Title: Florida Entomologist
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00078
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1988
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00078
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Full Text

(ISSN 0015-4040)


(An International Journal for the Americas)

Volume 71, No. 1 March, 1988


Second Announcement 71st Annual Meeting .............................................. i

AKBAR, S., M. S. RAHI, AND W. M. CHAUDHRI-Three New Mite Species of the
Family Cheylitidae from Pakistan) ....................................... ....... 1
RIDER, D. A.-A New Species of Caribo Rolston from Puerto Rico (Hemiptera:
Pentatomidae) ........................................................... .............. ...... 8
TRAGER, J. C.-A Revision of Conomyrma Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from the
Southeastern United States, Especially Florida, with keys to the Species 11
MILLER, W. V.-A New Species of Heterocerus recorded from Florida and
Canada (Coleoptera: Heteroceridae) ........................................... 30
FRANK, J. H., J. P. STEWART, AND D. A. WATSON-Mosquito Larvae in Axils
of the Imported Bromeliad Bilbergia pyramidalis in Southern Florida ..... 33
MORGAN, P. B., R. S. PATTERSON, AND G. D. PROPP-Manure Management as
a Means of Controlling Filth Flies at Agricultural Installations ............ 44
CASTRO, M. T., AND H. N. PITRE-Development of Fall Armyworm Spodoptera
frugiperda from Honduras and Mississippi on Sorghum or Corn in the
Laboratory ......................................................... ....................... 49
PITRE, H. N.-Relationship of Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from
Florida, Honduras, Jamaica, and Mississippi: Susceptibility to Insec-
ticides with Reference to Migration ................................................ 56
JIRON, L. F., AND I. HEDTROM-Occurrence of Fruit Flies of the Genera Anas-
trepha and Ceratitis (Diptera: Tephritidae), and Their Host Plant Availa-
bility in Costa Rica ....................................................... ................. 62
SU, NAN-YAO, AND R. H. SCHEFFRAHN-TOxicity and Lethal Time of N-ethyl
Perfluorooctane Sulfonamide Against Two Subterranean Termite Species
(Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) .......................................................... 73
ELSEY K. D.-Reproductive Diapause in the Spotted Cucumber Beetle ........... 78

Scientific Notes
ALVARADO-RODRIQUEZ, B.-Larval Parasites of Tomato Pinworm
(Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Sinaloa, Mexico .......................... 84
LAM, T. N. C., AND M. S. GOETTEL-Host Records for the En-
tomopathogenic Hyphomycete Tolypocladium cylindrosporum ....... 86
NICKLE, D. A., AND W. FRANK-Pest Mole Crickets, Scapteriscus acletus
(Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae), Reported Established in Arizona ..... 90

Minutes--70th Annual Meeting ................................................................ 92
List of Sustaining Members ....................................................................... 103

Published by The Florida Entomological Society


President ........................................ ................. J. L. Taylor
President-Elect ................................ .. ... ................. R. S. Patterson
Vice-President ........................................ ................ J. E. Eger
Secretary ....................................... ................. E. R. Mitchell
Treasurer ......................................... ................ A. C. Knapp

D. J. Schuster
C. O. Calkins
Other M. .,, ,. .' of the Executive Committee ................... sborne
J. H. Epler III
G. S. Wheeler
P. G. Koehler
J. R. McLaughlin


Editor ............................................. ..................... J. R. McLaughlin

Associate Editors
Arshad Ali Carl S. Barfield Ronald H. Cherry
John B. Heppner Michael D. Hubbard Lance S. Osborne
Omelio Sosa, Jr. Howard V. Weems, Jr. William W. Wirth

Business Manager ................................ ... ... ................. A. C. Knapp

FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST is issued quarterly-March, June, September, and De-
cember. Subscription price to non-members is $30 per year in advance, $7.50 per copy.
Membership in the Florida Entomological Society, including subscription to Florida
Entomologist, is $25 per year for regular membership and $10 per year for students.
Inquires regarding membership, subscriptions, and page charges should be addres-
sed to the Business Manager, P. O. Box 7326, Winter Haven, FL 33883-7326.
Florida Entomologist is entered as second class matter at the Post Office in DeLeon
Springs and Winter Haven, FL.
Manuscripts from all areas of the discipline of entomology are accepted for consider-
ation. At least one author must be a member of the Florida Entomological Society.
Please consult "Instructions to Authors" on the inside back cover. Submit the original
manuscript, original figures and tables, and 3 copies of the entire paper. Include an
abstract in Spanish, if possible. Upon receipt, a manuscript is acknowledged by the
Editor and assigned to an Associate Editor who sends it out for review by at least 3
knowledgeable peers. Reviewers are sought with regard only for their expertise; Soci-
ety membership plays no role in their selection. Page charges are assessed for printed
Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be sent to the Editor, JOHN R.
MCLAUGHLIN, 4628 NW 40th Street, Gainesville, FL 32606.

This issue mailed March 18, 1988


The Florida Entomological Society will hold its 71st Annual Meeting on 2-5 August,
1988 at the Sheraton-Sand Key Resort, 1160 Gulf Boulevard, Clearwater Beach, Florida
33515; telephone (813) 595-1611. Room rates are $69.00 either single or double (children
included). Pre-registration and registration information will be mailed to members and
will appear in the Newsletter.
If you plan to present a paper, please copy the form on the next page and submit
before 1 June, 1988 to:

J. E. Eger, Chairman
Program Committee, FES
Dow Chemical U.S.A.
5100 W. Kennedy Blvd., Suite 450
Tampa, FL 33609
Phone: (813) 287-8300

Eight minutes will be allotted for presentation of oral papers, with 2 minutes for
discussion. In addition, there will be a separate session for members who may elect to
present a Project (or Poster) Exhibit. The three oral student papers and the three
student Project Exhibits judged to be the best on content and delivery will be awarded
monetary prizes during the meeting. Student participants in the judged sessions must
be Florida Entomological Society Members and must be registered for the meeting. For
oral presentations, authors are encouraged to use 2x2 slides as slide projectors will be
available. Those needing other projection equipment should make arrangements to have
this equipment available for their presentation.
Members are reminded to begin thinking about persons they may wish to nominate for
recognition by the Society.




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Akbar et al.: New Cheyletidae of Pakistan 1


Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan


Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan


Three new mite species, Acaropsis shorkotiensis, Cheletogenes dissitus and
Cheyletus baridos, are described. A key to species of the genera Acaropsis and
Cheyletus recorded from Pakistan and a key to the species of the genus Cheletogenes
from the world, are presented.


Se described 3 species nuevas de acaros, Acaropsis shorkotiensis, Chelotogenes
dissitus, y Cheyletus baridos. Se presentan claves a species del g6nero Acaropsis y
Cheyletus, registradas en Pakistan y una clave a species del gdnero Cheletogenes.

Mites of the family Cheyletidae have stout bodies, strong chelate chelicerae and are
considered to be important predatory mites. They are good predators of pest mites and
insects of plants, stored grains and stored products (Summers & Price 1970). Taxonomy
of these mites was published by Baker (1949), Volgin (1969) and Summers & Price
Chaudhri (1979), Qayyum & Chaudhri (1977 a, 1977 b), Rasool & Chaudhri (1979)
and Rasool et al. (1980) published new species of cheyletids from Pakistan. The authors
have described three new species, one each belonging to the genera Acaropsis Moquin-
Tandon, Cheletogenes Oudemans and Cheyletus Latreille, from Pakistan. In case of
genera Acaropsis and Cheyletus a key to Pakistanian species is presented. A key to the
world species of the genus Cheletogenes has been prepared.

A. Genus Acaropsis Moquin-Tandon


1. Dorsal setae 18 pairs ............................. A. opsis Rasool, Chaudhri and Akbar
Dorsal setae less than 18 pairs ............................................ .............. 2
2. Dorsal setae 17 pairs .................................................... .................... 3
Dorsal setae 16 pairs .................................................... .................... 4
3. Palpclaw with 2 basal teeth; peritreme with 6 links on each side .............
........ ........................................................ A. orbis Qayyum and Chaudhri

2 Florida Entomologist 71(1) March, 1988

Plapclaw with 3 basal teeth; peritreme with 5 links on each side .............
................................................................... A. porta Qayyum and Chaudhri
4. Peritreme with 8 links on each side; palpfemur with 1 seta ... A. clamo Chaudhri
Peritreme with 7 links on each side; palpfemur with 3 setae ..................
............................................................................. A shorkotiensis, n. sp.

Acaropsis shorkotiensis, new species
(Fig. 1 A-D)
DORSUM: Body 463 p long (without rostrum), 276 p. wide. Palpclaw with 3 basal
pointed teeth. Palptarsus with 1 outer comb-like and 2 sickle-like setae. Comb-like seta
with 14 teeth, seta corresponding to inner comb, acicular, pointed and simple in this
genus (Fig. 1 C). Superior adorsal seta 33 [L, longer than inferior adorsal seta. Entire
stylophore with faint longitudinal, broken striations.
Peritreme with 7 links on each side (Fig. 1 C). Two dorsal shields, propodosomal
and hysterosomal. Dorsal setae 16 pairs including 1 pair of humeral setae, each seta
with a minute basal granule, barbed and fluted except humeral setae which are serrate,
setiform (Figs. 1 A,B). Propodosomal shield trapezoidal, 5 pairs marginal and 2 pairs

St /
W"S^jS).ur AK'(9 J ( IM\\ B /M .

Fig. 1. Acaropsis shorkotiensis, n. sp. A. Dorsal side; B. Dorsal seta; C. Palpus; D.
Genito-anal region.

Akbar et al.: New Cheyletidae of Pakistan 3

median setae. Hysterosomal shield truncate in front, rounded posteriorly with 4 pairs
marginal and 2 pairs median setae. One pair dorsal setae caudal to the bysterosomal
shield on membrane (Fig. 1 A).
VENTER: Genital setae 3 pairs; par-genital setae 2 pairs, simple; anal setae 3 pairs
(2 pairs simple, 1 pair barbed); post-anal setae 1 pair, barbed (Fig. 1 D).
LEGS: Length ratio: leg I/idiosoma= 0.12. Setae on legs segments: Coxae 2-2-1-1-,
trochanters 1-1-2-1, femora 2-2-2-0, genua 3-3-1-1-, tibiae 5-5-3-3, tarsi 7-5-5-5. Tarsus
I solenidion wi 46 p, rises close to seta tc rather than basal end.
TYPE: Holotype female, collected Shorkot city (Akbar, Rahi & Chaudhri) on
15.v. 1985 from leaves of Phoenix daotylifera; paratype, 1 female, collected from Jhang
on 22.vi.85 from the same host plant, deposited in Acarology Research Laboratory
Department of Entomology, U.A.F.
REMARKS: This new species is closely related to Acaropsis clamo Chaudhri but the
following characters separate the two species.
1. Peritreme with 8 links on each side in clamo but 7 links in shorkotiensis.
2. Palpfemur with 1 seta in clamo but with 3 setae in shorkotiensis.

Fig. 2. Cheletogenes dissitus, n .sp. A. Dorsal side; B. Dorsal seta; C Palpus; D.
Tarsus I.

Florida Entomologist 71(1)

3. Coxae II-IV with 1-2-2 setae; femur IV with 1 seta; genua II-IV with 2-2-2 setae;
tibiae I, III and IV with 6,4,4 setae, respectively and tarsi I-IV with 9-8-7-7 setae
in clamo as against 2-1-1 setae; no seta; 3-1-1 setae; 5,3,3 setae and 7-5-5-5 setae,
respectively on the same segments in shorkotiensis.

B. Genus Cheletogenes Oudemans

Genus Cheletogenes was erected by Oudemans in 1905 and Cheyletus ornatus Canes-
trini and Fanzago, 1876 was designated as type species. Volgin (1969) created a new
genus Prosocheyla and shifted 5 species from Cheletogenes to this genus, thus leaving
only the type species in Cheletogenes. Summers and Price (1970) reviewed the family
and redescribed Cheletogenes ornatus, the only species in this genus. Tseng (1977)
added 1 new species, C. monosetosus to this genus. Qayyum and Chaudhri (1977b) and
Rasool and Chaudhri (1979) described 2 and 1 new species, respectively, in this genus
from Pakistan. The authors have described C. dissitus, new species making a total of
6 species worldwide. A key to these species has been prepared.


1. Genu I with 3 setae ...................................................... ...................... 2
Genu I w ith 2 setae ................................................................................ 3
2. Palpclaw with 15 teeth; femur IV with 2 setae ................ C. ornatus (C. & F.)
Palpclaw with 11 teeth; femur IV with 1 seta .... C. vulgatus Rasool & Chaudhri
3. Palpclaw with 13 teeth .................................................... C. dissitus, n. sp.
Palpclaw with less than 13 teeth .......................................... ............. 4
4. Palpclaw with 11 teeth; coxae I-IV with 1-1-1-1 setae; femora I-IV with
2-1-2-2 setae ............................................................ C. monosetosus Tseng
Palpclaw with less than 11 teeth; coxae I-IV with 2-1-2-2 setae; femora I-IV
with 2-2-2-1 setae ................................................. ........................... 5
5. Palpclaw with 10 teeth; peritreme with 7 links on each side; tarsi I-IV with
5-5-5-5 setae .............................................. C. petiginis Qayyum & Chaudhri
Palpclaw with 9 teeth; peritreme with 8 links on each side; tarsi I-IV with
5-8-7-7 setae ............................................. C. scaber Qayyum & Chaudhri

Cheletogenes dissitus, new species
(Fig. 2 A-D)

DORSUM: Body 250 L long (without rostrum), 255 pL wide. Rostrum exposed part 19
p long, superior and inferior adorsal setae each, 1 pair, 9 p and 6 pL in length, respec-
tively. Protegmen 16 L long with whorls of striations; tegmen 73 L long with a whorl
of striations as shown in figure 2 E. Palpfemur robust with 2 fan-like and 1 spatulate
setae, 1 cancellate area of muscle attachment on dorsolateral face of palpfemur (Fig. 2
C). Palpclaw with 13 teeth. Palptarsus with 2 comb-like and 2 sickle-like setae; outer
comb with 17 and inner comb with 29 teeth. Peritreme with 7 links on left side and 8
links on right side, last links curve sharply towards mid-line (Fig. 2 C). Eyes rounded,
1 on each side. Dorsal setae 16 pairs. Propodosomal shield well defined, covering almost
entire propodosomal area, with papillae, 3 pairs lateral and 4 pairs median setae, 1 pal
setae posterior to propodosomal shield on membrane. Hysterosomal shield ill-defined
with 2 pairs setae. Humeral setae 1 pair and 5 pairs setae around hysterosomal shield,
on membrane. All dorsal setae fan-shaped except 2 pairs caudal setae, spatulate (Figs.
2 A,B). Membranous area around the shields with wavy, broken striations (Fig. 2 A).

March, 1988

Akbar et al.: New Cheyletidae of Pakistan 5

VENTER: Venter with striations. Ano-genital region not clear. Anal setae 3 pairs,
LEG: Legs I-IV measuring 195 pL, 172 p, 182 tL, and 221 pA in length, respectively.
Length ratio: leg I/idiosoma = 1.0. Setae and solenidia on legs segments: Coxas 2-1-2-2,
trochanters 1-1-1-1, femora 2-2-2-1, genua 2-2-2-1, tibiae 4-4-4-4, tarsi 5-5-5-7. Tarsus I
short, truncate on distal end; 2 long adorsal setae tc on its blunt end, i pair ventral
microsetae in sub-apical position; solenidion wi very short, on a minute nipple. Guard
seta absent (Fig. 2 D).
TYPE: Holotype female, collected Railway Station, Bahawalpur (Akbar, Rahi &
Chaudhri) on 29.vi.1985 from Phoenix dactylifera, paratype 1 female, same collection
data, deposited in Acarology Research Laboratory, Department of Entomology, U.A.F.
REMARKS: This new species can be separated from Cheletogenes petiginis Qayyum
and Chaudhri on the basis of the following morphological differences.
1. Palpclaw with 10 teeth in petiginis as against 13 in dissitus.
2. Outer and inner combs with 15 and 20 teeth, respectively in petiginis but 17 and 29
teeth, respectively in dissitus.
3. Peritreme with 7 links on each side in petiginis but 8 links on each side in dissitus.
4. Tarsi I-IV with 3-5-5-5 setae in petiginis but 5-5-5-7 setae in dissitus.

C. Genus Cheyletus Latreille

1. Palpclaw with 1 basal tooth ......................... C. crassus Qayyum & Chaudhri
Palpclaw with more than 1 basal teeth .................................... ............ 2
2. Palpclaw with 2 basal teeth; propodosomal shield without median setae ........ 3
Palpclaw with 3 basal teeth; propodosomal shield with 1 median seta ............ 5
3. Peritreme with 14 links on each side; dorsal setae 10 pairs; guard seta absent
................................................................................... C baridos, n. sp.
Peritreme with less than 14 links on eaoh side; dorsal setae 11 pairs;
guard seta present ................................................ ........................... 4
4. Peritreme with 12 links on each side; trochanter III with 1 seta, femur IV
with 1 seta .................................................. C. avidus Qayyum & Chaudhri
Peritreme with 11 links on each side; trochanter III with 2 setae, femur IV
with 2 setae ................................................. C. desitus Qayyum & Chaudhri
5. Propodosomal and hysterosomal shields 78 pt apart; anal setae simple; guard
seta on tarsus 1 5.5 times as long as solenidion wi C. vivatus Qayyum & Chaudhri
Propodosomal and hysterosomal shields more than 78 R apart; anal setae
barbed guard seta on tarsus I less than 5 times as long as solenidion wi ........ 6
6. Peritreme with 8 links on eaoh side; all anal setae barbed; trochanter IV with
2 setae ..................................................... C. spatiosus Qayyum & Chaudhri
Peritreme with 7 links on each side; 2 anal setae barbed; trochanter IV with 1
seta .............................................................. C. tutela Qayyum & Chaudhri

Cheyletus baridos, new species
(Fig. 3 A-E)

DORSUM: Body 391 p. long (without rostrum), 365 pL wide. Palpclaw bears 2 basal
teeth, proximal tooth rectangular, distal tooth rounded with parallel sides. Palptarsus
with 2 comb-like and 2 sickle-like setae, outer comb with 27 teeth, inner comb with 37
teeth (Fig. C). Palpfemur robust, dorsal seta I 121 p, II 99 p long, serrate. Tegmen
with fine closely set longitudinal striations, broken dots at base, protegmen without

Florida Entomologist 71(1)

March, 1988


Fig. 3. Cheyletus baridos, n. sp. A. Dorsal side; B. Dorsal seta; C. Palpus; D. Tarsus
I; E. Genito-anal region.
striations (Fig. 3 C). Peritreme deeply M-shaped with 14 links on each side (Fig 3 C).
Eyes absent. Two dorsal shields: Propodosomal and hysterosomal, 79 p apart. Prop-
odosomal shield covers most of propodosoma, with 4 pairs marginal setae. Hysterosomal
shield rectangular with slightly raised projection caudally, 2 pairs marginal setae. Hum-

Akbar et al.: New Cheyletidae of Pakistan 7

eral setae 1 pair, 1 pair setae posterior to propodosomal shield, 2 pairs setae on caudal
integument. All dorsal setae slightly spatulate, barbed except humeral seta which is
setiform, serrate (Figs. 3 A,B).
VENTER: Paragnital setae 2 pairs; genital setae 2 pairs; anal setae 2 pairs long
barbed, median pair small, simple (Fig. 3 E).
LEGS: Length ratio: leg I/idiosoma = 0.99. Setae and solenidia on legs segments:
Coxae 2-1-2-2, trochanters 1-1-2-1, femora 2-2-2-1 genua 2-2-2-2, tiblae 6-4-4-4, tarsi
8-7-7-7. Seta dt on tibiae I and III 22 e each. Solenidion wi on tarsus I 17 L, tapers to
a pointed end. Guard seta absent (Fig. 3 D).
TYPE: Holotype female, collected U.A.F. garden (Akbar, Rahi & Chaudhri) on
12.vi.1985 from dried leaves of Phoenix dactylifera, paratype 2 females, same collection
data deposited in the Acarology Research Laboratory, Department of Entomology,
REMARKS: This new species comes closer to Cheyletus desitus Qayyum Chaudhri
but the following points separate these two species:
1. Outer and inner combs with 20 and 31 teeth, respectively in desitus as against 27
and 37 teeth, respectively in baridos.
2. Peritreme with 11 links on each side in desitus but 14 links on each side in baridos.
3. Dorsal setae 11 pairs in desitus but 10 pairs in baridos.
4. Para-genital setae 3 pairs in desitus as against 2 pairs in baridos.


BAKER, E. W. 1949. A review of the family Cheyletidae in the United States National
Museum. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 99(3238): 267-320.
CHAUDHRI, W. M., S. AKBAR, AND A. RASOOL. 1979. Studies on the Predatory Leaf
Inhabiting Mites of Pakistan. Uni. Agri. Tech. Bull. No. 2: 233 pp.
QAYYUM, H. A. AND W. M. CHAUDHRI. 1977a. Descriptions of two new predatory
mite species of the genus Cheletogenes Oudemans (Acarina: Cheyletidae) from
Pakistan. Pakistan J. Agri. Sci. 14(2-3): 110-114.
QAYYUM, H. A. AND W. M. CHAUDHRI. 1977b. Descriptions of six new mite species
of genus Cheyletus Latreille (Acarina: Cheyletidae) from Pakistan. Pakistan J.
Zool. 9(1): 87-97.
RASOOL, A. AND W. M. CHAUDHRI. 1979. Description of a new species of the genus
Cheletogenes Oudemans (Cheyletidae) from Pakistan. Pakistan Entomol. 1(2):
RASOOL, A., W. M. CHAUDHRI, AND S. AKBAR. 1980. Studies on the mites of the
family Cheyletidae from Pakistan. Pakistan Entomol. 2(1-2): 27-36.
SUMMERS, F. M. AND D. W. PRICE. 1970. Revision of the family Cheyletidae. Uni.
Calif. Publ. Ent. 61: 1-153.
VOLGIN, V. I. 1969. Acarina of the family Cheyletidae, world fauna. Akad. Nauk.
S.S.S.R. Zool. Inst. Opredel, Fauna S.S.S.R. No, 101: 1-432.

Florida Entomologist 71(1)

March, 1988


Department of Entomology,
Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station,
Louisiana State University Agricultural Center,
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803


Caribo maculatus n. sp. from Puerto Rico is described and figured. A key is pro-
vided for the identification of the 3 species of Caribo Rolston. New locality records are
given for C. fasciatus Rolston.


Caribo maculatus es descrita como una nueva especie de Puerto Rico. Se provee
una clave para la identificaci6n de las 3 species de Caribo Rolston. Se incluyen registros
de nuevas localidades de C. fasciatus Rolston.

The genus Caribo Rolston, 1984, was described to hold 2 previously unknown
species, C. fasciatus Rolston and C. subgibbus Rolston, and was included in a key
separating the New World genera of Pentatomini that occur north of South America
and lack a median tubercle or spine at the base of the abdomen (Rolston and McDonald
1984). Here a third species is added to the genus, a key is provided to assist in identifi-
cation of the species, and new locality records are given for C. fasciatus.
In the description of C. maculatus, n. sp., the numbers in parentheses are measure-
ments of the holotype. When label data is cited in the text, lower-case letters in parenth-
eses represent separate labels with (a) being closest to the specimen on the pin. Ac-
ronyms used in the text are defined in the acknowledgments. All measurements are in

Key to the species of Caribo

1. Male pygophore with mesial emargination of inferior ridge relatively
broad, sides parallel (fig. 6); rostrum at most reaching anterior margin
of third (second visible) abdominal sternite (Puerto Rico) ..... maculatus n. sp.
1'. Male pygophore with mesial emargination of inferior ridge relatively
narrow, sides sinuous (figs. 7-8); rostrum reaching to and usually past
posterior margin of third (second visible) abdominal sternite ..................... 2
2(1'). Pronotum with a clearly defined, sparsely punctate transverse band pos-
terior to cicatrices; antennal segments 2-3 lacking fuscous spots (Domini-
can Republic, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands) .......... fasciatus Rolston
2'. Pronotum without a clearly defined transverse band posterior to cicatrices;
antennal segments 2-3 with small pale fuscous spots (Bahama Islands)
.............................................................................. subgibbus R olston

Rider: New Puerto Rican Pentatomid



Figs. 1-8. Fig. 1. Head, dorsal view, C. maculatus. Figs. 2-4. Pygophore, ventral
view. 2. C. maculatus. 3. C. fasciatus. 4. C. subgibbus. Fig. 5. Genital plates, caudo-
ventral view, C. maculatus. Figs. 6-8. Pygophore, caudal view. 6. C. maculatus. 7. C.
fasciatus. 8. C. subgibbus. Symbols: bp, basal plate; gx2, second gonocoxa; ir, inferior
ridge; pt9, ninth paratergite.
Caribo maculatus, new species
(Figs. 1-2, 5-6)
Description. Ground color ivory; punctures black, coalescing in groups on scutellum
and hemelytra, giving a mottled appearance. Total length excluding hemelytral mem-
brane 6.0-6.5 (6.0), width across humeri 4.1-4.4 (4.2).
Dorsal surface of head ivory with following areas black: lateral margins of vertex,
lateral margins of posterior half of tylus, and band running at angle from mesial margin
of each eye to base of head, enclosing each ocellus. Juga and tylus subequal in length;
jugal margins subparallel for middle third of distance from eyes to the broadly rounded
apex (Fig. 1). Length of head from posterior margins of ocelli to apex 1.4-1.5 (1.4),
width across eyes 1.8-1.9 (1.9). Antennae pale, segments 1-3 with small pale fuscous
spots, apical 2/3 of segment 5 dark. Length of segments 1-5 about 0.4, 0.7-0.8, 0.6,
0.6-0.7, and 0.8 respectively (0.4, 0.7, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8).



10 Florida Entomologist 71(1) March, 1988

Pronotal cicatrices mostly black, slightly elevated; anterolateral pronotal margins
concave; each humeral angle moderately produced, narrowly rounded, marked with
black. Pale transverse band behind cicatrices apparent, but not clearly defined; indis-
tinct mesial longitudinal pale line present. Mesial pronotal length 1.3 (1.3), width 4.1-4.4
Scutellum with the following areas impunctate or sparsely punctate, ivory: spot in
each basal angle; basal spot at middle, continuing posteriorly for short distance; and
scutellum mesially from elevated portion of base to black apical macule, this fascia
sometimes bifurcate basally. Mesial length of scutellum 2.4-2.7 (2.5), basal width 2.4-2.7
(2.5). Hemelytra with pale, sparsely punctate areas alternating with black punctate
areas, giving a mottled appearance. Connexiva narrowly exposed, each anterolateral
and posterolateral angle black.
Ventral surface of head black anterior to antennifer, remainder with numerous black
punctures. Rostrum reaching between metacoxae or to third (second visible) abdominal
sternite; length of segments 2-4 about 1.0, 0.6-0.7, and 0.6-0.7 respectively (1.0, 0.6,
and 0.7). Mesosternum and metasternum black, matte mesially. Pleura irregularly
punctate with black blotches. Each ostiolar ruga reaching about one-half distance from
mesial margin of ostiole to lateral margin of metapleuron. Spots on legs numerous,
coalescing to form preapical band on each femur and apical band on each tibia. Abdom-
inal venter with numerous black, punctate dots of various sizes. Abdominal sternites 3
and 4 broadly and shallowly sulcate mesially. Anterolateral and posterolateral angles
of each abdominal sternite black. Spiracles black.
Posterior margin of male pygophore from ventral view roundly truncate with a
mesial U-shaped emargination (Fig. 2); inferior ridge from caudal view with a relatively
broad, U-shaped mesial emargination, lateral angles prominent (Fig. 6). Posterior mar-
gin of each female basal plate straight to slightly sinuous; gonocoxa 2 broader than long,
carinate mesially; surface of paratergite 9 concave, with posterior margin broadly con-
vex (Fig. 5).
Holotype. o, labeled (a) "PUERTO RICO: Guanica Forst, Hwy 334 at Ranger Sta.
28-V-86 E. G. Riley & D. A. Rider" (b) "collected at mercury vapor and blacklight".
Deposited in the National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.
Paratypes. 6, 29 9, labeled as holotype (DAR, LHR, USNM).
Comments. The general mottled coloration, the shorter rostrum, and the distinctive
male genitalia will separate this species from other congeners. The inferior ridge has a
much broader mesial emargination than in either C. fasciatus or C. subgibbus. The pair
of cavities that open on the lateral pygophoral surface, which have been reported only
in this genus (Rolston and McDonald 1984), are also present in C. maculatus.

Caribo fasciatus Rolston
(Figs. 3, 7)

Caribo fasciatus Rolston, 1984 (in Rolston and McDonald 1984):82-83, fig. 54.
Caribo fasciatus was described from 1 male specimen from Falmouth, Jamaica, and
1 female specimen from St. John Island, U.S. Virgin Islands. Additional specimens have
now been examined from the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the U.S.
Virgin Islands. Label data from these specimens are provided in the following list:
Dominican Republic: Barahona Agr. Res. Sta., 5 km NW Barahona, 29-30 April 1978,
BLT (9, LHR); Prov. San Juan, El Capa, 21-V-1985, blacklight trap (6, JEE).
Jamaica: Kingston, 30 May 1941 (6, USNM); Linstead, 5 April 1971, blacklight trap
(9, DAR). Puerto Rico: Guanica Forest, Hwy 334 at Ranger Sta. 28 May 1986, mercury
vapor and blacklight (69 9, DAR, LHR); Isla Maguey, Parguera, 19 Dec. 1962 (6,
USNM). U.S. Virgin Islands: St. Croix Island, June 1937 (9, USNM).

Trager: Conomyrma of the Southeastern U.S.


Sincere thanks to the following individuals for the loan of specimens and other help
relevant to this study (acronyms are those used in the text; DAR is the author's collec-
tion): J. E. Eger, Jr., Tampa, FL (JEE); R. C. Froeschner and T. J. Henry, National
Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. (USNM); and L. H. Rolston, Louisiana
State University, Baton Rouge (LHR). I also thank J. B. Chapin, J. A. Moore, and L.
H. Rolston (Louisiana State University), and J. E. Eger, Jr. (Tampa, Florida) for their
critical review of the manuscript.
Approved for publication by the Dirctor of the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment
Station as manuscript number 87-17-1084.


ROLSTON, L. H. AND F. J. D. MCDONALD. 1984. A conspectus of Pentatomini of the
Western Hemisphere. Part 3 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). J. New York Entomol.
Soc. 92(1): 69-86.


Bldg. 339, Archer Rd. Entomology Laboratory
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611


Workers of five new species of Conomyrma from Florida and other southeastern
states are described, and 2 existing taxa are redescribed. Queens are described for most
species. Males are not readily distinguishable, as far as known. Among the new species
C. elegans n. sp. has slender, yellow workers and a very restricted range in the scrub-
lands of Highlands Co., Florida; C. bossuta n. sp. is a variously colored, common though
inconspicuous species of the xeric woodlands of Florida and southern Georgia; C. bureni
n. sp. is the abundant, usually yellowish, roadside and old field Conomyrma of the
southeastern and Atlantic coast states (but not Texas and the Midwest, where it is
replaced by C. flava); C. medeis n. sp. is a densely pubescent, dark brown or black
species of the C. smith (Cole) complex and a temporary social parasite of C. bureni
with approximately the same geographic range; and C. reginicula n. sp., known only
from peninsular Florida, is a species morphologically similar to C. medeis but less
pubescent and weakly bicolored, and is a temporary social parasite of C. bureni and
probably C. bossuta. Among the described species, C. flavopectus (M. R. Smith) is dark
brown with a striking yellow thorax, and is restricted to the sand pine-Florida rose-
mary scrublands of peninsular Florida; and C. grandula (Forel), originally described as
a Prenolepis, is a small brown species of woodland openings from northern Florida to
New Jersey.

12 Florida Entomologist 71(1) March, 1988


Se described trabajadores de cinco species nuevas de Conomyrna de la Florida y
de otros estados del sudeste, y se redescriben 2 taxas existentes. Se described las reinas
de la mayoria de las species. De lo que se conoce, los machos no se distinguen facil-
mente. Entre las nuevas species, C. Elegans n. sp., tiene trabajadores delgados y
amarillos, y una extension muy restringida en las tierras de maleza del Condado de
Highland en la Florida; C. bossuta n. sp. es de various colors, comfn, aunque es una
especie incospicua de los bosques x6ricos de la Florida y del sur de Georgia; C. bureni
n. sp. es la abundante, usualmente amarillenta, encontrAndose al lado de caminos y en
campos viejos Conomyrna del sudeste y de estados de la costa del AtlAntico, pero no
Texas y el Medio-Oeste, donde es reemplazada por C. flava. c. medeis n. sp. es una
especie densamente peluda, de color pardo obsscuro o negra, del grupo de C. smith
(Cole), que es un parAsito social temporal de C. bureni, y con aproximadamente la
misma extension geogrAfica; C. reginicula n. sp., conocida solamente de la peninsula
de la Florida, es una especie morfologicamente similar a C. medeis, pero menos peluda
y mAs ligeramente bicolor, y es un parAsito social temporal de C. bureni y probab-
lemente de C. bossuta. Entre las species descritas, C. flavopectum (M. R. Smith) es
parda obscura con un t6rax amarillo llamativo, y estA restringida a los pinos de arena-
tierra de romeros en la peninsula de la Florida; y de C. gandula (Forel), originalmente
descrita como Prenolepia, es una especie pequefia, parda, y es de donde hay abertura
en los bosques, desde el norte de la Florida hasta New Jersey.


The ant genus Conomyrma Forel is often passed over by ant collectors who consider
these rather abundant insects some sort of myrmecological "roadside weeds" of little
biological or taxonomic interest. Biological notes included here demonstrate that Con-
omyrma in the southeastern United States, especially Florida, is an assemblage of
species whose degree of endemicity, specialized habitat preferences, varied population
structure and potential as agents of biological control of annual crop pests are well
worthy of further study.
This paper is intended primarily however, as an introduction to the taxonomy of 7
distinct Floridian Conomyrma species. The taxonomy of the described species is
clarified, based on the study of type and other specimens, and original descriptions.
Workers of 2 named species are redescribed and 5 new species are described and distin-
guished from the known forms. Queens of all species except C. flavopectus are de-
scribed, but I have been unable to acquire sufficient males or to discover adequate
discriminatory characters among those available to discern the species. This is not a
complete revision of the North American species; not included are species found exclu-
sively west of the Mississippi River, among them several undescribed ones. Indeed, I
am aware of 2 possibly undescribed species from southeastern Florida and the Keys
which are not treated for lack of sufficient material, and because of uncertainty about
their affinities to the Caribbean fauna. Conomyrma is also well-represented in the
Neotropics and the deserts of southern South America (Kempf 1972, Kusnezov 1952).
This study is based primarily on material in my own collection and that of William
F. Buren, and to a lesser extent on material borrowed from the Los Angeles County
Museum of Natural History; the United States National Museum; the collection of the
Archbold Biological Station, Lake Placid, Florida. Buren's material is deposited at the
Florida State Collection of Arthropods in Gainesville and at Los Angeles County
Museum. Holotypes from this study will be deposited at the Florida State Collection of
Arthropods, and paratypes will be distributed to the above-listed collections, to the

Trager: Conomyrma of the Southeastern U.S.

Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University and to the American Museum
of Natural History in New York.
It would be amiss if I failed to point out that Buren first recognized the forms treated
here as 6 distinct species, including 3 undescribed forms. Unfortunately, the illness
preceding his death in August, 1983 prevented him from producing a publishable ac-
count. The feeling that his scheme should not remain unpublished was the stimulus to
carry out the measurements, morphological study, and preparation of illustrations re-
sulting in this paper. This work resulted in the discovery that what Buren had planned
to call C. insana in fact includes 2 undescribed sibling species.

Methods, Materials and Terminology

Measurements were converted to the nearest 0.01 mm from ocular micrometer read-
ings taken at 40X on a Nikon SMZ-10 stereo dissecting microscope. The measurements
and indices used in the species descriptions are defined below. Abbreviations for these
used throughout the rest of the paper are in parentheses following the name of each
Measurements (Note: listed approximately anterior to posterior.)
Head length (HL)-Maximum length of head from apical border of clypeus to vertex
("occipital border") in frontal view.
Head width (HW)-Maximum width of head in frontal view.
Scape length (SL)-Length of antennal scape (basal knob and stalk not included).
Eye length (EL)-Maximum diameter of compound eye (pigmented facets only).
Femur length (FL)-(Workers) Length of fore femur.
Weber's length (WL)-Length of thorax from anterior portion of pronotum (exclu-
sive of cervical flange which was not entirely visible on all specimens) to rear edge of
metapleural flange.
Thorax width (TW)-(Queens) Maximum width of mesoscutum.
Indices (Note: grouped by denominator.)
Total length index (HTL)-HL + TL (an "index" of total length independent of
highly variable gaster length).
Cephalic index (CI) ..................................... HW x 100 / HL
Femoral index (FI) ..................................... FL x 100 / HL
Thorax length index (TI) ............................ WL x 100 / HL
Scape index (SI) ......................................... SL x 100 / HW
Thorax width index (TWI) ........................... TW x 100 / HW
Measurements and indices are listed with the species descriptions in the following
format: lowest value measured or calculated-highest value (measurement or index of
holotype or other type, where applicable). Measurements of nanitic workers are not
Original sketches for the illustrations were prepared using a drawing tube attach-
ment on the dissecting microscope, corrected for distortion and inked freehand.
I include only synoptic synonymies for each species.

Generic Diagnosis

Conomyrma workers are members of the tribe Tapinomini in the subfamily
Dolichoderinae, which have a greatly reduced sting apparatus; gastric apex with a
conspicuous, transverse, slit-like cloacal orifice; 1-segmented, cuneate abdominal
pedicel; relatively small (< 4mm) body size; and a smooth, flexible integument normally
covered with fine, strongly appressed pubescence. Within the Tapinomini, Conomyrma

14 Florida Entomologist 71(1) March, 1988

may be recognized by the following combination of characteristics: mandibular dentition
reduced to 6 (rarely 5) teeth along the cutting margin, apical tooth long and sharp, and
at least 2X the size of subapical tooth; minute denticles occasionally present along basal
border of mandible; 3rd segment of maxillary palp at least 3X as long as any other palpal
segment (this character also distinguishes the males and queens); propodeum always
bears a distinct mid-dorsal protuberance in the form of a boss or cone; gaster of Con-
omyrma workers laterally compressed rather than dorsoventrally flattened or circular
in cross-section (unique among North American dolichoderines); pilosity composed of a
poorly-developed psammophore of 4-8 long curved setae extending ventrad about half
way to oral cavity, and 0 to 4 shorter setae (psammophore better developed in the some
Chilean species) a few long setae on the mandibles, clypeus, and frons; and several on
the coxae and gastric venter; pilosity usually lacking on the thoracic and abdominal
dorsa except for a few hairs near the gastric apex, and (rarely) on the pronotum. For
characters distinguishing Conomyrma from its South American relative Dorymyrmex
Santschi see Snelling (1973) and Kusnezov (1952).

Key to workers of Conomyrma
of the southeastern United States

la Mesonotal profile, in all or the great majority of workers of a series, either
evenly convex (Figs. 9, 11), or flat to weakly concave (Fig. 10) .................... 2
lb Mesonotal profile, in all or the great majority of workers of a series, angular,
having distinct dorsal and declivous faces (Figs. 8, 12-14) ............................ 4
2a Promesonotal profile convex; base of propodeum at an angle of 1450 or less
to the plane of the posterior portion of the mesonotum (Figs. 9, 11), scape
exceeding occipital margin by 1/3, or less, its length in frontal view (Figs. 2,
4); color variable ...................................................... ....................... 3
2b Thorax elongate, with promesonotal profile flattened and upward slope of
base of propodeum at an angle of 1650, or more, to the plane of the mesonotal
dorsum (Fig. 10); scape exceeding occipital margin by almost 1/2 its length
(Fig. 3); color clear, weakly shining yellow, with at most a trace of darkening
near gastric apex; a slender, long-legged form known only from the scrub
and xeric woodlands of Highlands Co., Florida .......................... elegans n. sp.
3a Head broad (CI>87, less in minim workers); scape relatively short (SI<112);
propodeal cone blunt, its posterior face straight or slightly convex (Fig. 9);
color usually predominantly yellow, but if head and gaster extensively in-
fuscated, thoracic dorsum also with at least faint brownish blotching; a com-
mon species in disturbed habitats, usually with sandy soils, from Mississippi
to Maryland, especially abundant in Florida .............................. bureni n. sp.
3b Head narrower (CI<87); scape longer (SI>112, as low as 109 in about 5% of
workers); propodeal cone sharper, appearing faintly recurved because pos-
terior face of propodeum slightly concave (Fig. 11); head dark brown, thorax
clear yellow (never with faint, dorsal blotching), gaster dull brown; a locally
abundant species in sand pine scrubland of central Florida ................
.......... ..................................... flavopectus (M. R. Smith)
4a Gaster densely pubescent, pubescence closely spaced and at least partly ob-
scuring sheen of gastric dorsum; angle between dorsal and declivous
mesonotal faces broadly obtuse (01400); mesonotal declevity not unusually
steep (Fig. 12, 14) ................................................ ........................... 5
4b Gaster lacking pubescence, or at most with a few widely spaced, fine setae
which do not obscure the sheen of the gastric dorsum; mesonotum more
acutely angular, angle between dorsal and declivous mesonotal faces

Trager: Conomyrma of the Southeastern U.S.

90-120, mesonotal declivity steep (Fig. 8); a common but inconspicuous
species of turkey oak savannas and oak scrubland in Florida and adjacent
Georgia ............................................................................... bossuta n. sp.
5a Head broad (CI>90); occipital border normally distinctly concave; propodeal
cone large and prominent (Fig. 13, 14); larger species (HTL>1.95) .............. 6
5b Head narrower (CI<88, rarely up to 90); occipital border weakly convex or
straight; propodeal cone low and not as prominent (compare Figs. 12 and 13);
smaller species (HTL<1.95); a species of openings in well-drained pine-oak
woodland from northern Florida to New Jersey .................... grandula (Forel)
6a Scape relatively long (SI 98-111, but >101 in 80% of workers measured);
pubescence dense but very short, absent on sides of head; sides of head very
shiny; front of head and dorsum of thorax only slightly dulled by pubescence;
head and thorax, and often base of first tergite reddish; gaster dark brown;
found within or near populations of C. bureni or C. bossuta; colonies small,
inhabiting one or a few nests; queen small, HTL < 3 mm ....... reginicula n. sp.
6b Scape short (SI 95-105, but <101 in over 80% of workers measured);
pubescence dense, dulling front of head and thoracic dorsum; uniform brown
to black; also found within or near populations of C. bureni in the South-
east, sometimes in huge polycalic colonies; queens larger, HTL > 3.25 mm
.......................................................................................... m edeis n. sp.

Key to Queens of Conomyrma of the Southeastern United States

la Occipital border convex ............................................ ....................... 2
2b Occipital border concave ............................................ ...................... 5
2a Head and thorax yellowish and most of gaster notably darker, or body
uniform yellow ish .................................................................................. 3
2b Body uniform dark brown ........................................................... grandula
3a Larger species, HTL>3.50 mm .......................................... ............... 4
3b Smaller species, HTL<3.25 mm ..................................................... bossuta
4a Robust species, head as wide as long or a little broader; gaster notably
darker than head and thorax ........................................................... bureni
4b Slender species, head notably longer than broad; gaster at most only faintly
browner than head and thorax ........................................................ elegans
5a Larger species. HTL>3.25 mm ..................................... ........... medeis
5b Microgynous species, HTL 2.75-2.95 ............................................ reginicula

Conomyrma bossuta n. sp.
(Figs. 1 & 8)

WORKER. Measurements and indices: HL 0.77-0.88 (0.80), HW 0.63-0.75 (0.69), SL
0.75-0.88 (0.80), EL 0.18-0.23 (0.21), FL 0.63-0.80 (0.73), WL 1.00-1.25 (1.10), HTL
1.73-2.13 (1.90), CI 82.7-88.2 (86.2), SI 110.7-124.3 (115.9), OI 23.7-27.5 (26.2), FI 86.3-
94.0 (91.2), TI 127.1-144.9 (137.5). N=25.
DIAGNOSIS. Worker small and shiny, particularly gaster which lacks or has at most
very sparse pubescence; declivous face of mesonotum steep, often nearly vertical, giving
a hunchbacked or strongly saddle-backed appearance.
FURTHER DESCRIPTION. General form and characters as in Figs 1 and 8, and in key.
Head broadest across eyes, with convex sides and straight occipital border; in full face
view, sides often weakly convergent toward occiput; in specimens from south-central
Florida, mesonotum may bear a small hump at meeting of dorsal and declivous faces,

Florida Entomologist 71(1)

S 1mm,

Figs. 1-7. Frontal view of heads of worker Conomyrma: 1) C. bossuta, 2) C. bureni,
3) C. elegans, 4) C. flavopecta, 5) C. grandula, 6) C. medeis, 7) C. reginicula.

March, 1988

Trager: Conomyrma of the Southeastern U.S.

I I 1mm

Figs. 8-14. Lateral view of thoraces of worker Conomyrma: 8) C. bossuta, 9) C.
bureni, 10) C. elegans, 11) C. flavopecta, 12) C. grandula, 13) C. medeis, 14) C. re-

WORKER. Measurements and indices: HL 0.85-1.05 (0.98), HW 0.71-1.00 (0.88), SL
0.90-1.10 (1.03), EL 0.23-0.28 (0.25), FL 0.80-1.00 (0.90), WL 1.08-1.40 (1.25), HTL
1.93-2.45 (2.23), CI 83.5-95.2 (89.8), SI 110.0-126.8 (117.0), OI 23.8-28.6 (25.5), FI 89.8-
100.0 (91.8), TI 126.7-150.6 (127.6). N=25.
DIAGNOSIS. The common yellow Conomyrma of disturbed soils (especially in sandy
areas) in the Southeast; convexity of pronotum forms a continuous curvature with
mesonotal dorsum in profile; propodeal cone generally lower and blunter than that of
C. flavopectus (compare Figs. 9 and 11).
FURTHER DESCRIPTION. General form and characters as in Figs. 2 and 9, and in key.
Head widest above eyes, sides evenly convex or sometimes converging a little more

Florida Entomologist 71(1)

1mm '"

Figs. 15-20. Frontal view of head, juxtaposed with dorsal view of promesothorax
and occiptal border of head, of queen Conomyrma: 15 & 16) C. medeis, 17 & 18) C.
reginicula, 19 & 20) C. bureni.

March, 1988

Trager: Conomyrma of the Southeastern U.S.

declivity usually steep, concave; steepness and concavity of mesonotal declivity less
pronounced in holotype, and in general in specimens from northern and coastal parts of
the species' range; propodeal cone proportionately higher in south-central Florida speci-
Mandibles striate near base, striae becoming obsolete distally and replaced by
smooth, elongate punctures; tessellation of head and thorax conspicuous, combining
with very fine pubescence to offset the strong sheen of the intersculptural spaces;
gastric sculpture shallow and inconspicuous and pubescence absent or composed of
short, appressed setae separated by at least 2X their average length; gaster thus ap-
pearing very shiny.
Color ranging from head dark brown, thorax yellowish or reddish brown and gaster
dark brown to nearly black (most common), to bicolored with thorax light reddish
brown, head slightly darker, and gaster dark brown (occasional in northern part of
range); to nearly uniform yellowish brown with infuscate gastric apex (least common,
known only from Highlands Co., and one isolated population in Alachua Co., Florida).
QUEEN. Measurements and indices: HL 1.03-1.05, HW 1.03-1.04, SL 0.90-0.93, EL
0.35-0.36, TW 0.91-0.99, WL 2.08-2.18, HTL 3.11-3.25, CI 99.7-101.0, SI 87.4-90.3, OI
33.3-35.0, TWI 88.3-95.2, TI 201.9-211.7. N=3.
Smaller and shinier, especially on gaster, than any other Conomyrma queen re-
ported here except C. reginicula; head about as long as broad; sides angulo-convex,
convergent toward clypeus; eyes strongly convex, their outer margins reaching or fal-
ling just short of sides of head; occipital border convex, less clearly set off from sides
of head by occipital lobes than in other species; thorax slender, narrower than head.
Sculpture as in worker, but shininess obscured by longer, denser pubescence; head
and thorax brownish yellow; gaster shiny and rich brown, in some specimens with a
yellowish patch near base.
NATURAL HISTORY. C. bossuta is widely distributed in the sandhills and fossil dunes
of Florida and is often associated with the turkey oak, Quercus laevis Walter. The nest
entrance is circular, surrounded by a 5-10 mm wide crater of excavated soil, and located
in small, vegetation-free patches so common in the sparse sandhill vegetation. In nest
excavations, several dozen workers and numerous larvae and pupae were unearthed
between 15 and 25 cm deep, few individuals any deeper. This species tolerates cutting
over of trees and foot traffic in its habitat, but does not withstand tilling. Workers
forage singly, usually in the shade, and may bear a superficial resemblance to workers
of Pheidole dentata or P. morrisi when seen in the field.
DISTRIBUTION. Holotype and 30 paratypes: FLORIDA, Alachua Co.: 3 mi. E Gain-
seville, San Felasco Hammock State Preserve.
18-26 June, 1987. James C. Trager leg.
Other specimens: FLORIDA, Brevard Co.: Indian Harbor Beach. Gilchrist Co.: Blue
Springs Park. Highlands Co.: Archbold Biological Station. Marion Co.: Ocala National
Forest, various localities 14-20 mi W Ocala. Putnam Co.: 5 mi. SE Melrose; Wakulla
Co.: Ochlocknee River State Park. GEORGIA, Seminole Co.: 21st district, lot 172.
ETYMOLOGY. The name bossuta is a latinization (and presumably vulgar Latin form)
of the French adjective bossu, meaning humpbacked.

Conomyrma bureni n. sp.
(Figs. 2, 9, 19, & 20)

Conomyrma pyramica (yellow form): Whitcomb et al. 1972: 137.
Conomyrma flavopecta (sic!): Snelling 1973: 5. Buren et al. 1975: 306-314. Nickerson,
et al., 1975a: 1083-1085. Nickerson, et al., 1975b: 75-82 (misidentifications).
Conomyrma edeni Tryon, 1986: 340; nomen nudum.

Florida Entomologist 71(1)

strongly toward mandibular bases; occipital border weakly concave in larger workers
to weakly convex in smaller ones; promesonotal curvature usually as in Fig. 9, though
less arched in some small workers and many specimens from the northwestern part of
the species' range. C. bureni only rarely shows even a trace of distinct basal and decliv-
ous faces in mesonotal profile.
Mandibles striate from base nearly to teeth near inner border; striae becoming
increasingly obsolete distally along outer border, yielding a shining subtriangular space
subtending 3 or 4 most apical teeth; fine tessellation and short, dense, whitish pubes-
cence yield a feebly shining front and dorsum of head, and thorax; sculpture weaker
and pubescence less dense on sides of head and gula, rear face of propodeum, and
petiole, but stronger and denser on gaster, the former parts correspondingly shinier,
gaster duller.
Color ranging from clear orange-yellow with head slightly darker and posterior part
of gaster brownish, to entire body mousy brown with thorax and base of gaster a little
lighter and yellower; great majority of specimens lie near the lighter end of the spectrum
with part of head and posterior 1/2 of gaster lightly infuscate; most darker specimens
observed came from coastal areas of Georgia and northeastern Florida, while the yel-
lowest specimens came from south-central Florida.
QUEEN. Measurements and indices: HL 1.19-1.25, HW 1.18-1.28, SL 1.08-1.15, EL
0.40-0.43, TW 1.18-1.38, WL 2.38-2.45, HTL 3.58-3.70, CI 99.2-106.7, SI 84.4-93.2, OI
32.0-34.4, TWI 93.8-107.8, TI 194.4-204.2. N=10.
Head usually a little broader than long (Fig. 19), occasionally slightly longer; sides
of head weakly angular, convex and subparallel above midlength of eyes, straighter and
convergent below; eyes notably convex, their outer margin lying close to or even prot-
ruding beyond sides of head; occipital border about as broad as clypeus, weakly convex;
thorax about equal to head in width (Fig. 20).
Sculpture as in worker; pubescence longer, thus queen a little less shiny; color of
head, thorax and base of gaster usually a little darker and more reddish than in worker;
remainder of gaster brown, fading to reddish near edges of tergites.
NATURAL HISTORY. C. bureni is the characteristic yellow Conomyrma of roadsides,
planted and fallow fields, pastures, lawns and parks throughout Florida and the South-
east, especially in areas with sandy soils. It occurs naturally in coastal dunes, and near
seasonal ponds among Andropogon and other clumping grasses in "fossil" dunes. This
species may be favored by appropriate cultural practices in crop systems to provide
biological pest control. It is an avid predator of small arthropods in citrus and soybeans
[Whitcomb et al. 1972, Elvin et al. 1983 (Conomyrma sp.), Tryon 1986 (C. edeni, nomen
nudum)] is non-noxious to humans and their crop plants, and is quick to colonize newly-
tilled ground. Foraging occurs in all but the hottest portion of the day in the warmer
seasons and even on warm, sunny days in winter. Workers from incipient colonies are
reported to be mostly nocturnal (Buren et al. 1975). Colonies normally inhabit only one
nest at a time, but during the fall and spring, when nest emigrations are frequent, a
colony may temporarily inhabit 2 or 3 nests.
Mating flights occur on warm nights after or even during rain from spring through
fall. Peak flight activity occurs at dusk, but I have observed copulating specimens flying
in low numbers to a blacklight throughout the night and even at dawn.
DISCUSSION. C. bureni is structurally very close to C. flavopectus. It seems certain,
in view of the biologies of the 2 species, that much of the literature referring to "C.
flavopecta" in fact concerns C. bureni, following the lead of Creighton (1950) who,
apparently incognizant of the ecology of Smith's species, played down the difference in
color pattern of the 2 species and expanded the taxon to include any Conomyrma with
the appropriate thoracic structure. The shorter scapes and monocalic colonies of C.
bureni are the good features for distinguishing C. bureni from C. flavopectus, and the

March, 1988

Trager: Conomyrma of the Southeastern U.S.

striking contrast of the clear yellow trunk and dark brown head and gaster of C.
flavopectus is not seen in C. bureni.
C. flava was recently reported as species distinct from C. insana (Cokendolpher &
Francke 1984), with which it had been synonymized by Snelling (1973). It is a Texas
and southern plains-state species very similar to C. bureni in gross worker morphology
and in its ecology. The angularity of the mesonotum of this similarly yellowish western
species is variable, but in most workers of any nest series, the mesonotum has distinct
dorsal and declivous faces. The few males of C. flava I have seen have the small ocelli
characteristic of day-flying species, which may consistently distinguish them from males
of the night-flying C. bureni, when males of both are better collected.
DISTRIBUTION. Holotype and 32 paratypes: FLORIDA, Alachua Co.: Gainesville.
Emerging for mating flight from nest in lawn. 15 June 1987. James C. Trager leg.
Other specimens: FLORIDA, Alachua Co.: Gainesville. Brevard Co.: Cocoa Beach. Dade
Co.: Miami Beach. Franklin Co.: causeway to St. George Island. Gadsen Co.: Quincy
Agricultural Research Station. Highlands Co.: Archbold Biological Station. Leon Co.:
Tall Timbers Research Station. Monroe Co.: Big Pine Key; Key Largo; Key West.
Palm Beach Co.: Jupiter. Polk Co.: Lake Alfred. St. Johns Co.: Anastasia State Rec-
reation Area; St. Augustine Beach. Wakulla Co.: Ochlocknee State Park. GEORGIA,
Bibb Co.: Macon. Fulton Co.: Atlanta. Lowndes Co.: Valdosta. MARYLAND, Worcester
Co.: Assateague Island. MISSISSIPPI, Franklin Co.: Roxie. SOUTH CAROLINA, (no
locality given). VIRGINIA, Northampton Co.: Hog Island, Kiptopeke Point.
ETYMOLOGY. C. bureni is named after the late William F. Buren, who first recognized
it as a species distinct from C. flavopectus and C. flava.

Conomyrma elegans, n. sp.
(Figs. 3 & 10)

WORKER. Measurements and indices: HL 0.79-0.95 (0.88), HW 0.61-0.80 (0.70), SL
1.10-1.30 (1.20), EL 0.19-0.23 (0.21), FL 0.95-1.17 (1.05), WL 1.23-1.50 (1.36), HTL
2.02-2.45 (2.24), CI 77.2-84.2 (79.5), SI 162.5-180.3 (171.4), OI 22.7-25.3 (23.9), FI 115.8-
123.5 (119.3), TI 131.0-158.0 (154.5). N=22.
DIAGNOSIS. Worker clear yellow, slender, elongate, with proportionally small, narrow
head and long, slender appendages; trunk narrow flattened, mesonotum flat or weakly
concave in profile.
FURTHER DESCRIPTION. General form and characters as in Figs. 3 and 10, and in key.
Head broadest across upper 1/3 to 1/2 of eyes, straight-sided to weakly convex-sided
both above and below eyes but a little more strongly convergent toward occiput; poste-
rior dorsum of pronotum weakly convex and at low angle to mesonotal dorsum, or
flatter and forming nearly flat plane with latter in profile; propodeum, except for cone,
always low and at most weakly sloped upward from metanotal impression; gaster rela-
tively small and compressed; head and trunk flattened and compressed relative to other
species, and scapes and legs very long and slender, yielding a generally elongate, deli-
cate appearance.
Sculpture as in C. bureni but pubescence shorter and more widely spaced; thus a
little shinier than most C. bureni. Color without exception in several hundred live or
pinned workers studied, clear yellow with last two gastric tergites weakly infuscated;
head never infuscated.
QUEEN. Measurements and indices: HL 1.20, HW 1.13, SL 1.34, EL 0.39, FL 1.13,
TW 2.63, HTL 3.83, CI 94.2, SI 118.6, OI 32.5, TWI 100.0, TI 219.2. N= 1.
Slender and long-limbed as in workers; head notably longer than broad; sides nearly
evenly convex; outer margin of eyes protruding well beyond sides of head; occipital
border clearly narrower than clypeus, weakly convex; thorax as wide as head.

22 Florida Entomologist 71(1) March, 1988

Sculpture coarser and pubescence longer than in worker, thus queen notably less shiny;
color clear yellow as in worker.
NATURAL HISTORY. C. elegans is a crepuscular-nocturnal species which also emerges
on cool or overcast days. It nests in xeric woodlands and later post-fire succesional
stages of scrub vegetation. Nests are often located near clumps of the scrub hickory,
Caryafloridana Sargent. The nest entrance is usually surrounded by a small crater of
subsoil of strikingly yellower color than the whitish sand of the surface. Workers have
a peculiar slow, jerky gait, quite unexpected considering the length of their legs, but
they run in unbroken dashes when threatened. This species has low tolerance for distur-
bance of its habitat, though it sometimes nests in footpaths. Males were aspirated from
the nest entrance in early October, but flight habits are unknown.
DISCUSSION. This species is endemic to the scrubland of south-central Florida,
exemplifying (in perhaps its most restricted form in animals) a distributional pattern
well known in plants, but also seen in reptiles, and even in some other insects (Deyrup
& Trager 1986).
It seems unlikely at first glance that this species is closely related to any sympatric
forms, and the only species similar to it in proportions and thoracic profile known to me
is C. goeldii (Forel), a Brazilian species. Based on biogeographic and other considera-
tions, the two species are probably independent derivations of the slender, elongate
form. Occasional flattened, elongate, and lightly infuscated and sculptured series of C.
bureni can be difficult to distinguish from C. elegans until one examines the scapes, and
it may be significant that such samples of C. bureni are often found near the range
inhabited by C. elegans. Comparative studies of allozyme, nucleic acid, or secondary
products chemistry, or cytotaxonomy of Florida Conomyrma could be interesting and
DISTRIBUTION. Holotype and 119 paratypes: FLORIDA. Highlands Co.: Archbold
Biological Station. Nest in opening in scrub on Red Hill. Other specimens: Archbold
Biological Station, Lake Placid, Sebring. The great majority of specimens are from
Archbold Biological Station. Though the known range is of C. elegans is restricted to
a few square miles, it is abundant within this area. Since much of the area will be pre-
served indefinitely in its pristine state at Archbold Biological Station, the species does
not seem to be in danger of extinction, though virtually the entire surrounding area is
being converted to citrus groves, cattle pastures, or housing projects.
ETYMOLOGY. C. elegans (Latin for exquisite or graceful) was the name originally
selected for this by Buren (personal communication), referring to the elegant appear-
ance of this gracile, yellow ant, especially when alive.

Conomyrma flavopectus (M. R. Smith)
(Figs. 4 & 11)

Dorymyrmex pyramicus flavopectus M. R. Smith, 1944: 27: 15 9.
Conomyrmaflavopectus: Kusnezov 1952 (raised to species).
Conomyrma flavopecta (sic!): Deyrup and Trager, 1986: 219.
WORKER. Measurements and indices: HL 0.78-1.00, HW 0.63-0.90, SL 0.88-1.14, EL
0.18-0.24, FL 0.80-1.03, WL 1.00-1.43, HTL 1.78-2.43, CI 80.8-90.0, SI 126.4-142.0, OI
21.2-24.5, FI 96.4-106.3, TI 128.2-143.0. N=26. (Holotype not measured, see discus-
DIAGNOSIS. An attractive species of the highly drained, infertile rosemary scrub and
open sand pine woodlands of peninsular Florida. Head, except near base of mandibles,
and gaster uniform dark brown; thorax clear orange-yellow; slenderer and with some-
what longer legs and scapes than C. bureni (compare indices): colonies polycalic, inter-
connected by trails.

Trager: Conomyrma of the Southeastern U.S.

FURTHER DESCRIPTION. General form and characters as in Figs. 4 and 11 and in key.
Head broadest at or slightly below midpoint of eye, converging more strongly toward
mandibles; occipital border straight to weakly convex; promesonotal curvature as in
Fig. 11, generally less arched than that of C. bureni, though variable in both species;
propodeal cone a little higher and sharper than in C. bureni (compare Figs. 11 and 9)
and apparently deflected to rear in most specimens.
Mandibular striae as in C. bureni; tessellation of body surface of larger "mesh" than
that of C. bureni, so C. flavopectus shinier overall, in spite of having longer, more
conspicuous pubescence on head and gaster.
Color pattern unique; mandibles, clypeus, and thorax, especially the latter, clear
uninfuscated orange-yellow, or rarely there is faint infuscation near lower lateral edges
of pronotum; underside and coxae dark brown, at some viewing angles showing through
edges of nota giving illusion of infuscation; head and gaster piceous brown; gaster ap-
pears grayer because of long whitish pubescence; legs dark brown. Among sympatric
species, only C. bossuta may approximate this color pattern, but is smaller, shinier and
with thorax browner than C. flavopectus.
NATURAL HISTORY. C. flavopectus is restricted to stands of Florida rosemary,
Ceratiola ericoides Michaux, including those in early stages of succession to sand pine
woodland in the sterile, highly drained, white "sugar sands" of central Florida. The only
other Conomyrma likely to be encountered in such habitats is C. bossuta, though of
course C. bureni is found along roads through such areas. C. flavopectus is spottily
distributed, and though much apparently suitable habitat is not occupied, where found
it is conspicuous by its polycalic colonies; the several nests occupied by each colony are
interconnected in clement conditions by well-travelled trails of the strikingly colored
workers. Nests are difficult to excavate in the fine, crumbly sand, but are apparently
shallow and many-branched. Queens have never been taken.
DISCUSSION. In the literature, only Smith (1944), Kusnezov (1952) and Deyrup &
Trager (1986) refer to this species. Other references seem to apply to C. bureni or C.
C. flavopectus workers from the Ocala National Forest are notably larger than those
from Highlands Co., where the types were collected. Northern specimens have HTL
1.90-2.25 mm, while Highlands Co. specimens have HTL 1.70-.2.00. Specimens from
the 2 localities are alike in all other respects.
Smith (1944) lists a holotype and 12 paratypes as the material upon which he based
his description. Only 5 specimens from the type series are now found at the U. S.
National Museum, none of them labeled as a holotype. I have not chosen a lectotype,
since the holotype may be rediscovered. These specimens have slightly different collec-
tion data than those listed in Smith's description; details are listed below.
DISTRIBUTION. Five paratypes: Archbold Biological Station, Lake Placid. Florida.
Aug. 24 1943. #35. T. C. Schnierla. (at U. S. National Museum). Other specimens:
FLORIDA, Highlands Co.: Archbold Biological Station, near Josephine Creek S of Lake
Placid, Lake Placid; Lake Co.: Astor Park; Marion Co.: Ocala National Forest, 17.7
mi. E of Ocala on Hwy. 40.
ETYMOLOGY. C. flavopectus derives from Latin flavus (yellow) plus pectus (chest)
referring to the striking yellow thorax of workers of this species. The name is a noun
in apposition, and is not modified to agree in gender with Conomyrma.

Conomyrma grandula (Forel)
(Figs. 5 & 12)

Prenolepis parvula var. grandula Forel 1922: 98; .
Conomyrma grandula: Trager, 1984: 64 (change of subfamily, new generic combination,
raised to species).

24 Florida Entomologist 71(1) March, 1988

WORKER. Measurements and indices: HL 0.63-0.90 (0.82), HW 0.53-0.75 (0.67), SL
0.63-0.91 (0.85), EL 0.16-0.23 (0.22), FL 0.55-0.80 (n.a.), WL 0.83-1.18 (1.13), HTL
1.46-2.08 (1.95), CI 80.0-87.3 (82.0), SI 110.3-130.0 (126.9), 0I 22.7-28.6 (26.8), FI 80.8-
93.6 (n.a.), TI 124.0-140.0 (138.0). N =21. Lectotype selected and measured by Roy R.
Selling, LACM; deposited in Forel collection Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Geneva,
DIAGNOSIS. A small dusky yellowish brown to dark brown species of Alabama, northern
Florida, and the eastern seaboard states north at least to the New Jersey Pine Barrens.
Superficially, C. grandula resembles a depauperate C. medeis, but has proportionately
smaller and narrower head with occipital border weakly convex and propodeal cone
sharp with narrow base.
FURTHER DESCRIPTION. General form and characters as in Figs. 5 and 12, and in key.
Head shape variable, ranging from that shown in Fig. 5 to more nearly straight-sided
and convergent toward occipital border (this variation may be found in any large nest
series of C. grandula and has no relationship to overall body size); head usually widest
across eyes; promesonotal profile often as in Fig. 12, but often contiguous faces of pro-
and mesonota higher and more arched; rarely mesonotal profile strongly arched, ob-
literating usual angle (one will not be able to take such specimens through key but other
specimens from same series will have the normal conformation); propodeal profile re-
miniscent of that of C. medeis, but basal face of propodeum 2 or more times as long as
base of propodeal cone (only 1 to 2 times as long in C. medeis) and cone is generally
sharper-tipped than in C. medeis; propodeal cone often appears inclined forward.
Mandibular striation similar to that of C. bureni in extent, but consisting of 3 or 4
coarser striae with 1-2 finer striae adjacent to each of these; tessellation coarser than
in C. bureni, thus cuticle shinier, but this obscured by longer pubescence.
Color of C. grandula varying from piceous to yellowish brown; often clypeus and
thorax a little yellower, and occasionally generall?) both head and thorax yellowish;
mandibles yellow to brown; legs about the color of gaster; C. grandula usually has a
"mousy" color due to the obscuring of the cuticle by longer than average (for the genus),
grayish pubescence.
QUEEN. Measurements and indices: HL 1.20-1.25, HW 1.23-1.28, SL 1.09-1.15, EL
0.40-0.43, TW 1.18-1.30, WL 2.38-2.45, HTL 3.58-3.70, CI 95.4-103.7, SI 84.4-93.2, OI
32.0-34.4, TWI 93.8-107.8, TI 194.4-204.2. N=6
Head a little broader than long: sides weakly convex or faintly angular, converging
slightly toward occipital border, more strongly so toward clypeus; outer margin of eyes
close to or reaching sides of head; occipital border about as broad as clypeus; thorax
usually notably broader than head.
Sculpture coarser and pubescence longer than in worker, thus queen notably duller;
color uniform dark brown or with head and thorax a little lighter and more reddish.
NATURAL HISTORY. Until I serendipitously discovered the types of C. grandula,
Buren had intended to describe this species as new with a name referring to its frequent
occurrence in woodland openings. Specimens from Georgia are labeled "pine-oak on
clay"; however most series have been collected in sandy soils. One series was from sand
dunes, and the level of development of the vegetation was not indicated, and I made
one collection of this species at the edge of a temporary pond in full sun, many meters
from the nearest tree. The types were collected by Forel without a habitat notation,
but he also collected Paratrechinafaisonensis at the type locality; the latter is a species
of mesic woodlands.
DISCUSSION. This species has been ignored since it was originally described by Forel
(1922) as a variety of what is now known as Paratrechina parvula, and subsequently
synonymized with the latter by Creighton (1950). In the course of revising the nearctic
Paratrechina (Trager 1984), I encountered C. grandula among Forel's types and Buren
confirmed that they were the same as his "woodland species".

Trager: Conomyrma of the Southeastern U.S.

The true range of this ant may be much more extensive than that indicated below.
I have seen similar Conomyrma specimens collected in Michigan and New York, but
have not had the opportunity to study them carefully. Buren (personal communication)
felt that Michigan specimens he saw were "probably different", but sensing his caution,
I prefer to leave open the question of their conspecificity with C. grandula.
DISTRIBUTION. Lectotype and 1 paratype: NORTH CAROLINA, Duplin Co.: Faison,
A. Forel, 1921.
Other specimens: ALABAMA, Kushla (county unknown). FLORIDA, Alachua Co.: San
Felasco Hammock State Preserve; Leon Co.: Tall Timbers Research Station; Putnam
Co.: Katharine Ordway Preserve 3 mi. E Melrose; Saint Johns Co.: Anastasia State
Recreation Area; Santa Rosa Co.: Pensacola Beach. GEORGIA, Decatur Co.: 21st Dist.,
Lot 381. NEW JERSEY, Ocean Co.: Island Heights. SOUTH CAROLINA, Barnwell-
Aiken Co's.: Savanna River Ecology Laboratory.
ETYMOLOGY. The adjective grandula is the diminutive form of Latin grandis (large).
Dr. Forel (1922) noted that this species was somewhat larger than the species with
which he mistakenly believed C. grandula to be conspecific, Paratrechina parvula.

Conomyrma medeis n. sp.
(Figs. 6, 13, 15 & 16)

Conomyrma pyramica (black form): Whitcomb, et al., 1972: 137.
Conomyrma insana: Snelling, 1973: 5, in part; Buren, et al., 1975: 306-314, in part;
Nickerson, et al., 1975a: 1083-1085, in part; Nickerson et al., 1975b: 75-82, in part;
Nickerson, 1976, in part; Nickerson and Whitcomb, 1988(?): in press (misidentifica-
Conomyrma smith Deyrup and Trager, 1986: 219 misidentificationn).
WORKER. Measurements and indices: HL 0.97-1.08, HW 0.80-1.03, SL 0.83-1.00, EL
0.22-0.28, FL 0.74-0.93, WL 1.10-1.33, HTL 1.98-2.38, CI 90.9-98.0, SI 95.1-104.9, OI
24.1-27.3, FI 84.1-93.0, TI 118.5-134.1. N=25. Holotype a queen; see measurements,
etc. below.
DIAGNOSIS. A robust species, worker dark brown or blackish, sometimes with head
and thorax a little lighter than gaster; head broad, usually with concave occipital border;
often lives in large polycalic colonies interconnected by trails of aggressive workers.
FURTHER DESCRIPTION. General form and characters as in Figs. 6 and 13, and in key;
head convex-sided, rarely more or less parallel-sided; scapes short, exceeding occipital
corners by about 2 maximum scape widths or slightly more, scapes and femora relatively
short and thick; thorax short, WL only 1.25 to 1.3X HL; base of propodeal cone thick,
at least 1/2X as broad as that part of propodeal profile anterior to it; considerable minor
variation in head shape and thoracic profile occurs but this apparently without regional
or taxonomic basis.
Mandibular striation denser and more extensive than in C. bureni, with 3 or 4 striae
slightly coarser than 1 or 2 finer striae between each of coarser ones; mandibles not
shining; tessellation of dorsal and, to a lesser extent, lateral surface somewhat dulling
these surfaces, this accentuated by dense grayish pubescence, including on front and
dorsal portions of head, sides of pronotum, and pleura.
QUEEN. Measurements and indices: HL 1.14-1.20 (1.20), NW 1.23-1.33 (1.30), SL 1.03-
1.13 (1.12), EL 0.35-0.39 (0.38), TW 0.88-1.15 (1.15), WL 2.10-2.30 (2.13), HTL 3.24-3.50
(3.33), CI 104.2-111.3 (108.3), SI 80.5-89.4 (86.2), OI 29.2-33.0 (31.7), TWI 70.4-88.5
(88.5), TI 177.5-191.7 (177.5). N= 12.
Head subtrapezoidal (Fig. 15), conspicuously broader than long; sides convex,
strongly convergent toward clypeus; outer margin of eyes separated from sides of head
by 0.75-1.10 ocellus widths; occipital border nearly as broad as clypeus and notably

Florida Entomologist 71(1)

concave, though somewhat less so than in C. reginicula (compare Figs. 15 and 17);
thorax with highly variable, but always noticeably narrower than the unusually broad
head (Fig. 16). (All specimens with very narrow thoraces were queens from a mature
colony, while those with broader thoraces were alates. It seems likely that resorption
of wing muscles as a queen ages reduces thoracic volume.)
Sculpture and investiture as in workers; distinctly bicolored; head, thorax and an-
terior half of first gastric tergite yellowish red; remainder of gaster dusky reddish
NATURAL HISTORY. Due largely to the work of Whitcomb and Nickerson (Whitcomb
et al. 1972, Nickerson 1976, Nickerson et al. 1975a, 1975v, 1976, Buren et al. 1975,
Nickerson & Whitcomb, in press.) C. medeis (which has gone by the name C. insana
since Snelling's 1973 paper) is biologically the best known Conomyrma. The following
is summarized from these authors' work, plus more recent observations of my own.
Populations of C. medeis are found in those habitats preferred by their host species,
C. bureni, i.e., dunes, old fields, roadsides, lawns, pastures, and unpaved roadbeds. A
mature colony typically occupies multiple nests. Nickerson et al. (1975a) counted up to
400 nest entrances, up to a meter or more apart, occupied by one unusually large colony.
In that study, the queens and eggs were found in only one or a few adjacent nests, and
the remaining nests contained only workers and more mature brood. However. Buren
et al. (1975) presented evidence that queens may be more dispersed within nest-clusters.
Colonies are thought to be founded by temporary social parasitism, in which newly
mated queens of C. medeis enter (weak?) colonies of C. bureni and become accepted by
the workers of that colony, who then rear out her offspring. A colony with a mixed
worker population ensues. This was first reported by Buren et al. (1975), and I have
since observed such mixed colonies on several occasions. I once reared a small mixed
colony by introducing a C. medeis queen into a group of about 50 C. bureni workers
and brood. The workers accepted the new queen without aggression and reared out
about 20 C. medeis workers in a few weeks. Shortly thereafter, the queen was found
dead. Apparently, this mixed population stage in the development of a young C. medeis
colony is a treacherous one in the life cycle, for the three such colonies I have observed
in the field disappeared within a few weeks of their discovery, apparently never reach-
ing maturity.
It turns out that nests with mixed C. medeis-C. bureni populations have two distinct
origins. One is that described above: new colony foundation. The second method by
which mixed nest may arise is by invasion of C. medeis workers from mature colonies
into C. bureni nests near the periphery of their nest clusters. I have twice seen known
C. bureni nests near C. medeis colonies become mixed nests during a period of a few
days when they went unobserved. Trails of C. medeis workers connected these mixed
nests to pure C. medeis nests nearby. A few weeks later, all the C. bureni workers had
disappeared. Mapping of ant populations in a pasture over a period of nearly 3 years in
north central Florida (Stimac, Trager & Wood, unpublished observations) indicates that
C. medeis colonies extend their territories pseudopodium-like into surrounding C. bu-
reni populations, at least in part by invasion of the nests of the latter and temporary
mixed colony formation. This seems to be a new variation on the recurrent theme of
slave-taking in ants. Since mixed colonies are temporary in nature, the Conomyrma
situation does not fit neatly under the term dulosis, but bears significantly on the
hypothesis of Darwin (1859), and modifications thereof by Buschinger (1986), on the
origins of dulosis. This is the first report of what might be called incipient dulosis in the
C. medeis is a highly aggressive ant which allows few other ants to nest within its
territories. Nickerson et al. (1975b) showed that only 3% of newly mated Solenopsis
invicta queens alighting within C. medeis populations were able to escape predation.
Nickerson & Whitcomb (in press) also report that C. medeis visits and protects at least

March, 1988

Trager: Conomyrma of the Southeastern U.S.

27 species of honeydew secreting Homoptera in 7 families, and may locate new nests
near plants infested with these insects. The presence of Homoptera appears to increase
protection of soybeans by C. medeis from folivores. Nickerson's work was initiated to
determine suitability of C. medeis for biological control of soybean pests.
Mating flights of this species occur on warm, humid overcast afternoons virtually
year-round. Collections of sexual taken outside the nest span the months of February
to October.
DISCUSSION. C. medeis and the next species (C. reginicula) are closely related and
nearly similar species heretofore lumped with the enigmatic C. insana (Buckley 1866)
and its supposed synonym C. smith (Cole 1936). See discussion of C. reginicula for
separatory characters distinguishing the two Florida species.
C. insana and C. smith are western species, while C. medeis and C. reginicula are
apparently strictly southeastern. The revision of these four species and their relatives
is beyond the scope of this paper, but suffice it to say here that while the workers of
these four species are often difficult to distinguish (especially C. reginicula and C.
smith) the queens are separated by consistently distinctive morphological and metric
characteristics, and I do not hesitate to state that they are all good species.
DISTRIBUTION. Holotype and 11 paratypes: FLORIDA, Alachua Co.: Gainesville.
USDA Laboratory, several nest entrances in lawn. Emerging for mating flight. 12 Aug
1980. J. C. Trager, leg.
Other specimens: FLORIDA, Alachua Co.: Gainesville; Orange Co.: Winter Park; Leon
Co.: Tall Timbers Research Station; Palm Beach Co.: Palmetto Beach; Polk Co.: Lake
Alfred; Santa Rosa Co.: Pensacola; St. Johns Co.: Crescent Beach. GEORGIA, Decatur
Co.: south of Bainbridge; Fulton Co.: Atlanta; Thomas Co.: Thomasville; Ware Co.:
Laura Walker State Park. NORTH CAROLINA, Robeson Co.: St. Pauls; Buncombe Co.:
Black Mountain.
ETYMOLOGY. The adjective medeis derives from a sorceress in Greek mythology,
Medea, who successively dominated several households, sometimes killing their head
persons, to serve her own selfish ends. The figurative analogy of Medea's behavior to
the social parasitic behavior of this ant lead to the choice of this name.

Conomyrma reginicula n. sp.
(Figs. 7, 14, 17 & 18)

Conomyrma insana, Buren et al., 1975: 306-314, in part misidentificationn).
WORKER. Measurements and indices: HL 0.95-1.05, HW 0.86-0.98, SL 0.89-1.00, EL
0.24-0.28, FL 0.80-0.95, WL 1.13-1.28, HTL 2.08-2.29, CI 89.9-.95.1, SI 100.0-111.4,
OI 24.5-28.0, FI 80.8-92.2, TI 115.0-128.1. N =25. Holotype a queen; see measurements
DIAGNOSIS. Worker strongly resembling C. medeis (compare Figs. 7 and 14 to those
of C. medeis Figs. 6 and 13); distinguished by slightly longer scapes, somewhat nar-
rower, shiny, reddish head, and reddish thorax; if queens present, their small size and
narrow head are definitive (queens large with very broad head in C. medeis).
FURTHER DESCRIPTION. General form and characters as in Figs. 7 and 14, and in key;
head convex-sided to more or less parallel-sided; scapes short, exceeding occipital cor-
ners by 2-3 maximum scape widths, scapes and femora relatively short and thick; thorax
short, WL only 1.25 to 1.3X HL; base of propodeal cone thick, at least 1/2X as broad
as that part of propodeal profile anterior to it; head shape and thoracic profile less
variable than in C. medeis. Mandibular striation as in C. medeis, with 3 or 4 striae
slightly coarser than the 1 or 2 finer striae between each of coarser ones; mandibles not
shining; tessellate sculpture of integument barely dulling the surface; pubescence very
fine and only weakly dulling sheen of cuticle, especially on head and sides of thorax.

Florida Entomologist 71(1)

QUEEN. Measurements and indices: HL 1.03-1.10 (1.03), HW 0.98-1.08 (0.98), SL 0.98-
1.00 (0.98), EL 0.33 (all four), TW 0.73-0.83 (0.73), WL 1.73-1.83 (1.73), HTL 2.76-2.94
(2.76), CI 95.1-99.1 (95.1), SI 92.6-100.0 (100.0), 01 30.0-32.0 (32.0), TWI 69.5-80.6
(74.5), TI 166.4-168.0 (168.0). N=4.
Much smaller than any other Conomyrma queen among species considered here,
but always somewhat larger than even largest workers; head (Fig. 17) slender, longer
than broad; sides faintly convex, convergent toward clypeus; eyes more mesal than in
other slender-bodied species, their outer margin 3/4-1 ocellus width from sides of head,
never reaching or protruding beyond; occipital border narrower than clypeus, strongly
concave; thorax very slender, much narrower than head (Fig. 18).
Color, sculpture and investiture as in workers, except reddish head and thorax
brighter than normally seen on workers.
NATURAL HISTORY. Little is known about the habits of this species. It has been widely
confused with C. medeis, and presumably has a similar biology, but its collections are
far fewer. As far as can be determined, C. reginicula has never been found living in a
supercolony with hundreds of nests as has been reported for C. medeis, C. reginicula
has been collected several times with C. bossuta and small, pale workers of C. reginicula
may superficially closely resemble those of C. bossuta. Collection notes do not clearly
state that the mixed sample originated from mixed colonies, but these may have been
difficult to recognize, heretofore. There is also one collection from a mixed C. reginicula-
C. bureni colony.
Collections of sexual were made in October, November and December, the first of
these indicating the alates were preparing to take flight.
DISCUSSION. C. reginicula workers differ from those of C. medeis in that the sides of
the head lack pubescence or it is notably thinned, even above the level of the eye, while
the pubescence normally extends down the sides of the head nearly or indeed to the
eye in C. medeis. In addition, the narrower head, longer scapes, weak, but distinct red
and black bicoloration, overall greater shininess of the workers and diminutive, slender-
headed queens of C. reginicula will normally distinguish this species from C. medeis,
though occasional individual workers may cause difficulty.
DISTRIBUTION. Holotype and 29 paratypes: FLORIDA, Alachua Co.: Gainesville.
November, 1975. W. F. Buren leg.
Other specimens: FLORIDA, Alachua Co.: Gainesville, Newberry; Hendry Co.: south-
west of Clewiston; Highlands Co.: Archbold Biological Station.
ETYMOLOGY. The specific name of this species is a diminutive form of Latin regina
(queen), referring to its unusually small queen.


I thank R. E. Woodruff, L. A. Stange G. C. and J. Wheeler and especially R. R.
Snelling for reading early versions of this paper and offering many helpful suggestions.
B. Bolton provided sensible suggestions for improvement of a later version. P. O. Spann
provided pointers on Greek and Latin grammar, and recounted the story of the sor-
ceress, Medea.
This is Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 8496.


BUCKLEY, S. B. 1866. Descriptions of new species of North American Formicidae,
Part I. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philadelphia 6: 152-171.

March, 1988

Trager: Conomyrma of the Southeastern U.S.

BUREN, W. F., J. C. NICKERSON, AND C. R. THOMPSON. 1975. Mixed nests of
Conomyrma insana and Conomyrma flavopecta-evidence of social parasitism.
(Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Psyche 82: 306-314.
BUSCHINGER, A. 1986. Evolution of social parasitism in ants. Tree 1: 155-160.
COLE, A. C., Jr. 1936. Descriptions of seven new western ants (Hymenoptera: For-
micidae). Entomol. News 47: 118-121.
COKENDOLPHER, J. C. AND O. F. FRANCKE. 1984. Karyotype of Conomyrmaflava
(McCook) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. New York Entomol. Soc. 65: 129-131.
DARWIN, C. R. 1859. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the
preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life, 1st ed. John Murray,
DEYRUP, M. A. AND J. C. TRAGER. 1986. Ants of Archbold Biological Station, High-
lands County, Florida (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Florida Entomol. 69: 206-
ELVIN, M. K., J. L. STIMAC, AND W. H. WHITCOMB. 1983. Estimating rates of
arthropod predation on velvetbean caterpillar in soybeans. Florida Entomol. 66:
FOREL, A. 1922. Glanures myrm6cologiques en 1922. Rev. Suisse Zool. 30: 87-102.
KEMPF, W. W. 1972. Catilogo abreviado das formigas da Regiao Neotropical
(Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Stud. Entomol 15(n. s.): 3-344.
KUSNEZOV, N. 1952. El estado real del grupo Dorymyrmex Mayr. Acta Zool. Lilloana
10: 427-448.
NICKERSON, J. C. E. 1976. Ecology and behavior of Conomyrma insana. Ph. D.
dissertation, University of Florida.
Colony organization and queen numbers in two species of Conomyrma. Ann.
Entomol. Soc. Amer. 68: 1083-1085.
NICKERSON, J. C. E. AND W. H. WHITCOMB. 1988(?). Carbohydrate sources of C.
insana. In, Trager J. C., ed. Advances in Myrmecology. Flora and Fauna Pub-
lications, E. J. Brill, New York. (in press).
1975b. Predation on founding queens of Solenopsis invicta by workers of Con-
omyrma insana. Florida Entomol. 58: 75-82.
SMITH, M. R. 1944. Additional ants recorded from Florida, with descriptions of two
new subspecies. Florida Entomol. 27: 75-82.
SNELLING, R. R. 1973. The ant genus Conomyrma in the United States. Nat. Hist.
Mus. Los Angeles Co. Contr. Sci. 238: 1-6.
TRAGER, J. C. 1984. A revision of the genus Paratrechina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
of the continental United States. Sociobiol. 9: 49-162.
TRYON, E. H., JR. 1986. The striped earwig, and ant predators of sugarcane rootstock
borer, in Florida citrus. Florida Entomol. 69: 336-343.
Preliminary studies on the ants of Florida soybean fields. Florida Entomol. 55:

Florida Entomologist 71(1)


1718 Ohio Ave., Modesto, Ca. 95351


A new heterocerid species, Heterocerus tennis, is described from Florida and On-
tario, Canada. Recorded heterocerids from Florida, angustatus Chev., selanderi
(Pacheco), tristis Mann., mollinus Kies., and Tropicus pusillus (Say), are discussed.


Se describe de la Florida y de Ontario, Canada, una nueva especie heteroc6rida,
Heterocerus tenuis. Se discuten heteroc6ridas de la Florida, angustatus Chev., selan-
deri (Pacheco), tristis Mann., mollinus Kies., y Tropicus pusillus (Say).


Heteroeridae is not well represented in Florida. In his catalog, Pacheco (1978) lists
only four species; H. angustatus Chev. H. selanderi (Pacheco), H. tristis Mann., and
Tropicus pusillus (Say). Recently H. mollinus Kies., has been recorded from Florida,
a New State Record. Both angustatus Chev., a West Indies species and Tropicus
pusillus (Say), a tropical species, are very common in Florida being found from Dade
Co. in the south to Baker Co. in the north to Escambia Co. in the west. In the Batchley
collection at Purdue University, H. angustatus Chev., has been recorded from Dunedin,
Pinellas Co., and collected during 1913. H. selanderi (Pacheco), described from Florida
by F. Pacheco (1969)) is less encountered but probably is a common species as well. It
has been recorded from the following counties: Marion, Levy, Alachua, Wakulla, High-
lands, Volusia, Duval and Charlotte. There is also a specimen in the Batchley collection
from Pinellas Co., taken in 1913. Pacheco (1979) recorded a single specimen of H. tristis
Mann., from Monroe Co. (Everglades) an unlikely area for a true Northern species.
Although not previously recorded hypermandibulate males can be found when large
numbers of angustatus Chev., and tristis Mann., are available for study. This is also
true for certain other species not recorded from Florida. Hypermandibulate males are
those certain males that have the mandibles greatly elongated and is usually accom-
panied by an elongated and produced labrum. In some species males are found with
only the mandibles elongated. Males that have both the mandibles and labrum elongated
and produced are indeed spectacular appearing creatures. Neither of these characters
are common. King males, being less common, are found in populations of mollinus
Kies., and tristis Mann. King males are those males that are not only hypermandibulate
but also have a rather sizeable dental horn on the mandibles. The labrum is produced
in mollinus Kies., but not in tristis Mann. The horn on the mandible of mollinus Kies.,
is a true horn projecting from the surface of the mandible. In tristis Mann., the dental
horn is an enlargement of the dorsal subapical tooth and bends inward. Furthermore
in tristis Mann., some males have pronounced clypeal horns, an uncommon character
in New World heterocerids.

March, 1988

Miller: New North American Heterocerus




Fig. 1. H. tenuis n. sp. a-c. dorsal, lateral and ventral views of genitalia. d. sensory
palpi at tip of labrum (440x). e & g. elytral markings. f. labrum of male (100x).
Although heterocerids are collected by the thousands in Florida at light traps only
a few species are represented. An examination of a large series of heterocerids in two
Canadian collections revealed a species that by size could be mistaken for a rather
common species found virtually throughout Florida.
Heterocerus tenuis Miller, new species
Small, compact and shining. Basic color black or dark brown, elytral markings (Fig.
1 e,f), legs, apical corners of pronotum and lateral margins of abdominal sternites pale.

32 Florida Entomologist 71(1) March, 1988

Head small, black with very fine, crowded punctures; setae sparse; antennae compact,
state; clypeus with very small crowded punctures, setae longer and denser than that
of pronotum; apical margin broadly concave; labrum wider than long with small narrow
apical margin thickened and devoid of setae, slightly concave. Pronotum wider than
long, as wide as elytra at base; basal margin broadly convex, sides broadly rounded and
converging apically; surface covered with very fine but distinct punctures, almost scabr-
ous in appearance; setae short and sparse except near margins. Elytra shining, nearly
devoid of setae; small depression at outer basal angles; surface densely punctate, nearly
scabrous in appearance, punctures very small but distinct; striations noticeable but not
prominent; epipleura line prominent, in some specimens faint but noticeable. Surface
beneath shining, densely covered with very small scabrous like punctures; setae sparse;
meso coxal line fine but easily noticed; stridulatory ridge heavy and prominent. Length
3.0-3.5 mm.
MALE. Other than characters given in the description the sexes are similar. The
genitalia (Fig. 1 a-c), is of the modified type, unlike a typical heterocerid. The median
lobe of the phallobase and the median strut are easily recognized with the latter slightly
longer than the median plate. The lateral arms are hardly recognizable with no scleroti-
zation but with a small but definable thorn like projection on lateral margin near apex.
The paramere is broadly rounded apically and slightly protruding without a notch. The
labrum (Fig.1 f), has the typical sensory palpi on the ventral surface and the labral
triangle, site of muscle attachment, has it's own distinctive shape (100x). The apex of
the labrum (Fig. 1 d), has on the area devoid of setae a series of projecting sensory
palpi (440x) which are usually seen under normal low power magnification. All
heterocerids studied have the sensory palpi with only slight differences in shape or size
and all have four palpi each side of the median line.
TYPE MATERIAL. Male holotype,, female allotype, three female and three male
paratypes taken at Weeki Wackee, Hernando Co., Florida, on 19 v 1955, collector
unknown. The types plus one female and one male paratype returned to Dr. R. E.
Roughley of the University of Manitoba, Winnepeg, Canada. In addition a series of 23
specimens have been recently studied and determined to be identical with the new
species from Florida. These specimens were collected from various areas within Ron-
deau Park, Ontario, Canada, during May, June and July 1985. The collectors were L.
LeSage, A. Smetana, A. Woodliffe and D. M. Wood. Collection sites were; moss on logs
in pond, in maple-beech forest, in white Pine stand, in open marsh forest, on sand beach
edge in oak forest and a single specimen was attracted to ally isothiocyanate. Paratypes
have been returned to Dr. L. LeSage of the Canadian National Collection.


Externally this new species resembles H. schwarzi Horn, that is usually found in
the Eastern United States but has not been recorded from Canada or from Florida. It
has been, however, recorded from Louisiana, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Texas
(Pacheco 1964). The elytra of H. tennis n. sp., is densely punctate with an almost
scabrous appearance. The striations are not prominent but are noticeable. When the 23
specimens from Canada were examined two male specimens were seen having the
genitalia entirely exposed. No species related to H. tenuis n. sp., has the thorn like
projection at the end of the lateral arms.
The elytral markings vary as with all heterocerids. There are 2 spots in the basal
series and the outer spot usually reaches the margin (Fig. 1. e, g). The mid series is
usually a single spot, again reaching the margin, but could be 2 separate spots (Fi. 1.
e, g).

Frank et al.: Mosquitoes in Bromeliads 33


PACHECO, F. 1964. Sistematica, filogenia y distribution de los Heteroceridos de
America. Escuela Nat. de Agr. Colegio de Post Graduados, Chapingo, Mexico.
-. 1969. A new species of Heterocerini (Coleoptera:Heteroceridae). Florida Ent.
52(1): 37-39.
1978. A catalog of the coleoptera of America north of Mexico. Family:
Heteroceridae. USDA Agr. Handbook 529-47.

-e-- --^---- -- -L -- -- -< -- -*4-


Entomology and Nematology Department, 3103 McCarty Hall,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA

East Volusia Mosquito Control District, 1600 Bellevue Avenue,
Daytona Beach, Florida 32014, USA


Mosquito Control Division, Metropolitan Dade Co. Public Works Department,
8901 NW 58th St., Miami, Florida 33178, USA


At monthly intervals for a year, in Daytona, Tampa, Vero Beach and Miami, a
survey was conducted of the aquatic stages of mosquitoes existing in water impounded
by the leaves of the imported bromeliad Billbergia pyramidalis. A few Aedes aegypti,
Culex quinquefasciatus, Toxorhynchites rutilus and Corethrella appendiculata were
found, but almost all of the mosquitoes belonged to the genus Wyeomyia, Wyeomyia
vanduzeei was predominant at 3 of 5 sites in Miami, but at all the other sites W.
mitchellii was predominant. Average annual production of Wyeomyia per bromeliad
was estimated as 107 adults based upon the number of pupae collected. Pupae were
found throughout the year. There was a linear relationship of numbers of pupae to
numbers of eggs + larvae collected at lower densities of eggs + larvae.


En las ciudades de Daytona, Tampa, Vero Beach y Miami se conducieron encuestas
todos los meses durante un afio de las etapas acu6ticas de los mosquitos que existen en
el agua embalsada por las hojas de la bromelia importada Billbergia pyramidalis. Unos
cuantos Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Toxorhynchites rutilus y Corethrella
appendiculata fueron encontrados, pero casi todos los mosquitos pertenecian al genero
Wyeomyia. Wyeomyia vanduzeei fue el mas abundante en 3 de los 5 sitios en
Miami, pero en todos los demds sitios, la especie predominante fue W. mitchellii. La
producci6n media annual de Wyeomyia fue estimada a ser 107 adults, basado en el

Florida Entomologist 71(1)

ndmero de pupas recobradas. Pupas fueron encontradas durante todo el aflo. Existe una
relaci6n direct entire el nfimero de pupas y el numero de huevos + larvas que fueron
coleccionadas en densidades bajas de huevos + larvas.

A M a., -vow B

Fig. 1. Billbergia pyramidalis, (a) in flower, (b) showing water-impounding capac-
ity, (c) growing in an urban habitat in Florida, (d) growing epiphytically in Florida.

March, 1988

Frank et al.: Mosquitoes in Bromeliads

Billbergia pyramidalis (Sims) Lindley (Fig. 1) is a Brazilian bromeliad which is
cultivated widely as an ornamental (Padilla 1973). Southern Florida's climate is suffi-
ciently frost-free for the plant to be grown outdoors in many cities. All bromeliads
native to Florida are epiphytic, but B. pyramidalis grows on the ground as well. It
reproduces vegetatively, needs no maintenance when cultivated in tree-shaded habitats,
and will form dense beds if left unattended. It is probably the most abundant introduced
bromeliad in southern Florida.
Many bromeliads impound water in their leaf axils, forming a reservoir as a source
of nutrients. Although we are not aware of studies showing that B. pyramidalis absorbs
nutrients from the reservoir, its ability to grow epiphytically suggests that it uses this
method of nutrient procurement. The central whorl of leaves forms a cup with a few
peripheral water-impounding axils (Frank & O'Meara 1984). Questions from mosquito
control personnel about the incidence of Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae in bromeliad leaf axils
prompted a survey of mosquito larvae in B. pyramidalis reservoirs in 4 cities in south-
ern Florida. The objectives were to rank the incidence of the mosquito species encoun-
tered, to explain the ranking, and to estimate production of adult mosquitoes. To obtain
a geographically and seasonally representative sample, and for logistic reasons, samples
were taken monthly for a year in Daytona, Tampa, Vero Beach, and Miami (Fig. 2).


Sample size and methods

An oak woodland at the western boundary of Florida Medical Entomology Labora-
tory, Vero Beach, was planted with hundreds of B. pyramidalis in 1976-1977. In April
1978, 10 dispersed, large plants without flowers were selected for sampling. They were
uprooted without spilling the reservoir contents, and leaf litter was removed by forceps
from the reservoir. The cup of the reservoir of each plant was filled with 30-50 ml of
tapwater. A large glass syringe (sold as a meat baster) was used to transfer as much
water as possible from the cup into a 500-ml container, keeping the fluid removed from
each plant separate. This fluid, in every case, measured less than 100 ml. The contents
of each container were examined under a dissecting microscope and all mosquito larvae
and pupae were picked out, counted, and recorded.
Each plant was then washed out thoroughly using a sampling apparatus described
by Frank et al. (1976). The washings from each plant were placed into separate contain-
ers which also were examined for mosquito larvae and pupae as above. These methods
provided for mosquito larvae and pupae (a) a mean SD (31.4 33.3) for numbers
extracted by syringe from the cups of the 10 plants, and (b) an estimate of the numbers
in the cups as a percentage of the numbers in the entire reservoir including peripheral
axils (38%). It was thus found that a glass syringe could be used to sample the contents
of the cup of the reservoir and thereby to estimate the numbers of mosquito larvae and
pupae per plant (forcing the syringe into the peripheral axils damaged the plant). Neces-
sary sample size to determine the mean 10 with 95% confidence was calculated as 4
X 33.32/102 = 45 plants (equation from Poole 1974).

Sample localities

Monthly sampling from B. pyramidalis was begun in the first full week of May 1978
at the same Vero Beach site. The procedure described above with a glass syringe and
added water was used to extract the liquid content of the central cup of 45 plants into
500 ml plastic containers for immediate transport to the laboratory. There, contents of
the plastic containers were washed into 45 100-ml petri dishes for microscopic examina-
tion. All mosquito larvae and pupae were removed by dropper from the petri dishes;

Florida Entomologist 71(1)


Fig. 2. Map of Florida showing isothermal lines and location of the 4 cities (D:
Daytona, T: Tampa; V: Vero Beach, M: Miami) where collections were made. Isothermal
lines show the average annual no. of freezing hours (after Raisz 1964).

the dishes were left to stand for a week to allow hatching of eggs present, then the
resultant larvae were removed, identified and recorded. Larvae and pupae recovered
on the day of sampling were then identified, counted and recorded; instar I larvae which
could not be identified specifically were placed into small plastic petri dishes, allowed
to develop to instar II, then identified. A large leaf of each bromeliad sampled was
marked by paper-punch to give a numerical code of holes to ensure that no bromeliad
was sampled in successive months. Monthly sampling was ended after the first full week
in July 1979.
The same procedure was begun at Miami in the first full week of June 1978 with the
following differences. Five urban sites were selected and 9 B. pyramidalis were sam-
pled at each site. Water in 4-liter plastic containers was carried to the field where
samples from the cups of the bromeliads were extracted into plastic bags which were
labelled, sealed, and placed in a cool chest for transport the same day to Vero Beach;
they were examined the next day. Starting in October 1978, samples were shipped to
Vero Beach on the day after collection and were examined the next day.

March, 1988

Frank et al.: Mosquitoes in Bromeliads

The same procedure used at Miami was adopted at Tampa, beginning in the first
full week of July 1978, with the difference that samples were collected into 500-ml
plastic containers and transported by car to Vero Beach on the day of sampling. Thus,
samples from Tampa were examined the day after collection.
A slightly different procedure was used at Daytona. Five B. pyramidalis were
sampled at each of 9 urban sites and the contents of the cups of the plants were im-
mediately preserved in alcohol until time could be found for examination by personnel
of East Volusia Mosquito Control District. Mosquito eggs and instar I larvae were
difficult to find and identify, so were not recorded.
Almost all preimaginal mosquitoes from Vero Beach, Miami and Tampa were ex-
amined alive; very few specimens were discovered dead. Movement of these living
specimens in water in petri dishes made detection easy under the microscope. In con-
trast, those from Daytona were preserved in alcohol. Instar II larvae were recorded in
very small numbers from Daytona relative to those collected elsewhere, and we suspect
that many were overlooked among the alcohol-preserved debris from the bromeliad
Bromeliads at the Vero Beach site grew under homogeneous conditions; estimated
means from the 45 bromeliads sampled there monthly should fall within 10 of the true
mean. This was not true of the deliberately dispersed sites at the other cities (most
sites were in the yards of houses, but one each at Miami and Tampa were in parks)
where the only criterion was that an adequate number of B. pyramidalis should exist
with at least partial shading by trees. Samples from Vero Beach were thus the basis
for comparisons.


Data for 12 months (August 1978-July 1979) showed the most abundant preimaginal
mosquitoes were Wyeomyia (Table 1). Wyeomyia mitchellii (Theobald) was the most
abundant species at the 3 more northerly cities, but Wyeomyia vanduzeei Dyar & Knab
was more abundant in Miami. However, whereas W. mitchellii was the more abundant
species at all sites in the 3 northerly cities, it was more abundant than W. vanduzeei
at 2 of the 5 Miami sites [sites 1 and 2 which were east of the other 3 and apparently
(we have no exact measurements) more deeply shaded]. The other 4 species (Culex
quinquefasciatus Say, Aedes aegypti (L.), Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillett) and
Corethrella appendiculata Grabham) were uncommon, and the first of them was as-
sociated with putrid water caused by grass clippings ejected into B. pyramidalis reser-


Daytona Tampa Vero Beach Miami

Wyeomyia mitchellii 1,550 4,097 19,759 1,497
Wyeomyia vanduzeei 85 43 2,052 3,571
Aede aegypti 48 16 5 100
Culex quinquefasciatus 29 85 0 118
Toxorhynchites rutilus 1 3 0 4
Corethrella appendiculata 0 0 0 8

Numbers for Daytona include only instar III-IV larvae and pupae, whereas numbers for other cities include also
instar I-II larvae and eggs; see text for explanation.

38 Florida Entomologist 71(1) March, 1988


Number sampled Est. annual production
mitchellii vanduzeei mitchellii vanduzeei

Daytona 214 18 85 7
Tampa 180 0 71 0
Vero Beach 318 52 126 21
Miami 78 222 31 88

Mosquito production

Production of adult Wyeomyia per bromeliad per year was estimated from the num-
bers of pupae collected (Table 2). Each estimate was calculated as (100/38)365N/(12 X
4.5 X 45) and assumed the development time of each pupa averaged 4.5 days (Frank
unpubl.), where N is the no. of pupae collected from 45 bromeliads in 12 visits during
a year of 365. days, and that 38% of the pupae present were collected. The estimate
assumed that all pupae collected would have survived to produce adults. Estimated
production averaged 107 adults/bromeliad/year and ranged from 71 (Tampa) to 147
(Vero Beach), only about a twofold difference. Some of the sites contained hundreds of
B. pyramidalis.

Species composition

Aquatic stages of W. vanduzeei and W. mitchellii have rarely been recorded in
Florida from habitats other than bromeliad leaf axils. The northern limits of distribution
for both species are approximately Volusia County on the east coast and Hillsborough
or Pasco County on the west coast (Breeland 1982), at about the 50 hr isothermal line
(Fig. 2), which is the approximate northern limit of indigenous water-impounding
bromeliads of the genus Tillandsia. Despite the predominance of W. vanduzeei in Miami
but of W. mitchellii at the 3 more northern cities, there is yet no evidence that W.
vanduzeei is more restricted by low winter temperatures. Instead, it has been found
that W. mitchellii adults are more restricted to tree-shaded habitats, whereas W. van-
duzeei is more prone to fly out into unshaded areas (Frank & O'Meara 1985).
Variation in dominance of the 2 Wyeomyia species among sites in Miami prompted
a G-test to examine the interaction between species (2), time (12), and site (5). Species
composition was dependent on both time (G = 173, df = 11, P >0.001) and site (G =
2,133, df = 4, P <<0.001), but site was a much more important determinant as shown
by the much higher G-value. Lowest numbers of both species occurred in Miami in
March; highest numbers of W. vanduzeei occurred in November, very closely followed
by June, whereas highest numbers of W. mitchellii occurred in June, very closely
followed by November. In short, the seasonality of abundance of the two species ap-
peared very similar.
The 4 other mosquito species encountered were uncommon. Aedes aegypti, C. quin-
quefasciatus and T. rutilus females prefer to oviposit in darkly colored containers as
compared with the light green of bromeliads (Frank 1985). It is probable that C. appen-
diculata, whose aquatic stages typically inhabit treeholes, prefers dark ovipositional
sites. Culex quinquefasciatus females prefer to oviposit in nutrient-rich water (Frank

Frank et al.: Mosquitoes in Bromeliads

120- N=9
R2= 0.904
100 a '=2.883 0 M3
(per 5 plants)
b= 0.041


w ,Mo5 M T5

40- *MI
T4 oVB
T3 (per 3 plants)
T2 M4

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800

Fig. 3. Scattergram of total no. of Wyeomyia pupae collected (y) vs. total no. of eggs
and larvae (x) for 5 Tampa sites (T1-T5) and 4 of 5 Miami sites (M1-M2, M4-M5), which
were the sites with <1700 eggs and larvae per 9 plants per 12 monthly visits. Data for
one Miami site (M3) and a Vero Beach site (VB), which had many more eggs and larvae,
are excluded from the fitted linear regression.

& Lynn 1982), which was found in the reservoirs of B. pyramidalis only when these
contained lawn grass clippings.

Numbers of individuals

Total numbers of Wyeomyla eggs + larvae at the Tampa sites and at 4 of the 5
Miami sites were clustered in the range 60-1677. The number of pupae was related to
number of eggs + larvae by a linear regression which explained most of the variance
(R2 = 0.904) (Fig. 3). It thus appears that, over this range of densities of eggs + larvae,
the number of pupae found depends simply upon the standing crop of eggs + larvae.
The number of eggs + larvae (the standing crop) at the remaining Miami site totalled
2,112, which was well outside the above-mentioned range. When data for this site (M3)
were adjusted downward (calculated as no. per 5 plants instead of per 9 plants) to fit
the data point onto the graph (Fig. 3), the data point was found to be a significant outlier
and was thus excluded from the regression (test for outliers, t = 5.6295, P <0.01).
Therefore the number of pupae at this site (M3) was significantly greater than predicted.
In contrast, although the standing crop of eggs + larvae at Vero Beach (21,441 per 45
plants) was far beyond the range of the calculated regression, when this data point was
recalculated as no. per 3 plants, the recalculated number of pupae was smaller than
expected (Fig. 3).
The regression shows a linear relationship of number of pupae to standing crop of
eggs + larvae within the range 60-1677 of the latter. Above 1677, the direction of the
line cannot now be determined, but there are reasons to suspect that it becomes asymp-

Florida Entomologist 71(1)








Fig. 4. Histogram showing proportions of the immature stages of Wyeomyia van-
duzeei collected in Miami at each visit in relation to total monthly rainfall at Miami
airport. Height of bars showing number of specimens is normalized.

totic. Pupal production in the laboratory is limited by availability of food to competing
larvae (Frank et al. 1985). The Vero Beach site, from which data are the most reliable
because of the large number of plants sampled, maintained a very large standing crop
of eggs and larvae; perhaps the production of pupae at this site was limited by food,
and a smaller proportion of larvae was able to pupate than at the other sites.
It is not clear why there was an large proportion of pupae at one of the Miami sites
(M3) as well as a large standing crop of eggs and larvae there. Following the same
rationale as with the Vero Beach site, there must have been an unusually abundant food
supply. However, because this was one of the least shaded habitats, there was little
likelihood of rich food input from tree canopies.



March, 1988


Frank et al.: Mosquitoes in Bromeliads

Relationship of pupal production to rainfall

Using all the available data, histograms were drawn for each city and Wyeomyia
species, showing numbers of aquatic stages collected monthly, and total monthly rainfall
(as measured at the closest weather station and published in Climatological Data). The
histograms (e.g., Fig. 4) showed the presence of all aquatic stages throughout the year,
yet considerable variation in numbers from month to month. They also showed a simi-
larity of pattern of numbers of pupae to rainfall pattern. An analytical program was
written in Fortran to inspect the relationship of pupal numbers to rainfall more closely.
The program correlated (y) numbers of pupae collected on the 12 days of sampling
in the year August 1978-July 1979, with (x) time-lagged daily rainfall, in single days
and blocks of 2-12 days prior to sampling, for the closest weather station. This produced
a triangular matrix of 125 correlation coefficients for W. mitchellii at each of the 4 cities,
and for W. vanduzeei at Miami and Vero Beach (numbers collected at Tampa and
Daytona Beach were too small to analyze). Axes of the matrix of coefficients were (x)
ending day and (y) starting day (expressed as day number before sampling) defining a
time block in which daily rainfall was summed. Along its hypotenuse were arranged
coefficients resulting from correlation of single daily rainfall totals with pupal numbers,
and it was among these that the highest positive coefficients were found. Coefficients
from the hypotenuse of each of the 6 matrices are combined into Table 3.
Daily rainfall 7 days before sampling correlated significantly with pupal numbers of
both Wyomyia species at the Vero Beach site (Table 3). For Miami, the time interval
is indicated as 6 days but, making allowance for at least a 1-day delay between the day
of sampling and day of examination, during which larvae were alive and developing, the
interval should be adjusted to at least 7 days. For Daytona, the time interval is indicated
as 5 days. For Tampa, there seems to be no significant correlation, but this may have
been an effect of a torrential rain of 293 mm on 8 May 1979 which was a sampling day.
Why should total daily rainfall 5 to 7 days before the day of sampling be correlated
with the number of pupae collected on the day of sampling? The method used does not
demonstrate any causal relationship. On the other hand, rainfall is associated with food
input into reservoirs of bromeliads, and this input could enable a cohort of competing
late instar larvae to develop to the pupal stage (Frank et al. 1985). The time interval
between food input and appearance of pupae could approximate 7 days. This concept
could be used as a hypothesis for experimental testing in the field.


Cultivation ofB. pyramidalis in Florida has extended the habitat available to aquatic
stages of Wyeomyia mosquitoes which are native to Florida. Unquantified observations
suggest that similar habitat is provided by other exotic bromeliads of the genera Aech-
mea and Neoregelia especially, but also of several other genera. It is unclear whether
this increased habitat under- or overcompensates over large areas of Florida for loss of
habitat due to rural destruction of native hardwood trees bearing native, epiphytic
bromeliads of the genera Tillandsia and Catopsis. However, B. pyramidalis is culti-
vated in urban settings where Wyeomyia mosquito densities are thus increased. Since
the adult female mosquitoes bite humans during daylight hours and, at high densities,
cause a pest problem, members of the public should be informed of the mosquito-
bromeliad association. Members of the public growing numerous B. pyramidalis plants
and producing therefrom numerous Wyeomyia adults may inadvertently be contraven-
ing state and/or local statutes designed to control annoyance caused by mosquitoes. The
simplest and most effective mosquito control solution is to limit the number of water-im-
pounding bromeliads grown.

Florida Entomologist 71(1)

March, 1988

0 0






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Frank et al.: Mosquitoes in Bromeliads


In Vero Beach, Audrey Frank worked as a voluntary technician in collecting samples
when no technician help was otherwise available; G. D. Dodd (Indian River Mosquito
Control District) helped to compile, test, and run a Fortran program for time-lagged
correlations; J. R. Rey provided a Spanish abstract, and he and L. P. Lounibos and J.
R. Linley (Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory) reviewed manuscript drafts while
Bonnie Pattok drew a B. pyramidalis plant (Fig. lb). In Miami, N. DeLeon helped to
locate sites with B. pyramidalis, and J. H. Heidt (Mosquito Control Division) expedited
shipments of samples to Vero Beach. In Daytona, E. J. Shepard (East Volusia Mosquito
Control District) helped to identify and count samples. In Tampa, J. D. Gorman and D.
Taylor (Hillsborough County Mosquito and Aquatic Weed Control) located sites with
B. pyramidalis where mosquito samples were taken; there, as at Daytona and Miami,
homeowners permitted access to their property. We are grateful to all these people.
This is contribution no. XVI in a series on the bionomics of bromeliad-inhabiting mos-
quitoes. University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, journal
series no. 8337.


BREELAND, S. G. 1982. Bibliography and notes on Florida mosquitoes. Mosqulto
Syst. 14: 53-72.
FRANK, J. H. 1985. Use of an artificial bromeliad to show the importance of color
value in restricting colonization of bromeliads by Aedes aegypti and Culex quin-
quefasciatus. J. American Mosquito Control Assoc. 1: 28-32.
--, G. A. CURTIS AND H. T. EVANS. 1976. On the bionomics of bromeliad-inhabit-
ing mosquitoes. I. Some factors influencing oviposition by Wyeomyia vanduzeei.
Mosquito News 36: 25-36.
AND J. T. RICKARD. 1985. Density dependent sex ratio distortion
and developmental bimodality in Wyeomyia vanduzeei. [p. 155-165, in] L. P.
Lounibos, J. R. Rey and J. H. Frank (eds.) Ecology of mosquitoes: proceedings
of a workshop. Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, Vero Beach, xix + 579
AND H. C. LYNN. 1982. Standardizing oviposition traps for Aedes aegypti
and Culex quinquefasciatus: time and medium. J. Florida Anti-Mosquito Assoc.
53: 22-27.
-- AND G. F. O'MEARA. 1984. The bromeliad Catopsis berteroniana traps terres-
trial arthropods but harbors Wyeomyia larvae (Diptera: Culicidae). Florida Ent.
67: 418-24.
-- AND 1985. Influence of micro- and macrohabitat on distribution of some
bromeliad-inhabiting mosquitoes. Ent. Exp. Appl. 37: 169-74.
PADILLA, V. 1973. Bromeliads. Crown Publ.; New York, viii + 134 p.
POOLE, R. W. 1974. An introduction to quantitative ecology. McGraw-Hill; New York,
xii + 532 p.
RAISZ, E. J. 1964. (ed.) Atlas of Florida. Univ. Florida Press; Gainesville, 52 p.

Florida Entomologist 71(1)


USDA, ARS, Insects Affecting Man and Animals Research Laboratory,
1600 S.W. 23rd Drive, Gainesville, Florida 32604


Department of Entomology and Nematology
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611


A survey of house flies and parasitoids was conducted at three poultry installations
which practiced different types of manure management in Georgia and Florida. This
study demonstrated that parasitoid production and filth fly control at the installation
that practiced manure management was equal to the control that was obtained at an
environmental house as well as the control that was achieved at an installation that had
been modified to scrape and flush the poultry manure.


Se condujo una encuesta de moscas domBsticas y de parasitoides en tres instalaciones
de pollos que practicaban diferentes tipos de manejo esti6rcol en Georgia y la Florida.
Este studio demostr6 que la producci6n de parasitoides y del control de moscas y
basura en la instalacion que practice la administraci6n de estiercol, fue igual al obtenido
en una casa ambiental, asi como al control que se obtuvo en una instalaci6n que habia
sido modificada para raspar y limpiar el estiercol de los pollos con un chorro de agua.

It has been demonstrated by Morgan et al (1975 a,b, 1981 a,b), that augmentative
releases of Spalangia endius Walker can be used to control field populations of Musca
domestic L. at poultry installations. The parasitoid releases have been more effective
at installations that practice good manure management. We report herein the results
of a fly and parasitoid survey at three isolated poultry installations in Georgia and
Florida that practiced three different types of manure management.


This study was conducted from April 1982 through March 1983, in an isolated 102
km2 region in Charlton Co., Ga., and Baker Co., Fl., which was bordered on the north
by the Okefenokee Swamp, on the west and south by the St. Mary's River and on the
east by a forest of pine trees. A north-south paved road ca 20 km long transected the
region and was the only access, to the area, except for a single logging road.
Two of the poultry installations were of open-sided construction. At the 1st installa-
tion (21,000 cage layers) the owner allowed the manure to accumulate on the soil directly
beneath the cages. It would be removed every 12 months, leaving a thin pad of manure

March, 1988

Morgan et al.: Manure Management for House Flies 45

which provided protection for the indigenous parasitoids and predators until the new
caged layers were introduced and the manure started to accumulate. At the 2nd farm
(50,000 cage layers) the manure was not allowed to accumulate, but, was removed daily
by scraping and flushing into a holding tank. The 3rd installation was an environmental
house containing 50,000 caged layers. Mechanical scrapers and augers continuously
moved the manure to an outside holding tank. All installations used mechanical feeders
and during periods of cold weather, the temperature of the 1st, and 2nd installations
was controlled, to maintain a yearly mean of 23.9 C-26.7 C, by adjusting the height of
the plastic curtains installed on the sides of the houses. The temperature of the 3rd
installation was maintained at a constant 25.5 C by forced air. The construction cost of
each of these systems was $3.50, $4.00 and $5.50/caged layer respectively.
The density of the house fly populations at all 3 installations was monitored weekly
using a modified Scudder Grid (Murvosh & Thaggard 1966). The grid was placed in an
area where adult flies congregated. A count was recorded of the number of adult flies
that landed on the grid within 60 seconds. The grid was then moved to another area on
the same installation and the counts were repeated for a total of 10 observations.
Soil samples, containing wild fly pupae, were collected and transported to the labo-
ratory. The pupae were separated from the soil by water flotation. Samples of fly pupae
(100-200) were examined for the presence of parasitoid eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults

100 ..........% PARASITOIDISM ..


8 o

a : *.

" : .-".. ../

z .

o 30



1982 1983

Fig. 1. Percentage parasitoidism and grid counts at the 1st installation where the
poultry manure was allowed to cone naturally.

Florida Entomologist 71(1)

March, 1988

according to the method described by Morgan et al. (1981b). The constant change in the
level of manure in the holding tank at the 3rd installation prevented obtaining samples
of fly larvae or pupae except during overflow.
The parasitoids were identified by the senior author using the taxonomic keys of
Boucek (1963) and Peck et al. (1964).


Parasitoidism at the 1st installation increased from 15% in April of 1982 to 72% in
August, decreased to 45% in September, then peaked at 100% by January 1983. There
was a corresponding decrease in the fly density during this same time interval. Grid
counts averaged 27 flies/grid in April, but, ranged between 11 and 13 flies/grid through
September. Following an increase to 18 flies/grid in October, the flies/grid ranged from
2-8 through March 1983 (Fig. 1). The owner through his practice of good manure man-
agement created an unfavorable environment for house fly breeding, but, at the same
time created a favorable environment for the parasitoids. This was demonstrated by
the high level of parasitoidism and the reduced grid counts that occurred through the
entire year.





0 60


30 *


Fig. 2. Percentage parasitoidism and grid counts at the 2nd installation where the
manure was scraped and flushed into a holding tank.


Morgan et al.: Manure Management for House Flies

Parasitoidism at the 2nd installation (Fig. 2) decreased from 31% in April 1982 to
15% in May. It gradually increased to 47% in August, then fluctuated from 3% to 31%
through March 1983. During the same time interval grid counts decreased from 18
flies/grid in April 1982 to 5 flies/grid in July. The counts gradually increased to 19
flies/grid through December then gradually decreased to 7 flies/grid in March 1983.
While the modifications made at the 2nd installation did keep the fly population at a
relatively low level, it was more labor intensive in that the manure had to be removed
each day which created an unfavorable environment for the parasitoids.
Grid counts at the 3rd installation remained relatively low through the year, ranging
from 1 fly/grid to 8 flies/grid (Fig. 3). The design of the building and the techniques
used to remove the manure prevented fly breeding from occurring within the building.
The liquid condition of the manure in the outside holding tank and the constant raising
and lowering of the level of manure in the tank prevented larval pupation. While the
design of the environmental house provided an effective means of fly control, being
completely mechanized required constant maintenance and was therefore labor inten-
sive and expensive to operate.
A total of 2239 pupae were collected from the installation that allowed the manure
to accumulate. Of the 495 parasitoids that emerged from the pupae Muscidifurax raptor
G&S accounted for 63% of the population while Spalangia endius Walker, S. cameroni



Fig. 3. Grid counts at the 3rd installation, Environmental House, where the poultry
manure was scraped into a holding tank.

1982 I

48 Florida Entomologist 71(1) March, 1988

Perkins, and S. nigroaenea Curtis accounted for 12%, 7% and 18% of the population
respectively. The high level of manure management practiced by the owner resulted in
dry manure and forced the fly larvae to pupate near the outer edges of the manure.
This resulted in a high M. raptor population from May 1982 through January 1983
(31%-92%) which combined with the Spalangia spp. resulted in a high level of
parasitoidism (Fig. 1) Morgan et al. (1979).
Only 109 parasitoids emerged from 2648 pupae collected at the modified installation
for a natural parasitoidism of 4%. Since the larvae migrated from the moist manure to
the dry sand outside of the building the Spalangia spp. were more successful in locating
the pupae accounting for 64%-100% of the total parasitoid population from June 1982
through January 1983. During February and March of 1983, the Spalangia spp. ac-
counted for 45% and M. raptor accounted for 55% of the parasitoid population.


The results of this study demonstrated that good manure management will provide
a high level of filth fly control. All three installations practiced some form of manure
management and were successful in keeping the fly populations at a low level. The high
level of parasitoidism and the corresponding reduction in the fly population at the 1st
installation, demonstrated the effectiveness of good manure management. In addition,
compared to the other 2 installations, it was the most economically operated. The au-
tomatic feeders were the only mechanical apparatus that needed maintenance. Allowing
the manure to accumulate and removing every 12 to 18 months, made the operation less
labor intensive and reduced operating costs.


This paper reports the results of research only. Mention of a pesticide does not
constitute a recommendation for use by the USDA nor does it imply registration under
FIFRA as amended. Also, mention of a commercial or proprietary product does not
constitute an endorsement by the USDA. The authors wish to extend their appreciation
to Gold Kist Feed, Hillendale Farms, Mr. 0. Crews, Mr. G. Chism, and Mr. L. Crews
for allowing us to use their facilities to conduct this research study, and to A. Benton,
J. Vaughan, and D. Moore for their assistance in conducting this study. Department of
Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611.


BOUCEK, Z. 1963. A taxonomic study in Spalangia Latr. (Hymenoptera, Chal-
cidoidea). Acta Entomologica Muse. Natonalis Pragae. 35: 429-512.
BENTON, AND T. WHITFIELD. 1975a. Rearing and release of the house fly
pupal parasite Spalangia endius Walker. Environ. Entomol. 4: 609-611.
A. BENTON. 1975b. Suppression of a field population of house flies with Spalan-
gia endius. Science. 189: 388-389.
relationship of the house fly, Musca domestic L., and the microhymenopteran
pupal parasite, Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders (Diptera: Muscidae and
Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 52: 276-281.
releases of Spalangia endius and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenopt-

Castro & Pitre: Fall Armyworm Development on Two Hosts 49

era:Pteromalidae) against estimated populations of Musca domestic (Dipt-
era:Muscidae). J. Med. Entomol. 18: 158-166.
site Relationship: Augmentative releases of Spalangia endius Walker used in
conjunction with population modeling to suppress field populations of Musca
domestic L. (Hymenoptera:Pteromalidae and Diptera:Muscidae). J. Kansas En-
tomol. Soc. 54: 496-50.
MURVOSH, C. M. AND C. W. THAGGARD. 1966. Ecological studies of the house fly.
Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 59: 533-547.
PECK, 0., Z. BOUCEK, AND A. HOFFER. 1964. Keys to the Chalcidoidea of Czechos-
lovakia (Insects:Hymenoptera). Mem. Ent. Soc. Canada. 34: 170 pp.


Department of Entomology,
Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station,
Mississippi State University,
Mississippi State, MS 39762


Fall armyworm, Spodopterafrugiperda (J. E. Smith), larvae from Choluteca, Hon-
duras and Starkville, Mississippi, U.S.A., were reared on sorghum or corn at 26 or 27C
and 14 hours of light. Head capsule widths were measured to determine instar change.
Larval development time was shorter for insects from Mississippi than insects from
Honduras. No difference in development time for larvae in either culture was due to
the host plant. The duration of prepupal and pupal stages was not significantly different
for any of the treatments. Moths from Mississippi appeared to be more fecund than
moths from Honduras, and insects fed corn appeared to be more fecund than those fed


Larvas del gusano cogollero, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), de Choluteca,
Honduras y de Starkville, Mississippi, U.S.A., se criaron en sorgo o maiz a 26 o 27C
con 14 horas de luz. Se midi6 el ancho de la cabeza para determinar cambios de estadio.
El tiempo de desarrollo de las larvas fue mas corto en los insects de Mississippi que
en los insects de Honduras. No hubo diferencia en el tiempo de desarrollo de las larvas
en ambas cultures debido a la plant hospedera. No hubo diferencia significativa en
ninguno de los tratamientos en las etapas de prepupas y de pupas. Alevillas de Missis-
sippi parecen ser mas fecundas que las alevillas de Honduras, y los insects alimentados
con maiz parecieron ser mAs fecundos que aquellos que se les di6 sorgo.

50 Florida Entomologist 71(1) March, 1988

The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), is a polyphagous
insect (Luginbill 1928,) but given a choice, it prefers to oviposit and feed on plants in
the grass family (Poaceae). Within this family increased oviposition and higher larval
infestations occur on corn than on sorghum when intercropped (Sifuentes 1967, Van
Huis 1981, Castro et al. 1984). The number of eggs laid per FAW female varies as
reported by several workers including Escalante (1974) in Peru, 400-500 eggs, Chere-
guino & Menendez (1975) in El Salvador, 206-1500 eggs and Randolph & Wagner (1966)
in Texas, 97-2047 eggs.
Piedra (1974), working with the FAW in Cuba, found no significant differences in
larval development time, adult emergence and longevity when larvae were reared on
corn or sorghum. Roberts (1965) in Georgia also found no significant differences in egg
to adult development time when FAW were reared on corn or grain sorghum.
FAW larvae in Brazil developed through seven instars when fed sorghum (Lordello
et al. 1980), but in the United States, FAW fed corn had six instars (Pitre & Hogg
1983). FAW larvae fed wild grasses developed through seven instars (Pencoe & Martin
1981). Barfield et al. (1978) constructed a temperature dependent model for develop-
ment of the FAW, mortality was lower at 26.7 than at 18 and 37. Pitre & Hogg (1983)
observed the development of FAW larvae on three hosts including cotton, soybean and
corn. Duration of the larval stage was shortest for insects fed corn. Mortality was
lowest on corn and highest on soybean.
Migration of FAW adults into the continental United States from countries within
and around the Caribbean has been suggested (Luginbill 1928, Mitchell 1979, Young
1979, Hogg et al. 1982). Therefore, biological comparisons of FAW cultures from these
areas should be made to establish possible relationships between populations from each
area. In this study the effects of host plants on several biological parameters of FAW
from Honduras and the United States were observed including number of instars, dura-
tion of larval instars, prepupae and pupae, and pupal weight, as well as observations
on longevity and fecundity.


Test 1 and Test 2. The FAW cultures were started with insects collected on sorghum
in August, 1984 at La Lujosa, Choluteca, Honduras and Oktibbeha County, Mississippi,
U.S.A. Insects used in this study were the F3 (Test 1) and F4 (Test 2) generations.
Both cultures were maintained on a wheat germ diet (Bio-Mix 9781, Bio-Serv, Inc.) in
the laboratory in the Entomology Department at Mississippi State University.
Larvae were reared individually at 27 2C and 14:10 light-dark photoperiod in 1
oz. plastic cups with moist filter paper on the bottom to keep humidity high. The host
plants growing in pots in the greenhouse included corn ('Pioneer 519') and sorghum
('Paymaster 1022') in early whorl (Test 1) and mid-whorl (Test 2). Plants were watered
daily and fertilized weekly with 10-15-10 fertilizer. Food consisted of leaf tissue from
the distal two thirds of leaves close to the whorl and stalk pieces. The stalk pieces were
provided to larvae entering the third instar. Fresh leaf and stalk material, in excess of
daily consumption, were placed in the cups daily, and old material removed.
Treatments consisted of larvae from Honduras and Mississippi (28 each = 28 replica-
tions) reared on sorghum or corn. Daily head capsule measurements of each larva were
made with an ocular micrometer to determine instar change and duration. The total
larval period (Tests 1 and 2) and duration of the prepupal (cessation of feeding at which
time larva becomes compact with reduced length) and pupal stages (Test 2) were deter-
mined for each treatment. Additionally, pupa were weighed (day 2) and some prelimi-
nary observations were made on adult longevity and fecundity in test 2. Newly emerged

Castro & Pitre: Fall Armyworm Development on Two Hosts 51

adults (1 + 26) were confined in 1 pint cartons with a nylon mesh cover. A 5% honey
water solution was added for food and wax paper was used as an oviposition surface.
Egg masses were recorded and the number of eggs per mass was determined by weight
measurements using the equation by Lynch et al. (1983).
Test 3. A separate test was conducted to specifically obtain additional information on
longevity and fecundity of FAW moths. Methods used to rear larvae and test adults
were the same as in test 2 except that the temperature was 26 30C.
Data were analyzed as a completely random design and means were separated by
Duncan's multiple range test (Duncan 1955).


Test 1. When FAW larvae from Honduras and Mississippi were reared on corn or
sorghum, no differences were observed among the four treatment combinations in the
width of the head capsule for any given larval instar. Head width measurements were
similar to those reported by Ashley (1983). Larvae from each culture developed through
six instars when fed either host. Morphological similarities between the larval growth
stages within the two cultures will be particularly useful in comparative biological
studies (e.g., in analyzing parasitization of FAW larvae when head capsule measure-
ments are used to identify the age structure of individual larvae collected in the field).
Pitre & Hogg (1983) observed that corn-fed FAW larvae had six instars. This is similar
to our observations, but Lordello et al. (1980) found that FAW larvae fed sorghum had
seven instars. This might reflect a difference between FAW from Brazil and FAW from
Honduras and Mississippi. The existence of a geographical isolate of FAW in Brazil
different from FAW in the Caribbean area has been proposed by Fuxa (1987) based on
susceptibility of the insects to geographical isolates of nuclear polyhedrosis virus.
The time in development of 1st, 2nd and 6th larval instars was not significantly
different within instars; some differences, although not consistent, were observed
among the 3rd, 4th and 5th larval instars (Table 1). The total time of development for
larvae from Mississippi (corn = 12.5 d, sorghum = 12.6 d) was shorter than that for
larvae from Honduras (corn 13.1 d, sorghum 13.3 d). Development times on diets of
sorghum were similar to those of corn for larvae from both areas; similar observations
were made by Roberts (1965) and Piedra (1974).
Test 2. In a second series of observations, insects from Mississippi (corn 11.4 d, sorghum
11.4 d) also developed faster than those from Honduras (corn 12.5 d, sorghum 12.2 d);

2C, 14:10 L/D).

Larval instar
Source' Host2 1 2 3 4 5 6 Total

H C 2.0 a3 2.0a 1.7a 2.0 ab 2.5 ab 3.0a 13.1 a
H S 2.0 a 2.0 a 1.6a 2.2 a 2.5a 3.1a 13.3 a
M C 2.3 a 2.0a 1.2b 2.0 ab 2.1b 3.0a 12.5 b
M S 2.0a 1.9a 1.5a 1.7b 2.4ab 3.1a 12.6b

'H = Honduras; M Mississippi.
2C = corn; S = sorghum.
3'Means in a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the P 0.05 level by Duncan's
multiple range test.

52 Florida Entomologist 71(1) March, 1988

ON CORN OR SORGHUM. (TEST 2, 27 20C, 14:10 L/D).

Duration of stage (R d) Pupal weight Longevity (R d)
Pupal weight
Source' Host2 Larvae Prepupae Pupae (a g) y d

H C 12.5 a3 1.4 a 9.7 a 0.21 ab 11.0 a 11.4 a
H S 12.2 a 1.4 a 9.8 a 0.20 b 15.0 a 12.2 a
M C 11.4 b 1.3 a 10.3a 0.22 a 12.5a 10.1 a
M S 11.4 b 1.6 a 9.8 a 0.22 a 6.0 b 6.6 b

'H = Honduras; M Mississippi.
C = corn; S = Sorghum.
3Means in a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the P= 0.05 level by Duncan's
multiple range test.

no differences were observed within cultures when fed sorghum or corn (Table 2).
Pre-pupal and pupal periods for the different treatments were also similar.
Pupae from the Honduras larvae fed sorghum weighed less than those from Missis-
sippi fed the same diet (Table 2). Pupal weights for the two cultures fed corn did not
differ. Pupal weight for insects fed corn was only somewhat higher (3-13 mg) than that
reported by Pitre and Hogg (1983). Piedra (1974) found lower pupal weights for insects
fed sorghum than those fed corn. In the present study, pupal weights for insects fed
sorghum or corn were similar.
Although only a small number of adults (59 + 10 Honduras; 79 + 14 Missis-
sippi) were included in longevity observations, FAW from Honduras appeared to sur-
vive somewhat longer (9 = 13.0 d; d = 11.8 d) than those from Mississippi (9 = 9.3
d; & = 8.4 d); adults from Honduras generally lived longer when larvae were fed
sorghum (13.6 d) than corn (11.2 d), while the reverse was true for adults from Missis-
sippi (11.3 d corn vs. 6.3 d sorghum) (Table 2). The sex ratio of FAW from Honduras
was almost 2 females:1 male (n=369:206) but the reverse was true for insects
(20 9:36 6) from Mississippi (Table 3). The proportion of males to females in one culture
was substantially different from the other culture. Observations on fecundity were
made, but the number of moths used was small due to the small number of insects
surviving to adults. Although not significant, insects fed corn laid more egg clusters
and total number of eggs than those fed sorghum in both colonies. Moths from Missis-
sippi laid more egg clusters and total number of eggs than moths from Honduras.


Sex ratio
x no. egg
Source Host2 9 : 6 clusters/9 (n) x no. eggs/9

H C 1:0.56 2.0 (3) a3 321.2 a
H S 1:0.56 1.5 (2) a 87.7 a
M C 1:2.11 9.3 (4) a 1076.6 a
M S 1:1.55 3.0 (3) a 237.9 a

H = Honduras; M = Mississippi.
C = Corn; S = Sorghum.
'Means in a column followed by same letter are not significantly different at the P= 0.05 level by Duncan's multiple
range test.

Castro & Pitre: Fall Armyworm Development on Two Hosts 53

3C, 14:10 L/D).

Sex ratio
xno. eggs
Source' Host2 y : clusters/9 (n) R no. eggs/9 Longevity

H C 1:0.91 3.1 (12) a 219.5 ab 10.27 a
H S 1:0.55 3.4 (12) a 160.7 b 8.85 a
M C 1:1.08 4.3 (24) a 306.1 a 9.95 a
M S 1:1.17 4.2 (24) a 221.7 ab 10.3 a

'H = Honduras; M = Mississippi.
"C = Corn; S = Sorghum.
"Means in a column followed by same letter are not significantly different at the P= 0.05 level by Duncan's multiple
range test.

Test 3. In the third test, initiated with 24 and 48 from Honduras and 40 and 80 from
Mississippi, there were no significant differences in longevity and number of egg masses
or number of eggs laid per female for insects from Honduras or Mississippi (Table 4).
However, the same trend for higher oviposition for moths from Mississippi than for
moths from Honduras was observed, as well as a trend for higher oviposition for insects
fed corn compared with those fed sorghum. A sex ratio of more females than males for
FAW from Honduras was observed compared with more males than females for FAW
from Mississippi. These same results were observed in test 2.


Fall armyworm larval development time was shorter for insects from Mississippi
than insects from Honduras. Female FAW from Mississippi seem to be more fecund
than those from Honduras. Longevity of adults from the Mississippi culture was reduced
when larvae were fed sorghum compared to corn (one of two tests); adults from Hon-
duras appeared to survive equally well when larvae were fed sorghum or corn. Differ-
ences indicate that the FAW from Honduras and Mississippi exhibit slightly different
biological characteristics. This information might suggest that FAW populations from
southern Honduras and Mississippi are different. Results of insecticide and virus suscep-
tibility studies and observations on developmental periods of FAW from different areas
in the Caribbean and in Central and South America suggest that differences in FAW
populations may result from geographical isolation. Insecticide susceptibility of FAW
larvae from Florida differed from insects collected in Honduras, Jamaica and Mississippi
(Pitre 1986). In comparing susceptibility of FAW to geographical isolates of nuclear
polyhedrosis virus, (Fuxa 1987) observed that populations from Texas and Louisiana,
and areas around the Gulf of Mexico and Puerto Rico showed similar responses com-
pared with FAW from Brazil. Sources near each other appeared to be more closely
related than the geographically isolated source from Brazil. Differences in development
parameters between FAW from Puerto Rico and Louisiana were sufficient for Pantoja
et al. (1987) to suggest that insects from the two areas represent reproductively isolated
populations. Pashley et al. (1985) used electrophoretic methods to genetically charac-
terize FAW populations from Mexico, southeastern United States and the Caribbean.
They reported genetic differences between populations from Puerto Rico and those
from the southeastern United States and Mexico, and speculated that the source of
immigrant FAW for the eastern United States may not be Puerto Rico but possibly
southern Florida, Texas or Mexico. In additional studies, Pashley (1986) concluded that

54 Florida Entomologist 71(1) March, 1988

the FAW is composed of genetically differentiated host strains and that these strains
may be reproductively isolated host races or sibling species.
These observed similarities or differences in populations of this important pest con-
tribute to our understanding of the relationships of geographical sources and the initia-
tion of infestations by immigration into areas where the insect is not indigenous. Addi-
tionally, information on relationships of FAW populations, particularly migratory habits
and susceptibility to insecticides, can be useful in planning defense strategies including
survey and prediction of pest problems and development of control programs.
As 93% of the sorghum in Honduras is grown in association with corn (Donaire 1982),
the effect of the host plant on development of the FAW is of particular importance in
understanding the population dynamics of this pest in intercropping systems. Trends
(although not significant in 2 tests) for higher pupal weights were observed for insects
in both cultures when fed corn compared with sorghum, as well as higher numbers of
egg clusters and eggs per female. In nature, this difference could have an effect on the
population dynamics of FAW in intercropping systems in Honduras. The intercropping
of sorghum with corn would have an overall impact of reduced infestation of FAW in
the field as opposed to that in a corn monoculture. No difference in larval development
time occurred when larvae fed on corn or sorghum. This would result in similar times
for development of this pest on sorghum or corn in a sorghum-corn intercropping sys-
tem. However, the lower pest populations developing throughout the growing season
in the sorghum-corn intercropping systems, the cropping practice used by subsistence
farmers, would result in less plant damage and possibly higher crop yields.
More extensive observations are needed on adult longevity and fecundity in relation
to diet and temperature. This information will be useful in understanding the develop-
ment of FAW populations on sorghum and corn, and also in determining the seasonal
synchrony of pest infestation and crop phenology for application of insect pest manage-
ment procedures. Such an investigation was reported by Barfield & Ashley (1987) in
which corn phenology and temperature affected FAW larval development, food con-
sumption, and adult female longevity and fecundity. They also reported that develop-
mental times were temperature-dependent and were modified by the stage of corn
consumed. Additionally, biological comparisons between FAW cultures from the differ-
ent geographical areas will provide useful information on movement (immigration) of


We thank Drs. K. Andrews, B. Combs, F. Davis, R. Luttrell, D. Meckenstock and
J. Young for their critical reviews of the manuscript. This research was supported in
part by grant AID/DSAN/XXI-G-0149 from the United States Agency for International
Development to the Sorghum and Millet Collaborative Research Support Program
(INTSORMIL) and was conducted as partial fulfillment of the memorandum of under-
standing between the Ministry of Natural Resources of the government of Honduras
and INTSORMIL, Acuerdo No. 152 Tegucigalpa, D.C., February 8, 1983. The views
and interpretations in this publication are those of the author and should not be attri-
buted to USAID. Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station Publication
No. 6741.


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frugiperda, larvae after parasitization by Apanteles marginiventris, Campoletis
grioti, Chelonus insularis, and Eiphosoma vitticole. Florida Entomol. 66: 260-

Castro & Pitre: Fall Armyworm Development on Two Hosts 55

BARFIELD, C. S., E. R. MITCHELL, AND S. L. POE. 1978. A temperature dependent
model for fall armyworm development. Ann. Entomol. Soc. America 71: 70-74.
BARFIELD, C. S. AND T. R. ASHLEY. 1987. Effects of corn phenology and tempera-
ture on the life cycle of the fall armyworm, Spodopterafrugiperda (Lepidoptera:
Noctuidae. 70: 110-116.
CASTRO, M., H. N. PITRE, AND R. NOLASCO. 1984. Influencia de sistemas de
siembra maiz-maicillo en infestaciones de cogollero. pp. 38-39. In Memoria Tec-
nica Anual 1983, Programa Nacional de Sorgo y Frijol. Secretaria de Recursos
Naturales. Tegucigalpa, D. C. Honduras, C. A. 184 p.
CHEREGUINO, R. S. AND A. L. MENENDEZ, M. 1975. Biologia y habitos del gusano
cogollero (Spodopterafrugiperda) en El Salvador. pp. 252-261. In Memoria de la
XXI Reunion del PCCMCA. San Salvador, E. Salvador.
DONAIRE, R. E. DIAZ. 1982. Caracterizacion y relaciones ambiente-manejo en sis-
temas de frijol y sorgo asociados con maiz en Honduras. Tesis Magister Scientiae,
UCR-CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica.
DUNCAN, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics 11: 1-42.
ESCALANTE G., J. A. 1974. Contribucion al conocimiento de la biologia de Heliothis
zea y Spodopterafrugiperda, en el Cusco. Revta. Peruana Entomol. 17: 121-122.
FUXA, J. R. 1987. Spodopterafrugiperda susceptibility to nuclear polyhedrosis virus
isolates with reference to insect migration. Environ. Entomol. 16: 218-223.
HOGG, D. B., H. N. PITRE, AND E. R. ANDERSON. 1982. Assessment of early-season
phenology of the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) in Mississippi. Environ.
Entomol. 11: 705-710.
LORDELLO, A. L. L., F. M. LARA, AND J. R. P. PARRA. 1980. Preferencia para
alimentacao de Spodoptera frugiperda em sorgo, Em condicoes de laboratorio.
Anais da S.E.B. 9: 219-241.
LUGINBILL, P. 1928. The fall armyworm. USDA Tech. Bull. No. 34. 92 p.
LYNCH, R. E., S. D. PAIR, AND R. JOHNSON. 1983. Fall armyworm fecundity:
Relationship of egg mass weight to number of eggs. J. Georgia Entomol. Soc.
18: 507-513.
MITCHELL, E. R. 1979. Migration by Spodoptera exigua and S. frugiperda North
America style, pp. 386-393. In R. L. Rabb and G. G. Kennedy [ed.] Movement
of highly mobile insects: concepts and methodology in research. North Carolina
St. Univ., Raleigh. 456 pp.
PANTOJA, A., C. M. SMITH, AND J. F. ROBINSON. 1987. Development of the fall
armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae),
strains from Louisiana and Puerto Rico. Environ. Entomol. 16: 116-119.
PASHLEY, D. P. 1986. Host-associated genetic differentiation in fall armyworm
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79: 898-904.
population structure of migratory moths: the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noc-
tuidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. America. 78: 756-761.
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armyworms on several wild grasses. Environ. Entomol. 10: 999-1002.
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frugiperda. Cuban Jour. of Agric. Sci. 8: 99-103.
PITRE, HENRY N. 1986. Chemical control of the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noc-
tuidae): an update. Florida Entomol. 69: 570-578.
PITRE, H. N. AND D. B. HOGG. 1983. Development of the fall armyworm on cotton,
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Department of Entomology
Mississippi State University
Mississippi State, MS 39762


Fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), cultures established
in 1985 from larvae collected on corn in Florida and Jamaica and on sorghum in Missis-
sippi and Honduras were tested in the laboratory for susceptibility to carbaryl, permeth-
rin, methomyl, chlorpyrifos, and methyl parathion using leaves from sorghum plants
sprayed with insecticide in the field. Methomyl and chlorpyrifos were effective (85%
mortality) against 3rd instar FAW larvae from Jamaica and Mississippi whereas mortal-
ity of similar larval stages from Honduras was 50%. The Florida culture appeared to
be about equally tolerant to all the test insecticides. Carbaryl, methyl parathion and
permethrin were ineffective against 3rd instar larvae from all test areas. However,
preliminary field tests indicated that 1st instar Honduras FAW larvae are susceptible
to methyl parathion. Also, materials shown to be ineffective against 3rd instar larvae
in the whorl were effective on FAW when applied to the sorghum seed head in a
separate study. Susceptibility responses to insecticides indicate that the FAW popula-
tion from Mississippi was more similar to test populations from Jamaica and Honduras,
than to the test population from Florida, suggesting that the FAW source from Florida
may not be the source of insects invading Mississippi.

Poblaciones del gusano cogollero, Spodopterafrugiperda (J. E. Smith), establecidas
en 1985 de larvas colectadas en maiz en la Florida y Jamaica, y en sorgo en Mississippi
y Honduras, se probaron en el laboratorio para determinar su susceptibilidad al car-
baryl, permethrin, methomyl, chlorpyrifos, y metilo de parati6n, usando hojas de
plants de sorgo rociadas con insecticides en el campo. Methomyl y chlorpyrifos fueron
efectivos (85% de mortalidad) contra el 3er. estadio de larvas del gusano cogollero de
Jamaica y Mississippi, mientras que la mortalidad de etapas larvales similares de Hon-
duras fue un 50%. La poblaci6n de la Florida tambi6n parece ser tolerante a todos los
insecticides probados. Carbaryl, metilo de parati6n, y permethrin fueron inefectivos
contra el 3er. estadio de larvas de todas las areas de prueba. Sin embargo, pruebas
preliminares en el campo indicaron que el primer estadio de larvas del gusano cogollero

Pitre: Fall Armyworm Susceptibility to Insecticides 57

de Honduras son susceptibles al metilo de parati6n. Materiales demostrados ser inefec-
tivos contra el 3er. estadfo de larvas en el verticilo de plants, fue efectivo contra el
gusano cogollero cuando se aplic6 a semillas en la plant del sorgo. Reacci6n de suscep-
tibilidad a insecticides indicaron que la poblaci6n de gusanos cogolleros de Mississippi
fue mas similar a las poblaciones de Jamaica y de Honduras, que a la poblaci6n de la
Florida, lo que sugiere que el origen de gusanos cogolleros de la Florida tal vez no sea
el origen de insects que invaden a Mississippi.

The polyphagous fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), is a
sporadic and occasionally severe pest of pasture and row crops in many areas in the
Western Hemisphere (Sparks 1979, Andrews 1980). Where this insect is a pest, insec-
ticides have been used successfully to control larval infestations. An update on chemical
control of S. frugiperda was presented in a recent review by Pitre (1986). Although
several insecticides provide effective control of FAW, published data reveal that insec-
ticide resistant FAW populations are present in the southeastern United States. How-
ever, data from the mid-south and west of the Mississippi River have not revealed high
levels of FAW resistance to insecticides (Young 1979a). Insecticide resistance in FAW
in Central and South America also has been reported (Young 1979a, Arevalo 1980,
Waquil et al. 1982).
The migration of FAW into the United States each year from southern latitudes
(Luginbill 1928, Mitchell 1979, Sparks 1979, Hogg et al. 1982), the development of
insecticide resistance, and the possible existence of host strains and possibly sibling
species (Pashley et al. 1985, Pashley 1986) present the need to determine the relation-
ship of FAW immigration to insecticide control. Fall armyworms from different sources
develop differently on various hosts (Pantoja et al. 1987), and respond differently to
various isolates of NPV (Fuxa 1987) and to different insecticides (Young 1979b). These
differing responses to environmental and biological factors support the need to under-
stand the relationships of geographic location of FAW and their potential as immigrating
infestation sources from the Caribbean and Central and South America. Knowledge of
the origin of immigrant FAW and their susceptibility to insecticides is important in
developing pest management strategies in the United States.
In the present study, FAW from Florida, Honduras, Jamaica and Mississippi were
cultured and tested for susceptibility to several insecticides in order to establish ex-
pected levels of control and possible relationships of the origin of FAW in reference to
insect migration and control in the United States.


Fall armyworm larvae (n = 80-100) were collected from corn, Zea mays L., in
southern Florida near Homestead and on the north coast of Jamaica near Ocho Rios,
and from sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench., at Choluteca, Honduras and
Starkville, Mississippi. The insects were reared on artificial diet (Bio-Mix 9782, Bio-
Serv., Inc.) in the laboratory for 2 to 4 generations before insecticide susceptibility tests
were conducted. The-colonies were kept separately and rearing procedures prevented
mixing of FAW from different regions.
Sorghum, (DeKalb 42Y), in small replicated field plots (2 rows, each 15.2 m long and
78.7 cm apart) in the late whorl stage was uniformly sprayed with one of five insecticides
at recommended rates for control of FAW; plants in rows not sprayed were used as the
untreated control. The insecticide was applied in 190 liters water per hectare using a
hand-held compressed air sprayer fitted with a cone nozzle at 30 psi with the spray

58 Florida Entomologist 71(1) March, 1988

directed over the whorl of the plants. Temperature at application time was 21C and
the sky was sunny with little cloud cover.
Sorghum leaves treated with insecticide were clipped from the plants in the treat-
ment plots less than 0.5 h after the spray had dried on the leaf surface. Foliage treated
with each insecticide was kept separate and placed between moist paper towels for a
brief period (ca. 20 min.) during transport to the laboratory in an insulated box. Equal
amounts of treated or untreated foliage from the plants were placed into ventillated
plastic cups, arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications per
treatment (= colony x insecticide combination) and four subsamples (= 4 cups) for each
treatment within each replication. Moist paper was placed in the bottom of each cup to
increase humidity within the container. Five 3rd instar larvae (ca. 1.27 cm long) were
placed into each cup and held in a cabinet at 26.7 2C and 60 RH. Mortality was
recorded after 24 h exposure to the foliage. Cannibalism was not a factor in this exper-
Percent mortality adjusted by Abbott's formula (Abbott 1925), was calculated for
individual treatments and the mortality data for each insecticide across colonies and for
insecticides within colonies were analyzed using analysis of variance. Treatment means
were separated by Duncan's multiple range test (Duncan 1955).


Fall armyworms collected in the southern United States during the summer of 1985
appeared to consist of individuals with different levels of susceptibility to insecticides
(Table 1). Fall armyworm from Florida exhibited < 50% mortality compared with 85%
mortality in Mississippi larvae exposed to methomyl and chlorpyrifos at 91 g/ha. Permet-
hrin at 18.2 g/ha, methyl parathion at 91 g/ha and carbaryl at 364 g/ha resulted in <
50% mortality in Mississippi larvae. These results are similar to those of Young (1979b)
who found differences in insecticide susceptibility of larvae collected in the same year
from Florida, Georgia and Texas. He reported that FAW from the southeastern United
States were highly resistant to carbaryl and moderately resistant to methyl parathion,
but the Texas FAW was susceptible to both insecticides. Young (1979a) suggested that
such susceptibility differences may assist in determining origins of FAW infestations in
the United States.
Response of Jamaica and Honduras larvae to the insecticide treatments were some-
what similar to the Mississippi larvae in that only methomyl and chlorpyrifos were
effective (only 50% mortality for methomyl treated Honduras larvae) against 3rd in-
stars. Carbaryl, methyl parathion and permethrin were ineffective (0-19% mortality).
The Honduras FAW population differed from both the Mississippi/Jamaica and the
Florida response patterns, being more similar to Mississippi/Jamaica relative to chlor-
pyrifos, but closer to Florida relative to methomyl. Because of an unexplained and
unexpectedly high control mortality (35%) in the Honduras FAW populations, however,
these data should be considered with caution until further studies are done.
Since the FAW apparently does not overwinter in the U.S. except in the southern-
most extremes, Young (1979a) suggested that differences in insecticide susceptibility
between U.S. populations may reflect differences in sites from which infestations occur-
red. Thus, the Texas population reported as susceptible to both carbaryl and methyl
parathion probably does not originate from the same source as the carbaryl-resistant,
methyl parathion-tolerant population of Georgia and Florida. Similarly, in this study,
the methomyl- and chlorpyrifos-susceptible Mississippi populations is probably different
from the Florida FAW. Differences in response to methomyl combined with subtle
differences in biological parameters (Castro & Pitre, unpublished data) further suggests

Pitre: Fall Armyworm Susceptibility to Insecticides


Percent mortality in
24h of 3rd instar larvae collected in
Formulation (g) Mississippi Florida Jamaica Honduras

Methomyl 1.8 L 91 85 aA0 43 aA 83 abA 50 abA
Chlorpyrifos 4 EC 91 85 aA 25 aB 95 aA 88 aA
Permethrin 2 EC 18.2 35 bA 41 aA 15 cA 0 cA
Methyl parathion 4 EC 91 34 bA 31 aA 36 cA 19 bcA
Carbaryl 80 SP 364 16 bA 28 aA 51 bcA 19 bcA

aLarvae collected in Mississippi and Honduras on sorghum and in Jamaica and Florida on corn.
bMortality adjusted using Abbott's formula, (Average % control mortalities were: Mississippi, 10%; Florida, 5%;
Jamaica, 5%; Honduras, 35%).
'Means in columns followed by the same lower case letters and in rows followed by the same upper case letters
are not significantly different at P-0.05 level by Duncan's multiple range test.

that the Mississippi and Honduras FAW's are distinct populations. In addition, Ramas-
wamy & Pitre (unpublished data) have found differences in the calling rhythm of females
from Mississippi and Honduras. Additional studies would be required to propose a
specific relationship between the Mississippi and Jamaican FAW, though the response
to insecticides reported here do not preclude such a relationship.
Differences in developmental parameters between FAW from Puerto Rico and
Louisiana were sufficient for Pantoja et al. (1987) to suggest that insects from the two
areas represent, to some degree, reproductively isolated populations. Pashley et al.
(1985) used electrophoretic methods to genetically characterize FAW populations from
Mexico, southeastern United States and the Caribbean. They reported genetic differ-
ences between populations from Puerto Rico and those from the southeastern United
States and Mexico, and speculated that the source of immigrant FAW for the eastern
United States may not be Puerto Rico but possibly southern Florida, Texas or Mexico.
In additional studies (Pashley 1986) concluded that the FAW is composed of genetically
differentiated host strains and that these strains may be reproductively isolated host
races or sibling species.
The results presented in this study cannot be interpreted as conclusive evidence of
the sources for migratory FAW that initiate infestations in the United States because
of the small number of larvae originally obtained to start the cultures. Also the level of
insecticide susceptibility of laboratory reared FAW from different geographical areas
may not be a true indicator of origin. Additional studies are needed to prove this
hypothesis. However, the data do indicate differences in FAW responses to insecticides.
Differences in geographical isolates of NPV in FAW from areas in the United States,
Central and South America and the Caribbean further suggest the existence of geo-
graphically different populations of this species (Fuxa 1987). These facts contribute to
a better understanding of potential or real differences in FAW populations in different
geographical areas in the Caribbean and surrounding mainlands. Additional, informa-
tion is gained to elucidate the influence of immigrant populations on pest establishment
and development of large populations of susceptible or resistant insects in areas where
insecticides are required for management of the pest. The apparent existence of migra-
tory populations with different levels of susceptibility or tolerance (possible resistance)
to insecticides in areas where the pest has the potential to overwinter (e.g., southern
Florida) can have a significant impact on the development and implementation of pest
management practices in areas where the immigrant populations become established.

60 Florida Entomologist 71(1) March, 1988

It is important to recognize that many insecticides prove to be ineffective when
applied at recommended rates to whorl stage sorghum or corn infested with mid- to late
instar FAW. This is particularly evident when the insecticide is applied in low volumes
of water (150-250 1/ha) (Young 1979b). In other field tests associated with the present
study and conducted at the same time, FAW larvae were successfully controlled on
sorghum seed heads while several of the insecticides proved to be ineffective against
3rd instar larvae in the whorl. Fall armyworm larvae feeding deep in the whorls are
covered with a mixture of excrement and plant material frasss) and are not exposed to
the insecticides. Larvae feeding on seed in the panicles are more exposed and thus the
insecticides can be effective. These observations indicate that the FAW in Mississippi
have not developed resistance to the commonly used insecticides for control of this pest
and that the infestations in this area are not the result of immigrant populations from
areas (e.g., Homestead, Florida) where the FAW has developed resistance to certain
insecticides. The results of tests conducted in Honduras (Castro & Pitre unpublished
data) indicate that 1st instar FAW are effectively controlled with methyl parathion on
whorl stage corn. Like the FAW from Mississippi, which appear to be susceptible to
methyl parathion and methomyl, the FAW from Honduras appear to be more like those
from the mid-south in the United States than from Florida. Additional insecticide tests
are planned to monitor insecticide susceptibility of FAW populations from different
source areas in the southern United States and Central America to obtain information
on possible relationships of the populations from the various areas. Further studies
have to consider host strains (Pashley 1986) as possible explanation for variations in
results of previous studies.


I thank Drs. Howard Chambers, Seth Johnson, Randy Luttrell, Dorothy Pashley,
Sonny Ramaswamy, George Teetes and John Young for critically reviewing this paper,
and Dr. Jorge Pena for providing me with fall armyworm eggs from southern Florida.
This research was supported in part by grant AID/DSAN/XXI-G-0149 from the United
States Agency for International Development to the Sorghum and Millet Collaborative
Research Support Program (INTSORMIL) and was conducted as partial fulfillment of
the memorandum of understanding between the Ministry of Natural Resources of the
government of Honduras and INTSORMIL, Acuerdo No. 152 Tegucigalpa, D.C., Feb-
ruary 8, 1983. The views and interpretations in this publication are those of the author
and should not be attributed to USAID. Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Exper-
iment Station Publication Number 6743.


ABBOTT, W. B. 1925. A method for computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J.
Econ. Entomol. 18: 265-267.
ANDREWS, K. L. 1980. The whorlworm, Spodopterafrugiperda, in Central America
and neighboring areas. Florida Entomol. 63: 456-467.
AREVALO, R. C. 1980. Respuesta en laboratorio del gusano cogollero del maiz,
Spodoptera frugiperda a los insecticides frecuentemente empleados en su control
El Salvador, C. A. Page 48. In Resumenes de Trabajos Presentados en la XXVI
Reunion del PCCMCA. Guatemala City, Guatemala.
DUNCAN, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics. 11: 1-42.
FUXA, J. R. 1987. Spodoptera frugiperda susceptibility to nuclear polyhedrosis virus
isolates with reference to insect migration. Environ. Entomol. 16: 218-223.

Pitre: Fall Armyworm Susceptibility to Insecticides

HOGG, D. B., H. N. PITRE, AND R. E. ANDERSON. 1982. Assessment of early-season
phenology of the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Mississippi. Envi-
ron. Entomol. 11: 705-710.
LUGGINBILL, P. A. 1928. The fall armyworm. USDA Tech. Bull. No. 34. 92 pp.
MITCHELL, E. R. 1979. Migration by Spodoptera exigua and S. frugiperda North
American style, pp. 386-393. In R. L. Rabb and G. G Kennedy [ed.], Movement
of highly mobile insects: concepts and methodology in research. North Carolina
State University, Raleigh. 456 pp.
PANTOJA, A., C. M. SMITH, AND J. F. ROBINSON. 1987. Development of fall ar-
myworm, Spodopterafrugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), strains
from Louisiana and Puerto Rico. Environ. Entomol. 16: 116-119.
PASHLEY, D. P. 1986. Host-associated genetic differentiation in fall armyworm
(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): a sibling species complex? Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am.
79: 898-904.
PASHLEY, D. P., S. J. JOHNSON, AND A. N. SPARKS. 1985. Genetic population
structure of migratory moths: the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Ann.
Entomol. Soc. Am. 78: 756-761.
PITRE, H. N. 1986. Chemical control of the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae):
an update. Florida Entomol. 69: 570-578.
SPARKS, A. N. 1979. A review of the biology of the fall armyworm. Florida Entomol.
62: 82-87.
1982. Control da lagarta-do-cartucho em milho com insecticides quimicos e
biologicos. Pesqui. Agrop. bras., Brazilia, 17: 163-166.
YOUNG, J. R. 1979a. Assessing the movement of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera
frugiperda) using insecticide resistance and wind patterns. pp. 344-351. In R. L.
Rabb and G. G. Kennedy [ed.], Movement of highly mobile insects: concepts and
methodology in research. North Carolina State University, Raleigh. 456 pp.
YOUNG, J. R. 1979b. Fall armyworm: control with insecticides. Florida Entomol. 62:

62 Florida Entomologist 71(1) March, 1988


Escuela de Fitotecnia, Museo de Insectos, Universidad de Costa Rica,
Ciudad Universitaria Rodrigo Facio, San Jose, Costa Rica


Department of Zoology, Section of Entomology,
Uppsala University, P.O. Box 561, S-751 22 Uppsala, Sweden
Escuela de Biologia, Universidad de Costa Rica,
Ciudad Universitaria Rodrigo Facio, San Jose, Costa Rica


Collections of wild and cultivated tropical fruits were examined for infestation by
Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Of 440
collections (with at least 4 fruits in each) from 201 sites throughout Costa Rica, Central
America, 95% of the fruit flies (n = 4126) belonged to the genera Anastrepha (A. obliqua,
A. striata, A. serpentina, A. manihoti, A. pickeli, A. distinct, A. chiclayae, and A.
fraterculus), while 4.7% were C.capitata. Anastrepha spp. had a strong preference for
host plants within the same family. A. obliqua infested 92% of the attacked Mangifera
indica (mango), 87.5% of the Spondias mombin (jobo), and 100% of the S. dulcis (June
plum/golden plum) and S. purpurea (Spanish plum) collections, all Anacardiaceae. A.
striata was recovered from 97.8% of the infested Psidium guajava (common guava),
97% of the P. friedrichsthalianum (Costa Rican sour guava) and 100% of the P.
savanarum (gfisaro) collections; these three host species belong to the Myrtaceae. A.
serpentina was the dominant species in Sapotaceae host plants, and it was recovered
from 100% of all infested Manilkara achras (zapote), and Pouteria cainito (yellow
caimito), and 98% of Chrysophyllum cainito caimitoo morado). A. manihoti and A.
pickeli were associated with Manihot esculenta (cassava) (45.8% and 54.2% infestation,
respectively). A. chiclayae infested 100% of the Passiflora quadrangularis (granada)
collections. A. distinct infested species of Inga (Fabaceae) exclusively. C. capitata was
the only species of fruit fly recovered from Prunus persica (cling peach). The infestation
rates for C. capitata were low (<7%). Annual phenology of the above listed host plants
is presented with additional observations on interactions between fruit flies and their
host plants.


Muestras de frutas tropicales salvajes y cultivadas se examinaron para determinar
infestaci6n por Anastrepha spp. y Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tep-
hritidae). De 440 muestras (por lo menos con 4 frutas cada una) en 201 localidades a
traves de Costa Rica, Centro America, el 95% de los insects (n = 4126) pertenecian al
genero Anastrepha (A. obliqua), A. striata, A. serpentina, A. manihoti, A. pickeli, A.
distinct, A. chislayae, y A. fraterculus), mientras que 4.7% fueron C. capitata. Anas-
trepha spp. tuvieron una marcaada preferencia por plants hospederas pertenecientes
a la misma familiar. A. obliqua infest6 el 92% de la infestaci6n del mango, Mangifera
indica, el 87.5% del jobo, Spondias mombin, y el 100% del yupl6n, S. dulcis, y del
jocote, S. purpurea, todos estos de la familiar Anacardiaceae. A. striata se encontr6 en

Jiron & Hedstrim: Fruit Flies in Costa Rica 63

el 97.8% de las guayaba, Pisidium guajava infestadas, el 97% de P.
friederichsthalianum y el 100% del gusaro, P. savanarum; estas tres species hos-
pederas pertenecen a la familiar Myrtaceae. A. serpentina fue la especie dominant en
plants hospederas de la familiar Sapotaceae, y se encontr6 en el 100% de todos los
zapotes, Manilkara achras infestados, el camaimito amarillo, Pouteria cainito, y el 98%
del caimito morado, Chrysophyllum cainito. A. manihoti y A. puckeli estaban asociados
con casave, Manihot esculenta (45.8% y 54.2% de infestaci6n respectivamente). A.
chiclayae infest6 el 100% de las muestras de granada, Passiflora quadranqularis. A.
distinct infest6 exclusivamente species de Inga (Fabaceae). C. capitata fue la inica
especie de mosca de frutas encontrada en el melocot6n, Prunus persica. El grado de
infestaci6n de C. capitata fue bajo (<7%). Se present una fenologia annual de las plants
hospederas mencionadas, con observaciones adicionales sobre la interacci6n entire las
moscas de frutas y sus plants hospederas.

Of about 193 species of Anastrepha found in tropical America, only a few species
are of economic importance (Norrbom 1985). These are the Caribbean fruit fly A. sus-
pensa (Loew), the South American fruit fly A. fraterculus (Wiedemann), the Mexican
fruit fly A. ludens (Loew), the West Indies fruit fly A. obliqua (Macquart), the guava
fruit fly A. striata Schiner, and the serpentine fruit fly A. serpentina (Wiedemann).
Other fruit flies infest wild plants of the tropical wet forest.
The geographic distribution of host species of the genus Anastrepha in Costa Rica
has been studied twice. Salas (1958), in his publication on the Mediterranean fruit fly,
Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), reported distribution data from 89 locations in Costa
Rica (except for provinces of Lim6n and Guanacaste). In 1979 Jir6n and Zeled6n pub-
lished another report with distributional data from 32 localities throughout the country.
On this occasion nine species of fruits commonly consumed by Costa Ricans were sam-
pled. Both studies mentioned the possibility that C. capitata and Anastrepha compete
for host plants. It has been shown that except on Coffea arabica L., Prunus persica
(L.) Batsch, Byrsonima crossifolia L., Terminalia catappa L., Citrus reticulata Blanco
and C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck, Anastrepha appears more often than C. capitata in Costa
Rica (Salas 1958, Foote 1967). The most common species of Anastrepha in commercially
important fruits are: A. striata, A. obliqua, and A. serpentina. Due to lack of quantita-
tive information, a large scale research program was undertaken that focused on sea-
sonal occurrence, geographical distribution and infestation rates. The present paper
reports fruit fly species associated with host plants.


Between April 1985 and November 1986, fruit were collected from 201 localities
(Fig. 1). Each collection consisted of at least four infested fruits which were taken to
the laboratory and placed in wide-mouth jars as described by Jir6n and Zeled6n (1979).
Sawdust was utilized instead of sand. Host plants included in this study were: Psidium
guajava L. (guava), P. savannarum Donn. Smith. (gaizaro), P. friedrichsthalianum
(Berg) Ndzu (Costa Rican sour guava), Mangifera indica L. (mango), Spondias pur-
purea L. (Spanish plum), S. dulcis Parkinson (june plum), S. monbin L. (jobo), Manil-
kara achras (Mill.) Fosberg (zapote colorado), Chrysophyllum cainito L. (purple
caimito), Pouteria cainito Radlk. (yellow caimito), Calocarpum mammosum (L.) Pierre
caimitoo), Diospyros digyna L. (tropical legume), Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava),
and Passiflora quadrangularis L. (granada). In addition, Inga edulis Mart.
(cuajiniquil), I. marginata Willd. (Spanish guava), Inga Miller sp., and Prunus persica

64 Florida Entomologist 71(1) March, 1988


*-Y \-, ALojueLa -
S- Heredia SEA
.* * \
.Guanacaste --. *

X \
V a * *J \\ 4 1

1Puntarenas r' San Jose L Crtago / *^
I"0 o- .

S.n Jose .
S r--- Limrn6n
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45km ,

Puntarenas *

Fig. 1. Localities in Costa Rica where 16 species of fruits infested with Anastrepha
and Ceratitis fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) were collected during 1985 and 1986.

(L.) Batsch (cling peach), which are not associated with commercial monocultures in
Costa Rica, were also included. Adults that emerged were pinned for later identifica-
tion, using Steyskal's taxonomic key (1977). In cases of doubtful determination, speci-
mens were sent to Dr. A. L. Norrbom (Systematic Entomology Laboratory, ARS,
USDA, Washington, D.C.).


Total number of adults obtained in the laboratory from 440 fruit collections was 4126.
Of this total 3932 (95.3%) belonged to the genus Anastrepha [A. obliqua, A. striata, A.
serpentina, the cassava fruit flies A. manihoti Lima and A. pickeli Lima, the Inga fruit
fly A. distinct Greene, A. chiclayae Greene, and A. fraterculus (Wiedemann)] and 194
(4.7%) were C. capitata. Only 0.9% of the fruit collections were infested by C. capitata.
The proportion of the different fruit fly species associated with 18 host plants is
shown in Table 1. Notice that infestation by C. capitata is extremely low, and except
for the introduced P. persica, the figures are below 7%. The three commercially impor-
tant host plants, P. guajava (n= 138), M. indica (n = 91), and P. friedrichsthalianum
(n= 33), were sampled most extensively. We found that P. guajava was infested by A.
striata in 97.8% of all cases. Similarly, P. friedrichsthalianum, another species of Myr-

Jiron & Hedstrom: Fruit Flies in Costa Rica

taceae, is also attacked primarily by A. striata (97%). In the case of M. indica, A.
obliqua occurred most often (92.7%). No data has been published on the infestation rate
for wild or semi-wild Anastrepha host plants, but preliminary studies on infestation
rates for A. striata in different localities in Costa Rica show that as much as 92.5% of
common guava and 97.5% of sour guava are attacked (Jir6n, unpubl. data).
The flies showed a marked preference for certain plant families (Table 1). An ex-
treme example is A. distinct, which infested species of Inga (Fabaceae) exclusively
and was the only fruit fly species found attacking the three species of Inga. Similarily,
A. serpentina appears to prefer the family Sapotaceae. Data from Table 2 support the
hypothesis that fruit flies prefer certain plant families.


Table 2 shows the annual ocurrence of adults and larvae of eight species of Anas-
trepha and Ceratitis associated with different host plants in Costa Rica. After a 19-
month sampling period, we noticed that the phenology of plants may vary according to
local climatic conditions, which affect the physiology of different mango varieties
(Hedstr6m, et al. 1986). Many host plants are widely distributed throughout Costa
Rica, i.e. M. indica, P. guajava and P. friedrichsthalianum, which allowed us to ob-
serve the effects of climatic patterns on host phenology (Table 2).

A. obliqua West Indies fruit fly.

This species infested M. indica, P. guajava, S. purpurea, S. mombin and S. dulcis.
It was primarily associated with M. indica and Spondias spp. (both wild and cultivated)
as shown in Table 1. [Of 91 samples of attacked M. indica from 69 localities, 92.7% were
infested by A. obliqua, 6.3% by C. capitata, and 0.1% by A. serpentina (Table 1)].
Individual fruits were infested by only on fruit fly species. A. obliqua infests M. incica
from May to September, but subsequently infests other hosts (Anacardiaceae) such as
S. purpurea. S. mombin and S. purpurea which are used by growers as living fences.
Fruits of S. purpurea are available to female flies from April to June (overlapping with
M. incica, Table 1). Apparently, the same applies to S. dulcis.
The population dynamics of A. obliqua depends on the variety of M. indica (Joel
1980, Guillo-Sosa et al. 1985, Soto-Manitiu et al., in press). Although mango varieties
were not distinguished in this study, the one known locally as "criollo" was never found
infested with Anastrepha.
Infestation of M. indica by fruit flies reaches 70% in Costa Rica (Soto-Manitiu et.
al. 1986). There is a peak shortly after the onset of the rainy season (W. Umafia, pers.
comm.), which suggests that Anastrepha adults (mainly A. obliqua) survives between
crops as pupae under ground. In our laboratory, five adults ofA. obliqua emerged after
some 200 days as pupae in dry dirt in a jar. In agreement with previous authors, we
found that A. obliqua is the most common fruit fly in mango (90% of infested fruits in
Costa Rica, Soto-Manitiu 1986, and present in ten out of eleven varieties in Guatemala,
Guillo-Sosa et al. 1984). In Central America this fly infests: Anacardium occidentale
L. (marai6n), Annona spp. (an6nas), Averrhoa carambola L. (carambola), y Citrus
aurantium L. (naranja agria), C. grandis (L.) Osbeck (toronja), Dovyalis hebecarpa
Warb. (kitembila), Eriobotryajaponica (Thumb.) Lindl. (nispero), Eugenia uniflora L.
pitangaa), Manilkara achras (zapote colorado), P. guajava, Spondias spp. y Syzygium
jambos L. (manzana rosa) (Soto-Manitiu, 1986). We have sampled these fruits and found
larvae, which suggests that A. obliqua prefers M. indica, S. purpurea and S. mombin
in Costa Rica.









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Jiron & Hedstrom: Fruit Flies in Costa Rica 69

In addition, we observed mango cultivated from 5 m s.m. (JicarAl, Province of Pun-
tarenas) to 1300 m s.m. (San Rafael de Montes de Oca, Province of San Jose). These
localities are situated in the tropical dry and rain forests, respectively. In the first
region, as well as in other areas with well defined seasons (Aranjuez, Cafias, Barranca,
Esparza, Orotina, etc), mango is easily cultivated for commercial purposes. On the
other hand, mango is adversely affected by the climate in the tropical rain forest areas,
which have no predictable dry season. In these areas the flowering season of M. indica
is not well defined, the pollen grains become moist and sticky after a short period of
rain (Jir6n and Hedstrdm 1985), and the fruits produced are heavily affected by anthrac-
nose (a fungus disease) and/or by Anastrepha spp. and C. capitata. For these reasons
most orchards of M. indica are located in central Costa Rica and the Province of
Guanacaste, which represent the most suitable areas climatically for commercial mango
production (Fig. 2a). Varieties of M. indica differ in their fruiting phenology, even in
the same locality (Soto-Manitiu et al. 1986). Consequently M. indica fruits are available
from March to September, in many different locations of Costa Rica.

A. striata guava fruit fly.

The range of the guava fruit fly is the widest in the Anastrepha group, from
Guatemala in the north (Hedstrdm 1985) to Ecuador in the south (Hedstrom 1987). This
corresponds to the natural range of Psidium (Myrtaceae), which the fly can infest under
many climatic conditions (voltinism varies widely as does the phenology of P. guajava).
We found this species from sea level (Playa Junquillal, Province of Guanacaste) to 1510
m s.m. (Monteverde, Province of Puntarenas).
In 138 samples of P. guajava from 94 localities 97.8% were infested by A. striata,
P. guajava, is infested occasionally by A.obliqua (0.7%), A. fraterculus (Wiedemann)
(0.7%) and C. capitata (0.7%) (Table 1).
A. striata infests P. guajava year-round, however, population dynamics depend on
the geographic area. Recently we found that in Guapiles, Province of Lim6n (tropical
wet forest), A. striata survives year-round in secondary hosts, i.e. Persea americana
L. (avocado) (Lauraceae), P. friedrichsthalianum and S. dulcis. As mentioned before,
our samples showed that A. striata infests primarily three species of Myrtaceae. A.
striata was also found in two other secondary hosts, S. mombin and C. cainito (Table
1 and 2).
Common guava may be the most widely distributed Anastrepha and/or Ceratitis
host plant in Costa Rica. It is most abundant in tropical rain forest on Caribbean facing
slopes. These do not have a pronounced dry season (Fig. 2b). Due to genetic variability,
fruits support population of A. striata throughout the year. Table 1 shows that about
98% of the fruit flies on common guava are A. striata. Occasionally we found isolated
guava trees resistant to infestation by A. striata.
On the other hand, sour guava or "cas" has a restricted range in Costa Rica. It is
not grown commercially due to high fruit fly infestation. Our data come from isolated
but commercially exploited trees, since we knew of no large orchards. Consumers usu-
ally acccept these fruits even when a few larvae (that can be removed manually) are

A. serpentina fruit fly.

We collected 73 samples, from M. achras, C. cainito, C. mammosum and P. cainito,
with infestation rates of 98-100%. Apparently A. serpentina prefers Sapotaceae fruits
in the tropical wet (Province of Lim6n) and dry (Province of Guanacaste) forests. The
Sapotaceae fruits were infested primarily with A. serpentina in wet and dry zones. In

Florida Entomologist 71(1)


March, 1988



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Jiron & Hedstrim: Fruit Flies in Costa Rica

Guapiles (Province of Lim6n), adult flies appear with fruits of this plant family, showing
a close correlation with the phenologies of C. cainito and P. cainito.
A. serpentina was captured in traps set in a commercial orchard of M. indica in
Orotina, Province of Alajuela, during the fruiting of Sapotaceae, at the end of the dry
season and during the rainy season (Table 2). We caught 24 adults, but none emerged
from fruits cultured in the laboratory, which only produced A. obliqua. This suggests
that A. serpentina feeds on mango without ovipositing in the fruit or that the species
oviposits but does not survive.

Species of low incidence.

A. fraterculus (on P. guajava) is an economically important fruit fly in South
America (Malavasi et al. 1980). We found adults only twice, in P. guajava (Santiago de
San Ram6n, Province of Alajuela, and La Selva Biological Station, Sarapiqu, Province
of Heredia).
The cassava fruit flies, A. pickeli and A. manihoti, apparently coexist on M. es-
culenta through spatial separation: the former in terminal buds, the latter in fruit
capsules (Saunders & Salazar 1979). We have captured the passiflora fruit fly A. limae,
in McPhail traps in areas where M. esculenta is not cultivated (Province of Guanacaste),
which suggests that they also develop in wild euphorbs. The latter species was also
collected for the first time in Costa Rica while foraging on P. quadrangularis and
reported (together with A. pickeli) (Hedstrbm et al. 1985). Similarly, A. chiclayae
appeared in the tropical wet forest in La Selva Biological Station (Province of Heredia),
and in Buenos Aires de Puntarenas (Province of Puntarenas) where the host P. quad-
rangularis was not found (it occurs in La Garita, Province of Alajuela, where the
associations was found) (Table 1).
The Inga fruit fly A. distinct is closely associated with Fabaceae (Table 1), including
wild species and those used to provide shade in coffee plantations. The female can
oviposit in a woody fruit, seldom infested by other tephritids. Its range seems to match
the distribution of the host.
We captured C. capitata in an orchard of M. indica during 1984 (Fabio Baudrit
Experimental Station, La Garita, Province of Alajuela) and found large numbers of
female of the species in the traps early in the mango crop season (Hedstrdm and Jir6n
1985). The presence of C. capitata coincided with the fruiting of tangerins in La Garita.
Apparently, in Costa Rica, C. capitata is the only fruit fly infesting tangerines and
oranges (Fischel 1982). Although we have collected over 11,000 adult Anastrepha in
Costa Rica during three years of sampling (Jir6n & Hedstrdm, unpubl. data), we have
not found A. ludens. If it occurred here, it would probably have displaced Ceratitis from
citrus species (Salas 1958, Foote 1980), although this hypothesis needs to be tested.
C. capitata exists at low levels in Costa Rica and does not cause enough economic
damage to justify control (Table 1). For example, on coffee C. capitata infests only 5%
of the berries and causes no important economic impact (Fischel 1982). Apparently,
coffee sustains the population throughout the year at low population levels. The impor-
tance of C. capitata as a fruit pest in Costa Rica is related to the wide range of potential
host plants, which include those for export and hence present quarantine difficulties.

Fig. 2. Distribution of fruits. (A) Mango (Mangifera indica L.) collections, mainly
infested by the West Indies fruit fly Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), primarily in the
provinces of Guanacaste, Puntarenas and Alajuela, in the transitional tropical dry
forest. (B) Common guava (Psidium guajava L.) collections, mainly infested by the
guava fruit fly Anastrepha striata Schiner, primarily in the tropical rain forest life zone.

72 Florida Entomologist 71(1) March, 1988


Most species of Anastrepha have ranges that match their hosts. For fruits widely
distributed in Costa Rica, the most common fruit flies and host plant families are: A.
obliqua on Anacardiaceae, A. striata on Myrtaceae, A. serpentina on Sapotaceae, and
A. manihoti and A. pickeli on Euphorbiaceae. Of low incidence are C. capitata (on P.
guajava, P. fiedrichsthalianum, M. indica, M. achras, and C. cainito). Four samples
of P. persicae were completely infested by C. capiatat.
The apparent correlation between species of Anastrepha and host families suggests
a biochemical relationship, and the voltinism of part of these populations seems to
depend on the phenology of the primary host plant. Probably, many unknown wild hosts
of the appropriate families play an important role in the population dynamics of the flies.


This research was supported by the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas
y Tecnol6gicas (CONICIT) de Costa Rica and the Vicerrectoria de Investigaci6n de la
Universidad de Costa Rica. We are grateful to R. Zeled6n, Minister of Science and
Technology, Costa Rica, J. M. Soto-Manitiu, J. Monge-NAjera, M. J. West, R. G. Mex-
z6n and H. P. Sauter at the Universidad de Costa Rica, A. L. Norrbom, Systematic
Entomology Laboratory, USDA, ARS, Washington D.C., and three anonymous review-
ers for comments on the manuscript. The authors thank H. Lezama, I. M. Gonzalez, L.
E. Cordero and M. Diaz, Universidad de Costa Rica, for assisting in the field work.


FOOTE, R. H. 1980. Fruit fly genera south of the United States (Diptera, Tephritidae).
USDA Tech. Bull. No. 1600: 1-79.
FISCHEL, M. 1982. Fluctuaci6n en la densidad de poblaci6n y parasitoidismo en la
mosca del Mediterraneo (Ceratitis capitata) (Diptera, Tephritidae) en frutos de
caf6 (Coffea arabica) en la region de Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica.
Tesis, Fac. Agron., Universidad de Costa Rica, 53 p.
GUILLO-SOSA, M., F. M. ESKAFI, AND F. J. MANUEL. 1984. Identificaci6n de es-
pecies del g6nero Anastrepha, sus enemigos naturales y su preferencia a di-
ferentes variedades de mango en el Departamento de Retalhuleu, Guatemala.
Tikalia 3(1): 15-27.
HEDSTROM, I. 1985. Anastrepha striata (Diptera, Tephritidae), new to Guatemala.
Rev. Biol. Trop. 33: 195-196.
.1987. Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) infesting common guava (Psidium
guajava L.) (Myrtaceae) in Ecuador. Rev. Biol. Trop. 35 (1): 230-231.
--. AND L. F. JIRON. 1985. Evaluaci6n de campo de sustancias atrayentes en la
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--, J. M. SOTO-MANITIU, AND L. F. JIRON. 1986. Efecto de una interrupci6n de
la estaci6n lluviosa sobre la floraci6n del mango, (Mangifera indica L.) en el
Pacfico seco de Costa Rica. Agron. Costarr. 10: 221-226.
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Su & Scheffrahn: Delayed-Action Insectide for Termites 73

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Ft. Lauderdale Research and Education Center
University of Florida, IFAS
3205 College Ave.
Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33314


The topical LDo5 of N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (GX071) was estimated at
9.94 g/g against the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus, and
68.61 Rg/g against the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes. Under
force-fed conditions, C. formosanus was ca. three fold more susceptible to GX071
(LC = 4.22 ppm) than R. flavipes (LC5o= 13.6 ppm). When applied topically, 5-15 days
elapsed before 90% of the R. flavipes died (corresponding dose range:100-250 pg/g),
while a similar mortality rate was recorded for C. formosanus after 2-7 days exposure
at a lower dose range: 14.0-37.5 pg/g. Ninety percent of both termite species were killed
3-12 days after being force-fed with GX071, but at a lower concentration range for C.


El LDso tipico de N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidae [G X 071) se estim6 ser 9.94
pjg/g contra la termita subterrinea de Formosa, Coptotermes formosanus, 68.61 pg/g

74 Florida Entomologist 71(1) March, 1988

contra la termita subterrAnea del este, Reticulitermes flavipes. Cuando se les forz6 a
comer, C. formosanus fue aproximadamente tres veces mas susceptible a G X 071
(LC5 o=4.22 ppm) que R. flavipes (LC5o= 13.6 ppm). Cuando se aplicaron t6picamente,
pasaron de 5 a 15 dias antes de que muriera el 90% de R. flavipes (fluctuaci6n de la
correspondiente d6sis:100-250pg/g), mientras que un grado similar de mortalidad se
registr6 en C. formosanus despues de 2 a 7 dias expuestos a una d6sis menor de
fluctuaci6n: 14.0-37.5pg/g. El 90% de las dos species de termitas murieron de 3 a 12
dias de haber sido forzadas a comer G X 071, pero a una fluctuaci6n de concentraci6n
mds baja para C. formosanus.

Subterranean termites (Rhinotermitidae) are major structural pests in the United
States. Monetary loss in 1983 due to the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes
flavipes (Kollar), and the dark southern subterranean termite, R. virginicus (Banks),
amounted to ca. $470 million for nine southeastern states (Hamer 1985). In the western
United States, R. hesperus Banks causes damage and loss of similar magnitude. In
addition to these native rhinotermitids, the Formosan subterranean termite, Cop-
totermes formosanus Shiraki, is found in Hawaii and at least six southeastern states.
The control cost in 1985 for C. formosanus in Hawaii alone was estimated at $60 million
(Tamashiro et al. 1987).
Current control measures for subterranean termites depend heavily on soil ter-
miticides such as chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, and more recently,
pyrethroids. Reliance on these persistent compounds in the urban environment has
aroused public concern (La Fage 1986). Moreover, soil treatments are not designed to
eliminate termite colonies but only provide barriers to separate structures from soil-
born infestations of subterranean termites. Sources of infestations, especially with ex-
pansive colonies such as those of C. formosanus, therefore remain viable near the
structures even after treatment.
Esenther and Beal (1974, 1978) used baits containing the slow-acting compound,
dechlorane (mirex), to suppress activities of Reticulitermes colonies under field condi-
tions. Gao et al. (1985) reported successful field control of termite infestations with
mirex baits. The use of slow-acting and nonrepellent insecticides offers a possible strat-
egy for subterranean termite control. This probably remains the only feasible method
for destruction of established C. formosanus colonies that may contain massive popula-
tions (Su et al. 1982b). If introduced into the colony's foraging gallery system, such a
compound could be transferred to unexposed nestmates via social grooming or trophal-
laxis. The characteristics of slow-acting baits required for effective control of C. for-
mosanus are similar to those for baits used against the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis
invicta Burn (Williams et al. 1980).
Laboratory studies have shown that hydramethylnon, avermectin B1, and some
insect growth regulators exhibit delayed toxicity against C. formosanus or R. flavipes
(Jones 1984, Su et al. 1985, 1987). A field trial using hydramethylnon baits, however,
did not successfully control C. formosanus colonies (Su et al. 1982a).
Vander Meer et al. (1985) reported on a new class of delayed-action insecticides, the
fluoroaliphatic sulfones, for control of S. invicta. We tested one of the promising com-
pounds in this class, N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (GX071), for its topical and
oral toxicity, and lethal time against C. formosanus and R. flavipes.


Both C. formosanus and R. flavipes were collected from field colonies by the method
of Su & Scheffrahn (1986). Termites (undifferentiated larvae, i.e. "workers") of at least

Su & Scheffrahn: Delayed-Action Insectide for Termites 75

the third instar were tested. Technical grade (> 99%) GX071 (Griffin Corp., Valdosta,
GA) was used in this study.
1. Topical toxicity and lethal time.
Thirty workers were anesthetized with CO2 gas for 20 sec and inoculated with a 0.5
pl droplet of GX071 in acetone solution at delivered dosages of 0, 0.075, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3,
0.4, and 0.5 jig/termite for C. formosanus and 0, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 ig/termite
for R. flavipes. A microapplicator (Model M, Instrumentation Specialities Co., Inc.) was
used to administer the droplet onto insects' abdomens. The mean worker biomass of the
source colonies, 5.3 mg for C. formosanus and 2.0 mg for R. flavipes, was used to
convert the jig/termite dose to jg/g termite biomass. Treated termites were transferred
to petri dishes (5.0 cm diam by 1.5 cm high) provisioned with two filter paper discs
(Whatman No. 1) moistened with deionized water. Three C. formosanus soldiers or one
R. flavipes soldier were added to each unit for each species to approximate colony
soldier proportions. The experimental units were stored in an environmental chamber
at 29 1 C. Dead or moribund workers were recorded and removed from each unit
daily for 14 days. Mortalities at 14 days were corrected by Abbott's (1925) formula and
topical LDso values were computed by probit analysis (SAS Institute 1985). The effective
lethal time (ELTo), defined as the time required for a fixed dosage of GX071 to kill
90% of the test insects (Su et al. 1987), was derived to quantify lethal time using the
daily mortality data.
2. Oral toxicity and lethal time.
One hundred workers (plus five soldiers for C. formosanus and one soldier for R.
flavipes) were placed in petri dishes (5.0 cm diam by 1.5 cm high) provisioned with
absorbant cellulose pads (4.7 cm diam, Gelman Instrument Co.), impregnated with
GX071, and moistened with deionized water. Concentrations tested for C. formosanus
were 0-10 ppm (wt./wt.) in one ppm increments, and 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and
60 ppm for R. flavipes. All treatments were replicated three times. Termites were
forced-fed on the treated paper for 24 h at 29 1 C and transferred to similar petri
dishes containing untreated filter paper. The post-exposure observation period was 14
days. Oral LDsos and ELTgos were computed by procedures described above.


Mortality of untreated termites after 14 days was <9% for C. formosanus and <3%
for R. flavipes in both tests. The topical LD50 (at 14 day) of GX071 was estimated at
9.94 jig/g for C. formosanus and 68.61 jig/g for R. flavipes, equaling a seven-fold
greater susceptibility for the Formosan subterranean termite than the eastern sub-
terranean termite (Table 1). A significant (a = 0.05) difference in the susceptibility be-
tween these two species was also found for the oral LC5o. Again, GX071 exhibited a ca.
three fold greater toxicity against C. formosanus (LC5o=4.22 ppm) than R. flavipes
(LCo = 13.60 ppm).
Beal & Smith (1971) who studied the relative susceptibilities of three subterranean
termites to aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, and heptachlor, concluded that R. flavipes and
R. virginicus were more vulnerable to these compounds than C. formosanus. Based on
their findings, the current chlordane label recommends twice the concentration for C.
formosanus soil treatments over the Reticulitermes rate. Laboratory studies with in-
sect growth regulators and other slow-acting insecticides also support the norm that C.
formosanus is more tolerant to chemical treatments than R. flavipes.
Contrary to the above general perception, GX071 was selectively more toxic to C.
formosanus than R. flavipes. Results of lethal time studies further confirm this obser-
vation. When applied topically, 5-15 days elapsed before 90% of the R. flavipes workers
died (corresponding dose range: 100-250 jig/g), while a similar mortality rate was re-

76 Florida Entomologist 71(1) March, 1988


LD50 (1ig/g)
or LC5o (ppm)
Species Wt. (mg SE) (95% FL) Slope SE

C.formosanus 5.3 0.4 9.94 0.35 0.0054
Topical (8.91-11.7)
(gg/g) R.flavipes 2.0 0.2 68.61 0.03 0.0085

C.formosanus 5.4 0.3 4.22 0.78 0.1980
Oral (3.13-5.24)
(ppm) R.flavipes 1.8 0.1 13.60 0.14 0.0369

corded for C. formosanus after 2-7 days post-exposure at a lower dose range: 14.0-37.5
pig/g (Fig. 1). All C. formosanus workers exposed to GX071 at >50 ig/g were killed
within 24 h after the inoculation. Oral ELTos were similar for both species: 3-12 days
(Fig. 1), but at a lower concentration range for C. formosanus.
Higher concentrations of GX071 used in preliminary tests (>10 ppm for C. for-
mosanus and >250 ppm for R. flavipes) caused instantaneous death to both termite
species. Shortly before death, the termites showed ataxia and subsequent involuntary
jittering of appendages. Termites exposed to a lower concentration, as shown in this
study, also exhibited ataxia and body size reduction before the onset of death. Vander
Meer et al. (1985) who reported some fluoroaliphatic sulfones were effective against the
house fly, American and German cockroaches, and a mosquito species, speculated that
these compounds may be stomach poisons.
Results of this study indicate that GX071 concentrations >10 ppm for C. for-
mosanus, and >250 ppm for R. flavipes may be effective as soil termiticides or wood
preservatives due to the acute toxicity. The slower ELTo doses (5-10 ppm and 100-250
ppm for C. formosanus and R. flavipes, respectively) should be considered for baits or
tracking powder. More studies are needed to investigate the inter-relationship among
concentration, feeding deterrency, and mortality before a candidate bait or tracking
powder can be developed for field tests.


We thank P. M. Ban for experimental assistance, A. Las for supplying the insec-
ticide, and T. Center and D. F. Williams for reviewing this manuscript. This study was
funded, in part, by the Griffin Corp. Additional funds were provided by the Florida
Lumber and Building Materials Dealers Assn. This article is Fla. Agric. Exp. Stn. J.
Series No. 8338.


ABBOTT, W. S. 1925. A method for computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J.
Econ. Entomol. 18: 265-267.

Su & Scheffrahn: Delayed-Action Insectide for Termites 77

16 16


11 f11

0' I I

6 > 6

0 50 100 150 200 250 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Dose (ug/g) Concentration (ppm)

Fig. 1. Time (days) required to kill 90% (or ELT9o- 95% FL) of C. formosanus (solid
circles) and R. flavipes (open circles) topically (A) inoculated with or force-fed (B) on
papers treated with N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide.

BEAL, R. H. AND V. K. SMITH. 1971. Relative susceptibilities of Coptotermes for-
mosanus, Reticulitermesflavipes, and R. virginicus to soil insecticides. J. Econ.
Entomol. 64: 472-475.
ESENTHER, G. R. AND R. H. BEAL. 1974. Attractant-mirex bait suppresses activity
of Reticulitermes spp. J. Econ. Entomol. 67: 85-88.
1978. Insecticidal baits on field plot perimeters suppress Reticulitermes. J.
Econ. Entomol. 71: 604-607.
GAO, D., B. ZHU, B. GAN, S. HE, AND S. YUAN. 1985. A new toxic bait for the
control of forest-infesting termites. J. Nanjing Inst. For. 3: 128-131 (in Chinese
with English summary).
HAMER, J. L. 1985. Southeastern branch insect detection, evaluation and prediction
report 1983. Vol. 8. Entomol. Soc. Am., College Park, MD.
JONES, S. C. 1984. Evaluation of two insect growth regulators for the bait-block
method of subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) control. J. Econ.
Entomol. 77: 1086-1091.
LA FAGE, J. P. 1986. Subterranean termites: A personal perspective, pp. 45-57. In:
P. Zungoli [ed.], Proc. Nat'l. Conf. Urban Entomol. Univ. Maryland, College
Park. MD.
SAS INSTITUTE INC. 1985. SAS user's guide: Statistics, version 5 edition. SAS Insti-
tute, Cary, N.C.
SU, N.-Y. AND R. H. SCHEFFRAHN. 1986. A method to access, trap, and monitor
field populations of the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinoter-
mitidae) in the urban environment. Sociobiology 12: 299-304.
Su, N.-Y., M. TAMASHIRO, AND M. I. HAVERTY. 1985. Effects of three insect
growth regulators, feeding substrates and colony origin on survival and presol-
dier production of the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinoter-
mitidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 78: 1259-1263.

78 Florida Entomologist 71(1) March, 1988

S1987. Characterization of slow-acting insecticides for the remedial control of
the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). J. Econ. En-
tomol. 80: 1-4.
Su, N.-Y., M. TAMASHIRO, AND J. R. YATES. 1982a. Trials on the field control of
the Formosan subterranean termite with Amdro bait. The Int'l. Res. Group on
Wood Pres. Document No. IRG/WP/1163.
Su, N.-Y., M. TAMASHIRO, J. R. YATES, AND M. I. HARVERTY. 1982b. Effect of
behavior on the evaluation of insecticides for prevention of or remedial control
of the Formosan subterranean termite. J. Econ. Entomol. 75: 188-193.
TAMASHIRO, M., J. R. YATES, AND R. H. EBESU. 1987. The Formosan subterranean
termite in Hawaii: problem and control, pp. 15-22. In: M. Tamashiro and N.-Y.
Su [eds.], Biology and control of the Formosan subterranean termite. College of
Trop. Agr. Human Resources, Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI.
VANDER MEER, R. K., C. S. LOFGREN, AND D. F. WILLIAMS. 1985. Fluoroaliphatic
sulfones: a new class of delayed-action insecticides for control of Solenopsis in-
victa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 78: 1190-1197.
PLUMLEY. 1980. Laboratory studies with 9 amidinohydrazones, a promising
new class of bait toxicants for control of red imported fire ants. J. Econ. Entomol.
73: 798-802.


United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service
U. S. Vegetable Laboratory, Charleston, SC 29407


Exposure of newly emerged spotted cucumber beetle (Diabrotica undecimpunctata
howardi) females to photophases of 12 and 13 hr and temperatures of 20 and 25C
inhibited development. Photophases of 12 and 13 hr at 300C and 14 hr at 20, 25, and
30C resulted in normal ovarian development. Inhibition of ovary development at short
photophase continued for 30 to 60 days at 200C. This reproductive diapause was induced
and maintained by early and continuous exposure to short photophase. No difference
in foliage consumption was found between diapausing and non-diapausing beetles.


Se inhibi6 el desarrollo de hembras del escarabajo manchado del pepino, Diabrotica
undecimpunctata howardi, con peridos de 12 y 13 horas de luz y a temperatures de 20
y 25C. Exposici6n a luz de 12 y 13 hrs a 300 y a 14 hrs a 20, 25, y 30C result en un
desarrollo normal de los ovarios. Inhibici6n del desarrollo de los ovarios continue con
corta exposici6n a luz por 30 a 60 dias a 200C. Esta diapausa reproductive fue inducida
y mantenida por exposici6n temprana y continda a periods cortos de luz. No se encontr6
diferencia en el consume de follaje entire escarabajos en diapausa y los que no estaban
en diapausa.

Elsey: Diapause in Diabrotica

The spotted cucumber beetle (Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber) is
known to lay first generation eggs in late winter and early spring in the southeastern
states (Isely 1929, Arant 1929, Elsey 1988); however, the reproductive behavior of
overwintering adults in early fall and winter is less well known. Arant (1929) observed
that although beetles became active and fed during warm winter days, "few or no eggs
. are deposited during fall and early winter months". He also found that in Alabama
oviposition ceased about the first of October although temperature conditions and food
availability in this region would probably be favorable for continued reproduction. Elsey
(1988) found that in coastal South Carolina the degree of ovary maturation steadily
declined in beetles collected during late September and October. These observations of
declining reproductivity in fall may indicate development of reproductive diapause in
response to shortening day length. To investigate this further, I reared beetles at
various combinations of temperature and photoperiod to determine whether reproduc-
tive diapause exists in the spotted cucumber beetle and, if so, to explore its induction
and termination conditions.


Spotted cucumber beetle eggs, larvae, and adults were reared and maintained ac-
cording to the methods of Cuthbert et al. (1968) with the exceptions of using sprouted
wheat rather than corn for larval food and a dry diet for adults (Guss & Krysan 1973).
Preliminary experiments showed that ovaries of adult females usually developed to
maturity when beetles were held with ample food at long day photoperiods for 120
degree-days (threshold minimum = 100C). Therefore, in the following experiments, the
beetles were exposed to at least 120 degree-days before dissecting them to determine
the degree of ovarian maturation. In order to achieve an objective method of expressing
ovarian maturation, I multiplied the length of the largest ovarial lobe by its width to
arrive at an "ovary product". I classified beetles with an ovary product of <1.0 as
having immature ovaries, those with an ovary factor of 1.0 to 4.0 as having developing
ovaries, and those with an ovary product of >4.0 as having mature ovaries. Beetles
with immature ovaries after 120 degree-days were considered to be in diapause. The
ovary product was transformed by log(x + 1) for mean-separation tests. Experiments
were conducted in reach-in incubators (Shearer Model CEL 2556) with temperature
fluctuation of + 0.5C.
Diapause induction. In preliminary work, I found that only the adult stage was
sensitive to diapause induction. Therefore, in order to determine the environmental
requirements for induction of diapause, newly closed (<24hr) beetles were reared and
held at several different combinations of temperature and photoperiod. Thirty adults of
mixed sex were placed in 18 x 13 x 10 cm plastic containers with ventilated lids. Four
of these containers with beetles were held at each of the following photoperiod and
temperature regimes: Light:Dark (LD) 12:12, 20, 25, and 300C; LD 13:11, 20, 25, and
30C; LD 14:10, 20, 25, and 300C. After 120 degree-days at each regime, female beetles
were dissected and measured.
Another experiment was conducted to estimate the amount and timing of short
photophase necessary to induce diapause. Forty groups of 10 newly emerged beetles
were confined in ventilated 12 x 8 x 6.5 cm plastic containers. Four groups (each of
which constituted a replication) were held initially at either LD 12:12 or LD 14:10 at
22"C for 0, 2, 4, 6, or 10 days and then transferred to the other regime for the length
of time necessary to complete the experiment (20 days). For instance, one treatment
was initially held for 2 days at LD 12:12 and then transferred to LD 14:10 for 18 days
for a total of 20 days. After 20 days, the female beetles in the 10 groups were dissected
and measured.

Florida Entomologist 71(1)

Diapause duration. To determine the length of time adult females remained in
diapause and the effect of photoperiodicity in terminating it, several hundred adults
were placed in each of 8 30 x 30 x 12 cm ventilated polyethylene containers and held at
LD 12:12 and 200C. After 12 days (which was previously found to be sufficient to place
the adults in diapause), 4 crispers were transferred to LD 14:10 and 20C and the other
4 remained at LD 12:12 and 200C. Samples of 5 to 10 female beetles were taken from
each container at 12, 22, 32, 42, and 52 days after the beginning of the experiment and
dissected and measured.
Feeding behavior. The quantity of food eaten by diapausing and nondiapausing adult
females was compared. Two groups of twenty newly emerged female beetles were
individually confined in 100 x 15 mm plastic petri dishes and held at 22C at either LD
14:10 or LD 12:12. A fresh cucumber leaf was introduced every 2 days and the amount
of feeding on the previous leaf was measured with a Portable Area Meter (Lambda
Instrument Corporation). After 21 days the beetles were dissected and measured.


Diapause induction. Female beetles held at LD 14:10 for 120 degree-days tended
to have mature ovaries at each of the three experimental temperatures (Fig. 1). Most




o 2.0-



I 1
25 30

Temp. OC

Fig. 1. Ovary products for spotted cucumber beetle adult females held for 120 de-
gree-days at nine photoperiod temperature combinations SE.


March, 1988

Elsey: Diapause in Diabrotica 81

of the beetles held at LD 12:12 and LD 13:11 had immature ovaries at 20 and 25C, but
the ovaries of those held at 300C were mature. By partitioning the degrees of freedom
and sums of squares for treatment effects into meaningful single degrees of freedom
and associated sums of squares (Little & Hills 1978), significant differences (p <0.01)
were found between 14 hr photophase and 12 or 13 hr photophase and between 30C
and 20 or 25C. This indicated a reproductive diapause induced by photophase under 14
hr, but strongly modified by high temperature.
Table 1 shows that extremes of reproductivity were produced by continuous expo-
sure to 12 hr photophase resulting in immature ovaries and continuous exposure to 14
hr photophase resulting in mature ovaries. Beetles exposed to various combinations of
the two photophases fell in between, but the ovaries of beetles exposed longer to 12 hr
photophase tended to be smaller. It would appear that early and continuous exposure
to short day length is necessary for induction and maintenance of diapause. For exam-
ple, initial exposure of as much as 10 days to 12 hr photophase may have initiated
diapause, but it was not maintained during the subsequent 10 days of 14 hr photophase.
Also, an initial 2 day exposure to 14 hr photophase was sufficient to preclude diapause
induction even when followed by 18 days of short photophase.


Days at given photophase
(Top line = initial,
bottom line = transferred to) Ovary product

12 hr-0 7.10 a
14 hr-20
12hr-2 5.07 ab
14 hr-18
12 hr-- 4.09 ab
14 hr-16
12 hr-6 4.58 ab
14 hr-14
12 hr-10 3.34 b
14 hr-10
14 hr-0 .55 c
12 hr-20
14hr-2 3.72ab
12 hr-18
14 hr-4 3.09 b
12 hr-16
14 hr-6 3.85 ab
12 hr-14
14 hr-10 3.05 b
12 hr-10

x = 3.84
aMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different (P <0.05; Duncan's multiple range test).

82 Florida Entomologist 71(1) March, 1988

4.0 -



0 DI I I I

10 20 30 40 50

Days After Adult Eclosion

Fig. 2. Ovary products of spotted cucumber beetle adult females held at LD 12:12
and LD 14:10 at 200C after being held for 12 days at LD 12:12 SE.

Diapause duration. The reproductive diapause of the spotted cucumber beetle was
of relatively short duration. After 22 days at LD 12:12 the ovary size steadily increased
(Fig. 1). By 32 days 25% of the beetles were out of diapause, and after 52 days 84% of
the beetles had mature or developing ovaries. Switching beetles after 12 days at LD
12:12 to LD 14:10 hastened exit from diapause by about 10 days (Fig. 2).
Feeding behavior. The ovary product of beetles held at 12 hr photophase was signific-
antly less than those held at 14 hr photophase (ovary product = .75 and 2.33 respec-
tively, sig. at p <.01, t = 4.553) indicating that beetles reared at the shorter photophase
had entered diapause. However, the amount of feeding by the two groups during the
course of the experiment were nearly equal. The mean foliage area consumed (in cm2)
per day was 4.7 for beetles held at 12 hr photophase and 4.5 for those held at 14 hr
(nonsignificant at p < 0.05, t = .677).


The laboratory results indicate that the spotted cucumber beetle shows a typical
long day response curve. Reproductive diapause occurred when newly closed beetles
were exposed to an approximate critical photoperiod of LD 13:11, which occurs about
September 1 at the latitude of Charleston. Arant (1929) in Alabama and Elsey (1988)
in South Carolina did not find decreasing reproductivity until October. Since the
diapause response was negated by high temperature (Fig. 1), it is possible that the
warm temperatures in September (R = 75.70C at Charleston) may override the short
photophase and delay diapause until cooler temperatures prevail.
The reproductive diapause of the spotted cucumber beetle differs from that of many
temperate insects because of its low intensity. The duration of diapause under our
laboratory conditions is short and easily shortened by exposure to long photophase (Fig.
2). Behavioral differences noted in diapausing adults of some other chrysomelid beetles
were not found in the spotted cucumber beetle. Diapausing beetles were not less active

Elsey: Diapause in Diabrotica

than nondiapausing beetles as was observed in the striped cucumber beetle (Cuthbert
et al. 1968), nor did they eat less, as found in the tobacco flea beetle (Elsey 1976) and
the bean leaf beetle (Schumm et al. 1983). It would be interesting to compare diapause
of spotted cucumber beetles from South Carolina with those of higher latitudes where
intensity of diapause may be different.


ARANT, F. S. 1929. Biology and control of te southern corn rootworm. Ala. Polytech.
Inst. Agric. Ext. Bull. 230 pp.
CUTHBERT, F. P., JR., C. S. CREIGHTON, AND R. B. CUTHBERT. 1968. Mass rearing
banded cucumber beetles with notes on rearing spotted and striped cucumber
beetles. Jour. Econ. Entomol. 61: 288-292.
ELSEY, K. D. 1976. Bionomic comparison of two parasites of the tobacco flea beetle,
a nematode and a wasp. Tobacco Sci. 20: 177-180.
ELSEY, K. D. 1988. Cucumber beetle seasonality in coastal South Carolina. Environ.
Entomol. In press.
Guss, P. L. AND J. L. KRYSAN. 1973. Maintenance of the southern corn rootworm
on a dry diet. Jour. Econ. Entomol. 66: 352-353.
ISELY, D. 1929. The southern corn rootworm. Bull. Arkansas Agric. Exp. Sta. 232.
32 pp.
LITTLE, T. M. AND F. J. HILLS. 1978. Agricultural Experimentation. John Wiley
and Sons, New York. 350 pp.
SCHUMM, M., R. E. STINNER, AND J. R. BRADLEY, JR. 1983. Characteristics of
diapause in the bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster) (Coleopt-
era:Chrysomelidae). Environ. Entomol. 12: 475-477.

Florida Entomologist 71(1)



Department of Agriculture
Apartado Postal 185
Guasave, Sinaloa, Mexico 81000

The tomato pinworm (TPV), Keiferia lyopersicella (Walsingham), is by far the most
important pest of processing and fresh market tomatoes in the Guasave and Del Fuerte
Valleys of Sinaloa, M6xico. This is especially true for late plantings, during the months
of April, May and June. Damage to fruit can be as high as 40%, despite continuous use
of broad-spectrum insecticides such as fenvalerate, methomyl and permethrin to control
TPW. In view of this, Campbell's de Mexico recently initiated an integrated pest man-
agement (IPM) program for processing tomatoes. One aspect of this program was to
determine the parasites of K. lycopersicella larvae and to assess their potential as
bio-control agents for controlling this insect.
Two fields of processing tomatoes in the northern part of Sinaloa, M6xico were
surveyed. A field near Chino de los L6pez was sampled during 1985-86 and one near
Tamazula was sampled during 1986-87. One hundred leaves mined by TPW were col-
lected at random from each field weekly. Those leaflets having the TPW larvae inside
were wrapped with cotton at the petiole and watered every two days to enhance de-
velopment of TPW larvae or parasites. Each leaflet was kept individually in a petri dish
until pupae of TPW or a parasite cocoon was observed. The samples were held in a
rearing room at 26 3C and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) (Lin & Trumble 1985). Data
on emergence of adult moths and parasites were recorded.
Larval population of TPW in foliage and in fruit were monitored from time of fruit
set through harvest, by inspecting twenty five randomly sampled whole plants and one
hundred fruit, respectively, from each field at weekly basis. At Chino de los L6pez site,
a weekly spraying program with fenvalerate and methomyl was followed after 10 moths/
trap/night were captured on pheromone traps over a 10 day period. At the Tamazula
site, permethrin was used on a calendar basis with two sprays per week.
Two braconids were reared from TPW larvae: Apanteles scutellaris Muesebeck and
Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck). This appears to be the first record for A. scutel-
laris (as a parasite of TPW) from M6xico (P. M. Marsh, personal communication). These
two species are common in California (Oatman 1970, Cardona & Oatman 1971) and
Florida (Poe et al. 1975).
Although both species of parasites were recovered from the two sites (Table 1), their
impact varied with site and abundance of the host. At the Chino de los L6pez site, TPW
was rare; average density never exceeded 0.8 + 0.1 larvae per plant and at harvest
about 3% of the fruits were damaged. P. dignus was the prevalent species at this site,
averaging 12.1% parasitization; in contrast A. scutellaris accounted for a mean of only
1.1%. At the Tamazula site, the maximum host density averaged 40.5 9.3 larvae per
plant and at harvest about 80% of the fruits were damaged. A. scutellaris was the most
prevalent species, parasitizing an average of 59.4% of the hosts, while P. dignus only
parasitized a mean of 3.5%. These results are in general agreement with those of Oat-
man (1970) with respect to maximum parasitism reached by these parasites, when
highest infestations of TPW occurred. In California, he found up to 100% parasitism

March, 1988

Scientific Notes 85


Number of Individuals Emerged T
Total %
A. P. K. para-
Site Date scutellaris dignus lycopersicella sitization

Chino de los L6pez 22 May 1 11 84 12.5
(Growing Season) 30 May 0 3 20 13.1
1985-86 5 June 2 19 116 15.4
13 June 1 2 30 9.1
Tamazula 24 Nov. 21 0 5 80.7
(Growing Season) 1 Dec. 17 4 24 46.7
1986-87 15 Dec. 18 0 4 81.8
22 Dec. 21 0 3 87.5
29 Dec. 30 4 32 51.5
5 Jan. 57 2 42 58.4
18 Jan. 5 1 6 50.0
16 Feb. 20 0 2 90.9

whereas the highest I found in Sinaloa was 90.9%. In Florida, Pefia & Waddill (1983)
reported only 66.7% as a maximum.
Although the parasitism in the Tamazula field was relatively high, parasitized larvae
were still able to inflict a high level of damage to the fruit (80%). Moreover, it was
common to find cocoons of parasites attached to feeding sites on fruit and this further
reduced the quality.
One finding that needs further examination is the high rates of parasitization which
occurred despite heavy insecticide pressure. Natural development of resistance to
pyrethroids by parasites (Croft & Strickler 1983), selectivity of pyrethroids (Rajakulen-
dran & Plapp 1982, Wilkinson et al. 1979), or asynchrony of sprays with parasite biology,
are among possible reasons for this.
To fully assess the impact of these parasites on TPW populations, life table studies
should be conducted in order to measure generation or real mortality (cf. Ehler 1977)
rather than just partial or apparent mortality as reported here. The information gener-
ated from such studies should better indicate the importance of these natural enemies.
I wish to thank P. W. Marsh, Biosystematics and Beneficial Insects Institute, ARS,
USDA, Beltsville, Maryland for identification of the parasitoids. I am also grateful to
the staff of Agriculture Dept. for their assistance in the field collection of insect samples.
Suggestions by Lester E. Ehler and Nick C. Toscano on an earlier draft of this manu-
script are greatly appreciated.


CARDONA, C. AND E. R. OATMAN. 1971. Biology ofApanteles dignus (Hymenoptera:
Braconidae), a primary parasite of the tomato pinworm. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am.
64: 996-1007.
CROFT, B. A. AND K. STRICKLER. 1983. Natural enemy resistance to pesticides:
Documentation, characterization, theory, and application. In: Pest resistance to
pesticides: Challenge and prospects (G. P. Georghiou and T. Saito, ed.). Plenum
Press, New York 669-702.
EHLER, L. E. 1977. Natural enemies of cabbage looper on cotton in the San Joaquin
Valley. Hilgardia. 45: 73-106.

Florida Entomologist 71(1)

March, 1988

LIN, S. Y. H. AND J. T. TRUMBLE. 1985. Influence of temperature and tomato
maturity on development and survival of Keiferia lycopersicella (Lepidoptera:
Gelechiidae). Environ. Entomol. 14: 855-858.
OATMAN, E. R. 1970. Ecological studies on tomato in southern California. J. Econ.
Entomol. 63: 1531-4.
PEITA, J. E. AND V. WADDILL. 1983. Larval and egg parasitism of Keiferia lycoper-
sicella (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in southern Florida tomato
fields. Environ. Entomol. 12: 1322-6.
POE, S. L., J. P. CRILL, AND P. H. EVERETT. 1975. Tomato pinworm population
management in semitropical agriculture. Proc. Florida St. Hort. Soc. 88: 160-4.
RAJAKULENDRAN, S. V. AND F. W. PLAPP, JR. 1982. Comparative toxicities of five
synthetic pyrethroids to te tobacco budworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an
ichneumonid parasite, Campoletis sonorensis, and a predator, Chrysopa carnea.
J. Econ. Entomol. 75: 769-72.
WILKINSON, J. D., K. D. BIEVER, AND C. N. IGNOFFO. 1979. Synthetic pyrethroids
and organophosphate insecticides against the parasitoid Apanteles marginiven-
tris and the predators Geocoris punctipes, Hippodamia convergens, and Podisus
maculiventris. J. Econ. Entomol. 72: 473-5.


Department of Entomology, University of Alberta,
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6G 2E3


Mycogen Corporation, 5451 Oberlin Drive,
San Diego, California, 92121, U.S.A.

Tolypocladium cylindrosporum Gams causes epizootics in mosquito populations in
New Zealand (Weiser & Pillai 1981) and California (Soares et al. 1979) and is being
considered as a potential microbial control agent of mosquitoes. Every species of mos-
quito challenged with T. cylindrosporum is susceptible (Goettel 1987); however, little
is known about other hosts. It was demonstrated that the onion maggot Delia antigua
(Meigen) as well as aquatic non target organisms such as copepods, daphnia, mayflies,
and dixids are susceptible under laboratory conditions (Table 1). In nature, T. cylindros-
porum also has been found infecting Drosophila (Bissett 1983) and Plecia nearctica
Hardy larvae (Kish et al. 1974) and is commonly isolated from soil (Bissett 1983). We
report on new host records for T. cylindrosporum.
California isolates of T. cylindrosporum were cultured either on cereal or Sabouraud
dextrose agar for 1-2 weeks or in liquid shake culture in Adamek's (1965) medium for
3-4 days at 250C. Spores were harvested and diluted as described by Soares (1982).

'Present address: Insect Pathology Resource Center, Boyce Thompson Institute, Tower Road, Cornell University,
Ithaca, New York 14853.

Scientific Notes


Species Inoculation
Order/Family (stage) method' Source

Chaoboridae Chaoborus astictopus in-medium (c) Turlington et al. 1986
Culicidae numerous species in-medium + numerous studies
(larvae) field (c & b) see Goettel 1987
Aedes sierrensis topical wet (c) Soares 1982
Dixidae Paradixa sp. in-medium (c) Gardner & Pillai 1987
Bibionidae Plecia nearctica topical dry (c) Kish et al. 1977
Drosophilidae Drosophila sp. field isolation see Bissett 1983
Anthomyiidae Delia antiqua topical wet Poprawski et al. 1985
(pupae/adult) (b & c)
Leptophlepiidae Deleatidium sp. in-medium (c) Gardner 1984
Daphnidae Daphnia carinata in-medium (c) Gardner & Pillai 1987
Harpacticidae Tigriopus sp. in-medium (c) Gardner & Pillai 1987

'c= conidia, b = blastoconidia.

Most of the arthropods used in the infectivity tests were from laboratory cultures;
however, specimens of Chaoborus crystallinus De Geer, C. trivittatus Loew, and
Culicoides sp. were field-collected. Five methods of fungus inoculation were used: in-
medium, topical wet, topical wet swab, culture surface, and ingestion. The in-medium
method was used for all aquatic species. These were placed in 100-200 ml of a 5 x 106
to 1 x 107 spore/ml suspension. For topical application, the spore suspension was sprayed
onto the insect surface (4 x 105 blastoconidia or 2 x 104 conidia/cm2). For topical wet
swab application, larvae were painted on the integument with a 5 x 106 conidia/ml
suspension using a sterile cotton swab. For culture surface inoculation, insects were
placed on the surface of a two-week old culture for 1.5 hr. Control insects were allowed
to walk on the surface of sterile agar media. For inoculation via ingestion, insects were
starved for 24 hrs and then were allowed access to a 1 x 107 conidia/ml suspension in
10% sucrose. Control insects also were starved and then were provided with a 10%
sucrose solution without conidia.
Dead insects were removed daily and examined for signs of mycosis i.e., mycelia on
the body surface. To verify identity of the fungus, two slide cultures were prepared for
each insect species found with infections; all culture isolates were verified as T. cylin-
drosporum. Control insects were never found infected.
Several new host records for T. cylindrosporum were established; 4 aquatic and 4
terrestrial dipterans and 4 lepidopterans were infected. Two terrestrial insects, On-
copeltusfasciatus (Dallas) and Blattella germanica L. were not infected. The only other
insect previously reported as not being susceptible to T. cylindrosporum was the
notonectid Anisops sp. (Gardner 1984). We were unable to infect larvae of D. antiqua,
however, Poprawski et al. (1985) were successful in infecting pupae and adults of this

Florida Entomologist 71(1)

March, 1988

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Scientific Notes

We thank C. Ignoffo, L. Kish and J. Weiser for useful comments and suggestions
on the manuscript. Tracy Lam's present address is: Department of Medicine, Gastro-
Enterology Laboratory, University of Alberta, Edmonton Alberta, T6G 2R7. This work
was supported by funds from the Pesticide Chemicals Branch, Pollution Control Divi-
sion, Alberta Environment to D. A. Craig; a cooperative agreement between the Biolog-
ical Control Research Station, La Miniere, of the French National Institute for Agricul-
tural Research and the European Parasite Laboratory, United States Department of
Agriculture; the National Institutes of Health; and the Cooperative Extension Service
for the State of California-Special Mosquito Research Funds to GGS.


ADAMEK, L. 1965. Submerse cultivation of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae
(Metsch.). Folia Microbiol., 10: 255-257.
BISSETT, J. 1983. Notes on Tolypocladium and related genera. Canadian J. Bot. 61:
GARDNER, J. M. 1984. Mosquito larvicidal potential of the New Zealand strain of
Tolypocladium cylindrosporum. M.Sc. Diss. Univ. Otago, Dunedin.
GARDNER, J. M. AND J. S. PILLAI. 1987. Tolypocladium cylindrosporum
(Deuteromycotina:Moniliales) a fungal pathogen of the mosquito Aedes australis.
III. Field trials against two mosquito species. Mycopathologia 97: 83-88.
GOETTEL, M. S. 1987. Preliminary field trials with the entomopathogenic hyphomy-
cete Tolypocladium cylindrosporum. J. Amer. Mosq. Control Assoc. 3: 239-245.
KISH, L. P., C. E. ALLEN, J. W. KIMBROUGH, AND L. C. KUITERT. 1974. A survey
of fungi associated with the lovebug, Plecia nearctica in Florida. Florida En-
tomol. 57: 281-284.
KISH, L. P., I. TERRY, AND G. E. ALLEN. 1977. Three fungi tested against the
lovebug Plecia nearctica in Florida. Florida Entomol., 60: 291-295.
tibility of Delia antiqua (Diptera:Anthomyiidae) to eleven isolates of en-
tomopathogenic Hyphomycetes. Environ. Entomol. 14: 557-561.
SOARES, G. G. JR. 1982. Pathogenesis of infection by the hyphomycetous fungus
Tolyoocladium cylindrosporum Gams in Aedes sierrensis Ludlow and Culex
tarsalis Coquillet (Diptera:Culicidae). Entomophaga 27: 283-300.
SOARES, G. G. JR., D. E. PINNOCK, AND R. A. SAMSON. 1979. Tolypocladium, a
new fungal pathogen of mosquito larvae with promise for use in microbial control.
Proc. California Mosq. Vector Control Assoc. 47: 51-54.
TURLINGTON, L. W., D. L. WOODWARD, AND A. E. COLWELL. 1986. Susceptibility
of the Clear Lake Gnat, Chaoborus astictopus, to the hyphomycete fungus To-
lypocladium cylindrosporum. Proc. California Mosq. Vector Control Assoc. 53:
WEISER, J. AND J. S. PILLAI. 1981. Tolypocladium cylindrosporum (Deuteromy-
cetes, Moniliaceae) a new pathogen of mosquito larvae Entomophaga 26: 357-361.

90 Florida Entomologist 71(1) March, 1988


Systematic Entomology Laboratory, BBII, USDA,
c/o National Museum of Natural History,
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560

Arizona Commission of Agriculture,
1688 W. Adams St.
Phoenix, AZ 85007

Mole crickets of the genus Scapteriscus were introduced repeatedly into the United
States between 1895 and 1925. The three species involved-abbreviatus Scudder 1869,
acletus Rehn and Hebard 1916, and vicinus Scudder 11869-entered the United States
through different circuitous routes (Walker & Nickle 1981). Subsequently, it was deter-
mined that the homeland of all three species was Argentina and that these species
entered the United States in soil ballast of commercial sailing vessels commonly used
between North and South America at the turn of the twentieth century (Nickle &
Castner 1984). When sailing vessels were replaced by steamships in interamerican com-
mercial traffic, mole crickets ceased to be intercepted in ports of entry.
The gradual spread of mole crickets in the U. S. resulted in their relatively stable
present-day distribution in the southeastern States. The short-winged mole cricket,
Scapteriscus abbreviatus, is flightless and is restricted to coastal regions of south
Florida from Tampa on the Gulf coast to Fort Lauderdale on the Atlantic. The change,
S. vicinus, is common throughout Florida and on the coastal plain from South Carolina
to Alabama. The southern mole cricket, S. acletus, is the most widespread species,
found along the coastal plain from North Carolina, throughout Florida, to the east coast
of Texas as far as Corpus Christi. Of these species, S. vicinus appears to be slowly
expanding its distribution westward along the Gulf states into Alabama and Mississippi,
while S. acletus (four-dot color form, see Nickle & Castner 1984) has been moving
slowly eastward from Louisiana.
We report here for the first time a quantum leap in the spread of acletus beyond its
present range in southeastern U. S. On April 23, 1987, one of us (WF) received a mole
cricket specimen from a colleague's house situated at the edge of Yuma Mesa, east of
the city of Yuma. The mesa is essentially a very large sand dune. On May 4 and 7, the
same person found two more specimens in his swimming pool. WF tentatively identified
them as a species of Scapteriscus, and concerned that they may have been introduced
into Arizona, he alerted agriculture inspectors in Yuma to make a preliminary survey
of the area. In the meantime, specimens were forwarded to DAN for positive identifica-
tion. He identified them as the four-dot color form of Scapteriscus acletus.
From May 7-11, inspection of a golf course on the mesa yielded several more mole
crickets. Still more were found on the campus of Arizona Western College (at two sites)
and on a second golf course. All of these sites are on the mesa or at its edge. On May
12, an inspector found a great deal of excavation and one mole cricket on the banks of
the Colorado River. The river is west of the city and quite far removed from the mesa,
separated by the Yuma Valley. In all, mole crickets were found at a total of four discrete
sites on the mesa, and along the river.

Scientific Notes

A more detailed survey was conducted by WF on May 20-21. Extensive damage was
noted to many of the greens of the two golf courses and involved brown patches of turf,
tunnelling, and small mounds of excavated soil. The groundskeeper reported these
insects had been a pest problem for the past two years. Control measures had included
pesticide treatments using Diazinon granules and Oftanol R. The Yuma inspectors
found as many as 22 dead mole crickets per square yard after the most recent Diazinon
treatment. The golf course itself is quite new, built in 1981-1982, as are nearly all of
the settlements on the mesa. The second golf course, even newer, showed less extensive
signs of damage, being confined to the margins of the turf. The lawns of the college also
had a fair degree of damage. An early evening excavation of a site no larger than 2
square meters near the maintenance house of the golf course, which had been watered
earlier in the day, yielded a total of 46 mole crickets (136, 29 4 nymphs). WF also
surveyed an area along the river and found a great deal of excavation along the banks
but was unable to collect any mole crickets.
In Yuma, on the mesa, a great deal of citrus is grown, with alfalfa, peanuts, and
small grains as minor crops. In the sandy areas along the river, there are extensive
areas of bermuda grass grown for seed, as well as small grains. Minor crops here include
alfalfa, peanuts, vegetables, cotton, and grain crops. Given that these areas combine
the preferred conditions of sandy soils with moisture, it would seem that there is a fairly
high potential for these mole crickets to make an economic impact on the area.
Although its newly acquired western range is limited to a small geographic area, S.
acletus may eventually spread into other regions of the Southwest, including California
and Mexico. Because it is still limited in distribution, an aggressive control program
against this species could eliminate it from the area before it spreads. Studies currently
underway on the biological control of mole crickets in Florida (eg.: Boucias 1984, Castner
1984, Sailer 1984) might well be tested here, since the western population is isolated,
and the scale of the control program would be at a level that could ensure its success
in a relatively short period of time. Were this mole cricket to reach pest status, however,
it is unlikely that authorities could do anything to control it.
The underlying questions raised by this new distribution record have serious agricul-
tural implications. How did this mole cricket get into Arizona? Can it or the other two
species-especially vicinus, the most important pest species-get into other areas of
the country via the same methods? Will the spread of these mole crickets into other
areas of the southern tier of the United States have a significant impact on U.S. agricul-
ture? Is it now possible that Mexico could inherit a pest mole cricket from across the
U.S. border? If this species in Arizona follows the same trend as in Florida, its annual
damage potential could be considerable.


BOUCIAS, D. 1984. Diseases. pp. 32-35, in Mole Crickets in Florida. Univ. Florida
Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 846.
CASTNER, J. L. 1984. Suitability of Scapteriscus spp. mole crickets (Orthoptera: Gryl-
lotalpidae) as hosts of Larra bicolor (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Entomophaga
29: 323-29.
NICKLE, D. A. AND J. L. CASTNER. 1984. Introduced species of mole crickets in the
United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae).
Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 77: 450-465.
SAILER, R. I. 1984. Natural enemies. pp. 23-32, in Mole Crickets in Florida. Univ.
Florida Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 846.
WALKER, T. J. AND D. A. NICKLE. 1981. Introduction and spread of pest mole
crickets: Scapteriscus vicinus and S. acletus reexamined. Ann. Entomol. Soc.
Amer. 74: 158-63.

92 Florida Entomologist 71(1) March, 1988


A meeting of the Executive Committee, Florida Entomological Society, was held
the evening preceding the start of the Society's 70th annual meeting. The meeting was
convened by President David Schuster at 7:00 p.m., August 11, 1987, in the Ambassador
Room, Daytona Hilton Hotel, Daytona Beach, Florida. Minutes of the June 5, 1987,
Executive Committee meeting at Lake Alfred were distributed and accepted. The Busi-
ness Manager then distributed reports on the Society's finances. Following a discussion
on the financial status of the FES, the reports were accepted. The Business Manager
also requested that the Society place $200-300 in bulk mail account number 78. The
request was approved. The Florida 4-H Foundation expressed thanks to the Society for
the $600 donated to help defray costs of entomological programs sponsored by the
Foundation. The money was used in support of entomological demonstrations conducted
at the State 4-H Congress. President Schuster proposed that no paper be published in
the Florida Entomologist until a purchase order is received or until a waiver of publica-
tion costs has been granted. The proposal was adopted. The Editor of the Society's
journal was instructed to include in its instructions to authors a statement encouraging
the submission of manuscripts on a wide range of topics, including the results of applied
research. President Schuster also suggested that the burden of preparing the program
for the annual meeting be assigned to a permanent committee rather than the Vice
President, as is the present custom. No action was taken on this proposal. The Chairper-
son of the Caribbean Conference Committee reported that the Caribbean Food Products
Association has expressed a desire to meet jointly with the FES in the Dominican
Republic in 1989. A possible meeting date of August 7-9 has been suggested, with a
theme of Crop Diversification and New Horizons for Agriculture. Efforts are underway
to locate interested parties on site to assist in planning the meeting and make local
The final business meeting was called to order by President Schuster at 4:30 p. m.,
Thursday August 13. The minutes of the 1986 meeting at Clearwater Beach were ac-
cepted as published in the Florida Entomologist Vol. 70, No. 1, pp. 197-209. Reports
of the various standing and ad hoc committees of the Society are presented elsewhere
in this report. At the close of the business meeting, Harold Denmark and Howard
Weems were called to escort the new President, James Taylor, to the podium. No
further business was forthcoming, and the meeting adjourned at 5:38 p.m.

July 1, 1986 to June 30, 1987

Membership $14,265.00
Subscriptions 6,016.00
Annual Meeting 5,690.00
Interest Earned 1,286.76
Back Issues 433.00
Miscellaneous 30.50
Contributions 25.00
Entomology Directories 49.00

Minutes-70th Annual Meeting 93

Office $361.74
Telephone 62.61
Postage 414.96
Contract Labor 5,649.99
J. M. $1,275.00
A. K. 4,374.99
Travel Expenses 56.11
Contributions (Fla. 4-H Foundation) 600.00
Grants & Scholarships 1,500.00
Journal Printing 590.63
Editing Expenses 721.76
Dues & Subscriptions 75.00
Bank Charges 100.00
Annual Meeting 6,491.65
Miscellaneous 34.27
NET GAIN 11,136.54

Petty Cash $ 100.00 Full 457
Cash in Bank 29,623.56 Student 80
Sustaining 44


Status of Cash Reserve Funds
Three years ago, the Committee set a goal of a full year's operating expenses for
the Society to be placed in reserve. This reserve is to serve as a buffer against a period
of poor income. The Committee is pleased to report that the goal is now 50% complete
and has grown steadily during that period from $7,000 to $29,000. This represents a
400% increase. The Society should fulfill this goal in 2 to 3 years, if the current rate of
increase continues.

4-H Club Activities
In response to an expressed desire on the part of the Society to gain better aware-
ness of 4-H Club activities in entomology, the Chairperson of this Committee was
recently invited to participate as judge in a Regional Entomology Competition. Other
judges were M. T. Sanford, P. Koehler, and T. Phillips. Winning topics included "Cotton
Pest Management," First Place, D. Roland; "Southern Pine Beetle," Second Place, M.
Forester; and "Collection Know How," Third Place, A. McCasland. These presentations
were of very good quality and reflected a high degree of interest and skill in information
collection, synthesis, and presentation.
The Chairperson feels that if the presentations above are indicative of the talent and
interests of young scientists and entomologists, the Society should encourage them by
whatever means the Society deems prudent and efficient.

94 Florida Entomologist 71(1) March, 1988

Scholarship Fund
Preliminary investigations into establishment of an Entomology Scholarship Fund
suggest that a wide range of possibilities are available to the Society. According to Mac
Shelton of the University of Florida Foundation, the only legal requirements are (1)
that the Society be incorporated; (2) that the IRS be sent a Determination Letter (IRS
form 501C); and (3) in order to preserve the Society from future entanglements, that a
committee be established to oversee the fund. The committee's responsibilities would
include the establishment of a mechanism for collection of funds, e.g., by corporate
sponsorship and/or special member donations; a place to store the funds, e.g., a checking
account or other banking device; a means by which the recipients can be selected on an
unbiased and fair basis; and, finally, the awarding of the scholarship. Naturally, concur-
rent with these responsibilities, is appropriate and full record-keeping.
In addition to setting up the committee, the Society will need to establish the criteria
for selection (by application or by nomination-and by whom) of candidates, and the
mechanism for awarding the scholarship.
It is the Committee's desire that the above information provide the skeletal
framework by which the Society can build a scholarship.


The 70th meeting of the Florida Entomological Society was held August 11-14, 1987,
at the Daytona Hilton. The facilities for the meeting were excellent, as were the room
accommodations. The program consisted of 106 presentations of scientific research in
entomology. There were four symposia; two of a basic nature, and two with a more
applied approach. These were (1) "Urban entomology: An Awakening Giant," by P. G.
Koehler, with 14 speakers, (2) "Nuisance, Vector, and Other Aquatic Insects of Florida
and Elsewhere," by Arshad Ali, with 10 speakers; (3) "New Technologies for Taxonomic
Identification of Arthropods," by S. K. Narang, with nine speakers; and (4) "Insect Pest
management in Livestock Systems," by J. A. Hogsette, with 10 speakers. There were
25 student research projects presented in the Posters and Oral Contests. All of these
were of excellent quality, and six were judged to be superior and were awarded cash
prizes. All of the sessions were usually well attended, with 50 to 100 scientists at each
presentation; except on the last day, when attendance dropped off to ca. 30 in the last
session. Over 150 people attended the Annual Awards Banquet. Ca. 200 people regis-
tered for the meeting.


Announcements of the annual meeting of the Florida Entomological Society were
mailed to professional journals and trade magazines to publicize the Society and the
Ms. Denise Salvaggio, writer for the Orlando Sentinel, was invited to attend the
annual meeting with a waiver of the registration fee, and the invitation was accepted.
Through efforts of the Committee, portions of the annual meeting were approved
for continuing education units for holders of restricted use pesticide applicator licenses,
and for holders of pest control operator licenses. It is recommended that a separate
committee be established to handle this activity in the future.

Minutes-70th Annual Meeting


The following proposals are submitted for consideration by Society members and the
Executive Committee:
1. Promote greater interaction and cooperation between FES and other pest disci-
plines: Fla. Weed, Fla. Nemat., Fla. Plant Path., and the Fla. Pest Control Assn.
Have a joint meeting to find common problems and solutions, but mainly to discover
innovative solutions and new interactions.
2. Start a flea market for old books, equipment, etc.
3. Have joint meetings with Latin American societies.
4. Hold FES short courses for junior and senior high school teachers in major cities
to encourage the teaching of insect identification, collection, etc.; and to encourage
students to go into entomology in college.
5. Have joint meeting with GES and SCES on an occasional basis.
6. Have joint meeting with SEBESA with a special welcome by the FES president
in the opening business meeting.
7. Emphasize publicity and public relations all year long, not just a week before the
annual meeting; how insects destroy crops, homes, and our health; and what Florida
entomologists are doing about it. Two or three entomologists should send out press
releases on a regular basis, but shock value and "what-may-be-someday" should be
replaced with major gains now benefitting Florida residents, farmers, and others.
8. Future keynote speakers could be DHRS chief entomologists speaking on successful
programs and special insect problems; or DER, CAS, or DNR Directors speaking
on pesticides and special problems in their areas of regulation, e.g., fish kill preven-
tion, human exposure, and illegal dumping inspections.
9. Extend an invitation to the ESA President and ARPE Director to attend our
annual meeting and make them welcome.
10. The special symposium this year at the annual meeting involving urban entomology
was an excellent idea. It was promoted by all of the pest control magazines in the
country and will probably result in many entomologists in the pest control industry
attending future FES meetings.
11. Symposia should be organized on biological control, behavioral ecology, etc., to
attract "name" entomologists and publish the proceedings.


Membership in FES continued to decline in 1987. Based on a June 1987 printout of
current members, there was a 7% decline in full membership and an 11% decline in
student membership.
In 1986 there were 488 full-time members; in 1987 there are 453 full time members;
a full-time net loss of 35 members. Comparing last year's final membership printout
with the June printout, the following information was obtained: Sixty-two of the 1986
members did not renew their membership; therefore, the decline would have been
worse if 27 new members had not been recruited. In the student category there were
89 members in 1986; in 1987 there are 79 student members. Again, however, the major
reason for the decline was lack of membership renewals. Twenty-two student members
did not renew in 1987. Twelve new student members were recruited in 1987; a net loss
of 10 students. These data do not include the current registration, which brightens the

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