Title: Florida Entomologist
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Title: Florida Entomologist
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Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1982
Copyright Date: 1917
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Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
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(ISSN 0015-4040)


FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

(An International Journal for the Americas)

Volume 65, No. 3 September, 1982


TABLE OF CONTENTS
IBRAHIM, B. R.-A New Species of Neaspilota (Diptera: Tephritidae)
from Florida .... .. ... ............ 297
WALKER, T. J., AND NGO DONG-Mole Crickets and Pasture Grasses:
Damage by Scapteriscus vicinus, But Not by S. acletus (Ortho-
ptera: Gryllotalpidae) ........ .. .......... ---- 300
O'BRIEN, L. B.-Two Neotropical Derbid Genera with Observations on
Wing Rolling (Fulgoroidea, Homoptera) .. ........... ......... 306
SNIDER, R. J.-Sminthurus fischeri, New Species from Georgia (Col-
lembola: Sminthuridae) .--- ...-..-. .. .. ..~... 321
MEYERDIRK, D. E., AND W. G. HART-Survey of Auchenorrhyncha (In-
secta: Homoptera) Associated with the Canary Island Date
Palm in Southern Texas -... .. ................... ........... ............ 327
BULLOCK, R. C., AND A. E. KRETSCHMER, JR.-Identification and Control
of Foliar Pests of American Jointvetch --..- .. ---. -.....- ---. 335
WHEELER, A. G., JR., AND E. R. HOEBEKE-Host Plants and Nymphal
Descriptions of Acanalonia pumila and Cyarda sp. near acutis-
sima (Homoptera, Fulgoroidea: Acanalonidae and Flatidae) ...... 340
WADDILL, V. H., ET AL.-Seasonal Abundance of the Fall Armyworm
and Velvetbean Caterpillar (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) at Four
L locations in F lorida ......... .......... ................. ... ................... 350
HENRY, T. J.-Genus Parthenicus in the Eastern United States, With
Descriptions of New Species (Hemiptera: Miridae) -........... 354
BURDITT, A. K., JR.-Anastrepha suspense (Loew) (Diptera: Tephr-
itidae) McPhail Traps for Survey and Detection ...................... 367

Scientific Notes
GREANY, P. D., ET AL.-Effectiveness of Jackson Traps for
Fruit Flies Improved by Addition of Colored Patterns .. .- 374
CROCKER, R. L., AND B. J. SIMPSON-Datana perspicua (Lep-
idoptera: Notodontidae) attacks Cotinus obovatus, A Na-
tive W oody Ornamental ---..--. ... .. .... ............. .......... 375
LAWRENCE, K. D.-A Linear Pitfall Trap for Mole Crickets and
Other Soil Arthropods .........--...---.... .......................... 376
Continued on Back Cover

Published by The Florida Entomological Society












THE FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY



OFFICERS FOR 1981-82
President ..-.-............................. ....... ..... ................. W L. Peters
Vice-President ....--------................... -............-----------............. Abe W white
Secretary ......-....................-.......... ........ .. ----------- F. W Mead
Treasurer ---....----....-..-.....---.---.... --------- D. P. Wojcik

E. C. Beck
W. Keith Collinsworth
Kris Elvin
Other Members of Executive Committee .-----... R. W. Flowers
R. G. Haines
D. C. Herzog
C. A. Musgrave Sutherland


PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE

Editor ....----------...........--------------- C. A. Musgrave Sutherland
Associate Editors ...--..........-....----------------..--. F. W. Howard
J. E. Lloyd
J. R. McLaughlin
C. W. McCoy
A. R. Soponis
H. V. Weems, Jr.
Business Manager ...............................--.....-- ......-- ...... D. P. Wojcik

FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST is issued quarterly-March, June, September,
and December. Subscription price to non-members is $15.00 per year in
advance, $5.00 per copy. Membership in the Florida Entomological Society,
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Authors should consult "Instructions to Authors" on the inside cover of
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Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be sent to the Editor,
C. A. Musgrave Sutherland, 4849 Del Rey Blvd., Las Cruces, NM 88001.
Business matters for other Society officers can be sent to that individual at
the University Station address above.


This issue mailed October 18, 1982













Ibrahim: New Florida Neaspilota


A NEW SPECIES OF NEASPILOTA
(DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) FROM FLORIDA

B. ROHANI IBRAHIM1
Department of Entomology and Nematology
IFAS, University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611 USA


ABSTRACT
A new species, Neaspilota floridana, bred from Vernonia angustifolia
Michx. var. scaberrima (Nutt.) Gray, is described from Orlando, Florida.
The structures of the 9 ovipositor and $ genitalia and color are used to
distinguish this species from its closest relative, Neaspilota alba (Loew),
and from other known Neaspilota.

RESUME
Se describe una nueva especie, Neaspilota floridana, criada sobre
Vernonia augustifolia Michx. var. scaberrima (Nutt.) Gray en Orlando,
Florida. Las estructuras del ovipositor, la genitalia del macho y el color se
distinguen esta especie de N. alba, la cual es la especie mis pr6xima, y de
otras species de Neaspilota.


An new species of Neaspilota Osten Sacken is described to make a name
available for work being done on fruit flies in Florida. This species was
brought to my attention when Dr. Amnon Friedberg revised the subfamily
Terelliinae. It had been identified as Neaspilota alba (Loew) by Benjamin
(1934).

Neaspilota floridana Rohani, NEW SPECIES

Superficially N. floridana resembles N. alba (Loew), a more northern
species, and some other Florida species because of the entirely hyaline wing
and predominantly yellow pollinose body. It differs from all known Neaspilota
by certain characters of the head, 9 ovipositor, and S genitalia (Fig. 1 A-J).
FEMALE: Predominantly yellow species. Head as in Fig. 1A. Vertex and
frons yellow pollinose; the fronto-facial angle rounded; frons pubescent with
whitish tomentum. Two pairs of upper fronto-orbitals, 3 pairs of lower
fronto-orbitals. Face yellow, with slight concavity; epistomal margin slightly
expanded. Thorax entirely yellow pollinose appearing silvery gray. Chaeto-
taxy typical of Neaspilota with dorsocentral bristles situated distinctly be-
hind supra-alars. Legs entirely yellow to rufous, bristles as in congeners.
Wing entirely hyaline except for yellowish tinge in the stigma similar to
alba. Abdomen mainly black in ground color, usually with large bands on
anterior part of terga, leaving narrow yellow posterior stripes. Pubescence
on dorsum of abdomen whitish. Ovipositor sheath light yellow tinged with
brown proximally and distally, about 0.8 mm long; piercer short and thick,

'Present address: Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Pertanian Malaysis, Serdang, Selangor,
Malaysia.












Florida Entomologist 65 (3)


A


-00-
E






CF














NO








J

Fig. 1A-J. Neaspilota floridana. A. Lateral view of the head. B. Wing .
C. Dorsal view of ovipositor sheath. D. Dorsal view of piercer of 9 ovipositor.
E. Largest spicule of raspers. F. Spermatheca. G. Dorsal view of 8 genitalia.
H. Profile view of $ genitalia. I. Tip of aedeagus. J. Ejaculatory apodeme.


298


September, 1982


- -I











Ibrahim: New Florida Neaspilota.


299


o00
C


B


01
D


Fig. 2A-E. Neaspilota alba (Loew). A. Dorsal view of ovipositor sheath.
B. Dorsal view of piercer of 9 ovipositor. C. Largest spicule of raspers.
D. Dorsal view of $ genitalia. E. Profile view of S genitalia.
about 0.7 mm long, apex of piercer abruptly tapered to sharp point (Fig.
ID). Largest spicules of raspers somewhat more narrow and acute than
spicules of alba (Fig. 1E). Spermatheca oval as in Fig. 1F. Extended
ovipositor 2.3 mm long. Length: body 3.2-3.8 mm; wing 3.1-3.8 mm (n=6).
MALE: Same as ? except for postabdominal characters. Male genitalia
as in Fig. 1H; epandrium highly arched, surstyli elongate, curved inward
almost truncate at apex; proctiger with clusters of long pale setae latero-
ventrally; ejaculatory apodeme fan-shaped and lightly pigmented (Fig. 1J) :
aedeagus as in Fig. 1I.
Holotype 9, allotype, and 6 paratypes. Orlando, Orange County, Florida;
19-IV-1931 holotypee), 24-VI-1930 (allotype), 24-VI-1930 (1 9 and 2 $












Florida Entomologist 65 (3)


paratypes), 21-IV-1930 (2 9 paratypes), and 31-IV-1930 (1 9 paratype).
Holotype, allotype, and paratypes are reared from Vernonia augustifolia
Michx. var. scaberrima (Nutt.) Gray, all collected by D. J. Nicholson. Holo-
type and allotype in U.S.N.M., no. 76477; paratypes in FSCA.
Neaspilota floridana is very close to N. alba. The differences between
them lie chiefly in the length and thickness of the setae situated at the sides
of the proctiger of the 8 genitalia. The setae in floridana are much longer
(Fig. 1G, H), paler, and less dense than in alba; (Fig. 2E) the remainder
of the proctiger in floridana bears longer setae than in alba, which makes
the setae appear less crowded. The ovipositor and ovipositor sheath of alba,
about 2.9 mm and 1.2 mm, respectively, are much longer than those of
floridana.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I am grateful to Dr. Amnon Freidberg, c/o Department of Zoology, Tel
Aviv University, Israel, for bringing this species to my attention and for re-
viewing the description. I also thank Drs. D. H. Habeck and H. V. Weems,
Jr. for reviewing the manuscript. Published as Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station Journal Series No. 3198.

REFERENCES CITED
BENJAMIN, F. H. 1934. Descriptions of some native trypetid flies with notes
on their habits. USDA Tech. Bull. 401. 96 p.





MOLE CRICKETS AND PASTURE GRASSES:
DAMAGE BY SCAPTERISCUS VICINUS, BUT NOT BY
S. ACLETUS (ORTHOPTERA: GRYLLOTALPIDAE)

THOMAS J. WALKER AND NGO DONG
Department of Entomology and Nematology
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA

ABSTRACT
Scapteriscus vicinus and S. acletus juveniles and adults were held in
outdoor cages planted with plugs of Pensacola bahiagrass and coastal
bermudagrass. Densities were 11 or 22 per m2 of soil surface and 308 or 616
per m2 of grass; alternative food was provided in half the cages. S. vicinus
significantly reduced forage yield and stand of both grasses, but damage to
bahiagrass was much greater than to simultaneously available bermuda-
grass. Scapteriscus acletus adults and juveniles had little if any effect on
either grass.

RESUME
Juveniles y adults de Scapteriscus vicinus y S. acletus se mantuvieron
dentro de jaulas en las cuales se plantaron pedazos de past bahia, Paspalum


300


September, 1982












Walker & Dong: Damage by Scapteriscus


notatum Flugge, cv. 'Pensacola', y past bermuda, Cynodon dactylon (L.)
Pers. cv. 'Coastal'. Las dcnsidades fueron o 11 o 22 por m' de la superficie de
tierra y 308 o 616 por m2 de past; alimentos alternatives fueron puestos
en la mitad de las jaulas. Scapteriscus vicinus redujo significativamente el
rendimiento y la densidad de ambos pastos, pero el dafo a past bahia fue
mAs que al past bermuda. Scapteriscus acletus poco afect6 los pastos.


Two species of mole crickets are believed to be major pests of pasture
grasses in Florida (e.g. Reinert et al. 1981). The fact that Scapteriscus
vicinus is predominantly herbivorous while S. acletus is predominantly
carnivorous (Matheny 1981) calls for critical assessment of their relative
roles in causing the damage attributed to them. Field experiments designed
to assay the 2 species for their effects on stand and forage production in
bahiagrass have been unsuccessful in proving damage by either species
(Walker 1979, Walker et al. 1982). The present experiments were designed
to maximize opportunity for damage by confining large numbers of mole
crickets with small amounts of 2 grasses in outdoor cages and, in half of
the tests, giving them no alternative food.

METHODS
Twenty-four cylindrical cages were made by fitting 1.5-m-diam., 30-cm-
high wading pools with lids made of polyester fabric glued to hoops of 13-
mm-diam. PVC pipe. A 0.4 x 0.4-m drain, covered with aluminum screening,
was installed in each cage bottom, and a 20-cm-high aluminum partition
bisected each cage. The cages were placed in a field with their partitions
oriented north-south and filled with sterilized sandy topsoil to the height of
the partition. On 12 March 1981, four 10-cm-diam. plugs of Pensacola
bahiagrass were set in an arc on one side of the partition and 4 plugs of
coastal bermudagrass were similarly set on the other. The partition delimited
the areas assigned the 2 grasses and prevented root competition but did not
impede mole crickets moving on the soil surface. In half the cages the bahia-
grass was on the east side, in the other half, on the west.
The cages were assigned to 4 blocks. The 6 cages in each block were
randomly designated as control-fed, control-starved, vicinus-fed, vicinus-
starved, acletus-fed, and acletus-starved. Cages designated "fed" were
sprinkled with 10 ml of finely ground 21% protein dog chow each week; for
those designated vicinus, 8 female and 2 male sound-trapped vicinus (Walker
1982) were released on each side on 1 April, acletus cages were stocked, in
the same manner, with acletus on 14 April. All grass was clipped to a height
of 2 cm on 30 April, 2 June, and 24 June, and the clippings dried and
weighed. Cages were fertilized and watered after each cutting. On 2 May,
24 hr after watering, the linear extent of tunneling by adults was estimated
for each half of each pool; the range was 0 to 3.5 m. By June, tunnels of
progeny were often extensive and coalescing, making length an impractical
measure of their extent. On June 12, 24 hr after watering, areas covered by
juvenile tunnels were estimated to the nearest 10% of each half pool; the
range was 0-100%.
At the end of the experiment using adults, the cages were set up anew
to assay for juvenile damage. Plugs of grass were taken from the control












Florida Entomologist 65 (3)


cages and nourished in a greenhouse, and juvenile mole crickets (i.e.
progeny) were collected from the treated cages and held and fed in buckets
of soil. Each cage was heightened, to raise the lid above anticipated growth
of grass, by encompassing it with a 1.5-m-diam., 51-cm-high sheet-aluminum
cylinder. On 24 July, the 24 cages were fumigated with methyl bromide,
killing all remaining grass and mole crickets. The six cages in each of the
four blocks were randomly assigned to the 6 categories used before. On 27
July, four 10-cm plugs of each grass were transplanted into each cage as
before. On 28 July, 40 vicinus juveniles, 20 per side, were released in each of
the 8 vicinus cages, and 40 acletus juveniles were similarly released in each
acletus cage. The juveniles measured 5 to 20 mm in length, with those of
vicinus averaging ca. 15 mm and those of acletus, ca. 10 mm. Cages desig-
nated "fed" were given 15 ml of ground dog chow weekly. Grass was clipped
and weighed monthly as before: viz. on 28 August, 28 September, and 29
October. Fertilizer was applied 24 August and 28 September.
Analyses of variance were run on the square roots of the forage estimates
and on the estimates of tunneling. Fisher's protected least significant differ-
ence procedure was then used to compare treatment means (Steel and Torrie
1980).

RESULTS

Tests for damage by adults (1 or 14 April-24 June)
S. vicinus adults, but not those of acletus, caused significant damage to
the two grasses (Tables 1 and 2). Bahiagrass exposed to 20 fed or starved
vicinus adults produced only 34% and 9% as much forage as the average of
the bahiagrass controls. Reduction in yield of bermudagrass was less, with
the corresponding figures being 74% and 41%. Likewise, vicinus adults sub-
stantially reduced the stand of bahiagrass, especially if they were denied

TABLE 1. FORAGE PRODUCTION (AVERAGE TOTAL DRY WEIGHTS, IN GRAMS, OF
GRASS CLIPPED AT MONTHLY INTERVALS) OF PENSACOLA BAHIA-
GRASS AND COASTAL BERMUDAGRASS IN EXPERIMENTAL CAGES.
VALUES IN THE SAME COLUMN WITH THE SAME LETTER ARE NOT
SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT (Pa = 0.05). "FED" CAGES WERE PRO-
VIDED A WEEKLY RATION OF GROUND DOG CHOW; "STARVED" ONES
WERE NOT.

Species Pensacola Bahia Coastal Bermuda
Status adults juveniles adults juveniles

Control
Fed 169a 40a 284ab 100a
Starved 178a 22b 334a 56b
S. acletus
Fed 156a 41a 338a 36c
Starved 175a 37ab 337a 69ab
S. vicinus
Fed 59b Oc 229b 12d
Starved 16c Oc 126c 3d


302


September, 1982












Walker & Dong: Damage by Scapteriscus 303

TABLE 2. Loss OF GRASS STAND IN EXPERIMENTAL CAGES HAVING FOUR 10-cm
PLUGS OF PENSACOLA BAHIAGRASS ON ONE SIDE AND 4 OF COASTAL
BERMUDAGRASS ON THE OTHER. (EACH TREATMENT HAD 16 PLUGS
OF EACH GRASS.) WHEN TABLE ENTRY IS ITALICIZED, STAND LOSS
FOR THAT TREATMENT WAS SIGNIFICANTLY GREATER THAN FOR THE
CORRESPONDING CONTROL (X2, P<.05).

Pensacola Bahia Coastal Bermuda
Stage Plugs lost or Plugs lost or
Species Plugs with -10 live Plugs with L10 live
Status lost (%) stems (%) lost (%) stems (%)

Adults (n= 20, April-June 1981)
Control
Fed 0 0 0 0
Starved 0 0 0 0
S. acletus
Fed 0 0 0 0
Starved 0 0 0 0
S. vicinus
Fed 6 19 0 0
Starved 50 88 6 6
Juveniles (n=40, July-Oct. 1981)
Control
Fed 19 25 12 25
Starved 0 6 0 6
S. acletus
Fed 6 6 0 0
Starved 6 6 0 6
S. vicinus
Fed 88 100 38 81
Starved 100 100 38 75

other food; on the other hand, they did not destroy a significant percent of
bermudagrass plugs (Table 2, top half).
Adult vicinus, but not acletus, tunneled more on the bahiagrass side of
their cages than on the bermudagrass side (Table 3). S. acletus tunneled
significantly more than vicinus on the bermudagrass side but not on the
bahiagrass side.
Near the end of the tests for damage by adults, tunneling of their progeny
was greater in the fed cages than the starved cages, but only for vicinus was
the difference significant (Table 3).

Tests for damage by juveniles (28 July-29 October)
S. vicinus juveniles devastated the bahiagrass plugs, eliminating forage
production (Table 1), and causing nearly 100% loss of stand (Table 2).
Their effect on bermudagrass was less severe, but forage production fell to
15% and 4% of the average of the bermudagrass controls and 38% of the
plugs were killed.













Florida Entomologist 65 (3)


TABLE 3. MEAN ESTIMATES OF TUNNELING BY MOLE CRICKETS IN EXPERI-
MENTAL CAGES HAVING FOUR 10-cm PLUGS OF PENSACOLA BAHIA-
GRASS ON ONE SIDE AND 4 OF COASTAL BERMUDAGRASS ON THE
OTHER. (CONTROL CAGES HAD NO TUNNELING.)

Proportion of area
Meters of tunneling tunneled by progeny'
Species by adults' (2 May) (12 June)
Status Bahia Bermuda Bahia Bermuda

S. acletus
Fed 1.2 1.2 0.25 0.22
Starved 1.5 2.4 0.12 0.12
S. vicinus
Fed 1.8 0.9 0.62 0.58
Starved 1.2 0.6 0.18 0.20

'Adults of vicinus tunneled more (ANOVA) in bahiagrass than in bermudagrass. Adults
of acletus tunneled more in bermudagrass than did those of vicinus (ANOVA), and starved
acletus tunneled more in bermudagrass than did either fed or starved vicinus (LSD). No
other differences were significant (P = 0.05).
2Fed vicinus had more tunneling by progeny than did starved vicinus (ANOVA). The
tunneling by progeny of fed vicinus in each grass exceeded that by those of starved vicinus
in both grasses (LSD). No other differences were significant (P = 0.05).

S. acletus juveniles had no significant effect on stand or forage production
in bahiagrass nor on stand in bermudagrass (Tables 1 and 2). However, fed
acletus nymphs caused a significant reduction in forage production in
bermudagrass when compared to the fed control (Table 1). Surprisingly,
the starved control produced significantly less bahiagrass than either the fed
control or fed acletus.

DISCUSSION

These experiments suggest that acletus is not a major source of damage
to pastures and that researchers trying to alleviate damage to Florida
pastures should direct their efforts principally to vicinus. The population
densities used in these experiments were 11 and 22 per m' of soil and 308
and 618 per m' of transplanted grass, for adults and 5-20 mm juveniles re-
spectively. J. A. Reinert (unpublished) reported densities as high as 126
per m' in tree spade samples of damaged bermudagrass, but the highest
published counts of mole crickets in field studies are 6 and 7 per m' (Barry
and Suber 1975, Short and Koehler 1980). Because the experimental densities
were probably unrealistically high, the damage by vicinus may have been
exaggerated. On the other hand, lack of severe damage by acletus at the
same densities suggests that under no field circumstances is acletus damag-
ing to established bahia- or bermudagrass. The present data do not exonerate
acletus relative to possible damage to grass seedlings or sprigs or to vege-
table crops. In preliminary studies, D. J. Schuster (personal communication,
1981) implicated acletus in cutworm-like damage to tomato seedlings.
Any discussion of mole cricket damage in Florida should include 2 other
species: Scapteriscus abbreviatus and Neocurtilla hexadactyla. S. ab-
breviatus, like acletus and vicinus, was introduced about 80 years ago from


304


September, 1982












Walker & Dong: Damage by Scapteriscus


South America; however, it is flightless and has not spread inland from its
several sites of introduction (Walker and Nickle 1981). On the basis of early
reports (Hebard 1915) and more recent observations by J. A. Reinert at
Fort Lauderdale (personal communication, 1981), we suspect that ab-
breviatus resembles vicinus more than acletus in its effects on grasses. S.
abbreviatus may prove to be a more important pest than acletus. N. hexa-
dactyla occurs in heavy moist soils (Blatchley 1920, Hayslip 1943), and we
know of no evidence that it causes significant damage.
Four findings of this study merit further comment: (1) Adults in all
treatments produced progeny (Table 3, right columns). Judged by amount
of tunneling, progeny production went from highest in fed vicinus to lowest
in starved acletus. These rankings are in keeping with the other findings of
the study, though the source of nourishment in the starved cages of acletus
is uncertain. Other mole crickets (dead or alive) and minor amounts of
grass are possibilities. (2) Forage production in control cages was 3- to
8-fold greater during the adult study (12 March-24 June) than during the
juvenile study (27 July-29 October) (Table 1). In addition to having 10 days
less to grow, the grass in the latter study was not as vigorous when trans-
planted and received less sunlight because of higher cage walls. (3) In the
control cages of the juvenile study, 10 (of 64) grass plugs died or were
greatly reduced, whereas in the acletus cages the corresponding figure was 3.
We do not know what caused the differential loss of stand, but an algal crust
formed on the soil of the controls, whereas soil in the acletus cages was kept
loose and friable by tunneling mole crickets. (4) Fed acletus juveniles re-
duced forage production by bermudagrass when compared to fed controls but
not to starved controls. Starved acletus juveniles did not reduce bermuda-
grass production relative to either starved or fed controls (Table 1). The
fact that fed controls in the juvenile study produced nearly twice as much
forage as the starved controls (Table 1; both were fertilized) demonstrates
that unexplained forces were at work; nonetheless, we propose that a con-
tributing factor to the reduction of forage by fed juveniles relative to starved
ones was that more survived and grew, making their feeding, or tunneling,
or both, more damaging.
The most important question left unanswered by this study is what is the
relation between vicinus density and degree of damage-i.e. what are the
lowest densities that cause important damage? If these densities are as low
as or lower than those encountered in the field, vicinus stands convicted of
what it and acletus have long been accused.
Another question worth investigating is how vicinus damages grass-is
it by feeding on the shoots, by feeding on the roots, by tunneling, or by some
combination of the above? The means of damage should give clues to finding
or developing resistant varieties of pasture grasses.
The techniques developed in these studies can be easily modified to
answer the questions posed above and to learn more about what grass and
vegetable cultivars are damaged by the 4 species of mole cricket in Florida,
and to screen for resistance to damage by mole crickets.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We thank M. B. McGarity for supplying the soil; 0. C. Ruelke for
agronomic advice and for supplying the original grass plugs; J. C. Nickerson


305












Florida Entomologist 65 (3)


and R. E. Brown for twice fumigating the experimental cages and for aid
in fire ant control; and W. G. Hudson, E. L. Matheny, J. A. Reinert, and
D. J. Schuster for helpful advice and constructive criticism of the manu-
script. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 3661.

REFERENCES CITED
BARRY, R. M., AND E. F. SUBER. 1975. Field evaluation of insecticides for
mole crickets in turf. J. Georgia Ent. Soc. 10: 254-9.
BLATCHLEY, W. S. 1920. Orthoptera of northeastern America. Nature Pub-
lishing, Indianapolis, IN. 784 p.
HAYSLIP, N. C. 1943. Notes on biological studies of mole crickets at Plant
City, Florida. Florida Ent. 26: 33-46.
HEBARD, M. 1915. DIermaptera and Orthoptera found in the vicinity of
Miami, Florida, in March, 1915-(Part II). Ent. News 26: 457-69.
MATHENY, E. L., JR. 1981. Contrasting feeding habits of pest mole cricket
species. J. Econ. Ent. 74: 444-5.
REINERT, J. A., D. E. SHORT, AND P. G. KOEHLER. 1981. Present status of
mole crickets in Florida. Florida Cattleman 45: 36-8.
SHORT, D. E., AND P. G. KOEHLER. 1980. Location as a variable for evaluat-
ing pesticides against mole crickets. J. Georgia Ent. Soc. 15: 241-5.
STEEL, R. G. D., AND J. H. TORRIE. 1980. Principles and procedures of sta-
tistics, a biometrical approach, 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York. 633 p.
WALKER, S. L. 1979. Population estimation, damage evaluation and be-
havioral studies on mole crickets Scapteriscus vicinus and S. acletus
(Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae). M.S. thesis, Univ. Florida, Gainesville.
83 p.
WALKER, T. J. 1982. Sound traps for sampling mole cricket flights
(Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae: Scapteriscus). Florida Ent. 65: 105-10.
WALKER, T. J., R. C. LITTELL, AND NGO DONG. 1982. Which mole crickets
damage bahiagrass pastures? Florida Ent. 65: 110-6.
WALKER, T. J., AND D. A. NICKLE. 1981. Introduction and spread of pest
mole crickets: Scapteriscus vicinus and S. acletus reexamined. Ann.
Ent. Soc. America 74: 158-63.

-^- -L-- -- *-- -- --^-- -- --^- --


TWO NEOTROPICAL DERBID GENERA
WITH OBSERVATIONS ON WING ROLLING
(FULGOROIDEA, HOMOPTERA)

LOIs B. O'BRIEN
Department of Entomology
Florida A. and M. University
Tallahassee, FL 32307, USA

ABSTRACT
Dawnarioides hispaniolus n. sp. from the Dominican Republic, and a new
genus, Neodawnaria, with 4 new species, woldai from Panama, jamaicensis,
ecuadorensis, and hondurensis, are described.
Changes are made in Fennah's (1952) key to the genera of Cenchreini
to adapt it to the New World only, with Dawnarioides placed differently,
Neodawnaria added, and Phrygia (Achilidae) deleted. Also added is Ipsnola


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O'Brien: Two Neotropical Derbid Genera


Signoret, a monotypic genus from Chile, formerly placed in Achilidae or
Cixiidae. A catalog of new world Cenchreini is included.
Longitudinal wing rolling is described and postulated to be a wing-
strengthening device for adaptation to life in rain forests.

RESUME
Se described Dawnarioides hispaniolus sp. n. de la Repdblica Dominicana
y un g6nero nuevo, Neodawnaria, con 4 species nuevas: woldai (de Pan-
ama), jamaicensis, ecuadorensis, y hondurensis.
Se adapta la clave de Fennah de 1952 para los g6neros de Cenchreini,
para uso exclusive en America, con Dawnarioides colocado en forma dif-
erente; se agrega Neodawnaria, gen., n; y se elimina Phrygia (Achilidae).
Se agrega tambi6n Ipsnola Signoret, un genero monotipico de Chile colocado
previamente en Achilidae o Cixiidae. Se incluye un catalog de los Cenchreini
americanos.
Se describe el enrollamiento longitudinal de las alas, que se postula como
un mecanismo de refuerzo de las mismas para adaptaci6n a la vida en los
bodques tropicales humedos (rain forests).



During a collecting trip to Puerto Rico I observed the unusual longi-
tudinal wing rolling of Dawnarioides sordidulus (Muir) discussed below. On
a subsequent trip to Panama I discovered a new species of a new genus with
the same habit. Searching through collections produced 4 more new species
which are described here. In trying to place the genus I found it ad-
vantageous to modify Fennah's (1952) world key to the Cenchreini to cover
the New World and to prepare a catalog of the 68 species (excepting
Cedusa) known from Latin America and the West Indies (through The
Zoological Record 1978).
In addition to including Neodawnaria in Fennah's (1952) key, several
other modifications are necessary. These include recognizing that Dawn-
arioides does not possess a foliaceous subantennal process as stated by
Fennah, but only a ridge. Ipsnola Signoret is included because the genitalia
place it in the Derbidae. This genus, from Chile, was placed in Achilidae by
Signoret, and in Cixiidae in Metcalf's (1936) catalog. Since it is not figured
elsewhere, I have included an illustration of the frons and the very distinc-
tive venation of the tegmen (Fig. 21, 22). Phrygia StAl is deleted because it
is an achilid and Patarella Fennah (1952: 111) is not included because I
consider it a nomen nudum.
The following is a modification of Fennah's (1952) key to include only
New World genera. Because he contradicts the key characters in his dis-
cussion of the genus', in the following treatment I have grouped together
those genera that I cannot separate using his key. However, for the con-
venience of the reader, I have included his couplets to New World genera as
couplets 10-16. Couplets 8 and 9 have been prepared using illustrations and
descriptions, not specimens.


'For instance, Cenchrea, page 128, couplet 57, is keyed as "medioventral process present
on pygofer"; on page 134, line 27 it says "no definite medioventral process is developed".
Cenanges must key through couplet 56 of the key which says "no demarcated pronotal disc"
and couplet 66 "pronotum with an elevated disc bounded by sinuate carinae".


307












Florida Entomologist 65 (3)


KEY TO NEW WORLD GENERA OF CENCHREINI
1. Subantennal process of gena well developed ..... Cedusa Fowler
1'. Subantennal process of gena absent or very small ......._-- 2
2(1'). Lateral carinae of vertex pustulate; lateral pronotal carinae
and ventral margins of pronotum usually foliate, forming an
antennal fovea (except in Persis (Eritalaena) fuscinervis
M uir) ...-- . ... .... ... ... ...... 7
2'. Lateral carinae of vertex not markedly pustulate; antennal
fovea lacking -- ----- .------- --- --- 3
3(2'). Frons strongly laterally compressed, lateral carinae con-
tiguous (Fig. 9); head broadly rounded anteriorly in lateral
view (Fig. 10) -........ ...... ... ..---------------- 4
3'. Frons not laterally compressed, lateral carinae widely sep-
arated; vertex angulate with frons, head not rounded
anteriorly in lateral view --......-......-- .....-- .. .......-...... ..----------- 6
4(3). Anterior claval veins markedly pustulate; male with an-
tennae flattened and exceeding length of head .. Patara Westwood
4'. Anterior claval veins not pustulate; antennae shorter than
head ------.. ------.. 5
5 (4'). Cu2 connected to apex of clavus by crossvein (Fig. 2); in
frontal view pronotum 2 x or more wider than high (height
measured dorsoventrally from ventral most part of prono-
tum) (Fig. 3, 5, 7, 9) .--- Neodawnaria O'Brien, new genus
5'. Cu2 not connected to apex of clavus by crossvein; in frontal
view pronotum less than 2x as wide as high (Fig. 11, 13)
..-- -.. ..-- --.. .. ........................-................ ... D aw narioides D ozier
6(3'). Frons subrectangular; vertex without median carina
-------- ............... ......... Goneokarella Fennah
6'. Frons subtriangular; vertex with median carina
...... ................................... .............. Ipsnola Signoret
7(2). Frons moderately broad, flat or slightly convex in dorsal
view, not at all concave --- Oropuna Fennah or Herpis StAl ...---- 8
7'. Frons not as above -.._ Cenchrea Westwood, Contigucephalus
Caldwell, --.. Cenanges Fennah, Neocenchrea Metcalf, Persis
Stal, Omolicna Fennah, ..._ Anchimothon Fennah, or
Phaciocephalus Kirkaldy ....... ..-.- .. -........... -... .. 9
8(7). Frons with median carina; medioventral lobe of pygofer
rounded ...-.......--.... ---- ................... ..Herpis StAl
8'. Frons lacking median carina; medioventral lobe of pygofer
subquadrate .--............ .. .... ..__ Oropuna Fennah
9(7'). Lateral pronotal carinae and ventral lateral margins of
pronotum not foliately raised ............
-----.........----- Persis Stal subgenus (Eritalaena) Fennah
9'. Lateral pronotal carinae and ventral lateral margins lami-
nate, forming subantennal fovea ------..... .......... ---- ... 10
10(9'). Tegmina with subcostal cell short (not extending basad of
claval apex); frons very narrow; a fine transverse carina
between vertex and frons; pronotum with a distinct medial
disc bounded by carinae -.... ...-...-- -----------. ----..-- ..................... 11
10'. Tegmina with subcostal cell long, no demarcated pronotal disc 12


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O'Brien: Two Neotropical Derbid Genera


11(10). Medioventral process present on pygofer ..-... Cenchrea Westwood
11'. Medioventral process reduced --. --- Contigucephalus Caldwell
12(10'). Tegmina with Sc + R fork distad of Cu1 fork, latter about
level with union of claval veins .-......... ........ -- ... ..-. 13
12'. Tegmina with Sc + R fork basad of Cu1 fork, latter about
level with claval apex ........ ...................... 14
13(12). Tegmina with papillate portion of anterior margin equal to
smooth basal portion (node medial); pygofer with no medio-
ventral process ..----------------------------------------- Neocenchrea Metcalf
13'. Tegmina with papillate portion of anterior margin distinctly
shorter than smooth basal portion (node distad of middle);
pygofer with a medioventral process --.......................------------
-- .....--- -.....--........... Persis StAl subgenus Anapersis Fennah
14(12'). Apex of clavus distad of middle of tegmen -- -. 15
14'. Apex of clavus at middle of tegmen; head compressed, but
not linear; frons widest at distal border ...... Cenanges Fennah
15(14). Frons in middle line at least 3 times as long as broad at
widest part; anal segment of male very long and narrow .
.-------- .-- .----------.-- ------------Anchimothon Fennah
15'. Frons relatively shorter; anal segment of male not as above .._- 16
16(15'). Frons in middle line more than 2 times as long as broad at
widest part, tegmina with first M fork basad of claval apex
-------.-.-.----- -----.................. K r adPhaciocephalus Kirkaldy
16'. Frons in middle line less than 2 times as long as broad at
widest part, tegmina with first M fork at level of claval apex
-.. .----------- ---.. ----. -----------.-- ....... Omolicna Fennah


Dawnarioides Dozier
(Fig. 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16)
Dawnarioides Dozier. 1929: 1. (Type-species: sordidulus (Muir) (Cyclo-
kara), senior synonym of musae Dozier).

HISTORY: In 1911 Distant erected the genus Dawnaria for a species from
Burma. Muir erected Cyclokara for 2 species from Borneo in 1913, and
added C. sordidulum from Puerto Rico in 1918. Metcalf (1938) synonymized
Cyclokara with Dawnaria. Meanwhile, Dozier (1929) erected Dawnarioides
for his new species musae from Puerto Rico. Caldwell (1951) synonymized
D. musae with Dawnaria sordidula (Muir). I have seen both types from the
American Museum of Natural History and confirm this synonymy. Fennah
(1952) placed sordidulus in Dawnarioides. I agree with Fennah that the
tegminal venation is distinct enough to retain Dozier's genus Dawnarioides
based on illustrations of tegmina of the species of Dawnaria.
SALIENT FEATURES: Short bodied long winged cenchreine derbids, meas-
uring from 2.4-3.3 mm in body length, 4.5-7.0 mm in tegminal length. Head
scarcely visible in dorsal view. Vertex not pustulate, curving into frons.
Frons laterally compressed, lateral carinae contiguous, diverging at apex.
Gena lacking ocellus and subantennal fovea. Antennae small, not exceeding
length of face. Pronotum scarcely visible in dorsal view, large when viewed
frontally, not modified into antennal fovea. Mesonotum diamond shaped, a












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O'Brien: Two Neotropical Derbid Genera


little wider than long. Abdomen laterally compressed. Tegmina elongate,
slightly curved (longitudinally rolled when alive), most veins meeting at
acute angle. Anterior claval vein not pustulate. Clavus closed. Hind wing .35
length of tegmina.
The characters above apply to Neodawnaria as well as Dawnarioides
except for size. The characters in which they differ are as follows. In
Dawnarioides pronotum in frontal view less than 2 or more times as wide
as high (Fig. 11, 13); gena elongate, about as long as clypeus, with angulate
subantennal ridge (Fig. 12, 14); tegmen lacking cross vein between Cu2 and
claval suture, subcostal cell as broad as other cells (except costal), first M
fork behind middle of tegmen; the styles with rounded ventral projection as
well as dorsal projections; and aedeagus with many spines and spine shaped
membranous projections.

KEY TO SPECIES OF DAWNARIOIDES
1. Tegmina with white and grayish transverse bands; length less
than 7mm.; from Puerto Rico .......----------------------------- sordidulus (Muir)
Tegmina brown, with 5 pale incomplete transverse bands in fe-
male, very few in male; 7.5-8.5 mm.; from the Dominican Republic
S.. .....- ............ -...........---..-. ------ ------. ... hispaniolus, n.sp.
Dawnarioides sordidulus (Muir)
(Fig. 13, 14, 15)

Cyclokara sordidulum Muir 1918: 416
Dawnarioides musae Dozier 1929: 2
Dozier (1929) and Caldwell (Caldwell and Martorell 1951) each describe
and illustrate the wing pattern of this species.
MALE GENITALIA: Pygofer in ventral view medially angulate but lacking
medioventral lobe, with triangular dorsolateral projection; anal flap in
lateral view 1-1/2 times as long as wide, in dorsal view apex bilobed; styles
connected to each other ventrally by strap shown posterad of pygofer (Fig.
15) ; dorsal projection bipartite, anterior extension thin and curved, posterior
avicephaliform at apex; aedeagus with triangular lightly keratinized brace
and attached spine on dorsal surface of shaft (stippled in Fig. 15), keel on
left margin of shaft; 1 faintly sclerotized spine on each side posterad of keel,
flagellum with twisted sclerotized spatulate projection.
Caldwell and Martorell (1951) state that this species was found at 1500-
2950 feet in Puerto Rico. We collected many specimens in the high elevations


Fig. 1-15. 1) Tegmen of Dawnarioides hispaniolus O'Brien; 2) tegmen
of Neodawnaria jamaicensis O'Brien; 3) frontal view of N. woldai O'Brien;
4) lateral view of head N. woldai O'Brien; 5) frontal view of N. jamaicensis
O'Brien; 6) lateral view of head N. jamaicensis O'Brien; 7) frontal view of
N. hondurensis O'Brien; 8) lateral view of head N. hondurensis O'Brien;
9) frontal view of N. ecuadorensis O'Brien; 10) lateral view of head N.
ecuadorensis O'Brien; 11) frontal view of D. hispaniolus O'Brien; 12) lateral
view of head D. hispaniolus O'Brien; 13) frontal view of D. sordidulus
(Muir) ; 14) lateral view of head D. sordidulus; 15) lateral view of genitalia
of D. sordidulus (Muir).










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O'Brien: Two Neotropical Derbid Genera


of the Caribbean National Forest, both El Yunque and El Toro Negro
Divisions, but some specimens also were collected near Mayaquez and in
Carite, Guilarte, Maricao, and Rio Abajo Forest Reserves between 19-26
July 1979.
TYPE REPOSITORY: AMNH (both sordidulus and musae).
Dawnarioides hispaniolus O'Brien, NEW SPECIES
(Fig. 1, 11, 12, 16)
SALIENT FEATURES: Length: 7.5-8.5 mm. Body brown, margins of pro-
notum, apical margin of mesonotum, apex of mesonotum, legs, and posterior
margins of abdominal sternites pale. Clypeus and frons, dorsal carinae of
pronotum and area of pronotum surrounding head usually suffused with red.
Tegmina medium brown with costal cell pale with brown median streak,
areas along middle of claval suture, a partial transverse band behind apex
of clavus, a circular area between the 2 rows of transverse veins, and
stigmal cell pale. Apices of M and Cu veins in males red, edged with white
areas; in females veins may be reddish throughout with white areas larger
than in males. Male styles and anal segments red.
MALE GENITALIA: Medioventral lobe of pygofer roundly produced; anal
flap as long as broad in lateral view, not emarginate medially in dorsal view;
style with dorsal projection bipartite, posterior extension with truncate apex,
anterior sharply bent dorsad; aedeagal shaft and flagellum contiguous,
globose when combined, flagellum with pigmented spine on each side, several
unpigmented pointed membranous projections parallel to spines.
COMPARATIVE NOTES: This species may be separated from sordidulus by
its color, size, geographic distribution, and male genitalia.
TYPE DESIGNATION: Holotype 6 : DOM[INICAN] REP.[UBLIC]: La Vega, 23
km. SE. Jarabacoa, "May 25, 1978", C. W. and L. B. O'Brien and G. B.
Marshall. Allotype 9: DOM.[INICAN] REP.[UBLIC]: La Vega, 24 km. SE.
Constanza, "August 4, 1978", G. B. Marshall. Paratypes (3): DOM.[INICAN]
REP.[UBLIC], La Vega; 1 8, same data as holotype; 1 3, 18 km. E. El Rio,
10-VIII-1979, crest, cloud forest, C. W. O'Brien; 1 9, 19 km. E. El Rio,
cloud forest, 3-VIII-1979, G. B. Marshall. The first specimens collected were
found sweeping low shrubs in a cutover pasture in the mountainous resort
area between Jarabacoa and Constanza. The others were collected in small
patches of cloud forest left in horseshoe bends in high areas of the road
between Constanza and Santo Domingo.
TYPE REPOSITORY: LOB.
Neodawnaria O'Brien, NEW GENUS
(Fig. 2-10, 17-20)
(Type-species: Neodawnaria woldai O'Brien, n. sp., present designation)
Short bodied long winged cenchreine derbids, measuring from 1.4-3.0 mm


Fig. 16-22. 16) Lateral view of genitalia of Dawnarioides hispaniolus
O'Brien; 17) lateral view of genitalia of Neodawnaria ecuadorensis O'Brien;
18) lateral view of genitalia of N. woldai O'Brien; 19) lateral view of
genitalia of N. jamaicensis O'Brien; 20) dorsal view of aedeagus of N.
jamaicensis; 21) tegmen of Ipsnola sextuberculata Signoret; 22) frontal
view of head of I. sextuberculata.


313












Florida Entomologist 65 (3)


in body length, 3.8-6.6 mm in tegminal length. Head scarcely visible in dorsal
view. Vertex not pustulate, curving into frons. Frons laterally compressed,
lateral carinae contiguous, diverging at apex. Gena lacking ocellus and sub-
antennal fovea. Antennae small, not exceeding length of face. Pronotum
scarcely visible in dorsal view, large when viewed in frontal view, not modi-
fied into antennal fovea. Mesonotum diamond shaped, a little wider than
long. Abdomen compressed laterally. Tegmina elongate, slightly curved
(longitudinally rolled when alive), most veins meeting at acute angle. An-
terior claval vein not pustulate. Clavus closed. Hind wing 0.35 length of
tegmina.
The description above applies to Dawnarioides except for size. Neo-
dawnaria differs from Dawnarioides in the following: in Neodawnaria,
pronotum more than 2x as wide as high (height measured dorsoventrally
from ventral-most point of pronotum); genae oval; subantennal ridge usually
lacking, but straight if present (Fig. 10); tegmen with a crossvein from Cu2
to apex of claval suture; first M fork at middle of tegmen, subcostal cell
narrower than most other cells, sometimes shorter than in Dawnarioides;
pygofer lacking medioventral lobe, genital styles smooth ventrally without
a projection; aedeagus comparatively simple, having little more than a single
spine and a flagellum directed anterad.
The species of Neodawnaria may be separated by their present distribu-
tions, sizes, and color patterns, and by the shape of projections on the styles
and the shapes and spines of the aedeagi.

KEY TO SPECIES OF NEODAWNARIA
1. Larger than 5 mm; from South America or the West Indies ....... 2
1'. Smaller than 5 mm; from Central America ----------------------------.. 3
2(1). Tegmina yellow with transverse brown bands; 5.5-7.5 mm;
from the upper Amazon basin (1850 feet) of Ecuador ---
----------------------------- --... -- ... ------. ... .---..... ....- ..- ecuadorensis, n. sp.
2'. Tegmina pale brown; from Jamaica .....--------- jamaicensis, n. sp.
3(1'). Apex of tegmen, including veins, white; apex of scutellum pale
brown .. .........----------- ... .-....... .......... .... ..-.. w oldai, n. sp.
3'. Apex of tegmen, including veins, brown or red; apex of scutel-
lum white ... .......------------ hondurensis, n. sp.

Neodawnaria woldai O'Brien, NEW SPECIES
(Fig. 3, 4, 18)

SALIENT FEATURES: Length 3.1-4.4 mm. Body pale brown, abdomen darker.
Tegmina milky with 3 indistinct transverse smoky bands; anterior costal
margin red.
This species is named after Henk Wolda, the tropical ecologist, on whose
property the wing rolling of this species was observed.
MALE GENITALIA: Styles in lateral view with dorsal projection tripartite,
median lobe broadly rounded, others narrow; anal flap in lateral view as
wide as long, in posterior view apical margin emarginate; aedeagus globose,
with rotund flagellum, single lobate spine arising near base of flagellum on
left side.
COMPARATIVE NOTES: This is the smallest species in the genus to date and


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O'Brien: Two Neotropical Derbid Genera


also the palest. It can be separated from ecuadorensis by its size, from
jamaicensis by its color, and from hondurensis by its transversely banded
tegmina.
TYPE DESIGNATION: Holotype 8 and Allotype 9 : PANAMA: Las Cumbres,
"26-VI-1974," at light, C. W. and L. B. O'Brien & [G. B.] Marshall. Para-
types (31) 3 9, same as holotype, 1 9, 27-VI-1974, L. B. O'Brien, UV trap;
1 9, 21-XI-1973, 1 8, 1 9, 22-XI-1973, 1 9, 23-XI-1973, 1 9, 29-XI-1973,
2 9, 9-XII-1973, 1 9, 11-XII-1973, 1 9, 24-1-1974, 1 $, 28-III-1974, 1 9,
15-IV-1974, 1 9, 27-VI-1974, 1 (abdomen missing), 1-10-VIII-1976, all
H. Wolda, at lights. 6 mi. N. Panama City, 27-VI-1974, C. W. and L. O'Brien
and Marshall. CANAL ZONE: Fort Clayton, 2 $, 7 9, 8-15-IX-1978, N[ew]
J[ersey] light trap, H. J. Harlan. Fort Kobbe, 1 3, 3 9, 28-VIII-1971, N. J.
Lee. Specimens other than types: CANAL ZONE: Fort Gulick, 1 9, IX-1978,
1 9, X-1979, 2 9, III-1980, at light, H. J. Harlan; Fort Clayton, 1 9, 8-5-IX-
1978, N.J. light trap, H. J. Harlan. These latter were collected in alcohol
and their wings are twisted or torn and thus would make poor paratypes.
N. woldai has been collected on both sides of the continental divide in the
Canal Zone and in adjacent regions of Panama in cutover areas.
TYPE REPOSITORY: LOB. Paratypes in BMNH, CAS, and FSCA.
Neodawnaria jamaicensis O'Brien, NEW SPECIES
(Fig. 2, 5, 6, 19, 20)
SALIENT FEATURES: Length: 5.1-5.7 mm. Body pale brown. Tegmina pale
brown with darker brown veins; paler areas at wing tip (including veins),
near junction of claval veins, at apex of clavus, and apex of costa. Costal
margin, especially anteriorly, red.
MALE GENITALIA: Styles in lateral view with dorsal projection bipartite,
apex of distal extension rounded, proximal extension narrower than distal;
aedeagus longer than broad, partially surrounded by semicircular keratinized
band, flagellum narrowed into spinelike apex.
COMPARATIVE NOTES: This species is larger than N. woldai and N.
hondurensis. It lacks the transverse banding of woldai and N. ecuadorensis.
It differs from hondurensis in color and pattern; hondurensis has a pale
area in the brown suffusion in the subcostal cell which is lacking in
jamaicensis. N. jamaicensis is more golden brown and has a paler border
along the anterior and posterior margins of the pronotum and along the
median carina just behind the head. The single specimen of hondurensis is
concolorous on the pronotum.
TYPE DESIGNATION: Holotype & and Allotype 9: JAMAICA, Portland
P[arish], Somerset Falls, "Dec. 8, 1975," C. W. and L. O'Brien and [G. B.]
Marshall. Paratypes (8): 1 S, 4 9, same data; 1 8, 2 9, JAMAICA, Fair
Prospect, "17 April 1975," N. L. Woodiel (FSCA). The specimens from
Somerset Falls were collected on the north coast of Jamaica at an elevation
of a few hundred feet in luxuriant 2nd growth which was replacing a coco-
nut grove that had been destroyed.
TYPE REPOSITORY: LOB. Paratypes: BMNH, CAS, FSCA.
Neodawnaria ecuadorensis O'Brien, NEW SPECIES
(Fig. 9, 10, 17)
SALIENT FEATURES: Length: 6.4-7.4 mm. Pale yellow tegmina with white
anterior costal margin and 4 indistinct transverse brown bands, veins brown


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Florida Entomologist 65 (3)


or milky yellow, concolorous with background. Male with dark brown ab-
domen, genitalia and anal flap pale. Female with pale abdomen with a
median dorsal dark brown stripe. Gena with ridge under antenna that curves
smoothly into the fronto-clypeal suture (Fig. 10), ridge not angled and set
far away from the fronto-clypeal suture as in Dawnnarioides (Fig. 12, 14).
MALE GENITALIA: Styles in lateral view with apical projection bipartite,
proximal extension narrower than distal, apex of distal with each lateral
margin angularly produced; anal flap in lateral view 2 x as long as wide, in
dorsal view deeply emarginate for half its length; shaft of aedeagus elon-
gate, with dorsal projection just below flagellum; 2 spines at apex of shaft
of aedeagus, one very small, the other attached to right side of flagellum,
extending anterad beyond it.
COMPARATIVE NOTES: This species is the largest Neodawnaria known to
date and the most clearly patterned. The males have dark brown abdomens
and the females have a dorsal dark brown median stripe. No other species is
as contrastingly colored.
TYPE DESIGNATION: Holotype $ and Allotype 9 : ECUADOR: Naranjapata,
1850 F[ee]t. "Dec. 1922". F. X. Williams, Collector. Brit. Mus.[accession
number] 1970-521. Paratypes (4): ECUADOR 2 S and 2 9, same date as
holotype.
TYPE REPOSITORY: BMNH. Paratypes: BMNH, LOB.

Neodawnaria hondurensis O'Brien, NEW SPECIES
(Fig. 7, 8)
SALIENT FEATURES: Length: 5 mm. Head and thorax medium brown,
abdomen darker. Tegmina medium brown, darker suffusion in subcostal cell,
interrupted medially with paler area; darker suffusions also in 2nd R, cell
and between Y veins of clavus. Three paler oval areas at each side of and
proceeding 2nd R, cell. Veins of costal margin strongly red, some of apical
veins lightly red.
COMPARATIVE NOTES: This species most closely resembles jamaicensis (See
jamaicensis comparative notes). Neodawnaria woldai is smaller and its
tegmina are transversely banded.
TYPE DESIGNATION: Holotype 9: HONDURAS, Atl.[lantida], Lancetillo,
"Aug. 7, 1977," C. W. and L. B. O'Brien and [G. B.] Marshall. Lancetillo is a
botanical garden with both imported and native plants. It is at sea level on
the Caribbean coast of Honduras.
TYPE REPOSITORY: LOB.

WING-ROLLING OBSERVATIONS
Wing rolling was observed in Dawnarioides sordidulus in Puerto Rico,
D. hispaniolus in the Dominican Republic, and N. woldai in Panama. The
other species of Neodawnaria described here were not observed alive.
While these unusual derbids are resting, the tegmina are raised and
spread apart in a V above the body. Each tegmen is rolled into a longitudinal
cylinder with the costal and commissural margins nearly touching each other,
each tegmen encircling its hind wing which is similarly rolled. When the
insect dies, the wings slowly uncurl and remain nearly flat.
The tegminal venation in these derbids (Fig. 1, 2) differs markedly from


September, 1982


316












O'Brien: Two Neotropical Derbid Genera


other derbids in that the majority of cross veins form an acute angle rather
than a right angle with the longitudinal veins.
These species differ from other derbids in resting behavior as well as
venation. They are more often seen sitting on the tops of leaves or on ex-
posed vertical surfaces. Derbids of the tribe Derbini (Derbe, Mysidia, Sy-
midia, etc.) hold their wings out laterally, parallel to the leaf surface, and
commonly rest on the underside of the leaves of broad leaved plants such as
bananas and palms. Genera of the tribes Otiocerini (Anotia, Sayiana,
Apache, Shellenius, Otiocerus, etc.) and Cenchreini (Cedusa, Herpis, etc.)
hold their wings over their backs in a tectate position and I have seen them
sitting vertically on grass stems and corn stalks, head up. I postulate that
these are all adaptations to keep raindrops (or drops of condensing fog in
cloud forests) from sticking the derbid's fragile wings to the substrate.
Specimens of Persis sp., sitting with their heads up on grass stems, were not
disturbed during a heavy tropical rain and could fly immediately after the
shower when I brushed the grass. However, when swept up in a net, they
were immobilized by the wings sticking to the wet cloth or to wet leaves.
Apache, Shellenius, and Cedusa frequently drowned in the laboratory when
their wings became stuck to condensation on the walls of mason jars (S. W.
Wilson, pers. comm.). I have no proof that this would be a mortality factor
in the derbids under natural conditions, but D. L. Deonier rated heavy rain-
fall as the most important mortality factor in Hydrellia (Diptera: Ephy-
dridae). This was determined by the number of dying and dead insects stuck
to the leaves by their wings after a rain and by the fluctuations in trap
count which were correlated with heavy rain but not other factors examined
(Deonier, pers. comm.). In paper models of wings, a wing with the
Dawnarioides-Neodawnaria Y-junction venation has more rigidity when
curled than a right-angled junction type. I postulate this may be rigid
enuogh to prevent water from sticking the wings to a substrate.
To my knowledge, the only other insects that roll wings longitudinally are
some African moths, photographed but not named in a National Geographic
movie on the Baobab tree. Three families of insects roll wing tips only. An
orthopteran, Schizodactylus Brulle, rolls both fore and hind wing tips trans-
versely (Khattar 1972) and cupedid and sphaeriid beetles (Britton 1970)
roll hind wings only. These 3 have their wings folded at rest and when dead,
indicating a different mechanism than in the derbids.


CATALOG OF NEW WORLD CENCHREINI
NOTA BENE: The genus Cedusa is not included as it is currently being revised
(Flynn and Kramer, pers. comm.).
The figures in the last column refer to the volume and page of Metcalf's
catalogue (1936) where the genus may be found. The letters there indicate
where the author of the species said the type was deposited. There are 6
personal collections: Ball, EDB; Caldwell, JSC; Fennah, RGF; Osborn,
HO; O'Brien, LOB; and Van Duzee, EPVD. Ball's and Caldwell's collections
have gone to the U. S. National Museum (USNM); Osborn's has gone to
Ohio State University (OSU); Fennah and O'Brien retain theirs; and part
of Van Duzee's was sold to Iowa State College in 1897, and the rest given to
the California Academy of Sciences (CAS). Other repositories listed are













Florida Entomologist 65 (3)


The American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), British Museum
(Natural History) (BMNH), The Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard
(MCZ), and the New York Zoological Society (NYZS). Abbreviations are
not used for museums in Copenhagen, Paris, Stockholm, or Rio Piedras,
Puerto Rico.


Species found in the U.S. are proceeded by an asterisk.
Patara Westwood (type-species: guttata)
albida Westwood ....... ..... -. St. Vincent
cyanea Fennah 1952: 147 ...... .....- -Dominica
fumipennis Fennah 1952: 148 .. ..- St. Lucia
gausapata Fennah 1952: 149 ........-...... St. Vincent
guttata Westwood -...........- ........... St. Vincent
inermis Fennah 1952: 149 ......... St. Lucia
marmorata Fowler .... -... ...... ...---- - Guatemala
mimula Fennah 1952: 148 ......---- -- --
................... Dominica, St. Kitts, Nevis, Montserrat
unicornis Fennah 1952: 148 --.....--- .-..... St. Lucia
pakaraima Fennah 1952: 150 British Guiana
poeciloptera Fennah 1945: 448 ...... Trinidad
trigona Fennah 1945: 447 Trinidad
*vanduzei Ball ........ U.S. (NY)
vittatipennis Fennah 1945: 448 .... Trinidad


Neodawnaria O'Brien (type-species: woldai)
ecuadorensis O'Brien -...........
hondurensis O'Brien ---- ........
jamaicensis O'Brien ..
woldai O'Brien ..-- --


Ecuador
Honduras
Jamaica
Panama


Dawnarioides Dozier (type-species: sordidulus)
sordidulus Muir ...-.. -----------. Puerto Rico
=musae Dozier (teste Caldwell 1951: 198)
hispaniolus O'Brien -....-.~........... Dominican Republic

Goneokarella Fennah 1952: 142 (type-species: maculivenis)
maculivenis Fennah 1952: 142 .---------------- Argentina, Chile


4:96
BMNH
RGF
RGF
RGF
BMNH
RGF
BMNH

RGF
RGF
BMNH
USNM
USNM
EPVD
USNM


BMNH
LOB
LOB
LOB
4:94
AMNH
AMNH
LOB


BMNH


Ipsnola Signoret (type-species: sextuberculata)
sextuberculata Signoret .....----............ .


2:244
Chile Paris?


Herpis StAl (type-species: fuscovittata)
=Syntames Fowler (teste Caldwell 1944: 99)
albida (Metcalf) [Syntames] (teste Caldwell 1944: 100)
Panama
chiriquensis (Fowler( [Syntames] (teste Caldwell 1944:
100) ..-------- Panama
delicate (Fowler) [Syntames] (teste Caldwell 1944: 100)
-- Panama, Guatemala
fusca (Metcalf) [Syntames] (test "?" Caldwell 1944: 100)
------ ..-..- .------------ Panama
fuscovittata StAl .........-- .......--- ......---... -. Brazil
serrata (Metcalf) 1945: 129 [Syntames] .. British Guiana


4:117
4:101

MCZ

BMNH

BMNH

MCZ
Stockholm
NYZS


September, 1982


318












O'Brien: Two Neotropical Derbid Genera


sufflava (Muir) [Syntames] (teste Caldwell 1944: 100) ...
-..-.-. --- ----------------------- British Guiana
vittata Fabricius [Flata] ...... ...----------- S. America
Oropuna Fennah 1952: 136 (type-species: minutianus)
minutiana (Caldwell) 1944: 102 [Phaciocephalus]
--------------- Guatemala, Mexico

Cenchrea Westwood (type-species: dorsalis)
bipunctata (Muir) [Phaciocephalus] (teste Fennah 1952:
132) ----...............---......- British Guiana
dorsalis Westwood .........------...... St. Vincent
exquisite Uhler ....--------............. St. Vincent
sororia Fennah 1952: 131 ....- Trinidad, Venezuela
sexguttata Fennah 1952: 132 ---- British Guiana

Cenanges Fennah 1952: 132 (type-species: spectralis)
spectralis Fennah 1952: 133 .--.. Dominica
Contigucephalus Caldwell 1944: 101 (type-species: rubra-
venosus)
rubravenosus Caldwell 1944: 101 ---- Costa Rica
Neocenchrea Metcalf (type-species: heidemanni)
bakeri (McAtee) [Cenchrea] ......... ... ........... Mexico
*heidemanni (Ball) [Cenchrea] ........ U.S. (KS, DC)
mero Fennah 1952: 137 ..............------------ Trinidad
ochracea Metcalf 1945: 128 ..- British Guiana
pallida Metcalf ..............--------- Panama

Persis Stil (type-species: pugnax Stbl)
(Persis)
fabriciana Metcal (n.n. for Cicada lineata Fabr.) .....-.
.............. -----------South America
foveatis Caldwell 1944: 106 ...-- ..-... Mexico
novacula Fennah 1952: 140 -.. ...... Trinidad
pugnax Stal --............. ....----- Rio de Janeiro
stali Muir ....----- British Guiana, Dutch Guiana
(Anapersis) Fennah 1952: 140 (type-species: gregaria)
gregaria Fennah 1945: 443 [Neocenchrea] ....
...-- Trinidad, St. Vincent, Grenada, St. Lucia
pallescens (Metcalf) [Neocenchrea] (teste Fennah 1952:
141 ..--. ..... .. ..-... -----.~.-.......-.. ... .. Panama
spreta (Fowler) [Mysidia (?)] ...... .- Mexico
(Eritalaena) Fennah 1952: 142 (type-species: fuscinervis)
fuscinervis Muir ....--. ---------- British Guiana

Omolicna Fennah 1945: 440 (type-species: proxima)
anastomosis Caldwell 1944: 104 (teste Caldwell 1951: 201)
-----.--------- ..................-... --------------Guatem ala
brunnea (McAtee) [Cenchrea] (teste Caldwell 1951: 201)
............ -------Mexico, Panama, Guatemala
cubana (Myers) [Phaciocephalus] (teste Fennah 1952: 136)


HO
Copenhagen



JSC
4:104

HO
BMNH
BMNH?
BMNH
BMNH


RGF



OSU
4:103
USNM
?
RGF
NYZS
?

4: 90


Copenhagen
JSC
RGF
Stockholm
HO


USNM

MCZ
BMNH

HO



JSC

USNM


319












Florida Entomologist 65 (3)


----- -- ..... ... Cuba ?
dominicana Fennah 1952: 135 .. ---- Dominica RGF
dubia Caldwell 1944: 105 (teste Caldwell 1951: 201) .....-
-----------... .. ............. M exico JSC
*fulva (Van Duzee) [Cenchrea] (teste Fennah 1952: 136)
-------- ..----- -....-..-.---. U.S. (FL) CAS
latens Fennah 1952: 136 ........ ............ .............. Trinidad RGF
*mcateei (Dozier) [Cenchrea] (teste Caldwell 1951: 201) ....
-. --. --- ..................... ...... ... U .S. (M S) ?
nero Fennah 1971: 327 ...... Grand Cayman BMNH
nigripennis Caldwell 1944: 103 (teste Caldwell 1951: 201)
---- ------.......................... M exico JSC
var. flavipennis Caldwell 1944: 104 ....-... -- Mexico JSC
proxima Fennah 1945: 441 .... ... Trinidad, Venezuela USNM
puertana Caldwell 1951: 201
-..--. ...... Puerto Rico, Vieques Is., St. Thomas JSC
puncta Caldwell 1944: 104 (teste Caldwell 1951: 201) .
-.- ---------.....- ----- .- Mexico JSC
quadrispinosa Caldwell 1944: 103 (teste Caldwell 1951:
201) ... ....-- -- --- .. Guatemala, Mexico JSC
rubrimarginata Fennah 1945: 442 .....- Trinidad USNM
tarco Fennah 1971: 325 ........-- .. Cayman Brac BMNH
texanaa Caldwell 1944: 103 (teste Caldwell 1951: 201) .
-.---------....----- ---U.S. (TX) OSU
triata Caldwell 1944: 103 (teste Cadwell 1951: 201) ......
--- -.---------- Br. Honduras JSC
*uhleri (Ball) [Cenchrea] teste Caldwell 1951: 201) ......
-....... -U.S. (DC, MD, KS) EDB
Anchimothon Fennah 1952: 137 (type-species: parishi)
parish (Muir) [Phaciocephalus] ......... British Guiana HO
Phaciocephalus Kirkaldy (type-species: vitiensis, Fiji Islands) 4:107
fimbriolatus (Stal) [Herpis] .-................... ............ Brazil Stockholm
orbus (StAl) [Herpis] .. ..... .... .. ... Brazil Stockholm
pallidovenosus (StAl) [Herpis] ... Brazil Stockholm

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I wish to thank Prof. D. Keith McE. Kevan, McGill University, for
supplying me with information and reprints on Schizodactylus monstrosus
(Drury). I wish also to thank Dr. R. T. Schuh (AMNH) for the loan of the
types of Cyclokara sordidulum and Dawnarioides musae, Dr. W. J. Knight
(BMNH) for the loan of the specimens from Ecuador, and Dr. Frank W.
Mead (FSCA) for the loan of specimens,from Jamaica. This research was
supported in part by a research program (FLAX 79009) of the SEA/CR,
USDA.

REFERENCES CITED
(Following the custom in auchenorrhynchous Homoptera, only the
fulgoroid papers since Metcalf's catalog will be cited.)


320


September, 1982












O'Brien: Two Neotropical Derbid Genera


BRITTON, E. B. 1970. Coleoptera (Beetles). Pages 495-621 in The insects of
Australia. Melbourne University Press. 1029 p.
CALDWELL, J. S. 1944. The tribe Cenchreini with special reference to the
Cenchrea complex (Homoptera, Derbidae). Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc.
39: 99-110.
AND L. F. MARTORELL. 1951. Review of the Auchenorhynchous [sic]
Homoptera of Puerto Rico. Part II. The Fulgoroidea except Kin-
naridae. J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico, 1950 (1951), 34: 133-269.
FENNAH, R. G. 1945. The Fulgoroidea, or lanternflies, of Trinidad and ad-
jacent parts of South America. Proc. United States Nat. Museum 95:
411-520.
-- 1950. A generic revision of the Achilidae (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea)
with descriptions of new species. Bull. British Museum (Nat. Hist.).
Ent. 1: 1-170.
1952. On the generic classification of Derbidae (Fulgoroidea), with
descriptions of new neotropical species. Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London
103: 109-70.
1971. Fulgoroidea from the Cayman Islands and adjacent areas.
J. Nat. Hist. 5: 299-342.
KHATTAR, N. 1972. A description of the adult and nymphal stages of
Schizodactylus monstrosus (Drury) (Orthoptera). J. Nat. Hist. 6:
589-650.
METCALF, Z. P. 1936. General Catalogue of the Hemiptera. Fascicle IV
Fulgoroidea. Part 2 Cixiidae. 269 p.
---. 1945. General Catalogue of the Hemiptera. Fascicle IV Fulgoroidea.
Part 4 Derbidae. 212 p.




SMINTHURUS FISCHERI, NEW SPECIES
FROM GEORGIA (COLLEMBOLA: SMINTHURIDAE)
RICHARD J. SNIDER1
The Institute of Ecology
University of Georgia
Athens, GA 30602 USA

ABSTRACT
A new species, Sminthurus (Sminthurus) fischeri Snider, is described
from Georgia. This species is closely allied to Sminthurus banksi Christian-
sen and Bellinger, and Sminthurus butcheri Snider, but can be separated on
the basis of color pattern, presence of 2 corner teeth on the meta-unguiculus,
absence of apical bulb on ANT. IV, number of antennal subsegments, and
setal lengths related to the unguis. The type locality is Hart County, Georgia.
Specimens were taken from leaf litter.

RESUME
Se describe una nueva especie de Georgia, Sminthurus (Sminthurus)
fisher Snider. Esta especie estd intimamente relacionada con Sminthurus
banksi Christian y Bellinger, y con Sminthurus butcheri Snider, pero puede

1Mailing address: Department of Zoology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI
48824 USA.












322 Florida Entomologist 65 (3) September, 1982

ser separada en base al patron de coloraci6n, la presencia de dos dientes
externos en el meta-unguiculus, la ausencia de bulbo apical en el cuarto
segment antenal, el nlimero de sub-segmentos de la antena, y la longitud de
las setas en relaci6n con el unguis. La localidad del tipo es el condado de
Hart, Georgia. Los ejemplares fueron encontrados en hojarasca.


Recently I have been collecting and studying the Collembola of the
southeastern United States. A surprising number of new species in the
family Sminthuridae have turned up in samples taken from grass and low
vegetation. The purpose of this paper is to describe a new species from forest
leaf litter in north Georgia.

Sminthurus fischeri Snider, NEW SPECIES
COLOR AND PATTERN ( ) : (Fig. 1-2). Background white. Color distributed
as polygons. Head with rubiginous dorso-median stripe extending from be-
hind eyepatches to frons, ending in line with bases of antennae; rubiginous
stripe originating posterior to eyepatch, becoming dark purple as it extends
to labrum; oral area yellowish; base of antenna surrounded with dark
purple, antennal segment I dark purple, segments II and III lighter, darker
distally, segment IV dark. Body with dark purple dorso-medial stripe orig-
inating at anterior of abdomen and extending 3/4 its length; rubiginous and
purple paramedial stripe originating on thoracic segment I and ending near
medial stripe; laterally with irregular stripe beginning at base of mesocoxa
and extending diagonally behind dorsal stripe, appearing as a broad "V"
dorsally; postero-lateral areas with purple maculae; abdominal segment V
with dorsal macula, base of bothriotrichum D surrounded with purple; ab-
dominal segment VI with broad dorsal macula, and latero-ventral spot. Legs
with irregular purple maculae and lighter purple dusting. Furcula white
with purple inner base ridges (Fig. 1-2).
HEAD: Eyes 8 + 8 with dark pigment; ocelli D and C 1/2 diameter of A and
B (Fig. 3). Antennal segment ratio 1:2:3:8; ANT IV with 19-20 subseg-



















view; 2) dorsal view.










Snider: Sminthurus fischeri


S14 \
/ \












120 135














/ T 7 2 8.

Fig. 3-18. Sminthurus (Sminthurus) fischeri n. sp. 3) Ocellar pattern,
left side; 4) ANT IV; 5) ANT III; 6) Detail of ANT III organ and setae;
7) ANT II; 8) ANT I; 9) Setal pattern of frons, arrows indicate anterior
oval organs, posterior dotted; 10) Procoxa; 11) Protrochanter; 12)
Profemur; 13) Mesocoxa; 14) Mesotrochanter; 15) Mesofemur; 16)
Metacoxa; 17) Metatrochanter; 18) Metafemur.


323













Florida Entomologist 65(3)


ments, apical papilla, sense rods and no bulb, subsegments with or without
fine setulae in the following distribution: I and XIX with none; II-VII, IX,
XII with 1; VIII, X-XI, XIII-XVIII with 2 (Fig. 4); ANT III with 8 heavy,
outstanding setae (Fig. 5), subapical sensillae in deep invagination, acces-
sory seta short, lanceolate and lying in shallow depression (Fig. 6); ANT II
with 4 ventral setulae (Fig. 7); ANT I with 3 fine distal setae and 3 dorsal
setae (Fig. 8). Interocular cephalic setae A-G typical of genus, seta D small,
lanceolate and ciliated; rows F and G spine-like; 2 unpaired frontal setae.
Frons with 2 oval organs near antennal base, 1 close to seta D, other in line
with seta A, a 3rd located on lower frons in line with 2nd unpaired frontal
seta; 3 posterior oval organs forming right triangle on lower gena (Fig. 9).
BODY: Forecoxa with 1 seta and no oval organ (Fig. 10); trochanter with 3
anterior and 2 posterior setae (Fig. 11); femur with anterior oval organ, 9
anterior and 7 posterior setae (Fig. 12). Mesocoxa with oval organ and 3
setae (Fig. 13); trochanter with 2 oval organs, 5 anterior and 1 posterior
setae (Fig. 14) ; femur with 1 posterior oval organ, 2 posterior setulae (Fig.
15). Metacoxa with oval organ, 4 setae (Fig. 16) ; trochanter with 2 anterior
oval organs, 5 anterior and 1 posterior setae (Fig. 17); femur with 1 pos-
terior oval organ and 2 setulae (Fig. 18); anterior surface of tibiotarsus
with 1 subapical pseudopore, AE file with 9 setae, AL file with 8 setae (AL.
missing), AI file with 8 setae (AI, missing), seta E3 1.50-1.79x as long as
outer edge of unguis, seta AI2 0.75-0.83x as long as outer edge of unguis
(Fig. 19); posterior surface with 4 pseudopores near external edge, PI file
with 8 setae (PI, missing), L file with 5 seta (L2 and L4 missing), tenent
hairs acuminate (Fig. 20). Pretarsus with anterior and posterior setulae;
unguis with tunica and anterior and posterior pseudonychia, with 2 basal
outer teeth, small inner tooth; unguiculus with 2 corner teeth on meso- and
metatarsi, lacking on fore-tarsus, subapical filament tapering, meta-
unguiculus ca. 5 times (4.4-6.0) as long as its filament (Fig. 21-23). Collop-
phore with 1 + 1 subapical anterior setae, 1 + 1 lateral setae, sacs warty
(Fig. 24). Corpus of tenaculum with 4-5 setulae, ramus with 3 teeth (Fig.
25-26). Manubrium with 8 + 8 dorsal setae, 1 + 1 ventral (Fig. 27). Dens
with seta Id, present, seta Ve, 0 + 1, otherwise typical for genus (Fig.
28-29). Mucro with wavy outer edge, inner edge with 9-14 teeth, outer edge
2.6-3.2 times length of its seta (Fig. 30). Female circumanal setae Ao-3, P
and Q typical for genus (Fig. 31); subanal appendage acuminate, strongly
curved in lateral view, gladiform in ventral view (Fig. 32-33); bothriotri-
chum D slightly longer than accompanying VN seta (Fig. 34). Body setae
spinelike (Fig. 35). Length 1.0-1.25 mm.
DIAGNOSIS: Sminthurus fischeri Snider keys out nearest to Sminthurus fitchi
(Folsom) and Sminthurus packardi (Folsom) in Stach (1956). In Christian-
sen and Bellinger (1981) it is identified closest to Sminthurus butcheri
Snider and Sminthurus banksi Christiansen and Bellinger. Separation from
S. fitchi and S. packardi is based on the meta-unguicular filament; both of
those species have filaments 0.4 or more times as long as the unguiculus.
Sminthurus fischeri has a filament length of less than 0.3 (0.17-0.22). How-
ever, key separation of S. banksi and S. butcheri is based on the relative
length of the mucronal seta to the length of the mucro: for, S. banksi it is
0.15-0.35, for S. butcheri it is 0.40-0.50, and for Sminthurus fischeri it is
0.31-0.36. Clearly, this character will not always separate these 3 species.


September, 1982


324











Snider: Sminthurus fischeri 325



A ) A7 \ -
A- / AL Al E -
S //8 '\ y






>'2 44
E 5 AE PL 22.
S ,1

35.

/ai o n u 23)0 P e t 24
Al, 29.




/ 0\ /l / .

25. f 30


L 27 2 7










30)l o; 31uB VI o f eleg, F aet su bnlu p e, ven'a
view 33) Female suba26.nal appendage, lateral view; 34) Bothriotrichum D







complex, right side; 35) Bod seta of 35.great abdomen drawn to same scale as
28. 293



S32. -; -

34
S33. ^331.
Fig. 19-35. Sminthurus (Sminthurus) fischeri n. sp. 19) Metatibia, an-
terior view; 20) Metatibia, posterior view;, 21) Metaleg, claw; 22) Metaleg,
detail of unguiculus; 23) Proleg, detail of unguiculus; 24) Collophore, an-
terior view; 25) Corpus of retinaculum, atypical; 26) Retinaculum, normal;
27) Manubrial setae; 28) Dens, left dorsal view; 29) Dens, left ventral view;
30) Mucro; 31) ABD VI of female; 32) Female subanal appendage, ventral
view; 33) Female subanal appendage, lateral view; 34) Bothriotrichum D
complex, right side; 35) Body seta of great abdomen drawn to same scale as
Fig. 31.











Florida, Entomologist 65 (3)


Sminthurus fischeri can easily be distinguished from S. banksi and S.
butcheri by its characteristic striped color pattern. The latter 2 species have
scattered mosaic patches or mottled configurations on the body. Further, the
following morphological characteristics will separate the 3 species:
S. fischeri S. banksi S. butcher
apical bulb of ANT IV absent bulb present weak bulb
apical papilla of ANT IV present papilla absent papilla absent
ANT IV with 19 subsegments 14-17 17-18
strong pseudonychia absent fine
seta E, 1.50-1.79 times as long E3 1.50-1.80 E3 1.10-1.40
as outer edge of unguis
seta AI2 0.75-0.83 times as long AI2 1.10-1.30 AI2 1.05-1.20
as outer edge of unguis
unguiculus with 2 corner teeth 1 corner tooth 1 corner tooth
Because the type material was unavailable, Christiansen and Bellinger
(1981) did not include the 3 southeastern species described by D. L. Wray
from North Carolina. They are: Sminthurus virginidari Wray (1948),
Sminthurus yonahlossee Wray (1948), and Sminthurus adamsi Wray (1967).
Color pattern and unguicular morphology will separate them from S. fischeri.
It is my pleasure to name this colorful species for Dr. Roland L. Fischer
of Michigan State University, who encouraged me to begin the study of
Collembola almost 25 years ago.
TYPES: Holotype (9), allotype ($) and 17 paratypes in alcohol; 7 para-
types on slides. Holotype, allotype and 22 paratypes deposited in the
Entomology Museum, Michigan State University; 2 paratypes in alcohol
deposited in the Entomology Museum, the University of Georgia at Athens.
Collection data: Georgia, Clarke County, Athens, UGA Botanical Gardens,
riparian forest, leaf litter, "November 10, 1980"; Hart County, Hartwell
Lake, forest leaf litter, "April 26, 1981", Richard J. Snider, collector.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Thanks are offered to Dr. D. A. Crossley, Jr. and the Department of
Entomology, University of Georgia at Athens for the use of facilities. Also,
thanks are extended to Mr. Steven J. Loring, Department of Zoology at
Michigan State University, for his review of morphological characteristics,
and Dr. Peter F. Bellinger of California State University, Northridge, for
his review and suggestions.

REFERENCES CITED
CHRISTIANSEN, K. A., AND P. F. BELLINGER. 1981. The Collembola of North
America North of the Rio Grande, Part IV. Families Neelidae and
Sminthuridae. Grinnell College, Grinnell, Iowa: 1043-322.
STACH, J. 1956. The Apterygotan Fauna of Poland in Relation to the World-
Fauna of this Group of Insects, Family: Sminthuridae. Polska
academia Nauk, 287 p.
WRAY, D. L. 1948. Some new species and varieties of Collembola from North
Carolina. Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 43: 44-53.
WRAY, D. L. 1967. Some new North American Collembola. Entomol. News.
78: 227-32.


326


September, 1982













Meyerdirk & Hart: Auchenorrhyncha on Palms


SURVEY OF AUCHENORRHYNCHA
(INSECTA: HOMOPTERA) ASSOCIATED WITH THE
CANARY ISLAND DATE PALM IN SOUTHERN TEXAS

D. E. MEYERDIRK AND W. G. HART
Citrus Insects Research, USDA, ARS
Weslaco, TX 78596 USA

ABSTRACT
A survey of the Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta: Homoptera) associated with
the Canary Island date palm Phoenix canariensis Hort. ex Chab., in southern
Texas was conducted. Twenty-eight species were collected by various means:
a yellow sticky trap, a trap consisting of a frond coated with a tacky ma-
terial, vacuum samples, and visual collections. Myndus crudus Van Duzee,
a suspected vector of lethal yellowing of coconut palms in Florida, was
collected and is a new record for Texas. The most abundant species collected
was Oliarus acicus Caldwell. Oliarus aridus Ball also was collected. All 3
species belong to the Family Cixiidae and are implicated as potential vectors
of lethal yellowing of Canary Island date palms in Texas.

RESUME

El el sur de Tejas (USA) se hizo un reconocimiento para determinar la
presencia de vectores potenciales del amarillamiento letal, enfermedad
asociada con organismos micoplasmoides que infectan ciertas species de
palmeras. Empleando various metodos, se encontraron 28 species de insects
hom6pteros auquenorrincos asociados con la palmer detilera de las Islas
Canarias, Phoenix canariensis Hort. ex Chab. Dichos m6todos incluyeron la
trampa amarilla pegajosa, la trampa al vacio, hojas de palmer con sub-
stancia pegajosa y colecciones manuales.
Myndus crudus Van Duzee, vector implicado en el amarillamiento letal
de cocoteros en el estado de Florida, fue identificado en este studio y rep-
rescnta un nuevo record para el estado de Tejas. La especie hallada con
mis abundancia fue Oliarus acicus pero tambien se identific6 Oliarus aridus
en las colecciones. Las tres species descritas representan posibles vectores
del amarillamiento letal de P. canariensis en Tejas.


A disease of the Canary Island date palm, Phoenix canariensis Hort. ex
Chabaud, and the true date palm, P. dactylifera L., was first detected in the
Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas in mid-1978 (Miller et al. 1980). The
disease at that time was concentrated in the Brownsville area, but within
4 years spread westward to La Feria, ca. 45 km, killing thousands of palms.
The disease was first identified in Texas by McCoy et al. (1980) who has
discussed the symptomology and etiology in detail. They described the
probable causative agent, found in the phldem sieve elements, as a micro-
plasma-like organism (MLO) believed to be the same agent known to cause
lethal yellowing (LY) of palms. Death of the palm occurs ca. 4 months from
the initial onset of the symptoms (Fig. 1).
LY has been reported to attack 26 palm species in Florida, including the
economically important coconut palm, Cocos nucifera L. (Thomas 1979).
This disease has been reported in Jamaica, Cuba, Cayman Island, Haiti,


327









Florida Entomologist 65 (3)


A inj


4


B
'^'^ s23
*& a"


y ^ ..:*

*^ . *
C~


~i* ..
~f~q~` ~ ^"
~~iles,~
a~~ L* ,._,,4*JU~"dBW"OI*"""


Fig. 1. Canary Island date palms-A: healthy; B: dying from lethal
yellowing disease. The taller interspersed palms are Washingtonia sp. palms
and appear resistant to the lethal yellowing disease.


328


September, 1982


R~a~rt~-~E~


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l;-*.****












Meyerdirk & Hart: Auchenorrhyncha on Palms


Dominican Republic, Nassau (Bahama Islands), Togo, Ghana, and Cameroon
(Leach 1946, Dollet et al. 1977, Romney 1972).
Myndus crudus Van Duzee, a planthopper, is a suspected insect vector of
LY in coconut palms (Tsai 1975). Initial attempts to transmit the disease
by the planthopper were not successful (Tsai 1977, 1980), but transmission
of MLO to Manila palm, Veitchia merrillii (Becc.) H. E. More, was recently
accomplished (Howard and Thomas 1980). Myndus crudus feeds as nymphs
and adults on roots in the thatch layer of at least 8 different plant species,
including St. Augustine grass and Bermuda grass (Eden-Green and
Schuiling 1976, Tsai and Kirsch 1978). Adults also feed on many species of
palm trees (Howard and Mead 1980, Reinert 1977). Howard (1981) has
shown that M. crudus is attracted to ornamental date palms as well as to
coconut palms in Florida.
Myndus crudus was reportedly abundant on coconut palms in Jamaica
(Schuiling and Johnson 1973) and in Florida (Woodiel 1976). The geo-
graphical distribution of M. crudus is extensive in the Neotropics and in-
cludes northern South America, Central America, Mexico, West Indies, and
the United States which was restricted to Florida alone (Kramer 1979).
The purpose of this investigation was to survey the Auchenorrhyncha
associated with the Canary Island date palm in the LY affected area of
Texas in search of potential vectors of this disease.


METHODS AND MATERIALS
Past survey techniques for collecting M. crudus have included the use of
rotary flight traps (Woodiel and Tsai 1978) and use of adhesives applied
either to the surface of palm leaves (Howard and Hutchinson 1977), or to
plastic squares fixed to the leaves (Howard 1980). In this project several
traps were used. A yellow sticky trap coated with Tack Trap@, as described
by Harlan et al. (1979), was modified by adding a flourescent yellow pig-
ment to the plastic. These traps were placed 5-7 m high within the crowns of
Canary Island date palms with a 6.1 m extension pole equipped with a re-
lease clip (Fig. 2). Traps were fastened to a wire clip designed to snap over
the palm frond's mid rib near the base of the frond and removed with a hook
attached to another extension pole. Fourteen trap sites, ca. 8 km apart, were
selected along Expressway 83. This highway served as a transect line
through the Lower Rio Grande Valley, extending ca. 97 km from Brownsville
to McAllen, TX. The Canary Island date palm usually had been interplanted
with Washingtonia spp. Four to 5 trees had a trap at each site totaling 48
trees at 10 sites.
The second trap was a cut, mature date palm frond, 1 m long, coated with
Tack Trap@. A rope tied to the base of the frond allowed it to be hoisted up
the tree, using a frond clip for a pulley. The frond was secured within the
center of the tree canopy. Two traps/sitewere hung in separate trees at 5
different locations within heavily diseased areas of the Valley. Traps were
changed every 2 weeks from February through July, 1980.
Live specimens also were collected on small palms 0.6-2.0 m in trunk
height either with aspirators during visual survey or with a D-Vac suction
sampler.


329








Florida Entomologist 65 (3)


Ii


1)'


A B C



Fig. 2. Sampling equipment. A: extension pole with clamp and release
latch used for trap placement; B: yellow sticky trap attached to wire clip;
and C: extension pole with hook for trap removal.






^.~~sSSSS, "' '^"st(t^^^'^"'^
'f V, "*""^ -J^"' ^


Fig. 3. Myndus crudus Van Duzee, male.


330


September, 1982













Meyerdirk & Hart: Auchenorrhyncha on Palms


TABLE 1. AUCHENORRHYNCHA (INSECTA: HOMOPTERA) TRAPPED OR VISUALLY
COLLECTED FROM CANARY ISLAND DATE PALMS IN THE LOWER RIO
GRANDE VALLEY OF TEXAS.


Family

Cixiidae


Delphacidae
Cicadellidae


Species


Myndus crudus Van Duzee
Oliarus acicus Caldwell
Oliarus aridus Ball
Delphacodes sp.
Aceratagallia sp.
Agallia sp.
Balclutha hebe (Kirkaldy)
Carneocephala sagittifera (Uhler)
Draeculacephala product (Walker)
Empoasca sp.
Exitianus exitiosus (Uhler)
Graminella sp.
Graminella sonora (Ball)
Graphocephala versuta (Say)
Limotettix sp.
Macrosteles fascifrons (StAl)
Norvellina sp.
Ollarianus sp.
Osbornellus sp.
Opsius stactogalus Fieber
Paraphlepsius sp.
Planicephalus flavocostatus (Van Duzee)
Ponana sp.
Scaphytopius sp.
Stragania sp.
Stirellus bicolor (Van Duzee)
Xerophloea viridis (Fab.)
Xestocephalus sp.


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Twenty-eight species of Auchenorrhyncha, belonging to the families
Cixiidae, Delphacidae and Cicadellidae, were collected and identified (Table
1). Most of the species may not have been feeding or ovipositing on the
Canary Island date palm, but arther were flying through the trap area, or
seeking shelter. Myndus crudus (Fig. 3) and Oliarus acicus Caldwell (Fig.
4) were the only 2 species observed piercing the plant as if in a feeding be-
havior.
The collection of M. crudus in Texas is a new state record, although it
occurs in Veracruz, Mexico (Kramer 1979), and Florida (Howard and
Thomas 1980). How the disease was introduced into Texas is not known. It
may have been introduced by means of importing infected palms, or the
accidental introduction of infected M. crudus, or another vector.
Myndus crudus has been found at only one of the collection sites in San
Benito at extremely low population levels. Only 1 to 3 individuals could be
found at any one time on 3 small ornamental date palms alongside an arroyo.


331








Florida Entomologist 65 (3)


September, 1982


r
T W-

50t
O P


O
Fig. 4. Oliarus acicus Caldwell, male.
This limited distribution of this planthopper is puzzling in view of the rapid
spread of the disease over 64 km during the last few years. Possibly, LY
was spread several years ago, when populations of M. crudus were more
abundant and symptoms were not expressed until recently, or another vector
may be present. The incubation period of LY in young coconut palms in







'.5.. ". VIi
~,~Mt
1*~ sw-jl'g9


"" r" FI -"


'I
.at -
a


I,
am


0
Fig. 5. Oliarus aridus Ball, female.


332












Meyerdirk & Hart: Auchenorrhyncha on Palms


Jamaica is 114-191 days (Dabek 1975). Romney (1972) indicated an incu-
bation period for LY in coconuts in Jamaica of 230-450 days. The incubation
period in the date palm has not yet been determined.
Species in the genus Oliarus are known vectors of MLO related diseases.
Oliarus atkinsoni Myers is a reported vector of "yellow leaf" disease of New
Zealand flax, Phormium tenax Forst., (Cumber 1952) which is a MLO asso-
ciated disease (Ushiyama et al. 1969). Oliarus acicus was the most abundant
species found throughout the diseased area in the Valley. The range of O.
acicus Caldwell is the southwestern border area of the United States and
parts of northern Mexico (Mead 1968). Only a few specimens of Oliarus
aridus Ball (Fig. 5) were visually found and aspirated at 2 trap locations in
south Texas. Oliarus acicus, 0. aridus and M. crudus belong to the Family
Cixiidae which contains species which are commonly found feeding in the
phloem tissue where the MLO persists. Future investigations should be
directed toward determining whether any of these 3 species are true vectors
of LY of the Canary Island date palm in Texas. The MLO agent has not
yet been isolated and cultured in the laboratory from the vector or plant
which makes it extremely difficult to confirm the vector-plant relationships
of these planthoppers.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We gratefully appreciate the identification of the Auchenorrhyncha by
Dr. J. P. Kramer, Insect Identification and Beneficial Insect Introduction In-
stitute, USDA, Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD; and Dr. F. W.
Mead, Florida Department of Agriculture, Gainesville. Some Auchenor-
rhyncha were not identified to species because of their poor condition after
being removed from traps, lack of numbers or lack of males. We thank Drs.
J. H. Tsai and F. W. Howard, University of Florida, Agricultural Research
Center, Fort Lauderdale, for their assistance and useful suggestions. Men-
tion of proprietary products does not constitute endorsement by the USDA.

REFERENCES CITED
CUMBER, R. A. 1952. Studies on Oliarus atkinsoni Myers (Hem: Cixiidae),
vector of the "yellow-leaf" disease of Phormium tenax Forst. New
Zealand J. Sci. Technol. 34: 92-8.
DABEK, A. J. 1975. The incubation period, rate of transmission and effect
on growth of coconut lethal yellowing disease in Jamaica. Phytopath.
Z. 84: 1-9.
DOLLET, M., J. GIANOTTI, J. L. RENARD, and S. K. GHOSH. 1977. Etude d'un
jaunissement 16thal des cocotiers au Cameroun: la maladie de Kribi.
Observaciones d'organismes de type mycoplasmes. Ol1agineux. 32:
317-22.
EDEN-GREEN, S. J., AND M. SCHUILING. 1976. "Root acquisition" transmis-
sion tests with Haplaxius crudus (Hom: Cixiidae) and Proarna hilaris
(Hom: Cicadidae). (Abstr.) Principes 20: 66.
HARLAN, D. P., W. G. HART, C. A. GARCIA, AND J. CABALLERO. 1979. A yellow
coffee lid trap for the citrus blackfly, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby.
Southwest. Ent. 4: 125-6.
HOWARD, F. W. 1980. Population densities of Myndus crudus Van Duzee
(Homoptera: Cixiidae) in relation to coconut lethal yellowing distri-
bution in Florida. Principes 24: 174-8.












Florida Entomologist 65 (3)


1981. Attractiveness of date and coconut palms to Myndus crudus
and other homopterans. Proc. Florida State Hort. Soc. 93: 199-201.
AND G. A. HUTCHINSON. 1977. Tanglefoot for collecting Homoptera
associated with palms, and plastic tubes for specimen storage. Florida
Ent. 60: 280.
AND F. W. MEAD. 1980. A survey of Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta:
Homoptera) associated with palms in southern Florida. Trop. Agric.
(Trinidad) 57: 145-53.
AND D. L. THOMAS. 1980. Transmission of palm lethal decline to
Veitchia merrillii by a planthopper, Myndus crudus. J. Econ. Ent. 73:
715-7.
KRAMER, J. P. 1979. Taxonomic study of the planthopper genus Myndus in
the Americas (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea: Cixiidae). Trans. American
Ent. Soc. 105: 301-89.
LEACH, R. 1946. The unknown disease of the coconut palm in Jamaica. Trop.
Agric. (Trinidad) 23: 50-60.
McCoy, R. E., M. E. MILLER, AND D. S. WILLIAMS. 1980. Lethal yellowing in
Texas Phoenix palms. Principes 24: 179-80.
MEAD, F. W. 1968. A revision of the genus Oliarus in North America, north
of Mexico (Homoptera: Cixiidae) Ph.D. Thesis, North Carolina State
Univ., Raleigh, NC, 398 p.
MILLER, M. E., N. P. MAXWELL, AND J. AMADOR. 1980. Lethal decline of
Phoenix canariensis and P. dactylifera in the Rio Grande Valley. J.
Rio Grande Valley Hort. Soc. 34: 89-95.
REINERT, J. A. 1977. Field biology and control of Haplaxius crudus on St.
Augustine grass and Christmas palm. J. Econ. Ent. 70: 54-6.
1980. Phenology and density of Haplaxius crudus (Homoptera:
Cixiidae) on three southern turfgrasses. Environ. Ent. 9: 13-5.
ROMNEY, D. H. 1972. Past studies on and present status of lethal yellowing
disease of coconuts. PANS 18: 386-94.
SCHULING, M., AND C. G. JOHNSON. 1973. Current attempts to find a vector
associated with lethal yellowing disease of coconut. (Abstr.) Principes
17: 156.
THOMAS, D. L. 1979. Mycoplasmalike bodies associated with lethal declines
of palms in Florida. Phytopath. 69: 928-34.
TSAI, J. H. 1975. Transmission studies of three suspected insect vectors of
lethal yellowing of coconut palm. FAO Plant Prot. Bull. 23: 140-5.
.1977. Attempts to transmit lethal yellowing of coconut palms by
the planthopper, Haplaxius crudus. Plant Dis. Rep. 61: 304-7.
1980. Lethal yellowing of coconut palm: Search for a vector. Pages
176-200 In K. F. Harris and K. Maramorosch, eds. Vectors of Plant
Pathogens. Academic Press, New York.
AND O. H. KIRSCH. 1978. Bionomics of Haplaxius crudus
(Homoptera: Cixiidae). Environ Ent. 7: 305-8.
USHIYAMA, R., S. BULLIVANT, AND R. E. F. MATTHEWS. 1969. A mycoplasma-
like organism associated with Phormium yellow leaf disease. New
Zealand J. Bot. 7: 363-71.
WOODIEL, N. L. 1976. Insects associated with the coconut palm in South
Florida. (Abstr.) Principes 20: 66-7.
AND J. H. TSAI. 1978. A rotary flight trap used for sampling
Haplaxius crudus (Homoptera: Cixiidae) in coconut groves. J. New
York Ent. Soc. 86: 37-44.


334


September, 1982-












Bullock & Kretschmer: Pests of Jointvetch


IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL OF
FOLIAR PESTS OF AMERICAN JOINTVETCH

R. C. BULLOCK AND A. E. KRETSCHMER, JR.
University of Florida, IFAS, Agricultural Research Center
P. O. Box 248, Ft. Pierce, FL 33454 USA

ABSTRACT
American jointvetch, Aeschynomene americana L., a component of grass-
legume pastures in Florida, is subject to attack by the noctuid defoliators
Selenis monotropa Grote, the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmitalis
Hiibner, the tobacco budworm, Heliothis viriscens (F.), and the gelechiid
leafbinder, Evippe sp. Some biological control is provided by the spiders
Misumenops celer (Hentz) and M. bellulus (Banks), the parasitic wasp
Euplectrus comstockii Howard, and the entomophagous fungus Nomuraea
rileyi (Farlow) Samson.
Five insecticides were evaluated for pest control. Diflubenzuron permitted
the fewest caterpillars and least leafbinding. Less effective were chlorpyrifos,
triflumuron, Upjohn U-47319 (Methyl N-[[[[[(diethoxyphosphinothioyl)iso-
pylamino]thio]methylamino]carbonyl]oxy] ethanimidothioate), and trichlor-
fon.
Reduction in leafbinding can improve seed production by as much as
350%.

RESUME
Tamarindillo, Aeschynomene americana L., un component de los potreros
de gramineas y leguminosas en Florida, esta atacado por los lepidopteros
siguientes: Selenis monotropa Grote, Anticarsia gemmitalis Hubner,
Heliothis virescens (F.), y Evippe sp. Las arafias, Misuminops celer (Hentz)
y M. bellulus (Banks), la avispa parasitica Euplectrus comstockii Howard,
y el hongo entom6fago, Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow) Samson algo controlan
estos lepidopteros.
Cinco insecticides fueron evaluadas contra estas plagas. El uso de
diflubenzuron result en el minimo de larvas noctuidas y de hojas atadas.
Chlorpyrifos, triflumuron, Upjohn U-47319, y triclorfon fueron menos efec-
tivos.
La reducci6n de atadura de hojas puede aumentar el rendimiento de
semillas hasta 350%.



There are ca. 4800 ha of permanent mixed pasture for cattle grazing in
Florida in which American jointvetch, Aeschynomene americana L., com-
prises the legume component. Genung and Allen (1962) report that a
caterpillar Selenis monotropa Grote subjects jointvetch to severe defoliation.
Meeting the large demand for jointvetch seed might be achieved more
economically if seed production was increased by prevention of insect dam-
age.
Identification and management of arthropods in an American jointvetch
planting at Fort Pierce, FL, were undertaken during the 1978 and 1979
growing season. Our purpose was to determine if insect damage is of eco-
nomic significance in seed production of American jointvetch.


335












336 Florida Entomologist 65 (3) September, 1982

MATERIALS AND METHODS
1978 FIELD EXPERIMENT. In June, commercial American jointvetch was
seeded in rows, spaced 2.4 m apart, at the Agricultural Research Center,
Fort Pierce. Treatments were applied on 3 m row plots separated by 1.5 m
buffers in the row and single adjacent untreated rows. A randomized com-
plete block design with 7 replications was used.
Single rates of diflubenzuron with Ortho X-77 spreader and of chlor-
pyrifos were applied with a knapsack sprayer weekly and biweekly (Table
1). Spraying was started on Sept. 22 when plants were ca. 1 m high and
leaves exhibited some foliar feeding and binding of leaf pinnae. Difluben-
zuron was applied at the manufacturer's rate of 14.2 g AI per 378.5 1 and
chlorpyrifos at 113.4 g AI per 378.5 1, the lower of 2 rates that Goodyer and
Rand (1976) found gave excellent control of pasture caterpillars in Aus-
tralia.
1979 FIELD EXPERIMENT. Natural reseeding of jointvetch plants on the
same area that was used in 1978 provided a dense, even stand of plants. The
experimental area consisted of 35 plots. Each plot was made by cutting 1 m
wide alleys and cross alleys through the area. A randomized complete block
design consisting of 7 treatments, replicated 5 times, was used.
Ten terminal stems/plot were selected and tagged to evaluate treatments
for control of a gelechiid leafbinder, Evippe sp. Every 2 weeks, while damage
assessments were being made, all bound leaflets distal to the tag were re-
moved so that subsequent damage could be easily detected.
Single rates of diflubenzuron and triflumuron were applied with a knap-
sack sprayer biweekly and monthly (Table 2). Trichlorfon and Upjohn
U-47319 (methyl N-[[[[[(diethoxyphosphinothioyl)-isopropylamino]thio]meth-
ylamino]carbonyl]oxy] ethanimidothioate) were applied biweekly. One liter
of finished spray was applied to each plot. The monthly diflubenzuron treat-
ment regime was started on Aug. 22. The 1st application of the remaining
treatments commenced on Sept. 21 when most plants were ca. 1 m tall, 10%
had initiated flowering, and leafbinding was general throughout the plots.
In both years, population levels of destructive and beneficial arthropods
were monitored biweekly by direct examination of each 3 m row plot for a
5-min period.
The terminal 30.5 cm of tagged stems were cut at harvest and pods were
removed and counted in the laboratory. Cleaned seed was weighed to provide
yield data. All test data were subjected to analysis of variance and Duncan's
multiple range test.


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

1978 FIELD EXPERIMENT. The most prevalent pest encountered was a
caterpillar Selenis monotropa. This may' be the same 'yellow and black
worm' that E. M. Hodges reported producing serious damage to jointvetch
in late summer at Ona, FL (Beef Cattle Field Day, IFAS, ARC, Ona, FL
1968). The velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmitalis Htibner, and the
tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.), were present but less numerous.
The spiders Misumenops celer (Hentz) and M. bellulus (Banks) were
seen feeding on captured larvae of S. monotropa. Both the penultimate instar













Bullock & Kretschmer: Pests of Jointvetch 337

and adult of M. celer preyed on young S. monotropa caterpillars in the lab-
oratory.
The sac spiders (Li.,;rl.,i, i. inclusum (Hentz) and Clubiona sp. in-
habited webbed chambers constructed at the growing tip of plants by
doubling the tip back and binding it to the stem. Although considered bene-
ficial, no remnants of prey were found in the chambers.
An external hymenopteran parasite, Euplectrus comstockii Howard, was
observed on S. monotropa prey. Immatures were attached as a group to the
dorsum of the thorax of active caterpillars and pupated beneath the empty
carcass within an open network of stiff fibers formed prior to pupation. The
carcass served as the 'roof' of the communal pupal chamber.
Binding of leaf pinnae was general in distribution throughout the plant-
ing by mid-September. A microlepidopteran, Evippe sp. (Gelechiidae), was
responsible for the leafbinding. Gelechiids were reported by Singh et al.
(1978) as pests of mungbeans and soybeans. Presence of natural enemies of
Evippe sp. was not determined nor chemical control evaluated in 1978.
The cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, was occasionally encountered
during October on tender foliage or tender shoots but was never abundant or
generally distributed in the planting.
Weekly diflubenzuron applications provided the best crop protection
(Table 1), better than both weekly and biweekly chlorpyrifos applications.
Diflubenzuron applied biweekly was superior to chlorpyrifos applied bi-
weekly.
The severe defoliation reported by Genung and Allen (1962) as well as
stem boring inflicted on A. indica L. by S. monotropa (Genung and Green,
1965) failed to occur on A. americana. Apparently the robust stem of A.
indica provided an ample pupal chamber whereas the thinner stem of A.
americana could not accommodate the mature caterpillar and it pupated
elsewhere.
1979 FIELD EXPERIMENT. Selenis monotropa was again the most prevalent
defoliator encountered in 1979. The velvetbean caterpillar population suf-
fered an epizootic of Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow) Samson prior to September
20 in the aftermath of a hurricane that left standing water in the planting

TABLE 1. EFFECTIVENESS OF 2 SPRAY PROGRAMS AGAINST CATERPILLAR PESTS
OF AMERICAN JOINTVETCH IN FLORIDA.

Treatment regime Caterpillars
Amount per Sep. Oct. per plot
Materials 378.5 liters 22 29 6 13 19 on Oct. 12

Diflubenzuron 25W 56.7 g x x x x x 0.14 c'
+ Ortho X-77 188.3 ml
56.7 g x x x 1.0 be
188.3 ml
Chlorpyrifos 4E 236.6 ml x x x x x 3.9 ab
236.6 ml x x x 6.6 a
Untreated 3.9 ab


'Mean separation within columns by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.













Florida Entomologist 65 (3)


September, 1982


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Bullock & Kretschmer: Pests of Jointvetch 339

from September 4 to 17. The tobacco budworm was only occasionally seen.
The leafbinder Evippe sp. was not affected by the epizootic and flourished
without apparent natural control until the experiment was terminated at
harvest during the 1st week of November. Peak emergence of adult Evippe
sp. occurred on October 18 and November 3.
All chemicals and application regimes except trichlorfon significantly
reduced incidence of leafbinding below that of the natural population on all
survey dates (Table 2). Although the ability of trichlorfon to control Evippe
sp. deteriorated with time, its failure did not result in significantly lower
pod yield but did reduce seed production, though not significantly more than
triflumuron. The importance of applying protective sprays early is apparent
(Table 2).
The complete control of pests attacking flower buds and, later, pods has
been considered essential for successful legume production, whereas plants
can tolerate some defoliation prior to flowering without loss of yield. The
presence of a 25% leafbinding level prior to flower initiation on September
14 (Table 2), and its continued high incidence, had a marked influence on
both pod formation and seed yields in the absence of defoliation. Leafbinding
may be as detrimental as defoliation.
Seed production was increased ca. 350% with the use of diflubenzuron.
Such an increase could be of economic significance for growers and seed
dealers who are interested in obtaining maximum yields.
Until insect resistant cultivars are discovered (Kretschmer and Bullock,
1979) or developed, insecticides will be necessary to prevent leafbinding and
assure optimum seed production.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We thank the following specialists who supplied identification of arthro-
pods found in the experiments: Araneida: G. B. Edwards, Jr., EDACS, DPI,
Gainesville, FL; Homoptera: H. A. Denmark, EDACS, DPI, Gainesville, FL;
Hymenoptera: G. Gordh, UC, Riverside, CA; Lepidoptera: D. H. Habeck,
IFAS, UF, Gainesville, FL; Microlepidoptera: R. W. Hodges, Systematic
Entomol. Lab. IIBII, SEA, USDA, Beltsville, MD; and Monilialcs: C. W.
McCoy, IFAS, ARC, Lake Alfred, FL.
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 2939.

LITERATURE CITED
GENUNG, W. G., AND R. J. ALLEN, JR. 1962. Survey of insects associated
with agronomic introductions. Proc. Soil Crop Sci. Soc. FL. 22: 153-9.
GENUNG, W. G., AND V. E. GREEN, JR. 1965. Some stem boring insects asso-
ciated with soybeans in Florida. FL Ent. 48: 29-33.
GOODYER, G. J., AND J. R. RAND. 1976. Dept. Agric. NSW Biol. Chem. Res.
Inst. Res. Rep. :61.
KRETSCHMER, A. E., JR., AND R. C. BULLOCK. 1979. Aeschynomene spp.: dis-
tribution and potential use. Proc. Soil Crop Sci. Soc. FL. 38: 145-52.
SINGH, S. R., H. F. VAN EMDEN, AND T. AJIBOLA TAYLOR. 1978. Pests of
grain legumes: Ecology and control. Academic Press Inc., London, UK.
454 p.












Florida Entomologist 65 (3)


HOST PLANTS AND NYMPHAL DESCRIPTIONS OF
ACANALONIA PUMILA AND CYARDA SP. NEAR
ACUTISSIMA (HOMOPTERA, FULGOROIDEA:
ACANALONIIDAE AND FLATIDAE)

A. G. WHEELER, JR. AND E. RICHARD HOEBEKE
Bureau of Plant Industry, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture,
Harrisburg, PA 17110 and Department of Entomology,
Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, respectively

ABSTRACT
In the Florida Keys the fulgoroid species Acanalonia pumila Van Duzee
(Acanaloniidae) and Cyarda sp. near acutissima Metcalf and Bruner
(Flatidae) were found developing predominantly on the halophytes Batis
maritima L. (Bataceae), Salicornia virginica L. and Suaeda linearis (Ell.)
Moq. (Chenopodiaceae). The former species was associated with Batis
maritima, the latter, primarily with Salicornia virginica. Inland populations
of Cyarda developed on a number of common roadside plants. The male
genitalia of Cyarda sp. near acutissima are figured, and the fifth-instar
nymphs of both species are described and illustrated.

RESUME
En los Cayos de Florida las species fulgoroides Acanalonia pumila Van
Duzee (Acanaloniidae) y Cyarda sp. prox. a acutissima Metcalf y Bruner
(Flatidae) se encontraron en desenvolviemento sobre los hal6fitos Batis
maritima L. (Batacaeae), Salicornia virginica L. y Suaeda linearis (Ell.)
Moq. (Chenopodiaceae). A. pumila fue asociado con B. maritima y la otra
especie con S. virginica. Poblaciones de Cyarda en el interior se desenvol-
vieron sobre plants comunes de las bordes de carreteras. La genitalia del
macho de Cyarda sp. prox. a acutissima se ilustra y la ninfa del quinto
estadio de ambas species se described y se ilustra.


As a result of trips to southern Florida and the Keys during March 1980
and April 1981 and 1982, one of us (AGW) was able to associate 2 little-
known fulgoroid species with their host plants. The acanaloniid planthopper
Acanalonia pumila Van Duzee and a flatid, Cyarda sp. near acutissima Met-
calf and Bruner, were found on various halophytes of the families Bataceae
and Chenopodiaceae. Because the insect fauna of marine-influenced habitats
is poorly known (Davis and Gray 1966) and only sketchy biological data are
available for the majority of the Fulgoroidea, it seems worthwhile to record
hosts of these 2 species. With few exceptions, nymphal descriptions and
illustrations of fulgoroid species are poorly represented in the literature;
hence, we provide descriptions and figures (by ERH) of the last-instar
nymphs for both Acanalonia pumila and Cyarda sp. near acutissima.

HABITAT AND HOST PLANTS
Collections and observations were made on 19 March 1980 on Crawl Key,
a tiny key northeast of Marathon, lying north and east of the narrow neck
connecting with Vaca Key (Stephenson and Stephenson 1950). The habitat,


340


September, 1982













Wheeler & Hoebeke: Acanalonia & Cyarda


an area referred to locally as "The Crater," is an old quarry that has been
blasted on one side to let in water from Florida Bay. Like most of the upper
keys, the substratum consists largely of coral rock, the so-called Key Largo
limestone of Pleistocene age (Craighead 1971). Although the collecting site
is higher than a tidal flat and not normally flushed by the tides, there still is
considerable salt stress. The dominant vegetation consists of red mangrove
(Rhizophora mangle L.) and a few other woody species characteristic of
saline environments, plus sea purslane (Sesuvium portulacastrum L.)
(Portulacaceae) and scattered colonies of the principal fulgoroid hosts,
Batis maritima, Salicornia virginica, and Suaeda linearis. Additional ob-
servations were made during April 1981 at this same site; in similar habitats
on Upper Key Largo, Plantation Key, Lower Matecumbe Key, Big Pine Key,
and Key West; and along roadsides in Brevard Co. and on Big Pine Key.
Batis maritima is a succulent and spreading shrub with pale green, op-
posite leaves. It often forms pure stands in salt marshes and mangrove
belts. Growing among and intermingled with some of the Batis colonies was
perennial glasswort, Salicornia virginica, another chenopodiaceous halophyte
that exhibits optimal growth in marine habitats (Waisel 1972). This
decumbent or prostrate, succulent perennial has opposite leaves reduced to
minute scales that sheath a jointed stem. Suaeda linearis is a herbaceous
halophyte having numerous, fleshy, linear leaves that form terminal spikes.
Species of the genus generally inhabit the saltiest niches in saline environ-
ments (Waisel 1972). All 3 species have similar distributions; Suaeda
linearis occurs in salt marshes from Maine south to Florida and the West
Indies and west to Texas, whereas Salicornia virginica ranges from Massa-
chusetts south to Florida and the West Indies and west to Texas and Alaska
to California; also in Europe and Africa. Batis maritima ranges from North
Carolina to Florida and west to Texas; also in the West Indies, Mexico,
tropical America and the Pacific Islands (Long and Lakela 1976).


Acanalonia pumila Van Duzee
Described from Florida by Van Duzee (1907), A. pumila is known from
North Carolina south to Bermuda, Cuba and the Isle of Pines, and Mona
Island off Puerto Rico (Metcalf 1954). Van Duzee (1909a) reported this
planthopper as "very abundant" on the salt-tolerant composite Borrichia
arborescens (L.) DC. and (1909b) recorded this species from a "peculiar
succulent plant" near the line of high tides on Estero Island, Florida. At
Wrightsville Beach near Wilmington, North Carolina, adults were collected
on beach grasses at the level of high tides (Metcalf and Osborn 1920). On
Mona Island, Ramos (1947) observed nymphs and adults on sea lavender,
Mallotonia gnaphalodes (Jacq.) Britton (Boraginaceae); however, repeated
attempts to find specimens on this plant in Puerto Rico have failed (Wolcott
1950). Metcalf and Bruner (1930) provided a very brief description of the
last-instar nymph.
On Crawl Key in 1980 adults were common on saltwort, Batis maritima,
along with smaller numbers of last-instar nymphs. Although colonies of
saltwort occasionally were mixed with Salicornia virginica and Suaeda
linearis, A. pumila appeared restricted to the former plant. Further collec-
tions in 1981 supported the observation of B. maritima as the primary host;













Florida Entomologist 65 (3)


smaller populations, however, developed on Salicornia virginica and Suaeda
linearis. Acanalonia pumila is common along both coasts of Florida and in
the Keys. It develops on a variety of plants in the salt marsh community
and, unlike the Cyarda sp., is more restricted to coastal habitats.

NYMPH OF Acanalonia pumila
DESCRIPTION OF FIFTH INSTAR: (in alcohol), Fig. 1, 3, 5 and 6.
Head broad, nearly straight across front, prominent marginal carinae
in front of eyes; vertex nearly twice as broad as long; frons (Fig. 5) with
an irregular row of sensory pits (22-25) near each margin, between eye and
marginal carina; eyes large, prominent; ocelli lacking; antenna 3-segmented,
antennal segment 1 very short; segment 2 subglobose; segment 3 small,
globose with a bristlelike, elongate extension apically.
Pronotum collarlike, shorter than or equal to vertex length along median
line; median carina extending entire length of thorax; pronotal disc covered
with sensory pits (20-22) on each side of median line; lateral-most pits not
visible from above. Mesonotum at least 3 times as long as pronotum along
median line, with a pair of convex elevations covered with sensory pits
(14-16), one on each side between median line and wing pads; several pits
(8-10) scattered on each wing pad. Metanotum 3/4 as long as mesonotum
along median line, with a pair of raised elevations covered with sensory pits
(15-16), one on each side between median line and wing pads; hump-backed,
apex elevated in profile.
Posterior tibia with 2 minute spines on outer edge; 7 small spines near
apex tipped with brown; hind tarsus 3-segmented; first segment with 9,
second with 2 spines at apex.
Abdomen 9-segmented; segments 8 and 9 small, telescopic and usually
not visible in dorsal view. Segments 1 and 2 constricted, narrower than re-
maining segments; abdomen broadest across segment 3, decreasing in
width to apex; sensory pits on each side of median line, along postero-lateral
margins of segments 3-7; segment 3 with 4-6 pits; segment 4 with 5-6 pits;
segment 5 with 5-6 pits; segment 6 with 4-6 pits and segment 7 usually with
3 pits; segments 8 and 9 telescopic, truncate caudally and not visible
dorsally; in caudal view 2 pairs of moderate-sized, roughly ovoid wax plates
visible (Fig. 6), one pair associated with segment 7 and one pair with seg-
ment 8; segment 9 without wax plates.
Color: Generally pale cream to brownish dorsally and ventrally, mottled
in appearance. Penultimate instars strongly mottled and marked with light
to dark brown.
Size: Total length 3.9 mm; greatest width (across mesothoracic wing
pads) 2.5 mm.
Specimens examined: One fifth instar, collected on Crawl Key, 19 March
1980, and one fifth instar, collected on Plantation Key, 8 April 1981. Three
penultimate instars, collected on Upper Key Largo, 9 April 1981. All lo-
calities in Monroe County, Florida. Determined by association with adults.
Voucher specimens in the collections of Pennsylvania Department of Agri-
culture and Cornell University.
Cyarda sp. near acutissima Metcalf and Bruner
Species of the flatid genus Cyarda Walker occurring in the United States


342


September, 1982









Wheeler & Hoebeke: Acanalonia & Cyarda 343






1. C :,
.. ... .,,
<'- ** n ." -

/ * / -
FI I' ;
I 1 '--

f* ,^* r ^ <:
i p -- I


,: : \



" 'i 3- "
i "







*; i'S a -^
rI r
',l 1 -'








". "- 1./ '


I) .. .., -
" .^ -- ..; "


1!^". - \
1/







I,'
. 3 -
r r

_, o, 7 .ij'


I,
r I
"~~ ~ L -:, "


Fig. 1. Acanalonia pumila Van Duzee, fifth-instar nymph, dorsal view.











Florida Entomologist 65(3)


Fig. 2. Cyarda sp. near acutissima Metcalf and Bruner, fifth-instar
nymph, dorsal view.


344


September, 1982










Wheeler & Hoebeke: Acanalonia & Cyarda


KI


* c.
I..,.
Ii


.7


/


-















Fig. 3-4. Fifth-instar nymphs, lateral view. 3) Acanalonia pnmila; and
4) Cyarda sp. near acutissima.

are poorly known; inadequate taxonomic knowledge of the group precludes a
positive identification of the taxon observed in southern Florida. Specimens
fit closest the description of C. acutissima, a species known only from Cuba.
The male genitalia (Fig. 9) of the southern Florida material agree some-
what with the illustration for that of C. acutissima in Metcalf and Bruner


345


L _
i;
. .- r


4r~;










Florida Entomologist 65 (3)


September, 1982


I -
I I


It'


Fig. 5-8. Structural features of fulgoroid nymphs, fifth instars. 5) frons,
frontal view: Acanalonia pumila. 6) abdominal segments 7-9 and wax plates,
caudal view: A. pumila. 7) frons, frontal view: Cyarda sp. near acutissirma.
8) abdominal segments 7-9 and wax plates, caudal view: Cyarda sp. near
acutissima.

(1948, P1. XVII, Fig. 5), but the aedeagus differs in several respects. The
aedeagus (Fig. 9, ae) is characterized as follows: 2 pairs of spinose processes
arising dorsally at apex, directed cephalad; inner pair short, broadened at
base; outer pair more than twice as long as inner pair, only slightly curved,
broadened at base; ventral spines long, broadly curved, parallel to ventral
margin of aedeagus nearly throughout their length, curved more strongly
towards apex; ventral spines reaching basal 1/2 to 3/4 length of aedeagus.
Pending further work on the systematics of the genus, we tentatively refer
our specimens to Cyarda sp. near acutissima; voucher material has been
deposited in the collections of Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture and
Cornell University.
Nearly all specimens of the genus collected from the southeastern states
have been referred to C. melichari Van Duzee. The common coastal forms
stand under that name, as well as those forms occurring further inland; C.
melichari has been recorded in stands of Lespedeza cuneata (Dumont)
G. Don at Aiken, South Carolina (Menhinick 1963), and in southern Illinois
(Wilson and McPherson 1980). Cyarda acuminipennis Spinola and C. walker
Metcalf also have been recorded from the eastern U.S. (Metcalf 1954), and
recently Fennah (1965) described a new species, C. sordida, from Florida.


346











Wheeler & Hoebeke: Acanalonia & Cyarda 347














9











Fig. 9-10. Cyarda sp. near acutissima. 9) male genitalia (pyg, pygofer;
as, anal segment; ae, aedeagus; gs, genital style), left side; and 10) fifth-
instar nymph on host plant, Salicornia virginica L.

It seems likely that some specimens identified as melichari may indeed refer
to any of these 3 other species or else taxa not yet recorded from the U.S.
Adults and late-instar nymphs of Cyarda sp. near acutissima were more
abundant in March 1980 than those of A. pumila. White wax secreted by
nymphs (Fig. 10) made it easy to associate this flatid with the host, Sali-
cornia virginica. Basal stems were often wax-coated, and nymphs were found
beneath the plants after stems had been tapped over a tray. Our observa-
tions in 1981-82 showed that this species of Cyarda has a broad host range.
Populations developed on other halophytes, including Batis maritima, Suaeda
linearis and Sesuvium portulacastrum. Further inland, but within a mile of
the coast, Cyarda appears to feed on numerous roadside plants. The largest
populations occurred on the composites yellowtop, Flaveria linearis Lag. and
hairy beggartricks, Bidens pilosa L., and a milkweed, Cynanchum scoparium
Nutt. Nymphs also were observed on seagrape, Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L.
(Polygonaceae); capeweed, Lippia nodiflora Michx. (Verbenaceae); ladder
brake, Pteris longifolia L. (Pteridaceae) ; climbing hempweed, Mikania
scandens (L.) Willd. (Asteraceae); locustberry, Byrsonima lucida (Sw.)
DC (Malpighiaceae); and buttonwood, Conocarpus erectus L. (Combret-
aceae). In Brevard Co. a more inland population developed on common rag-
weed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Asteraceae).












Florida Entomologist 65 (3)


NYMPH OF Cyarda SP. NEAR acutissima
DESCRIPTION OF FIFTH INSTAR: (in alcohol), Fig. 2, 4, 7 and 8.
Head moderately broad, projecting slightly beyond eyes, straight across
front, covered above by pronotum; frons (Fig. 7) broad, 2 carinae present,
each closer to lateral margin (or keel) than to each other, with row of
numerous sensory pits (18-20) between marginal carinae and lateral keels,
extending to or slightly below antennal insertions; eyes large, prominent;
ocelli lacking; antenna 3-segmented, elongate; segment 1 short, cylindrical;
segment 2 elongate, globose; segment 3 bulbous basally, with an elongate
bristlelike extension apically.
Pronotum produced forward over vertex, deeply and broadly emarginate
behind, longest medially; pronotal disc, on each side of median line, covered
with numerous sensory pits (25-30) (lateral-most pits not visible dorsally).
Mesonotum longest medially, 2 times as long as pronotum along median line,
with 2 convex areas covered with sensory pits (10-18), one on each side
between median line and wing pads; median groove (or carina) extending
length of thorax; wing pads extending to fourth abdominal segment.
Metanotum less than 1/2 as long as mesonotum, with a few pits (2-6) on
each side between median line and wing pads; usually a large, somewhat
linear blackish patch on each hind wing pad, adjacent to pits.
Posterior tibia with 3 well-developed spines tipped with brown along
outer edge, and with ca. 8 small apical spines tipped with brown; hind
tarsus 3-segmented; first segment with 8, second with 2 apical spines.
Abdomen 9-segmented, very broad basally and throughout to apex, cy-
lindrical, slightly dorsoventrally flattened; segments 8 and 9 not visible
dorsally, telescopic and truncate caudally; lateral aspects of segments 4-7
with sensory pits; segment 4 with 5-9 pits; segment 5 with 9-11 pits; seg-
ment 6 with 5-9 pits and segment 7 with 3-6 pits; in addition to sensory
pits, segment 6 with 5 large, round wax plates on each side of median line.
Two pairs of large, ovoid wax plates (Fig. 8) on truncated apices of seg-
ments 7 and 8, seen only from a caudal view; segment 9 without wax plates.
Color: Generally pale white background with varying brown infuscations.
Usually a pair of black linear spots on metanotum, one on each side between
median line and wing pads; however, these spots vary in intensity among
specimens and may be absent. Small black spots on abdominal segments 3-6,
one on each side of median line; these may also vary in intensity among
specimens.
Size: Total length 2.9 mm; greatest width (across mesothoracic wing
pads) 1.7 mm.
Specimens Examined: Sixteen fifth-instar nymphs, collected on Crawl
Key (2), 19 March 1980; on Big Pine Key (10), 14 April 1981; and on
Upper Key Largo (4), 13 April 1981. All localities in Monroe County,
Florida. Determined by association with reared adults. Voucher specimens
are deposited in the collections of the Pefinsylvania Department of Agri-
culture and Cornell University.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
For identifying plant specimens, we thank R. Barnaby (New York
Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY), D. S. Correll (Fairchild Tropical Garden


348


September, 1982













Wheeler & Hoebeke: Acanalonia & Cyarda


Research Center, Miami, FL), J. C. Parks (Millersville State College, Millers-
ville, PA), and G. Avery (Homestead, FL) through the courtesy of R. M.
Baranowski (IFAS, Univ. Florida, Homestead). We are grateful to L. B.
O'Brien (Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, FL) for helpful comments
on an earlier draft of this paper and J. F. Stimmel (Pennsylvania Depart-
ment of Agriculture, Harrisburg, PA) for the photograph of the fulgoroid
nymph.

REFERENCES CITED
CRAIGHEAD, F. C., SR. 1971. The trees of south Florida. Vol. 1. The natural
environments and their succession. Univ. Miami Press, Coral Gables,
FL. 212 p.
DAVIS, L. V., AND I. E. GRAY. 1966. Zonal and seasonal distribution of insects
in North Carolina salt marshes. Ecology 36: 275-95.
FENNAH, R. G. 1965. On new species of Fulgoroidea (Homoptera) from the
West Indies. Trans. R. Ent. Soc. London 117: 95-126.
LONG, R. W., AND O. LAKELA. 1976. A flora of tropical Florida; A manual
of the seed plants and ferns of southern peninsular Florida. Banyan
Books, Miami, FL. 962 p.
MENHINICK, E. F. 1963. Insect species in the herb stratum of a Sericea
lespedeza stand, AEC Savannah River Project, Aiken, South Carolina.
U.S. Atomic Energy Comm., Div. Tech. Inf. TID-19136. 47 p.
METCALF, Z. P. 1954. Homoptera from the Bahama Islands. Amer. Mus.
Novit., New York, No. 1698: 1-46.
AND S. C. BRUNER. 1930. Cuban Fulgorina. I. The families Trop-
iduchidae and Acanaloniidae. Psyche 37: 395-424.
AND 1948. Cuban Flatidae with new species from adjacent
regions. Ann. Ent. Soc. America 41: 63-118.
AND H. OSBORN. 1920. Some observations on insects of the between
tide zone of the North Carolina coast. Ann. Ent. Soc. America 13:
108-16.
RAMOS, J. A. 1947. The insects of Mona Island (West Indies). J. Agric.
Univ. Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras 30: 1-74.
STEPHENSON, T. A., AND A. STEPHENSON. 1950. Life between tide-marks in
North America. I. The Florida Keys. J. Ecol. 38: 354-402.
VAN DUZEE, E. P. 1907. Studies in North American Fulgoridae. Proc. Acad.
Nat. Sci., Phil. 1907: 467-98.
1909a. Notes on some Hemiptera taken in the Bermudas by W. J.
Palmer. Can. Ent. 41: 126-8.
1909b. Observations of some Hemiptera taken in Florida in the
spring of 1908. Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 9(2) : 149-230.
WAISEL, Y. 1972. Biology of halophytes. Academic Press, New York and
London. 395 p.
WILSON, S. W., AND J. E. McPHERSON. 1980. A list of the Fulgoroidea
(Homoptera) of southern Illinois. Great Lakes Ent. 13(1): 25-30.
WOLCOTT, G. N. 1950. The insects of Puerto Rico. J. Agric. Univ. Puerto
Rico, Rio Piedras 32: 1-416.












Florida Entomologist 65 (3)


SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF THE FALL ARMYWORM
AND VELVETBEAN CATERPILLAR (LEPIDOPTERA:
NOCTUIDAE) AT FOUR LOCATIONS IN FLORIDA

V. H. WADDILL', E. R. MITCHELL2, AND W. H. DENTON3
S. L. POE4, AND D. J. SCHUSTER5

ABSTRACT
Seasonal populations of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E.
Smith) and the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hiibner were
surveyed during 1975-77 at Gainesville, Sanford, Bradenton, and Homestead,
Florida. S. frugiperda was most abundant at Homestead during the spring
and fall, and tended to be more numerous at the other locations during the
summer and fall. A. gemmatalis larvae were present on soybeans at Home-
stead during all except 3 months of the study; populations peaked in the fall
at all 4 sites.

RESUME
Se estudiaron las poblaciones estacionales de Spodoptera frugiperda
(J. E. Smith) y Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner, desde 1975 a 1977, en las
ciudades de Gainesville, Sanford, Bradenton, y Homestead, en Florida, EUA.
S. frugiperda abund6 m6s en Homestead durante la primavera y el otofio y
tendi6 a ser m6s numeroso en otras localidades durante el verano y el otofio.
Habian larvas de A. gemmatalis presented en las sojas en Homestead durante
todos menos 3 de los meses del studio, y las poblaciones miximas ocurrieron
en el otofio en los 4 locales.



Fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) and
velvetbean caterpillar (VBC), Anticarsia gemmatalis Hiibner, are im-
portant pests thought to migrate northward each spring from overwintering
sites in extreme southern regions of the U. S. (Luginbill 1928, and Watson
1916). In very mild winters, the FAW may survive in most of Florida and
the coastal areas of Texas and Louisiana (Snow and Copeland 1969). This
was substantiated for Hastings, Florida, a large agricultural area in the
northeastern part of the state, by Tingle and Mitchell (1977). Wood et al.
(1979) found emergence of FAW adults from pupae buried at 4 locations
in Florida was positively correlated with mean soil temperature.
VBC larvae were found throughout the winter months in the southern
half of peninsular Florida (Buschman et al. 1977) ; however, they did not
survive the winter in southern Mississippi (Buschman et al. 1981). Greene
(1976) estimated seasonal abundance of VBC larvae on soybean at Quincy,
Florida, in the northern part of the state and indicated the population
peaked during September-October. Recently, the FAW and VBC were among

'University of Florida, IFAS, Agr. Res. & Educ. Center, 18905 S. W. 280 St., Homestead,
FL 33031 USA.
2Insect Attractants and Basic Biology Laboratory, USDA, SEA, P. O. Box 14565, Gaines-
ville, FL 32604 USA.
3Stauffer Chemical Co., 1691 Cameron Ave., Sanford, FL 32771 USA.
4Dept. of Entomology, VPI & SU, Blacksburg, VA 24061 USA.
5University of Florida, Agr. Res. & Educ. Center, 5007 60th St. E., Bradenton, FL 33508
USA.


350


September, 1982












Waddill et al.: Seasonal Abundance of FA W & VBC 351

4 species cited as needing further studies of their overwintering and move-
ment (Kennedy and Way 1979).
Reported here are data on the seasonal abundance of FAW and VBC at
4 locations in Florida as determined by pheromone traps and trap crops.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
The 4 sites selected for this study were Homestead (latitude 250 35' N),
Bradenton (latitude 270 27' N), Sanford (latitude 280 48' N) and Gaines-
ville (latitude 290 38' N). Methods were standardized at all stations.
Eight 15 m rows of each, Zea mays cv. 'Silver Queen', for FAW and soy-
bean, Glycine max cv. 'Coker 102', for VBC were planted monthly during
the study. Whorl-stage corn was sampled weekly by inspecting 100 plants
and recording the numbers of small (< 1 cm), medium (1-2 cm) and large
(> 2 cm) FAW larvae per plant. Blooming and postbloom soybeans were
sampled weekly (ten 3 m samples/wk) by shaking the plants over a cloth
(1 x 0.65 m). VBC larvae were categorized by size (same as FAW) and the
number of larvae were recorded.
One Pherocon 1C trap baited with 25 mg (Z)-9-dodecen-l-1 acetate
(Z-9-DDA) to attract FAW moths (Mitchell et al. 1975) was placed in each
corn planting. The traps were checked at least twice per week and the bait
replaced every 3-4 weeks.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
FAW pheromone trap catches of male moths at the 4 locations are shown
in Fig. 1. Moths were present during most months at Homestead, Bradenton,
and Sanford; no moths were trapped during December 1975-April 1976 or
December 1976-March 1977 at Gainesville. The population varied less at
Homestead than at the other 3 locations, as evidenced by the small fluctua-
tions in trap catches. Moths were most numerous at Homestead during the
spring and fall, whereas they tended to be more numerous at the other loca-
tions during the summer and fall. Larger numbers were captured at the 2
northernmost locations.
FAW larval abundance (Fig. 1) followed similar trends as the pheromone
trap catches, except at Bradenton where few larvae were found. Some larvae
were found most months at the 3 southern sites. Larvae were most abundant
at Homestead during the spring of 1976 and the spring and summer of 1977.
Larvae were present, but in very low numbers, both years at Bradenton. At
Sanford and Gainesville, most larvae were found during the summer and fall.
VBC larval abundance is shown in Fig. 2. Larvae were found at Home-
stead during all months except February 1976 and January-February 1977.
Larval abundance first peaked in 1976 during June (Homestead), July
(Bradenton), August (Sanford) and September (Gainesville). Larvae
started to increase in April in 1977 at H6mestead and peaked during Sep-
tember at the other 3 sites. As with the FAW, the VBC population appeared
more uniform year round at Homestead than the 3 other sites where definite
summer peaks were observed. These peaks probably correspond to the host
cropping practices in the area.
The results reported here for the FAW and VBC follow closely previous
reports on the seasonal occurrence in Florida of 2 other subtropical species,














Florida Entomologist 65 (3)


September, 1982


352



8-

6-

4-

2-


8-

6-


1 i 1 1 i i i i 1 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 1 i 1 1 1
N D J F M A M J J A SON DJ FMAM J J A S 0
1975 1976 1977

Fig. 1. Fall armyworm moths per day (....) captured in pheromone traps
and larvae per corn plant (-) at 4 locations in Florida.

the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hiibner) (Chalfant et al. 1974), and
soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includes (Walker) (Mitchell et al. 1975).
Both looper species survive and reproduce continuously in southern Florida
where average winter temperatures exceed 160C. Adult movement north-
ward from the overwintering areas as indicated by pheromone-baited black-
light traps appear to follow the advancing 160C temperature zone and in-
dicates migration.
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 3536.

REFERENCES CITED

BUSCHMAN, L. L., H. N. PETRI, C. H. HOVERMALE, AND N. C. EDWARDS, JR.
1981. Occurrence of the velvetbean caterpillar in Mississippi: Winter


GAINESVILLE





. .,




SANFORD



I la 1
' A :'"-. i -





BRADENTON






** : .
*.. .. *A

I I I I I I- I I Ir- I I- I I I If

HOMESTEAD




..
,'''," ', !a' ': " ''.'














Waddill et al.: Seasonal Abundance of FA W & VBC 353


HOMESTEAD






N D F M*MJJ S.. ..N*.
.***...*'**....**....*.* '.* '' ..* **T '** '*' .
I I I I I I l l I I I I I I
ND J FMAMIJ I A SON DIJ F MA MIJ J ASO


1976


1975


1977


Fig. 2. Velvetbean caterpillar larvae per 0.3 m of row on soybeans at 4
locations in Florida.

survival or immigration. Environ. Ent. 10: 45-52.
BUSCHMAN, L. L., W. H. WHITCOMB, T. M. NEAL, AND D. L. MAYS. 1977.
Winter survival and hosts of the velvetbean caterpillar in Florida. Fla.
Ent. 60: 267-73.
CHALFANT, R. B., C. S. CREIGHTON, G. L. GREENE, E. R. MITCHELL, J. M.
STANLEY, AND J. C. WEBB. 1974. Cabbage looper: Populations in BL
traps baited with sex pheromone in Florida, Georgia, and South
Carolina. J. Econ. Ent. 67: 741-5.
GREENE, G. L. 1976. Pest management of the velvetbean caterpillar in a
soybean ecosystem. Pages 602-10 in Proc. World Soybean Res. Conf.
I. Interstate Printers and Publishers, Inc., Danville, IL.


3-] GAINESVILLE


:




SANFORD : \







- ^ '?T'r ; ---- f, F- --, **rr --, 4- T-


BRADENTON


......... .
**.Oi I O. I ... r * 1*0 l . .... O


E 2-
0 -




4-

z 3-
z
3 2-

1-



4-


3-

2-


1-


11


1












Florida Entomologist 65(3)


KENNEDY, J. S., AND M. J. WAY. 1979. Summing up the conference. Pages
446-56 in R. L. Rabb and G. G. Kennedy, eds. Movement of highly
mobile insects: Concepts and Methodology in research. Proceedings
of a conference, "Movement of selected species of Lepidoptera in the
Southeastern United States". University Graphics, North Carolina
State Univ., Raleigh.
LUGINBILL, P. 1928. The fall armyworm. USDA Tech. Bull. 34, 89 p.
MITCHELL, E. R., R. B. CHALFANT, G. L. GREENE, AND C. S. CREIGHTON. 1975.
Soybean looper: Populations in Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina
as determined by pheromone-baited BL traps. J. Econ. Ent. 68:
747-50.
SNOW, J. W., AND W. C. COPELAND. 1969. Fall armyworm: Use of virgin
female traps to detect males and to determine seasonal distribution.
USDA Prod. Res. Rep. 110 p.
TINGLE, F. C., AND E. R. MITCHELL. 1977. Seasonal populations of army-
worms and loopers at Hastings, Florida. Fla. Ent. 60: 115-22.
WATSON, J. R. 1916. Life-history of the velvet-bean caterpillar (Anticarsia
gemmatalis Hiibner). J. Econ. Ent. 9: 521-8.
WOOD, J. R., S. L. POE, AND N. C. LEPPLA. 1979. Winter survival of fall
armyworm pupae in Florida. Environ. Ent. 8: 249-52.



GENUS PARTHENICUS IN THE EASTERN
UNITED STATES, WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF
NEW SPECIES (HEMIPTERA: MIRIDAE)

THOMAS J. HENRY
Systematic Entomology Laboratory, IIBIII
Agricultural Research Service, USDA
c/o U.S. National Museum of Natural History
Washington, D.C. 20560 USA

ABSTRACT
The eastern United States species of the orthotyline plant bug genus
Parthenicus Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae) are reviewed. Parthenicus
juniperi (Heidemann), P. psalliodes Reuter (type of genus), P. taxodii
Knight, and P. vaccini (Van Duzee) are redescribed. The new species P.
knight, P. rufus, and P. weemsi are described from specimens collected in
Florida. Known distributions and host plants, illustrations of male para-
meres, photographs of adults, and a key to the 7 eastern U.S. species are
provided.

RESUME
Se revisan las species del g6nero Parthenicus Reuter (Hemiptera:
Miridae) del este de los Estados Unidos. 'Se described de nuevo P. juniperi,
P. psalliodes, P. taxodii y P. vaccini, y se described nuevas species, P.
knight, P. rufus, y P. weemsi de especimenes de Florida. Se presentan las
distribuciones conocidas y las plants hospederas, ilustraciones de los para-
meros del macho, fotografias de los adults y una clave para las 7 species
del este de los EUA.


354


September, 1982









Henry: Parthenicus 355

The orthotyline plant bug genus Parthenicus Reuter, 1876, is found
primarily in western North America. Only 5 of 72 species have been re-
ported east of the Mississippi River (Carvalho 1958, Knight 1968, Kelton
1980). Recently one of the 5 species, Parthenicus nigrellus Knight, was
transferred to the genus Texocoris Schaffner (Henry 1982).
In this paper, I present for the first time hosts for the type of Par-
thenicus, P. psalliodes Reuter, describe 3 new species from Florida, review
distributions and host plant information, provide photographs of adults and
illustrations of all male parameres, and give a key to the 7 eastern species.
The following abbreviations are for institutions cited in this paper:
FSCA-Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Florida Department of
Agriculture, Gainesville; PDA-Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture,
Harrisburg; and USNM-United States National Museum of Natural His-
tory, Washington, D.C.


Parthenicus Reuter
TYPE-SPECIES: Parthenicus psalliodes Reuter, 1876: 85 (Mon.)
DIAGNOSIS: Small, length usually less than 4.5 mm (less than 3.0 mm for
eastern U.S. species), elongate; hemelytra subparallel on outer margins;
head without a distinct basal carina, eyes large, strongly granulate in males;
rostrum reaching metacoxae or beyond; pubescence silvery to golden, simple
and sericeous, often intermixed with black scalelike setae, especially on
apical area of corium and on cuneus; hemelytra and membrane well de-
veloped in macropterous males and females, membrane strongly abbreviated
in brachypterous females; legs saltatorial; parempodia convergent.
REMARKS: The genus Parthenicus is easily recognized using Knight's
(1941, 1968) keys to the Orthotylinae. The small size, dull dorsum, and
absence of a basal carina on the head will distinguish this genus from all
other North American Orthotylinae. All species have saltatorial hindlegs
and are capable of jumping; this trait is especially noticeable in brachy-
pterous females and nymphs.
Male genitalia are small and need to be dissected and viewed under a
compound microscope. The aedeagus is simple and bears 2 simplified spiculi.
The left paramere in the eastern species is C-shaped with the base thickened
and the arch of the C gradually tapered. The right paramere is typically
straight, thickened, and spined apically; some right parameres have a
medial process that often forms an elongate comb or acute spine. For com-
parison, Knight (1968) figures parameres of many western species.

Key to the species of Parthenicus of eastern United States

1. Tibial spines without distinct spots at bases 2
1'. Tibial spines with distinct red or brown spots at bases --~~.-- .. 4
2(1). Metafemora strongly infuscated on dorsal 2/3; scutellum and
apical 1/3 of corium with numerous black scalelike setae
...------------------. juniper (Heidemann)
2'. Metafemora not infuscated, instead uniformly pale yellow or
testaceous; scutellum and apical 1/3 of corium without black
scalelike setae _.. .......... .... ..-.......- -.. .......... 3









Florida Entomologist 65 (3)


3(2'). Dorsum uniformly yellow; rostrum short, just reaching middle
of metacoxa ..............---------------- -- taxodii Knight
3'. Dorsum not uniformly yellow, basal angles of scutellum in-
fuscated, spots at base and along outside margin of clavus and
at base of cuneus red; rostrum long, reaching beyond meta-
coxae .. .........------- -- knight Henry, n. sp.
4(1'). Dorsum and venter predominately red to reddish orange,
sometimes with a few pale areas showing through red
----------------------------.-------------- rufus H enry, n. sp.
4'. Dorsum and venter not red or reddish orange, with or without
brown or red spots ---... -- ..- .. .............. 5
5(4'). Dorsum whitish or pale-testaceous with numerous red spots
throughout --------------------psalliodes Reuter
5'. Dorsum testaceous or grayish without red spots over entire
surface ---- -... .....-. ........- -- -. - 6
6(5'). Dorsum, 1st and 2nd antennal segments, and legs pale grayish
or grayish green, with numerous brown to fuscous spots; wing
membrane white with fuscous clouds apically; females usually
brachypterous ---vaccini (Van Duzee)
6'. Dorsum testaceous, often with a light reddish-orange tinge and
a few brown or red spots at base and apex of corium, spots on
legs red; antennae uniformly pale testaceous, without spots;
wing membrane smoky brown; brachypterous female un-
known ---...... ----- ---..... --------- ... weemsi Henry, n. sp.

Parthenicus juniperi (Heidemann)
(Fig. 1, 8)

Psallus juniperi Heidemann, 1892: 225.
Parthenicus juniperi: Knight, 1919: 114.
DESCRIPTION: MALE-Length 2.76-3.20 mm (n=5), width 1.00-1.08 mm.
Head: Width 0.62-0.66 mm, vertex 0.16-0.18 mm. Rostrum: Length 1.00 mm,
reaching just past base of metacoxa. Antenna: Segment I, length 0.20 mm;
II, 1.04-1.08 mm; III, 0.60 mm; IV, 0.32 mm. Pronotum: Length 0.40-0.44
mm, basal width 0.82-0.84 mm.
General coloration pale testaceous, hemelytra often tinged with salmon
pink, anterior 1/2 of pronotum tinged with greenish yellow, scutellum usually
black or strongly infuscated, membrane fumate; venter testaceous, abdomen
often strongly infuscated; legs testaceous, dorsal 2/3 of metafemora fuscous
to fuscorufous; tibiae testaceous without spots at bases of pallid spines;
dorsum clothed with erect and semierect, simple, golden setae, intermixed
with silvery sericeous setae on head and middle of hemelytra, golden
sericeous setae on pronotum and throughout hemelytra, and black scalelike
setae on scutellum, apical 1/3 of corium, and scattered on clavus and cuneus.
Parameres: Left (Fig. 8a); right (Fig. 8b) stout with a subapical
process and a short acute spine at middle of back side.
FEMALE-Length 2.68-3.08 mm (n=10), width 1.04 mm. Head: Width
0.52-0.58 mm, vertex 0.26-0.28 mm. Rostrum: Length 1.08-1.12 mm, reaching
just past metacoxae. Antenna: Segment I, length 0.18-0.22 mm; II, 0.82-
0.98 mm; III, 0.44-0.54 mm; IV, 0.34-0.36 mm. Pronotum: Length 0.38-0.44
mm, basal width 0.84-0.98 mm.


September, 1982


356







Henry: Parthenicus


.E4..
/ ", '
-^^ ^-v
r. .
ia9i ^*:.


i~t.


A


4


si


Fig. 1-4. Photographs of Parthenicus spp. 1) juniperi; 2) knight; 3)
psalliodes; 4) rufus.


.ipuu~iL~rmx
'"lt~R;

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t


357


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Florida Entomologist 65 (3)


U3'4


p.

44





6a


'C


Ir..


4


""41
I
eI' I


6b


Fig. 5-7. Photographs of Parthenicus spp. 5) taxodii; 6 a-b) vaccini,
macropterous male (a) and brachypterous female (b) ; 7) iweemsi.


358


September, 1982


.M.' 10L


40 Nc
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ir


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Henry: Parthenicus


Very similar to male in color and pubescence.
REMARKS: Parthenicus juniperi, described from Washington, D.C. and
Berkeley Springs [Morgan Co.], West Virginia (Heidemann 1892), is com-
mon on red cedar, Juniperus virginiana L., and cultivated Juniperus spp.
everywhere east of the 100th meridian (Knight 1941). Wheeler and Henry
(1977) reviewed the distribution and host plants, redescribed the adult,
described the 5th-instar nymph, and provided a brief account of the seasonal
history. Parthenicus juniperi also feeds on cultivated species of Chamaecy-
paris and l. aj,, (Wheeler and Henry 1977).
Parthenicus juniperi is distinguished from other eastern species of the
genus by the testaceous dorsum, often with a salmon-pink tinge, by the in-
fuscated scutellum, the black scalelike setae on the scutellum and apex of the
corium, and by the pale testaceous tibiae without spots at the bases of the
spines.

Parthenicus knight Henry, NEW SPECIES
(Fig. 2, 9)
DESCRIPTION: HOLOTYPE MALE-Length 2.76 mm (range of 4 paratypes
and holotype, 2.76-3.12 mm), width 1.08 mm (1.00-1.08 mm). Head: Width
0.64 mm (0.64-0.66 mm), vertex 0.24 mm (0.24 mm). Rostrum: Length 1.22
mm (1.22-1.34 mm), reaching base of 5th abdominal segment. Antenna:
Segment I, length 0.20 mm (0.20-0.28 mm); II, 0.86 mm (0.86-0.92 mm) ; III,
broken (0.66 mm); IV, broken (0.32 mm). Pronotum: Length 0.48 (0.44-
0.48 mm), basal width 0.92 mm (0.88-0.96 mm).
General coloration yellow to testaceous, area around calli tinged with
orange yellow, basal angles of scutellum infuscated, base and outside margin
of clavus, inside margin of corium, and base of cuneus blotched or spotted
with red; membrane fumate, veins of small areole red; venter, legs and
antennae uniformly pallid to testaceous, tibial spines pallid without spots
at bases. Dorsum with erect and semierect, golden, simple setae, intermixed
with silvery, sericeous setae on head, pronotum, scutellum and base of
clavus, and golden sericeous setae generally over hemelytra, especially on
apical 1/3 of corium.
Parameres: Left (Fig. 9a); right (Fig. 9b) with a stout, pointed apical
process and a large middle process with the acute apex pointed basally.
Allotype brachypterouss) female: Length to apex of abdomen 2.32 mm,
length to apex of hemelytra (membrane greatly reduced) 2.06 mm, width
1.04 mm. Head: Width 0.58 mm, vertex 0.30 mm. Rostrum: Length 1.40 mm,
reaching base of ovipositor. Antenna: Segment I, length 0.20 mm; II, 0.94
mm; III and IV broken. Pronotum: Length 0.38 mm, basal width 0.84 mm.
Similar to male in color and pubescence.
TYPE-DATA: Holotype-Male, Fort Meyers [Lee Co.], Florida, 12 May
1928, E. D. Ball coll. (USNM type no. 100237). Allotype: Female, same data
as for holotype. Paratypes: 1 6, Tampa [Hillsborough Co.], Florida, 10
September 1927, E. D. Ball coll. (USNM); 5 8, same data as for holotype
(USNM).
REMARKS: Parthenicus knight is described from material found in the
H. H. Knight collection (USNM). I have the honor of naming this species
after Dr. Knight, who described most of the 72 known species of Parthenicus.
This species can be separated from other species of eastern Parthenicus


359












Florida Entomologist 65(3)


by the uniformly testaceous dorsum, accented with red at the base and
outside margin of the clavus, the inside margin of the corium, and basal
area of the cuneus; and by the long rostrum that reaches the 5th abdominal
segment in males and to the base of the ovipositor in the only known female.
Parthenicus psalliodes Reuter
(Fig. 3, 10)

Parthenicus psalliodes Reuter, 1876: 85
DESCRIPTION: MALE-Length 2.56-3.16 mm (n=5), width 1.00-1.16 mm.
Head: Width 0.54-0.64 mm, vertex 0.20-0.24 mm. Rostrum: Length 0.94-1.02
mm, reaching 3rd abdominal segment. Antenna: Segment I, length 0.20-0.22
mm; II, 0.84-1.00 mm; III, 0.60-0.68 mm; IV, 0.32-0.38 mm. Pronotum:
Length 0.38-0.44 mm, basal width 0.76-0.90 mm.
General coloration whitish or pale testaceous, thickly spotted with
orange red; scutellum lightly infuscated; membrane smoky gray; venter
pallid to testaceous, sides of abdomen often tinged with green and spotted
with orange; legs pallid to testaceous, femora red to brown spotted and
usually infuscated, especially on metafemora; tibiae pale with red to brown
spots at bases of pallid spines; antenna pale with one or a few orange spots


Fig. 8-11. Parameres of Parthenicus spp. (a= left paramere; b= right
paramere). 8) juniperi; 9) knight; 10) psalliodes; 11) rufus.


September, 1982


360













Henry: Parthenicus 361
on 1st segment. Dorsum covered with numerous, golden, simple setae, inter-
mixed with silvery sericeous setae on head, pronotum and hemelytra and
fuscous scalelike setae on scutellum, hemelytra, especially apical 1/3, and
along inside margin of cuneus.
Parameres: Left (Fig. 10a); right (Fig. 10b) with a stout apical
process and an elongate, but broad, comblike middle process.
FEMALE:-Length 2.52-2.88 mm (n=5), width 1.00-1.12 mm. Head:
Width 0.52-0.56 mm, vertex 0.26 mm. Rostrum: Length 1.00-1.12 mm. An-
tenna: Segment I, length 0.18-0.20 mm; II, 0.78-0.86 mm; III, 0.54-0.60 mm;
IV, 0.32 mm. Pronotum: Length 0.44 mm, basal width 0.90 mm.
Similar to male in color and pubescence.
REMARKS:--Parthenicus psalliodes was described from Texas (Reuter
1876). It is also recorded from California and Florida (Blatchley 1926), but
the California record is doubtful. Knight (1968) did not record psalliodes
from California and I have not seen specimens east of Texas.
I found this species common at light in Highlands Co., Florida, Archbold
Biological Station during April 1981-82 and Alachua Co., Florida, Gaines-
ville, in late April 1981. Other records include: 5 adults (3 nymphs) Alachua
Co., Florida, Austin Cary Memorial Forest, Rt. 24, 4 May 1982, T. J. Henry
coll., taken on Eupatorium compositifolium Walt. and Eupatorium pin-
natifidum Ell. (Asteraceae) (USNM); 3 $, 5 9, (and 5th instar nymphs)
Bay Co., Florida, 11 miles west of Jet. 230 along Rt. 20, T. J. Henry coll.,
taken of C'lirj ..... I, I' ,f .. d,, (Michx.) Greene (Asteraceae) (USNM);
1 8 (and nymphs) Gulf Co., Florida, 5 mi. S of Port St. Joe, Rt. 30, 8 May
1982, T. J. Henry coll. taken on Chrysoma 1 ;. fl .... 7., ,, (USNM); 10 3rd
instar nymphs, Henry Co., Alabama, 10 mi. W of Abbeville, Rt. 10, 11 May
1982, T. J. Henry coll., taken on Eupatorium compositifolium (USNM);
1 J, Harnett Co., North Carolina, Fort Bragg, 15 September 1968, D. B.
Palmer coll. (USNM) ; 9 males and 10 females, Brazos Co., Texas, College
Station, 10 Sept.-20 Oct. 1928, S. E. Jones coll., taken on broomweed, Gutier-
rezia texana Torreya and Gray (Asteraceae) (USNM).
Parthenicus psalliodes can be separated from other eastern species of
Parthenicus by the whitish or pale-testaceous, red-spotted dorsum and legs
and by the male parameres as described above.
Parthenicus rufus Henry, NEW SPECIES
(Fig. 4, 11)
DESCRIPTION: HOLOTYPE MALE-Length 2.78 mm (range of 4 paratypes
2.76-2.96 mm), width 1.04 mm (1.00-1.04 mm). Head: Width 0.58 mm (0.58-
0.60 mm), vertex 0.24 mm (0.24 mm). Rostrum: Length 0.96 mm (0.94-0.98
mm), reaching 4th abdominal segment. Antenna: Segment I, length 0.22
mm (0.20-0.22 mm); II, 0.90 mm (0.88-0.90 mm); III, 0.66 mm (0.64-0.70
mm); IV, 0.28 mm (0.28-0.34 mm). Pronotum: Length 0.42 mm (0.42 mm),
basal width 0.82 mm (0.80-0.84 mm).
General coloration orange red with a few irregular, paler blotches on
pronotum, embolium, cuneus, and base of clavus and corium; hemelytral
membrane fumate or black, veins orange red; venter orange red, flecked with
red on abdomen; antennae testaceous (some paratypes tinged with orange),
segment IV and apex of III infuscated; legs generally testaceous pro- and
mesofemora lightly brown flecked, metafemora strongly brown flecked, flecks
coalescing dorsally to form solid brown areas; tibial spines pale testaceous












Florida Entomologist 65 (3)


Fig. 12-14. Parameres of Parthenicus spp. (a= left paramere; b= right
paramere). 12) taxodii; 13) vaccini; 14) weemsi.

with orange spots at bases. Dorsum with semierect, simple, golden setae,
strongly intermixed with golden sericeous setae on head, pronotum, and
hemelytra; silvery sericeous setae on scutellum, apex of clavus, and sparsely
scattered over head and pronotum; inner apical 1/3 of corium and a single
tuft on inside margin of cuneus with black sericeous or scalelike setae.
Parameres: Left (Fig. 11a); right (Fig. 11b) with an upward-pointing
apical process and a slender, but elongate middle process.
ALLOTYPE FEMALE: Length 2.60 mm (range of 10 paratypes 2.32-2.76
mm), width 1.04 mm (0.92-1.04 mm). Head: Width 0.56 mm (0.50-0.58 mm),
vertex 0.28 mm (0.28-0.30 mm). Rostrum:, Length 1.02 mm (0.94-1.02 mm).
Antenna: Segment I, length 0.20 mm (0.16-0.22 mm); II, 0.80 mm (0.72-
0.86 mm); III, 0.60 mm (0.48-0.58 mm); IV, 0.30 mm (0.32-0.34 mm).
Pronotum: Length 0.40 mm (0.36-0.42 mm), basal width 0.86 mm (0.76-
0.88 mm).
Similar to male in color and pubescence.
TYPE-DATA: Holotype-Male, Highlands Co., Florida, 2 mi. W of Sebring,


362


Septembei-, 1982













Henry: Parthenicus


Rt. 634, 24 April 1982, T. J. Henry and A. G. Wheeler, Jr. colls., taken on
Hypericum fasciculatum Lam. (USNM type no. 100238). Allotype: same
data as for holotype (USNM). Paratypes: 2 $, 4 Y, same data as for
holotype (USNM); 2 $, 9 Y, Highlands Co., Florida, Archbold Biological
Station, 27 April 1981 and 20-25 April 1982, T. J. Henry, taken at blacklight
(USNM); 8 9, Collier Co., Florida, 1.5 mi. E of Hendry Co. line, Rt. 82, 25
April 1982, T. J. Henry coll., taken on Hypericum fasciculatum (FSCA,
USNM); 2 8, 1 9, Seminole Co., Florida, Sanford, 5 May 1927, E. D. Ball
coll. (USNM); 2 Y, Polk Co., Florida, 6 May 1957, H. V. Weems, Jr. coll.,
taken on Hypericum sp. (FSCA); 1 8 generall), Co.?, South Carolina,
N. Landing (no date), W. F. Fiske coll. (USNM).
REMARKS:Parthenicus rufus is distinguished from other eastern species
of Parthenicus by the uniformly red body with small irregular pale areas,
predominantly clothed with golden sericeous setae, and by the heavily red-
spotted legs.
The general reddish coloration of this bug is similar to that of other
Miridae, Taedia heidemanni (Reuter) and Phytocoris rufus Van Duzee,
that were also collected on Hypericum spp. in Florida in 1981 and 1982.

Parthenicus taxodii Knight
(Fig. 5, 12)
Parthenicus taxodii Knight, 1941: 76
DESCRIPTION: MALE-Length 2.00-2.56 mm (n=2), width 0.90-0.96 mm.
Head: Width 0.54-0.60 mm, vertex 0.17-0.18 mm. Rostrum: Length 0.73-0.90
mm, reaching metacoxae. Antenna: Segment I, length 0.13-0.16 mm; II,
0.73-0.82 mm; III, 0.43-0.50 mm; IV, 0.26-0.30 mm. Pronotum: Length 0.34-
0.40 mm, basal width 0.73-0.80 mm.
Overall coloration yellow to greenish yellow, with some specimens ex-
hibiting an orange tinge; venter, legs, and antennae uniformly yellowish,
only metafemora sometimes with a few minute fuscous spots; dorsum with
erect and semierect pale to golden, simple setae, thickly intermixed with
silvery sericeous setae.
Parameres: Left (Fig. 12a); right (Fig. 12b) rather stout and having a
small acute, downcurved, subapical spine.
FEMALE-Length 2.20-2.44 mm (n=2), width 0.91-1.00 mm. Head:
Width 0.47-0.54 mm, vertex 0.26-0.28 mm. Rostrum: Length 0.84 mm. An-
tenna: Segment I, length 0.13-0.18 mm; II, 0.70-0.74 mm; III, 0.40-0.44 mm;
IV, 0.26-0.29 mm. Pronotum: Length 0.32-0.38 mm, basal width 0.75-0.84 mm.
Color and pubescence similar to that of male.
REMARKS: Parthenicus taxodii was described from specimens collected on
bald cypress, Taxodium distichum (L.) in Illinois (Knight 1941), and later
recorded from Missouri (Froeschner 1949). I collected nymphs and 4 adults
of this species in Florida from Liberty Co., 3 miles south of Bristol, County
Road 379, 7 and 11 May 1981, on bald cypress (USNM). A single 9 was
taken on bald cypress in Martin Co., Florida, 7 mi. So. of the Okeechobee Co.
Line, 29 Apr. 1982 (USNM).
Parthenicus taxodii is recognized by the small size, uniformly yellowish
coloration, often with an orange tinge, silvery sericeous pubescence on the
dorsum, and by the pallid tibial spines without spots at bases.


363













Florida Entomologist 65 (3)


September, 1982


Parthenicus vaccini (Van Duzee)
(Fig. 6, 13)
Psallus vaccini Van Duzee, 1915: 117
Parthenicus vaccini Van Duzee, 1916: 45
DESCRIPTION: MALE-Length 2.68-2.96 mm (n=10), width 1.00-1.04 mm.
Head: Width 0.54-0.56 mm, vertex 0.24-0.26 mm. Rostrum: Length 1.20-1.28
mm, reaching base of genital segment. Antenna: Segment I, 0.24-0.26 mm;
II, 0.94-1.00 mm; III, 0.72-0.74 mm; IV, 0.42 mm. Pronotum: Length 0.32-
0.36 mm, basal width 0.78-0.80 mm.
General coloration gray to grayish green, mesosternum fuscous, abdomen
green, 1st and 2nd antennal segments, pronotum, scutellum, and hemelytra
with numerous fuscous spots; legs grayish, femora thickly dark spotted,
some spots coalescing to form blotches on metafemora; pale tibial spines with
large fuscous spots at bases. Dorsum with erect and semierect, pale, simple
setae, intermixed with silvery sericeous setae on head, pronotum and hemely-
tra, and black scalelike setae on scutellum, apical 1/3 of corium and on
cuneus.
Parameres: Left (Fig. 13a); right (Fig. 13b) slender and nearly C-
shaped with the apex gradually tapering.
MACROPTEROUS FEMALES-Similar to males in color, form, and pubescence.
BRACHYPTEROUS FEMALE (Fig. 6b)--Length to apex of abdomen 2.08-
2.30 mm (n=10), length to apex of hemelytra 1.76-1.92 mm, width 0.96 mm.
Head: Width 0.52-0.54 mm, vertex 0.26-0.28 mm. Rostrum: Length 1.26-1.30
mm, reaching base of ovipositor. Antenna: Segment I, length 0.24 mm; II,
0.86-0.92 mm; III, 0.62-0.66 mm; IV, 0.36-0.38 mm. Pronotum: Length 0.30
mm, basal width 0.70 mm.
Similar to macropterous forms in color and pubescence, differing only in
the broader form and the abbreviated membrane of the hemelytra.
REMARKS: Parthenicus vaccini (Van Duzee), described from Ipswich
[Essex Co.], Massachusetts (Van Duzee 1915), was later recorded from Long
Island, New York (Knight 1923), Florida (Blatchley 1926, Frost 1964), and
New Jersey (Henry 1978).
Parthenicus vaccini is known to occur on mats of Hudsonia ericoides L.
(Cistaceae) (Henry 1978). A. G. Wheeler, Jr. and I collected adults and
nymphs of vaccini in abundance near Yaphank and Quoque, Suffolk Co., 29
August 1981 on Hudsonia tomentosa Nutt. (PDA, USNM). At the Quogue
locality, a few adults were swept from the low growing Lechea maritima
Leggett, a plant also belonging to the Cistaceae. The first record for Mary-
land is Assateaque Island, Worcester Co., 6 September 1981, T. J. Henry
coll., on H. tomentosa.
Parthenicus vaccini can be separated from other eastern species of
Parthenicus by the overall grayish coloration, with the dorsum, legs and
antennae having fuscous spots, by the long rostrum that reaches near the
base of the genital segment, and by the form of the male parameres as de-
scribed above.
Parthenicus weemsi Henry, NEW SPECIES
(Fig. 7, 14)
DESCRIPTION: HOLOTYPE MALE-Length 2.48 mm (range of 10 paratypes
2.28-2.76 mm), width 1.00 mm (0.88-1.04 mm). Head: Width 0.62 mm (0.54-


364












Henry: Parthenicus


0.62 mm), vertex 0.26 mm (0.26 mm). Rostrum: Length 0.98 mm (0.92-1.00
mm), reaching just beyond metacoxae to 3rd abdominal segment. Antenna:
Segment I, length 0.18 mm (0.18-0.20 mm) II, 0.90 mm (0.82-0.92 mm);
III, 0.60 mm (0.58-0.64 mm); IV, 0.34 mm (0.32-0.34 mm). Pronotum:
Length 0.38 mm (0.34-0.38 mm); basal width 0.82 mm (0.72-0.84 mm).
Coloration yellow or testaceous, with pronotum, base and apical area of
corium and inner angle of cuneus tinged with red or reddish orange or
flecked with red and/or brown spots; membrane smoky brown, veins more
testaceous. Venter testaceous; antennae testaceous with 1st segment red
spotted and 3rd and 4th segments infuscated. Legs testaceous, pro- and
mesofemora flecked with brown, metafemora strongly flecked and tinged
with brown to reddish brown; tibiae with distinct reddish-brown spots at
bases of spines; claws fuscous. Dorsum with erect and semierect, golden,
simple setae, thickly intermixed with silvery sericeous setae; clavus, apical
area of corium and inner margin of cuneus with black scalelike setae.
PARAMERES: Left (Fig. 14a); right (Fig. 14b) slender with a dorsally
directed apical spine and comblike middle process.
Allotype female: Length 2.32 mm (range of 10 paratypes 2.24-2.64
mm), width 1.00 mm (0.88-1.04 mm). Head: Width 0.52 mm (0.52-0.54 mm),
vertex 0.28 mm (0.28-0.30 mm). Rostrum: Length 1.00 mm (0.94-1.02 mm),
nearly reaching base of ovipositor. Antenna: Segment I, length 0.18 mm
(0.16-0.20 mm); II, 0.78 mm (0.76-0.78 mm); III, 0.52 mm (0.46-0.58 mm);
IV, 0.34 mm (0.32-0.34 mm). Pronotum: Length 0.34 mm (0.34-0.42 mm),
basal width 0.76 mm (0.74-0.88 mm).
Females very similar to males in color and pubescence and differ only in
the broader form.
TYPE-DATA: HOLOTYPE-Male, Highlands Co., Florida, 2 mi. W of Rt. 27
along Rt. 70, 20 April 1982, T. J. Henry and A. G. Wheeler, Jr. colls., taken
on Ceratiola ericoides Michx. [Empetraceae] (USNM type no. 100239).
Allotype: Female, same data as for holotype (USNM). Paratypes: 7 3,
16 9, same data as for holotype (FSCA, USNM); 2 8, 3 9, same locality
as for holotype, 30 April 1982 (USNM); 9 8, 14 9, Putnam Co., Florida, 6
July 1956, H. V. Weems, Jr. coll., taken on Ceratiola ericoides (FSCA,
USNM).
REMARKS: Parthenicus weemsi is distinguished from other eastern species
of Parthenicus by the testaceous coloring with brownish and/or red spots
on the pronotum and at the base and apex of the corium, and by the
numerous red spots on the legs. This species is most similar to taxodii in
the small size, but taxodii is uniformly greenish yellow, both on the body and
legs, and lacks the red spots on the legs.
I have named this new species after Dr. Howard V. Weems, Jr. of the
Florida Department of Agriculture, who has been instrumental in building
the Florida State Collection of Arthropods into one of the outstanding collec-
tions in this country and who collected the first know specimens of this
species.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I thank Frank W. Mead and Howard V. Weems, Jr. (FSCA) for lending
specimens; and Stanley Shetler and Laura Lehtonen (Department of Botany,
USNM), David Hall (Botany Department, University of Florida, Gaines-


365












Florida Entomologist 65 (3)


ville), and Robert Hill (Department of Biology, York College of Pennsyl-
vania, York) for identifying the Parthenicus host plants collected in 1981.
K. R. Langdon and C. R. Artaud (Florida Department of Agriculture,
Gainesville) kindly identified plants in 1982. R. C. Froeschner (USNM)
and A. G. Wheeler, Jr. (PDA) kindly reviewed the manuscript.

REFERENCES CITED
BLATCHLEY, W. S. 1926. Heteroptera or true bugs of eastern North America.
Nature Publ. Co., Indianapolis. 1116 p.
CARVALHO, J. C. M. 1958. Catalogue of the Miridae of the World. Part III.
Orthotylinae. Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro 47: 1-161.
FROESCHNER, R. C. 1949. Contributions to a synopsis of the Hemiptera of
Missouri, Pt. IV. American Midland Naturalist 42: 123-88.
FROST, S. W. 1964. Insects taken in light traps at the Archbold Biological
Station, Highlands County, Florida. Florida Ent. 47: 128-61.
HEIDEMANN, 0. 1892. Note on the food-plants of some Capsidae from the
vicinity of Washington, D.C. Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington 2: 224-6.
HENRY, T. J. 1978. Description of a new Polymerus, with notes on two other
little known mirids from the New Jersey Pine-Barrens (Hemiptera:
Miridae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington 80: 543-7.
1982. New synonymies and a new combination in the North Ameri-
can Miridae (Hemiptera). Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington 84: 337-41.
KELTON, L. A. 1980. Description of a new species of Parthenicus Reuter,
new records of Holarctic Orthotylini in Canada, and new synonymy
for Diaphnocoris pellucida (Heteroptera: Miridae). Can. Ent. 112:
341-4.
KNIGHT, H. H. 1919. Interesting new species of Miridae from the United
States, with notes on Orthocephalus mutabilis (Fallen) (Hemp.
Miridae). Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 13: 111-6.
1923. Family Miridae (Capsidae). Pages 422-655. In W. E. Britton,
ed., Hemiptera of Connecticut. Connecticut St. Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv.
Bull. 34.
1941. The plant bugs, or Miridae, of Illinois. Illinois Nat. Hist.
Surv. Bull. 22. 234 p.
1968. Taxonomic review: Miridae of the Nevada Test Site and the
western United States. Brigham Young Univ. Sci. Bull. 9(3) : 1-282.
REUTER, O. M. 1876. Capsinae ex America boreali in Museo Holmiensi
asservatae, descriptae. Ofv. K. Svens. Vet.-Akad. F6rh. 32(9) : 59-92.
VAN DUZEE, E. P. 1915. New genera and species of North American
Hemiptera. Pomona J. Ent. Zool. 7: 109-21.
1916. Checklist of the Hemiptera (excepting the Aphididae,
Aleurodidae and Coccidae) of America north of Mexico. New York
Entomol. Soc., New York. 111 p.
WHEELER, A. G., JR., AND T. J. HENRY. 1977. Miridae associated with Penn-
sylvania conifers 1. Species on arborvitae, false cypress, and juniper.
Trans. American Ent. Soc. 103: 623-56.


September, 1982,













Burditt: Anastrepha suspense Traps


ANASTREPHA SUSPENSE (LOEW) (DIPTERA:
TEPHRITIDAE) McPHAIL TRAPS FOR
SURVEY AND DETECTION

A. K. BURDITT, JR.1
Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory
Agricultural Research Service
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Yakima, WA 98902

ABSTRACT
Modifications of McPhail traps used for survey and detection of fruit
flies were evaluated for the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspense
(Loew). Traps containing 2 pellets of hydrolyzed torula yeast-borax bait
(HTY) dissolved in water attracted as many Caribbean fruit flies as traps
containing 6 pellets. Traps containing 2 pellets attracted significantly fewer
miscellaneous species of flies that contaminate traps used for fruit fly survey
and detection. Clear glass McPhail traps attracted as many Caribbean fruit
flies as did traps that had been painted arc yellow. None of the alternative
baits tested were significantly more attractive than HTY. Significantly more
Caribbean fruit flies responded to McPhail traps, where they enter from the
bottom, than to bucket traps, where they enter from the side. Although sig-
nificant differences were observed in fly response to traps at different loca-
tions, these differences could not be demonstrated as consistently due to host
species in which the traps were placed.

RESUME
Se evaluaron trampas de McPhail modificadas para el reconocimiento y
la detecci6n de la mosca del Caribe de las frutas, Anastrepha suspense
(Loew). Las trampas que contenian 2 polotillas de cebo (torula-borax-
"HTY") sirvieron egual como las de 6 pelotillas en atraer las moscas del
Caribe, per las de 2 pelotillas atrayeron menos moscas miscelaeas con-
taminantes. Las trampas claras atrayeron moscas del Caribe egual como las
trampas amarillas. Ningun cebo alternative fue m6s atractivo que "HTY".
Significativamente mis moscas del Caribe respondieron a las trampas de
McPhail, en las cuales se entran por abajo, que a las trampas de balde, en
las cuales se entran por el lado. Aunque se observaron diferencias significa-
tivas enu la reacci6n de las moscas a las trampas en diferentes sitios, no se
podia demonstrar que estas diferencias se debian a las species de hospederas
en donde se colocaron las trampas.



The so-called Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspense (Loew), has been
found in Florida since 1965. During that period, the only trap available for
survey and detection of this species has been the McPhail trap. This type of
trap has been used by inspectors from the USDA Animal and Plant Health
Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) and
the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of
Plant Industry (DPI), for detection of incipient infestations of the Mexican
fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and other species of fruit flies

'Formerly: Subtropical Horticulture Research Unit, USDA, SEA/AR, Miami, FL 33158.


367









Florida Entomologist 65(3)


(Anonymous 1976) as well as to monitor populations of the Caribbean fruit
fly.
McPhail traps have been operated on a weekly basis in Dade County, FL
and elsewhere in the state for over 25 years. Steyskal (1977) found that
Dahl reported use of a bell-shaped glass fly trap in 1896. McPhail (1937)
had used the invaginated clear glass trap in evaluating various proteinaceous
or ammonium baits for Mexican fruit fly. Newell (1936) reported that
McPhail traps baited with a mixture of citrus juice and brown sugar were
used in Florida to indicate progress being made during 1933 and 1934 to
eradicate an infestation of Anastrepha acidusa' and A. suspense in Key West.
Several improvements have been made to facilitate use of the McPhail
trap for survey and detection of fruit flies. Sodium borate was found to
inhibit decomposition of protein hydrolysates (Lopez and Hernandez Becerril
1967) which had been found more attractive to flies than the protein mix-
tures previously used by McPhail (1939) and others. A pelletized formula-
tion of cottonseed protein hydrolysate (CTPH) and borax was developed to
facilitate handling and mixing the materials used as a bait for survey and
detection of fruit flies (Lopez et al. 1968). Subsequently a hydrolyzed torula
yeast (HTY) formulation was found to be a more effective attractant for
the Caribbean fruit fly than was the CTPH (Lopez et al. 1971).
Prokopy and Economopoulos (1975) reported that coating the exterior of
McPhail traps with Bird Tanglefoot or painting the traps daylight fluo-
rescent yellow improved their effectiveness in capturing olive flies, Dacus
oleae (Gmelin), or Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiede-
mann), under some conditions. Greany et al. (1978) found that sticky board
traps attracted more Caribbean fruit flies when painted arc yellow, which
they reported produced a sharp reflectance peak at ca. 590 nm. The objective
of this study was to determine if the effectiveness of McPhail traps for
survey and detection of Caribbean fruit flies could be improved by painting,
use of various baits as attractants, or other modification.

METHODS

The standard operating procedure for using McPhail traps in Florida is
given in the Florida Fruit Fly Detection Manual as revised (Anonymous
1976). The traps were filled with water and torula yeast borax pellets (4
parts HTY and 5 parts borax by weight) added. The traps were serviced at
7-day intervals. In these studies, traps were placed in one or more of the 5
guava orchards available for our use or in selected individual trees located
in cooperators' yards.
In our experiments, we selected trees that were hosts of the Caribbean
fruit fly. Where we selected different species as hosts, we rotated traps from
one host tree to the next or we placed paired traps in a host and rotated
their locations in the tree according to the compass direction.
Comparisons were made to determine the efficiency of traps containing 2
vs. 6 pellets, traps painted with arc yellow alkyd enamel fluorescent paint
(Day-Glo Color Corp #26-67-016-4 Cleveland, Ohio) vs. clear glass, and
traps containing alternative baits to HTY. Generally, the attractant bait

'Specimens reported as Anastrepha acidusa Walk. actually were A. mombinpraeoptan.s
Sein (Stone 1939). This species name is now know as A. obligua (Macquart) (Steyskal 1975).


September, 1982


368












Burditt: Anastrepha suspense Traps


was placed in the trap containing ca. 300 ml of water, and the trap was
swirled until the bait dissolved. The number of Caribbean fruit flies respond-
ing to each trap was determined at weekly intervals. Since individual trap
catch ranged from 0 to 475 flies/week, the data were transformed to log
(x+1) for statistical analysis, calculation of means and Duncan's new
multiple range test. Usually a split plot analysis of variance was used.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
NUMBER OF PELLETS PER TRAP. The trapping efficiency of McPhail traps
containing 2 pellets of HTY-borax lure was compared with that of 6 pellets.
Each trap was placed in a host tree at 10 different locations. Treatments
were rotated between locations and replicated 5 times. The number of
Caribbean fruit flies and miscellaneous species of flies in each trap was
determined at weekly intervals for 23 weeks. These data (transformed to
log (x + 1)) showed that the mean number of Caribbean fruit flies caught in
traps baited with 2 pellets was 1.5 flies/trap/week compared with 1.3 flies
for those with 6 pellets and that the treatment means did not differ sig-
nificantly. However, analysis of transformed data for species of flies other
than the Caribbean fruit fly showed that there were significantly fewer
miscellaneous flies (various species, primarily Tachinidae, Muscidae and
Calliphoridae) caught when 2 pellets were used (35.3 flies/trap/week) than
when 6 pellets were used (67.5).
Earlier tests conducted by a DPI inspector, W. H. Pierce (letter to
C. Poucher, dated May 12, 1972), reported that 10 traps containing 5 pellets/
trap caught an average of 29.8 Caribbean fruit flies/trap/week during a
5-week period compared with 17.5 for traps containing 2 pellets. The data
given by Pierce, when transformed and analyzed by the t-test, were not
statistically different.
At the time of this research, 197 McPhail traps were being operated in
Florida. Use of 2 pellets/trap would result in reduced cost of material as
well as reduced time required to separate the fruit flies from the miscel-
laneous species of flies found in the trap.
PAINTED TRAPS. Since research by Greany et al. (1978) had shown that
sticky board traps attracted more Caribbean fruit flies when painted are
yellow than white or other colors tested, a study was undertaken to de-
termine if McPhail traps painted arc yellow would attract more Caribbean
fruit flies than unpainted traps. McPhail traps were painted as follows: (1)
solid (all surfaces accessible from the outside were painted); (2) top
(outer surface accessible when trap was placed on a flat surface was
painted); (3) throat (lower portion of trap and entrance to opening in
bottom of trap was painted), or (4) unpainted. Two HTY pellets were placed
in each trap as bait.
Efficiency of painted McPhail traps was determined in the field by plac-
ing single traps in potential host trees located in southern Dade County and
rotating each of the 4 types of traps between the trees, or by placing one
of each of the 4 types of traps in a host tree and rotating the traps on the
compass points. The former were operated for 16 weeks from December
until April, and the latter were operated for 10 weeks from April through
June. Each treatment was replicated 5 times within each experiment and
design. Results from these 2 experiments (Table 1) showed that differences













Florida Entomologist 65 (3)


TABLE 1. MEAN RESPONSE OF CARIBBEAN FRUIT FLIES TO CLEAR AND PAINTED
McPHAIL TRAPS.


Test
interval Clear Painted traps'
Location (dates) traps Solid Top Throat

S. Dade XII/20/76- 0.4 a 0.5 a 0.5 a 0.5 a
IV/21/77
S. Dade IV/21/77- 1.1 a 1.0 a 1.2 a 1.0 a
VI/30/77
AREC X/26/78- 4.0 a 3.9 a -
XII/29/78
Kendall A X/26/78- 1.1 a 0.5 b -
XII/29/78
Kendall B X/24/78- 16.5 a 6.2 a -
XII/29/78

1Data were transformed to log (x+1) for analysis of variance, calculation of means and
separation of means by Duncan's new multiple range test. Values in a horizontal line followed
by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
2- indicates not tested.

in response of Caribbean fruit flies to traps painted as indicated were not
statistically significant at the 5% level.
Efficiency of McPhail traps painted solid using arc yellow paint was sub-
sequently compared with clear traps in guava plantings at the Florida Agri-
cultural Research and Education Center (AREC), Homestead, FL and at 2
guava plantings operated by Kendall Groves. These traps were operated
from mid-October through December, 1978, and were replicated 4 times at
each of the 3 locations. Results from these tests (Table 1) also failed to
show consistent differences in response of flies to clear and painted McPhail
traps. This is consistent with findings by Prokopy and Economopoulos (1975)
and Prokopy et al. (1975) that painting a clear McPhail trap did not en-
hance the effectiveness of traps containing Rodia-borax bait. This experi-
ment did demonstrate that there were significant differences between
response of Caribbean fruit flies to McPhail traps baited with HTY pellets
during the season, within each orchard (Table 2). These differences gen-
erally were consistent for both clear and painted McPhail traps, as well as
for the 3 guava groves in which the experiments were conducted.
ALTERNATIVE BAITS. As noted above, Lopez had found that HTY was
superior to CTPH as an attractant for the Caribbean fruit fly. At the
request of cooperators, we tested 3 other proteinaceous baits as attractants
for Caribbean fruit flies. Amber BYF Series 50x, a water-soluble fraction of
antolyzed brewers yeast, was supplied by Amber Laboratories, Milwaukee,
WI, 53209. Zitan 85@ and Nasiman 73, hydrolized proteins, were supplied
by Osem Export Ltd (Tamogan Ltd), Tel Aviv, Israel. In the first experi-
ment, traps were rotated between locations over a 6-week period. In the
second experiment, they were tested for 11 weeks.
Results of these tests are given in Table 3. They show that in one ex-
periment the Zitan 85 was inferior to HTY, but in the other tests there were
no differences between baits. Amber BYF was more attractive to miscel-


370


September, 1982













Burditt: Anastrepha suspense Traps


TABLE 2. SEASONAL ACTIVITY OF CARIBBEAN FRUIT FLIES TO MCPHAIL TRAPS
IN 3 ORCHARDS.

Orchard location1
Week AREC Kendall A Kendall B

Oct. 26 10.9 ab 3.3 a 254.1 a
Nov. 2 19.6 a 2.4 a 87.1 b
Nov. 9 5.0 b 4.2 a 125.1 ab
Nov. 16 6.1 b 0.1 b 8.1 c
Nov. 23 24.6 a 0.3 b 15.9 c
Nov. 30 6.0 b 0.3 b 8.9 c
Dec. 7 1.1 c 0.1 b 1.9 d
Dec. 14 1.1 c 0.2 b 1.0 de
Dec. 21 0.1 c 0.4 b 0.3 de
Dec. 29 0.0 c 0.1 b 0.0 e

'Data were transformed to log (x l) for analysis of variance, calculation of means and
separation of means by Duncan's new multiple range test. Values in a column followed by the
same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.

laneous other species of flies than the Nasiman 73 and Zitan 85 baits. HTY
was more consistent as a bait than was Amber BYF. Most of the Caribbean
fruit flies responding to the latter trap did so in a 1-week period.
TRAP DESIGN. White bucket traps containing a liquid protein bait have been
used for fruit flies in Hawaii (Nakagawa et al. 1975). The principle of
operation is similar to the McPhail trap except that the flies enter the
buckets from the side, instead of from the bottom as in the McPhail trap.
McPhail and bucket traps, each containing 2 HTY pellets dissolved in ca.
350 ml water, were placed in guava trees at the Mannheimer Primatological
Foundation near Florida City. The traps were operated for 17 weeks, from
August to December 1979, and treatments were replicated 4 times.
Analysis of variance for these data, transformed to log (x+1), showed
that significantly more Caribbean fruit flies responded to the McPhail traps
(3.0 flies/trap/week) than to the bucket traps (0.8 flies/trap/week).
TRAP-HOST SELECTION. The Florida Fruit Fly Detection Manual (Anonymous
1976) recommends that McPhail traps should be placed in preferred hosts

TABLE 3. COMPARISON OF FLY RESPONSE TO BAITS IN MCPHAIL TRAPS.

Mean number of flies/trap per week'
Amount/ Caribbean fruit flies Other flies2
Bait trap 1977 1978 1978

HTY 2 pellets 3.0 a 2.6 a 258.0 ab
Amber BYF 3 ml 1.9 ab 2.3 a 378.1 a
Nasiman 73 3 ml 0.9 b 1.4 a 129.6 b
Zitan 85 3 ml 0.5 b 1.1 a 101.7 b

'Data were transformed to log (x+l) for analysis of variance, calculation of means and
separation of means by Duncan's new multiple range test. Values in a column followed by the
same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
2Various species, primarily Tachinidae, Muscidae and Calliphoridae.












Florida Entomologist 65 (3)


of the species of fruit fly being trapped. Von Windeguth et al. (1973) re-
ported that the most important hosts of the Caribbean fruit fly in Key West,
Florida, included guava (Psidium guajava L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica
(Thunb.) Lindl.), Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.), tropical almond
(Terminalia catappa L.) and sapodilla (Achras zapota L.).
In one of our experiments we compared response of flies over a 16 week
period from January through April to traps placed in different hosts.
Analysis of these data, using a t-test, showed that there was no difference
in response of flies to traps in a loquat tree (4.9 flies/trap/week) compared
to a nearly guava tree (1.4 flies/trap/week). Similarly, there was no differ-
ence in response to traps in a sapodilla tree (7.0 flies/trap/week) and a
nearby guava tree (4.4 flies/trap/week).

CONCLUSIONS
The research reported in this paper has demonstrated that McPhail traps
baited with 2 pellets of HTY were as effective as those with 6 pellets, when
used to survey for the Caribbean fruit fly. More miscellaneous species of
flies, that had to be separated from the fruit flies, were found in the latter.
This research did not indicate the potential for improving response of
Caribbean fruit flies to the McPhail traps by painting them arc-yellow, use
of other baits or use of a bucket instead of an invaginated, liquid bait trap.
Differences in response of fruit flies to McPhail traps could only be attrib-
uted to seasonal variation in population abundance.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I want to thank George Searles for his assistance in operating the traps
so efficiently. He was assisted over the period of this research by Gary
Dodson, Earl Scott, and others. Ben Tipps performed most of the statistical
analyses. This paper reports the results of research only. Mention of a
commercial product in this paper does not constitute a recommendation for
use by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Received for publication 27
March 1982.

REFERENCES CITED
ANONYMOUS. 1976. Florida Fruit Fly Detection Manual. USDA, APHIS,
PPQ and Fla. DACS, PDI, Gainesville, FL. Mimeo.
GREANY, P. D., A. K. BURDITT, JR., H. R. AGEE, AND D. L. CHAMBERS. 1978.
Increasing effectiveness of visual traps for the Caribbean fruit fly,
Anastrepha suspense (Diptera: Tephritidae), by use of fluorescent
colors. Ent. Exp. Appl. 23: 20-5.
LOPEZ-D., F., AND O. HERNANDEZ BECERRIL. 1967. Sodium borate inhibits
decomposition of two protein hydrolysates attractive to the Mexican
fruit fly. J. Econ. Ent. 60: 137-40.
L. M. SPISHAKOFF, AND O. HERNANDEZ BECERRIL. 1968. Pelletized
lures for trapping the Mexican fruit fly. Ibid. 61: 316-7.
-- L. F. STEINER, AND F. R. HOLBROOK. 1971. A new yeast hydrolysate-
borax bait for trapping the Caribbean fruit fly. Ibid. 64: 1541-3.
MCPHAIL, M. 1937. Relation of time of day, temperature and evaporation
to attractiveness of fermenting sugar solution to Mexican fruit fly.
Ibid. 30: 793-9.


372


September, 1982













Burditt: Anastrepha suspense Traps 373

S1939. Protein lures for fruit flies. Ibid. 32: 758-61.
NAKAGAWA, S., D. SUDA, T. URAGO, AND E. J. HARRIS. 1975. Gallon plastic
tub a substitute for the McPhail trap. Ibid. 68: 405-6.
NEWELL, W. 1936. Progress report on the Key West (Florida) fruit fly
eradication project. Ibid. 29: 116-20.
PROKOPY, R. J., AND A. P. ECONOMOPOULOS. 1975. Attraction of laboratory
cultured and wild Dacus oleae flies to sticky coated McPhail traps of
different colors and odors. Environ. Ent. 4: 187-92.
G. E. HANIOTAKIS, AND A. P. ECONOMOPOULOS. 1975. Comparative
behavior of laboratory-cultured and wild-type Dacus oleac flies in the
field. Pages 101-8 In Controlling Fruit Flies by the Sterile Insect
Technique. International Atomic Energy Agency PL-582/10.
STEYSKAL, G. C. 1975. Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) the prior name for
Anastrepha mombinpraeoptans Sein (Fruit flies, Tephritidae, Diptera)
United States Dept. Agric., Coop. Econ. Ins. Rep. 25: 357-8.
1977. History and use of the McPhail trap. Fla. Ent. 60: 11-6.
STONE, A. 1939. A new genus of Trypetidae near Anastrepha (Diptera). J.
Washington Acad. Sci. 29: 340-50.
VON WINDEGUTH, D. L., W. H. PIERCE, AND L. F. STEINER. 1973. Infestations
of Anastrepha suspense in fruit on Key West, Florida and adjacent
islands. Florida Ent. 56: 127-31.












Florida Entomologist 65(3)


SCIENTIFIC NOTES
EFFECTIVENESS OF JACKSON TRAPS FOR FRUIT FLIES IM-
PROVED BY ADDITION OF COLORED PATTERNS-A trap used
commonly for survey and detection of tephritid flies, known as the "Jackson
trap", is essentially a triangular tube made of heavy waxed paper and pro-
visioned with a paper insert coated with an adhesive. Attraction is based
upon use of chemical lures in the trap. Its design was apparently first de-
scribed in print by Harris et al. 1971; J. Econ. Ent. 64: 62-4). To our
knowledge, no effort has been made to improve upon the original design
through incorporation of color, and all Jackson traps being used in survey
and detection programs are white.
As earlier studies showed that certain colors were attractive to the
Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspense (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae)
(1977; Greany et al., Ent. exp. & appl. 121: 63-70; 1978; Greany et al.,
Ent. exp. & appl. 23: 20-5), we set up tests to evaluate the effect of adding
color to Jackson traps to improve trap effectiveness for detection of this
species. A fluorescent orange paint, Arc Yellow (pigment A-16, Day-Glo
Color Corp., Cleveland, Ohio) with a peak reflectance of 590 nm, was the
most attractive paint tested earlier and was therefore chosen for these tests.
The Jackson traps employed were of the standard design used in current
state and federal trapping programs (12.5 cm long with a triangular open-
ing 9.5 cm on each edge) and were provisioned with 10 x 15-cm adhesive
inserts. The paint patterns we tested are indicated in Table 1. No chemical
attractants were included in these tests.
Bioassays were performed using laboratory reared flies confined in an
outdoor screen cage (3.7 x 3.7 x 2.5 m) at the Subtropical Horticulture Re-
search Laboratory, ARS, USDA, Miami, Florida. The bioassay methods
used were similar to those employed by A. K. Burditt, Jr., and T. P.
McGovern for tests of candidate chemical attractants (1979; USDA Publ.
ARM-S-6). The cage was provisioned with ca. 25,000 flies of mixed ages
and sexes. The traps were suspended from the rim of a slowly rotating
(0.44 rpm) 1.2 m diameter wheel (to avoid position effects) ca. 0.75 m from
the top of the cage. Tests were conducted during mid-day and were 1 hr
in duration. Two traps of each design were presented simultaneously, but
were positioned next to traps of other types rather than adjacent to each
other. The tests were repeated on 10 non-consecutive days during September
and October 1976 (summary of results in Table 1).
These results clearly show the benefit of adding fluorescent orange paint
to the traps. Traps painted over the entire external surface (type B) caught
ca. twice as many flies as the standard white trap. The increase in response
was heightened further by selective painting of the traps, so that those traps
(type E) painted with a 2.5-cm stripe on each end on the exterior surface
and uniformly in the interior caught ca. 5 times more flies than the un-
painted white traps. Increased capture of flies in traps with painted ex-
terior end stripes may be due to either (1) increased attractiveness of the
trap per se due to its contrasting white/orange pattern, which possibly pro-
vides increased stimulation through an optomotor effect, or (2) increased
efficiency of the trap due to enhanced orientation of flies to the open ends,
thereby mediating movement toward the interior sticky surface. This ques-
tion should be resolvable through direct behavioral observation.


374


September, 1982










Scientific Notes 375

TABLE 1. RESPONSE OF CARIBBEAN FRUIT FLIES TO JACKSON TRAPS: EFFECT
OF INCORPORATING ARC YELLOW COLOR.

Mean (- S.E.)
Trap type (color pattern) no. flies captured1

A-Plain (no color added) 6.9 ( 1.1) a
B-Outside only (entire surface) 11.7 (+ 2.1) a
C-Inside only (entire surface, incl. insert) 21.1 ( 3.8) b
D-Entire trap (inside & outside) 25.0 ( 3.3) b
E-Inside (incl. insert) & 2.5 cm stripe on ends 32.9 (- 4.7) c

'Means followed by different letters differ significantly at the 5% level by Duncan's new
multiple range test.
Assuming these results can be confirmed in field tests with wild flies, we
believe it may be possible to significantly enhance the effectiveness of Jack-
son traps employed for survey and detection of various tephritid species. It
is also possible that trap effectiveness could be synergized by combining
visual and chemical attractants. Mention of a commercial or proprietary
product does not constitute an endorsement by the USDA.- P. D. GREANY,
A. K. BURDITT, JR.', AND D. L. CHAMBERS, Insect Attractants, Behavior and
Basic Biology Research Laboratory, ARS, USDA, Gainesville, FL 32604.

'Formerly of the Subtropical Horticulture Research Laboratory, ARS, USDA, Miami, FL;
currently Laboratory Director, Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory, ARS, USDA,
Yakima, WA.


DATANA PERSPICUA (LEPIDOPTERA: NOTODONTIDAE) AT-
TACKS COTINUS OBOVATUS, A NATIVE WOODY ORNAMENTAL-
The sumac caterpillar, Datana perspicua Dyar (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae),
has been thought to be restricted to members of the sumac genus, Rhus
(Anacardiaceae). C. P. Kimball (1965, The Lepidoptera of Florida, an
Annotated Checklist. Florida Dept. of Agric., Gainesville, 363 p.) merely
listed "sumac" as its food, whereas H. M. Tietz (1972. An Index to the
Described Life Histories, Early Stages and Hosts of the Macrolepidoptera
of the Continental United States and Canada. I.A.C. Allyn, Sarasota, 536 p.)
specified R. aromatica Ait. (fragrant sumac), R. copallina L. (shining
sumac), and R. typhina L. (staghorn sumac) as hosts. Other members of
genus Datana, namely D. major Grote and Robinson, D. ranaeceps Gur6in-
M6n6ville, and D. integerrima Grote and Robinson (walnut caterpillar), also
appear to be closely tied to a single host genus each. However, D. ministry
(Drury) (yellownecked caterpillar), D. angusi Grote and Robinson, and D.
contract Walker attack fairly diverse hosts (Kimball 1965, in loc cit.).
Cotinus obovatus Raf. (American smoketree) (Anacardiaceae) is an
uncommon shrub or slender tree up to 10 m high found naturally on rocky
limestone hills in Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Missouri, Alabama, Tennessee,
and Kentucky (Vines, R. A. 1960. Trees, Shrubs, and Woody Vines of the
Southwest. Univ. of Texas Press, Austin. 1104 p.). There appear to be no
previous records of arthropods damaging C. obovatus.
Data were collected in 1979-1981 from a lone specimen of C. obovatus












Florida Entomologist 65 (3)


growing as a solitary tree (d.b.h. = 6.35 cm, height = 3.0 m, drip line = 2.5
m from trunk) in a 0.55 x 2.5 m outdoor bed delimited by railroad cross-ties
in Branch Community, Collin County, Texas. The bed was examined to a
depth of ca. 10 cm and the location of each pupa was plotted.
Mature larvae of D. perspicua (laboratory-reared adults det. R. W.
Poole, Systematic Ent. Lab., USDA, Beltsville, Maryland) first were de-
tected on C. obovatus foliage in Branch Community, 28 September 1979.
Four specimens taken to the laboratory pupated by 4 October; within this
same period all larvae disappeared from the tree. A 3 December 1979 excava-
tion of the bed disclosed 12 pupae of D. perspicua in earthen cells around
the base of the tree. The mean distance of pupae from the trunk was 23.2 +
SE of 2.5 cm (range = 10.2-36.7 cm) and the mean depth was 1.9 SE of
0.2 cm (range = 0.9-3.8 cm). The lateral distribution indicates that the
larvae had climbed down the trunk to the ground; if they had dropped from
the branch tips they would have been nearer the drip line (2.5 m from the
trunk). Equal numbers of larvae dispersed north and south from the trunk,
but nine went to the west vs. three to the east.
In 1980, but not in 1981, the plant at Branch Community was attacked
again by D. perspicua. Several specimens each of Rhus virens (Gray) (ever-
green sumac) and R. glabra L. (scarlet sumac) were ca. 70 and 5 m, re-
spectively, from the C. obovatus; no larvae or feeding damage were found
on these plants 1979-1981. Five C. obovatus in Dallas, Dallas Co., Texas
were not attacked in any of these 3 years. Because D. perspicua apparently
is univoltine and because C. obovatus is a relatively small plant under most
circumstances, any necessary control of the pest on domesticated C. obovatus
should be relatively easy. Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Journal
Series No. TA-16747.-ROBERT L. CROCKER, AND BENNY J. SIMPSON, Texas
A&M University Research and Extension Center, 17360 Coit Road, Dallas,
TX 75252.



A LINEAR PITFALL TRAP FOR MOLE CRICKETS AND OTHER
SOIL ARTHROPODS-Although adult mole crickets (Scapteriscus acletus
and S. vicinus) can be readily trapped by electronic calling devices (Walker
1982, Florida Ent. 65: 105-10) a reliable and easy collecting technique for
immatures has yet to be developed. Although mole crickets do extensive sur-
face burrowing and surface feeding, conventional pitfall traps are largely in-
effective.
To provide large numbers of mole cricket nymphs for research, an easily
constructed and inexpensive linear pitfall trap was developed and tested for
trapping potential. A 2.5 cm slot was cut lengthwise from a piece of 7.6 cm
diam. PVC pipe ca. 2.5 m long. A 5 cm section was left uncut at each end
and at the midpoint for reinforcement. An end cap was placed over one end
of the pipe and 0.318 cm drainage holes drilled opposite the slot at ca. 30 cm
intervals. A hole large enough to insert the PVC pipe was cut in the side of
a 19 L plastic pail, ca. 7 cm from the top. (Pails that contained dry-wall
joint compound or paint work well). A hole to accommodate the PVC pipe
was cut in the side of a 3.78 liter plastic jug used to collect the specimens; a
plastic milk jug or chlorox bottle works well. Drainage holes were drilled in
the bottoms of the pail and plastic collection jug.


376


September, 1982













Scientific Notes 377

S2.5 cm slot

,/end cap
t=~7 i i-----I/

19 liter plastic pail
Top View

/0.635 cm mesh hardware cloth

M soil level



7.6 cm diameter PVC pipe

Side View
3.78 liter plastic jug

Fig. 1. Top and side views of a linear pitfall trap for mole crickets and
other soil arthropods.
The PVC pipe was placed in a trench with the open slot up, at or very
slightly below the soil level. The plastic pail was imbedded in the ground
(Fig. 1) with the collection jug inserted over the open end of the PVC pipe.
About 1 cm of soil was placed both inside the PVC pipe and the plastic jug
to keep the captured mole crickets separated since they are cannibalistic.
Insects that fell into the PVC pipe eventually moved to the open end of the
pipe and fell into the jug.
The trap works equally well in sod or bare ground, capturing considerable
numbers of mole crickets of all stages. First and second stage mole cricket
nymphs were initially captured by this technique 28 April 1981 at Boynton
Beach, FL. In the succeeding 30 days, 2 of these linear pitfall traps captured
749 immature mole crickets, both Scapteriscus acletus and S. vicinus, for an
average of 12.5/day/trap. The highest capture for one trap in one day was
41.
Many soil inhabiting arthropods were captured in addition to mole
crickets: spiders; earwigs; Euborellia sp.; ground beetles (Carabidae) ; and
billbugs, Sphenophorus sp.. Larger spiders, especially wolf or ground spiders
(Lycosa sp.) which are predacious on the mole crickets, were largely ex-
cluded from the collection jug by cutting a 0.635 cm mesh hardware cloth
screen to fit the inside of the PVC near the pail.-K. O. LAWRENCE, RPE,
Chemlawn Corporation, Rt. 1 Box 1125, Boynton Beach, FL 33437 USA.


MATING WOUNDS IN MALACOSOMA: AN INSIGHT INTO BED
BUG MATING BEHAVIOR-Male bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) in-
ject sperm into females through the body wall. In addition, in Xylocoris,
males inject sperm into mounting males which indirectly deposit some of
the attacking males' sperm into their mates (Lloyd 1979. Florida Ent. 62:
17-23). The mating behavior of Malacosoma (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae)












378 Florida Entomologist 65 (3) September, 1982

may provide some clues to the evolutionary origin of this bizarre behavior.
The operational sex ratio in Malacosoma frequently is male-biased (Stehr
and Cook 1968. United States Nat. Mus. Bull. 876.). This results in males
finding females which are already mating. In a laboratory enclosure, a male
M. americanum, the eastern tent caterpillar, attempted to copulate with an
already mating female. It appeared that he succeeded although he did not
dislodge her first mate or penetrate her bursula copulatrix. Instead he
punctured her abdomen probably with his tusk-shaped penis. An accessory
gland and ovary spilled out. In the field in 32 out of 68 matings of M.
americanum and M. disstria, the forest tent caterpillar, males attempted to
copulate with already mating females. These interfering males probed with
their abdomens just as they would with solitary females. None of the inter-
fering males succeeded in mating the paired females, but 4 mating M.
disstria (3 males and 1 female) sustained abdominal punctures. Most likely
these were not "intentional" wounding like the ones bed bugs inflict. The
wounds were probably the result of interfering males finding the bursula
copulatrices occupied and stabbing one of the mating participants while
probing. We speculate that bed bug mating behavior evolved under condi-
tions where the operational sex ratio was male-biased and males frequently
encountered mating pairs.
We thank Ted Burk and Lynne Bundy for their reviews. USDA McIntire
Stennis Funds partially funded the research.-DONALD N. BIEMAN, Insect
Attractants, Behavior and Basic Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 14565,
Gainesville, FL 32604 USA and J. A. WITTER, School of Natural Resources,
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.


OCCURRENCE OF PTOMAPHAGUS CAVERNICOLA IN FORESTS
IN FLORIDA AND GEORGIA (COLEOPTERA; LEIODIDAE; CHO-
LEVINAE-There are 19 species of Ptomaphagus beetles in the south-
eastern United States which are highly cave-evolved (troglobitic) and with
very limited geographic distributions. They are probably descendants from
early Pleistocene ancestors that became specialized and restricted to caves
(Peck, 1981. Proc. 8th Int. Cong. Speleology, Bowling Green, KY: 503-5.).
In contrast, the evolutionary meaning of the distribution of Ptomaphagus
cavernicola Schwarz has been a puzzle. It belongs to a species group that is
mostly Mexican in distribution, and is known as a scavenger. Hundreds of
specimens have been collected from 96 caves in a broad arc from Mexico
through Texas to Oklahoma, Arkansas, Missouri and Iowa, and down to
Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. It shows cave "specializations" in its com-
paratively reduced pigmentation and longer antennae and legs, but has very
well-developed eyes and functional flight wings. In spite of extensive col-
lecting in litter and with baited traps, the only non-cave record was one
specimen taken in January in litter in South Carolina (Peck, 1970. Fla.
Ent. 53: 203-7; Peck, 1973. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard Univ. 145:
29-162; Peck, 1977. Pages 185-213 In Reddell, J. R., ed. Studies on the caves
and cave faunas of the Yucatan Peninsula. Assoc. Mex. Cave Studies Bull.
6.; and unpubl. data.) From these data and through comparison with the
distantly related troglobitic species of Ptomaphagus, it was concluded that
(1) the species is physiologically and behaviorly suited for life in caves but













Scientific Notes


not for present ecological-climatic conditions existing outside of caves, (2)
the populations dispersed to and occupied caves during the cooler and more
moist climatic conditions during or shortly after the Wisconsinan glacial
maximum, and (3) the present populations are now climatically isolated in
caves, which serve as refugia, and there has been inadequate time for
noticable population differentiation (Peck 1973).
During the summer of 1981 I conducted a field study of forest-dwelling
leiodid beetles in the southeastern U.S. with a new technique. Twenty-four
"large-area" window traps (Peck and Davies, 1980. Coleopt. Bull. 34: 237-8.)
were operated from May to August in Virginia, North Carolina, South
Carolina, Georgia and Florida. In addition to trapping some 3000 specimens
of poorly known leiodines and colonies, some P. cavernicola were collected
as follows:
FLORIDA. Jackson County. Florida Caverns State Park, 9.VI-11.VIII.1981,
(11). Leon County. Tall Timbers Research Station, 14.VI-10.VIII.1981, (2).
Suwanee County. Suwanee River State Park, 15.VI-8.VIII.1981, (1).
GEORGIA. Macon County. Ocmulgee National Monument, 8.VI-12.VIII.1981,
(1).
All traps were in mixed pine and deciduous forests of floodplain loam or
sandy soils. At the Tall Timbers, Suwanee, and Ocmulgee sites there are no
limestones suitable for air-filled caves for many tens of kilometers. At
Florida Caverns, the trap was more than a kilometer away from caves
known to contain the beetle (Peck 1970).
From these new collections I conclude that (1) P. cavernicola is a con-
temporary inhabitant of forests of the southeastern United States and
actively flies in the summer, (2) it is not cave-limited or a Recent climatic
relict, (3) it probably can now colonize suitable cave sites as it discovers
them, and (4) that large-area window (or flight intercept) traps should be
used more extensively as tools for surveys of many poorly known beetles.
I thank J. A. Stevenson, Chief Naturalist, Florida Department of Natural
Resources; S. Smith, Superintendent, Ocmulgee National Monument; and
D. Bruce Means, Director, Tall Timbers Research Station for permitting
field study in protected areas under their care. Field work was supported by
an operating grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research
Council of Canada for research on forest litter arthropod evolution and
distribution.-STEWART B. PECK, Dept. Biology, Carleton University, Ottawa,
Ontario KlS 506, Canada.

p p 0-a- -a -e*- a--

EUTACHYPTERA PSIDII (SALLE) IN HONDURAS (LEPIDOPTERA:
LASIOCAMPIDAE)-In Honduras the tents of Eutachyptera psidii ap-
pear in midwinter and become especially obvious in February and March.
The large white silken nests on Quercus 'sapotaefolia Liebm. are common
along the main road from Tegucigalpa to Comayagua. E. psidii has never
been recorded from Honduras. Draudt (1927-8, In Seitz. Macrolepidoptera
of the World, Alfred Kernen. Stuttgart, 6: 565-628) gave the distribution
as "Arizona, Mexico to Guatamala" and lists both Quercus sp. and Psidium
pyriferum L. as hosts. Franclemont (1973, In Dominick et al., The Moths
of America North of Mexico, Curwen Press. London. Fasc. 20.1:66) doubts


379









Florida Entomologist 65(3)


j 4t~~~~"~ l~,-.


I,
V*"4


Fig. 1. Head of E. psidii showing characteristic markings in the adfrontal
area. Scale line = 2.0 mm.


a -- -


Fig. 2. Spinneret of E. psidii in lateral view. Scale line = .33 mm.


389


September, 1982










Scientific Notes


the occurrence of E. psidii in Arizona and gives the host as Psidium guajava
L. (=P. pyriferum). Both authors illustrated the adult. In addition, Francle-
mont (op. cit.) also illustrated the male genitalia and gave a short descrip-
tion of larval coloration. The larva originally described as E. psidii by
Comstock was actually Quadrina diazoma Grote (Franclemont, op. cit.).
In the Florida State Collection of Arthropods there is a pair of speci-
mens (male and female) from Mexico reared by R. Kendall on Quercus sp.
with the note that they ate Quercus fusiformis in the lab. During 3 years of
collecting in Honduras E. psidii was never seen on Psidium. A nest selected
from the town of Tamara, Honduras, in March produced adults in a month.
A wasp, Monodontomerus sp. (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) also emerged
from the same nest. A male was taken at lights in August at the Escuela
Agricola Panamericana, El Zamorano. The markings on the head, spin-
neret (Fig. 1, 2), color, and host data will readily separate E. psidii from
other known larva in Honduras.
I thank A. Molina R. for determining the host plant and E. E. Grissell
for determining the wasp. H. Weems and F. Mead kindly allowed me access
to the FSCA. The comments of D. Habeck on the manuscript are appreci-
ated. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series Number 3711.
-STEVEN PASSOA, Dept. Entomology and Nematology, 3103 McCarty Hall,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.


TRICHOSIPHONAPHIS POLYGONI (VAN DER GOOT) HOMOPTERA:
APHIDIDAE), A GENUS AND SPECIES NEW TO THE UNITED
STATES-Trichosiphonaphis was described originally by Takahashi (1922.
Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington 24: 204-6) with Myzus polygoniformosanus
Takahashi (1921. Agric. Exp. Stn., Govt. Formosa Rept. 20: 1-97.) as the
type-species. Miyazaki (1971. Insects Matsumurana 34: 1-247.) gave an ac-
count of the species occurring in Japan, including a key, figures, and de-
scriptions. Miyazaki also listed Trichosiphonaphis polygoni (van der Goot)
as occurring in Japan, China, Taiwan, and Java. So far as we know, the
following is the first report of a species of Trichosiphonaphis occurring in
North America.
Trichosiphonaphis may be recognized by the shape of the head (similar
to Myzus); a siphunculi without a flange and bearing a few inconspicuous,
small, blunt to fan-shaped setae on the basal half; the rugose dorsum of the
abdomen of the aptera, and the hind wing of the alate with only one oblique
vein.
Trichosiphonaphis polygoni (van der Goot 1917: 44. Contribution a la
faune des Indes N6erlandaises dirig6es par le Dr. J. C. Koningsberger.)
Fig. 1, A-B apterous vivipara; C-D alate vivipara has been collected on
Polygonum punctatum Ell. in Florida, 12.9 km south of Fort White, 30-X-
,1974, D. H. Habeck and White City, 2-V-1980, E. W. Campbell, and Ex-
periment, Georgia in a water pan trap, 19-IX-1981 and 18-V-1982, J. W.
Demski.
We greatly appreciate the opinion of H. L. G. Stroyan, Harpenden,
Herts., England concerning this species. Paper number 8210 of the Journal
Series of the North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, Raleigh, NC
27650 and Contribution No. 544 Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant


381




































-Y -C1~'~T~ ~C~-Y
1.
1


C








382


A

\ )5 ,I
y? 4
L9- ^..'
^ T /


Ij


\


September, 1982


C



w-r

s r '

4*2~
: -; n - -------
Ie-


I I D I
1 'J__ __________________ I
Fig. 1. Trichosiphonaphis polygoni
A-Head, etc. of apterous viviparous female.
B-Posterior portion of body of apterous viviparous female.
C-Head, etc. of alate viviparous female.
D-Posterior portion of body of alate viviparous female.
Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gaines-
ville, FL 32602.-CLYDE F. SMITH, Professor Emeritus, Entomology Depart-
ment, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27650 USA and HAROLD
A. DENMARK, Chief of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida De-
partment of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, FL 32602 USA.


Florida Entomologist 65 (3)




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