orchards were planted in Europe,
chiefly for making wine. The flowers were distilled with water and alcohol to
yield perfumes and lotions. A decoction of the blossoms was reported as part
of an herbal remedy for yellow fever (Bates 1864). More recently the plant-
ing of elderberry has been expanded in North America, principally for the
production of wine and jelly (Still and Buriff 1970). A non-poisonous purple
dye is made from the berries and is used by inspectors in marking cuts of
meat. Various new and more desirable cultivars have been developed which
simplify the picking and processing of the crop and have added better flavor
to the fruit. Thus, elderberry has become a more important crop; this change
in status has resulted in recognition of insect problems.
Insects visit flowers chiefly for pollen and/or nectar. Bees and wasps seek
principally nectar, although some gather considerable pollen. Beetles

342 The Florida Entomologist 62 (4) December, 1979

principally seek pollen. Butterflies and moths apparently are not commonly
attracted to elderberry blooms. Records indicate that large insects seeking
nectar at elderberry blossoms are relatively few. The openings of the flowers
leading to the stamens and nectar glands are small, and large insects are
frequently unable to reach these areas. Predaceous forms, seeking their
prey, are occasional visitors.
In general, insects that visit the flowers of elderberry have little eco-
nomic importance except as pollinators. Elderberry blossoms, like those of
other flowering plants, attract many insects and provide the entomologist an
opportunity to obtain numerous species.
Information concerning insects that visit the flowers of elderberry was
obtained by direct observations at various times of the days over a period of
many years, from November to May in Florida, and June to July in Pennsyl-
vania. To dislodge small insects, the blooms were cut and immediately placed
in 70% alcohol for later removal of specimens that were difficult to obtain
otherwise. Other records were obtained also by visual examination of the
blooms. The insects were sent to specialists for identification; records from
the literature were included also.

Discussion of Species Found on the Flowers of Elderberry

The nymphs and adults of mites and spiders were numerous on the
blossoms of Sambucus simpsonii. None of the species has been identified.


Chrysopa rufilabris Burmeister (= C. lineaticornis Fitch) identified by
P. A. Adams, California, was an occasional visitor to the flowers of S.
simpsonii. Other unidentified neuropterans were observed on the northern
species, S. canadensis.


A single dragonfly was observed resting on the flower head of S.
simpsonii in broad daylight. Considerable numbers of damselflies were ob-
served on low bushes at dusk but none was on elderberry.

A specimen of Psocus pollutus Walsh, identified by E. L. Mockford, was
taken on S. canadensis at State College, PA.


Frankliniella cephalica Crawford was common on the flowers of S.
simpsonii. On 1 occasion, 14 males and 15 females were taken.
Leptothrips mali Fitch also was common on the flowers of S. simpsonii.
L. J. Stannard (1968) stated that this is usually considered a northern form
and that the Florida specimens may be a distinct species.
Sericothrips sambuci Hood nymphs and adults were numerous on the
flowers of S. simpsonii. According to Stannard (1968) this species feeds en-

Frost: Insects on Elderberry Flowers

tirely on the leaves of elderberry. It is common throughout Illinois and also
was taken on S. canadensis at State College, PA. In the north it hibernates
under the bark of its host.
Frankliniella tritici (Fitch), the flower thrips, is a common economic
species especially in the eastern United States. Although it never has been
reported from elderberry, it might be expected. The same is true of F. vac-
cinii Morgan.
Liothrips sambuci Hood, according to Stannard (1968), was misnamed
and occurs only on dogwood.

CICADELLIDAE, leafhoppers. According to D. M. Delong (in a letter 1975)
"To the best of my knowledge there are no species of leafhoppers that occur
on Sambucus."
Graphocephala coccinea (Forster) was taken occasionally on the blooms
of Sambucus simpsonii and S. canadensis. This species occurs in the eastern
United States west to Texas and Oklahoma and is reported chiefly on the
flowers of Forsythia and Rubus spp. Specimens have been taken at State
College and Black Moshannon, PA, from 5 July to 19 July.
APHIDAE, plant lice. Aphids are associated chiefly with leaves. One small
species, Aphis sambuci Linnaeus (= A. sambucifoliae Fitch), identified by
J. O. Pepper, was often common on the blooms of S. simpsonii and was taken
also on S. canadensis at State College, PA.
CERCOPIDAE, spittlebugs or froghoppers. The meadow spittlebug, Philaeneus
spumarius (Linnaeus), has been reported from elderberry by Still and
Buriff (1970). This is a common, widely distributed species that causes in-
jury to a large number of plants. The eggs are laid on stems of grasses and
other herbaceous plants and hatch the following spring. The frothy spittle-
like masses are common sights.
MEMBRACIDAE, treehoppers. Ceresa diceros Say was reported by Funkhouser
(1917) as common on Sambucus canadensis, but there was no mention that
it was taken on the bloom.

ANTHOCORIDAE, flower bugs. Asthenidea temnostethoides Reuter, a small
species measuring scarcely 2.5 mm, apparently occurs on blossoms of S.
canadensis in Illinois and New York. Specimens were identified by J. P.
Orius insidiosus (Say), a common species taken on S. simpsonii and S.
canadensis, is said to feed on aphids and other soft bodied insects. Blatchley
(1926) stated that they sometimes attack small fruits, sucking the juices
and giving the berries a nauseous taste. They may cause similar injury to
Orius pumilio (Champion), described from Guatemala, apparently is not
common in Florida. Specimens were taken 4 March and 20 November on S.
Orius tristicolor (White), the minute pirate bug, apparently is a color
variety of 0. insidiosus (Say) which occurs in the Pacific States; it possibly
occurs on elderberry.


The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

December, 1979

COREIDAE, leaffooted bugs. Leptoglossus phyllopus Linnaeus was taken from
December to March on S. simpsonii in Florida. It ranges from New York to
Virginia southwest to Missouri, Oklahoma, and Arizona and is known from
Central America. It causes serious damage to cotton bolls, cucurbits, peaches,
oranges, and other fruits.
CORIZIDAE, A single species, Corizus bohemanni Signoret, was taken on the
bloom of S. canadensis at Black Moshannon, PA, by L. E. Adams, 14 July.
This is chiefly a northern species known from Quebec west to British
Columbia and Colorado south to Texas, Arizona, California, and Florida.
MIRIDAE, plant bugs. Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze), generally known as
the alfalfa plant bug, is a European species 1st recorded from North Amer-
ica in Nova Scotia and subsequently recorded from Manitoba, Iowa, Minne-
sota, Illinois, Missouri, Dakota, Nebraska, Wisconsin, and Kansas. Lloyd
Adams collected this species at State College, PA, on the flowers of S.
canadensis. The principle crops that the insect normally attacks are alfalfa
and sweet clover where it prefers to feed on the flower buds and newly
formed seeds.
Neurocolpus jessiae Knight nymphs and adults were taken on the panicles
and fruits of elderberry in Illinois. It is known also from Ontario, Kansas,
Iowa, Mississippi, New Jersey, and Massachusetts.
Rhinachloa subpallicornia Knight is a Neotropical species common in
Florida; it was taken on the flowers of S. simpsonii. Specimens were identi-
fied by R. C. Froeschner.
Pinaltus approximatus StAl (2 specimens) was taken on the bloom of
Sambucus canadensis by L. E. Adams at Bear Meadows, PA on 14 July. This
species was identified by T. J. Henry, Harrisburg, PA. It is not listed by
Knight (1941), and its distribution is not well known.
Peocilocapsus lineatus (Fabricius) was taken by L. E. Adams, Bear
Meadows, PA, 19 July.
PENTATOMIDAE, stink bugs. Euschistus obscurus (Palisot de Beauvois) was
seen frequently on the bloom of S. simpsonii, chiefly during March. Speci-
mens were compared with those identified by H. Ruckes.
Euschistus servus (Say), the brown stink bug, was taken on S.
simpsonii, This pentatonid is said to be common and to pass the winter
beneath loose bark. During autumn and spring it frequents flowers, especially
those of thistle and goldenrod. It is known from Massachusetts west to
Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, and Kansas south to Louisiana, Texas, New Mexico,
and Florida.
Euschistus variolarius (Palisot de Beauvois). Blatchley (1926) recorded
this species as common in Indiana, ranging from Ontario and New England
to British Columbia, Colorado, Indiana, and Kansas. They hide during the
winter beneath leaves and other trash. Adults of the last generation seek
cover in mid October and emerge in April to oviposit. They apparently occur
on the flowers and foliage of numerous plants. Adults were taken on the
blooms of elderberry at State College, PA, by Lloyd Adams.
Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus) nymphs were found on the flowers
of S. simpsonii. This species is known also from Pennsylvania, Tennessee,
North Corolina, Louisiana, and Georgia. Blatchley (1926) recorded this
predator from the flowers of other plants.
LARGIDAE, largid bugs. Lagaris davisi (Barber) was somewhat common on

Frost: Insects on Elderberry Flowers


the bloom of S. simpsonii during January and is known only from Florida.
It is closely related to the following species.
Lagaris succinctus (Linnaeus) was taken during November on S.
simpsonii. According to Blatchley (1926), it is occasionally found on wax-
myrtle and oak and is known from New York south to Texas and Florida
and west to Colorado and Arizona.
PHYMATIDAE, ambush bugs. Phymata wolffi Stil (= P. pennsylvanicus
Handlirsch) is a predaceous form. It was found on the blossoms of S.
simpsonii and is known from Quebec and New England west to Illinois and
south to Florida.
Phymata fasciata Gray. A single specimen was taken on the bloom of
S. simpsonii on 12 April. It is common in Indiana and is recorded from New
Jersey and Maryland west to California, Texas, Arizona and south to
TINGIDAE, lace bugs. Although several lace bugs have been recorded from
Caprifoliaceae by Drake and Ruhoff (1965), none is known to be associated
with elderberry.

Many species of beetles frequent flowers feeding on nectar and/or pollen.
At least 15 families are represented. Relatively few have been recorded
previously from elderberry; however, many might be expected.
ANTHICIDAE, ant-like flower beetles. Anthicus (=Lappus) obscurus Laferte,
according to Blatchley (1926), was beaten from wild grape and elderberry
during June and is known from Indiana, Pennsylvania, and North Carolina.
BUPRESTIDAE, metallic wood-borers. Acmeaodera pulchella Herbst has been
found on various flowers, especially Ceanothus, and might be expected on
CANTHARIDAE, soldier beetles. Cantharis longula Leconte was collected
from the blooms of S. simpsonii during April and May. It is known from
Georgia and Florida. Specimens were identified by H. Dietrich.
Chauliognathus marginatus (Fabricius) was taken from the flowers of
S. simpsonii and is known from Indiana, New York, and Florida.
CARABIDAE, ground beetles. Lebia scapularis Dejean, a common species, was
taken frequently from the flowers of S. simpsonii. It is known from Kansas,
Oklahoma, and Indiana. Several other Lebia are known to visit flowers but
have not been reported from elderberry.
CERAMBYCIDAE, longhorned beetles. The following 15 species of Cerambycidae
have been collected and identified by J. P. Huether, Penwalt Corporation,
Northeastern Research and Development, Fresno, CA. The number of
Cerambycidae reported is an excellent example of the importance of intensive
observations and collections and may suggest the reason so relatively few
insects, especially Cerambycidae, have been reported previously from elder-
Analeptura lineola (Say) was taken 28 June, 3, 15, 18 July in Pennsyl-
vania, 23 June in New York, and 21 June in New Jersey, and is known from
Ontario to Florida and the midwestern states.
Brachyleptura champlaini Casey was taken 23 June at Lounsberry, NY,
and 15 July at Carroll, PA, and is also known from eastern United States
south to Florida.

The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

December, 1979

Brachyleptura (=Anoplodera) circumdata Olivier, was collected 23 June
in Pennsylvania and is known from Massachusetts and New York.
Brachyleptura (=Anoplodera) rubrica (Say) was taken 2, 7, 15 June in
Pennsylvania, 23 June in New York, and 22 June in New Jersey.
Desmocerus palliatus Forster is common in the eastern United States
and Canada south to Alabama and westward to Indiana and Kansas. It is a
large striking beetle ca. 1 in long, chiefly blue in color with a greenish
irridescence and the basal portion of the elytra orange yellow. Adults occur
on the flowers and leaves of S. canadensis; the larvae cause considerable
injury by boring into the stems and roots. They are active during June and
July. Linsley and Chemsak (1972) stated that this species occurs also on
S. nigra Linnaeus.
Euderces picipes picipes (Fabricius) was reported 24 June and 3 July at
Hall, New York, and is known from Canada and Pennsylvania. It is a small
beetle scarcely 1/4 in long; the larvae bore in many hard woods and breed
in hickory and chestnut but are not generally abundant enough to cause
noticeable injury.
Judolia (=Anoplodera) cordifera (Olivier) was taken 15 and 22 July in
Pennsylvania. It has been found also on the flowers of Ceanothus and is
known from the eastern United States from New England to Georgia
(Linsley and Chemsak, 1976).
Molorchus bimaculatus bimaculatus Say was taken 23 June at Scott, NY,
and is known also from Indiana and the Atlantic States where it is common
on various flowers. The larvae breed in grape and hard woods.
Pidonia aurata Horn was taken 23 July, Black Forest, PA. Linsley and
Chemsak (1976) recorded this species from the Atlantic States to the south-
ern Appalachian region and northwest Georgia.
Pidonia ruficollis (Say) was taken 2 July at Hall, NY. It apparently is
common in the eastern United States. Linsley and Chemsak (1976) took it
on the flowers of elderberry. L. E. Adams collected several specimens at
Barrens, PA, 19 July.
Strangalepta (=Anoplodera) pubera (Say) was taken 20 and 29 June
in Pennsylvania. It has been recorded from various flowers and, according to
Linsley and Chemsak (1976), is known from northeastern North America
south to North Carolina.
Trigonarthris (=Anoplodera) proxima (Say) was taken at Pittsfield,
ME, 15 July. According to Linsley and Chemsak (1976), this species occurs
in eastern North America on Sambucus and other flowers.
Xestoleptura (=Anoplodera) octonotata (Say) was taken 20 and 29 July
from Pennsylvania and is known from Connecticut, Indiana, and north-
eastern New York and has been taken on various flowers.

Additional Species of Cerambycidae Reported by E. G. Linsley and J. A.
Chemsak (1976).

Brachyleptura vagans (Olivier), active from April to July, was recorded
by Linsley and Chemsak (1976) from the flowers of Sambucus; it occurs in
eastern North America west to Wisconsin and south to Florida.
Cortodera cubitalis (Leconte), active from April to June, was recorded
by Linsley and Chemsak (1972) from Sambucus and other flowers; it occurs
chiefly on the coastal ranges of California and southern Sierra Nevada.


Frost: Insects on Elderberry Flowers

Evodina monticola monticola (Randall) was recorded by Linsley and
Chemsak (1972) from the flowers of Sambucus and many other flowers from
May to July; it occurs from Newfoundland to North Carolina.
Rhopalophora laevicollis (Leconte), active from June to November, was
recorded by Linsley (1964) on Sambucus; it occurs from Texas to the lower
Rio Grande Valley and Mexico.
Tridactylus lanifer (Leconte) was recorded by Linsley (1964) on
Sambucus spp. It is known from southern Oregon and California with a
flight period from May to April.
Typocerus velutinus (Olivier), active from May to August, was recorded
by Linsley and Chemsak (1976) on Sambucus and many other flowers, from
eastern North America, Nova Scotia to Florida and westward to Kansas.
Typocerus zebra (Olivier) was recorded by Linsley and Chemsak (1976)
as a frequent visitor to Sambucus and many other flowers; it is known from
the eastern United States and southern Canada to Florida and Texas and
is active from March to July.
Xestoleptura crassipes (Leconte) was recorded by Linsley and Chemsak
(1976) visiting the flowers of Sambucus and many others; it is known from
British Columbia to Colorado and southern California and is active from
May to August.
The flower-visting Cerambycidae usually have a wide choice of blossoms
which include even staminate catkins of conifers. Probably additional species
might be expected at the blossoms of elderberry.
CHRYSOMELIDAE, leaf beetles'. Bassareus formosus (Melsheimer) has been
collected from the flowers of S. canadensis in Pennsylvania. Blatchley (1910)
stated that it was beaten from the foliage of wild grape and elderberry in
Indiana. It is known from Maine, New York, New Jersey, Illinois, Alabama,
Georgia, Ohio, and Connecticut.
Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber, known as the southern corn
rootworm or spotted cucumber beetle, was taken occasionally from the bloom
of S. simpsonii in Florida. It is widely distributed in the United States from
Canada to Florida, and Mexico.
Diachus auratus (Fabricius) is known from Connecticut, southern Cali-
fornia, Florida, and South America. Balsbaugh and Hays (1972) stated that
this species was swept from S. canadensis in Alabama and from false indigo,
Amorpha fructicosa Linnaeus, June to August.
Disonycha carolineana (Fabricius) is common in Maine, Connecticut,
Pennsylvania, Indiana, Florida, Mexico, and Costa Rica. Felt (1906) stated,
"Say found this species in considerable numbers on common elder
(Sambucus) and some other plants but he states he failed to obtain any
specimens on elder at Rock Island."
Lexiphanes seminulum Suffrain is known from North Carolina, Alabama,
Georgia, Florida, and Mississippi. Balsbaugh and Hays (1972) recorded this
species from the flowers of S. canadensis and also from evening primrose.
Phyllotreta aerea Allard was collected from the bloom of S. canadensis
at State College, PA. This is a European species, primarily a pest of
Cruciferae, that was 1st noted in America in 1926. It is apparently more
common than generally suspected; Frost (1949) took 2079 specimens in 7

'This section has been reviewed by E. U. Balsbaugh who added additional information on

The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

December, 1979

sweepings 15 July and 2 August on a row of radish 60 ft long. It has been
reported also from New York.
Systena hudsonias (Forster) often is known as the smartweed flea
beetle. According to Wilcox (1954), this species is found frequently on
Ambrosia and elder. It is a pest of vegetable crops but occurs on numerous
weeds. In Alabama it is active from April to 27 June, but in most northern
states it occurs during June and July; it is relatively common throughout
Canada and the eastern United States and also from South Dakota, Colorado,
and Mexico.
Many flea beetles, especially Phyllotreta and Systena, might be expected
on elderberry.
CLERIDAE, checkered beetles. Placopterus thoracicus Olivier was reported and
identified by J. P. Huether from the flowers of elderberry at Hall, NY, 2
and 3 July. It is known also from Ontario, Illinois, Indiana, and Florida.
COCCINELLIDAE, lady beetles. Brachycantha ursina Fabricius, known from
eastern North America, has been collected recently from the flowers of S.
canadensis. Blatchley (1910) stated that it occurs chiefly on the flowers and
leaves of milkweed.
Because of their predaceous habits lady beetles might be expected on the
flowers of many plants.
CURCULIONIDAE, snout beetles or weevils. Derelomus basalis Leconte, a minute
curculionid determined by R. E. Warner, is common on the flowers of S.
simpsonii and those of paw paw in Florida. It is known also from Georgia
and has been reported from the blossoms of cabbage and saw palmetto.
DERMESTIDAE, skin beetles. Anthrenus castaneae Melsheimer has been taken
on flowers of S. canadensis at State College. L. E. Adams found it common
at Bear Meadows, PA, 19 July. It is known also from Indiana, North Caro-
lina, and Texas.
Anthrenus scrophulariae Linnaeus has been reported from 27 different
species of flowers, especially those that are white or cream colored. It is
widely distributed in eastern North America and might be expected on
Attagenus piceus Olivier, another common species in Europe and North
America, has been taken on many flowers and might be expected on elder-
berry. Robertson (1928) stated that an Attagenus species, perhaps piceus
Olivier, is a frequent visitor to elderberry.
ELATERIDAE, click beetles. Several small species, especially of the genera
Adelocera, Hypnoidus, Lepturoides, Limonius, and Ampedus, are known to
visit flowers and are frequently attracted to liquid baits. Although none has
been reported from elderberry, some might be involved.
HYDROPHILIDAE, water scavengers. Cercyon floridanus Horn, determined by
F. N. Young, was taken occasionally on the flowers of S. simpsonii feeding
on nectar and apparently is known only from Florida.
Paracymus, a minute species scarcely 1.5 mm, was taken on elderberry
bloom by the author at Benner Springs, PA, 2 July.
LAGRIIDAE, lagriid beetles. Statira gagatina Melsheimer, identified by
H. Dietrich, was taken occasionally on the bloom of S. simpsonii in Florida
during January and February. It is known also from Indiana and the
northern United States.
LYCIDAE, net-winged beetles. Lycus (=Lycostomus) lateralis Melsheimer was


Frost: Insects on Elderberry Flowers

collected occasionally on the bloom of S. simpsonii in Florida. It is known also
from Connecticut, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Georgia, and Texas.
MELYRIDAE (Malachiidae), soft-winged flower beetles. Anthocomus sp. was
reported by Robertson (1928) on S. canadensis.
MORDELLIDAE, tumbling flower beetles. Anapsis rufa Say was taken on the
flowers of S. simpsonii in Florida. L. E. Adams contributed numerous
records. On 1 occasion he swept 36 specimens from the bloom of S. canadensis
at Benner Springs, PA, 12 July.
Mordella marginata Melsheimer, a single specimen, was taken from the
bloom of S. canadensis at Black Moshannon, PA, 12 July.
Morcellistena sp. was reported on the bloom of S. canadensis by Robertson
(1928). The Mordellidae have not been studied carefully, and perhaps other
records might be discovered. An unidentified small black species was taken
frequently by L. E. Adams at Bear Meadows, PA, 12 July.
NITIDULIDAE, sap beetles. Boreades abdominalis (Erichson), the sap beetle,
was reported by Still and Buriff (1970) feeding on the tips of elderberry,
killing and eventually reducing the yield of fruit. It visits various flowers
including elderberry (Parsons 1943). It is known from east Canada to
Georgia, west to Texas, Missouri, Nebraska, and Kansas.
Carpophilus brachypterus (Say) was taken on S. canadensis, 12 July, at
State College, PA. It is known also from Indiana, Canada, and California.
Cybocephalus nigritulus Leconte (det. H. Dietrich) was taken on S.
simpsonii at Lake Placid, FL. It is known also from Michigan and Georgia.
Cateretes (Cercus) pennatus Murry is known from Canada, New Eng-
land, and Indiana, occurring from 19 June to 19 July. Blatchley (1910) stated
that this species occurs on the flowers of elder and wild hydrangea.
Epuraea labilis Erichson. Blatchly (1910) recorded this species from
the flowers of elder and dogwood. It is known from Indiana, Michigan, and
Epuraea sp. was taken on the flowers of S. canadensis, 2 July, at State
College, PA. Extensive collections may reveal that other closely related spe-
cies of Nitidulidae frequent the flowers of Sambucus.
SCARABAEIDAE, scarab beetles. Euphoria fulgida (Fabricius) was recorded
from the flowers of S. canadensis by Robertson (1928). It is known from
Michigan, Indiana, and Texas.
Popillia japonica Newman, the Japanese beetle, was taken on the blooms
of elderberry at State College, PA; it is widely distributed and recorded
from many hosts.

Strangely I have never seen moths or 'butterflies at the blooms of elder-
berry and know of no records. However, small green geometrid larvae were
collected on elderberry blooms, 12 July, at State College, PA. They were not
reared or identified. These larvae were 15 to 20 mm in length, green with
light brown heads, and the 1st to 5th abdominal segments with small dark
colored triangles on the dorsum.


The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

December, 1979

AGROMYZIDAE, leaf mining flies. A species of Phytobia, still unidentified, was
taken on the bloom of S. simpsonii in Florida.
MUSCIDAE, muscid flies. Fannia manicata (Meigen) (=Phorbia acra Walker)
was reported by Robertson (1928) on the bloom of S. canadensis. This is
chiefly a northern species although recorded south to Colorado and Georgia.
ANTHOMYIIDAE, anthomyiid flies. Hylemya (Delia) platura (Meigen), com-
monly known as the seed corn maggot, was recorded from elderberry by
Robertson (1928). It is known from Alaska to Greenland and south to
California and Florida.
BIBIONIDAE, March flies. Dilophus sp. was taken on the bloom of S. simpsonii
by the author.
BOMBYLIIDAE, bee flies. Anthrax irroratus Say was reported by Robertson
(1928) on S. canadensis. It is known from Alaska to Quebec south to Cali-
fornia and Florida.
Villa (Hemipenthes) sinuosa (Wiedemann) was reported by Robertson
(1928) from Illinois on S. canadensis.
CECIDOMYIIDAE, gall midges. Youngomyia umbellicola (Osten Sacken), the
elderberry flower midge, is known from New York, New Jersey, Missouri,
Illinois, and Rhode Island. Felt (1940) stated that this species produces
swollen florets in the form of spherical galls.
CERATOPOGONIDAE, biting midges (all identified by W. W. Wirth). Atrichopo-
gon gilvus (Coquillett), a Florida species, was numerous on the blooms of
S. simpsonii during March.
Atrichopogon websteri (Coquillett) is found frequently on the bloom of
S. simpsonii. It is known from Louisiana, California, and Connecticut south
to Florida.
Forcipomyia near calcarata (Coquillett) was taken on the bloom of S.
simpsonii during March. This species is known from Mississippi, Virginia,
Florida, and Mexico.
CHLOROPIDAE, frit flies. Olcella cinerea (Loew). L. E. Adams took 25 speci-
mens at Bear Meadows, PA, on the bloom of Sambucus canadensis, 12 July.
Its range extends from Michigan to Massachusetts south to New Mexico and
Hippelates pusio Loew, the eye gnat, was found frequently on the bloom
of S. simpsonii in Florida. This common species occurs from Washington,
North Dakota, and Pennsylvania south to Florida, California, also Mexico
and Bermuda.
DROSOPHILIDAE, fruit flies. Cladochaeta sp. L. E. Adams took 12 specimens at
Black Moshannon, PA, on the bloom of Sambucus canadensis, 12 July. Only
1 species, C. nebulosa Coquillett, is known from neotropical America.
EMPIDIDAE, dance flies. Anthalea bulbosa (Melander). L. E. Adams took 25
specimens on Sambucus canadensis, 12 July, at Bear Meadows, PA. This
apparently is a common species known from Quebec, British Columbia,
South Dakota, and Pennsylvania south to Florida.
Hybos sp. was collected (2 specimens) by L. E. Adams on Sambucus
canadensis, 14 July, at Bear Meadows, PA.
MILICHIIDAE. Paramyia nitens (Loew) is known from British Columbia,
Quebec, South Dakota, and Pennsylvania south to Florida. L. E. Adams took


Frost: Insects on Elderberry Flowers

2 specimens on the bloom of Sambucus canadensis, 12 July, at Bear Meadows,
Leptometopa latipes (Meigen) was taken on S. simpsonii during March
in Florida. It is known also from Alaska to Nova Scotia, eastern United
States, Cuba, and Germany. Specimens have been identified by the author.
MYCETOPHILIDAE, fungus gnats. An undetermined species was common on
the bloom of S. simpsonii in Florida during December.
RHAGIONIDAE, snipe flies. Chry.sopilns thoracicus (Fabricius). L. E. Adams
took a single specimen on the bloom of S. canadensis, at Waddle, PA, 20
June. This is a common species and has been noted on numerous other
flowering plants.
SCIARIDAE, dark-winged fungus gnats. An undetermined species of Sciara
was taken frequently on the bloom of S. simpsonii in Florida during April.
SYRPHIDAE, syrphids or hover flies. The following 20 species of syrphid flies
are unpublished records by Frank D. Fee of species he observed visiting the
flowers of S. canadensis in Centre and Clinton Counties, Pennsylvania. All
but Mallota bautias (Walker) and Spilomyia hamifera Loew are new rec-
ords. This is another example of the value of extensive observations and
Blera analis (Macquart) is known from South Dakota to Maine south to
New Jersey.
Chrysogaster nitida Wiedemann occurs from Wisconsin to Ontario south
to Nebraska, Arizona, and Florida.
Chrysogaster pulchella Williston is a common species known from
Sasketchewan and Quebec south to New Hampshire, Connecticut, Colorado,
and North Carolina. The larvae are aquatic.
Didea fuscipes Loew (=D. fasciata of authors, not Macquart) is known
from British Columbia to Nova Scotia, Oregon, New Mexico, and Europe.
Eristalis barda (Say) occurs from Alaska and New Brunswick south to
Indiana, Colorado, and North Carolina.
Eristalis bastardii Macquart is known from Alberta to Nebraska south to
Illinois and Virginia.
Eristalis saxorum Wiedemann occurs from Wyoming to New York south
to Colorado, Georgia, and Florida.
Mallota bautias (Walker) is known from Quebec, Wisconsin, Colorado
south to Georgia, Florida, and Texas.
Mallota posticata (Fabricius) is known from Minnesota to Quebec south
to Florida.
Rhingia nasica Say is a common species known from Manitoba and New
Brunswick south to Colorado and Georgia.
Sericomyia chrysotoxoides Macquart is a common species known from
Newfoundland, Wisconsin, and south to Tennessee and South Carolina.
Sericomyia lata (Coquillett) is known from British Columbia to New
Brunswick south to Nebraska and West Virginia.
Somula decora Macquart occurs from Minnesota to New Brunswick south
to Pennsylvania, Texas, California, and Georgia.
Spilomyia hamifera Loew occurs from Wisconsin to Newfoundland south
to Pennsylvania, Mississippi, and Florida.
Spilomyia fusca Loew occurs from Minnesota to Nova Scotia south to

The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

December, 1979

Milesia (Temnostoma) alternans Loew occurs from Saskatchewan to
Nova Scotia south to Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Georgia.
Temnostoma balyras (Walker) is known from Manitoba to New Bruns-
wick south to New York, Mississippi, and Georgia.
Xylota bicolor Loew is known from Nebraska to Ontario and Quebec
south to Illinois, Mississippi, and Florida.
Xylota chalybea Wiedemann is known from Minnesota to Quebec south to
Kansas, Mississippi, and Georgia.
Xylota pigra (Fabricius) occurs from British Columbia to Quebec south
to California, Florida, and Mexico.
The following 12 species of Syrphidae were reported by Robertson (1928)
on the flowers of elderberry from Illinois. The Syrphidae are conspicuous
flower visitors, and it is not surprising that many are involved with elder-
Allograpta sp. was reported as frequent.
Baccha (Ocyptamus) fuscipennis Say is known from Manitoba to Quebec
south to Texas and Florida.
Chrysogaster nitida Wiedemann is rated abundant and known from
Wisconsin to Ontario and from Massachusetts south to Nebraska, Arizona,
and Florida.
Eristalis dimidiata Wiedemann is known from Alberta to Nova Scotia and
south to Kansas and North Carolina.
Eristalis tenax (Linnaeus) is known from Europe; also from Alaska to
Labrador south to California and Florida.
Mallota bautias (Walker) is rated as frequent and is known from Wis-
consin to Quebec south to Colorado, Texas, and Florida.
Spilomyia hamifera Loew is known from Wisconsin to Newfoundland
south to Pennsylvania, Mississippi, and Florida.
Syritta sp. was reported from elderberry. Only 1 species of this genus is
known from North America, S. pipiens (Linnaeus) which occurs from
British Columbia and Newfoundland south to California and Florida.
Syrphus (Metasyrphus) americanus (Wiedemann) is known from British
Columbia to Quebec south to California, Florida, and Mexico.
Syrphus ribesii (Linnaeus) is a common species known from Alaska to
British Columbia south to North Carolina and Central America.
Toxomerus geminatus (Say) is known from Minnesota to Quebec and
south to Colorado, Texas, and Florida.
Toxomerus marginata (Say) is known from British Columbia to Quebec
and south to California, Florida, and Central America.
The following 2 species were taken by the author:
Allograpta obliqua (Say) was taken on the blossoms of S. simpsonii in
December. It is known also from Quebec south to Florida and California and
from Bermuda and Hawaii.
Helophilus integer Loew was taken from the flowers of S. canadensis at
State College, PA. It is known also from Ontario and Quebec south to North
Weems (1953) listed the hosts of the Syrphidae in considerable detail
stating that they were found chiefly on white flowers, but no mention is made
of species found on elderberry, a conspicuous flower in Florida. In cor-
respondence he mentioned that he took many species from Sambucus spp.

Frost: Insects on Elderberry Flowers


from Florida to Quebec, but relatively few on Sambucus simpsonii.
TABANIDAE, horse flies and deer flies. Many species are known to be asso-
ciated with flowers, but none has been reported from elderberry. L. L.
Pechuman agrees with me that this is strange as Tabanidae have been taken
rather frequently on the flowers of Spiraea and Ceanothus.
TIPULIDAE, craneflies. Alexander (1919, 1920) stated that species of Limonia
sip the nectar of Compositae. Limonia rostrata (Say) is widely distributed
from Pennsylvania, Maryland, Michigan, Louisiana, Florida, and the
Greater Antilles. It might be expected on the flowers of elderberry.


ANDRENIDAE. Andrena imitatrix Cresson (=claytoniae Robertson) reported
by Robertson (1928) on elderberry, is known from the northeast United
States to Georgia, Texas, and Colorado.
Andrena forbesii Robertson was taken by L. E. Adams on S. canadensis
at Bear Meadows, PA, 14 July. This species is known from Nova Scotia to
Virginia and west to Nebraska and Colorado.
COLLETIDAE. A species of Colletes was taken on S. canadensis at Bear
Meadows by L. E. Adams, 14 July.
XYLOCOPIDAE. Ceratina dupla Say was taken on S. simpsonii and is known
from Quebec to Florida west to Wisconsin and Louisiana.
Ceratina sp. was reported by Robertson (1928) on elderberry.
APIDAE. Apis mellifera Linnaeus. Honey bees visited S. simpsonii only oc-
casionally and usually on sunny mornings; seldom more than 5 or 6 were
seen at a time. Robertson (1928) indicated that they frequently visited S.
Nomada bilobata Swenk has been recorded by Robertson (1928) and
others on the flowers of Sambucus. It is known from Nebraska and Wis-
EULOPHIDAE. Eudermophale flavimedia (Howard) has been recorded from
Sambucus (Muesebeck et al. 1951). Some of this family feed on the berries
of other hosts; it is known from Maryland, New Mexico, and California.
BRACONIDAE. Numerous specimens, still unidentified, have been collected on
the flowers of S. simpsonii.
CHALCIDIDAE. Many chalcid wasps, still unidentified, were taken on S.
EURYTOMIDAE. Eudecatoma vacciniicola (Balduf) was collected on blooms of
S. simpsonii. It is known from Ontario and Quebec south to Virginia, Il-
linois, and Louisiana. This species, identified by B. D. Burks, is a gall maker.
FORMICIDAE. The following 8 species of ahts were taken by the author from
the flowers of S. simpsonii, Lake Placid, FL. Identifications have been made
by M. R. Smith and Wm. L. Brown.
Crematogaster atkinsoni Wheeler is known from North Carolina, Ala-
bama, and Mississippi.
Conomyrma flavopecta (M. R. Smith) apparently is known only from
Conomyrma pyramica (Roger) apparently is known only from Florida.

The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

December, 1979

Monomorium pharaonis (Linnaeus) is a common introduced species fre-
quently found in houses.
Camponotus (Myrmothrix) abdominalis Fabricius is a neotropical species.
Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille), an introduced species, is especially
common in Florida and is found frequently in houses.
Pseudomyrmex elongata (Mayr) is known from Florida, South America,
and West Indies.
Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius), known from Connecticut and
Georgia, is an introduced species widely distributed and an important house
HALTICIDAE. The Halticidae are common visitors to flowers. This is a large
group containing over 350 species. The following 5 were reported by Robert-
son (1928) on the flowers of elderberry.
Chloralictus stultum (Cresson). This species is known from Quebec to
Georgia and west to Wisconsin, New Mexico, and Texas.
Chloralictus versatus (Robertson) has been reported as abundant on
S. canadensis. It is known from Maine to North Carolina west to Wisconsin
and Kansas.
Chloralictus zepharus (Smith) is widely distributed and known from
Maine to North Carolina and Florida west to Wisconsin, Kansas, Colorado,
Utah, and Oregon.
Halictus parallelus Say is known from New Jersey to Georgia west to
Montana, New Mexico, and Texas.
Lasioglossum (Evylaeus) arcuatum Robertson is known from Nova
Scotia to Georgia west to Wisconsin, Illinois, and Colorado.

I am grateful to the following entomologists who assisted in the identifica-
tion of species or contributed additional records: L. E. Adams (Ceramby-
cidae), P. A. Adams (Neuroptera), E. U. Balsbaugh (Chrysomelidae),
William Brown (Formicidae), B. D. Burks (Eurytomidae), Henry Dietrich
(Coleoptera), R. C. Froeschner (Hemiptera), J. P. Huether (Cerambycidae),
J. P. Kramer (Anthocoridae), T. J. Henry (Miridae only in part), E. L.
Mockford (Psocoptera), J. O. Pepper (Aphidae), M. R. Smith (Formicidae),
L. J. Stannard (Thysanoptera), R. E. Warner (Curculionidae), H. V.
Weems, Jr. (Syrphidae, in part), W. W. Wirth (Ceratopogonidae), and
~. N. Young (Hydrophilidae). Also, I wish to acknowledge the entomologists
of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods who reviewed the manuscript
and provided helpful information in their respective areas of specialization.
The Archbold Biological Station also made facilities available for this study.


ALEXANDER, C. P. 1919. The crane-flies of New York. Part I. Distribution
and taxonomy of the adult flies. Cornell Univ., Agric. Exp. Sta. Mem.
25: 767-993.
1920. The crane-flies of New York. Part II. Biology and phylogeny.
Cornell Univ., Agric. Exp. Sta. Mem. 38: 695-1133.
BATES, H. W. 1864. The Naturalist on the river Amazons. Dutton, New
York. 407 p.
BALSBAUGH, E. U., AND K. L. HAYS. 1972. The leaf beetles of Alabama.


Frost: Insects on Elderberry Flowers


Auburn Univ., Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 441: 1-223.
BLATCHEY, W. S. 1910. An illustrated and descriptive catalogue of the
Coleoptera or beetles, exclusive of the Rhynchophora, known to occur
in Indiana. The Nature Publishing Co., Indianapolis, Indiana. 1386 p.
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(Hemiptera, Tingidae). U. S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 243: 1-634.
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Mem. 8, Vol. 1: 1-459, Vol. 2: 331-877.
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The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

December, 1979


Department of Entomology and Nematology
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611


Arge humeralis (Beauvois) (Hymenoptera: Argidae) is a North Amer-
ican sawfly that feeds on poison-ivy, Rhus radicans L. In northern Florida
3-4 generations occur from March through October, while in south Florida
generations are continuous. Egg to adult development takes ca. 55 days in
the laboratory. Females have 6 feeding instars while males have only 5.
This sawfly is a potential candidate for the biological control of poison-ivy.

Arge humeralis (Beauvois) (Hymenoptera: Argidae), a sawfly, is being
considered by the University of Florida and the Commonwealth Institute of
Biological Control (CIBC) for importation and release in Bermuda as a
biocontrol agent against poison-ivy, Rhus radicans L. Although this species
occurs over most of the eastern part of North America as far north as
Massachusetts (D. R. Smith, USDA Systematic Entomology Laboratory,
c/o U.S. National Museum, Washington, DC, personal communication), little
is known about the biology. Since field observations (F. D. Bennett, CIBC,
Curepe, Trinidad, W.I., personal communication), suggested its feeding may
have a deleterious effect on R. radicans, biological studies were conducted.
Poison-ivy occurs in a variety of habitats as a woody vine or a trailing or
erect shrub (Gillis 1975) ; it is the most common and widespread pest species
of the family Anacardiaceae in the United States. The dermatogenic sap is
present in roots, stems, leaves, and fruit (Kligman 1958). Nearly 70% of
the United States population is susceptible to poison-ivy, with redness,
itching and blisters erupting after contact with a bruised leaf or smoke
containing particles (Taub 1972).

The biology of A. humeralis was studied under a 15 h photoperiod with
mean temperatures of 260C during photophase and 230C during scotophase.
Relative humidity was not controlled. Clear 28 ml plastic cups were used for
individual rearing (Premium Plastics, Inc.). Agar (ca. 0.3 cm) in the
bottom of each cup provided moisture. Frass was removed each morning and
a fresh poison-ivy leaf was provided. Approximately 120 eggs embedded in
poison-ivy leaves were collected from Duval County, Florida during May
1977. Cut stems of plants containing eggs were placed in flasks of water;
these, in turn, were placed inside glass aquaria covered with glass. Newly

1Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 1361.
2Technologist and Professor, respectively. Photography by senior author. Reprint requests
should be addressed to D. H. Habeck.


Regas-Williams & Habeck: Arge humeralis


closed larvae were transferred to individual cups with a camel hair brush.
The life cycle from egg through pupation was observed from these 120 field-
collected eggs; egg-stage duration was determined from eggs laid in the
laboratory. Daily observations were made to record moulting. Since head
capsules split during moulting, head capsules were measured on ca. 100
living larvae to insure accurate data.
Field-collected eggs, larvae and adults were maintained indoors on
poison-ivy growing in peat in glass aquaria (37.8, 75.7, or 113.5 liter
capacity) covered with a fine, mesh screen. Adult longevity, mating behavior,
and oviposition were observed within these aquaria.
Measurements and descriptions of larvae were based on live and/or
specimens killed in boiling water and preserved in 70% isopropyl alcohol.
Measurements of adults were made on pinned specimens. A dissecting micro-
scope with a calibrated ocular grid was used for all measurements. When
given, confidence intervals about means are expressed as standard deviations
A small hole cut in the end of some cocoons allowed observation of the
developing prepupal stage. Secondary sexual structures of prepupae of both
sexes were observed by removing them from cocoons and clearing the integu-
ment of the ventral abdominal segments with sodium hypochlorite (1:10)
for 15-30 min (Fig. la, 2).


EGG. Eggs dissected from females are yellowish-white, smooth, crescent-
shaped, and moderately pointed on both ends. The mean length and width of
65 eggs removed from 2 female sawflies were 1.5 mm 0.09 mm and 0.7 mm
0.02 mm ,respectively.
LARVA. All instars: prothorax with 1 pair each of subdorsal, lateral, and
sublateral lobes; meso- and metathorax with 1 pair each of subdorsal and
lateral lobes; abdominal segments 1-8 with 1 pair each of subdorsal, lateral,
and sublateral lobes; abdominal segments 1-9 with 3 annulae; spiracles
winged; prolegs on abdominal segments 1-8, 10; thoracic legs and prolegs
(especially laterally) dark brown to black; entire body covered with short
setae which may be more prominent on the lobes. Head capsule measurements
are summarized in Table 1. Any characteristics not mentioned in succeeding
instars are the same as for previous instars.
First instar. Length 4-6 mm. Mean head capsule width 0.84 mm. White to
pale green with head capsule black except for anterior part which is brown;
only prothoracic spiracle visible; prothorax with 4 middorsal spots, a small
yellowish-brown inconspicuous pair anteriorly and a large dark brown pair
posteriorly; meso- and metathorax each with a pair of dark brown spots
middorsally. All lobes grayish-brown to brown.
Second instar. Length 6-8 mm. Mean head capsule width 1.12 and 1.13 mm
for males and females, respectively. Deep green with orange head becoming
darker toward labrum; with prominent black ocularia and ocellus; all
spiracles visible (T1 and Al-8); each thoracic segment with an anterior and
posterior pair of middorsal dark spots; abdominal segments usually with a
pair of middorsal spots on annulet 3 of segments 1-4 (rarely 1-8) ; lateral
abdominal lobes yellow; sublateral prothoracic and lateral meso- and
metathoracic lobes yellow; other lobes black.

The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

0 28mm

December, 1979

. ,. y

Fig. 1. Arge humeralis: a) secondary, sexual structures found on the
sternum of male. 400X; b) 6th instar larva. 10X; c) developing eggs along
leaf's margin. 10X; d) female ovipositing in poison-ivy leaf. 10X.

Third instar. Length 8-10 mm. Mean head capsule width 1.39 and 1.40 mm
for males and females, respectively. Pale greenish-blue with bright orange
head; sublateral prothoracic lobes, lateral meso- and metathoracic lobes and
lateral abdominal lobes yellow-orange; abdominal segments 1-6 (sometimes
1-8) with a pair of middorsal spots on annulet 3.
Fourth instar. Length 10-12 mm. Mean head capsule width 1.68 and 1.73
mm for males and females, respectively. Similar to 3rd instar but deep blue-
green turning to lavender late in instar; sublateral prothoracic, lateral meso-
and metathoracic and lateral abdominal lobes bright amber; middorsal spots
variable with up to 3 pair of spots per abdominal segment (1 pair per
annulet) or 2 spots may be joined to form 1 large middorsal spot.
Fifth instar. Length 13-15 mm. Mean head capsule width 2.05 and 2.08
mm for males and females, respectively. Initially lavender but turning bright




Regas-Williams & Habeck: Arge humeralis 359


Head capsule
Duration in days measurements (mm)
Males Females Males Females
Stadia X SD n X SD n X SD n X SDn

Egg* 13.4 2.4 41 13.4 2.4 41
Larval stadia 1 3.3 0.5 35 3.6 1.6 50 0.84 0.00 34 0.84 0.00 34
2 2.9 0.5 35 3.1 0.9 49 1.12 0.04 24 1.13 0.90 37
3 2.6 0.6 35 2.5 0.8 49 1.39 0.03 42 1.40 0.50 54
4 3.6 0.6 35 2.8 0.7 49 1.68 0.07 42 1.73 0.09 51
5 5.3 1.2 35 3.4 1.1 49 2.05 0.07 42 2.08 0.05 51
6 6.7 1.1 49 2.37 0.05 51
Prepupae** 14.7 1.1 20 20.9 3.5 20
Pupae** 10.3 0.77 20 10.6 1.17 20
Total devel-
opmentt 37.7 2.5 46 44.3 4.1 48
Adult life
span 4.3 0.97 105 3.2 4.0 60

*Male and female data same since eggs were not held individually.
**Data taken from different sample.
tThis is taken from larval stadia 1-6 plus time spent in cocoon.
fuschia pink; sublateral prothoracic lobes, lateral meso- and metathoracic
lobes and lateral abdominal lobes bright orange as is 10th tergum; sublateral
abdominal lobes may also be bright orange, usually tipped with black;
females more robust than males. Male larvae become prepupae at end of this
Six instar. Length 15-18 mm. Mean head capsule width 2.37 mm. Similar
to 5th instar in color and morphology. Only females have this additional
PREPUPA. Secondary sexual structures visible through a dissecting micro-
scope were found on the ventral aspect of the abdomen in instars 5 (males)
and 6 (females). A single pair of spots occurs on the inner aspect of the
paired plates on the 9th sternum of the male (Fig. la). The spots are
heavily pigmented with paired anterior and posterior invaginations, the
latter shallower than the former. These paired structures narrowly separated
by the ventral midline, are 0.28 + 00 mm apart (n = 10). Three pairs of
spots occur on sternites 7-9 of the females (Fig. 2). The pairs in 7-8 are
located basally on the inner aspect of the'prolegs and the pair in 9 is similar
to that found on the male. The paired structures on the 7th sternum were
0.70 0.06 mm apart, 0.65 0.09 mm apart on the 8th, and 0.34 0.03 mm
apart on the 9th sternum (n = 16). The paired spots on sternites 7 and 8 of
the female are trough-like as opposed to the deep invaginations in the 9th
sternite of both males and females. The single pair of spots found on the 9th
abdominal sternum of the male larva resembles those described in larval bees
by Nielson and Bohart (1966). The paired structures of the 7th, 8th, and 9th

The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

December, 1979



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Fig. 2. Paired secondary sexual structures on abdominal sterna VII, VIII,
and IX on female Arge humeralis. 100X.
sternites of the female larvae resemble those described by Wilkinson (1971)
on the slash-pine sawfly Neodiprion merkeli (Ross). In the latter species,
these structures are present only on sternites 8 and 9 in females and are
absent in males.
PUPA. Pupae are exarate and fleshy pink, with the antennae, wing pads,
and genitalia yellow. The compound eyes soon become brown to gray.
ADULT. Adult females are 10.6 mm 0.3 mm in length (n = 25). The head
and thorax are black except for the mesoscutellum and parts of the
mesepisternum and mesepimeron which are bright red as is the abdomen.
The forewings are smokey-gray and 9.6 mm 0.3 mm in length (n = 25).
The antennae are black and 3-segmented; the 3rd ca. 9x length of 1st and 2nd
segments combined. The legs and thorax are black. Adult males are smaller
than females but otherwise both sexes are similar in color and general

Regas-Williams & Habeck: Arge humeralis

form. Males average 8.5 + 0.4 mm in length and have an average wing length
of 7.4 0.4 mm (n = 25).

Arge humeralis were most commonly found in open, disturbed cypress
swamps. Despite the frequent abundance of poison-ivy in other ecosystems,
most sawflies were collected in cypress-poison-ivy associations. Three or 4
generations of A. humeralis occurred from March through October in north-
ern Florida. Generations were continuous in south Florida.
Adults emerged by chewing a hole in the cocoon. Upon emergence, fe-
males either rested, mated, searched for a suitable leaf for oviposition, or
began ovipositing immediately, even if mating had not occurred. Unmated
females produced only male progeny. Mating lasted from 10-90 minutes and
averaged 25 minutes (n = 18). Males searched actively for females and 4-6
males were frequently observed swarming around a mating pair, even to the
point of breaking them apart. Observations indicated that females mated
only once, whereas some males were observed mating twice. Before oviposit-
ing, the female walked across the leaf with her abdomen curled ventrally in
contact with the leaf; this was possibly a display of territorial marking
behavior. The ovipositor scratched the surface of the leaf and the emerging
plant sap turned black and remained as a faint black trail. Whether the
female deposited a chemical substance is not known, but field observations
indicated that females did not oviposit on leaves previously used by other
females. If the female oviposited without mating, she sometimes returned
to the same leaf after mating and resumed ovipositing.
Eggs were deposited individually in pockets sawed by the female into
the leaf margin, at points where larger veins were located (Fig. 1C). The
female straddled the side of the leaf and inserted her ovipositor between the
layers of the leaf tissue (Fig. 1D). The swelling of the eggs was apparent
within 24 h and gave the appearance of dark blisters along the leaf margin.
Two days before hatching, the blisters were 2.3 mm 0.1 mm long, 1.44 mm
0.1 mm wide, with an opening 1.3 mm at the slit (n = 20).
Forty-eight laboratory-reared females deposited a mean of 47 eggs/
female (min. = 4; max. = 100). Mean life span of adults, provided with
water in the laboratory, was 4 days for the males and 3 days for the females
(Table 1). One unmated, ovipositing female, lived for 7 days. Adults were
uncommonly encountered in the field, but on 1 occasion many (ca. 50) were
observed in a localized area for 8 h. Adults were vigorous and aggressive,
with both sexes flying actively up to 3 m high. Adults confined to cages in
the laboratory were less vigorous and dropped to the floor of the cage when
attempting flight.
Eggs hatched after an average of 13.4 days (Table 1). Newly emerged
larvae were white with a translucent, white head capsule, but within a few
hours the adfrontal area turned amber and the remainder of the head capsule
turned black. They fed primarily on the underside of the leaf, grasping its
surface with their thoracic legs and raising their abdomens in an S-shaped
posture. This posture may be defensive since larvae twisted and twirled
their abdomens in response to intruders. Larvae fed gregariously and some-
times migrated en masse to adjacent, intact leaves. First instar larvae
skeletonized the leaf, leaving only the main veins and midrib.

362 The Florida Entomologist 62 (4) December, 1979

As larvae developed, they more commonly fed singly. Later instar larvae
stripped the leaf completely, leaving only the midrib. In north central
Florida, generations overlapped and the early and late instars frequently
were found feeding together on the same plant/leaf area.
Both sexes fed for ca. 3.5 days in the 1st stadium, but the 2nd and 3rd
stadia lasted ca. 3 days for both sexes (Table 1). Larval duration in the 4th
stadium was ca. 4 days for the males and 3 days for females. The 5th
stadium, the final feeding period for the males, lasted ca. 5 days; females
fed for a shorter period of 3 days. Sixth instar females fed for ca. 7 days
before spinning their cocoons. There were no significant differences between
male and female larval head capsule measurements, or body lengths of the
different instars during the course of development (Table 1).
In the field, mature larvae dropped to the ground or crawled into cracks
in the bark of the tree before spinning cocoons. In the laboratory they spun
in the bottom of the cup or in a curled leaf. Construction of the golden
cocoon took ca. 1 day. The mean respective length and width of female
cocoons were 12.0 mm 0.4 mm by 6.6 mm 0.7 mm by 5.5 mm 0.4 mm
(n = 30). Male adults emerged from cocoons ca. 20 days after construction
and females ca.. 21 days (n = 120). In a few cases adults emerged the
following year.
Another group of 40 cocoons were opened to observe pupation. The males
remained as inactive prepupae in the cocoon for ca. 15 days before pupating;
females rested for ca. 16 days. In the laboratory, larvae that were unable to
complete spinning the cocoon still developed to the adult stage.


Three parasites species were reared from field-collected A. humeralis.
Tetrastichus trisulcatus Provancher (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) was reared
from the prepupa; an average of 53.0 16.03 adults were produced per host
cocoon (n = 18). Another eulophid, Cirrospilus argei (Crawford) was reared
from eggs. The third parasite, Spathimeigenia hylotomae (Coquillet)
(Diptera: Tachnidae), was reared from cocoons spun by sawfly larvae, col-
lected as 1st instars (6 observations) or 2nd instars (4 observations).
A microsporidan, Nosema sp. was isolated from 1 field collected larva.


We thank Dr. Eric E. Grissel and Dr. Curtis Sabrosky, USDA Systematic
Entomology Lab, Washington, DC, for identification of the eulophid wasps
and tachinid fly, respectively, and Dr. John Knell, University of Florida,
Gainesville, for the identification of the microsporidan. This research was
supported in part by funding provided to the Commonwealth Institute of
Biological Control by the Bermuda Department of Agriculture and Fisheries.


GILLIS, W. T. 1975. Poison-ivy and its kin. Arnoldia 35 (1) : 93-123.
KLIGMAN, A. M. 1958. Poison-ivy (Rhus) dermatitis: An experimental
study. Arch. Derm. 77: 149-80.
NIELSON, R. A., AND G. E. BOHART. 1966. Sex characters of larval bees
(Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 60: 414-9.

Regas-Williams & Habeck: Arge humeralis


TAUB, S. J. 1972. Poison-ivy dermatitis. Ear, Nose, Throat Monthly 51:
WILKINSON, R. C. 1971. Slash-pine sawfly, Neodiprion merkeli oviposition
pattern and descriptions of egg, female larva, pupa and cocoon. Ann.
Ent. Soc. Amer. 65: 242-7.


Dept. of Entomology and Nematology
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611

Chiggers from the northern and north central regions of Florida were
collected and identified. Seven species were found: Eutrombicula alfreddugesi
(Oudemans), Eutrombicula splendens (Ewing), Fonsecia (Parasecia)
gurneyi gurneyi (Ewing), Walchia americana Ewing, Euschongastia rubra
Farrell, Miyatrombicula jonesae Brennan and Leptotrombidium peromysci
Vercammen-Grandjean. Three species are reported for the first time in
Florida. The species, Leptotrombidium peromysci, is redescribed as this is
the first report in S.E. United States. A key to all the species currently re-
ported in Florida is included.

Chiggers or trombiculid larvae are known to cause trombidiosis in much
of the United States, but in the Oriental Region some chiggers transmit
scrub typhus, Rickettsia tsutsugamushi. Chigger bites produce itching and
swelling at the site of chigger attachment. Trombidiosis may also be ac-
companied by secondary infections and persistent lesions. The major species
causing trombidiosis are Neotrombicula autumnalis (Shaw) and the 4 species
of the genus Eutrombicula: alfreddugesi (Oudemans), splendens (Ewing),
batatas (Linneaus) and belkini (Gould). In addition the larvae of Neo-
schongastia americana (Hirst) cause losses to the turkey industry par-
ticularly in the southern United States (Everett et al. 1972). Recent reports
also indicate that chiggers are the cause of lesions on horses in the Pacific
Northwest (Easton and Krantz 1973). Several surveys of states other than
Florida contributed greatly to the knowledge of species and their distribu-
tion throughout the United States. In a preliminary study of the chigger
species within the northcentral part of Florida, Dohany (1974) reported 6
species that were new to the State and 2 from new hosts. However, the
knowledge of the trombiculid fauna of Florida is still fragmentary. The
present research increases the known number of present chigger species and
outlines their distribution in North Central Florida.

'Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 1127.

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The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)


Chiggers for this study were collected from litter samples, treeholes,
black plates, and vertebrate hosts. Samples were taken at various locations
in the northcentral parts of Florida, including the Tall Timbers Research
Station, Leon County, and the Gainesville area, Alachua County. The ma-
jority of the samples (Berlese and black plates), came from the Gainesville
Chiggers were collected into 80% ethanol and were mounted directly
into Hoyer's modified Berlese media on a microscope slide (Krantz 1970).
Coverslips were applied and the slides were heated slightly with an alcohol
burner until bubbles began to form. The slides were then dried in the oven
and coverslips were ringed with Glyptal. The cleared chiggers were then
identified to species.


In the present study, 7 species of chiggers were found, 3 of which are
reported for the first time. One species, Leptotrombidium peromysci is re-
described. The hosts from which the chiggers have been collected are listed
in Table 1.



Chigger species

Black racer, Coluber constrictor
constrictor (Linnaeus)
Corn snake, Elaphe guttata
Eastern swift, Sceloporus undulatus
Eastern grey squirrel, Sciurus
carolinensis Gmelin
Box tortoise, Terrepene carolina
Indigo snake, Drymarchon corais
couperi (Holbrook)
King snake, Lampropeltis getulus
getulus (Linnaeus)
Eastern swift lizard, Sceloporus
undulatus (Latrielle)
Common opossum, Didelphis
marsupialis Linnaeus
Barbour's pigmy rattlesnake,
Sistrurus miliarius barbouri
Yellow rat snake, Elaphe
quadrivittata quadrivittata
Common opossum, Didelphis
marsupialis Linnaeus

Eutrombicula alfreddugesi (Oudemans)

Eutrombicula splendens (Ewing)



Walchia americana Ewing


December, 1979

Rohani & Cromroy: Chiggers

Checklist of Florida Trombiculidae
Family-Trombiculidae Ewing 1944.
Subfamily-Trombiculinae Ewing 1929.
Genus-Eutrombicula Ewing 1938.
Eutrombicula alfreddugesi (Oudemans). Microtrombidium al-
freddugesi Oudemans 1910. Ent. Ber. 3: 84.
Records: Morningside Park, Alachua Co., 20-VII-1975.
R. Ibrahim coll., Welaka, Putnam Co., V-1975, L. Davis
and D. Sauerman coll., from fence lizard; Tall Timbers,
Leon Co., V-1975, E. Komarek coll., from burnt and un-
burnt plots; Levy Co., V-1975. D. Sauerman and L. Davis
coll., from corn snake; Gainesville, 9-X-1974, R. Kramer
coll., from squirrel.
Eutrombicula splendens (Ewing). Trombicula splendens Ewing
1913. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 32: 113.
Records: Alachua Co., 2-IV-1974, F. Romero coll., from
lizard; Bronson, Levy Co., V-1975, L. Davis and
D. Sauerman, from common opossum, Didelphis
marsupialis and Barbour's pigmy rattlesnake, Sistrurus
miliarius barbour; Archer, Alachua Co.,V-1975, D. Sauer-
man and L. Davis coll., from box tortoise, Terrepene
carolina; Morningside Park, Alachua Co., 20-VII-1975,
R. Ibrahim coll., from shrubs and grass; Gainesville,
7-VII-1975, R. Ibrahim coll., from shrubs and grass.
Eutrombicula batatas (Linnaeus). Acarus batatas Linnaeus
1758. Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, 1: 617.
Records: (Reported by Jenkins (1949); not recovered in
our samples).
Eutrombicula multisetosa (Ewing. Acariscus multisetosa
Ewing 1943. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 10: 65.
Records: Christmas, 2-1-1936, B. V. Travis coll., from
racoon Procyon sp.; Bonita Spring, 22-XI-1936, B. V.
Travis coll., from cotton rat, Sigmodon littoris littoris;
Tallahassee, 9-XI-1936 and 10-IX-1936, B. V. Travis
coll.; Shellpoint, 30-X-1936, B. V. Travis coll., from
Sturnella magna.
Genus-Fonsecia Radford 1942.
Subgenus-Parascecia Loomis 1966.
Fonsecia (Parasecia) gurneyi gurneyi (Ewing). Trombicula
gurneyi Ewing 1937. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 50: 169.
Records: Eglin Air Force Base, Okaloosa Co., 22-1-1975,
H. L. Cromroy coll., from treeholes; Gainesville, 30-IV-
1976, R. L. Wani coll., from treeholes; Tallahassee, no
collection date given, A. L. Dohany coll., from treeholes.
Subgenus-Fonsecia Radford 1942.
Fonsecia (Fonsecia) palmella Brennan and Loomis. Fonsecia
palmella Brennan and Loomis 1959. J. Parasit. 45: 62.
Records: Tallahassee, no collection date given, A. L.
Dohany coll., from treeholes.
Genus-Trombicula Berlese 1905.


The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

Subgenus-Miyatrombicula Sasa, Kawashima, and Egashira 1952.
Miyatrombicula jonesae (Brennan). Trombicula jonesae Bren-
nan 1952. Wash. J. Biol. 10: 60.
Records: Archer, Alachua Co., 24-II-1976. L. Davis coll.,
from treeholes; Levy Co., 26-II-1976, L. Davis coll., from
Genus-Microtrombicula Ewing 1950.
Microtrombicula crossleyi (Loomis). Trombicula crossleyi
Loomis 1954. Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 36: 920.
Records: Tallahassee, no collection date given, A. L.
Dohany coll., from treeholes.
Genus-Leptotrombidium Nagayo, Miyagawa, Mitamura, and Ima-
mura 1916.
Leptotrombidium peromysci Vercammen-Grandjean 1975.
Leptotrombidium complex, Section A, Leptotrombidium s. s.
Pages 433-4 in P. Vercammen-Grandjean and R. Langston,
eds. The chigger mites of the world, Vol. 3. George Williams
Hooper Foundation. Univ. of Cal., San Francisco.
Records: Tall Timbers, Leon Co., 29-XII-1975, and 4-III-
1976. R. Ibrahim coll., from treeholes.
Genus-Euschongastia Ewing 1938.
Euschongastia rubra Farrell. Euschongastia rubra Farrell
1956. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 106: 163.
Records: Tall Timbers, Leon Co., 29-XII-1975, R. Ibra-
him coll., from treeholes.
Euschongastia peromysci (Ewing). Schongastia peromysci
Ewing 1929. Ent. News 40: 296.
Records: Gainesville, no collection date given, A. L.
Dohany coll., from treeholes.
Euschongastia setosa (Ewing). Trombicula setosa Ewing 1937.
Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 50: 171.
Records: Gainesville, XII-1971, A. L. Dohany coll., from
Genus-Blankaartia Oudemans 1911.
Blankaartia pauli Crossley and Atyeo 1972. J. Med. Ent. 9: 253.
Records: St. Petersburg, 27-30-VI-1966. R. W. Heard,
III coll., from nares of Rallus longirostris; Vero Beach,
VII-1966, R. W. Heard, III coll., from birds; Florida
Keys, VII-1966, R. W. Heard, III coll., from birds.
Subfamily-Walchiinae Ewing 1946.
Genus-Walchia Ewing 1931.
Walchia americana Ewing 1942. J. Parasit. 28: 491.
Records: Tallahassee, 8-XI-1936, B. V. Travis coll., from
cotton mouse; Gainesville, no collection date given, A. L.
Dohany coll., from treeholes; Gainesville, 29-IV-1975,
R. Kramer and D. Sauerman coll., from opossum.

Key to Subfamilies, Genera, and Subgenera of the
Known Trombiculidae of Florida

1. Scutum without AnteroMedian seta (AM); leg segmentation

December, 1979

Rohani & Cromroy: Chiggers


7-6-6; 4 scutal setae; sensillae expanded, lanceolate-clavate ..---
---. ..--- .........-...-- WALCHIINAE, Walchia Ewing 1931
1'. Scutum with AM seta; leg segmentation 7-7-7; 5 scutal setae;
sensillae flagelliform, filamentous or occasionally thickened -..--
.~--..-..--.-.-.--.-.. --.--. TROMBICULINAE 2
2. AnteroLateral (AL) setae of scutum stubby, peg-like; parasites
of reptiles --....-...-....--........-----------------. Fonsecia Radford 1942
2'. AL setae of scutum normal, usually barbed; wide host range ------.-. 3
3. Scutum pentagonal, with or without (AL) shoulders; coxae III
with 1 or m ore setae -- .. ----.- ---------. ---------- -----.-------- ---- --------- 7
3'. Scutum rectangular, trapezoidal or quadrate, without AL
4. Scutum rectangular with a sinuous posterior margin; anterior
setae post-marginal -....--......- -------------- Parasecia Loomis 1966
4'. Scutum without this combination of characters ..-...................---------- 5
5. Sensillae expanded distally, capitate to ovoid; palpal tibial claw
with 3 or more prongs ---------------..-. Euschongastia Ewing 1938
5'. Sensillae filamentous; palpal tibial claw with 2-3 prongs -..-. ....---..- 6
6. Palpal tibial claw bifurcate with external prong always longer
than internal prong; galeal seta nude; leg III with mastitarsala
--.---..--------.-------------------. Eutrombicula Ewing 1938
6'. Palpal tibial claw usually trifurcate; galeal seta always barbed;
leg III without mastitarsala ...........------..---..------ ---------
Leptotrombidium Nagayo, Miyagawa, Mitamura, and Imamura 1916
7. Coxa III with 2 or more setae; scutum with an acute posterior
angle .--.-------. Miyatrombicula Sasa, Kawashima, and Egashira 1952
7'. Coxa III with 1 seta; scutum with broadly or deeply 'U' shaped
posterior margin .--.... -----............-..-.....-.............----------- ... 8
8. Coxa of gnathosome and coxae of legs striate punctate; Palpal
Tarsus Formula (PTF) = 7BS (BS = strongly Barbed Setae);
posterior margin of scutum narrow or broadly 'U' shaped -----
...---------------.. --.. ..-.-..--. ----Blankaartia Oudemans 1911
8'. Coxa of gnathosome and coxae of legs distinctly punctate, never
striate punctate; palpal tarsus formula = 6BS posterior margin
of scutum slightly or deeply 'U' shaped .... Microtrombicula Ewing 1950

The 2 most frequently occurring species of the genus Eutrombicula are
E. alfreddugesi (Oudemans) and E. splendens (Ewing). Numerous speci-
mens of the 2 species were collected from black plates and host washing
techniques. The specimens were collected throughout the year, during any
warm day. Eutrombicula alfreddugesi can be taxonomically differentiated
from E. splendens by the number of dorsal setae, the former having 22,
while the latter have 24-28 dorsal setae. Scutal measurements of E. al-
freddugesi and E. splendens and comparison of measurements made by
previous chigger taxonomists are presented in Table 2.

Key to Florida Species of Eutrombicula
1. Three mastitarsala III; 2 mastitibiala III --...................---------....--- 2
1'. One mastitarsala; no mastitibiala .--. ..---------- ---...... ..- ..-------------.. 3

The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)



















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Rohani & Cromroy: Chiggers


2. Dorsal setae 50 to 54 ...--.... .. .......... multisetosa (Ewing 1943)
2'. Dorsal setae 32 to 38 ............... batatas (Linnaeus 1758)
3. Dorsum with 24 to 28 setae ..-------- splendens (Ewing 1913)
3'. Dorsum with 22 setae .........- alfreddugesi (Oudemans 1910)

The larvae of this genus are distinguished by having the PosteroLaterals
(PL) greater than the AnteroMedian (AM) and the AM greater than
AnteroLaterals (AL). The subgenus Parasecia differs from the subgenus
Fonsecia in having normal scutal setae (peg-like in the subgenus Fonsecia).
Only 1 species of the genus was collected. This was gurneyi gurneyi
which belongs to the subgenus Parasecia. It was 1 of the most abundant
chiggers collected from Berlese tree hole samples at 2 collection sites; in
Alachua Co., (Gainesville area) and in Okaloosa Co., (Eglin Air Force Base
area). The specimens were collected during January and April 1976. Ewing
(1937) reported collecting the specimen from Blue-tailed skink (Eumeces
fasciatus) in April. Dohany (1974) collected this species abundantly from
Berlese treehole samples in Gainesville, Lakeland, and Tallahassee.
Fonsecia (Parasecia) gurneyi gurneyi is characterized by its small
scutum; dorsal formula of 2-6-6-4-2-2-2 = 24; nude palpal genual setae and
without mastitarsala of leg III. Scutal measurements of 10 specimens are
shown in Table 3.

Key to Subgenera and Species of Fonsecia
1. Scutum with peg-like anterolateral setae; a convex posterior
scutal margin; palpal tibial claw bifurcate; usually confined to
reptiles -----------........ ...... Fonsecia palmella Brennan & Loomis 1959
1'. Scutum with normal AL setae; a sinuous posterior scutal
margin; palpal tibial claw trifurcate; wide host range -...
-- ..--.-------. -......-.. ...........-.. Parasecia gurneyi gurneyi Ewing 1937

One species of Euschongastia was collected during this study. Dohany
(1974) collected 2 species from this area. Farrell (1956) conducted a de-
tailed study of Euschongastia of North America.
Euschongastia rubra Farrell was obtained from Berlese treehole samples
collected at the Leon Co. site, (Beech-Magnolia Hardwood Hammock, Tall
Timbers) in December, 1975. This supports observations made by Farrell
(1956) who recorded this species during the months of December through
May and who indicated that E. rubra was confined strictly to the seasons
when the soils were moist and colder.
Euschongastia rubra can be distinguished from other species of this
group by the strongly branched lateral setae on the palpal tibia and by the
different shape of its scutum, with 3 joined crescentric folds; the middle 1
extending around the anterior median seta. Table 3 presents the scutal
measurement of 2 specimens.
Two other species of Euschongastia were reported by Dohany and
Cromroy (1976). They are E. peromysci (Ewing) collected from Peromyscus

The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

December, 1979

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Rohani & Cromroy: Chiggers

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The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

December, 1979

floridanus from the Gainesville area and E. setosa (Ewing) from a treehole
in Gainesville collected in December, 1971.

Key to Species of Euschongastia
1. Sensillae capitate or subcapitate; palpal tibial claw 3 prongs;
tibiala III present ... .. . ..-.-- .. .---- 2
1'. Sensillae ovoid; palpal tibial claw more than 3 prongs; tibiala
III absent ..-..--. .....-------.. ...... .. .- .~....-....-..-. setosa (Ewing 1937)
2. Scutum with 2 crescentric ridges, 1 anterior to each pseudo stig-
mata ......----------.. .. ......... .... .... .......... peromysci (Ewing 1929)
2'. Scutum with 3 crescentric ridges, 1 anterior to each pseudostig-
mata and a 3rd extending from apices of anteriorly around the
AM seta ---.--- -..-... ----- --.-..-~.......--- -..--- rubra Farrell 1956

The subgenus Miyatrombicula Sasa, Kawashima, and Egashira 1952,
was erected within the Genus Trombicula Berlese for their new species
kochiensis, which was collected very commonly from western Japan (Sasa
and Ogata 1953). Brennan (1952) discussed a group of 4 species of larval
chiggers including Miyatrombicula cynos Ewing and 3 related new species
which included M. jonesae.
Miyatrombicula jonesae Brennan was taken from treehole samples col-
lected from Alachua Co. This species has been previously reported from
Kansas (Loomis 1956) and Illinois (Brennan 1952). The collections of M.
jonesae were made in February, 1976. Brennan (1952) reported collections
in October, 1948.
Miyatrombicula jonesae is characterized by having 3 branched setae
on coxae III, by its characteristic scutal shape, and 40 or more dorsal setae.
The scutal measurements of 3 specimens of M. jonesae are presented in
Table 4.

The genus Leptotrombidium contains species that are proven vectors of
scrub typhus (Rickettsia tsutsugamushi). It was erected by Nagayo et al.
(1916) with the species, Trombidium akamushi Brumpt 1910 as type of the
genus. It contains 3 subgenera: Trombiculindus Radford 1948; Lepto-
trombidium Nagayo, Miyagawa, Mitamura, and Imamura 1916 and Erico-
trombidium Vercammen-Grandjean 1966. Most of the species of Lepto-
trombidium currently described are restricted to Asia. Only 5 species were
known from North America. Leptotrombidium peromysci Vercammen-
Grandjean was added to the list of North American "Akamushi" group and
to the S.E. United States.
The diagnosis of the genus Leptotrombidium Nagayo, Miyagawa, Mita-
mura, and Imamura as described by Nadchatram and Dohany (1974) is:
Palpal tarsal formula (PTF) : 7 strongly barbed galeal setae. Palpal claw
strongly barbed. Usually 3-pronged. Chelicera simple with a dorsal and
sometimes with a ventral tooth. Eyes 2 + 2. Scutum rectangular, sparse to
densely punctate. SB either anterior or posterior of line of PL's, but always


Rohani & Cromroy: Chiggers



' I'

Fig. 1. Larva of Leptotrombidium peromysci; (a) dorsal and (c) ventral
aspects of gnathosome; (b) dorsal and ventral aspects of idiosome; (d e, & g,
respectively) legs I, II, and III; (f) scutum; HS = humeral seta; DS =
dorsal seta; VS = ventral seta; CS = coxal seta.

nearer to PL's. AM submarginal, AL's marginal. Sensillae slender with
simple barbs, legs 7-7-7 segmented; 2 genualae I. No mastisetae on any of
the legs.
Leptotrombidium peromysci Vercammen-Grandjean
(Fig. 1) Larva
Scutum rectangular; punctae small, numerous and evenly distributed;
region of anterior and posterior setae bare; sensillae slender, barbed at

r ;1,

The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

December, 1979

distal half; eyes 2 + 2, anterior eye equal in size to posterior eye; palpal
claw 3-pronged; galeal seta barbed; palpal femoral and genual setae nude;
dorsotibial setae barbed, dorsolateral setae nude, ventrotibial seta barbed;
palpal formula N/N/BNB + 7B. Dorsal setae arranged 2, 10, 8, 4, 2, 4, 2
(total of 32).
Idiosoma. Idiosoma of the unengorged larva broadly oval, 165 x 163 p; color
in life orange to creamy white. Eyes 2 + 2, anterior eyes subequal to pos-
terior eyes in diameter; when bigger, not more than 2X; easily visible.
Gnathosoma. Well sclerotized and prominently displayed; base of chelicera
sparsely punctate, its blade broad at base; cheliceral blade 33 p long, with
small sharp subapical dorsal tooth. Palpal formula N/N/BNB + 7B; nude
seta longest on genu; dorsotibial seta always bear more barbs (6-7) than
ventrotibial (4-5); claw 3-pronged, with 2 closely appressed unequal ac-
cessory prongs. Galeal seta barbed.
Scutum. Rectangular or trapezoidal, anterior margin concave slightly, lateral
margins between AL and PL straight; posterior margin shallow and slightly
biconvex. Punctae medium-sized, numerous, evenly distributed in the central
portion of scutum, absent in region of AM and SB line; sensillae slender
with 15-16 barbs on distal half of stem; SB line to line of PL setae AM sub-
marginal, below line of AL setae. The scutal measurements are presented in
Table 4.
Body setae:
Dorsal-single pair humeral setae (HS) 55 p; dorsal setae (DS) 40-48 'i
long, arranged 2, 10, 8, 4, 2, 4, 2 = 32. HS and DS strongly ciliated.
Venter-Ventral setae (VS) short and pectinate, arranged 2, 2, 6, 9, 2, 2,
2 (total 25); VS 29-44 p long, posterior pairs longer, 44 p long; sternal setae
2 + 2; 42-44 p long.
Legs-7-7-7 segmented; segments short and strongly sclerotized. Average
length 700-717 p. Coxae I-III unisetosa. Terminal claw stout, empodia
slender and longer than claw.
Leg 1-251-255 p long; tarsala blunt, 13 p long; 2 tibiala 13-14 /p, 2
genuala 15-18 #, subterminala and parasubterminala present.
Leg II-209-220 p long; tarsals blunt, 15 p long; microtarsala proximal to
base of tarsala; tibia with 2 tibiala, 13-15 p long. Genu with 1 genuala
11 p long.
Leg III-238-242 p long. Tiba with proximal 11 p tibiala and 5-6 barbed
setae. Genu with 1 genuala 15 p long.
Larvae collected from tree holes in Beech-Magnolia Hammock, Tall
Timbers Research Station, Leon County, FL 29-XII-1975 and on 4-III-1976
by Rohani Ibrahim.
Similar to L. myotis Ewing 1929 in having a rectangular or subquadrate
scutum. Readily separable in number and arrangement of DS 2, 10, 10, 6, 6,
4 (total 38) in L. myotis (Ewing 1929) and 2, 10, 8, 8, 2, 4, 2 (total 36) in
L. myotis (Wharton 1947), and 2, 10, 8, 4, 2, 4, 2 (total 32) in Lepto-
trombidium peromysci. Further separable from this species by dissimilarity
of palpal formula N/N/BNN in myotis and N/N/BNB in peromysci.

Walchia americana Ewing is the only species of this genus recorded from


Rohani & Cromroy: Chiggers


the New World. This species was originally described by Ewing (1942) from
a cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus) from Tallahassee, FL. It has been
collected from numerous mammalian hosts. Loomis (1956) indicated that the
species, like all of the members of the subfamily Walchiinae, seems to occur
only on mammals. Two different habitats are associated with the species in
this area. A single specimen was removed from an opossum collected in
Alachua County on 29-IV-1974; Dohany (1974) collected 2 specimens from
tree holes. The larvae have been taken from hosts in Kansas and other states
from September to May (Loomis 1956).
Walchia americana can be distinguished easily by its unusual scutum,
having only 4 scutal setae, 2 anterolaterals and 2 posterolaterals but always
lacking the anteromedian seta; sensillae clavate. Table 4 presents the scutal


The authors wish to thank Dr. R. B. Loomis of Long Beach State Uni-
versity for the confirmation of the identifications; Dr. E. Komarek of Tall
Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, for supplying the study materials;
Mr. L. Davis, Jr., for the treehole samples and materials from snakes and
rodents. The authors also would like to thank the Malaysian Public Service
Commission for their financial support which made the study possible.
The loan of material from Florida State Collection of Arthropods
(FSCA), Division of Plant Industry by Mr. H. A. Denmark was greatly
appreciated. All specimens collected in this study will be deposited in the


BRENNAN, J. M. 1952. Trombicula cynos Ewing, 1937, and three related new
species (Acarina: Trombiculidae). Wasmann J. Biol. 10: 55-65.
DOHANY, A. L. 1974. Potential use of systemic acaricides in the control of
chigger (Acarina: Trombiculidae) populations on rodents. Ph.D.
Dissertation. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. 115 p.
AND H. L. CROMROY. 1976. New records of chiggers (Acarina:
Trombiculidae) from Florida. Fla. Ent. 59(2): 183-90.
EASTON, E. R., AND G. W. KRANTZ. 1973. A Euschongastia species (Acari:
Trombiculidae) of possible medical and veterinary importance in
Oregon. J. Med. Ent. 10: 255-6.
EVERETT, R. E., M. A. PRICE, AND S. E. KUNZ. 1972. New host records of
chigger Neoschongastia americana from Texas (Acarina: Trombi-
culidae). J. Med. Ent. 9: 109-10.
EWING, H. E. 1929. Four new species of chiggers (Acarina: Trombididae).
Ent. News 40: 294-7.
1937. New species of mites of the subfamily Trombiculinae, with a
key to the new world larvae of the "Akamushi" group of the genus
Trombicula. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash: 50: 167-74.
S1942. Remarks on the taxonomy of some American chiggers
(Trombiculinae) including some descriptions of new genera and
species. J. Parasitol. 28: 485-93.
FARRELL, C. E. 1956. Chiggers of the genus Euschongastia (Acarina:
Trombiculidae) in North America. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 106: 85-235.
GOULD, D. J. 1956. The larval trombiculid mites of California (Acarina:
Trombiculidae) Univ. Cal. Publ. in Ent. 11: 1-116.

The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

December, 1979

JENKINS, D. W. 1949. Trombiculid mites affecting man. III. Trombicula
(Eutrombicula) splendens Ewing in North America. J. Parasitol. 35:
KRANTZ, G. W. 1970. A manual of acarology. Oregon State University Book
Stores, Inc. Corvallis, Oregon. 335 p.
LOOMIS, R. B. 1956. The chigger mites of Kansas (Acarina: Trombiculidae).
Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 37: 1195-443.
NADCHATRAM, M., AND A. L. DOHANY. 1974. A pictorial key to the sub-
families, genera and subgenera of southeast Asian chiggers (Acarina,
Prostigmata, Trombiculidae). Inst. for Med. Res. Bull. 16: 1-67.
ROHANI, I. B. 1976. Taxonomy and distribution of chiggers (Acarina:
Trombiculidae) in north central Florida. M.S. Thesis. University of
Florida, Gainesville, FL. 81 p.
SASA, M., AND K. OGATA. 1953. Studies on tsutsugamushi. A new species of
the subgenus Miyatrombicula with notes on the trombiculid mites of
Hakkaido. Jap. J. Exp. Med. 23: 333-46.
WHARTON, G. W. 1947. Studies on North American chiggers 1. The
"Akamushi" group. J. Parasitol. 33: 260-6.
WOLFENBARGER, K. A. 1952. Systematic and biological studies on North
American chiggers of the genus Trombicula, subgenus Eutrombicula
(Acarina: Trombiculidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 45 (4) : 645-77.


Agricultural Research and Education Center,
University of Florida,
Homestead, FL 33031

Two species of Dagbertus Distant are frequent on avocado in southern
Florida: D. fasciatus (Reuter) and D. olivaceus (Reuter). The synonymy is
elucidated and a key given for their separation inter se and from super-
ficially similar mirids sometimes found on the crop.

It has long been known that some Miridae (Hemiptera) may reduce
yields of avocado (Persea americana) in southern Florida: "Occasionally
avocados have suffered serious crop injury from the attack of certain plant
bugs known as mirids, closely related to the tarnished plant bug" (Ruehle
1958). The first to identify these members of the subfamily Mirinae was
Wolfenbarger (1963), as Lygus fasciatus var. olivaceous Reuter and Lygus
fasciatus var. viridiusculus Knight. Earlier, Bruner et al. (1945) had noted
Lygus olivaceus on avocado in Cuba.
Kelton (1955) reviewed the genus Lygus Hahn, accepted the splintering
of it proposed by Leston (1952) for the British species and went further in

'Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 1475.


Leston: Dagbertus on Avocado 377

that he covered the global fauna. The 2 forms associated with avocado were
transferred to Dagbertus Distant, an essentially neotropical genus with
Dagbertus darwini (Butler), described from the Galapagos Islands, as type.
In so doing Kelton was correct, as a comparison of the genitalia of the
avocado bugs with those figured for other Dagbertus species indicates.
However, the figures given by Kelton of the male genitalia of D. olivaceus
Reuter and D. fasciatus Reuter, while agreeing closely with those of the
avocado species, do not fit the genitalia of the mirids described under these
2 names; in fact, Kelton had the 2 confused. This had as consequences the
later description of a new species by Maldonado Capriles (1969), which now
is reduced to synonymy. Another problem (Kelton 1974) was the erroneous
equating of Dagbertus hospitus Distant with D. olivaceus, with the latter a
junior synonym; in fact hospitus is a junior synonym of D. fasciatus. Fol-
lowing is the corrected synonymy of the 2 avocado Dagbertus species:

1. Dagbertus fasciatus (Reuter), 1876.
Lygus (Lygus) fasciatus Reuter 1876: 72 (SC)2
Lygus hospitus Distant 1893: 434 syn. nov. (Mexico)
Lygus fasciatus Van Duzee 1917: 343
Lygus fasciatus Knight 1917: 601
Lygus olivaceus var. viridiusculus Knight 1917: 600 (MA)
Lygus fasciatus Knight 1923: 579
Lygus fasciatus var. viridiusculus Knight 1923: 580
Lygus fasciatus Blatchley 1926: 761 partim
Dagbertus olivaceus Kelton 1955: 285 nec Reuter
Dagbertus fasciatus Carvalho 1959: 80
Lygus hospitus Carvalho 1959: 121
Lygus fasciatus var. viridiusculus Wolfenbarger 1963: 29
Dagbertus parafasciatus Maldonado Capriles 1969: 36 syn. nov. (Puerto
Dagbertus hospitus Kelton 1974: 378
2. Dagbertus olivaceus (Reuter), 1907.
Lygus olivaceus Reuter 1907: 6 sp. res. (Jamaica)
Lygus olivaceus Van Duzee 1909: 127
Lygus olivaceus Barber 1914: 501
Lygus olivaceus Van Duzee 1917: 344
Lygus olivaceus Knight 1917: 599
Lygus fasciatus Blatchley 1926: 761 partim
Lygus olivaceus Bruner, Scaramuzza and Otero 1945: 129
Lygus olivaceus Barber 1954: 15
Dagbertus fasciatus Kelton 1955: 285 nec Reuter
Dagbertus olivaceus Carvalho 1959: 80
Lygus fasciatus var. olivaceous (sic!) Wolfenbarger 1963: 29
Dagbertus olivaceus Maldonado Capriles 1969: 37

Two systematic problems remain, both outside the scope of the present
study: 1) the status and identity of Lygus hospitus var. sonoraensis Van
Duzee 1923, described from Lower California; and 2) the status of the New
England bugs currently equated with D. fasciatus.

2Abbreviations recognized by the U.S. Post Office are used for names of states in the U.S.

The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

December, 1979

The following key covers members of the subfamily Mirinae found by
the writer on avocado in the Homestead area of Dade County and/or asso-
ciated with the tree by Wolfenbarger (1963).
1. Larger, over 6.5 mm long; 1st antennal segment densely and
coarsely pilose; color yellow to brown with darker markings
------ .- ..-------. .. ....... . ..... Neurocolpus nubilus (Say)
1'. Smaller, less than 5.5 mm long; 1st antennal segment not as
above -----...------- ----- ------- ---- .. .............. ...... .. ....... 2
2. Antennae largely black; pronotum and scutellum with black or
dark brown markings; without golden pubescence; bugs 4.8 mm
or more long ----------------------..--..- Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois)
2'. Not marked as above; bugs less than 4.8 mm long ..-- ------- --- 3
3. More or less uniformly pale green, without a conspicuous dark
patch at the internal apical angle of the corium; bugs 4.2 mm
or more long .... . Taylorilygus apicalis (Fieber)
3'. Not uniformly pale green; bugs less than 4.2 mm long ----...~.-----.. 4
4. Dark brown to black, covered with coarse, flat, golden pubes-
cence; antennae brown, 2nd segment black at the apex --...........-.
.. -------- .----.---..--- ..- ..- ..... Polymerus cuneatus (Distant)
4'. Green to brown, with darker (but not black) markings; coarse,
flat, golden pubescence lacking ...... . .. .-.. .. .~. ... ..... 5
5. Second antennal segment black at the apex; scutellum mostly
unicolorous, with some reddening at the margins and apex;
pronotum without a transverse dark band; paraclypeus un-
marked; male genitalia as Fig. 1. .........-- Dagbertus olivaceus (Reuter)
5'. Second antennal segment unicolorous; scutellum with a con-
spicuous brown patterning; pronotum with a transverse dark
band posteriorly; paraclypeus with a bright red transverse band
apically; male genitalia as Fig. 2 -.- Dagbertus fasciatus (Reuter)
Polymerus cuneatus (Distant). Taylorilygus apicalis (Fieber) and the
tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), are associated
with weeds common in and around avocado groves and at dispersal times
can be found in ones or twos upon the tree: they neither feed nor breed

Figs. 1-2. Male claspers of 1) Dagbertus olivaceus (Reuter); and 2)
Dagbertus fasciatus (Reuter).


Leston: Dagbertus on Avocado


upon avocado, and their presence thereon is purely adventitious. Neurocolpus
nubilus (Say) sometimes occurs in numbers, but its occurrence is too
sporadic for it to be considered a pest at present. Outside of the subfamily
Mirinae a dark brown Rhinocloa species, subfamily Phylinae, is found fre-
quently on avocado, but its status is so far unelucidated.

Dr. R. M. Baranowski (AREC, Homestead) and Dr. J. A. Slater (Uni-
versity of Connecticut) have kindly assisted in and encouraged this work.

BARBER, H. G. 1914. Insects of Florida. II. Hemiptera. Bull. Amer. Mus.
Nat. Hist. 33: 495-535.
1954. A report on the Hemiptera Heteroptera from the Bimini
Islands, Bahamas, British West Indies. Amer. Mus. Novit. No. 1682:
BLATCHLEY, W. S. 1926. Heteroptera or true bugs of eastern North Amer-
ica. Indianapolis, Nature Publ. Co. 1116 p.
BRUNER, S. C., L. C. SCARAMUZZA, AND A. R. OTERO. 1945. Catalogo de los
insects que atacan a las plants economics de Cuba. Havana,
Ministry of Agriculture. 246 p.
CARVALHO, J. C. M. 1959. Catalogo dos Mirideos do mundo, 4. Arq. Mus.
Nac., Rio de Janeiro 48: 1-384.
DISTANT, W. L. 1893. Biologia Centrali Americana: Insecta. Rhynchota,
Hemiptera-Heteroptera, Supplement. London. p. 304-462.
KELTON, L. A. 1955. Genera and subgenera of the Lygus complex
(Hemiptera: Miridae). Can. Ent. 87: 277-301.
1974. On the status of seven Nearctic species currently included in
the genus Lygus Hahn (Heteroptera: Miridae). Can. Ent. 106:
KNIGHT, H. H. 1917. A revision of the genus Lygus as it occurs in America
north of Mexico, with biological data on the species from New York.
Bull. Cornell Agr. Exp. Sta. 391: 555-645.
-- 1923. Miridae (Capsidae). Pages 422-658 in Britton, W. E., ed. The
Hemiptera or sucking insects of Connecticut. Hartford, State Geol.
Nat. Hist. Survey.
LESTON, D. 1952. On certain subgenera of Lygus Hahn 1833 (Hem.,
Miridae), with a review of the British species. Ent. Gaz. 3: 213-30.
MALDONADO CAPRILES, J. 1969. The Miridae of Puerto Rico (Insecta,
Hemiptera). Tech. Paper Agr. Exp. Sta. Univ. Puerto Rico No. 45:
REUTER, O. M. 1876. Capsinae ex America boreali in Museo Holmiensi
asservatae, descripta. Ofv. Kongl. Vet.-Akad. FSrh. 32(9): 59-92.
1907. Capsidae novae in insula Jamaica mense Aprilis 1906 a
D.E.P. Van Duzee collectae. Ofv. Finska Vet.-Soc. F6rh. 49(5): 1-27.
RUEHLE, G. D. 1958. The Florida avocado industry. Bull. Univ. Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. No. 602: 1-100.
VAN DUZEE, E. P. 1909. Notes on some Hemiptera taken in the Bermudas
by W. J. Palmer. Can. Ent. 41: 126-8.
1917. Catalogue of the Hemiptera of America north of Mexico.
Berkeley, Univ. California Press. 902 p.
WOLFENBARGER, D. 0. 1963. Insect pests of the avocado and their control.
Bull. Univ. Fla. Agric. Exp. Sta. No. 605A: 1-52.

The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)


University of Florida
Agricultural Research Center
3205 College Avenue
Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33314

Ardisia solanacea Roxb. was comparable to rough lemon, Citrus jambhiri
Lush., in the number of eggs of citrus blackflies, Aleurocanthus woglumi
Ashby, per plant. Survival of citrus blackflies was greater (P < 0.05) on
A. solanacea than on C. jambhiri. Citrus whiteflies, Dialeurodes citri (Ash-
mead), oviposited on C. jambhiri but not on A. solanacea. Ardisia spp. could
serve as a reservoir for citrus blackflies where control measures against this
insect are restricted to citrus.

The citrus blackfly, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, infests citrus in
southeastern Florida and other regions of the world. The insect lays eggs in
spiral-shaped clusters on undersides of leaves. If the plant upon which eggs
have been laid is a suitable host, the insects complete the development of
their immature stages on the leaves, and emerge as adults through T-shaped
slits in the exoskeleton of the fourth instar nymphs (Dietz and Zetek 1920,
Gowdy 1921). In Florida, citrus blackflies oviposit on at least 115 plant
species (David Colbert5 personal communications; Dowell et al. 1979) and
has been observed to complete its development to adulthood on species of 19
genera in 12 families (Howard and Neel 1978, R. V. Dowell6 unpublished
The citrus blackfly has been reported to prefer citrus species as hosts
(Angeles et al. 1972, Clausen and Berry 1932, Howard and Neel 1978, Shaw
1959). However, Dietz and Zetek (1920) reported, apparently on the basis
of their general observations, that Ardisia revoluta HBK (Myrsinaceae)
was preferred over citrus species as a host of citrus blackfly in Panama.
Marlberry, Ardisia escallanoides Schlecht. and Chamb., a native to Florida,
is apparently a highly favorable host (Howard and Neel 1978).
Two additional aleyrodids, the citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri (Ash-
mead) and the cloudy-winged whitefly, D. citrifolii (Morgan) are common on
citrus in southeastern Florida and often contaminate research colonies of
citrus blackfly. Thus, it is of interest to find a host of citrus blackfly that is
not a host of other aleyrodids. This report presents results of an experiment

4Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 1690. Revised copy received
for publication 1 August 1979.
'Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services,
P. O. Box 1269, Gainesville, FL 32601.
6University of Florida Agricultural Research Center, 3205 S. W. College Avenue, Fort
Lauderdale, FL 33314.


December, 1979

Howard: Host Plants for Whiteflies 381

in which Ardisia solanacea Roxb., an Asian species naturalized in Florida,
was tested to determine its suitability as a host of citrus blackfly and citrus

Rough lemon, Citrus jambhiri Lush., was chosen as a standard for com-
parison of host suitability for citrus blackfly, because in a previous study it
was found to support greater survivorship of this insect than 5 other citrus
species tested (Howard 1979). The rough lemon plants were obtained as
bare root seedlings from the Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department
of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Winter Haven. They were potted
and grown for 8 weeks without application of insecticides.
Ardisia solanacea was grown from seed obtained from Fairchild Tropical
Garden, Miami. No insecticides were applied. During the year preceding the
experiment, aleyrodids were not observed on these plants. Plants of both
species were grown in a shade house in Fort Lauderdale in potting mix con-
sisting of equal parts of muck, sharp sand, and cypress sawdust in plastic
pots 15 cm in diameter. Plants were watered and fertilized to promote rapid
Potted seedlings of both species, each about 0.3 m tall and with about 30
leaves were examined on 26 May 1978 and were free of aleyrodids. Seven
plants of each species were arranged in a randomized block under a citrus
tree with a very heavy infestation of citrus blackflies and were exposed from
26 May to 7 June, after which they were transferred to a screened enclosure.
Leaves were examined on 7 June to determine the number of egg clusters of
citrus blackflies per plant and the number of eggs per cluster. On 20 July,
the number of citrus blackflies that had developed on each plant was deter-
mined by counting the number of fourth instar nymph exoskeletons with
T-shaped emergence slits.
Ten plants each of A. solanacea and C. jambhiri which were free of
aleyrodids were placed in a randomized block outdoors under a lemon tree
with a high infestation of citrus whiteflies. After 2 weeks of exposure, the
plants were examined for eggs of citrus whiteflies.
The significance of differences in mean egg clusters of A. woglumi per
plant, mean eggs per cluster, mean adults developed per plant, and survivor-
ship indices were determined by Student's t-test. The survivorship index per
plant was calculated by dividing the number of adults that developed by the
number of egg clusters observed previously on the same plant.

Ardisia solanacea was a more favorable host of citrus blackfly than C.
jambhiri in that the survival index was'about 5 times higher on the former
than on the latter (Table 1). Of the citrus species studied, lemons and limes
were shown to be highly favorable hosts of citrus blackfly (Dowell et al.
1978, Howard, 1979). Thus, A. solanacea compares well with citrus as a
host of this species.
There was an average of 96.8 citrus whitefly eggs per leaf on C. jambhiri
and no eggs on A. solanacea when they were simultaneously exposed to an
infested lemon tree.

The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

December, 1979

woglumi ASHBY ON Ardisia solanacea ROXB. COMPARED TO Citrus
jambhiri LUSH.

Mean no.
Eggs/ Egg adults Mean
Host spiral clusters/ developed/ Std. survival Std.
species cluster plant plant* error index** error

solanacea 30.7at 89.9a 131.6a 26.6 1.71a 0.25
jambhiri 32.0a 85.7a 31.7b 11.2 0.35b 0.10

Determined by the number of fourth instar exoskeletons with adult emergence slits.
**Calculated by dividing the number of adults developed per plant by the number of egg
clusters oviposited previously on the same plant.
tWithin a column values not followed by the same letters are significantly different (P <
0.05) by Student's t-test.

By using A. solanacea as a host plant, high populations of citrus black-
flies free of contamination by citrus whiteflies may be maintained. This may
be used to advantage in studies in southeastern Florida requiring pure cul-
tures of citrus blackfly and in mass-rearing of citrus blackflies and their
parasitoids for biological control. Whether A. solanacea is a host of cloudy-
winged whitefly has not been investigated.
Ardisia solanacea is planted in southern Florida as an ornamental, and
has become naturalized in the Miami area. Along with native marlberry and
other non-citrus hosts (Howard and Neel 1978, Dowell et al. 1979), A.
solanacea could serve as a source of reinfestation where citrus blackflies are
controlled by chemical treatments of citrus. Recently, however, citrus black-
flies have been under biological control in southeastern Florida (R. H.
Cherry6 personal communications) and the emphasis on chemical control of
this insect has been curtailed.


I thank G. A. Hutchinson, Agricultural Research Technician, for as-

J. R. REQUENA. 1972. Aportes en el studio de hospederas de la
"mosca prieta de los citricos," Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, en
Venezuela. Agronomia Tropical (Venezuela) XII (5) : 549-53.
CLAUSEN, C. P., AND P. A. BERRY. 1932. The citrus blackfly in Asia and the
importation of its natural enemies into Tropical America. USDA
Tech. Bull. 320: 1-59.
DIETZ, H. F., AND J. ZETEK. 1920. The blackfly of citrus and other subtrop-
ical plants. USDA Bull. 885 (Contr. of Bur. Ent.) : 1-55.
Field studies of the host range of the citrus blackfly, Aleurocanthus
woglumi Ashby. Can. Ent. 111(1) : 1-6.


Howard: Host Plants for Whiteflies 383

J. A. REINERT, AND G. E. FITZPATRICK. 1978. Development and
survivorship of the citrus blackfly Aleurocanthus woglumi on six
citrus hosts. Environ. Ent. 7: 524-5.
GOWDY, C. C. 1921. The citrus black fly (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby).
Jamaica Dept. Agr. Ent. Circ. 3: 1-11.
HOWARD, F. W. 1979. Comparaci6n de seis species de Citrus como plants
hospederas de A leurocanthus woglumi Ashby. Folia Ent. Mexicana 41:
AND P. L. NEEL. 1978. Host plant preferences of citrus blackfly,
Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in Florida.
Proc. Int. Soc. Citriculture 1977: 489-92.
SHAW, J. G. 1959. Hosts of the citrus blackfly in Mexico. USDA, ARS, Bur.
Ent. Plant Quar. E-798: 1-15.

-- *-- --*-- -- -* -- >--- I -- ^


University of Florida Agricultural Research and Education Center,
Homestead 33031 and
Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control,
Curepe, Trinidad, W. I., respectively

Lipostemmata humeralis Berg and L. major Ashlock are recorded from
Trinidad. Screening tests indicate that both are restricted to the aquatic
fern Salvinia auriculata Aubl. The immature stages are described and the
5th instar of L. major is illustrated.

The genus Lipostemmata, without reference to species, was reported as
occurring in Trinidad by Bennett (1975). Here we first record the occurrence
of L. humeralis Berg and L. major Ashlock in Trinidad. Since laboratory-
grown plants of its host, the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aubl., de-
teriorated within 6-8 weeks when exposed to low numbers of adults of either
species, we felt that the low priority assigned to Lipostemmata humeralis
(as purpurata Distant, a junior synonym) as a potential control agent by
Bennett (1966) merited reconsideration, particularly in situations where
Salvinia was already under stress from other agents. Also, as the immature
stages were previously unknown, detailed descriptions were prepared.

Both species were first collected in south Trinidad, Victoria Co. (VIII-
1975) near Debe and more recently L. major was collected at the edge of
the north range St. George Co. (11-IV-1978) in the Guanapo Valley; (22-

1Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 1752.

384 The Florida Entomologist 62 (4) December, 1979

II-1979) south of Churchill-Roosevelt Highway, San Juan; Nariva Co. 16-
11-1979, Nariva Swamp. We have also collected L. major in a blacklight trap
located at the Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, Curepe (St.
George Co.) from VII through X-1978.


Unlike most Rhyparochrominae, Lipostemmata humeralis and L. major
are unusual in that they are not seed feeders; rather they feed directly upon
leaf tissues.
Both species deposit their eggs on the upper surface of Salvinia leaves
between the basket hairs (Fig. 1). The early instars are sedentary, usually
not moving unless disturbed. The later instars are more active, and cer-
tainly unique for lygaeids, later instars as well as the adults will move
when disturbed to the underwater portion of these floating plants, where
they may remain attached to the lower leaf surface or roots for several
minutes. We have not observed them moving freely underwater except when
clinging to plants. When separated from the plants or when submerged and
released they immediately rise to the surface.
At 25-270C eggs of L. humeralis hatch in 8-10 days; those of L. major

Smm i

.5 mm ,

Fig. 1. Salvinia auriculata Aubl. with eggs and 1st instar of Lipostem-

Baranowski & Bennett: Lipostemmata

require 10-12 days. The duration of the 1st instar for both species was 2-3
days with the remaining instars each lasting 6-14 days. Of collections made
in August, 1975, L. humeralis was much more abundant than L. major. In
collections from the same area (near Debe) in July and August 1978 L.
major was considerably more abundant; in some collections it was the only
species present. This might represent a species displacement responding to
ecological change or a temporary population shift. Interestingly, under
laboratory conditions, L. humeralis was easier to maintain.


Bennett (1966) reported the association of Lipostemmata humeralis with
Salvinia auriculata when searching for natural enemies of Salvinia spp. in
the Neotropics to control S. molesta D. S. Mitchell on Kariba Lake. In his
revision of the genus Lipostemmata, Ashlock (1970) listed 1 specimen of
L. major that was labeled as taken on Agave. Schnack (1972, 1973) re-
corded L. humeralis from various aquatic weeds. We know of no other
references pertaining to host information or biology of Lipostemmata spp.
In 1976 we encountered breeding populations of L. humeralis and L.
major on S. auriculata in south Trinidad. At 1 location (Mohess Trace near
Debe) where S. auriculata and S. sprucei Kuhn. were growing together we
did not find either species of Lipostemmata on S. sprucei. As attempts to
breed both species on Salvinia minima Baker rotundifoliaa Wield. of
some authors] were unsuccessful, we undertook a series of experiments to
ascertain the host range of these lygaeids. Certain of the trials were con-
ducted in Florida and others in Trinidad as host plant material became
available during 1975-77.
MULTIPLE CHOICE TRIALS: After stocking an aquarium with Salvinia
auriculata, S. sprucei, Azolla ficuloides Lam., Lemna perpusilla Torr., Wolf-
fiella lingulata (Hegelm.) Hegelm. and Pistia stratiotes L. (plants with 4-8
leaves) a mixed population of 300-500 field collected adults and nymphs of
L. humeralis and major was added. Observations were made several times
daily for 5 successive days at 3 intervals during a 3 month period. Although
adults and nymphs were noted occasionally on plants other than S.
auriculata, they seldom remained stationary for more than a few minutes
and usually moved rapidly onto S. auriculata. This was in marked contrast
to their behaviour on S. auriculata where both adults and nymphs remained
stationary or moved only a few millimeters over the course of several hours.
when added to the aquarium, clean plants of S. auriculata, were infested by
the following day even when separated by several centimeters from other
OPEN CAGE TESTS: Nine circular plastic containers (10 cm diameter) were
each filled with water to within 1 cm of the brim and stocked with: (1) a
mixture of Lemna perpusilla and Wolffiella lingulata (3 containers), (2)
Azolla ficuloides (2 containers), (3) S. sprucei, (4) S. auriculata and (5)
Pistia stratiotes (2 containers). The containers were positioned randomly
in an open aquarium but in such a way that each was in direct contact with
at least 2 of the others. Each container was stocked with 10 individuals
randomly picked out of a mixed culture of both insect species. The aquarium
was filled with water to the same level as the plastic containers. A few
plants of L. perpusilla and W. lingulata were placed between the containers

The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

December, 1979

to serve as resting spots for adults or nymphs that moved out of the con-
On the 4th day all adults and nymphs were counted. Two nymphs were
present on A. ficuloides, 1 adult on P. stratiotes, and 22 nymphs and 29
adults on S. auriculata. A few dead specimens were present on Lemna and
Azolla; it is assumed that the remainder escaped from the aquarium.
FORCED FEEDING TRIALS: Ten 1st instar nymphs less than 24 hours old of
each species were placed on Salvinia minima, S. sprucei, S. molesta, S.
auriculata and A. ficuloides. Four to 6 pairs of adults of each species were
also placed on each plant species. All trials were not conducted simul-
taneously, but S. auriculata was included in each test. Observations were
made daily.
Within 48 hours all 1st instar nymphs except those placed on S.
auriculata were dead or had molted; those that attained the second instar
died the next day. Adults did not survive longer than 72 hours on any of
the plants except S. auriculata.


Lipostemmata major Ashlock
Fifth instar (Fig. 2).-Body elongate, ovoid, head, pronotum and wing pads
nearly uniformly dark brown; a pale spot on either side of mid line of
pronotal disc and at base of wing pads; eyes red; abdomen pale brown ex-
cept for margin and area around scent gland openings dark brown; legs and
antennae pale brown; head length 0.282, width 0.44, interocular space 0.28;
pronotum length 0.44, width 0.80, wing pad length 0.76; abdomen length
1.04; labial segments I 0.28, II 0.24, III 0.22, IV 0.26 long, respectively;
antennal segments I 0.12, II 0.22, III 0.20, IV 0.30 long, respectively; total
length 2.28.
Fourth instar-General form and color as in preceding but somewhat lighter;
head length 0.24, width 0.28, interocular space 0.22; pronotum length 0.36,
width 0.52; wing pad length 0.36; abdomen length 0.76; labial segments I
0.20, II 0.18, III 0.16, IV 0.20 long, respectively; antennal segments I 0.10,
II 0.16, III 0.16, IV 0.22 long, respectively; total length 1.6.
Third instar-General form and color as in preceding; head length 0.22,
width 0.28, interocular space 0.16; pronotum length 0.18, width 0.40; wing
pad length 0.18; abdomen length 0.66; labial segments I 0.14, II 0.12, III
0.10, IV 0.14 long, respectively; antennal segments I 0.08, II 0.12, III 0.10,
IV 0.20 long, respectively; total length 1.24.
Second instar-General form as in preceding; abdomen yellowish, thorax
light tan, legs and antennae straw colored; head length 0.16, width 0.24,
interocular space 0.16; pronotum length 0.14, width 0.30; abdomen length
0.40; labial segments I 0.12, II 0.10, III'0.10, IV 0.12 long, respectively;
antennal segments I 0.06, II 0.10, III 0.10, IV 0.20 long, respectively; total
length 0.86.
First instar-General form and color as in preceding; head length 0.14,
width 0.20, interocular space 0.14; pronotum length 0.12, width 0.30;
abdomen length 0.34; labial segments I 0.08, II 0.06, III 0.08, IV 0.12;

2All measurements are in mm.

Baranowski & Bennett: Lipostemmata




Fig. 2. Lipostemmata major Ashlock, 5th instar, dorsal view.

antennal segments I 0.04, II 0.06, III 0.06, IV 0.14 long, respectively; total
length 0.76.
Egg-Oval, cream colored, somewhat narrower at the micropylar end; no
processes evident, chorion smooth; length 0.52, width 0.32.

Lipostemmata humeralis Berg

Fifth instar-Body elongate oval, head pronotum and wing pads brown, a








The Florida Entomologist 62 (4)

December, 1979

pale spot on either side of mid line of pronotal disc and at base of wing pads;
eyes red; abdomen dull yellow except for margin and area around scent
gland openings tan; legs dull yellow, antennae somewhat darker. Generally
similar to major but lighter and smaller; head length 0.24, width 0.40,
interocular space 0.24; pronotum length 0.28, width 0.68; wing pad length
0.64; abdomen length 0.96; labial segments I 0.20, II 0.20, III 0.16, IV 0.20
long, respectively; antennal segments I 0.12, II 0.18, III 0.18, IV 0.26 long,
respectively; total length 1.92.
Fourth instar-Form and color as in preceding but somewhat lighter; head
length 0.18, width 0.30, interocular space 0.16; pronotum length 0.22, width
0.50; wing pad length 0.26; abdomen length 0.72; labial segments I 0.14,
II 0.12, III 0.12, IV 0.14 long, respectively; antennal segments I 0.08, II 0.14,
III 0.12, IV 0.20, long, respectively; total length 1.30.
Third instar-Form and color as in preceding; head length 0.20, width 0.24,
interocular space 0.16; pronotum length 0.26, width 0.32; wing pad length
0.12; abdomen length 0.52; labial segments I 0.12, II 0.10, III 0.08, IV 0.12
long, respectively; antennal segments I 0.08, II 0.08, III 0.08, IV 0.16 long,
respectively; total length 1.10.
Second instar-Similar in shape to preceding, yellow-orange in general color;
head length 0.13, width 0.20, interocular space 0.14; pronotum length 0.12,
width 0.26; abdomen length 0.40; labial segments I 0.10, II 0.08, III 0.08, IV
0.10 long, respectively; antennal segments I 0.06, II 0.06, III 0.08, IV 0.16
long, respectively; total length 0.76.
First instar-Similar in shape and color to preceding; head length 0.12,
width 0.16, interocular space 0.10; pronotum length 0.12, width 0.24;
abdomen length 0.32; labial segments I 0.08, II 0.06, III 0.06, IV 0.08 long,
respectively; antennal segments I 0.06, II 0.06, III 0.04, IV 0.14 long, re-
spectively; total length 0.68.
Egg-Oval, cream colored, chorion smooth; length 0.50; with 0.28.
Sweet (1964) stated the number of micropylar processes varies from 3 to
12 in the Rhyparochrominae. Cobbin (1968) indicated that the number varies
within the Lygaeidae from 3 to 15. The eggs of both species of Lipostemmata
are apparently unique as no micropylar processes were found. One may
speculate that this is another character that supports the primitive position
of the genus (Ashlock 1970).


Ashlock's (1970) record of an adult of Lipostemmata major from Agave
sp. can be regarded as a casual association. The records from various aquatic
plants by Schnack (1972, 1973) resulted from observation that extended
over several months and suggest that L. humeralis was taken regularly from
samples of Azolla ficuloides and Lemna minima Philippi as well as from
Salvinia rotundifolia. Our studies did show that adults and large nymphs,
when disturbed, seek refuge on other plants; this might provide an ex-
planation that could account for the movement of L. major onto non-host
plants. While his studies indicate the presence of L. major on other plants,
Schnack (1972, 1973) did not provide evidence that L. major was breeding
on these.
One of our goals was to ascertain whether Lipostemmata spp. were
suitable agents for biological control of S. molesta. We consider on the basis


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