Title: Florida Entomologist
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Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1985
Copyright Date: 1917
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Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
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Volume ID: VID00087
Source Institution: University of Florida
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FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST

(An International Journal for the Americas)

Volume 68, No. 4 December, 1985

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Announcement 69th annual meeting and call for papers ................................ i
WILKENING, A. J., D. L. KLINE, AND W. W. WIRTH-An Annotated Checklist
of the Ceratopogonidae (Diptera) of Florida with a New Synonymy ........ 511
MULLER-LIEBENAU, I., AND M. D. HuBBARD-Baetidae from Sri Lanka With
Some General Remarks on the Baetidae of the Oriental Region (Insecta:
Ephem eroptera) ............................................................................. 537
SNIDER, R. J.-Dicyrtoma (Ptenothrix) renateae, New Species from the Savan-
nah River Plant and Georgia (Collembola: Dicyrtominae) ................. 561
SNIDER, R. J.-Vesicephalus crossleyi, New Species from the Savannah
River Plant and Georgia (Collembola: Sminthurinae) ....................... 567
SNIDER, R. J.-Sminthurus bivittatus, New Species from the Southeastern
United States (Collembola: Sminthuridae) ........................................ 574
SNIDER, R. J.-Dicyrtoma (Ptenothrix) castanea, New Species from the Savan-
nah River Plant (Collembola: Dicyrtominae) ..................................... 582
GORDH, G.-A New Species of Paratetracnemoidea Girault, 1915, found in
North America, With a Discussion of Generic Placement (Hymenoptera:
E ncyrtidae .................................................................................. 587
RANASINGHE, M. A. S. K., H. A. DENMARK, AND R. C. WILKINSON-Im-
mature Stages of Gonothrips fuscus and Methods for Distinguishing its
Adults From Those of Leptothrips pini (Thysanoptera: Phaeothripidae) .. 594
HERMANN, H. R., J. M. GONZALES, AND B. S. HERMANN-Mischocyttarus
mexicanus cubicola (Hymenoptera), Distribution and Nesting Plants ...... 609
GARNETT, W. B., R. D. AKRE, AND G. SEHLKE-Cocoon Mimicry and Preda-
tion by Myrmecophilous Diptera (Diptera: Syrphidae) ...................... 615
MARSHALL, L. D.-Seasonal Patterns of Reproduction in Two Species of Desert
Beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) .................................................. 621
WING, S. R.-Prolonged Copulation in Photinus macdermotti, with compara-
tive notes on Photinus collustrans (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) ............... 627
SIVINSKI, J., AND J. C. WEBB-The Form and Function of Acoustic Courtship
Signals of the Papaya Fruit Fly, Toxotrypana curvicauda (Tephritidae) 634
THOMPSON, C. R.-Bait Stake Detection of the Formosan Termite in South
F lorida ....................................................................................... 641
CASSANI, J. R.-Biology of Simyra henrici (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in
Southwest F lorida ........................................................................ 645
RAJAPAKSE, R. H. S., T. R. ASHLEY, AND V. H. WADDILL--Biology and Host
Acceptance of Micropletis manilae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Raised on
Fall Armyworm Larvae, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) 653
HAACK, R. A.-Voltinism and Diurnal Emergence-flight Patterns of Ips
calligraphus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Florida ................................. 658
LEWIS, J. E.-Temperature Induced Seasonal Melanism in the Wings of
Copaeodes minima (Lepidoptera: Hesperidae) ..................................... 667
GRANT, J. F., AND M. SHEPARD-Influence of Three Soybean Genotypes on
Development of Voria ruralis (Diptera: Tachinidae) and on Foliage Con-
sumption by its Host, the Soybean Looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) ....... 672
Continued on Back Cover

Published by The Florida Entomological Society













FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY




OFFICERS FOR 1985-86
President ....... .... ................... ................ D. H. Habeck
President-Elect ........ ............... ................... D. J. Schuster
Vice-President ........................... ........................... ................. J. L. Taylor
Secretary ..... .......... ............................. ........... ... E. R. Mitchell
Treasurer ................................................... ................ A. C. Knapp


M. L. Wright, Jr.
J. E. Eger, Jr.
Other Members of the Executive Committee ................. RC. Bullock
G. Mathurin
A.Gettman
C, G. Witherington
J. R. McLaughlin


PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE


Editor ...... .. .......................................... J. R. McLaughlin
Associate Editors ......... ................ ................ W. C. Adlerz
A. Ali
J. B. Heppner
M. D. Hubbard
O. Sosa, Jr.
H. V. Weems, Jr.
W. W. Wirth
Business Manager .................................................... ................ A. C. Knapp

FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST is issued quarterly-March, June, September, and De-
cember. Subscription price to non-members is $30.00 per year in advance, $7.50 per
copy. Membership in the Florida Entomological Society, including subscription to Flor-
ida Entomologist, is $25 per year for regular membership and $10 per year for students.
Inquires regarding membership, subscriptions, and page charges should be addressed
to the Business Manager, P. O. Box 7326, Winter Haven, FL 33883-7326. Florida
Entomologist is entered as second class matter at the Post Office in DeLeon Springs
and Winter Haven, FL.
Authors should consult "Instructions to Authors" on the inside cover of all recent
issues while preparing manuscripts or notes. When submitting a paper or note to the
Editor, please send the original manuscript, original figures and tables, and 3 copies
of the entire paper. Include an abstract and title in Spanish, if possible. Upon receipt,
manuscripts and notes are acknowledged by the Editor and assigned to an appropriate
Associate Editor who will make every effort to recruit peer reviewers not employed by
the same agency or institution as the authors(s). Reviews from individuals working
out-of-state or in nearby countries (e.g. Canada, Mexico, and others) will be obtained
where possible. Page charges are assessed for printed articles.
Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be sent to the Editor, JOHN R.
MCLAUGHLIN, 4628 NW 40th Street, Gainesville, FL 32606.


This issue mailed January 10, 1986



















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THE 69th ANNUAL MEETING OF THE
FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
FIRST ANNOUNCEMENT AND CALL FOR PAPERS

The Florida Entomological Society will hold its 69th Annual Meeting on
6-8 August 1986 at the Sheraton Sand Key Hotel, Clearwater Beach, Florida. The
location is 1160 Gulf Boulevard, Clearwater Beach, Florida 33515; telephone-1-813-595-
1611. Room rates will be $66.00 either single or double. Pre-registration and registration
fees will be released in the March, 1986 Florida Entomologist and the January Newslet-
ter.
Since many will present papers please copy the sheet and submit before 1 June 1986,
to:

JAMES L. TAYLOR, Chairman
Program Committee, FES
P. O. Box 1893
Sanford, Florida 32771
Phone: 1-305-322-5716

Eight minutes will be allotted for presentation of oral papers, with 2 minutes for
discussion. In addition, there will be a separate session for members who may elect to
present a Project (or Poster) Exhibit. The three oral student papers judged to be the
best on content and delivery will be awarded monetary prizes during the meeting.
Student authors must be Florida Entomological Society Members and must be regis-
tered for the meeting.











Wilkening et al.: Florida Ceratopogonidae 511

AN ANNOTATED CHECKLIST OF THE
CERATOPOGONIDAE (DIPTERA) OF FLORIDA
WITH A NEW SYNONYMY

ALAN J. WILKENING,12,3 DANIEL L. KLINE1.2
AND WILLIS W. WIRTH',4

ABSTRACT
We record 211 species of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from 64 of the
67 Florida counties. Approximately 40% of all described Nearctic species occur in Flor-
ida, represented among 25 of the 37 North American genera. Florida county records
are presented for each species based upon information gleaned from adult specimens in
collections and from published and unpublished records.
Recorded from Florida as new to the United States are: Culicoides jamaicensis
Edwards (from Dade County) and Monohelea multilineata (Lutz) (from Lee County).
Reported from Florida for the first time are: Forcipomyia baueri Wirth, For-
cipomyia crinita Saunders, Forcipomyia johannseni Thomsen, Dasyhelea pollinosa
Wirth, Johannsenomyia annulicornis Malloch, Mallochohelea caudellii (Coquillett),
Mallochohelea spinipes Wirth, and Monohelea macfiei Wirth.
Stilobezzia punctipes Wirth, 1953 was found to be a junior subjective synonym of
Stilobezzia kiefferi Lane, 1947 (NEW SYNONYMY).


RESUME
Nosotros registramos 211 species de moscas enanas picadoras (Diptera:
Ceratopogonidae) en 64 de los 67 condados de la Florida. Aproximadamente el 40% de
todas las species nearticas descritas ocurren en la Florida, representando a 25 de los
37 g6neros norteamericanos. Se presentan registros en los condados de la Florida de
cada especie, basados sobre informaci6n de muestras de adults de colecciones y de
registros publicados y sin publicar.
Registrados de la Florida como nuevos en los Estados Unidos son: Culicoides
jamaicensis Edwards (del condado de Dade) y Monoheleamultilineata (Lutz) (del con-
dado de Lee).
Reportados de la Florida por primera vez son Forcipomyia baueri Wirth, For-
cipomyia crinita Saunders, Forcipomyia johannseni Thomsen, Dasyhelea pollinosa
Wirth, Johannsenomyia annulicornia Malloch, Mallochohelea caudelli (Coquillet),
Mallochohelea spinipes Wirth, y Monohelea maefiei Wirth.
Stilobezzia punctipes Wirth, 1953 fue encontrado ser un sin6nimo subjetivo junior
de Stilobezzia kiefferi Lane, 1947 (Sin6nimo Nuevo).



The biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) comprise a group of very common
nematoceran flies which are distributed and studied worldwide. Morphologically, adult
Ceratopogonidae most closely resemble midges of the family Chironomidae, and the
larvae of these 2 families occur in many of the same aquatic and semiaquatic habitats.
Larvae of Ceratopogonidae have been found in the mud and sand of river and stream


'Insects Affecting Man and Animals Research Laboratory, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, 1600 S.W. 23rd
Drive, P.O. Box 14565, Gainesville, FL 32604.
2Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services.
'Present address: Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.
'Systematic Entomology Laboratory, IIBIII, USDA, c/o U.S. National Museum, Washington, DC 20560.











Florida Entomologist 68(4)


banks, lakeshores, estuaries, saltmarshes, swamps and bogs; in leaf litter and rotting
fruit, cacti and other decomposing vegetation; under wet or damp bark, wood or rocks;
in wet algae-covered soil; in tree holes and sap flows; in bromeliads and the axils of
other water-holding plants; and in fungi, dung, and crabholes (Linley 1976, Wirth et al.
1977).
Adult biting midges occupy a variety of ecological niches. A number of genera are
exclusively nectar feeders; several species of Dasyhelea and Forcipomyia are command-
ing increasing attention in the tropics as important pollinators of tropical crop plants
such as cacao (Bystrak and Wirth 1978, Soria and Wirth 1974, Wirth and Waugh 1976).
Some Atrichopogon and Forcipomyia are ectoparasitic on other insects, obtaining
haemolymph by piercing the cuticle of many species of adult Phasmatodea, Odonata,
Neuroptera, meloid Coleoptera, and the larvae of Lepidoptera and diprionid Hymenop-
tera (Wirth 1956, 1971a, 1972a,b, 1980). Other genera such as Bezzia and Palpomyia
are predaceous on small Nematocera and Ephemeroptera (Downes 1978). Ecological
interest in the Ceratopogonidae, however, has traditionally focused on the
haematophagous genera Culicoides (known as sand flies, punkies, no-see-ilms) and Lep-
toconops (known as black gnats). Species of these 2 genera, along with those of Aus-
troconops and Forcipomyia (subgenus Lasiohelea), are the only Ceratopogonidae
known to suck vertebrate blood. Culicoides and Leptoconops are notorious pests to
people who inhabit or frequent coastal areas and mountain resort regions which support
high populations of these biting flies. In Florida, these insects are second only to mos-
quitoes in the amount of direct human discomfort inflicted by their disproportionately
painful bites. Populations of Culicoides and Leptoconops have a direct impact upon land
utilization policies in many countries, and upon local economies as well (Linley and
Davies 1971). Several species of Culicoides are either intermediate hosts or vectors of
a variety of filarial, protozoan, and viral agents of diseases of man and animals. The
most important diseases include Oropouche virus of man (Linley et al. 1983) and
Bluetongue Virus (BTV) of sheep and cattle. The International Symposium on Blue-
tongue and Related Orbiviruses recently conducted in Asilomar, California (January
1984), illustrates the increasing attention being focused by researchers from many fields
upo.. this disease and its Culicoides vectors.
Blanton and Wirth's (1979) detailed treatment of the Florida Culicoides greatly
facilitated further investigations which have generated many new county records. The
remaining ceratopogonid fauna of the state, however, has not been comprehensively
documented. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to: (1) systematically list the
described species of Ceratopogonidae known to occur in Florida, and (2) document the
known distribution of each species within the state by lists of county records.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Data for county records were obtained from the published literature indicated in
Table 1, and from unpublished records and adult specimens in the following museum
and private collections: (1) the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, c/o Division of
Plant Industry (FSCA, DPI), Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Ser-
vices, Gainesville; (2) the United States National Museum (USNM), Washington, D.C.;
(3) the private collections of Dr. Franklin S. Blanton, Professor Emeritus, Entomology
and Nematology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville; (4) collections made
by Drs. Wayne L. Kramer and Ellis C. Greiner, Department of Preventive Medicine,
College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida; (5) collections of the USDA
Insects Affecting Man and Animals Research Laboratory, Gainesville, and (6) light trap
collections made available by individuals acknowledged later in this paper.
The systematic arrangement of the checklist follows Wirth et al. (1974) who included
the Leptoconopinae, although separate familial status for this group has been proposed
several times by other workers (Krivosheina 1969, Downes 1977). Tribal and generic
arrangements follow the most recently published revisions cited in Table 1.
The 211 species listed are consecutively numbered and alphabetically arranged
within each genus, subgenus, or species group. Authors and dates of publication are


December, 1985











Wilkening et al.: Florida Ceratopogonidae


TABLE 1. PUBLISHED LITERATURE SOURCES OF COUNTY RECORDS OF THE 25
GENERA OF BITING MIDGES (DIPTERA: CERATOPOGONIDAE) RE-
CORDED FROM FLORIDA.


GENERA
(arranged alphabetically)

Alluaudomyia Kieffer
Atrichopogon Kieffer
Bezzia Kieffer

Brachypogon Kieffer
Ceratoculicoides W. & R.
Clinohelea Kieffer
Culicoides Latreille
Dasyhelea Kieffer

Echinohelea Macfie
Forcipomyia Meigen




Heteromyia Say
Jenkinshelea Macfie
Johannsenomyia Malloch
Leptoconops Skuse
Macropeza Meigen
Mallochohelea Wirth
Monohelea Kieffer

Nilobezzia Kieffer
Palpomyia Meigen
Parabezzia Malloch
Phaenobezzia Haeselbarth
Probezzia Kieffer
Rhynchohelea W. & B.
Sphaeromias Curtis
Stilobe:Zia Kieffer


COUNTY RECORD SOURCES


Glick and Mullen (1982); Wirth (1952a)
Wirth (1952b, 1980)
Dow and Turner (1976); Wirth (1983a, 1983b, 1983c);
Wirth and Grogan (1983); Wirth et al. (1984)
Downes (1976); Wirth and Blanton (1970)
Wirth and Ratanaworabhan (1971)
Grogan and Wirth (1975)
Beck (1952, 1958); Blanton and Wirth (1979)
Waugh and Wirth (1976); Wirth and Williams (1957);
Spinelli and Wirth (1984)
no published Florida records
Bystrak and Wirth (1978); Dow and Wirth (1972);
de Meillon and Wirth (1979); Utmar and Wirth (1976);
Wirth (1976); Wirth and Dow (1971); Wirth and
Messersmith (1971); Wirth and Ratanaworabhan
(1978)
Wirth and Grogan (1977)
Grogan and Wirth (1977a); Wirth (1962b)
Wirth (1962a)
Wirth (1951b); Wirth and Atchley (1973)
Wirth and Ratanaworabhan (1972b)
Wirth (1962a)
Khalaf (1969); Wirth (1953a); Wirth and Grogan
(1981); Wirth and Williams (1964)
Wirth (1962a)
Grogan and Wirth (1979)
Grogan and Wirth (1977b)
Wirth and Grogan (1982)
Wirth (1951a, 1971b)
Wirth and Blanton (1970)
Wirth (1962a)
Wirth (1953b); Wirth and Grogan (1981)


cited for each taxon. References to the earlier literature can be found in Stone et al.
(1965) and in Atchley et al. 1981). A list of the Florida counties in which each species
has been collected, and additional comments follow the name. When type material con-
tributed to one or more county records, this fact is noted parenthetically in the list. The
word "types" in these instances indicates that the holotype (or its designated equivalent)
as well as additional paratypes were collected in that county.
Specific distributions defined by political boundaries often prove unsatisfactory from
a zoogeographical perspective because of the general independence of such boundaries
from relevant topographical regions and features. However, we feel that a list of county
records is a sensible and cost-effective approach in studies such as ours where the
biological information necessary for the elucidation of a specific habitat or range is
lacking for all but a few species. We refer the reader to Blanton and Wirth (1979) for
a concise discussion of the physiography and biogeographic divisions of Florida relative
to Culicoides.











Florida Entomologist 68(4)


The relatively small size of most biting midges renders them inherently difficult to
study, and although they are a common component of light trap and malaise trap
catches, they are often overlooked and seldom recorded. A substantial amount of mater-
ial collected in Florida awaits processing and identification.
The description of many new species of Ceratopogonidae over the past 2 decades
has stimulated several major taxonomic revisions at higher levels of rank. Older deter-
mined specimens and corresponding published records were frequently invalidated by
these revisions. It was therefore necessary to redetermine older material within revised
groups. However, despite the dynamic state of ceratopogonid taxonomy over the years,
a substantial portion of existing collections we studied contain undescribed species, and
several genera such as Atrichopogon, Brachypogon, Dasyhelea, and Probezzia merit
reexamination and contemporary systematic treatment.


CHECKLIST OF THE CERATOPOGONIDAE OF FLORIDA

Subfamily LEPTOCONOPINAE Nod, 1907

genus LEPTOCONOPS Skuse, 1889
subgenus Holoconops Kieffer, 1918
1. L. linleyi Wirth and Atchley, 1973.
Indian River, Lee, Levy, Monroe, Okaloosa, Palm Beach, Pinellas, St. Lucie
holotypee). This coastal species bites man and ranges north to Massachusetts.
All published records of Leptoconops bequaerti (Kieffer) from Florida are based
upon misidentification. L. bequaerti does not occur in Florida. Published Florida
records for this species actually refer to L. linleyi.
subgenus Megaconops Wirth and Atchley, 1973
2. L. floridensis Wirth, 1951.
Escambia holotypee), Levy. This man-biting species is the only species in this
subgenus. Specimens also have been collected from Colombia and Jamaica.

Subfamily FORCIPOMYIINAE Lenz, 1934

genus ATRICHOPOGON Kieffer, 1906
This genus is in need of comprehensive study and revision. There are at least 30
undescribed Nearctic species in the collections of the USNM alone. We suspect that the
majority of specimens in collections belong to undescribed species.
subgenus Atrichopogon
3. A. fusculus (Coquillett, 1901).
Alachua, Hillsborough. This species ranges from Canada to Brazil and through-
out the United States. This species is common in light trap collections.
4. A geminus Boesel, 1973.
Alachua, Levy.
5. A. gilvus (Coquillett, 1905).
Dade holotypee), Highlands, Monroe, Orange. This species is known only from
Florida.
6. A. levis (Coquillett, 1901).
Alachua, Dade, Leon, Levy. This is the type species of the genus (as Ceratopo-
gon exilis Coquillett, 1902). Known as the "grass punkie", adults of this species
are commonly found in grassy areas such as lawns, parks, and pastures (Boesel
and Snyder 1944). It is widely distributed throughout the United States.


514


December, 1985











Wilkening et al.: Florida Ceratopogonidae 515

7. A. maculosus Ewen in Ewen and Saunders, 1958.
Levy.
8. A. warmkei Wirth, 1956.
Dade (paratypes). This species pollinates Hevea rubber in Puerto Rico where
it is one of the commonest biting midges. Its known distribution is limited to
Puerto Rico and Florida.
9. A. websteri (Coquillett, 1901).
Dixie, Levy, Monroe.
subgenus Meloehelea Wirth, 1956
Adults of the 7 described Nearctic species in this subgenus are parasitic on blister
beetles (Coleoptera: Meloidae) and undescribed species probably occur in Florida. Flor-
ida material in this subgenus has not been studied and we have no records.

genus FORCIPOMYIA Meigen, 1818

Saunders revised this genus in 1956 and based his subgenera largely upon larval
characters and larval biologies. Correlations exist between larval habitats and
taxonomic groups within this genus.
subgenus Blantonia Wirth and Dow, 1971
10. F. caribbea Wirth and Dow, 1971.
Indian River, Lee, Monroe (all paratypes). This is the only species described
in this subgenus. It ranges south through the West Indies.
subgenus Caloforcipomyia Saunders, 1956
11. F. glauca Macfie, 1934.
Alachua, Baker, Calhoun, Collier, Dade, Escambia, Franklin, Gilchrist, Gulf,
Hardee, Highlands, Hillsborough, Indian River, Jefferson, Leon, Levy, Lib-
erty, Marion, Orange, Putnam, St. Lucie, Wakulla. This species was first re-
ported from Florida (as F. splendid Wirth) by Mead (1954). It is common and
widespread throughout the Holarctic and Neotropical regions.
subgenus Euprojoannisia Brethes, 1914
Larvae in this subgenus are usually found in semiaquatic environments such as
algae-covered rocks or mud, in wet moss or leaves, in mats of decaying aquatic vegeta-
tion, and in the leaf axils of water-holding plants.
12. F. blantoni Soria and Bystrak, 1975.
Alachua, Baker, Dade, Escambia, Gilchrist, Hardee, Highlands, Hillsborough,
Indian River, Jefferson, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Marion, Orange, Putnam. This
species is widely distributed from Virginia south to Brazil.
13. F. calcarata (Coquillett, 1905).
Alachua, Baker, Collier, Dade, Gilchrist, Hardee, Indian River, Lee, Monroe,
Orange, Putnam, Sarasota, St. Lucie. This species has also been recorded from
South Carolina, Virginia, and Mexico.
14. F. dowi Bystrak and Wirth, 1978.
Collier (paratypes), Indian River holotypee). This species is also known from
Mexico.
15. F. fuscicalcarata Bystrak and Wirth, 1978.
Alachua holotypee), Dade, Highlands, Lee, Leon, Monroe, Orange (paratypes
from all counties). This species is apparently restricted to Florida.
16. F. mortuifolii Saunders, 1959.
Dade. This tropical species is distributed throughout the Caribbean. Southern
Florida represents the northern limit of its range.
17. F. navaiae Bystrak and Wirth, 1978.
Dade (paratypes), Hillsborough (paratypes), Indian River (types). This species
is known only from Florida.











516 Florida Entomologist 68(4) December, 1985

18. F. quasiingrami Macfie, 1939.
Alachua, Collier, Dade, Gulf, Hardee, Jefferson, Leon, Monroe, Orange,
Sarasota. This species is primarily Neotropical, ranging south to Brazil.
19. F. unica Bystrak and Wirth, 1978.
Alachua holotypee), Dade, Orange, Putnam, Sarasota. This species is restricted
to Florida and the Bahamas.
subgenus Forcipomyia
20. F. beckae Wirth, 1976.
Dade (types), Indian River (paratypes). This species is known only from Flor-
ida.
21. F. bipunctata (Linnaeus, 1767).
Jackson, Jefferson, Putnam. This is undoubtedly the commonest species in the
genus and is distributed throughout the Holarctic region. It is, however, local
in Florida.
22. F. brevipennis (Macquart, 1826)
Baker, Collier, Hardee, Jackson, Jefferson, Orange, Putnam, Santa Rosa. The
larvae of this very common Holarctic species are often found under cow dung.
23. F. bystraki Grogan and Wirth, 1975.
Alachua, Baker, Charlotte, Franklin, Gilchrist, Hardee, Highlands, Hill-
sborough, Indian River, Jackson, Jefferson, Lee, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Marion,
Orange, Putnam, Sarasota (paratypes from all counties). Common in the east-
ern United States, this species ranges north to Maryland, west to Michigan and
Arizona.
24. F. cinctipes (Coquillett, 1905).
Alachua, Baker, Dade holotypee), Indian River, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Lib-
erty, Putnam.
25. F. fimbriata (Coquillett, 1901).
Franklin, Jackson, Jefferson, Liberty.
26. F. genualis (Loew, 1866).
Collier, Dade, Highlands, Hillsborough, Indian River, Monroe, Orange, Put-
nam, St. Lucie. This species is distributed from the southeastern United States
and Bermuda south to southern Brazil. It has also been collected from Sao
Tome off the west coast of Africa.
27. F. pergandei (Coquillett, 1901).
Alachua, Jefferson, Liberty, Putnam.
28. F. pictoni Macfie, 1938.
Alachua, Duval, Escambia, Hardee, Indian River, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty,
Manatee, Monroe, Orange, Palm Beach, Putnam, Sarasota. This species is
primarily Neotropical, ranging from the southern United States south to Brazil.
29. F. quatei Wirth, 1952.
Alachua, Collier, Escambia, Jackson, Jefferson, Lee, Leon, Liberty, Monroe,
Orange, Putnam, Sarasota. This species ranges from the southern United
States through Central America south to Brazil.
30. F. seminole Wirth, 1976.
Indian River (types). This uncommon species is known only from Florida.
31. F. townesi Wirth, 1952.
Alachua, Franklin, Gilchrist, Highlands, Leon, Putnam, Santa Rosa.
subgenus Lasiohelea Kieffer, 1921
32. F. fairfaxensis Wirth, 1951.
Alachua, Gulf, Highlands, Liberty, Monroe, Orange. This eastern Nearctic
species is haematophagous on frogs.











Wilkening et al.: Florida Ceratopogonidae 517

subgenus Metaforcipomyia Saunders, 1956
33. F. pluvialis (Malloch, 1923).
Alachua, Gulf, Indian River, Levy, Monroe.
subgenus Microhelea Kieffer, 1917
Adults in this subgenus are haematophagous on insects. Both species listed are
eruciphagous.
34. F. eriophora (Williston, 1986).
Collier, Dade, Jackson, Monroe. This species also occurs throughout the West
Indies and Central America.
35. F. fuliginosa (Meigen, 1818).
Alachua, Baker, Bay, Calhoun, Collier, Dade, Glades, Highlands, Indian River,
Jefferson, Lee, Leon, Monroe, Orange (TL of the synonymous F. erucicida
Knab), Putnam, St. Lucie, Sarasota. This common, cosmopolitan species is
apparently distributed throughout North, Central, and South America,
Eurasia, Indonesia, and many islands of the South Pacific.
subgenus Phytohelea Remm, 1971
36. F. oligarthra Saunders, 1956.
Highlands. This species breeds in the leaf axils of bromeliads and pineapples
and has been recorded from Guyana, Singapore and Micronesia. The Florida
record is from a pineapple plant (de Meillon and Wirth 1979).
subgenus Pterobosca Macfie, 1932
37. F. fusicornis (Coquillett, 1905).
Brevard, Charlotte, Dade (types), Gulf, Highlands, Indian River, Levy, Put-
nam. Adults are parasitic on Odonata, obtaining haemolymph by piercing the
veins of dragonfly wings. This species is distributed from Louisiana through
Florida, into Bermuda and Puerto Rico.
subgenus Saliohelea Wirth and Ratanaworabhan, 1978
38. F. leei Wirth and Ratanaworabhan, 1978.
Alachua, Jefferson, Leon, Marion, Orange. This widespread species ranges
through the eastern United States north to New York, and south through the
Caribbean to southern Bazil.
subgenus S ,. ... i.. I',i Saunders, 1956
39. F.;i.., ., .. Dow and Wirth, 1972.
Monroe (types). This species is known only from southern Florida.
subgenus Ti.. ,i ,,-i. ji, Saunders, 1925
40. F. frutetorum (Winnertz, 1852).
Monroe. This species is widespread throughout North America, Eurasia, and
Africa.
41. F. johannseni Thomsen, 1935.
Dade. This is the first published Florida record of this rare species. It was
previously recorded only from New York.
42. F. rugosa Chan and LeRoux, 1970.
Indian River. This species is distributed throughout Europe and eastern North
America.
43. F. tenuichela Dow and Wirth, 1972.
Dade, Indian River, Monroe, St. Lucie (paratypes from all counties). This
species is restricted to the southern United States.
subgenus Trichohelea Goetghebuer, 1920
Species in this subgenus are ectoparasitic on insects. They have been recorded from
diverse groups such as Coleoptera, Orthoptera, Ephemeroptera, Diptera, adult
Lepidoptera, and from phalangid Arachnida.











518 Florida Entomologist 68(4) December, 1985

44. F. baueri Wirth, 1956.
Alachua, Escambia, Putnam. These are the first published Florida records for
this species. It is also known from Maryland, Arizona, and Mexico.
45. F. crinita Saunders, 1964.
Alachua. This species has not been previously reported from Florida. It is
widely distributed north to Quebec, west to Alaska and Oregon.
46. F. mcateei Wirth, 1956.
Alachua, Hillsborough, Liberty, Monroe. This species ranges north to Quebec,
west to Montana.
47. F. veroensis Wirth and Messersmith, 1971.
Alachua, Indian River (types). This uncommon species has also been recorded
from Maryland and Virginia.
subgenus Warmkea Saunders, 1956
Adults of this primarily tropical subgenus have been taken repeatedly at flowers of
cacao.
48. F. fishi Wirth and Soria, 1980.
Broward (paratypes), Indian River (types), Monroe (paratypes). This species
was reared from Tillandsia utriculata L. and is known only from Florida.

Subfamily DASYHELEINAE Lenz, 1934

genus DASYHELEA Kieffer, 1911

Material from Florida was, for the most part, excluded from the revisional study of
the eastern species in this genus undertaken by Waugh and Wirth (1976). Collections
from Florida in the USNM and in the DPI contain numerous undescribed species.
cincta group
49. D. aegealitis Spinelli and Wirth, 1984.
Monroe (paratypes). This species is presently known only from Florida and
Jamaica.
50. D. bahamensis (Johnson, 1908).
Collier, Lee, Monroe. This species has been recorded from the Bahamas, Cuba,
Florida, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico.
51. D. cincta (Coquillett, 1901).
Baker, Brevard, Collier, Dade, Gulf, Highlands, Indian River, Levy, Marion,
Monroe, Palm Beach holotypee). This species is common and widespread
throughout the United States south to the West Indies and Argentina.
52. D. maculata Macfie, 1943.
Collier, Dade, Highlands, Indian River, Liberty, Monrog, St. Lucie. Described
from the Bahamas, this species also has been recorded from Belize, Dominica,
Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, and Trinidad.
53. D. major (Malloch, 1915).
Alachua, Dade, Gulf, Highlands, Indian River, Liberty, Monroe. This species
ranges north to Connecticut and Wisconsin.
grisea group
54. D. grisea (Coquillett, 1901).
Alachua, Dade, Gulf, Highlands, Indian River, Lee, Liberty, Marion, Monroe,
Palm Beach (paratypes), Putnam, Santa Rosa. This very common species ap-
pears to be widespread throughout North America, north to Quebec.
55. D. luteogrisea Wirth and Williams, 1957.
Dade, Levy, Monroe, Palm Beach. Described from Bermuda, this species is
known from the Bahamas and coastal areas of Florida.











Wilkening et al.: Florida Ceratopogonidae 519

56. D. oppressa Thomsen, 1935.
Alachua, Liberty. This tree-hole species is widespread and common north to
Quebec and west to Louisiana and Wisconsin.
57. D. pollinosa Wirth, 1952.
Alachua, Liberty, Orange. These are the first published records of this species
from Florida. Described from California, it appears to be widespread through-
out the United States, although it is not common.
58. D. pseudoincisurata Waugh and Wirth, 1976.
Jackson (paratypes). This species ranges north to New Hampshire. Larvae are
common in rock holes and rain gutters.
59. D. stemlerae Waugh and Wirth, 1976.
Alachua (paratypes). This species ranges north to New York and Michigan.
leptobranchia group
60. D. scutellata (Meigen, 1830).
Liberty. This is a common and widespread Holarctic species. Northern Florida
apparently represents the southernmost limit of its range in North America.
mutabilis group
61. D. ancora (Coquillett, 1902).
Alachua, Dade holotypee). This species ranges north to Connecticut, west to
California.
62. D. atlantis Wirth and Williams, 1957.
Indian River. Described from Bermuda, this rare species is also known from
New York.
63. D. mutabilis (Coquillett, 1901).
Alachua, Duval (paratypes), Levy, Monroe. This very common species occurs
throughout North America.

Subfamily CERATOPOGONINAE Newman, 1834

Tribe CULICOIDINI Kieffer, 1911

genus CULICOIDES Latreille, 1809
Supplemental information on the Florida species in this medically and economically
important genus of biting flies may be found in Blanton and Wirth (1979).
subgenus Avaritia Fox, 1955
Larvae of species in this subgenus typically occur in habitats characterized by active
fungal decay, such as compost heaps, rotting manure, wet leaves, as well as in fungi
itself.
64. C. alachua Jamnback and Wirth, 1963.
Alachua, Gilchrist, Highlands, Jefferson, Lake, Liberty, Marion, Orange, Put-
nam.
65. C. chiopterus (Meigen, 1830).
Alachua, Hardee, Jefferson, Liberty.
66. C. juddi Cochrane, 1974.
Jefferson.
67. C. pechumani Cochrane, 1974.
Marion.
68. C. pusillus Lutz, 1913.
Alachua, Dade, Glades, Hardee, Hendry, Hillsborough, Indian River, Marion,
Okeechobee, Palm Beach, Volusia.
subgenus Beltranmyia Vargas, 1953











Florida Entomologist 68(4)


69. C. bermudensis Williams, 1956.
Collier, Dade, Dixie, Duval, Escambia, Gulf, Indian River, Levy, Monroe,
Volusia, Walton.
70. C. crepuscularis Malloch, 1915.
Alachua, Baker, Bay, Charlotte, Citrus, Clay, Duval, Escambia, Gilchrist,
Gulf, Hardee, Hernando, Highlands, Hillsborough, Holmes, Indian River,
Jackson, Jefferson, Lake, Lee, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Manatee, Marion, Mon-
roe, Orange, Pasco, Pinellas, Polk, Putnam, St. Johns, Santa Rosa, Sumter,
Taylor, Walton, Washington.
71. C. hollensis (Melander and Brues, 1903).
Duval, Martin, Nassau, St. Johns, Volusia.
72. C. knowltoni Beek, 1956.
Brevard, Citrus, Glades, Hardee, Hendry, Highlands, Indian River, Palm
Beach, Polk, St. Lucie, Sarasota, Taylor. This species is restricted to Florida.
73. C. mississippiensis Hoffman, 1926.
Bay, Charlotte, Citrus, Collier, Dade, Escambia, Franklin, Gulf, Hardee, Her-
nando, Hillsborough, Lee, Levy, Manatee, Monroe, Pinellas, Sarasota, Santa
Rosa, Taylor, Wakulla, Walton.
subgenus Diphaeomyia Vargas, 1960
74. C. baueri Hoffman, 1925.
Alachua, Duval, Escambia, Jackson, Hardee, Hendry, Hernando, Levy, Lib-
erty, Marion, Orange, Polk, St. Johns, Taylor, Wakulla.
75. C. edeni Wirth and Blanton, 1974.
Alachua, Brevard, Charlotte, Citrus, Collier, Duval, Escambia, Gilchrist,
Glades, Gulf, Hardee, Hendry, Hernando, Highlands, Hillsborough, Indian
River, Lafayette, Lake, Lee, Levy, Manatee, Marion, Martin, Monroe,
Orange, Palm Beach, Pasco, Pinellas, Putnam, Sarasota, Volusia, Wakulla,
Walton. This species is restricted to central and southern Florida.
76. C. footei Wirth and Jones, 1956.
Liberty.
77. C. haematopotus Malloch, 1915.
Alachua, Baker, Calhoun, Escambia, Franklin, Gilchrist, Hardee, Holmes,
Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Marion, Putnam, Santa Rosa,
Wakulla, Walton, Washington.
subgenus Drymodesmyia Vargas, 1960
78. C. hinmani Khalaf, 1952.
Alachua, Glades, Hardee, Jackson, Lafayette, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Marion,
Orange, Putnam.
79. C. jamaicensis Edwards, 1922.
Dade. This species is reported as new to United States: Naranja, Joan Felsen
Farm, 10.VIII.1982, E. Greiner, 1 female, det. W. W. Wirth (USNM); Home-
stead, 10.VIII.1982, 1 female, E. Greiner, det. W. W. Wirth (collection of E.
Greiner). This primarily Neotropical species is distributed throughout the West
Indies into Mexico, Panama, and Venezuela. Aitken et al. (1975) and Williams
(1964) reported rearing this species from rotting calabash, Crescentia cujete
(Bignoniaceae).
80. C. loughnani Edwards, 1922.
Brevard, Collier, Duval, Flagler, Lee, Levy, Manatee, Martin, Monroe, Pinel-
las, St. Johns, St. Lucie, Sarasota, Volusia.
subgenus Hoffmania Fox, 1947
81. C. insignis Lutz, 1913.
Alachua, Baker, Brevard, Charlotte, Citrus, Collier, Dade, Duval, Gilchrist,


520


December, 1985











Wilkening et al.: Florida Ceratopogonidae


Glades, Hardee, Hendry, Hernando, Highlands, Hillsborough, Indian River,
Lafayette, Lee, Levy, Liberty, Manatee, Marion, Monroe, Orange, Palm
Beach, Polk, Putnam, St. Lucie, Sarasota, Taylor, Walton. Blanton and Wirth
(1979) doubted the Taylor Co. and Walton Co. records of Beck (1952). Recent
collections of this species from Lafayette and Liberty Counties indicate that it
ranges through northern Florida. Greiner et al. (1985) report that BTV
Serotype II has been isolated from Hardee County populations of this species.
82. C. venustus Hoffman, 1925.
Alachua, Baker, Escambia, Hernando, Jackson, Jefferson, Liberty, Marion,
Pasco, Santa Rosa, Taylor, Wakulla, Walton, Washington.
subgenus Monoculicoides Khalaf, 1954
83. C. variipennis (Coquillett. 1901).
Alachua, Calhoun, Escambia, Gilchrist, Glades, Hendry, Hernando, Highlands,
Jackson, Jefferson, Lafayette, Leon, St. Lucie, Walton.
subgenus Oecacta Poey, 1851

biguttatus group
84. C. biguttatus (Coquillett, 1901).
Alachua, Baker, Bay, Escambia, Franklin, Holmes, Jackson, Jefferson,
Lafayette, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Marion, Putnam, Santa Rosa, Taylor,
Wakulla, Walton.
85. C. loisae Jamnback, 1965.
Gulf, Jackson, Santa Rosa.
86. C. mulrennani Beck, 1957.
Escambia, Gulf, Jackson, Liberty, Taylor.
87. C. spinosus Root and Hoffman, 1937.
Alachua, Baker, Calhoun, Escambia, Franklin, Gulf, Highlands, Indian River,
Jackson, Liberty, Marion, Orange, Taylor, Volusia, Wakulla, Walton.

debilipalpis group
88. C. debilipalpis Lutz, 1913.
Alachua, Calhoun, Collier, Dade, Hardee, Hernando, Highlands, Jackson, Jef-
ferson, Leon, Levy, Liberty.
89. C. paraensis (Goeldi, 1905).
Alachua, Highlands, Jackson, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Orange, Putnam.
90. C. torreyae Wirth and Blanton, 1971.
Liberty, Marion, Orange. This species is known only from Florida.

furens group
91. C. barbosai Wirth and Blanton, 1956.
Collier, Dade, Duval, Indian River, Lee, Levy, Monroe, Palm Beach, St. Lucie,
Sarasota.
92. C. furens (Poey, 1851).
Bay, Brevard, Broward, Charlotte, Citrus, Collier, Dade, Dixie, Duval, Es-
cambia, Franklin, Gilchrist, Gulf, Hardee, Hernando, Hillsborough, Indian
River, Lafayette, Levy, Manatee, Marion, Martin, Monroe, Palm Beach,
Pasco, Pinellas, St. Johns, St. Lucie, Santa Rosa, Sarasota, Taylor, Volusia,
Wakulla, Walton.
93. C. stellifer (Coquillett, 1901).
Alachua, Baker, Calhoun, Citrus, Duval, Escambia, Franklin, Gilchrist,
Glades, Gulf, Hardee, Hendry, Hernando, Highlands, Holmes, Jackson, Jeffer-
son, Lafayette, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Marion, Martin, Orange, Palm Beach,
Putnam, St. Lucie, Santa Rosa, Sarasota, Wakulla, Walton, Washington.











522 Florida Entomologist 68(4) December, 1985

guttipennis group
94. C. arboricola Root and Hoffman, 1937.
Alachua, Baker, Collier, Citrus, Dade, Escambia, Flagler, Franklin, Gilchrist,
Glades, Hamilton, Hardee, Hernando, Holmes, Indian River, Jackson, Jeffer-
son, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Marion, Monroe, Orange, Palm Beach, Putnam,
Taylor, Wakulla, Washington.
95. C. beckae Wirth and Blanton, 1967.
Alachua, Baker, Escambia, Gulf, Holmes, Liberty, Wakulla.
96. C. guttipennis (Coquillett, 1901).
Alachua, Baker, Franklin, Jefferson, Liberty, Marion, Wakulla.
97. C. ousairani Khalaf, 1952.
Alachua, Escambia, Hernando, Jackson, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Putnam, Taylor,
Volusia.
98. C. villosipennis Root and Hoffman, 1937.
Alachua, Highlands, Hillsborough, Jackson, Liberty, Marion, Sumter, Taylor,
Walton.
heliophilus group
99. C. niger Root and Hoffman, 1937.
Alachua, Baker, Citrus, Escambia, Franklin, Gadsden, Gilchrist, Glades, Gulf,
Hardee, Hernando, Highlands, Jackson, Jefferson, Lafayette, Leon, Levy,
Liberty, Marion, Orange, Putnam, Santa Rosa, Taylor, Volusia, Wakulla, Wal-
ton.
100. C. tissoti Wirth and Blanton, 1966.
Alachua, Duval, Lake, Levy, Marion, Orange, Putnam, Wakulla.
odibilis group
101. C. travisi Vargas, 1949.
Franklin, Jackson, Liberty, Taylor, Wakulla.
piliferus group
102. C. bickleyi Wirth and Hubert, 1962.
Hernando, Highlands, Marion, Orange, Wakulla.
103. C. husseyi Wirth and Blanton, 1971.
Alachua, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Santa Rosa.
104. C. parapiliferus Wirth and Blanton, 1974.
Jackson.
105. C. piliferus Root and Hoffman, 1937.
Alachua, Gulf, Highlands, Jackson, Liberty, Orange, Santa Rosa, Walton.
106. C. scanloni Wirth and Hubert, 1962.
Alachua, Escambia, Gulf, Highlands, Jackson, Jefferson, Liberty, Marion,
Orange, Polk, Putnam, Santa Rosa, Wakulla.
107. C. snowi Wirth and Jones, 1956.
Alachua, Franklin, Liberty, Walton.
108. C. testudinalis Wirth and Hubert, 1962.
Alachua, Jackson, Liberty, Santa Rosa.
Unplaced Oecacta
109. C. floridensis Beck, 1951.
Alachua, Broward, Dixie, Duval, Highlands, Indian River, Levy, Marion, Mar-
tin, Sarasota (types), Volusia.
110. C. melleus (Coquillett, 1901).
Bay, Citrus, Collier, Dade, Escambia, Gulf, Hernando, Hillsborough, Lee,
Levy, Monroe, Okaloosa, Palm Beach, St. Johns, St. Lucie, Sarasota, Volusia,
Wakulla, Walton.











Wilkening et al.: Florida Ceratopogonidae 523

111. C. nanus Root and Hoffman, 1937.
Alachua, Escambia, Flagler, Highlands, Jackson, Levy, Liberty, Orange, Put-
nam.

Tribe CERATOPOGONINI Newman, 1934

Predaceous larvae as well as predaceous adults are characteristic of this tribe and
all following tribes.

genus ALLUAUDOMYIA Kieffer, 1913
112. A. bella (Coquillett, 1902).
Alachua, Bay, Baker, Citrus, Collier, Dade, Escambia, Franklin, Hardee, Her-
nando, Hillsborough, Indian River, Jackson, Jefferson, Lee, Leon, Levy, Lib-
erty, Marion, Putnam, St. Lucie, Santa Rosa, Sarasota, Walton. This very
common species occurs throughout all of North America, from Alaska to Califor-
nia east to Nova Scotia and the Bahamas. It is probably to be found in every
Florida county.
113. A. footei Wirth, 1952.
Alachua, Collier (types), Escambia (paratypes), Putnam, Walton (paratypes).
This eastern species ranges north to Michigan and Ontario.
114. A. megaparamera Williams, 1956.
Alachua, Escambia, Liberty, Santa Rosa. This species is distributed through-
out eastern North America, north to Quebec.
115. A. needhami Thomsen, 1935.
Alachua, Liberty. This species is widespread throughout North America, but
is rare in Florida.
116. A. paraspina Wirth, 1952.
Alachua, Collier, Hillsborough, Indian River, Jefferson, Leon, Levy, Putnam,
Sarasota. This species also is distributed throughout North America.
117. A. parva Wirth, 1952.
Alachua, Bradford, Citrus (types), Escambia (paratypes), Glades, Gulf, High-
lands, Hillsborough, Levy, Liberty, Orange. This common species is found
throughout North America.
118. A. variegata Glick and Mullen, 1982.
Alachua, Baker, Gulf, Holmes, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty. This recently
described species apparently is restricted to the southeastern United States.

genus BRACHYPOGON Kieffer, 1899
119. B. canadensis Downes, 1976.
Alachua, Bradford, Escambia, Franklin, Gulf, Leon, Liberty, Orange, Putnam,
Santa Rosa. Paratypes were designated from all counties listed except Escam-
bia. This primarily northern species is associated with bogs and swampy
forested areas from Florida to western Quebec.
120. B. fuscivenosus (Lutz, 1914).
Collier, Indian River, Lee, Manatee, Monroe, Palm Beach. Florida represents
the northernmost limit to the range of this Neotropical species. It is known
from the Caribbean and Central America, south to Brazil.

genus CERATOCULICOIDES Wirth and Ratanaworabhan, 1971
121. C. longipennis (Wirth, 1952).
Liberty. This species occurs locally north to Quebec and has also been collected
in Washington and California.











524 Florida Entomologist 68(4) December, 1985

122. C. virginianus (Wirth, 1951).
Alachua, Liberty, Marion, Putnam. This species ranges west to Texas, north
to New York.

genus ECHINOHELEA Macfie, 1940

123. E. lanei Wirth, 1951.
Alachua, Gulf, Highlands, Jackson, Jefferson, Liberty, Marion, Orange, Put-
nam. This is the only Nearctic species in this genus. It is distributed west to
Mississippi, north to Michigan and Massachusetts, and also has been collected
in Panama and Trinidad.

genus MONOHELEA Kieffer, 1917

subgenus Allohelea Kieffer, 1917
124. M. johannseni Wirth, 1953.
Alachua, Baker, Bay, Escambia (paratypes), Franklin, Gulf, Highlands, Hill-
sborough, Indian River, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Marion, Orange, Putnam,
Santa Rosa, Sarasota, Wakulla, Walton (paratypes). This species ranges west
to Kansas, North to Michigan and Maryland. It also is known from Panama.
125. M. multilineata (Lutz, 1914).
Lee. This is the first published North American record of this neotropical
species: Sanibel Island, 8.IX.1963, G. Quinn, 1 female, det. W. W. Wirth
(USNM).
126. M. nebulosa (Coquillett, 1901).
Alachua, Baker, Bay, Escambia, Gulf, Highlands, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon,
Liberty, Marion, Orange, Santa Rosa, Wakulla. This species ranges west to
Texas, north to Massachussetts.
127. M. stonei Wirth, 1953.
Alachua, Baker, Bay (paratypes), Citrus (paratypes), Collier (paratypes),
Dade, Escambia (paratypes), Glades, Gulf, Highlands, Indian River, Jackson,
Jefferson, Lee (paratypes), Leon, Levy, Liberty, Marion, Monroe (paratypes),
Orange, Palm Beach, Putnam, St. Lucie, Santa Rosa, Sarasota, Wakulla, Wal-
ton (paratypes). This common eastern species is distributed north to Ontario
and Massachusetts and southward through the Bahamas and into Panama.
subgenus Monohelea
128. M. bifurcata Wirth and Williams, 1964.
Alachua, Calhoun, Liberty, Santa Rosa, Wakulla. This eastern species ranges
north to New York.
129. M. floridensis Wirth and Williams, 1964.
Alachua, Hillsborough, Levy, Putnam, St. Lucie (types). This uncommon
species also occurs in Maryland and Mississippi.
130. M. hirsuta Wirth and Grogan, 1981.
Escambia (paratype). This rare species is known only from two females; the
holotype is from Maryland.
131. M. knight Wirth and Williams, 1964.
Alachua, Duval holotypee), Martin, Putnam. This species is known only from
Florida.
132. M. lanei Wirth, 1953.
Collier (paratype), Dade (types), Highlands, Hillsborough, Indian River, Levy,
Palm Beach, Putnam (paratypes). This species also occurs in the Bahamas.
133. M. macfiei Wirth, 1953.
Indian River. This uncommon species is reported from Flol:da for the first
time. It is distributed west to Mississippi, northward to Virginia and Wisconsin.











Wilkening et al.: Florida Ceratopogonidae 525

134. M. maculipennis (Coquillett, 1905).
Alachua, Calhoun, Citrus, Collier, Dade, Duval holotypee), Glades, Highlands,
Indian River, Jefferson, Lee, Levy, Liberty, Marion, Monroe, Orange, Put-
nam, St. Lucie, Sarasota.
135. M. ornata Wirth, 1953.
Alachua, Clay, Escambia holotypee), Flagler, Highlands, Indian River, Jeffer-
son, St. Lucie, Wakulla, Walton.
136. M. texana Wirth, 1953.
Alachua, Levy, Orange.
137. M. wirthi Khalaf, 1969.
Alachua, Glades.

genus PARABEZZIA Malloch, 1915

alexander group
138. P. alaxanderi Wirth, 1965.
Alachua, Jefferson, Leon, Orange. This species ranges north to Massachusetts.
uncinata group
139. P. bystraki Grogan and Wirth, 1977.
Alachua, Franklin, Liberty (paratypes from all 3 counties). This species also is
known from Maryland.
140. P. horvathi Grogan and Wirth, 1977.
Alachua (types), Escambia (paratypes), Liberty (paratypes). This uncommon
species is known only from Florida.
141. P. huberti Grogan and Wirth, 1977.
Liberty (paratypes). This species is rare in Florida and is also known from
Maryland and Virginia.

genus RHYNCHOHELEA Wirth and Blanton, 1970

142. R. monilicornis Wirth and Blanton, 1970.
Liberty holotypee), Marion. This is the only species in this unusual genus. It is
known from only 3 adult females; the third specimen was collected in California.

genus STILOBEZZIA Kieffer, 1911

subgenus Neostilobezzia Goetghebuer in Goetghebuer and Lenz, 1934
143. S. lutea (Malloch, 1918).
Alachua, Escambia, Jackson, Liberty, Marion, Santa Rosa. This fairly common
species ranges westward into Texas, north to Michigan and Nova Scotia.
144. S. stonei Wirth, 1953.
Alachua, Bay (types), Escambia, Franklin, Gulf, Highlands, Indian River, Jef-
ferson, Levy, Liberty, Marion, Orange, Putnam, Santa Rosa, Wakulla. This
eastern species is very common in Florida and ranges north to Nova Scotia.
subgenus Eukraiohelea Ingram and Macfie, 1921
145. S. elegantula (Johannsen, 1907).
Alachua, Bay, Citrus, Dade, Hillsborough. This is a poorly-known, yet distinc-
tive species. It has been collected as far north as Maryland and specimens also
have been recorded from French Guiana.
subgenus Stilobezzia
146. S. antennalis (Coquillett, 1901).
Escambia, Jackson, Liberty. This fairly common species is distributed west to
Texas, north from British Columbia to Ontario.











Florida Entomologist 68(4)


147. S. beckae Wirth, 1953.
Alachua, Calhoun, Citrus, Escambia, Gilchrist, Glades, Indian River, Levy,
Monroe, Santa Rosa, Wakulla, Walton (types). This common species appears
to be widespread. Described from Florida, it also has been collected in Missis-
sippi, Maryland, Panama, and Peru.
148. S. bulla Thomsen, 1935.
Alachua, Baker, Citrus, Franklin, Gulf, Highlands, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty,
Orange, Santa Rosa. This strictly eastern species occurs north to Ontario and
Quebec.
149. S. coquilletti Kieffer, 1917.
Alachua, Jefferson, Liberty, Orange, St. Lucie. This common species occurs
from Illinois and Maryland south to Central America and the West Indies.
150. S. divers (Coquillett, 1901).
Alachua. This species is rare in Florida and ranges north to New Jersey.
151. S. glauca Macfie, 1939.
Alachua, Gulf. This primarily Neotropical species occurs as far north as Vir-
ginia.
152. Stilobezzia kiefferiLane
Stilobezzia kiefferi Lane, 1947:205.
(female: Brazil; fig. wing, fig. 9, not 8).
Stilobezzia (Stilobezzia) punctipes Wirth, 1953b:79.
(female: Florida: fig. male genitalia) NEW SYNONYMY.
Alachua, Citrus, Glades, Lake, Levy, Marion, Sarasota. One of us (WW)
reexamined Lane's paratypes of Stilobezzia kiefferi in the USNM and compared
them with the type series of what was described from Florida by Wirth (1953b)
as Stilobezzia punctipes. Significant adult morphological differences between
kiefferi and punctipes do not exist; the 2 are apparently conspecific. The latter
name must therefore fall in synonymy to Stilobezzia kiefferi Lane, 1947, which
remains available as the senior objective synonym.
153. S. pallidiventris (Malloch, 1915).
Alachua, Gulf, Highlands, Jefferson, Liberty, Marion, Orange, Putnam,
Sarasota, Wakulla. This species ranges north to New York, west to Illinois.
154. S. pruinosa Wirth, 1952.
Alachua, Indian River, Wakulla, Walton. This species is also known from
California, Arizona, and Virginia.
155. S. rabelloi Lane, 1947.
Alachua, Bay, Escambia, Highlands, Indian River, Jefferson, Lake, Leon, Mar-
ion, Orange, Putnam, Santa Rosa, Sarasota. This primarily Neotropical species
has been collected as far north as Maryland.
156. S. thomsenae Wirth, 1953.
Alachua, Calhoun, Citrus, Collier holotypee), Dade, Gilchrist, Glades, Gulf,
Indian River, Jefferson, Liberty, Orange, Wakulla. This species is known only
from Florida where it is fairly abundant.
157. S. sybleae Wirth, 1953.
Alachua, Liberty, Marion, Orange. Outside of Florida, this species is known
from Michigan, Virginia, Tennessee, and California.
158. S. viridis (Coquillett, 1901).
Alachua, Escambia, Indian River, Lake, Leon, Liberty, Wakulla. This poorly-
known species ranges west to Texas, north to New Jersey.


December, 1985











Wilkening et al.: Florida Ceratopogonidae


Tribe HETEROMYIINI Wirth, 1962

genus CLINOHELEA Kieffer, 1917

bimaculata group
159. C. bimaculata (Loew, 1861).
Alachua, Baker, Bay, Calhoun, Collier, Columbia, Duval, Escambia, Glades,
Gulf, Hardee, Highlands, Indian River, Jefferson, Lake, Leon, Levy, Liberty,
Marion, Orange, Palm Beach, Putnam, Sarasota, Suwannee, Wakulla, Walton.
This is the commonest of the 7 North American species in this genus. It occurs
west to Texas, north to Michigan and New Hampshire.
160. C. longitheca Grogan and Wirth, 1976.
Santa Rosa (types). This species is known from only 2 females collected in
Florida.
unimaculata group
161. C. curriei (Coquillett, 1905).
Alachua. This species is primarily northern in distribution, occurring from
Alaska and California to Newfoundland. Only a single female is presently
known from Florida.
162. C. nubifera (Coquillett, 1905).
Alachua, Duval holotypee), Highlands, Santa Rosa. This rare species is known
outside of Florida from only a single female from New York. The male of this
species is presently known only from genitalia attached to a female from Santa
Rosa County (USNM).

genus HETEROMYIA Say, 1825
163. H. fasciata Say, 1825.
Alachua, Baker, Duval, Putnam, Santa Rosa, Wakulla. This is the type species
of the genus. This poorly-known eastern species occurs from Florida to Mas-
sachusetts.
164. H. prattii Coquillett, 1902.
Hardee, Highlands, Wakulla. This is the only other species in this genus from
North America. Also an eastern species, its range is more extensive thanfas-
ciata, occurring farther south in Florida and north to Ontario, west to Illinois.

Tribe SPHAEROMIINI Newman, 1834

genus JENKINSHELEA Macfie, 1934
albaria group
165. J. albaria (Coquillett, 1895).
Alachua, Gilchrist, Glades, Hardee, Highlands, Jefferson, Putnam holotypee),
Sarasota. This species is commonly found around lakes and streams and ranges
west to Texas and Illinois, northwards to Ontario.
166. J. stonei Grogan and Wirth, 1977.
Fscambia, Jackson holotypee), Leon, Orange. Paratypes were collected from
all 4 counties. This species is apparently restricted to lowlands along the Gulf
of Mexico and presently is known only from Texas and Florida.
magnipennis group
167. J. blantoni Grogan and Wirth, 1977.
Polk, Putnam holotypee), Santa Rosa, Wakulla. Paratypes were collected from
all 4 counties. This species is known only from Florida.











528 Florida Entomologist 68(4) December, 1985

genus JOHANNSENOMYIA Malloch, 1915
168. J. annulicornis Malloch, 1918
Baker, Jackson. This species has not previously been reported from Florida. It
ranges north to Ontario and west to Illinois and Michigan.
169. J. argentata (Loew, 1861).
Calhoun, Jackson, Orange, Santa Rosa. This species ranges north to Ontario,
west to North Dakota.

genus MACROPEZA Meigen, 1818
170. M. blantoni Wirth and Ratanaworabhan, 1972.
Jackson holotypee), Leon. This very large biting midge species is one of only 2
New World representatives of this primarily African genus. This species is
known from only 2 females collected in Florida.

genus MALLOCHOHELEA Wirth, 1962
171. M. atripes Wirth, 1962.
Alachua, Baker, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, St. Johns (paratypes), Santa Rosa.
This common eastern species ranges north to Ontario.
172. M. caudellii (Coquillett, 1905).
Jackson. Described from British Columbia, this species is predominantly west-
ern and is rare in Florida. This is the first published Florida record of this
species.
173. M. smith (Lewis, 1956).
Jackson, Franklin, Marion, Orange, Wakulla. This common eastern species
ranges north to Quebec.
174. M. spinipes Wirth, 1962.
Gilchrist, Suwannee. This rare species previously was known only from Geor-
gia. Males of spinipes remain undiscovered.

genus NILOBEZZIA Kieffer, 1921
175. N. schwarzii (Coquillett, 1901).
Alachua, Collier, Dade, Duval, Escambia, Glades, Gulf, Highlands, Lee, Leon,
Levy, Monroe, Orange, Palm Beach, Polk, Santa Rosa, Seminole, Volusia,
Wakulla. This is a large and common species. It is predominantly Neotropical
and has been collected from South Carolina to Texas, through Central America
and the West Indies, south to Brazil.

genus PROBEZZIA Kieffer, 1906
176. P. albiventris (Loew, 1861).
Santa Rosa. This species occurs in the eastern and midwestern United States
north to New Brunswick.
177. P. nigra Wirth, 1971.
DeSoto, Jackson, Liberty, Santa Rosa. This species is restricted to the south-
east, known only from Florida, Louisiana, and Georgia.
178. P. pallida Malloch, 1914.
Franklin, Jackson. This species has been recorded numerous times from stream
margins and is distributed west to Arizona, northward from North Dakota to
Ontario.











Wilkening et al.: Florida Ceratopogonidae 529

179. P. sabroskyi Wirth, 1951.
Santa Rosa. This species is distributed north to New Brunswick, westward into
Oregon.
180. P. smithii (Coquillett, 1901).
Jackson, Leon, Santa Rosa. This eastern species ranges north to New Jersey.

genus SPHAEROMIAS Curtis, 1829

181. S. longipennis (Loew, 1861).
Alachua, Franklin, Highlands, Leon, Orange, Putnam. This species usually is
found around a wide variety of aquatic habitats and can be quite abundant. It
is one of 2 species in the genus from North America and ranges north to Min-
nesota and Ontario, westward through Texas with scattered records also from
California.

Tribe PALPOMYIINI Enderlein, 1936

genus BEZZIA Kieffer, 1899

subgenus Bezzia
bivittata group
182. B. bivittata (Coquillett, 1905).
Alachua, Liberty. This species ranges throughout North America from Alaska
to California, east as far north as Ontario.
183. B. gibbera (Coquillett, 1905).
Monroe. This species ranges through the Caribbean and Panama, north to
southern Arizona, Texas, and Florida.
184. B. gibberella Wirth and Grogan, 1983.
Alachua (paratypes). This uncommon species is distributed north to Michigan
and Quebec.
185. B. setosinotum Wirth and Grogan, 1983.
Alachua (paratype). This species has been collected as far north as New Jersey.
expolita group
This group of species is presently under revision. The species listed below are all
known to occur in Florida, but definitive county records are not presently available
for some of them.
186. B. expolita (Coquillett, 1901).
Records not available for this species.
187. B. flavitarsis Malloch, 1914.
Collier.
188. B. laciniastyla Dow and Turner, 1976.
Alachua, Glades (types), Wakulla.
189. B. perplexa Dow and Turner, 1976.
Alachua holotypee), Hillsborough, Indian River, Liberty. Paratypes from all 4
counties.
190. B. pulverea (Coquillett, 1901).
Records not available for this species.
191. B. punctipennis (Williston, 1896).
Dade, Palm Beach.
192. B. spicata Dow and Turnner, 1976.
Alachua (paratypes), Indian River (paratypes), Wakulla holotypee).
193. B. uncistyla Dow and Turner, 1976.
Records not available for this species.











530 Florida Entomologist 68(4) December, 1985

nobilis group
194. B. nobilis (Winnertz, 1852).
Alachua, Glades, Gulf, Highlands, Indian River, Jackson, Levy, Liberty, Mar-
ion, Orange, Palm Beach, Putnam, St. Lucie, Santa Rosa, Wakulla. This is one
of the commonest and most widespread species of Bezzia in the world, ranging
throughout Eurasia and North America, south to the islands of the Greater
Antilles and Central America, with southernmost specimens collected from
Brazil and Uraguay. Some Florida material has been previously recorded under
the synonyms B. setulosa (Loew) and B. atlantica Wirth and Williams.
subgenus Homobezzia Macfie, 1932
annulipes group
195. B. fascispinosa Clastrier, 1962.
Alachua, Leon, Wakulla. This is primarily a northern Holarctic species.
196. B. pseudobscura Wirth, 1951.
Alachua. This rare species is known only from a few females collected in Flor-
ida, Maryland, and Virginia.
197. B. solstitialis (Winnertz, 1852).
Alachua, Jackson, Levy, Marion, Santa Rosa, Walton. This species is widely
distributed throughout Europe and North America.
198. B. varicolor (Coquillett, 1902).
Alachua, Orange, St. Lucie. This species is widely distributed throughout
North America.
bicolor group
199. B. coloradensis Wirth, 1952.
Indian River. This species has also been collected in California and the Greater
Antilles.
200. B. fairchildi Wirth, 1983.
Alachua, Glades, Gulf, Highlands, Hillsborough, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Marion,
Orange, Putnam, Santa Rosa holotypee), Wakulla. All records listed are from
the type series except Levy Co. This species is restricted to Florida.
201. B. glabra (Coquillett, 1902).
Alachua, Bay, Citrus, Collier, Dade (lectotype), Gilchrist, Glades, Gulf, Har-
dee, Highlands, Jackson, Jefferson, Lee, Leon, Levy, Marion, Orange, Palm
Beach, Polk, Putnam, Sarasota, Suwanee. This common species occurs
throughout North America and also has been recorded from Belize.
dorsasetula group
202. B. dorsasetula Dow and Turner, 1976.
Wakulla. This eastern species is 1 of only 2 North American species in the
group and ranges northward into Canada. It has been reared from sphagnum
bogs in the northeast.

genus PALPOMYIA Meigen, 1818

distinct group
203. P. plebeia (Loew, 1861).
Alachua, Jefferson, Levy, Liberty. This common species occurs near small
streams in swampy, wooded areas in the northern part of the state and is
distributed north to Newfoundland and west to Utah, Washington, and British
Columbia.
204. P. pseudorufa Grogan and Wirth, 1975.
Alachua, Baker, Bay, Escambia, Jefferson, Liberty, Marion. This is a fairly
common inhabitant of swampy areas of the southeastern coastal plain. It ranges
north to Maryland.











Wilkening et al.: Florida Ceratopogonidae 531

205. P. rufa (Loew, 1861).
Alachua, Baker, Jefferson, Liberty, Santa Rosa. This is a fairly common east-
ern species.
flavipes group
206. P. hastata Grogan and Wirth, 1975.
Alachua, Jefferson, Liberty. This is an uncommon species limited in distribution
to the extreme eastern portion of the United States and Canada as far north
as New Brunswick. In Florida, it has been collected in only the northern part
of the state.
lineata group
207. P. lineata (Meigen, 1818).
Alachua, Jefferson. This is a widespread Holarctic species. It has been found
throughout most of North America from Florida north to Quebec, westward
into Alaska just below the Arctic circle.
tibialia group
208. P. subaspera (Coquillett, 1901).
Alachua, Collier, Dade, Escambia, Gilchrist, Glades, Hardee, Indian River,
Jackson, Jefferson, Levy, Martin, Monroe, Orange, Palm Beach, Santa Rosa,
Sarasota, Suwanee. This very common species inhabits streams and ponds. It
is very widely distributed, ranging from southern Canada, throughout the
United States into northern Mexico.
209. P. weemsi Grogan and Wirth, 1979.
Baker, Duval, Highlands, Jackson holotypee), Levy, Liberty, Manatee,
Sarasota, Wakulla. All records are from the type series. This eastern species
ranges northward to Maryland with isolated records from Missouri.

genus PHAENOBEZZIA Haeselbarth, 1965

210. P. opaca (Loew, 1861).
Alachua, Bay, Bradford, Broward, Citrus, Columbia, Dade, Glades, Gulf, High-
lands, Hillsborough, Indian River, Levy, Liberty, Marion, Monroe, Orange,
Palm Beach, Putnam, Sarasota, Wakulla. This species ranges north to Canada
and westward to the Rocky Mountains.
211. P. sabroskyi Wirth and Grogan, 1982.
Alachua, Dade, Glades, Gulf, Hardee, Highlands, Lee, Leon, Marion, Sarasota.
All records are from the type series except Dade, Lee, Marion, and Sarasota
counties. This is strictly an eastern species.

DISCUSSION

The state of Florida stretches over 700 km north-south, extending through approx-
imately 6"30' of latitude. It encompasses areas of temperate, subtropical, and even
tropical climates in parts of Monroe County. Bridging the gap between the Nearctic
and Neotropical faunal realms, Florida contains both Nearctic or Holarctic species
whose southern limits extend into the northern part of the state as well as primarily
Neotropical species whose Florida populations represent the northern limits of their
species' ranges. In addition, we have noted that at least 21 species of biting midges are
presently known only from Florida. As a result, Florida apparently is richer in
ceratopogonid species than many other areas of North America. We have specimens or
records comprising 211 species in 25 genera from 64 of Florida's 67 counties. Downes
and Wirth (1981) recorded 498 species of Ceratopogonidae from North America, Green-
land, and Bermuda, and more recent contributions by several authors have increased
this number to well over 510. Known Florida material therefore contains approximately











Florida Entomologist 68(4)


40% of the described Nearctic species, with 12 Nearctic genera unrepresented in present
collections from the state (Table 2).
Florida is one of the few areas in North America which has been intensively sampled
for biting midges and other Nematocera, largely through adult trap surveys conducted
by personnel of the Florida State Board of Health, personnel of the DPI, and by Dr.
Franklin S. Blanton, University of Florida. Nevertheless, of the 67 Florida counties,
36 have fewer than 20 recorded species (Fig. 1). Distributions within the state are best
known for species in the genus Culicoides, a reflection of the effort invested in this
medically and economically important group. There are no specimens or records pre-
sently available from Madison, Osceola, or Union Counties. A clear need exists for
further surveys in many counties, particularly those in the northern part of the state
at the base of the "panhandle."


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Dr. Frank W. Mead and Dr. Howard V. Weems, Jr., DPI, Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, gave generously of their time in help-
ing us locate specimens, records, and literature during a period when building construc-
tion, renovation, and reorganization of facilities sometimes rendered access to material
quite difficult. Dr. Franklin S. Blanton provided helpful information and made available
to us his personal collection, now in part incorporated in the FSCA. Drs. Ellis C.
Greiner and Wayne L. Kramer, Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Veteri-



TABLE 2. NEARCTIC GENERA OF CERATOPOGONIDAE (DIPTERA) UNRECORDED
FROM FLORIDA.


TRIBES AND GENERA
(all Ceratopogoninae)

Culicoidini
Paradasyhelea Macfie
Ceratopogonini
Ceratopogon Meigen
Isohelea Kieffer
Schizohelea Kieffer

Serromyia Meigen
Heteromyiini
Neurobezzia W. & R.
Neurohelea Kieffer
Pellucidomyia Macfie
Palpomyiini
Amerohelea Grogan & Wirth

Pachyhelea Wirth
Stenoxenini
Paryphoconus Enderlein

Stenoxenus Coquillett


COMMENTS*


1 sp., olympiae Wirth and Blanton from Washington

4 spp., North America
3 spp., widespread
1 sp., leucopeza (Meigen) from northern North
America
3 spp., widespread

1 sp., granulosa Wirth from California and Oregon
2 spp., western North America
1 sp., wirthi (Lane) from Texas

1 sp., frontispina (Dow and Turner) from western
North America, neotropical
1 sp., pachymera (Williston) from Texas, neotropical

1 sp., sonorensis W. & R. from Oklahoma,
Neotropical
1 sp., johnsoni (Coquillett) from southeastern United
States


*Information is from Downes and Wirth (1981), Grogan and Wirth (1981), and from Wirth and Ratanaworabhan
(1972a).


December, 1985












Wilkening et al.: Florida Ceratopogonidae 533










FLORIDA
















II




NUMBER OF SPECIES RECORDED :_
S 50 OR MORE
1 9 36-49
20-35
Z 5-19
LESS THAN 5



SCALE
25 0 25 50 MILES

25 0 25 50 KILOMETERS




Fig. 1. County map of Florida (USA) indicating the number of biting midge (Diptera:
Ceratopogonidae) species recorded from each county. The number of records from each
county reflects primarily collection and survey effort rather than underlying
ceratopogonid ecology. Although counties with fewer than 5 recorded species exist
throughout the state, northern Florida at the base of the "panhandle" is the region most
poorly represented in collections. No biting midge species have been recorded from
Madison, Osceola, or Union counties.



nary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, kindly shared with us their distribu-
tional data for Florida Culicoides which included many new county records. In addition,
they made available to us specimens collected throughout the state during the course
of their research into BTV transmission. Carol Morris and Paul Choate provided us
with many collections from new localities. Barbara Lamont prepared Figure 1.











Florida Entomologist 68(4)


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Entomol. Soc. America 55: 272-87.
1962b. The North American species of the biting midge genus Jenkinshelea
Macfie (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 57: 1-4.
1971a. A review of the "stick-ticks," Neotropical biting midges of the For-
cipomyia subgenus Microhelea parasitic on walking stick insects (Diptera:
Ceratopogonidae). Entomol. News. 82: 229-45.











Florida Entomologist 68(4)


S1971b. Six new North American species of Probezzia (Diptera:
Ceratopogonidae) with biological notes and a key to species. Ann. Entomol. Soc.
America 64: 729-39.
1972a. Midges sucking blood of caterpillars (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). J.
Lepid. Soc. 26: 65.
1972b. The Neotropical Forcipomyia (Microhelea) species related to the cater-
pillar parasite F. fuliginosa (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc.
America 65: 564-577.
1976. Forcipomyia pictoni Macfie and descriptions of two new related species
from Florida (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Florida Ent. 59: 77-84.
S1980. A new species and corrections in the Atrichopogon midges of the sub-
genus Meloehelea attacking blister beetles (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Proc. En
tomol. Soc. Washington 82: 124-139.
.1983a. A review of the American predaceous midges of the Bezzia nobilis
group (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Washington 85: 670-85.
1983b. The North American predaceous midges of the Bezzia bicolor group
(Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Florida Ent. 66: 292-310.
1983c. The North American species of the cockerelli and dorsasetula groups
of the predaceous midge genus Bezzia, subgenus Homobezzia (Diptera:
Ceratopogonidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Washington 85: 762-82.
--, AND W. R. ATCHLEY. 1973. A review of the North American Leptoconops
(Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Texas Tech. Univ. Grad. Stud. 5: 1-57.
AND F. S. BLANTON. 1970. Notes on Brachypogon Kieffer (Diptera,
Ceratopogonidae), a new species, and two new neotropical genera of the tribe
Ceratopogonini. Florida Ent. 53: 93-104.
- AND M. I. Dow. 1971. Studies on the genus Forcipomyia. III. Blantonia, a
new subgenus in the Trichohelea complex (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Florida
Ent. 54: 289-95.
- AND W. L. GROGAN, JR. 1977. Taxonomic notes on the genus Heteromyia
Say, and a new species from Nicaragua (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Florida Ent.
60: 177-85.
---, AND-. 1981. Natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland XXV. Biting
Midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). 3. The species of the tribe Stilobezziini. Bull.
Biol. Soc. Washington 5: 1-102.
AND -- 1982. The predaceous midges of the genus Phaenobezzia in North
America (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Mem. Entomol. Soc. Washington 10: 179-
92.
--- AND 1983. The nearctic species of the Bezzia bivittata group (Diptera:
Ceratopogonidae). Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 96: 489-523.
- AND D. H. MESSERSMITH. 1971. Studies on the genus Forcipomyia. 1. The
North American parasitic midges of the subgenus Trichohelea (Diptera:
Ceratopogonidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. America 64: 15-26.
- S. M. PALCHICK, AND L. FOSTER. 1984. The North American predaceous
midges of the Bezzia annulipes group (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Proc. En-
tomol. Soc. Washington 86: 155-75.
- AND N. C. RATANAWORABHAN. 1971. Ceratoculicoides, a new genus related
to Ceratopogon Meigen (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc.
Washington 73: 170-7.
SAND 1972a. A revision of the tribe Stenoxenini (Diptera:
Ceratopogonidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. America 65; 1368-88.
- AND 1972b. Notes on the genus Macropeza Meigen and description of
a new species from Florida (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Florida Ent. 55: 213-7.
- AND -- 1978. Studies on the genus Forcipomyia. V. Key to subgenera
and description of a new subgenus related to E,,,',.ir,,...;;r Brethes (Diptera:
Ceratopogonidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Washington 80: 493-507.
- AND F. S. BLANTON. 1974. Synopsis of the genera of Ceratopogonidae
(Diptera). Ann. Parasitol. Hum. Comp. 49: 595-613.


December, 1985











Wilkening et al.: Florida Ceratopogonidae


AND D. H. MESSERSMITH. 1977. Natural history of Plummers Island,
Maryland. XXII. Biting Midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). 1. Introduction and
key to genera. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 90: 615-47.
AND W. T. WAUGH. 1976. Five new neotropical Dasyhelea midges (Diptera,
Ceratopogonidae) associated with culture of cacao. Stud. Entomo. 19: 223-36.
AND R. W. WILLIAMS. 1957. The biting midges of the Bermuda Islands, with
descriptions of five new species (Diptera, Heleidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc.
Washington 59: 5-14.
---, AND -- 1964. New species and records of North American Monohelea
(Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. America 57: 302-310.





BAETIDAE FROM SRI LANKA WITH SOME GENERAL
REMARKS ON THE BAETIDAE OF THE ORIENTAL REGION
(INSECTA: EPHEMEROPTERA)

INGRID MULLER-LIEBENAU
Max-Planck-Institut fur Limnologie
Abteilung Allgemeine Limnologie
D-2320 Plon, BRD
and
MICHAEL D. HUBBARD
Entomology
Florida A&M University
Tallahasee, Florida 32307 USA
and
Research Associate, Florida State
Collection of Arthropods
Gainesville, FL 32602 USA

ABSTRACT
The nymphs of nine species of baetid mayflies from Sri Lanka are described in detail.
These include Baetis frequentus sp.n., B. accepts sp.n., B. conservatus sp.n., B. col-
linus sp.n., B. geminatus sp.n., B. pulchellus sp.n., B. ordinatus sp.n., and Procloeon
regularum sp.n. A single nymph of Cloeon appears closely related to Cloeon
bimaculatum Eaton. The first four species mentioned do not fit in any known species-
group. Baetis geminatus sp.n. and B. pulchellus sp.n. are associated with the Oriental
molawinensis species-group (which corresponds to the European atrebatinus species-
group and to the North American propinquus species-group). The sumigarensis sub-
group is proposed within the molawinensis species-group. The nymphs described herein
are the first nymphs to be described in the family Baetidae from Sri Lanka. The genus
Procloeon is recorded from the Oriental Region for the first time. A key to the baetid
nymphs of Sri Lanka is included.

RESUME

Se described en detalle las ninfas de nueve species de efemer6pteros de Sri Lanka.
Se incluyen Baetisfrequentus sp.n., B. accepts sp.n., B. conservatus sp.n., B. collins
sp.n., B. geminatus sp.n., B. pulchellus sp.n., B. ordinatus sp.n., y Procloeon reg-
ularum sp.n. Una ninfa de Cloeon paraece estar cercamente relacionada a Cloeon











538 Florida Entomologist 68(4) December, 1985

bimaculatum Eaton. Las primeras cuatro species mencionadas no pertenecen a ningln
grupo de species conocidas. Baetis geminatus sp.n. y B. pulchellus sp.n. pertenecen
al grupo de species oriental molawinensis (que corresponde al grupo de species
europeo atrebatinus y al grupo de species norteamericano propinquus). Se propone el
subgrupo de species sumigarensis en el grupo de species molawinensis. Las ninfas
que se described en este trabajo son las primeras ninfas de la familiar Baetidae descritas
de Sri Lanka. Se registra por primera vez para la Regi6n Oriental el genero Procloeon.
Se incluye una clave para las ninfas de Baetidae de Sri Lanka.




The baetid fauna of Sri Lanka is poorly known. Fernando (1964) referred to five
species in three genera: Baetis consuetus (Hagen 1858), B. feminalis Eaton, 1885, B.
solidus (Hagen, 1858), Cloeon marginale (Hagen 1858), and Procloeon bimaculatum
(Eaton, 1885). Both males and females are known of the three Baetis species (consuetus,
terminalis, and solidus); no nymph of any Baetis species from Sri Lanka has been
described previously. None of the three Baetis species has been rediscovered since its
original description and none has ever been associated with nymphs (Hubbard and
Peters 1978). Recently ten additional species of Baetidae (in Indobaetis, Indocloeon,
Pseudocloeon, and Centroptella) have been described from Sri Lanka (Miiller-Liebenau
1982a, 1982c, 1983; Miiller-Liebenau and Morihara 1982).
The genus Procloeon was known previously only from the Palaearctic Region. Three
species of "Procloeon" were mentioned by Hubbard and Peters (1978) from the Indian
Subregion: 1) Procloeon bimaculatum was described from Sri Lanka by Eaton (1855)
as Cloeon bimaculatum. 2) Procloeon harveyi was described from Calcutta by Kimmins
(1947) from males and females. Kimmins distinguished P. harveyi from P. bimaculatum
by the color pattern of the abdomen and pterostigma of the female. Gillies (1949) stated
that the nymph attributed by Ulmer (1940: 650-653) to P. bimaculatum under the name
Cloeon bimaculatum might possibly belong to P. harveyi and that both species might
be placed in Cloeon. 3) Procloeon debilis (Walker 1860) was described originally from
"Hindustan" as Cloeon debilis and later transferred by Kimmins (1960) to Procloeon.
All three species are indistinguishable from Cloeon and must be regarded as Cloeon
species.
Cloeon marginale (Hagen 1958), originally described from Sri Lanka, is known from
males and females. The nymph is unknown. The single Cloeon nymph contained in the
material studied appears closely related (if not identical) to the nymph described by
Ulmer (1940) under the name Cloeon bimaculatum Eaton.
The status of the genus Procloeon is somewhat in doubt: Burks (1953) synonymized
Procloeon with Cloeon although he gave no reason, and Gillies (1980) tentatively
suggested that Procloeon should be regarded as at most of subgeneric status. Neverthe-
less, in the absence of further study of the genus Procloeon, the single species of the
genus contained in the collection studied is preliminarily treated as Procloeon in this
paper. Thus Procloeon regularum sp.n. is the first record of the genus from the Oriental
Region.
We have carefully examined the type-specimens of Baetis consuetus, Baetis solidus,
Betisfeminalis, and Cloeon marginale from the collections of the Museum of Compara-
tive Zoology, Harvard University, in an unsuccessful attempt to associate these speci-
mens with nymphs from Sri Lanka. Unfortunately, the nymphal color patterns and
markings are not particularly well defined and, as is common in the Baetidae, are very
difficult to correlate with adult patterns. It appears that definite association of the
described adults with nymphs will require at the least more specimens, or, more prob-
ably, reared specimens.











Miller-Liebenau & Hubbard: Sri Lanka Baetidae


Present-day systematics in the family Baetidae is based largely upon nymphs. Adults
are often unknown, or if known, have so far generally proven to be of little help in
determine relationships among species and higher taxa. This is particularly true in the
Oriental Region. We have decided that the best course of action at this time is to
describe the taxa below as new species based on nymphs even though we probably will
be creating synonyms with some of the species which had been described previously as
adults.
Most of the material studied herein was collected by Prof. Dr. F. Starmiihlner,
Vienna, and supplemented by Dr. G. Weninger, Vienna, and Dr. H. H. Costa, Kelaniya,
during the Austrian-Ceylonese Hydrobiological Mission 1970 of the 1st Zoological Insti-
tute, University of Vienna (Austria), and the Department of Zoology of the Vidyalank-
ara University of Ceylon, Kelaniya. The following genera and species of Baetidae al-
ready have been described from the same material: Indobaetis costa and I. star-
muehlneri (Miiller-Liebenau and Morihara 1982), Indocloeon primum (Miiller-Liebenau
1982a), Pseudocloeon difficilum, P. oriental, P. ambiguum, and P. klapaleki (Muller-
Liebenau 1982c), Centroptella ceylonensis, C. similis, and C. soldani (Miiller-Liebenau
1983).
A detailed description of all collecting sites of the material studied is given by Costa
and Starmuhlner (1972).
The holotypes and some paratypes are deposited in the Florida State Collection of
Arthropods, Department of Entomology, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, Flor-
ida. Additional paratypes are deposited in the Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien.

DESCRIPTIONS

1. Baetis frequentus sp.n.
Fig. 1, 10, 18

MATERIAL: 170 nymphs.
Body length: male 3.5 mm, cerci 2.0 mm; female 5.8 mm, cerci 2.6 mm.-Color
pattern, surface and posterior margin of terga as in Figs. 10, 18.-Labial palpus: inner
apical lobe of second segment slightly developed.-Mandibles: right mandible with out-
ermost tooth set back (as in Fig. le).-Gills: on abdominal segments 1-7.-Hind wing
pads of normal size.-Legs: outer margin of femur with a number of distinct bristles;
smaller, apically rounded bristles also on dorsal surface of femur and tibia, on tibia only
on the half basal to tibial seam (Fig. Ig); outer margin of tibia and tarsus with a number
of shorter bristles that appear apically split under the microscope but which actually
are rounded apically (Fig. Ig); all leg segments covered with scales and scale bases.
The canine area of the mandibles and the bristles on the outer margins of the tibia
and tarsus distinguish B. frequentus sp.n. from all other Baetis species treated in the
paper.
About 160 non-type nymphal specimens are referred to this species. Some of these
have the spines of the posterior margin of the terga less pointed than in Fig. 18, but
all of them have bristles on the outer margin of the tibia which appear apically split
(Fig. 19). These bristles are hyaline and only the margins and the midline are easily
visible under the microscope giving the appearance of bristles which are apically split.
Baetis frequentus sp.n. does not belong to any known species group. Baetis frequen-
tus sp.n. is the most frequent species in the collections studied. This species was col-
lected at 20 different sites from 30 m to 1500 m above sea level (Fig. 27) where they
live mostly under stones in the current and near the banks.
Holotype: dissected nymph on slide preparation: Ceylon, Veli-Oya, Belihuloya, (FC
26a), 8.12.1970, leg. Starmiihlner.-Paratypes: 8 slide preparations. Non-type material:










Florida Entomologist 68(4)


Sb c d






e










f

h i

Fig. 1. Nymph of Baetis frequentus sp.n.; a) left half of labrum; b) left half of labium;
c) paraglossa (enlarged; ventral); d) maxillary palpus; e) canine and molar area of left
and right mandibles; f) left half of metanotum with hind wing pad; g) leg; h) paraproct;
i) caudal filaments; j) gills 1-7.


about 160 nymphs in alcohol are also referred to this species. (See Fig. 27 for localities
from which B. frequentus sp.n. has been collected.)
Etymology: adj., from frequens, L., meaning numerous.

2. Baetis accepts sp.n.
Fig. 2, 11, 19

MATERIAL: 14 nymphs.
Body length: male 5.3 mm, cerci 5.2 mm, terminal filament 2.9 mm; female 6.2 mm,
cerci 5.9 mm, terminal filament 3.1 mm.-Color pattern: surface and posterior margin
of terga as in Fig. 11, 19.-Labial palpus: inner margin of third segment rather
rounded.-Hind wing pads: narrow.-Gills: on abdominal segments 2-7. Dorsal surface
of abdominal gills pigmented above a longitudinal median line, and covered on pig-


540


December, 1985











Miller-Liebenau & Hubbard: Sri Lanka Baetidae


f d
b






















J

Fig. 2. Nymph of Baetis accepts sp.n.: a) left half of labrum; b) left half of labium;
c) paraglossa (enlarged; ventral); d) maxillary palpus; e) canine and molar area of left
and right mandibles; f) left half of metanotum with hind wing pad; g) leg; h) claw; i)
paraproct; j) gill.

mented half and along hind margin with scales and scale bases smaller than on terga
(Fig. 2j).-Legs: bristles on outer margin of femur and tibia pointed (in two specimens
these bristles are rather blunt at apex); all three segments of legs covered with scales
and scale bases as on terga.
In addition to the morphological characters mentioned above, Baetis accepts sp.n.
differs from the other Baetis species treated in this paper by the spines on the posterior
margins of the terga which are comparatively narrow and pointed (Fig. 19). It differs
from the closely related B. conservatus sp.n. (see below) mainly by the shape of the
labial palpus, the gills, and the spines on the posterior margins of the terga. These
differences are discussed in the following description of B. conservatus sp.n. Baetis
accepts sp.n. does not belong to any known species group.
Baetis accepts sp.n. was collected at four localities between 700 m and 1200 m
above sea level (Fig. 27); the nymphs live on sandy substrate.











Florida Entomologist 68(4)


Holotype: dissected female nymph on slide preparation: Ceylon, Veli-Oya, Be-
lihuloya, (FC 26a), 8.12.1970, leg. Sarmiihlner.-Paratypes: 5 slide preparations, 8
nymphs in alcohol (localities in Fig. 27).
Etymology: adj., from accepts, L., meaning welcome or agreeable.

3. Baetis conservatus sp.n.
Fig. 3, 12, 20

MATERIAL: 3 male nymphs.
Body length: male 5.2 mm, cerci 5.2 mm, terminal filament 2.9 mm.-Color pattern,
surface and posterior margin of terga as in Figs. 12, 20. Labial palpus: inner margin
of 3rd segment rather straight.-Gills: on abdominal segments 2-7. Gills not pigmented
as in the preceding B. accepts sp.n. and entire gill surface covered with scales and
scale bases smaller than on terga.-Legs: bristles on outer margin of femur and tibia
pointed; all leg segments covered with scales and scale bases.-Subimaginal Hind wing,
visible inside exuvial hind wing pad, with clearly developed costal projection.
Baetis conservatus sp.n. is closely related to the proceeding B. accepts sp.n. The
main differences are as follows:


B. accepts sp.n.
1. 3rd segment of labial palpus rounded
at inner margin
2. gills pigmented above a median longi-
tudinal line, scales and scale bases only
on the pigmented half and along hind
margin
3. spines on posterior margin of terga
pointed and elongate
4. collecting sites 700 m to 1200 m above
sea level


B. conservatus sp.n.
3rd segment of labial palpus rather
straight at inner margin
no pigmented area on gills, scales and
scale bases over entire gill surface


spines on posterior margin of terga
pointed, short, rather triangular
collecting site 1500 m above sea level


Baetis conservatus sp.n. cannot be not placed in any known species group.
The three specimens of B. conservatus sp.n. were collected at one site at 1500 m
above sea level (Fig. 27) at the bank on sandy substrate.
Holotype: dissected male nymph on slide preparation: Ceylon, Gartmore-Estate-
Dola, Maskeliya, (FC 18a), 30.11.1970, leg. Starmiuhlner.-Paratypes: two slide prepa-
rations: 1 mature nymph, 1 juvenile nymph. Same locality as holotype.
Etymology: adj., from conserve, L., meaning to maintain.









a b c



Fig. 3. Nymph of Baetis conservatus sp.n.: a) left labial palpus; b) left half of
metanotum with hind wing pad; c) gill.


December, 1985


542











Miller-Liebenau & Hubbard: Sri Lanka Baetidae


4. Baetis collins sp.n.
Fig. 4, 13, 21
MATERIAL: 7 nymphs.
Body length: 5.4 mm, length of cerci not known because they are broken in all
specimens available (all three of them are of about same width at base).-Color pattern,
surface and posterior margin of terga as in Fig. 13, 21.-Labial palpus: 3rd segment
considerably longer than wide, inner apical lobe of 2nd segment very slightly de-
veloped.-Hind wing pads of normal size.-Gills: on abdominal segments 2-7.-Legs:
all segments covered with scales and scale bases.
In the collections studied, B. collins sp.n. is the only species without spines on the
posterior margins of the terga. This character distinguishes it easily from all other
Baetis species described herein.-Baetis luzonensis from the Philippines (Muiller-
Liebenau 1982b) also lacks spines on the posterior margins of the terga, but it differs
from B. collins sp.n. in several other morphological characters (i.e., hind wing pads
are lacking and abdominal gills occur on segments 1-7). Baetis collins sp.n. cannot be
placed in any known species group.


d


h


AM4A


Fig. 4. Nymph of Baetis collins sp.n.: a) left half of labrum; b) left half of labium;
c) paraglossa (enlarged; ventral); d) maxillary palpus; e) canine and molar area of left
and right mandibles; f) left half of metanotum with hind wing pad; g) paraproct; h) leg;
i) claw.










Florida Entomologist 68(4)


Baetis collins sp.n. appears to prefer higher altitudes: the seven specimens were
collected at three different places at altitudes of 1300 m, 1500 m, and 1850 m above sea
level (Fig. 28), near the banks on sandy substrate and also under stones in cascades.
Holotype: dissected nymph on slide preparation: Ceylon, Gartmore-Estate-Dola,
Maskeliya, (FC 18/a), 30.11.1970, leg. Starmihlner.-Paratypes: 6 nymphs in alcohol
(for locations see Fig. 27).
Etymology: adj., from collis, L., meaning hill.

5. Baetis geminatus sp.n.
Fig. 5, 14, 22

MATERIAL: 12 nymphs.
Body length: male 4.5 mm, cerci 4.0 mm; female 4.5 mm, cerci 4.0 mm.-Color
pattern, surface and posterior margin of terga as in Figs. 14, 22.-Labrum: submarginal
bristles clavate and arranged in a dense row.-Labial palpus: median lobe of 2nd seg-
ment greatly enlarged with frontal margin concave. Antenna: outer apical lobe of
pedicel clearly developed.-Maxillary palpus: second segment with slight indentation
near apex.-Hind wing pads lacking.-Gills: on abdominal segments 2-7.-Legs: all
segments covered with scales and scale bases.
The morphological characters of the nymph described above show striking corre-
spondence in most details with the nymph of B. diffundus (Mtiller-Liebenau 1984) from
Malaysia. Differences are seen in: 1) the maxillary palpus has a distinct indentation at
the inner margin near the apex in B. diffundus but the indentation is only slightly
developed in B. geminatus sp.n.; 2) the 3rd segment of the labial palpus in B. geminatus
sp.n. is wider than the inner apical lobe of the 2nd segment but is of about the same
width as the inner apical lobe in B. diffundus; and 3) the paraproct of B. diffundus is
rather short compared to the paraproct of the nymph of B. geminatus sp.n.-The color
pattern on the dorsum of the abdomen is pale and undefined in both species. Baetis
geminatus sp.n. from Sri Lanka and B. diffundus from Malaysia should probably be
considered sibling species and both are members of the sumigarensis subgroup within
the Oriental molawinensis species-group (Mfiller-Liebenau 1984). This newly proposed
subgroup wil be discussed later in this paper.
The 12 specimens of B. geminatus sp.n. were collected at altitudes ranging from 150
m to 1200 m above sea level (Fig. 27). They are found on sandy substrate and under
stones near the bank.
Holotype: dissected female nymph on slide preparation: Ceylon, Mocha-Dola, Mas-
keliya, (FC 16/a), 28.11.1970, leg. Starmiihlner.-Paratypes: 2 slide preparations, 8
nymphs in alcohol (for locations see Fig. 27).
Etymology: adj., from gemino, L., meaning to double or pair.

6. Baetis pulchellus sp.n.
Fig. 6, 15, 23

MATERIAL: 14 nymphs.
Body length: 4.2 mm, cerci 2.5 mm. Color pattern, surface and posterior margin of
terga as in Fig. 15, 23. Caudal filaments with a dark band posterior to midpoint.-Lab-
rum: submarginal fine bristles single (not in a dense row).-Maxillary palpus: distinct
subapical indentation at inner margin of 2nd segment.-Hind wing pads present, com-
paratively narrow.-Gills: on abdominal segments 1-7, with scales and scale bases on
dorsal surface.-Legs: all segments covered with scales and scale bases.
Baetis pulchellus sp.n. differs from the preceding B. geminatus sp.n. in the pattern
of submarginal bristling on the labrum (Fig. 6a), the inner apical lobe of the second
segment of the labial palpus (Fig. 6b), and in the presence of well developed hind wing


December, 1985










MiZller-Liebenau & Hubbard: Sri Lanka Baetidae


h


e



f -7"


Fig. 5. Nymph of Baetis geminatus sp.n.: a) left half of labrum (with submarginal
clavate bristles enlarged); b) left half of labium; c) apex of paraglossa (enlarged; ventral);
d) basal segments of antenna; e) canine and molar area of left and right mandibles; f)
left half of metanotum (no hind wing pads developed); g) maxillary palpus; h) paraproct;
i) leg; j) claw.

paas (Fig. 6f). It differs from both B. geminatus sp.n. and the following B. ordinatus
sp.n. in having 7 pairs of abdominal gills.
Baetis pulchellus sp.n. is placed in the Oriental molawinensis species-group. It
shows a certain relationship to B. multus from Malaysia (Mfiller-Liebenau 1984, Fig.
9, 24, 42); especially remarkable are the correspondence of the comparatively narrow
hind wing pads, and the color pattern of the pronotum and dorsum of the abdomen in
both species. Although the scales and scale bases on the surface of the terga are similar
in both species, the spines on the posterior margin of the terga are comparatively larger
in B. pulchellus sp.n. than in the Malaysian B. multus and there are about half as many
in Baetis pulchellus sp.n. as in B. multus.


i.











Florida Entomologist 68(4)


-Pd
CC
/~





al


Fig. 6. Nymph of Baetis pulchellus sp.n.: a) left half of labrum; b) left half of labium;
c) paraglossa (enlarged; ventral); d) basal segments of antenna; e) canine and molar area
of left and right mandibles; f) left half of metanotum with hind wing pads; g) maxillary
palpus; h) leg; i) claw; j) paraproct.


Baetis pulchellus sp.n. appears to range widely in altitude: 13 nymphs were col-
lected between 60 m and 600 m above sea level (Fig. 27) mostly on sandy substrate; a
single specimen was collected at 1200 m above sea level. Further collections of these
nymphs are needed to confirm the altitudinal distribution of B. pulchellus sp.n.
Holotype: dissected male nymph on slide preparation: Ceylon, Dick-Oya, Maskeliya,
(FC 23a), 3.12.1970, leg. Starmiihlner.-Paratypes: 4 slide preparations, 6 nymphs in
alcohol (for localities see Fig. 27).
Etymology: adj., from pulchellus, L., meaning very pretty.


546


December, 1985











Miiller-Liebenau & Hubbard: Sri Lanka Baetidae 547











d

b






f

--- v j











h
Fig. 7. Nymph of Baetis ordinatus sp.n.: a) left half of labrum; b) left half of labium;
c) maxillary palpus; d) paraglossa (enlarged; ventral); e) paraproct; f) basal segments of
antenna; g) canine and molar area of left and right mandibles; h) claw; i) leg; j) left half
of metanotum.

7. Baetis ordinatus sp.n.
Fig. 7, 16, 24
MATERIAL: 7 nymphs.
Body length: male 3.9 mm, cerci 2.9; female 4.1 mm, cerci 2.1 mm.-Color pattern,
surface and posterior margin of terga as in Fig. 16, 24.-Caudal filaments with a dark
band posterior to midpoint and with dark apex.-Labrum: submarginal fine bristles
single (not in a dense row). Maxillary palpus: no subapical indentation at inner margin
of second segment.-Antenna: outer apical lobe on scape not developed.-Right mandi-
ble: a tubercle at inner margin between incisor and molar area.-Hind wing pads re-
duced.-Gills: on abdominal segments 2-7.-Legs: all segments covered with scales and
scale bases as on terga.
The morphological characters shown in Fig. 7 in combination with scales and scale
bases on the surface of the terga and with spines on the posterior margins of the terga
which are broad at the base and apically rounded easily separate B. ordinatus sp.n.
from both the preceding species B. geminatus sp.n. and B. pulchellus.











548 Florida Entomologist 68(4) December, 1985

Baetis ordinatus sp.n. appears closely related to B. numeratus from Malaysia (Mtil-
ler-Liebenau 1984, Fig. 11, 26, 44): no inner apical lobe is developed on the pedicel of
the antennae, and the hind wing pads are greatly reduced. Within the Oriental
molawinensis species-group both species have an additional common character: the
right mandible with a tubercle between the incisor and the molar area (Fig. 7g) (in the
North American propinquus group, B. ephippiatus has a similar structure). In addition,
the spines on the posterior margin of the terga are broad at the base and apically
rounded (the same is true in B. moriharai from Malaysia), although in B. ordinatus
sp.n. the rounded spines on the posterior margin of the terga are most typical on
segments 1-4, getting narrower and more elongate on segments 5-10, and are apically
pointed on the last segments, In B. numeratus sp.n. (and in B. mornharai) the spines
are broad at the base and rounded on all segments.
The seven nymphs of B. ordinatus sp.n. were collected at 80 m and 700 m above
sea level (Fig. 27).
Holotype: female nymph on slide preparation: Ceylon, Kalu-Ganga at Malwala, Rat-
napura, (FC 13/d), 21.11.1970, leg. Starmilhler.-Paratypes: 4 slide preparations (some
only mouthparts and/or legs) (for localities see Fig. 27).
Etymology: adj., from ordinatus, L., meaning orderly.

8. Cloeon bimaculatum? Eaton, 1885
Fig. 8, 25
MATERIAL: 1 mature female nymph.
Body length: female 5.2 mm, cerci 3.8, terminal filament a little shorter.-Color
pattern: the exuvia of the only available specimen are nearly completely depigmented
and therefore not convenient for a figure. Caudal filaments with about 8 dark rings.
Surface and posterior margin of terga as in Fig. 25. Labium: glosssa and paraglossa of
about same width, rather stout (Fig. 8b) compared to glossa and paraglossa of Procloeon
(Fig. 9b).-Spines on lateral margins of abdominal segments are: VI = 1, VII = 1, VIII
= 8, IX = 10 (cf. Gillies 1980).-Gills: on abdominal segments 1-7, margins smooth.
Not all gills of the single specimen are still available, and the rest are detached from
the abdomen, so that it is not possible to show them in the right order. All detached
gills are doubled; probably the gill lamellae of the seventh segment are single as Ulmer
(1940) pointed out for Cloeon bimaculatum. The ventral gill lamellae are rounded, the
dorsal lamellae are rounded, or elongate and longer than the ventral lamella.-Legs: all
segments with an irregular row of long fine bristles, on femur near apex, on tibia and
tarsus near base.-Claws with two rows of denticles (Fig. 9h). In Ulmer's (1940) Fig.
181a only one row of denticles is recognizable; the second row was overlooked by him
(a loan of nymphal material from the Ulmer collection, deposited in the Zoologisches
Institute und Zoologisches Museum, Hamburg, made a comparison possible).
In Fig. 8 a number of morphological characters additional to those illustrated in
Ulmer's Figs. 376-381 (1940) of the nymph in question is shown. Cloeon bimaculatum
was described by Eaton (1885) based on images from Ceylon. Ulmer (1940: 650-653,
Fig. 376-381) described the nymph of Cloeon bimaculatum, referring to the color pat-
tern on the dorsal surface of the abdomen of the imago (Ulmer 1924). The material
studied by Ulmer was collected in Central Sumatra, South Sumatra, East Java, and
West Java. Kimmins (1947) studied images from Calcutta; based on the proportionate
length of the 1st and 2nd segments of the hind tarsus (1:3) he transferred the species
to the genus Procloeon Bengtsson. As Gillies (1980) pointed out, Kimmins (1947) had
overlooked Ulmer's description of the nymph of C. bimaculatum. Since the nymphs of
most Cloeon species are supposed to have the gill lamellae of segments 1-6 doubled (or
with recurved dorsal flap) and the seventh gill single, and the nynm 1 ',.. /.. .. are









Miller-Liebenau & Hubbard: Sri Lanka Baetidae





a


b b


Sd


549
















f


k


Fig. 8. Nymph of Cloeon bimaculatum? Eaton: a) left half of labrum; b) left half of
labium; c) left maxilla; d) left half of metanotum; e) canine and molar area of left and
right mandibles; f) paraproct; g) leg; h) claw with two rows of denticles; i) feathered
bristle from leg; j-m) 4 single gills (detached from abdomen).



known to have all gill lamellae single, we believe that the nymph which was described
by Ulmer is Cloeon rather than Procloeon and that it should remain in Cloeon. Since
no reared material was ever studied and now only a single nymph from Sri Lanka is
available, we hesitate to synonymize this nymph with the Cloeon bimaculatum nymph
described by Ulmer (1940). A definitive decision needs the study of more material.
The single nymph described herein was collected in the Region of Kitulgala on sandy
substrate in the Kelani Ganga near the Kitulgala Resthouse at 60 m above sea level
(Fig. 27).


6I


(Zj










Florida Entomologist 68(4)


9. Procloeon regularum sp.n.
Fig. 9, 17, 26

MATERIAL: 10 nymphs.
Body length: 4.5 mm, cerci 1.8 mm, terminal filament only a little shorter than cerci.
Caudal filaments with 7 dark rings and with lateral spines.-Color pattern, surface and
posterior margin of terga as in Fig. 17, 26. All abdominal segments with 1 spine at












d
I C
(A
a0














e














k
h


Fig. 9. Nymph of Procloeon regularum sp.n.: a) left half of labrum; b) left half of
labium; c) paraglossa (enlarged; ventral); d) maxillary palpus; e) canine and molar area
of left and right mandibles; f) leg; g) claw with two rows of denticles; h) left half of
metanotum; i) paraproct; j) gill of abdominal segment 4; k) gill of abdominal segment 6.


December, 1985










Miller-Liebenau & Hubbard: Sri Lanka Baetidae


ir





1






























Fig. 10. Nymph of Baetisfrequentus sp.n.: color pattern of pronotum and abdomen.
Fig. 11. Nymph of Baetis accepts sp.n.: color pattern of pronotum and abdomen.
Fig. 12. Nymph of Baetis conservatus sp.n.: color pattern of pronotum and abdomen.
Fig. 13. Nymph of Baetis collins sp.n.: color pattern of pronotum and abdomen.













Florida Entomologist 68(4)


December, 1985


C


-


Ii




- - r-









I -


A-


p


F


I'


64 L-fl U
L^

a- -J *4'.^ ^-


r
c

r
r

rrz15~r ~


~ r .4'


r
SI


' A &


Fig. 14. Nymph of Baetis geminatus sp.n.: color pattern of pronotum and abdomen.
Fig. 15. Nymph of Baetis pulchellus sp.n.: color pattern of pronotum and abdomen.
Fig. 16. Nymph of Baetis ordinatus sp.n.: color pattern of pronotum and abdomen.
Fig. 17. Nymph of Procloeon regularum sp.n.: color pattern of pronotum and abdo-
men.









Miller-Liebenau & Hubbard: Sri Lanka Baetidae


ra
-, r
-~~~iJ~


TVrrYr


C-~ .~L~.c
C- ;~ C~


Z ,A
at.A -mmltiii~ -r









tAU0
iih~ailS"^^***!^^-'**^n^^'^-^"*^ .^1 1
VcTV


* .a,1
4~I~'9j?~3
~%a'Oi flfl


Fig. 18. Baetis frequentus sp.n.; surface and posterior margin of nymphal tergum.
Fig. 19. Baetis accepts sp.n.; surface and posterior margin of nymphal tergum.
Fig. 20. Baetis conservatus sp.n.; surface and posterior margin of nymphal tergum.
Fig. 21. Baetis collins sp.n.; surface and posterior margin of nymphal tergum.
Fig. 22. Baetis geminatus sp.n.; surface and posterior margin of nymphal tergum.
Fig. 23. Baetis pulchellus sp.n.; surface and posterior margin of nymphal tergum.


553











Florida Entomologist 68(4)


l- a. -Z. -%N






S- --- "
C^: *- -



























Fig. 24. Baetis ordinatus sp.n.; surface and posterior margin of nymphal tergum.
Fig. 25. Cloeon bimaculatum? Eaton; surface and posterior margin of nymphal
tergum.
Fig. 26. Procloeon regularum sp.n.; surface and posterior margin of nymphal ter-
gum.

posterior angle at insertion of gill; segment 10 with 4 or 5 lateral spines.-Labial palpus
with terminal segment bulging inward; glossa and paraglossa about same width, elon-
gate. Hind wing pads: not developed.-Gills: gill lamellae single, rather broad, apically
pointed.-Legs: all segments with a distinct row of long, fine bristles (near apex on
femur, near base on tibia and tarsus), and covered with scales and scale bases as on
terga.-Claws with two rows of denticles. The length/width relation of glossa and parag-
lossa (compared to Cloeon) in combination with single gill lamellae refer this species to
the genus Procloeon Bengtsson, 1914.


December, 1985











Miiller-Liebenau & Hubbard: Sri Lanka Baetidae


Procloeon regularum sp.n. is the only record of the genus in the Oriental Region
(see introduction).
The 12 nymphs of P. regularum sp.n. were collected at 10 different sites between
30 m and 1300 m above sea level (Fig. 27). It appears that the altitudinal distribution
of this species is of a wide range.
Holotype: female nymph on slide preparation: Ceylon, Campden Hill Dola, Deniyaya,
(FC 5a), 11.11.1970, leg. Starmiihlner. Paratypes: 1 slide preparation of a nymph, 8
nymphs in alcohol (for localities see Fig. 27).
Et, ,,.' ,,.i. adj., from regulars, L., meaning according to rule.

Key to the nymphs of Baetidae from Sri Lanka

1. Maxillary palpus three-segmented (Fig. 8c, 9d); femur with a dense row of
long fine bristles near base, same kind of fine bristles in an apical transversal
row on tarsus, and along outer margin near base of tarsus (Fig. 8g, 9f); claw
elongate and narrow, with two rows of denticles (Fig. 8h, 9g); hind wing
pads lacking (Fig. 8d, 9h) ............................................................. ....... 2
- Maxillary palpus two-segmented (Fig. Id, 2d, 4d, 5g, 6g, 7c); femur, tibia,
and tarsus without rows of long fine bristles; claws shorter, with only one row
of denticles; hind wing pads either lacking (Fig. 5f), heavily reduced (Fig. 7k),
or well developed (Fig. If, 2f, 3b, 4f, 6f) ......................................... Baetis, 3
2. Abdominal gills single (Fig. 9j-k); outer apical edge of 3rd segment of labial
palpus not extremely developed, inner margin bulging inwardly somewhat
in the middle; terga as in Fig. 26 .................................. Procloeon regularum
- Abdominal gills double (Fig. 8j-m); outer apical edge of 3rd segment of labial
palpus well developed and inner margin S-shaped (Fig. 8b); terga as in Fig.
25 .......................................... .................... Cloeon bimaculatum ? Eaton
3. Median lobe of 2nd segment of labial palpus greatly enlarged (Fig. 5b, 6b, 7b) 4
- Median lobe of 2nd segment of labial palpus of normal size, not greatly en-
larged (Fig. Ib, 2b, 3a, 4b) ............................................. ..................... 6
4. Labrum with a dense submarginal row of clavate bristles (Fig. 5a); frontal
margin of 2nd segment of labial palpus concave (Fig. 5b); hind wing pads lack-
ing (Fig. 5f) .......................................................................... B. geminatus
- Submarginal bristles on labrum pointed, not in a dense row (Fig. 6a, 7a);
frontal margin of 2nd segment of labial palpus not concave; (Fig. 6a, 7a); hind
wing pads well developed (Fig. 6f) or greatly reduced (Fig. 7k) .................... 5
5. Basal segment of antenna with outer apical lobe (Fig. 6d); maxillary palpus
with distinct subapical indentation at inner margin of 2nd segment (Fig. 6g);
hind wing pads well developed (Fig. 6f), scale bases on posterior margin of
terga triangular, pointed (Fig. 23) ........................................... B. pulchellus
- Basal segment of antenna without outer apical lobe (Fig. 7f); indentation at
inner apical margin of 2nd segment of maxillary palpus weak to absent (Fig.
7c); hind wing pads greatly reduced (Fig. 7k); scale bases on posterior margin
of terga rounded (Fig. 24) ................................ .................... B. ordinatus
6. 3rd segment of labial palpus longer than wide, inner apical lobe on 2nd seg-
ment absent or very slightly developed (Fig. 4b); outer group of canines fused
in one blade (Fig. 4e); posterior margin of terga without spines (Fig. 21) B. collins
- 3rd segment of labial palpus of about same length as width, inner apical lobe
of 2nd segment small, but clearly developed (Fig. Ib, 2b, 3b); posterior
margin of terga with spines (Fig. 18, 19, 20) ............................................. 7
7. 3rd segment of labial palpus conically shaped (Fig. Ib); right mandible with
outermost tooth set back (Fig. le); outer margin of tibia and tarsus with a


555











Florida Entomologist 68(4)


number of short bristles that appear apically split (but are actually rounded
apically) (Fig. Ig) ................................................................. B. frequentus
- 3rd segment of labial palpus not conical, more or less rounded apically
(Fig. 2b, 3a); right mandible with outermost tooth not set back (Fig. 2e);
bristles on outer margin of tibia and tarsus pointed ................................... 8
8. 3rd segment of labial palpus rounded at inner margin (Fig. 2b); abdominal
gills pigmented above a median longitudinal line, scales and scale bases
present only in the pigmented half and along hind margin (Fig. 2j); spines on
posterior margin of terga pointed and elongate (Fig. 19) ................ B. accepts
- 3rd segment of labial palpus rather straight at inner margin (Fig. 3a); no pig-
mented area on abdominal gills, scales and scale bases over entire gill
surface (Fig. 3c); spines on posterior margin of terga pointed, short, rather
triangular (Fig. 20) ...................................................... .. B. conservatus

DISCUSSION
The nymphs of nine species of the family Baetidae from Sri Lanka are described.
Out of the seven Baetis species four species are not included in any known species
group, and no close relatives are known from other parts of the Oriental Region previ-
ously treated by one of us (Sunda Island, Philippines, West Malaysia, Mfller-Liebenau
1981, 1982a, 1984). Otherwise three of the seven Baetis species show close relationships
to species from the Philippines and from West Malaysia, and based on their morpholog-
ical characters all three can be included in the Oriental molawinensis species-group
(which has many morphological characteristics in common with the European at-
rebatinus species-group and the North American propinquus species-group; Miiller-
Liebenau 1984). These three species from Sri Lanka are B. geminatus sp.n., B. pulchel-
lus sp.n., and B. ordinatus sp.n.
Recent comparative studies on baetid nymphal material from the Sunda Islands, the
Philippines, and Malaysia (Muller-Libenau 1981, 1982a 1984) and from Sri Lanka (this
paper) have revealed that a considerable number of all Baetis species studied are clearly
associated with the molawinensis species-group. These include: three of seven species
from the Sunda Islands (only male and female images are known); two of four species
from the Philippines; six of thirteen species from Malaysia; and three of seven species
from Sri Lanka. Further, one of two species from the Bismark Archipelago (Demoulin
1969), and one species from Madagascar (Demoulin 1968) belong to the same species
group. Altogether, 15 out of 32 species (47%) known from the Oriental Region (sensu
lato), when including the Bismark Archipelago and Madagascar, belong to that group.
In contrast, of about 35 European Baetis species, only 4 belong to the European at-
rebatinus group (11.4%). Only five out of about 42 Baetis species (11.9%) are currently
known to belong to the North American propinquus group (Morihara and McCafferty
1979). Thus it is conceivable that the Oriental Region could be a kind of "cradle" for
Baetis species of the molawinensis-atrebatinus-propinquus complex and that the
spread of the members of these species groups has taken place by adaptive radiation
during the historical evolution of the continents. The comparative situation on the Afri-
can Continent and in South America is not yet known but future study will certainly
reveal interesting additional information on the evolution and dispersion of this species
complex.
Within the Oriental molawinensis species-group four species have the internal me-
dian lobe of the second segment of the labial palpus with the outer margin concave (Fig.
5b). This appears to be a character of substantial taxonomic value, and in combination
with additional morphological characters it easily distinguishes the species from the rest
of this species group complex. We therefore propose to include these four species in the


556


December, 1985











Miiller-Liebenau & Hubbard: Sri Lanka Baetidae 557

sumigarensis subgroup (named after B. sumigarensis Miller-Liebenau, 1982, from the
Philippines) within the molawinensis species-group. These four species are B.
sumigarensis (Philippines), B. diffundus from West Malaysia (Miiller-Liebenau 1984),
B. geminatus sp.n. from Sri Lanka (treated in this paper), and Baetis sp. from Madagas-
car (Demoulin 1968). With increasing knowledge resulting from further study, the es-
tablishment of another subgroup is possible, including B. moriharai and B. numeratus
from Malaysia, and B. ordinatus sp.n. from Sri Lanka, based on the scales and scale
bases on the surface of the terga and the spines on the posterior margins of the terga
which are broad at the base and apically rounded (Fig. 24).
In Table 1 we list the Baetis species from the Oriental Region, the Bismarck Ar-
chipelago, and Madagascar along with the species group with which each is associated.

BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY
A detailed description of all their collecting sites in Sri Lanka was given by Costa
and Starmihlner (1972). Six different Regions were investigated by them for
Ephemeroptera. These Regions with their collecting site numbers are:

1. Region of Deniyaya (Sinharaja Forest)
1.1 Tributaries of the Gin Ganga Nr. 1-6
1.2 Tributaries of the Nilwala Ganga 7-8
2. Region of Ratnapura
2.1 Kalu Gana and tributaries 9-15
3. Region of Maskeliya
3.1 Tributaries of the Maskeliya barrage 16-20 & 23
4. Region of Nuwara Eliya
4.1 Hakgala Dola and Nuwara Eliya Dola 21-22
5. Region of Belihuloya-Buttala
5.1 Tributaries of the Wallawe Ganga 24-26
5.2 Tributaries of the Menik Ganga 27
5.3 Tributaries of the Kirindi Ganga 28-29
5.4 We Ganga (tributary of the Kalu Ganga) 30
6. Region of Kitulgala
6.1 Kelani Ganga and tributaries 34-38

Figure 27 shows the distribution of the baetid mayflies treated in this paper. The
numbers in the head line represent the elevation above sea level and the site numbers
where the nymphs were collected. See the paper by Costa and Starmihlner (1972) for
a comprehensive discussion of the sites.
Not enough material is available for a detailed discussion of the distribution of the
described species in relation to the altitude, water temperature and chemistry, and so
forth, and Fig. 27 can only give preliminary information based on the first study of
baetid nymphs from Sri Lanka. However, a discussion of the general ecology of the Sri
Lankan Ephemeroptera can be found in a paper by Hubbard and Peters (1984).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We would like to thank Prof. Dr. F. Starmihlner for furnishing the specimens for
this study. We would also like to thank Prof. Dr. H. Strumpel, Zoologisches Institut
und Zoologisches Museum, Universitit Hamburg, for the loan of nymphal specimens of
Cloeon bimaculatum from the Ulmer Collection, which is deposited at the Zoologisches
Institute und Museum. Dr. W. L. Peters, Dr. R. W. Flowers, and Ms. J. G. Peters












Florida Entomologist 68(4)


TABLE 1. Baetis SPECIES FROM THE ORIENTAL REGION, BISMARCK AR-
CHIPELAGO, AND MADAGASCAR, SHOWING ASSOCIATED SPECIES-
GROUPS.


SUNDA ISLANDS (Muiller-Liebenau 1981)
novatus nymph Java
javanicus nymph, 6, 9 Java, Sumatra
sumatrana S Sumatra
olivascens 6 Java
fulmeki 6, Y Sumatra
ulmeri S Centr. Sumatra
necopinatus 6 Centr. Sumatra

PHILIPPINES (Miiller-Liebenaul982b)
luzonensis nymph


nymph
nymph
nymph


W. MALAYSIA (Mtiller-Liebenau 1984)
illiesi nymph
minutus nymph
laetificus nymph
mirabilis nymph
gombaki nymph
diffundus nymph


difficilis
operosus
multus
moriharai
numeratus
idei
lepidus

SRI LANKA
frequentus
accepts
conservatus
collins
geminatus


pulchellus
ordinatus


BISMARCK
Baetis sp. 1
Baetis sp. 2


nymph
nymph
nymph
nymph
nymph
nymph
nymph


nymph
nymph
nymph
nymph
nymph


nymph
nymph


ARCHIPELAGO
nymph
nymph


(Demoulin 1969)


MADAGASCAR (Demoulin 1968)
Baetis sp. nymph


no species-group
no species-group
no species-group
no species-group
Oriental molawinensis gr.
Oriental molawinensis gr.
Oriental molawinensis gr.


no species-group
no species-group
Oriental molawinensis gr.
sumigarensis subgroup
within the Oriental
molawinensis group


European rhodani group
European niger group
European muticus group
European gracilis group
European gracilis group
sumigarensis subgroup
within the Oriental
molawinensis group
Oriental molawinensis group
Oriental molawinensis group
Oriental molawinensis group
Oriental molawinensis group
Oriental molawinensis group
no species-group
no species-group


no species-group
no species-group
no species-group
no species-group
sumigarensis subgroup
within the Oriental
molawinensis group
Oriental molawinensis group
Oriental molawinensis group


no species group
Oriental molawinensis group


sumigarensis subgroup
within the Oriental ,j,
molawinensis group


realonae
molawinensis
sumigarensis


558


December, 1985













Miller-Liebenau & Hubbard: Sri Lanka Baetidae


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560 Florida Entomologist 68(4) December, 1985

contributed greatly through their discussion and criticism of this manuscript in various
stages. This study was partially supported by a research program of the Cooperative
State Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture (FLAX 79009) and is Con-
tribution No. 624, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Dept. of Con-
sumer Services, Gainesville, FL 32602.

REFERENCES CITED

BURKS, B. D. 1953. The mayflies, or Ephemeroptera, of Illinois. Bulletin of the Illinois
Natural History Survey 26: 1-216.
COSTA, H. H., AND F. STARMOHLNER. 1972. Results of the Austrian-Ceylone"'
Hydrobiological Mission 1970 of the 1st Zoological Institute of the University of
Vienna (Austria) and the Department of Zoology of the Vidyalankara University
of Ceylon, Kelaniya. Part I.-Preliminary report: introduction and description
of the stations. Bulletin of the Fisheries Research Station, Sri Lanka (Ceylon)
23: 43-76.
DEMOULIN, G. 1968. Quelques EphemBroptBres nouveaux de Madagascar. II. Bulletin
de l'Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique 44(32): 1-9.
DEMOULIN, G. 1969. Les Eph6meroptBres r6colt6s par la mission danoise du Noona
Dan aux iles Philippines et Bismarck. Entomologiske Meddelelser 37: 225-241.
FERNANDO, C. H. 1964. A guide to the freshwater fauna of Ceylon. Suppl. 2. Bulletin
of the Freshwater Fisheries Research Station, Ceylon 17: 177-211.
GILLIES, M. T. 1949. Notes on some Ephemeroptera Baetidae from India and South-
East Asia. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 100: 161-
177.
GILLIES, M. T. 1980. An introduction to the study of Cloeon Leach (Baetidae,
Ephemeroptera) in West Africa. Bulletin de l'Institute franvaise d'Afrique Noire,
s.r. A, 42: 135-156.
HUBBARD, M. D., AND W. L. PETERS. 1978. A catalogue of the Ephemeroptera of
the Indian Subregion. Oriental Insects Supplement 9: 1-43.
HUBBARD, M. D., AND W. L. PETERS. 1984. Ephemeroptera of Sri Lanka: an intro-
duction to their ecology and biogeography. Pages 257-274 in C. H. Fernando
(ed.), Ecology and Biogeography in Sri Lanka (Monographie Biologicae, v. 57).
Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague.
KIMMINS, D. E. 1947. New species of Indian Ephemeroptera. Proceedings of the
Royal Entomological Society of London 16: 92-100.
MORIHARA, D. K., AND W. P. MCCAFFERTY. 1979. The Baetis larvae of North
America (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Transactions of the American Entomologi-
cal Society 105: 139-221.
MULLER-LIEBENAU, I. 1981. Review of the original material of the baetid genera
Baetis and Pseudocloeon from the Sunda Islands and the Philippines described
by G. Ulmer, with some general remarks (Insecta: Ephemeroptera). Mit-
teilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut 78: 197-
208.
MULLER-LIEBENAU, I. 1982a. A new genus and species of Baetidae from Sri Lanka
(Ceylon): Indocloeon primum gen.n., sp.n. (Insecta, Ephemeroptera). Aquatic
Insects 4: 125-129.
MULLER-LIEBENAU, I. 1982b. New species of the family Baetidae from the Philip-
pines (Insecta, Ephemeroptera). Archiv fur Hydrobiologie 94: 70-82.
MULLER-LIEBENAU, I. 1982c. Five new species of Pseudocloeon KlapAlek, 1905,
(Fam. Baetidae) from the Oriental Region (Insecta, Ephemeroptera) with some
general remarks on Pseudocloeon. Archiv fuir Hydrobiologie 95: 283-295.
MULLER-LIEBENAU, I. 1983. Three new species of the genus Centroptella Braasch
and Soldan, 1980, from Sri Lanka (Insecta: Ephemeroptera). Archiv ffr Hydro-
biologie 97: 486-500.
MULLER-LIEBENAU, I. 1984. New genera and species of the family Baetidae from
Malaysia (River Gombak) (Insecta: Ephemeroptera). Spixiana 7: 253-284.


__


_^__











Snider: New Collembola


MULLER-LIEBENAU, I., AND D. K. MORIHARA. 1982. Indobaetis: a new genus of
Baetidae from Sri Lanka (Insecta: Ephemeroptera) with two new species. Gewas-
ser und Abwasser 68/69: 26-34.
ULMER, G. 1924. Ephemeropteren von den Sunda-Inseln und den Philippinen.
Treubia 6: 28-91.
ULMER, G. 1939-1940. Eintagsfliegen (Ephemeropteren) von den Sunda-Inseln. Ar-
chiv fur Hydrobiologie, Supplement 16: 443-692, figs. 1-469, 4 tab.




DICYRTOMA (PTENOTHRIX) RENATEAE, NEW SPECIES
FROM THE SAVANNAH RIVER PLANT AND GEORGIA
(COLLEMBOLA: DICYRTOMINAE)

RICHARD J. SNIDER
Department of Zoology
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan 48824
U.S.A.

ABSTRACT
A new species, Dicyrtoma (Ptenothrix) renateae Snider, is described from South
Carolina and Georgia. While shanng unique characteristics with Dicyrtoma (Pteno-
thrix) vittata (Folsom), D. renateae can be identified on the basis of: smooth circumanal
setae, corpus of tenaculum with 5-6 setulae, circumanal seta G present, seta DD spine-
like, and its color pattern. The type locality is Barnwell County, South Carolina, Savan-
nah River Plant. Specimens taken from litter and grass.

RESUME

Se describe una nueva especie, Dicyrtoma (Ptenothrix) renateae Snider, de Carolina
del Sur y Georgia. Ain cuando compare caracteristicas inicas con Dicyrtoma (1teno-
thrix) vittata (Folsom), D. renateae puede ser identificada por: cerdas circumanales
suaves, cuerno de teniculo con 5-6 "setulae", presencia de la cerda circumanal G, cerda
DD en forma de espina, y por su patron de coloraci6n. La localidad tipo es el condado
de Barnwell, Carolina de Sur y Savannah River Plant. Los especimens fueron colec-
cionados en pastos y hojarasca.


I am currently conducting a survey of the Collembola found on the Savannah River
Plant, Aiken, South Carolina. Many new species have been taken along with new re-
cords for existing species. The purpose of this paper is to describe a new species of
Dicyrtominae.

Dicyrtoma (Ptenothrix) renateae, NEW SPECIES
COLOR and PATTERN (9): Background white to creamy-white with dark to light
purple pigment laid down in polygons forming distinct patterns. Head with purple
polygons on gena and vertex joining postorally to form a uniform pattern; interantennal
area with dark purple polygons forming a rectangle, central area olive-yellow; genal
groove from base of antenna to lower gena bordered with purple; lower frons with
purple polygons forming a pattern with white maculae. Antennal segment I uniformly











562 Florida Entomologist 68(4) December, 1985

purple; II basally purple, 3/4 distance from base a purple band, distally light olive; III
purple for /2 its length, then light olive, purple distally; IV purple, becoming darker
distally. Body with irregular purple polygons forming a broken pattern of transverse
bands, well defined posteriorly; anal papilla mostly white, bordered with purple and
dorsal spot. Legs banded irregularly with purple. Collophore with purple polygons
basally, otherwise white. Furcula with light dusting of purple (Fig. 1-2).
HEAD: Eyes 8+8 with dark pigment; ocellus D '/2 diameter of A, ocellus C /4 diame-
ter of A, all others subequal to A (Fig. 3). Mean antennal ratio 1:5:5.5:1.5; ANT I with
6 dorsal and 1 ventral setae (Fig. 4); ANT II with 2 dorsal and 1 ventral cup sensilla
(Fig. 5); ANT III divided into 7 subsegments, armed with cup sensilla, subapical sensilla
exposed, lying in shallow depressions (Fig. 6); ANT IV divided into 4 subsegments (Fig.
7). Dorsal setae of head spine-like, but not outstandingly so; 6 unpaired facial setae (Fig.
8), sometimes 7 (Fig. 9); 1+1 oval organs on lower frons. FORELEG: Coxa with 1 seta,
no oval organ (Fig. 10); trochanter with 2 anterior and 2 posterior setae (Fig. 11); femur
with basal posterior and distal anterior oval organs, cup sensillum on outer margin
(Fig. 12); tibiotarsus with 4 cup sensilla and 3 oval organs on anterior surface (Fig. 13),
1 oval organ on posterior surface (Fig. 14) and tenent hairs acuminate; pretarsus with
anterior and posterior setulae; unguis lacks tunica, with small lateral teeth and 2 strong
inner teeth; unguiculus with strong corner tooth, apical filament long and tapering
beyond tip of unguis (Fig. 15). MESOLEG: Coxa with 3 anterior setae and 1 oval organ
(Fig. 16); trochanter with 4 anterior and 1 posterior setae (Fig. 17); femur with anterior
and posterior oval organs, cup sensilla on outer margin (Fig. 18); tibiotarsus with 5 cup
sensilla and 3 oval organs on anterior surface (Fig. 19), 1 oval organ on posterior surface
(Fig. 20); pretarsus with anterior and posterior setulae; unguis lacks tunica, with small
lateral teeth and 2 strong inner teeth; unguiculus with strong corner tooth, apical fila-
ment tapering beyond tip of unguis (Fig. 21). METALEG: Coxa with 4 anterior setae
and oval organ (Fig. 22); trochanter with 5 anterior and 1 posterior setae (Fig. 23);
femur with anterior and posterior oval organs, cup sensillum on outer margin (Fig. 24);
tibiotarsus with 5 cup sensilla and 1 oval organ on anterior surface (Fig. 25); differen-












a -
I. 'V !
; S













Fig. 1-2. Dicyrtoma (Pi,. o,lt, rix;. renateae n. sp. 1. Y Habitus, lateral view; 2.
Habitus, dorsal view.


___~








Snider: New Collembola


3 4




7 9

#8 pt'9
'T~ 4r /.


7


Dicyrtoma (Ptenothrix) renateae n.sp. Fig. 3-18. 3. Right eyepatch; 4. ANT I; 5.
ANT II; 6. ANT III; 7. ANT IV; 8. Unpaired facial setae, adult; 9. Unpaired facial
setae, immature; 10. Forecoxa; 11. Foretrochanter; 12 Forefemur; 13. Foretibia, an-
terior view; 14. Foretiba, posterior view; 15. Foreclaw; 16. Mesocoxa; 17. Mesot-
roehanter; 18. Mesofemur.


'I









Florida Entomologist 68(4)


20


23 25


26


32


27


Fig. 19-32. 19. Mesotibia, anterior view; 20. Mesotibia, posterior view; 21. Mesoclaw;
22. Metacoxa; 23. Metatrochanter; 24 Metafemur; 25. Metatibia, anterior view; 26.
Metatibia, posterior view; 27. Metatibia seta, detail; 28. Metaclaw; 29. Collophore, an-
terior view; 30. Retinaculun, normal; 31. Retinaculum, atypical; 32. Manubrial setae.


564


December, 1985










Snider: New Collembola


S4 40




3936







teth, Viwisn o ro aai et r bo to g
S 34 35

Fig. 33-40. 33. Dens, ventral view; 34. Dens, dorsal view; 35. Dental setae Ei-E4;
36. Mucro; 37. Supranal setae M-N; 38. ABD VI; 39. 9 subanal appendage; 40. Dorsal
setae of great abdomen, arrow indicates anterior direction.


tiated setae on posterior surface heavily serrate (Fig. 26-27); pretarsus with anterior
and posterior setulae; unguis lacks tunica, with small lateral teeth and 2 strong inner
teeth; unguiculus with strong corner tooth, apical filament tapering beyond tip of unguis
(Fig. 28). GREAT ABDOMEN: Collophore with 1+1 subapical and 1+1 lateral setae (Fig.
29), sacs warty. Corpus of tenaculum with 5 setulae (Fig. 30), rarely 6 (Fig. 31), ramus
with 3 teeth and horn. Manubrium with 9+9 dorsal setae (Fig. 32). Dens with 3-2-1-1
Ve setae (Fig. 33), dorsal setae typical of genus (Fig. 34), E setae ratio E1/E, = 1.69
and Eg/E2 = 2.70 (Fig. 35). Mucro with inner and outer teeth, 23-30 outer and 37-43
inner (Fig. 36). Circumanal setae M, M' and N spine-like and smooth (Fig. 37), seta sa
normal; other setae follow pattern for genus M N T H G Ao sa (Fig. 38). Female subanal
3 2 ++ + -
appendage acuminate, weakly curved (Fig. 39). Bothriotrix D present. Body setae
short, dagger-like, becoming longer at midpoint of great abdomen (Fig. 40), only heavy
spine-like, becoming longer at midpoint of great abdomen (Fig. 40), only heavy spine-
like seta is DD, others thin, curving. Length up to 2mm.
DIAGNOSIS: Dicyrtoma (Ptenothrix) renateae Snider keys out closest to Dicyrtoma
(Ptenothrix) vittata (Folsom) in Christiansen and Bellinger (1981). They recognized 4
subgenera based largely on setal patterns. Hence the subgenus Dicyrtoma is charac-
terized by the presence of bothriotrix A and absence of D, 3-6 unpaired facial setae, 1
M and 4 N setae, and lacking antennal subsegmentation. D. (Ptenothrix) renateae has
both bothriotrix A and D, 6-7 unpaired facial setae, 3M and 2N setae, and antennal
subsementation is clearly defined. These characteristics place it in the subgenus Ptenot-
hrix. However Christiansen and Bellinger (1981) state that within Ptenothrix, the un-
paired facial setae number is 2, D. (Ptenothrix) vittata being the exception with 4-5.
Besides color pattern, D. renateae can be separated from D. vittata using the following
morphological characteristics:










Florida Entomologist 68(4)


D. renateae D. vittata
Seta DD spine-like, others normal DD normal?
Circumanal setae smooth Ciliate or serrate
Corpus of tenaculum with 5-6 setulae 4 setulae
Circumanal seta G present G absent
E1/E, = 1.69, E3/E2 = 2.70 El/E2 = 1.0, E3/E2 = 2.30


D. (Ptenothrix) renateae also shares common characteristics with Dicyrtoma (Pteno-
thrix) texensis (Packard). Both have and seta sa much smaller than A,, supranal setae
M and N spinelike, and weakly serrate dental setae. Number of unpaired facial seta,
lateral teeth on unguis, ratios of E,/E2 and E3/E2 and numbers of tenacular setulae will
readily separate the species.
TYPES: Holotype (9) and 173 paratypes in alcohol; 9 paratypes mounted in CMCP-9
on slides. Holotype and 163 paratypes deposited in the Entomology Museum, Michigan
State University; 10 paratypes in alcohol deposited in the Entomology Museum, the
University of Georgia at Athens. Collection data: Georgia, Oglethorp County, near
Buffalo Creek on HWY 70/10E, under pines sweeping grass, "October 18, 1980", R. J.
Snider, collector. South Carolina, Aiken County, Savannal River Plant, Road A, 50
meters from Upper Three Runs, grass sweeping, "November 12, 1980"; Barnwell
County, Road B, 100 meters NE of Road A, grass sweeping (type locality); Ellenton,
Small Pond, pine litter, R. J. Snider, collector.
I take pleasure in naming this elegant species for my wife, Renate Machan Snider,
who has added to the hours of collecting and writing an enthusiasm for field studies
that keeps us both looking for the unexpected.
Special thanks are extended to the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory of the Uni-
versity of Georgia for support provided by contract EY-76-C-09-0819, NERP Program
of the U.S. Department of Energy. This manuscript was reviewed by Dr. Kenneth A.
Christiansen of Grinnell College, Dr. Peter F. Bellinger of California State University,
Northridge and Dr. D. L. Wray of the Pesticide and Plant Protector Div., North
Carolina Dept. of Agriculture. Their comments are very much appreciated.

REFERENCES CITED

CHRISTIANSEN, K. A. AND P. F. BELLINGER. 1981. The Collembola of North
America north of the Rio Grande, Part IV. Families Neelidae and Sminthuridae.
Grinnell College, Grinnell, Iowa: 1043-1322.


566


December, 1985











Snider: New Collembola 567

VESICEPHALUS CROSSLEYI, NEW SPECIES FROM THE
SAVANNAH RIVER PLANT AND GEORGIA
(COLLEMBOLA: SMINTHURINAE)

RICHARD J. SNIDER
Department of Zoology
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan
U.S.A.

ABSTRACT
A new species, Vesicephalus crossleyi Snider, is described from the Savannah River
Plant and Georgia. While the species shares similar morphological characteristics with
Vesicephalus longisetis (Guthrie) and Vesicephalus occidentalis (Mills), it differs from
those species by having 10-11 tenent hairs. V. occidentalis has a much expanded un-
guicular subapical filament. V. longisetis lacks a pronounced tunica. The type locality
is Habersham County, Georgia, leaf litter.

RESUME

Se describe una nueva especie, Vesicephalus crossleyi Snider, de Savannah River
Plant y Georgia. A pesar de que esta especie compare caracteristicas morfol6gicas con
Vesicephalus longisetis (Guthrie) y Vesicephalus occidentalis (Mills), la misma se di-
ferencia de estas dos species por la presencia de 10-11 "tenent hairs". V. occidentalis
posee un filamento subapical unguicular mAs ensanchado. V. longisetis carece de una
tinica pronunciada. La localidad tipo es el condado de Habersham, Georgia. Habita en
la hojarasca.



While working on collections of Collembola from Georgia and the Savannah River
Plant, South Carolina, I had occasion to have a graduate student take some leaf litter
samples from north Georgia. Tullgren funnels were used to extract samples. Among
the large numbers of species taken from Tallulah Falls, Georgia was a very striking
species of Vesicephalus. My impressions of the specimens were similar to those of the
late Dr. Harlow B. Mills when he described Vesicephalus occidentalis (Mills). He said,
"this is without doubt the most beautiful entomological gem which it has been my
privilege to examine," Mills (1935). It is my purpose here to describe another new
species in a small, but colorfully unique genus.

Vesicephalus crossleyi, NEW SPECIES

COLOR and PATTERN (9): Background white with purple, orange, yellow and olive
pigment in various configurations. HEAD: Eyes on bright orange patches; vertex post-
erior to eyepatches with dark purple stripe terminating in postgenal area with dark
occipital area, gena with irregular pattern of dark purple polygons; genal grooves and
lower frons with light purple; interocular area with olive pigment, yellow stripe running
to interantennal area, with distal black macula, antennal bases dark black-purple; an-
tenna purple, becoming darker distally. BODY: Dark purple dorsally, becoming lighter
laterally with purple polygons; metathorax with paramedial white maculae; irregular
dorsal stripe originating on thorax, made up of white, orange and light purple polygons;










Florida Entomologist 68(4)


568


StJ
I
a k'%"
:~ / 1
f I t

1L


'L



,q' .W '


71-i



5.


rtrr;
)
AK


Fig. 1-6. Vesicephalus crossleyi n. sp. 1. 9 Habitus, typical color pattern, dorsal
view; 2. 9 Habitus, lateral view; 3. 9 Habitus, type II, dorsal view; 4. 9 Habitus,
lateral view; 5. 6 Habitus, dorsal view; 6. 6 Habitus, lateral view.


December, 1985











/.'"^-

*-^ 0.









Snider: New Collembola


15


18 23


Vesicephalus crossleyi n. sp. Fig. 7-23. 7. Left eyepatch; 8. ANT IV; 9. ANT IV,
distal view showing sensory setae and 2 papillae; 10. ANT III; 11. ANT III, subapical
sensory pegs; 12. ANT II; 13. ANT I; 14. Facial setal pattern, arrows indicate position
of posterior oval organs; 15. Forecoxa; 16. Foretrochanter; 17. Forefemur; 18. Foretibia,
anterior view; 19. Foretibia, posterior view; 20. Foreclaw; 21. Mesocoxa; 22. Mesot-
rochanter; 23. Mesofemur.


9


13










Florida Entomologist 68(4)


30


Fig. 24-32. 24. Mesotibia, anterior view; 25. Mesotibia, posterior view; 26. Mesoclaw;
27. Metacoxa; 28. Metatrochanter; 29. Metafemur; 30. Metatibia, anterior view; 31.
Metatibia, posterior view; 32. Metaclaw.


December, 1985











Snider: New Collembola 571

ABD V with rectangular dark purple macula; distal margins of leg segments with pur-
ple, tibiotarsus becoming darker distally; furcula white (Fig. 1&2). 2 type II. Back-
ground white with purple polygons forming various patterns. HEAD: Eyes dark brow-
nish-orange on orange-purple patches (in life and freshly preserved specimens, more
orange); interocular area with well defined light orange stripe terminating in line
with posterior of eyepatches; an irregular pattern of purple and orange polygons be-
tween eyepatch and occipital area; lateral gena with central purple macula; interanten-
nal area with rectangular orange macula, below which a black-purple spot, followed by
a purple stripe blending into purple dusting around labrum; antenna orange-purple
basally, becoming dark purple distally. BODY: Purple polygons forming a dorsal stripe
from thoracic area to midpoint of abdomen, with broken paramedial stripes; laterally
with scattered polygons forming irregular patterns; ABD VI with dorsal purple macula.
Segments of legs to tibiotarsus with basal and distal purple maculae; tibiotarsus becom-
ing darker distally. Furcula white (Fig. 3&4). d. Background white with various
amounts of orange and purple pigments. HEAD: Eyepatches bright orange; dark spot
between antennae; postgena with light olive-purple polygons, otherwise white; antenna
purple, becoming darker distally. BODY: Dorsally with olive-purple and bright orange
polygons defining a wide stripe terminating at ABD V with a rectangle of orange; legs
lighter than 9, tibiotarsus with purple distally; furcula white (Fig. 5&6).
HEAD: Eyes 8+8; ocelli A,C,D V1 diameter of B,E,F,G and H subequal (Fig. 7).
Mean antennal ratio (9) 1:3.5:3;5.5, (d) 1:2.5:2.5:4, without subsegmentation; ANT IV
with setae arranged in whorls, 2 apical papillae (Figs. 8&9); ANT III with 2 outstanding
setae, subapical sensory sensilla lying in shallow depressions (Fig. 10&11); ANT II with
3 outstanding setae (Fig. 12); ANT I with 4 dorsal and 1 ventral setulae (Fig. 13).
Vertex with paired interocular vesicles, frons with 2 unpaired setae, 3+3 hair sensilla
on lower postgena (Fig. 14). FORELEGS: Coxa with 1 seta (Fig. 15); trochanter with 3
anterior and 1 posterior setae (Fig. 16); femur with posterior hair sensillum (Fig. 17);
anterior surface of tibiotarsus with 1 hair sensillum and 5 clavate tenent hairs (Fig. 18);
posterior surface with 1 hair sensillum and 5 clavate tenent hairs (Fig. 19); pretarsus
with anterior and posterior setulae; unguis with heavy lateral teeth, inner tooth weak,
tunica present; unguiculus lacks corner tooth, tapering beyond unguis, subapical fila-
ment expanded, reaching beyond terminus (Fig. 20). MESOLEG: Coxa with anterior
setae and sensillum (Fig. 21); trochanter with 3 anterior and 1 posterior setae (Fig. 22);
femur with 1 anterior hair sensillum (Fig. 23); anterior surface of tibiotarsus with 1 hair
sensillum and 5 clavate tenent hairs (Fig. 24), posterior surface with 4 hair sensilla and
5 clavate tenent hairs (Fig. 25); pretarsus with anterior and posterior setulae; unguis
with tunica, lateral and inner teeth; unguiculus tapering with subapical filament reach-
ing beyond terminus much like foreclaw (Fig. 26). METALEG: Coxa with 3 anterior
setae (Fig. 27); trochanter with 3 anterior setae and 1 posterior setula (Fig. 28); femur
with an anterior hair sensillum and oval organ, 2 posterior setulae (Fig. 29); anterior
surface of tibiotarsus with 1 hair sensillum and 5 clavate tenent hairs (Fig. 30), posterior
surface with 4 hair sensilla and 6 clavate tenent hairs (Fig. 31); pretarsus with anterior
and posterior setulae; unguis similar to mesotarsus, likewise unguiculus similar to
mesotarsus (Fig. 32). GREAT ABDOMEN: Collophore with 2+2 subapical setae (Fig. 33),
sacs smooth. Corpus of tenaculum with 2 distal setae, ramus with 3 teeth (Fig. 34).
Manubrium with 7+7 dorsal setae (Fig. 35). Dens same as that reported for genus (Fig.
36&37). Mucro with notched inner margin, outer smooth or with few crenulations (Fig.
38&39). Female circumanal setae same as so far described for genus (Fig. 40); male
circumanal setae No, A2 missing, A8 replaced by hair sensillum, "H" (Fig. 41). Female
subanal appendage fimbriate (Fig. 42&43). Bothriotrix D present (Fig. 44). Many body
setae multilaterally scaled, ending in 4 or more projections, others acuminate (Fig.
45&46). Length of 9 up to 1.5 mm, S 1 mm.










Florida Entomologist 68(4)


37


38


SaN,
39 Q -M Q


S40 41

3 41




44 45 46 42 43 _

Fig. 33-46. 33. Collophore; anterior view; 34. Retinaculum; 35. Manubrial setae; 36.
Dens, dorsal setae; 37. Dens, ventral setae; 38. Mucro, male specimen; 39. Mucro, small
female specimen; 40. 9 dorsal ABD VI setae; 41. 6 dorsal ABD VI setae; 42. 9 subanal
seta; 43. 9 subanal seta; 44. Bothriotrix D complex; 45. Acuminate body seta; 46.
Truncate body seta.

DIAGNOSIS

Vesicephalus crossleyi Snider keys out nearest to Vesicephalus longisetis (Guthrie)
in Christiansen & Bellinger (1981). It differs from that species by having a somewhat
more expanded unguicular subapical filament, presence of inner ungual tooth, 10-11
tenent hairs and pronounced tunica. In some respects this species has characteristics
of Vesicephalus occidentalis (Mills). The body setae end in four or more rounded divi-
sions, some body setae acuminate, dental setal formula same, female subanal appendage
fimbricate, and trochanteral setae same. V. crossleyi differs from occidentalis by having
10-11 clavate tenent hairs, much narrower unguicular subapical filament, circumanal
seta sa fine and smooth rather than stout and serrate, and in color pattern. V. occiden-
talis is illustrated as a habitus here for the first time (Figs. 47&48).


December, 1985










Snider: New Collembola


: 7.


47


Fig. 47-48. Vesicephalus occidentalis (Mills). 47. 9
lateral view; 48. 9 Habitus, dorsal view.


573


- ^ /
ffI-\
^*~


48


Habitus, typical color pattern,


Immature specimens taken at the Savannah River Plant exhibited an interesting
change in cephalic chaetotaxy. Some interocular setae in very young males are short
and spine-like (Fig. 49). In the subadult and adult instars these setae become fine,
almost setula-like. Seta IV becomes elongated, and seta VII is added to the complex
(Fig. 50).
Until further collections are made in North America, the following key is offered to
separate the species.

KEY TO NEARCTIC SPECIES OF Vesicephalus
1. Lamella of unguiculus greatly expanded ..................................... occidentalis
1'. Lamella filament-like, slightly expanded .................................................. 2
2. 5-6 clavate tenent hairs ........................... ............................ longisetis
2'. 10-11 clavate tenent hairs .................................... ..................... crossleyi


- 50


Fig. 49-50. 49. Interocular setae I-VI, immature specimen;
I-VI, subadult specimen.


50. Interocular setae


' ,











574 Florida Entomologist 68(4) December, 1985

It is my pleasure to name this colorful species for Dr. D. A. Crossley, Jr. who has
been a friend and confidant for many years.
TYPES: Holotype (9), Allotype (d) and 19 paratypes in alcohol, 6 paratypes on slides.
Georgia, Habersham Co., Tallulah Falls, Tallulah Gorge, leaflitter, "March 1, 1981," D.
Yehling, collector; "March 7, 1981," R. J. Snider, collector. South Carolina, Aiken
County, Savannah River Plant, Road F near rail bridge, low mixed deciduous woods,
marshy area, sweeping, "October 27, 1983; litter and black soil, same as above; Road 4
near junction of Road E, leaf litter, "October 27, 1983"; Road F near junction of Road
4, dry Turkey Oak and Sugar Maple forest, litter, "November 18, 1983"; Barnwell
County, Road B at junction of Road C, grass next to roadside ditch, sweeping, "March
2, 1984", W. Hargrove, collector.
Special thanks are extended to the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory of the Uni-
versity of Georgia for support provided by contract EY-76-C-09-0819, NERP Program
of the U.S. Department of Energy. This manuscript was reviewed by Dr. Kenneth A.
Christiansen of Grinnell College, Dr. Peter F. Bellinger of California State University,
Northridge and Dr. D. L. Wray of the Plant Protection Div., North Carolina Dept. of
Agriculture. Their comments are very much appreciated.

REFERENCES CITED
CHRISTIANSEN, K. A. AND P. F. BELLINGER. 1981. The Collembola of North
America north of the Rio Grande, Part IV. Families Neelidae and Sminthuridae.
Grinnell College, Grinnell, Iowa: 1043-1322.
MILLS, H. B. 1935. New Collembola from western North America. Bull. Brooklyn
Ent. Soc. 30(4): 133-139.








SMINTHURUS BIVITTATUS, NEW SPECIES FROM THE
SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES
(COLLEMBOLA: SMINTHURIDAE)

RICHARD J. SNIDER
Department of Zoology
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan 48824
U. S. A.

ABSTRACT
A new species, Sminthurus (Sminthurus) bivittatus Snider, is described from the
Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina, Florida and central Georgia. The species
is closely related to Sminthurus butcheri Snider, Sminthurus fitchi Folsom and Smin-
thurus packardi Folsom. It can be separated from those three species on the basis of
color pattern, position of collophore seta, presence of outer mucronal teeth, absence of
subapical papilla on ANT. IV, and smooth, normal P seta of bothriotrix D complex. This
species is commonly taken with Sminthurus carolinensis Snider in grass sweepings.
The type locality is Barnwell County, South Carolina.











Snider: New Collembola 575

RESUME

Se describe una nueva especie de Sminthurus (Sminthurus) bivittatus Snider de la
region de Savannah River Plant, en Aiken, Carolina del Sur, Florida y la zona central
de Georgia. Esta especie se encuentra estrechamente relacionada con Sminthurus
butcher Snider, Sminthurus fitchi Folsom y Sminthurus packardi Folsom. Se puede
separar de estas tres species en base al patron de color, la posici6n de las cerdas
col6foras, la presencia de dientes externos mucronales, la ausencia de papilas sub-
apicales en ANT. IV, y de cerdas P suaves y normales del complejo "bothriotrex D".
Esta especie puede ser facilmente coleccionada conjunto con Sminthurus carolinensis
Snider en recogidas sobre yerba. La localidad tipo es el condado de Barnwell, Carolina
del Sur.



During 1983 collections were made at the Savannah River Plant as part of a project
to document the Collembola fauna. Many new species have been taken in the process.
Here a new sminthurid is described from samples taken by sweeping grass with a
shallow enamel pan.

Sminthurus bivittatus, NEW SPECIES
COLOR AND PATTERN (9): Background creamy white to light olive. Dark pigments
of green to blackish-purple laid down in dense polygons. Head with slightly rubiginous
vertex, sometimes with a whitish center; gena with dark green polygons forming roset-
tes; setal sockets white to olive, otherwise green with scattered black-purple polygons.
Antennal segments I, II and III with green and blackish polygons, segment IV un-
iformly dark. Body with rubiginous, olive and dark purple polygons forming a light
mid-dorsal area, becoming darker ventrally; occasionally with white maculae near
thoracic region; posterior half of great abdomen with a pair of olive to white stripes
formed by pigment polygons; anal papilla very dark. Legs and furcula lighter, flecked
with dark purple (Fig. 1-2).
HEAD: Eyes 8 + 8 with dark pigment; ocellus D 2/ diameter of B, ocellus C slightly
larger than D, all others subequal (Fig. 3). Mean antennal ratio (9) 1:2:2.75:6, (6)
1:2:2.75:7, ANT IV with 17-18 subsegments (Fig. 4) double apical bulb present, subapi-
cal papilla absent (Fig. 5); subsegments with either 1 or 2 setulae as follows: I with
none; II-IV with 1; VI-XVI with 2; XVII with 1 (Fig. 4); ANT III with 9 outstanding
setae (Fig. 6), subapical sensillae in deep invagination, accessory seta short, lanceolate
and lying in shallow depression (Fig. 7); ANT II with 4 ventral setulae (Fig. 8); ANT
I with 2 ventral distal setae and 4 dorsal setae (Fig. 9). Interocular cephalic setae A-G
typical of genus, seta D at least equal to diameter of nearest ocellus. Frons with 2 oval
organs near antennal base, 1 close to D seta, other in line with A seta, 3 posterior oval
organs forming right triangle on lower gena (Fig. 10). Maxilla with 3 galeal teeth, 4
lacineal lamellae (Fig. 11). FORELEG: Coxa with 1 seta, no oval organ (Fig. 12);
trochanter with 3 anterior and 2 posterior setae (Fig. 13); femur with 9 anterior and 8&
posterior setae, oval organ anterior (Fig. 14); anterior surface of tibiotarsus with 1
subapical oval organ, AE file with 9 setae, AL and AI files with 8 setae (Fig. 15);
posterior surface with 4 oval organs near external edge, setae L3, L4, and L6 missing,
tenent hair acuminate (Fig. 16); pretarsus with anterior and posterior setulae; unguis
with tunica and serrate anterior and posterior pseudonychia, large inner tooth; un-
guiculus lacks corner tooth, tapering to subapical filament, subequal in length to fila-
ment (Fig. 17). MESOLEG: Coxa with 3 setae and oval organ (Fig. 18); femur with 12-13
anterior and 6 posterior setae, 1 posterior oval organ (Fig. 20); anterior surface of










576 Florida Entomologist 68(4) December, 1985



i i



.'



<.S








2.

Fig. 1. Smyinthurus bivittatus n.sp. Habitus, laternal view. 2. Habitus, dorsal view.

tibiotarsus with 1 subapical oval organ, all setal files typical of genus (Fig. 21); posterior
surface with 4 oval organs near external edge, L4 and L6 missing, otherwise typical of
genus (Fig. 22); pretarsus with anterior and posterior setulae: unguis with tunica and
serrate anterior and posterior pseudonychia, large inner tooth, unguiculus with strong
corner tooth, lanceolate, ca. 1.70 times as long as filament (Fig. 23). METALEG: Coxa
with 4 setae and oval organ (Fig. 24); trochanter with 5 anterior setae, 1 posterior
setula, and 2 oval organs (Fig. 25); femur with 14 anterior setae, 3 posterior setae, 2
setulae and oval organ (Fig. 26); anterior surface of tibiotarsus with 7E, 9AE, AL and
AI setae, 1 subapical oval organ (Fig. 27); posterior surface with 4 oval organs near
external edge, 7PE, 8PL, 9PI setae and with L5 missing (Fig. 28); pretarsus with
anterior and posterior setulae; unguis with tunica and anterior and posterior
pseudonychia, large inner tooth; unguiculus with strong corner tooth (sometimes 2 (Fig.
29)), lanceolate, ca. 1.50 times as long as filament (Fig. 30). GREAT ABDOMEN: Col-
lophore with 1 + 1 subapical setae (Fig. 31); sacs warty. Corpus of tenaculum with 4
setulae, ramus with 3 teeth (Fig. 32). Manubrium with 8 + 8 dorsal setae, 1 + 1 ventral
(Fig. 33). Dens with ID accessory seta missing, sometimes Vespresent, otherwise typ-
ical of genus (Fig. 34-35). Mucro with toothed outer and inner edges, ca. 2.70 times
length of its seta (Fig. 36). Female circumanal setae Ao-3, P and Q typical of genus
(Fig. 37); subanal appendage acuminate and curved in lateral view, thick, bent ventrally
(Fig. 38-39). Bothriotrix D complex typical, P seta smooth, acuminate (Fig. 40). Body
setae lone, slender, curving. Length up to 2 mm.
DIAGNOSIS: Sminthurus bivittatus Snider keys ouc in Stach (1956) nearest to Smin-
thurus marginatus Schott and Sminthurus echinatus Stach which have palmate female
subanal appendages. In Christiansen and Bellinger (1981), S. bivittatus keys out to the
Sminthurus butcheri Snider, Sminthurus fitchi Folsom, Sminthurus packardi Folsom
complex. The following characteristics will separate S. bivittatus from those species.











Snider: New Collembola 577


OWNU


i -
d-


/ 7'


) \D c3
GF) 3/H-
i<. G''' u


B
~.\
~ \



i\
:k


S8


Fig. 3. Sminthurus bivittatus n.sp. left eye patch. 4. ANT IV; 5. ANT IV, apical
bulb; 6. ANT III (arrows indicate stout setae); 7. ANT III, sense organ and accessory
seta; 8. ANT II, (arrows indicate 4 setulae); 9. ANT I; 10. detail of frons (arrows
indicate oval organs); 11. detail of maxilla.


-\


\ .1


`l;i*1

s









Florida Entomologist 68(4)


Er-
E7; :


I


Fig. 12. Sminthurus bivittatus n.sp. forecoxa; 13. trochanter; 14. forefemur; 15.
foretibiotarsus, anterior surface; 16. foretibiotarsus, posterior surface; 17. foreleg, claw;
18. mesoprecoxa and coxa; 19. mesotrochanter; 20. mesofemur; 21. mesotibiotarsus,
anterior surface; 22. mesotibiotarsus, posterior surface.


578


December, 1985


j/








Snider: New Collembola


29






/ 23 1r {







SAL 8
E6 P





24 Al18 P


N 6


25 E4 4




E2 \
\* LI
26 El 27 Acc 28 ACC
Fig. 23. Sminthurus bivittatus n.sp. mesoleg, claw; 24. metaprecoxa and coxa; 25.
metatrochanter; 26. metafemur; 27.metatibiotarsus, anterior surface; 28. metatibiotar-
sus, posterior surface; 29. metaleg, unguiculus, 2 inner teeth; 30. metaleg, claw.








Florida Entomologist 68(4)


\



V //

32


35
P/

i .


/



/


VT1 "-------.
40 36
Fig. 31. Sminthurus bivittatus n.sp. collophore; 32. retinaculum; 33. manubrial
setae; 34. dens, dorsal view; 35. dens, ventral view; 36. mucro; 37. female papilla; 38.
female subanal appendage, dorsal view; 39. female subanal appendage, lateral view; 40.
bothriotrix D complex.


^ i i
K


51 --
v 31


3

33


37


38


39


580


December, 1985


k/


//











Snider: New Collembola 581

S. bivittatus S. butcheri S. fitchi S. packardi
Collophore without with 1 + 1 with 1 + 1 with 1 + 1
1 + 1 lateral setae
Outer mucronal teeth absent absent sometimes
present
ANT IV apical papilla present present present
absent
Bothriotrix D, seta P ciliated ciliated ciliated
smooth

An additional species, Sminthurus carolinensis Snider (1981), could be confused with
S. bivittatus. In general, both species are of equal size, have predominantly dark color
patterns and occur in the same habitat. In the field, the white dorsal stripes of S.
bivittatus will help distinguish it from S. carolinensis. Slide-mounted material can be
separated quickly by comparing the mucrones. In S. bivittatus the mucronal edges are
abundantly toothed, while S. carolinensis has 2-3 outer and 3-5 inner teeth.
TYPES: Holotype (9) and 459 paratypes in alcohol; 8 paratypes mounted in CMCP-9
on slides. Holotype and 526 paratypes deposited in the Entomology Museum, Michigan
State University; 20 paratypes in alcohol deposited in the Entomology Museum, the
University of Georgia at Athens. Collection data: South Carolina, Aiken County, Savan-
nah River Plant, Road 2, Power line cut, grass sweeping, "March 10, 1982"; Barnwell
County, Savannah River Plant, Road F, grass sweeping, "March 10, 1981"; intersection
of Roads A and B, roadside grass, Road A, roadside grass; near controlled stream on
Road A, grass; junction of Road 9 and B6.2, short grass; Roads 9 and B, grass; Roads
F and B (Dunbarton), grass around old concrete foundation; median at junction of Roads
7 and F, grass (type locality); junction of Road H and 7, grass; end of Road H at Par
Pond, grass, "April 14, 1981", W. Hargrove, collector. Florida, Alachua Co., Gaines-
ville, University of Florida campus, grass, "March 23, 1984", F. J. Calandrino, collector.
Georgia, Putnam County, Oconee National Forest, Lake Sinclair, park site, grass
sweeping, "May 25, 1982", R. J. Snider, collector.
Special thanks are extended to Dr. J. Whitfield Gibbons of the Savannah River
Ecology Laboratory of the University of Gerogia for his constant help in making field
studies run smoothly. To Dr. D. A. Crossley, Jr. for providing equipment and laboratory
space at the University of Georgia at Athens in the Department of Entomology. To
William Hargrove, UGA graduate student, who has diligently collected the terrain of
the Savannah River Plant for the last year. Without his help this new species would
remain unknown. This study was supported by contract EY-76-C-09-0819, NERP pro-
gram, between the U. S. Department of Energy and the Savannah River Ecology
Laboratory.
This manuscript was reviewed by Dr. Kenneth A. Christiansen of Grinnell College,
Dr. Peter F. Bellinger of California State University, Northridge and Dr. P. L. Wray
of the Pesticide and Plant Protection Div., North Carolina Dept. of Agriculture.For
their comments and help, many thanks.

REFERENCES CITED

CHRISTIANSEN, K. A., AND P. F. BELLINGER. 1981. The Collembola of North
America north of the Rio Grande, Part IV. Families Neelidae and Sminthuridae.
Grinnell College, Grinnell, Iowa: 1043-1322.
SNIDER, R. J. 1981. Sminthurus carolinensis, new species from South Carolina (Col-
lembola: Sminthuridae). Florida Entomol. (64): 417-424.











Florida Entomologist 68(4)


STACH, J. 1956. The apterygotan fauna of Poland in relation to the world-fauna of this
group of insects, Family: Sminthuridae. Polska Acad. Nauk, 287 p.




DICYRTOMA (PTENOTHRIX) CASTANEA, NEW SPECIES
FROM THE SAVANNAH RIVER PLANT
(COLLEMBOLA: DICYRTOMINAE)

RICHARD J. SNIDER
Department of Zoology
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan 48824
U.S.A.

ABSTRACT
A new species, Dicyrtoma (Ptenothrix) castanea Snider, is described from South
Carolina. It shares morphological characteristics with Dicyrtoma (Ptenothrix) vittata
(Folsom) and Dicyrtoma (Ptenothrix) renateae n.sp. (Snider 1985). Separation of D.
castanea from those species is accomplished by color pattern and presence of clavate
subapical filaments on the unguiculi. The type locality is Aiken County, South Carolina,
litter in low, mixed hardwood forest.

RESUME

Se describe una nueva especie, Dicyrtoma (Ptenothrix) castanea Snider, de Carolina
del Sur. La misma compare caracteristicas morfol6gicas con Dicyrtoma (Ptr.' .i. *,,
vittata (Folsom) y Dicyrtoma (Ptenothrix) renateae n.sp. (Snider 1985). D. cas-
tanea puede separarse de las species anteriores mediante su patr6n de coloraci6n y la
presencia de filamentos subapicales en forma de clavo en la unguicula. La localidad tipo
es el condado de Aiken en Carolina del Sur, donde se encuentran en la hajarasca de
bosques bajos y mixtos de madera dura.


This paper is another in a series describing Collembola from the Savannah River
Plant, Aiken, South Carolina. Since 1980 I have examined collections taken at the SRP
for new distribution records. Many range extensions have been discovered and will be
reported elsewhere. Here my purpose is to describe a new species of Dicyrtoma.

Dicyrtoma (Ptenothrix) castanea, NEW SPECIES

COLOR AND PATTERN (Y): Background creamy white with purple, tan and olive poly-
gons of pigment. Head from between bases of antennae to vertex with light bluish,
broken line; frons with black double macula between bases of antennae, polygons of
olive-purple below antennal bases, lower frons with light dusting of olive; gena with
light bluish dusting, becoming intense posteriorly. Body thoracic area with light dusting
of bluish-purple, dorsum light purple, irregular, becoming light tan posteriorly; abdo-
men with lateral polygons of light tan, 3 broad areas lacking pigment; abdominal seg-
ment VI light tan-yellow bordered with purple; papilla of bothriothrix A dark purple;
legs with light dusting of olive-purple; furcula colorless (Fig. 1 & 2).


582


December, 1985











Snider: New Collembola 583


(tb- -,
I,









a Sr


Fig. 1-2. Dicyrtoma (Ptenothrix) castanea n. sp. 1. Habitus, lateral view; 2.
Habitus, dorsal view.

HEAD: Eyes 8 + 8 with dark pigment; ocellus D V2 diameter of C, ocelli ABCE subequal,
FGH smaller and subequal (Fig. 3). Mean antennal ratio 1:3.5:4.5:1.75, ANT IV without
subsegmentation, having a single file of 5-6 setulae (Fig. 4); ANT III with 1 dorsal and
4 ventral cup sensilla (Fig. 5); ANT II not distinctly subsegmented, with 3 dorsal and
1 ventral cup sensilla (Fig. 6); ANT I with 4 dorsal and 1 ventral setae (Fig. 7). Dorsal
cephalic setae short, spine-like, 5 unpaired facial setae (Fig. 8), 1 + 1 oval organs on
lower frons. FORELEG: Coxa with 1 seta (Fig. 9); trochanter with 3 anterior and 1
posterior setae (Fig. 10); femur with basal posterior and distal anterior oval organs,
with 1 cup sensillum on outer margin (Fig. 11); tibiotarsus with 4 cup sensilla and 3 oval
organs on anterior surface (Fig. 12), 1 oval organ on posterior surface (Fig. 13), and
tenent hairs acuminate; pretarsus with anterior and posterior setulae; unguis lacks
tunica with small lateral teeth and weak inner tooth (sometimes 2); unguiculus with
serrate outer margin, apical filament reaching beyond tip of unguis, clavate (Fig. 14).
MESOLEG: Coxa with 3 anterior setae and 1 hair sensillum (Fig. 15); trochanter with 4
anterior and 1 posterior setae (Fig. 16); femur with anterior and posterior oval organs,
cup sensillum on outer margin (Fig. 17); tibiotarsus with 5 cup sensilla and 3 oval organs
on anteror surface (Fig. 18), 1 oval organ on posterior surface (Fig. 19); pretarsus with
anterior and posterior setulae; unguis lacks tunica, with small lateral teeth and weak
inner tooth (sometimes 2); unguiculus with serrate outer margin, apical filament reach-
ing beyond tip of unguis, clavate (Fig. 20). METALEG: Coxa with 4 anterior setae and
oval organ (Fig. 21); trochanter with 5 anterior and 1 posterior setae (Fig. 22); femur
with anterior and posterior oval organs, cup sensillum on outer margin (Fig. 23);
tibiotarsus with 5 cup sensilla and 3 oval organs on anterior surface (Fig. 24), posterior,
surface with 1 oval organ, differentiated setae strongly serrate (Fig. 25); pretarsus with
anterior and posterior setulae; unguis lacks tunica, with small lateral teeth and 1 small
inner tooth; unguiculus with serrate outer margin, apical filament reaching beyond tip
of unguis, clavate (Fig. 26). GREAT ABDOMEN: Collophore with 1 + 1 subapical and
1 + 1 lateral setae, sacs warty (Fig. 27). Corpus of tenaculum with 4
setulae, ramus with 3 teeth and horn (Fig. 28). Manubrium with 9 + 9 dorsal setae (Fig.
29). Dens with 3-2-1-1- Ve setae (Fig. 30), dorsal setae consistent with genus (Fig.
31), E setae ratio E1E2 = 1.30 and E3/E2 = 2.07 (Fig. 32). Mucro with inner and
outer teeth, 25-34 outer and 31-33 inner (Fig. 33). Circumanal setae M,M' and N spine-:
like and smooth, seta sa normal; other setae follow pattern M N T H G Ao sa, Ao, A,,
32 ++++ -











Florida Entomologist 68(4)


Fig. 3-19. Dicyrtoma (Ptenothrix) castanea n. sp. 3. Left eypatch; 4. ANT IV
showing postero-ventral setulae; 5. ANT III; 6. ANT II; 7. ANT I; 8. Frons, showing
posterior of unpaired facial setae; 9. Forecoxa; 10. Foretrochanter; 11. Forefemur; 12.
Foretibia, anterior view; 13. Foretibia, posterior view; 14. Foreclaw; 15. Mesocoxa; 16.
Mesotrochanter; 17. Mesofemur; 18. Mesotibia, anterior view; 19. Mesotibia, posterior
view.


December, 1985









Snider: New Collembola


27 ( \28



E. E 32 ^^ 33

Fig. 20-33. 20. Mesoclaw; 21. Metacoxa; 22. Metatrochanter; 23. Metafemur (arrow
and dotted line indicates anterior margin); 24. Metatibia, anterior view; 25. Metatibia,
posterior view; 26. Metaclaw; 27. Collophore, anterior view; 28. Retinaculum; 29. Man-
ubrial setae; 30. Dens, ventral surface; 31. Dens, dorsal surface; 32. Dental setae,
Ej-E3; 33. Mucro.











586 Florida Entomologist 68(4) December, 1985








66





Fig. 34-36. 34. ABD VI of 9 showing position of oval organs (arrows) and critical
setae; 35. 9 subanal appendage; 36. Posterior view of great abdomen.

A2, A3 and H serrate (Fig. 34). Female subanal appendage long, acuminate and curved
(Fig. 35). Body setae short, dagger-like (Fig. 36). Bothriothrix D present. Length up
to 1 mm.
DIAGNOSIS: Dicyrtoma (Ptenothrix) castanea Snider keys out closest to Dicyrtoma
(Ptenothrix) vittata (Folsom) in Christiansen and Bellinger (1981). This is the second
species described from the Savannah River Plant that appears to be an exception to the
subgenus with respect to facial setae. Dicyrtoma (Ptenothrix) renateae n. sp. (Snider,
1985) also exhibits more than 2 unpaired facial setae. D. castanea differs from D. re-
nateae n. sp. and D. vittata by having clavate apical filaments on the unguiculi. Like
D. renateae, D. castanea has circumanal seta G present. Color pattern alone will sepa-
rate the species. However, D. castanea is close to D. vittata with respect to serrate
circumanal setae, differentiated tibiotarsal setae, and antennal subsegmentation. Be-
sides color pattern, D. castanea may be separated from D. vittata using the following
morphological characteristics:

D. castanea D. vittata
Circumanal seta G present absent
Female subanal appendage smooth ciliate
Unguis with 5-6 small lateral teeth 2 lateral teeth
E1/E2 = 1.30, E3/E2 = 2.07 Ei/E2 = 1.00, E3/E2 = 2.30

TYPES: Holotype (9) and 1 paratype mounted on slides in CMCP-9; 6 subadult
paratypes in alcohol. Holotype and paratypes deposited in the Entomology Museum,
Michigan State University. Collection data: South Carolina, Aiken County, near rail
bridge on Road F, Savannah River Plant, litter in low, mixed hardwoods, "October 27,
1983," W. Hargrove, collector.
Special thanks are extended to the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory of the Uni-
versity of Georgia for support provided by. contract EY-76-C-09-0819, NERP Program
of the U.S. Department of Energy. This manuscript was reviewed by Dr. Kenneth A.
Christiansen of Grinnell College, Dr. Peter F. Bellinger of California State University,
N6rthridge anid Dr. D. L. Wray of the Pesticide and Plant Protection Div., North
Carolina Dept. of Agriculture. Their comments are very much appreciated.











Gordh: New Encyrtidae 587

REFERENCES CITED
CHRISTIANSEN, K. A. AND P. F. BELLINGER. 1981. The Collembola of North
America north of the Rio Grande, Part IV. Families Neelidae and Sminthuridae.
Grinnell College, Grinnell, Iowa: 1043-1322.
SNIDER, R. J. 1985. Dicyrtoma (Ptenothrix) renateae, a new species from the Savan-
nah River Plant and Georgia (Collembola: Dicyrtominae). Florida Entomol.
68: 561-566.





A NEW SPECIES OF PARATETRACNEMOIDEA
GIRAULT, 1915, FOUND IN NORTH AMERICA, WITH A
DISCUSSION OF GENERIC PLACEMENT
(HYMENOPTERA: ENCYRTIDAE)

GORDON GORDH
Division of Biological Control, Department of Entomology,
University of California, Riverside, California 92521

ABSTRACT
Paratetracnemoidea americana NEW SPECIES (North America) is described and
compared with P. malenoti (Mercet) (Europe) and P. breviventris Girault (Australia).
The genus presently holds three described species, but undetermined specimens have
been reported from South Africa and Australia. The taxonomic history of the genus and
its better known junior synonym, Rhinoencyrtus, is reviewed and reasons for its place-
ment in the Copidosomatini are given. Unusual morphological features including a pecul-
iar protuberance on the head and rudimentary venation at the base of the forewing are
illustrated and discussed.

RESUME

Paratetracnemoidea americana, una especie nueva en norteamerica, se describe y
se compare con P. breviventris Girault (Australia) y P. malenotti (Mercet). El g6nero
tiene actualmente tres species descritas, pero especimenes no-determinados se han
reportado del Africa del Sur y Australia. La historic taxon6mica del genero y su mejor
conocido sin6nimo junior se discute y las razones por su colocaci6n en el Copidosomatini
se explican. Las caracteristicas morfol6gicas diferentes, incluyendo una protuberancia
peculiar en la cabeza y una nervadura rudimentaria en la base del ala anterior, se
ilustran y se discuten.


INTRODUCTION

Material submitted far identification by Mr. T. D. Miller of Boise, Idaho is conspecific
with other material of an undescribed species of Paratetracnemoidea taken from several
localities in North America. Previously the genus was known under its junior synonym,
Rhinoencyrtus Mercet, but no species name was available for North American material.
This paper provides a name for Mr. Miller's work and considers the placement of
Paratetracnemoidea among 500 genera of Encyrtidae currently recognized.











Florida Entomologist 68(4)


Paratetracnemoidea americana, NEW SPECIES
FEMALE: 1.0 mm long. Body uniformly black with weak blue-copper reflections in
certain plays of light; antenna dark reddish brown; coxae, femora concolorous with
body, tibiae somewhat more pale, tarsomeres 1-4 tan, pretarsi somewhat darker.
Forewing hyaline except indicated infuscations (Fig. 12); hindwing hyaline.
HEAD: in dorsal aspect 3.20 times wider than long (64:20); fronto-vertex 0.47 times as
wide as head (30:64), surface rather coarsely reticulate, anterior margin transverse,
vertex margin rounded; ocelli forming a broadly obtuse triangle, lateral ocellus sepa-
rated from medial margin of compound eye by about 1.5 times ocellus width. Head in
lateral aspect (Fig. 1) 2.80 times longer than wide (56:20); malar space 0.61 times as
long as compound eye height (20:33), surface reticulate; malar sulcus complete (Fig. 2).
Head in frontal aspect 1.03 times wider than long (64:62), tapering ventrad; scrobal
impression long and shallow, lateral walls broadly rounded, surface transversely reticu-
late; toruli well below imaginary transverse line extending between ventral margins of
compound eyes, separated by about two times torulus width; intertorular prominence
forming a conspicuous, spoon-like protuberance (Fig. 1-5). Mandible with a large, prom-
inent tooth, and a smaller proximal tooth giving mandible a falcate appearance. Maxil-
lary palpus four-segmented; labial palpus three-segmented. Antenna as illustrated (Fig.
8).
MESOSCUTUM: 2.25 times wider than median length (54:25), strongly convexly rounded
laterad and anteriad, surface reticulate laterad and anteriad, longitudinally nearly
lineolate-reticulate mesad and polished posteriad (Fig. 6), with moderate vestiture of
pale setae; axillae fused to scutellum and widely separated mesad, with a few minute
setae and sculpture as lateral portion of mesoscutum. Scutellum 1.21 times as long as
mesoscutum (29:24), 1.07 times wider than long (31:29), strongly convexly rounded
laterad and posteriad; surface narrowly, longitudinally lineolate, giving a velvet-like
appearance, with a few minute setae and a larger subapical pair; apex polished (Fig.
6). Mesopleuron finely, faintly longitudinally reticulate. Forewing veinational shape and
chaetotaxy as illustrated (Fig. 12); postmarginal vein extending to forewing margin.
METASOMA: 0.92 times as long as mesosoma (55:60); pygostyli at basal one-eighth of
metasoma. T1 weakly reticulate; remaining terga smooth, polished. Paratergites ab-
sent.
MALE: Similar to the female in habitus, coloration and sculpture. Differing in the larger
ocelli, antennal conformation (Fig. 7), and slightly smaller body size. Venation of forew-
ing as illustrated (Fig. 11).
HOLOTYPE: 1 mi. NE Portal, Cochise Co., Arizona, 14-IX-1978, on Acacia sp. by John
La Salle.
PARATYPES: 1 female taken with the holotype, 1 female and 2 males (1 headless) taken
at Hellsgate State Park, Nez Perce Co., Idaho, 10-22-IX-1983 from a pitfall trap by T.
D. Miller; 8 females and 2 males same locality, same collector, same technique 22-VIII-6-
IX-1984; 2 females and 2 males, pit trap, 12-28-VII-1984, same locality, same collector.
ADDITIONAL MATERIAL: female, Stillwater, Oklahoma, 18-VII-1964, from bermuda
grass (collector not given); and 1 male, Halsey, Nebraska, 12-VIII-1958, R. Henzlik
(both specimens deposited U. S. National Museum). Two males taken from yellow pan
trap 19-V-1984, Las Barracas, BCS, MEXICO, Paul DeBach; 2 males from the same
locality 1-VI-1984, Paul DeBach. Holotype and paratypes deposited in the Entomolog-
ical Collections UCR; paratypes deposited in the Entomological Museum, University of
Idaho. The host remains unknown.
VARIATION: Specimens from Oklahoma and Nebraska differ principally in coloration of
the scape and tibiae being pale and the interocular width is somewhat greater than in
the type-series. They may constitute a different species, but more material is needed
to confirm this.


588


December, 1985











Gordh: New Encyrtidae


Fig. 1-6. 1. Head, Paratetracnemoidea americana, lateral aspect. 2. SEM of clypeal
protuberance in female P. americana (ATP = anterior tentorial pit; ES epistomal su-
ture). 3. SEM, male clypeal protuberance. 4. SEM, female clypeal protuberance. 5.
SEM, female clypeal protuberance. 6. SEM Thorax and propodeum of P. americana
female.


Paratetracnemoidea americana may be distinguished from other species of Paratetrac-
nemoidea by the characters given in Table 1. It may be further separated from the
type-pecies by the more broadly rounded vertexal margin in americana and the larger
mesoscutal sculptural pattern and from malenotti by the shape of antennal F1 (cf. Fig.
8,9).


589












Florida Entomologist 68(4)


SI.I --^.
- ,.

Y^-. -

- N /


10


December, 1985


-,i


N \N\
N '\ ,-"'


U. 2v$" 12
^-^'s- '-N


Fig. 7-12. 7. Male antenna, P. americana. 8. Female antenna, P. americana. 9.
Female antenna, P. malenotti. 10. Female forewing, P. malenotti. 11. Male forewing,
P. americana. 12. Female forewing, P. americana.


590











Gordh: New Encyrtidae 591

TABLE 1. DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS DIFFERENTIATING THREE SPECIES OF
Paratetracnemoidea.

Postmarginal Scrobal Frontovertex:
Species Scape Funicle 1 Vein Impression Head Width

malenotti Dark 2xLTW Not Meeting Punctate, <0.40
Wing not clearly
margin defined
americana Dark- 1.5xLTW Meeting Impunctate, >0.40
Pale Wing clearly
margin defined
breviventris Dark 1.7xLTW Not Meeting Impunctate >0.40
Wing smooth,
Margin not well
defined


DISCUSSION

Rhinoencyrtus was characterized by Mercet (1918) for a species he called malenotti
taken near Madrid. Aside from supplementary descriptive notes by Mercet (1921) on
the type-species, Rhinoencyrtus remained relatively inconspicuous among the 500-odd
genera of Encyrtidae recognized during the following thirty years. Hoffer (1955) pext
considered the genus and placed it in a new subtribe, the Rhinoencyrtina, of the Disco-
dini. Later, Hoffer (1957, 1970a, b) extended the range of R. malenotti to include
Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria while Trjapitzin (1971) included it in a key to the genera
of Palearctic Encyrtidae. Trjapitzin (1973) subsequently elevated that group to tribal
status and expanded the concept of the group to include two subtribes and seven genera.
He later reported the distribution of R. malenotti as western U.S.S.R., Hungary,
Yugoslavia, and Italy (Trjapitzin 1978).
The species described here has been known in North America for many years (Gordh
1979). Prinsloo and Annecke (1979) include an undetermined species (as Rhinoencyrtus)
in a key to the genera of encyrtids found in the Ethiopian region, and I have collected
specimens of an undetermined species in Australia (Gordh, unpublished). Noyes (1980)
did not include it among the genera of Neotropical encyrtids currently known, and
Hayat and Subba Rao (1981) do not include it in their catalog of the Encyrtidae found
in India and coterminous countries. However, the genus is obviously widespread.
I have not seen the holotype of P. malenotti (Mercet) which should be in Madrid.
My concept of this species is based on the original description and a female specimen
taken in Spain and identified by Mercet as malenotti then sent to P. H. Timberlake in
an exchange of material. I have not seen the male of malenotti, and its forewing is not
illustrated by Mercet or discussed by Hoffer.
Noyes and Hayat (1984) synonymized Rhinoencyrtus with the taxonomically un-
known Paratetracemoidea Girault. Paratetracnemoidea was previously known only
from the type-species, P. breviventris taken in Australia. (Girault, 1915). This
synonymy was recognized earlier (Gordh and Dahms, unpublished) and is correct. For
a discussion of the synonymy and redescription of the type-species see Gordh and Dahms
(in prep.). Girault (1915) characterized Paratetracnemoidea based on a female he called
breviventris which was taken at Gordonvale (Cairns), Queensland, Australia. Through
the courtesy of Mr. E. C. Dahms, I have had the opportunity to reexamine the type.
All that remains is the crushed head, antennae and a forewing mounted on a microscope
slide with part of Epitetralophidea bicinctipes Girault. An intact specimen, regarded










Florida Entomologist 68(4)


as conspecific, taken at Mt. McCartney, Cathu State Forest (MEQ) by E. C. Dahms is
also available for study. Paratetracnemoidea americana may be distinguished from the
type-species by characters given in Table 1. A redescription of P. breviventris will be
given in a treatment of Girault's Australian Encyrtidae (Gordh and Dahms, unpub-
lished.)
Elements of the habitus of Paratetracnemoidea are distinctive and could not be
confused with any other known genus of encyrtid. Both sexes possess a well developed,
spoon-like protuberance below the toruli (Fig. 1-5), the margin of which is sharply
defined and forms a lip to the process (Fig. 2-4). The mandible superficially appears two
toothed and the frontovertex width is moderate. Wing venation is not always coincident
with forewing margin and the scutellum is longitudinally, narrowly, deeply reticulate.
Other characters useful in identifying Paratetracnemoidea include the coarsely reticu-
late frontovertex with shallow punctures; compound eyes with small pale setae; seventh
sternum extending near the midline of the metasoma; paratergites absent; forewing
with an incipient medial or radial vein (see below); and ovipositor not projecting beyond
metasomal apex or projecting less than the width of a gonostylus.
From the discussion above, it is apparent that the placement of Paratetracnemoidea
(Rhinoencyrtus) has been inconclusive. Two important morphological features which
must be considered in placing Paratetracnemoidea are the shape of the lower part of
the head and the incipient venation at the base of the forewing. Head shape is frequently
difficult to characterize and it has not been extensively or consistently used in encyrtid
classification. I believe that head shape is often a reliable indicator of taxonomic position
and explore this source of character in my revision of North American Encyrtidae
(Gordh, unpublished.)
The presence of a peculiar spoon shaped protuberance where a carina or more con-
ventionally formed convexity is often found in encyrtids deserves mention. This repre-
sents a unique feature of all Paratetracnemoidea. It may be regarded as a synapomorphic
character at the generic level, but is valueless in placing Paratetracnemoidea. The
protuberance (Fig. 2-5) is thickened integument and therefore a transformation of the
existing head shape is of little value in reconstruting the shape of the hypothetical
ancestor's head to determine shared taxonomic affinities involving head shape. The
position and shape of the setae near the margin of the protuberance suggests a sensory
role. If the protuberance were involved exclusively with moving objects it is unlikely
that it would be heavily invested with sensilla directly opposed to reinforced integu-
ment. The anterior tentorial pits are slightly below the crest of the protuberance when
the head is viewed in lateral aspect, suggesting the protuberance is in part supraclypeal
in origin. The slight deflection of the epistomal suture and its direction of deflection
corroborate this supposition (Fig. 2 es, atp). The frontoclypeal suture has been lost in
all species studied. The shape of the protuberance differs slightly between the sexes
(Fig. 3 male, Fig. 4 female) and there is a basomedial plateau in both sexes which is
more scalloped in the female.
Wing venation is used extensively in encyrtid systematics but character develop-
ment has not been consistently evaluated. The forewing of Paratetracnemoidea is in-
teresting from several aspects. Mercet (1918, 1921) clearly illustrated the vein as ex-
tending to the forewing margin, but Hoffer (1957), treating material he regarded as
conspecific with P. malenotti from Czechoslovakia, showed that it did not. The Timber-
lake material in the UCR collection shows that the venation does not extend to the
margin of the forewing (Fig. 10). The postmarginal vein of P. americana does reach
the anterior margin of the wing in the female (Fig. 12) (but imperceptibly), and in the
male (more clearly) (Fig. 11). This character is difficult to see in some plays of reflected
light, but is apparent with phase contrast of transmitted light. Perhaps more interesting
but not reported in earlier studies is the presence of additional venation at the base of


592


December, 1985











Gordh: New Encyrtidae 593

the forewing in all material examined. Although this character does occur in other
chalcidoids including encyrtids, it appears somewhat different in Paratetracnemoidea.
The base of the forewing shows a complex of evanescent veins represented by sclerites,
apparently sclerotized areas, and regions showing pigmentation. It is not possible to
homologize these veins with veins found in more generalized Hymenoptera, but the
extensive number of scolopophorous or campaniform sensillae at the base of the venation
of the specimens identified as P. malenotti suggests the remnant of a medial vein. The
forewing of the type-species bears heavy infuscation but signs of venation are not appar-
ent in the slide of the holotype or the pinned specimen taken by Dahms. Unfortunately
the preparation of P. americana does not include the base of the forewing.
Paratergites and mandible configuration have been regarded as subfamilial charac-
ters. Species possessing paratergites and two-toothed mandibles have been assigned to
the Tetracneminae. Species lacking paratergites and whose mandibles are otherwise
have been assigned to the Encyrtinae. Trjapitzin's (1973) placement of Rhinoencyrtus
was apparently based on the published descriptions of R. malenotti Mercet. Examina-
tion of the type-species and cleared and slide mounted material of P. americana does
not reveal paratergites and thus the genus should be placed in the Encyrtinae as the
subfamily is now understood. However, this character may not be universally reliable
because Compere (pers. comm.) noted that remnants of paratergites are found in cleared
and stained specimens of Metaphycus, an encyrtine. The mandibles of encyrtids are
more variable than earlier workers suspected and many encyrtines have two toothed
mandibles while some tetracnemines have three toothed mandibles.
Host associations are frequently helpful in determining relationships among encyr-
tids, but unfortunately the hosts of Paratetracnemoidea are unknown. Noteworthy is
that all of the recently collected material was taken from traps in the ground. That
specimens were taken from distant geographical locations and conditions suggests the
genus may be more widespread and associated with soil inhabiting hosts. Mr. Terry
Miller believes the host is a mealybug associated with Sporobolus sp. (pers. comm.).
The habitus of all three species studied strongly suggests that Paratetracnemoidea
should be placed in the Copidosomatini as that tribe is understood by me. The shape of
the body and wings and forewing venation are suggestive of a relationship with genera
currently assigned to this tribe. The form of sexual dimorphism expressed in Paratetrac-
nemoidea (i.e. antennal conformation) fits the Copidosomatini. More particularly, the
kinds and distribution of sculpture types on the head and mesosoma are within the
range of variation expressed by genera of the Copidosomatini (cf. Fig. 6). For these
reasons I place Paratetracnemoidea within the Copidosomatini. However, should the
suspicions of Mr. Miller regarding host associations prove correct, then the position of
Paratetracmenoidea within the Copidosomatini should be questioned because most rep-
resentatives of this tribe are parasites of Lepidoptera.

REFERENCES CITED
GIRAULT, A. A. 1915. Australian Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea-VII. Mem. Qlds. Mus.
4: 1-184.
GORDH, G. 1979. Encyrtidae. In: Krombein et al., Catalog of Hymenoptera in America
North of Mexico. 1: 890-967.
HAYAT, M. AND B. R. SUBBA RAO. 1981. A systematic catalog of Encyrtidae
(Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) from the Indian subcontinent. Colemania 1: 103-
125.
HOFFER, A. 1955. Flylogenese a taxonomie celedi Encyrtidae (Hym., Chalcidoidea).
Acta Mus. Nat. Pragae 11: 3-22.
HOFFER, A. 1957. Miscellanaea Encyrtidologica 1. Eight preliminary papers for the
monographic investigation of the Czechoslovak Encyrtidae (Hym., Chalcidoidea).
Acta Entomol. Mus. Nat. Pragae 31: 191-220.











594 Florida Entomologist 68(4) December, 1985

HOFFER, A. 1970a. First contribution to the knowledge of the Yugoslavian Encyrtidae
(Hym., Chalcidoidea). Stud. Entomol. Forest. 1: 151-168.
HOFFER, A. 1970b. A contribution to the knowledge of the Bulgarian Encyrtidae
(Hym., Chalcidoidea). Stud. Entomol. Forest. 1: 171-186.
MERCET, R. G. 1918. Generos nuevos de encirtidos de Espana. Bol. Real Soc. Espan.
Hist. Nat. 18: 234-241.
MERCET, R. G. 1921. Himenopteros Fam. Encirtidos. Fauna Iberica. Mus. Nac.
Cienc. Nat., Madrid, 732 pp.
NOYES, J. S. 1980. A review of the genera of Neotropical Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera:
Chalcidoidea). Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. Ser. 41(3): 107-253.
NOYES, J. S. AND M. HAYAT. 1984. A review of Indo-Pacific Encyrtidae (Hymenopt-
era: Chalcidoidea) Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist. 48: 131-395.
PRINSLOO, G. L. AND D. P. ANNECKE. 1979. A key to the genera of Encyrtidae from
the Ethiopian region, with description of three new genera (Hymenoptera: Chal-
cidoidea), Jour. Entomol. Soc. So. Africa 42: 349-382.
TRJAPITZIN, V. A. 1971. Review of the genera of Palearctic encyrtids (Hymenoptera:
Encytidae). Trans. All-Union Entomol. Soc. 54: 68-119 (IN RUSSIAN).
TRJAPITZIN, V. A. 1973. The classification of parasitic Hymenoptera of the family
Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Part 1. Survey of the systems of class-
ification. The subfamily Tetracneminae Howard, 1892. Entomol. Rev. 52: 118-
125.
TRJAPITZIN, V. A. 1978. Known Insects of the European Part of the USSR. 3(2):
236-328. (IN RUSSIAN).





IMMATURE STAGES OF GNOPHOTHRIPS FUSCUS AND
METHODS FOR DISTINGUISHING ITS ADULTS
FROM THOSE OF LEPTOTHRIPS PINI
(THYSANOPTERA: PHLAEOTHRIPIDAE)1

M. A. S. K. RANASINGHE
Dept. of Entomology and Nematology
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611
H. A. DENMARK
Bureau of Entomology, Div. of Plant Industry
Florida Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Gainesville, FL 32602
R. C. WILKINSON
Dept. of Entomology and Nematology
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611

ABSTRACT
Immature stages of the slash pine flower thrips, Gnophothrips fuscus (Morgan)
(Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) are described for the first time, based on light and
scanning electron microscopy. The chorion of the egg has a reticulate sculpturing an-
teriorly that may be diagnostic for the species. The other stages differ from one another
in antennal structure and chaetotaxy. A key to larvae, prepupae, and pupae is pre-
sented.
Some morphological and behavioral differences between adults of G. fuscus and the
similar-looking Leptothrips pini (Watson) (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae] are given.











Ranasinghe et al.: Immature Thysanoptera 595

RESUME

Se described por primera vez etapas inmaduras de Gnophothrips fuscus (Morgan)
(Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), basados en microscopia de luz y electr6nicas. El cori6n
del huevo tiene una escultura reticular anterior que pudiera ser diagn6stico de esta
especie. Las otras etapas se diferencian de una a otra en la estructura de las antenas y
en "chaeotaxy". Se present una clave de larvas, pre-pupas, y pupas.
Se dan algunas diferencias morfol6gicas y de comportamiento entire adults de G.
fuscus y del parecido Leptothrips pini (Watson).



The slash pine flower thrips, Gnophothrips fusus (Morgan), feeds on the female
flowers and young conelets of typical slash pine, Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii,
and is considered to be a serious pest in the pine seed orchards of Florida (Ebel 1961,
DeBarr 1965). Its immature stages are described for the first time, and emphasis is
placed on the stage II larva because it is considered to be the most taxonomicallyy
stable" of the immature stages of thrips (Vance 1974, Ananthakrishnan 1979). In addi-
tion, larvae are the most commonly encountered development stage in the field.
Sculpturing of the egg is illustrated because it may be diagnostic for the species.
This insect was first named by Morgn (1913: 30) as Trichothrips fuscus. Hood and
Williams (1915: 133) described the species as megaceps and erected the genus Gnopho-
thrips for it. Hood (1918: 132) transferred T. fuscus to the genus Liothrips. This thrips
was again described by Crawford (1938: 39) as G. piniphilus. O'Neill (1965: 58) transfer-
red L. fuscus to Gnophothrips and synonymized G. piniphilus with G. fuscus. Stannard
(1968: 427) synonymized G. megaceps with G. fuscus. The genus is monotypic at present.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Field collections were made during spring from slash pines growing near Olustee in
northeast Florida. Most voucher spms. were collected near Olustee, FL and reared by
one of us (M.A.S.K.R.) during the spring of 1979. A few supplementary specimens were
collected during the summer of 1983 at the same location. Eggs were transferred to
moistened filter paper to obtain larvae, which were then reared on 15-cm-long, insect-
free, terminal shoots consisting of the current vegetative growth of young slash pines.
Each shoot was waxed at the base and kept in a 36-oz. Whirl-paks bag (NASCO. Ft.
Atkinson, WI 53538). Prepupae were transferred to Petri dishes containing moistened
filter paper where they developed to adults. All rearing was done at 22 + 0.1C and
12L:12D photoperiod.
Eggs are examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Specimens of the other
developmental stages were prepared for light microscopy using the technique of Vance
(1974). All measurements were made with a pre-calibrated optical micrometer. The
terms of Speyer and Parr (1941) were used for setae; all other terms are those of Lewis
(1973). Adults of G. fuscus and L. pini were collected by beating slash pine shoots over
a metal garbage can lid painted white. Specimens were preserved in AGA solution,
cleared in 10% KOH, and mounted in balsam (Vance 1974). Illustrations, except those
of the egg, were made from slide-mounted specimens using a crosshatch eyepiece and
squared drawing paper.
Voucher spms. of all stages of G. fuscus and adults of L. pini have been deposited
in the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville,
Florida.










Florida Entomologist 68(4)


Fig. 1. Lateral view of the egg, Gnophothrips fuscus (scu, sculpturing).
Fig. 2. Polygonal areas with openings (see arrow) in reticulate sculpturing of the
egg, G. fuscus.


December, 1985




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