Title: Florida Entomologist
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098813/00073
 Material Information
Title: Florida Entomologist
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Entomological Society
Publisher: Florida Entomological Society
Place of Publication: Winter Haven, Fla.
Publication Date: 1989
Copyright Date: 1917
Subject: Florida Entomological Society
Entomology -- Periodicals
Insects -- Florida
Insects -- Florida -- Periodicals
Insects -- Periodicals
General Note: Eigenfactor: Florida Entomologist: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.092.0401
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098813
Volume ID: VID00073
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Open Access

Full Text

(ISSN 0015-4040)


(An International Journal for the Americas)

Volume 72, No. 2 June, 1989


Announcement 72nd Annual Meeting ......................................................... i
Nominations for Honors and Awards .................................................... ii
BARANOWSKI, R. M., AND J. A. SLATER-Utilization of Grasses as Host Plants
by a Species of Oedancala (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) With Description of a
New Species From Florida and the West Indies ................................ 243
CHAN, K. L., AND J. R. LINLEY-A New Florida Species of Forcipomyia (Eu-
projoannisia) (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) From Leaves of the Water Let-
tuce, Pistia stratiotes ....................................................................... 252
YOUNG, F. N.-A New Species of Agaporomorphus From Florida, A New Nearc-
tic Record for the Genus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) ............................. 263
TAYLOR, S. J., AND J. E. MCPHERSON-Distributional Records of Some Florida
Aradidae (Heteroptera) ................................................................... 265
THOMPSON, C. R.-The Thief Ants, Solenopsis molesta Group, of Florida
(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) ............................................................. 268
GUPTA, V. K.-New Genera of Porizontine Ichneumonidae From Florida
(H ym enoptera) ............................................................................... 284
PORTER, C. C.-A New Floridian Athyreodon Ashmead (Hymenoptera:
Ichneumonidae), With Comments on Related Species of the Northern Neo-
tropics ............................................. ........................................ 294
PORTER, C. C.-Biosystematics of Zacremnops cressoni (Cameron), A Neotropic
Braconid Newly Recorded From Florida (Hymenoptera) ...................... 304
PORTER, C. C., AND T. J. O'NNEIL-New Records for Xiphosomella (Hymenopt-
era: Ichneumonidae) in the Southern United States, With Description of a
New Species From Florida .............................................................. 309
WALKER, T. J.-A Live Trap for Monitoring Euphasiopteryx and Tests With E.
ochracea (Diptera: Tachinidae) ........................................................ 314
AND T. T. Y. WONG-Discrimination by Dacus dorsalis Females (Diptera:
Tephritidae) Against Larval-Infested Fruit ...................................... 319
LANDOLT, P. J., J. H. TUMLINSON, AND M. M. BRENNAN-Attraction of Amph-
ion floridensis Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) to Bombykal, (E,Z)-10,12-
H exadecadienal .............................................................................. 324
MASON, L. J., AND S. J. JOHNSON-Age Dependent Calling of Female Soybean
Loopers (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) .................................................... 327
HUDSON, W. G.-Field Sampling and Population Estimation of the Tawny Mole
Cricket (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) ................................................. 337
FUNDERBURK, J. E., AND T. P. MACK-Population Dynamics and Dispersion
Patterns of Nymphal Threecornered Alfalfa Hoppers (Homoptera: Mem-
bracidae) ....................................................................................... 344
SMITH, J. P., R. D. HALL, AND G. D. THOMAS-A Review of Natural Mortality
and Enemies of the Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) in Missouri ............ 351
SHEPPARD, D. C., N. C. Hinkle, J. S. HUNTER III, AND D. M. GAYDON Resist-
ance in Constant Exposure Livestock Insect Control Systems: A Partial
Review With Some Original Findings on Cyromazine Resistance in House
F lies ................................................ ........................................ 360
Continued on Back Cover

Published by The Florida Entomological Society


President ......................................... ................. R. S. Patterson
President-Elect ............................. ... ...... ................... J. E. Eger
Vice-President ........................................... .................. J. F. Price
Secretary ......................................................... .. ... ...... ....... .. J. A Coffelt
Treasurer ............................................ ................ A. C. Knapp

J. L. Taylor
C. O. Calkins
F. Bennett
Other Members of the Executive Committee .................. J. E. Pefia
N. Hinkle
M. F. Antolin
J. R. McLaughlin


Editor ............................................ J. R. McLaughlin

Associate Editors
Arshad Ali Carl S. Barfield Ronald H. Cherry
John B. Heppner Michael D. Hubbard Lance S. Osborne
John Sivinski Omelio Sosa, Jr. Howard V. Weems, Jr.
William W. Wirth

Business Manager ...................................... ..... ................. A. C. Knapp

FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST is issued quarterly-March, June, September, and De-
cember. Subscription price to non-members is $30 per year in advance, $7.50 per copy.
Membership in the Florida Entomological Society, including subscription to Florida
Entomologist, is $25 per year for regular membership and $10 per year for students.
Inquires regarding membership, subscriptions, and page charges should be addres-
sed to the Business Manager, P. 0. Box 7326, Winter Haven, FL 33883-7326.
Florida Entomologist is entered as second class matter at the Post Office in DeLeon
Springs and Winter Haven, FL.
Manuscripts from all areas of the discipline of entomology are accepted for consider-
ation. At least one author must be a member of the Florida Entomological Society.
Please consult "Instructions to Authors" on the inside back cover. Submit the original
manuscript, original figures and tables, and 3 copies of the entire paper. Include an
abstract in Spanish, if possible. Upon receipt, a manuscript is acknowledged by the
Editor and assigned to an Associate Editor who sends it out for review by at least 3
knowledgeable peers. Reviewers are sought with regard only for their expertise; Soci-
ety membership plays no role in their selection. Page charges are assessed for printed
Manuscripts and other editorial matter should be sent to the Editor, JOHN R.
MCLAUGHLIN, 4628 NW 40th Street, Gainesville, FL 32606.

This issue mailed June 30, 1989


The 72nd annual meeting of the Florida Entomological Society will be held August
7-10, 1989 at the Daytona Beach Hilton, 2637 So. Atlantic Ave., Daytona Beach, FL
32018; telephone (904)-767-7350. Registration forms and information will be mailed to
members and will appear in the Newsletter and the March, 1989 Florida Entomologist.

Notice of Change of Deadline for Submission of Papers

The deadline for submission of papers and posters for the 72nd annual meeting
of the Florida Entomological Society will be May 1, 1989. The meeting format will
be much the same as in the past with eight minutes allotted for presentation of oral
papers (with 2 minutes for discussion) and separate sessions for members who elect to
present a Project (or Poster) Exhibit. The three oral student papers and the three
student Project Exhibits judged to be the best on content and delivery will be awarded
monetary prizes during the meeting. Student participants in the judged sessions must
be Florida Entomological Society Members and must be registered for the meeting.

James R. Price, Chairman
Program Committee, FES
University of Florida, IFAS
Gulf Coast Research & Education Center
5007 60th Street East
Bradenton, FL 34203


The sixth annual Southeastern Branch Student Symposium will be held at the up-
coming SEB-ESA meeting in Orlando, Florida. This year's topic will be "Insect-Host
Interactions". Participants will be allotted 20 minutes (15 min. presentation; 5 min.
discussion). Proceedings of the symposium will be published in Florida Entomologist.
Participants must submit manuscripts in the form of a review article (see Florida En-
tomologist December, 1988 [71(4)]) or an original research paper. An abstract of 200
words or less is due by August 15, 1989, and the completed manuscript is due by
November 15, 1989. Individuals selected for participation in the Symposium will be
notified by November 30, 1989. Manuscripts will be subject to peer review as estab-
lished by standards of Florida Entomologist.

Please forward abstract and manuscript to:

Peter A. Follett, Symposium Chairman
840 Method Road
Raleigh, North Carolina 27607
(919) 737-2638


The Honors and Awards Committee of the Florida Entomological Society has a
responsibility to seek out and nominate Society members for recognition. These awards
include: (1) Entomologist of the Year; (2) Annual Achievement Awards in categories of
Research, Teaching, Extension, and Industry; (3) Certificates of Appreciation for Spe-
cial Services to the Society; (4) Special Awards to Research Teams, Laboratories, Agen-
cies, Companies, or other groups that have significantly impacted entomological science
or the delivery of entomologically-related service to the public.
There are numerous entomologists in our Society deserving of the awards. Please
help the Honors and Awards Committee identify them. Copy this form and make several

I nominate for the following award:

Entomologist of the Year
Achievement Award in Research
Achievement Award in Teaching
Achievement Award in Extension and Industry
Certificate of Appreciation
Special Award [for research teams, etc.]
Honorary Membership (2 available)

Provide a statement of 100-150 words in support of your nomination.

Send nominations to:
Dan Wojcik
P.O. Box 14565
Gainesville, FL 32604
(904) 374-5986

Baranowski & Slater: New Species & Hosts of Oedancala 243


University of Florida Tropical Research and Education Center
Homestead, FL 33031 USA

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, 06268 USA


Oedancala cladiumicola n. sp. is described from Florida, Jamaica and the Bahamas
with a dorsal view illustration of the holotype. Host plants for this species and for
Oedancala cubana are discussed and the nymphs of both species are described. A key
to the Florida species of Oedancala is given.


Se describe Oedancala cladiumicola n. sp., para el estado de Florida, Jamaica y las
Bahamas. Se present una illustracion dorsal de la especie tipo. Se discuten las plants
hospederas de esta especie asi como las de Oedancala cubana. Se described las ninfas
de ambas species. Se present una clave para la identification de las species de Oedan-
cala que se encuentran en la Florida.

Host plant relationships in the subfamily Pachygronthinae have been considered to
be well understood and to directly reflect taxonomic relationships. The Pachygronthini
have been considered until now to breed on sedges and the Teracriini on grasses (Slater
1955, 1975, Baranowski & Slater 1982). As the host plants of more and more species
have become known this dichotomy seemed to be consistently strengthened. It therefore
came as a surprise to discover on Big Pine Key, Florida, Oedancala cubana StAl, not
only breeding on grasses, but on grasses in a number of different genera.
The history of this discovery and that of the new species described below are illus-
trative of the value of careful collecting in areas whose faunal composition is considered
to be reasonably well known. Our interest in the presence of 0. cubana in Florida was
initiated by the discovery of authentic specimens of 0. cubana in the Florida State
Collection of Arthropods, taken on Big Pine Key, 8-IV-1960 by H. V. Weems, Jr. Uhler
(1876) had reported 0. cubana from Florida but subsequent authors including Slater
(1955) had assumed that Uhler's record was in error and that the record should be
referred to 0. crassimana Fabricius. After the discovery of the Weems material the
two of us visited Big Pine Key and were successful in obtaining several adults and a
nymph by roadside sweeping. We believed the specimens were swept from a sedge
(Fimbristylis spadecea (L.)) that was present in the habitat. We were puzzled however
that we were unable to obtain additional specimens despite extensive sweeping in dense
stands of the sedge.
Several years later the senior author swept large numbers of 0. cubana on Big Pine
Key from an area with very few sedges and subsequently was able to establish beyond

Florida Entomologist 72(2)

June, 1989

doubt that the species was breeding in large numbers on the grass Paspalum blodgetti
Subsequent collecting on the island confirmed that host plant and revealed that O.
cubana also utilizes grasses in other genera. Breeding populations have also been col-
lected on Paspalum caespitosum Flugge, Sporobolus indicus (Trin.) Kunth, Eragrostis
ciliaris (L.) R.Br., and Cencrus incertus N. A. Curtis. According to Long & Lakela
(1971) and Adams (1972) these grasses are essentially tropical in distribution, with only
E. ciliaris, occurring northward beyond Florida along the Gulf coast to Texas and to
South Carolina.
However, 0. cubana is not a generalist grass feeder. Sporobolus virginicus (L.)
Kunth, is a common grass in the areas collected, and common to all tropical shores,
extends up the Atlantic coast to Virginia, but apparently is not utilized by 0. cubana
Panicum virgatum L., a species that extends north to Michigan, Paspalum distichum
L., and Spartina spartinae (Trin.) Merr. ex Hitchc. were also present but not serving
as host plants. It is of interest to note that both P. distichum, Seashore Paspalum, and
S. virginicus, Seashore Dropseed, belong to genera containing host plants but are
essentially restricted to extreme coastal areas, and do not support breeding populations
of 0. cubana. Five species of sedges were also examined at the collecting sites. No
specimens of 0. cubana were collected on Fimbristylis spadecea (L.) Vahl or Cladium
jamaicensis Cranz. One adult was collected on Cyperus planifolius L. C. Rich. In one
instance adults and nymphs were present on Fimbristylis spathecea Roth and Cyperrus
polystachos Rottb. In both of these instances the sedges were closely associated with
either P. blodgetti or S. indicus.
While the host plants of 0. cubana on Cuba are not known, all of the above hosts
occur there. It is, of course conceivable that 0. cubana may feed on sedges in Cuba and
that the Big Pine, Florida population has resulted from a propagule that succeeded in
colonizing a grass with the resultant small original population quickly being selected for
a grass host. However, we consider this unlikely; first because of the abundance of
sedges available as a food source for an immigrant population and secondly because
there is a collection record from Cuba "from sugar cane", and a specimen in the senior
author's collection from Cuba, collected "on grass" that also suggests grass hosts in
It is remarkable that a species of Oedancala has adapted to grasses since all of the
other species whose hosts are known breed on sedges as do all of the species in its sister
genus Pachygrontha and even the rather anomalous pachygronthine Uttaris pallidipen-
nis StAl. It is noteworthy that 0. cubana is much the most elongate slender species of
Oedancala and specimens habitually lie along the grass blades and stems whereas other
species of Oedancala are found in the seed heads of the sedge hosts. However body
shape would at most seem to be a secondary adaptation as many sedge feeding species
of Pachygrontha are as, or more, elongate than is 0. cubana.
Sedges and grasses are usually considered closely related (see Slater 1976) and in
the Blissinae there are several cases where cladistically closely related species are in
one case on sedges and in the other on grasses (e.g. Ischnodemus praecultus Distant
on sedges and I. robustus Blatchley on grasses, Capodemus sabulosus Slater & Sweet
on sedges and C. wilcoxae Slater & Sweet on grasses). More analagous to the case of
0. cubana is that of I. slossonae Van Duzee which has been taken breeding on grasses
but has also been taken in numbers on a sedge, whereas its cladistically related species
all breed on grasses.
The only documentation of oviposition for members of the genus Oedancala is that
of Baranowski and Slater (1982) for 0. scutellata Baranowski and Slater. This species
inserts its eggs between the sheaths and seeds of the sedge Rhynchospora corymbosa
(L.). We have also observed similar oviposition behavior for 0. crassimana (Fabr.) and

Baranowski & Slater: New Species & Hosts of Oedancala 245

a new species of Oedancala described below. Interestingly, 0. cubana, in addition to
utilizing grasses as breeding hosts, also deposits its eggs in a manner similar to other
lygaeids that utilize grasses as hosts (Baranowski 1979). It deposits its eggs between
the leaf sheath and stem in clusters of up to 16, much the same as does Ischnodemus
variegatus (Signoret) (cited as Ischnodemus oblongus (Fabricius) by Baranowski 1979-
see Slater 1987).
How long 0. cubana has been established in Florida is also an open question. If the
Uhler record is correct, it has been present for over a century. In the American Museum
of Natural History there is a female labeled "Homestead, Fla., April 18, 1923, F4673".
Despite nearly three decades of collecting in the "Homestead" area, the senior author
has never taken a specimen in the vicinity of Homestead. There is also a single specimen
in the United States National Museum of Natural History labeled "Florida, Key West,
20-VII-39, P. B. Lawson".
The discovery of the species we describe below as O. cladiumicola Baranowski &
Slater is another example of the fallacy of assumptions based upon insufficient collecting
data. Both of us, especially the senior author have swept sawgrass, Cladiumjamaicen-
sis Crantz, on many occasions and we questioned why no lygaeid was utilizing this large
abundant food resource. Probably most of our attempts at collecting in sawgrass were
during the part of the year when the grass was not in seed. In 1983 on Big Pine Key a
few casual sweeps of a small clump of sawgrass with seed heads produced 3 specimens
of 0. cladiumicola n. sp. Additional collecting on sawgrass in seed at other sites in
Florida and in the Bahamas produced adults as well as nymphs.
Slater (1975) noted that some West Indian specimens which he assigned to cras-
simana lacked the dark spot midway along the apical corial margin and indicated that
they might merit subspecific status. Actually, his material from Jamaica was mixed and
one specimen is included in the type series of cladiumicola n. sp.
The remaining Jamaican specimens and six specimens from Cuba that lack the apical
corial spot have been reexamined (Cuban material is as follows: 1 male, 1 female, 14 K.
N. of Vinales, 16-22-IX-1913, 3 males, 1 female, 12.5, 13 K. S. of Pinar Rio, 12-22-IX-
1913). The parameres of these Cuban specimens are distinctive from those of 0. cras-
simana from the mainland and relatively similar to those of cladiumicola. However
there are 2 distinct size groups in the material examined. We feel both of these "groups"
are different from cladiumicola on the basis of the paramere shape as well as being
yellow rather than red. It is obvious that this complex on Cuba will require additional
material for study, but we suggest that the true crassimana may not be represented
in the West Indies and that the dark spot midway on the apical corial margin of cras-
simana is a good specific character.

Key to Florida species of Odancala

1. Apical corial margin with a distinct dark spot (may be faint) along margin
...................................................................................... crassim ana
1'. Apical corial margin immaculate, lacking a distinct dark spot .................... 2
2(1). First antennal segment elongate, longer than length of pronotum and
longer than combined length of antennal segments II & III ............. cubana
2'. First antennal segment shorter than pronotal length and shorter than
combined length of antennal segments II & III ...................................... 3
3(2'). Labium short, not reaching midpoint of mesosternum, color reddish ....
........................................................................................ cladium icola
3'. Labium longer, extending posterior to midpoint of mesosternum, color
yellow brown, northern Florida ....................................... ........... dorsalis
All measurements are given in mm.

Florida Entomologist 72(2)

Fig. 1. Oedancala cubana fifth instar, dorsal view.


June, 1989


Baranowski & Slater: New Species & Hosts of Oedancala 247

Description of 0. cubana nymphs
Fig. 1

5th instar (in alcohol)

Elongate, general color yellowish, head, pronotum, scutellar area, wing pads and
legs with brown punctation. Ends of antennal tubercles dark brown; a pair of red spots
in ocellar area. Distal ends and inner border of wing pads near scutellar area, area
around scent gland openings and antennae dark brown. Abdomen with a narrow reddish
stripe on each side of midline. Legs yellow except for distal ends of tibiae, 1st tarsal
segment and proximal 1/2 of 2nd reddish brown; distal end of 2nd tarsal segment dark
brown. Head moderately declivent, length 1.0, width 1.12, interocular space 0.64. Pro-
notum trapezoidal in shape, length 1.10, width 1.50. Wing pad length 2.04. Abdomen
length 3.72. Labium short, extending between procoxae. Labial segments length I 0.40,
II 0.32, III 0.40, IV 0.40. Antennal segments length I 1.60, II 0.36, III 0.32, IV 0.32.
Total body length 6.56.

4th instar (in alcohol)

Elongate oval in shape, color reddish and black. Head, pronotum and wing pads
cream. Abdomen reddish except yellow narrowly along lateral margin and a faint yel-
lowish stripe on either side of midline extending from base of abdomen to 1st scent gland
opening. Area around scent gland opening black. Head moderately declivent, length
0.76, width 0.88, interocular space 0.96. Pronotum length 0.68 width 1.14. Wing pad
length 0.90. Abdomen length 2.30. Labial segments length I 0.30, II 0.34, III 0.28, IV
0.32. Antennal segments length I 0.80 II 0.44, III 0.44, IV 0.58. Total body length 4.08.

3rd instar (in alcohol)

Similar in shape and color to 4th instar. Head length 0.56, width 0.68, interocular
space 0.46. Pronotum length 0.42, width 0.80. Wing pad length 0.26. Abdomen length
1.16. Labial segments length I 0.22, II 0.24, III 0.20, IV 0.26. Antennal segments
length I 0.46, II 0.32, III 0.32, IV 0.44. Total body length 2.56.

2nd instar (in alcohol)

Similar in shape and color to 3rd instar. Head length 0.52, width 0.54, interocular
space 0.40. Pronotum length 0.30, width 0.66. Abdomen length 1.0. Labial segments
length I 0.16, II 0.20, III 0.20, IV 0.20. Antennal segments length I 0.30, II 0.22, III
0.26, IV 0.40. Total body length 1.98.

1st instar (in alcohol)

Head sharply declivent, otherwise similar in shape to 2nd instar. Head, thorax, legs,
antennae brownish; abdomen yellow but reddish around dark area surrounding scent
gland openings. Antennal segment IV darker than others. Head length 0.40, width 0.40,
interocular space 0.30. Pronotum length 0.18, width 0.36. Abdomen length 0.84. Labial
segments length I 0.16, II 0.20, III 0.16, IV 0.20. Antennal segments length I 0.20, II
0.22, III 0.22, IV 0.36. Total body length 1.30.

Florida Entomologist 72(2)

Fig. 2. Oedancala cladiumicola Baranowski & Slater, n. sp., dorsal view.


June, 1989

Baranowski & Slater: New Species & Hosts of Oedancala 249

Egg (in alcohol)

Cream colored, elongate, tapering to a narrow rounded posterior end and a narrow
truncate anterior end with typically 4 short micropylar processes; faintly reticulated.
Length 1.52, maximum width 0.34.

Oedancala cladiumicola Baranowski & Slater, NEW SPECIES
Fig. 2

Elongate oval in shape, almost uniformly reddish. Apical corial margin lacking a
dark spot midway along margin. Head, pronotum and scutellum heavily punctate except
for narrow midline. Posterior margin of pronotum pale, almost straw colored. Antennal
segments I, II mahogany, III, IV golden brown.
Head elongate, declivent, strongly tapering anteriorly; head length 1.20, width 1.20,
interocular space 0.70. Pronotum narrowing from posterior to anterior margin, trans-
verse impression obsolete, lateral margins only slightly sinuate; pronotum length 1.60
width 2.10. Scutellum elevated basally, but also with a median basal excavation; scutel-
lum length 1.10, width 1.10. Hemelytra with lateral corial margins sinuate, explanate
posterior to level of apex of scutellum. Claval commissure length 0.60; distance along
midline from apex clavus to apex corium 1.36; distance along midline from apex corium
to apex wing membrane 1.70. Fore femora strongly incrassate, armed below with 4
major heavy blunt spines, lacking a minor spine between 2 proximal major spines, 1
between 2nd and 3rd, 3 between 3rd and 4th and 2 distad of 4th (spines variable in type
series). Labium extending to mesosternum, but not reaching midpoint; 1st segment
short, extending posteriorly only to antenniferous tubercle, segment II slightly exceed-
ing base of head. Labial segments length I 0.20, II 0.40, III 0.44, IV 0.44. Antennae
thick, length antennal segments I 1.32, II 0.60, III 0.70, IV 0.80. Total body length 8.0.
Holotype: Male, FLORIDA: Monroe Co., Big Pine Key, Watson Hammock 19-VII-83,
(on Cladium jamaicensis), R. M. Baranowski. (United States National Museum of
Natural History).
Paratypes: FLORIDA: 2 females, same data as holotype; 2 males, 4 females, Monroe
Co., US 1, 118 mi. marker, 19-VII-83, (on Cladium jamaicensis), R. M. Baranowski;
7 males, 4 females, Dade Co. Everglades Nat. Park, Royal Palm Rd., 31-VII-83, (on
Cladium jamaicensis), R. M. Baranowski; 7 males, 5 females, Monroe Co. US 1, mi.
marker 117 4-VI-84, (on Cladium jamaicensis), H. Glenn; 6 males, 17 females, same
28-VI-84, H. Glenn; 4 males, 2 females, Monroe Co. US 1, mi. marker 120, 8-VI-84, (on
Cladium jamaicensis), H. Glenn; 7 males, 6 females, Monroe Co., US 1, mi. marker
124, 18-VI-84, (on Cladium jamaicensis). H. Glenn; 1 female, Dade Co., Everglades
Nat. Pk., Royal Palm Hammock area, 10-VI-69, R. M. Baranowski; 5 males, 5 females,
Monroe Co., US 1, mi. marker 118, 18-VI-84, (on Cladium jamaicensis), H. Glenn; 2
males, 2 females, Dade Co. Everglades Nat. Pk., 2 mi. W of tollgate, 21-VI-84, (on
Cladium jamaicensis), H. Glenn; 1 male, 5 females, Dade Co., US 41 6 mi. W of S.R.
997, 30-VII-84, (on Cladiumjamaicensis), R. M. Baranowski; 7 males 8 females, Dade
Co. 11 mi. N of US Hwy 41 on S. R. 997, 8-VIII-87, (on Cladium jamaicensis), R. M.
Baranowski; 25 males, 29 females, Dade Co. 29 mi. N of Homestead on S. R. 997,
30-VII-84, (on Cladium jamaicensis), R. M. Baranowski; 3 males, 2 females, Dade Co.
Everglades Nat. Pk., 10 mi. W of tollgate, 6-VII-84, (on Cladium jamaicensis) H.
Glenn; 1 female, Dade Co., Homestead, 27-VII-68, R. M. Baranowski; 5 males, 10
females, Lee Co., Sanibel Island, 5-VIII-84, (on Cladium jamaicensis), R. M.
Baranowski; 1 female, Palm Beach Co., US Hwy 27, N of John Stretch Pk, 24-VII-84,
(on Cladium jamaicensis), R. M. Baranowski; BAHAMAS: 1 male, 3 females, New
Providence, Nassau International Airport 25-VII-83, (on Cladium jamaicensis), R. M.

Florida Entomologist 72(2)

Baranowski; JAMAICA: 1 male, Parish of St. Ann, Runaway Bay, 3-VII-71, (on Cladium
jamaicensis), J. A. Slater, R. M. Baranowski, J. E. Harrington. Paratypes are depo-
sited in the U. S. National Museum of Natural History, American Museum of Natural
History, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Richard M. Baranowski and James A.
Slater collections.

Description of 0. cladiumicola nymphs

5th instar (in alcohol)

Shape elongate oval, coloration reddish brown. Head, thorax including wing pads
with dark brown punctation. Abdominal terga reddish with a narrow pale white stripe
on each side of the midline and narrowly along the lateral edges. Abdominal sterna
similarly colored. Labium extending posteriorly to anterior edge of mesocoxae. Head
length 1.04. width 1.12, interocular space 0.68. Pronotum length 1.0, width 1.72. Wing
pads length 2.2. Abdomen length 3.08. Labial segments I 0.44, II 0.44, III 0.36, IV
0.48. Antennal segments length I 0.85, II 0.64, III 0.64, IV 0.68. Total body length 6.0.

4th instar (in alcohol)

Similar in shape and color to 5th instar. Head length 0.82, width 1.0, interocular
space 0.6. Pronotum length 0.72, width 1.44. Wing pads length 0.92. Abdomen length
2.1. Labial segments length I 0.4, II 0.4, III 0.32, IV 0.42. Antennal segments length
I 0.58, II 0.48, III 0.48, IV 0.6. Total body length 3.88.

3rd instar (in alcohol)

Oval in shape, abdomen uniformly reddish. Head length 0.72, width 0.72, interocular
space 0.50. Pronotum length 0.52, width 1.08. Abdomen length 1.2. Labial segments
length I 0.34, II 0.40, III 0.28 IV 0.36. Antennal segments length I 0.32, II 0.34, III
0.34, IV 0.44. Total body length 2.2.

2nd instar (in alcohol)

Similar in shape and color to 3rd instar, but punctation on head and thorax consider-
ably reduced. Head length 0.5, width 0.58, interocular space 0.4. Pronotum length 0.28,
width 0.7. Abdomen length 1.0. Labial segments length I 0.24, II 0.3, III 0.26, IV 0.32.
Antennal segments length I 0.22, II 0.24, III 0.22, IV 0.38. Total body length 2.02.

1st instar (in alcohol)

Elongate oval in shape, similar in color to 2nd instar. Head length 0.44, width 0.40,
interocular space 0.28. Pronotum length 0.1, width 0.36. Abdomen length 0.5. Labial
segments length I 0.22, II 0.3, III 0.2, IV 0.28. Antennal segments length I 0.2, II 0.2,
III 0.18, IV 0.34. Total body length 1.08.

Egg (in alcohol)

Cream colored, elongate, tapering to a narrow rounded posterior end and a narrow
truncate anterior end with 4-5 short stubby micropylar processes. Length 1.24,
maximum width 0.28.

June, 1989

Baranowski & Slater: New Species & Hosts of Oedancala 251


We thank Ms. Mary Jane Spring, University of Connecticut, for preparation of the
fine illustration of 0. cladiumicola, Mrs. Holly Glenn, Tropical Research and Education
Center for assistance in collecting, Dr. David Hall, University of Florida, for plant
identification, and Drs. R. C. Froeschner, USNMNH, and B. J. Harrington, University
of Wisconsin for their helpful reviews.
This is No. 8955 of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series. Both
authors are Research Associates of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.


ADAMS, C. D. 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica. Univ. West Indies, Jamaica, 848 p.
BARANOWSKI, R. M. 1979. Notes on the biology of Ischnodemus oblongus and I.
fulvipes with descriptions of the immature stages (Hemiptera:Lygaeidae). Ann.
Ent. Soc. Amer. 72: 655-658.
-- AND J. A. SLATER. 1982. The Pachygronthinae (Hemiptera:Lygaeidae) of
Trinidad with the description of a new species and notes on other sedge feeding
lygaeids. Florida Ent. 65(4): 492-506.
LONG, R. W., AND 0. LAKELA. 1971. A flora of tropical Florida. Univ. Miami Press,
Coral Gables, 962 p.
SLATER, J. A. 1955. A revision of the subfamily Pachygronthinae of the world
(Hemiptera:Lygaeidae). Philippine J. Sci. 84(1): 1-160, 4pl.
- 1975. The Pachygronthinae of the West Indies with the description of a new
species of Pachygrontha from Cuba (Hemiptera:Lygaeidae). Florida Ent. 58(2):
S1975. Monocots and hinch Bugs: A study of host plant relationships in the
lygaeid subfamily Blissinae (Hemiptera:Lygaeidae). Biotropica 8(3): 143-165.
1987. The taxonomic status of Ischnodemus oblongus (Fabricius) and Is-
chnodemus variegatus (Signoret) (Hemiptera:Lygaeidae:Blissinae). J. New York
Ent. Soc. 95: 294-297.
UHLER, P. R. 1876. List of Hemiptera of the region west of the Mississipi River,
including those collected during the Hayden explorations of 1873. Bull. U. S.
Geol. Geog. Serv. Terr. 1: 269-361.

Florida Entomologist 72(2)


Department of Zoology
National University of Singapore
Kent Ridge, Singapore 0511

IFAS-University of Florida
Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory
200 9th Street S.E.
Vero Beach, Florida 32962


Forcipomyia (Euprojoannisia) dolichopodida Chan & Linley (Diptera:
Ceratopogonidae), collected from leaves of the water lettuce, Pistia stratiotes L., is
described in all stages. It resembles F. (Eu.) spatulifera Saunders in having large
spatulate a setae in the larva but differs from it in having p setae of the head lanceolate
instead of spatulate. Brief biological notes are given.


Se described todas las etapas de Forcipomyia (Euprojoannisia) dolichopodida Chan
y Linley (Diptera: Ceratopogonida), colectadas de hojas de lechuga de agua, Pistia
stratiotes L. Se parece a F. (Eu.) spatulifera Saunders en que tiene setas espatuladas
a en la larva, pero difiere en que tiene la setas p de la cabeza lanceoladas en vez de
espatuladas. Se presentan breves notas biol6gicas.

Species of the subgenus Forcipomyia (Euprojoannisia) are small, brownish, hairy
insects. Although inconspicuous, some species are important economically as major
pollinators of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in Africa, the West Indies, and South America
(see Bystrak & Wirth 1978 for long literature list), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis L.) in
Central America (Wirth 1956), and other important cultivated, mostly tropical crop
plants, such as avocado (Persea americana Mill.) in the Transvaal (de Meillon & Wirth
1979), celery (Apium graveolens L.) in Utah and elder (Sumbucus simpsonii Rehd.) in
Florida (Bystrak & Wirth 1978), and Compositae and mango (Mangifera indica L.) in
Hawaii (Wirth & Howarth 1982).
Adult females of Euprojoannisia are not known to bite man or suck blood. However,
Lupton (1962) recorded F. ingrami Carter, now F. (Eu.) hardyi Wirth & Howarth, as
inflicting painful bites on a human without, apparently, taking any blood. Wirth &
Howarth (1982) also record two instances ofF. hardyi feeding on caterpillars of Geomet-
ridae and Sphingidae at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, south of Makaopuhi Crater,
2850 feet above sea level, but they consider such behavior atypical of the subgenus.
Little is known of the biology of the immature stages. Larvae of Euprojoannisia
are found commonly on moist or wet surfaces of dead or decaying leaves and grass
(Saunders 1956, 1959, Chan & LeRoux 1971, Howarth 1973, Wirth & Howarth 1982)

June, 1989

Chan & Linley: New Florida Ceratopogonidae


but may also be found in other semiaquatic habitats such as the leaf axils of bromeliads
(Saunders 1956, 1959) and arum, Alocasia macrorrhiza (Howarth 1973), algae-covered
rocks or mud, wet moss and mats of decaying aquatic vegetation (Bystrak & Wirth
1978, Debenham & Wirth 1984).
The species described here was found frequently in the same locations as the imma-
tures of a species of dolichopodid fly, usually at the bases of young Pistia leaves; hence
its name "dolichopodida."


Larvae and pupae were obtained from the leaves of water lettuce plants collected
from disused aquaculture ponds at Chinese Farm, adjacent to Old Dixie Highway about
5 km south of Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, St. Lucie County, Florida.
Adults were reared from immatures as described in Chan & Linley (1988).
The methods used in preparing specimens for examination and illustration follow
those of Chan & Linley (1988). Terminology used in the description of larval and pupal
appendages follows that of Saunders (1924). Adults are described using the terminology
of Downes & Wirth (1981).


Forcipomyia (Euprojoannisia) dolichopodida Chan & Linley new species
LARVA (Fig. 1-10)
Length about 4.5 mm when full-grown. Body brown, with head and body a setae dark
brown to black.
Head: Dark with usual concavities (one anterior to a setae, one anterior to t setae) not
very distinct. Antennae (Fig. 1) long, slender, slightly recurved, on low, stout tubercles;
p and g setae lanceolate; sensory pits a, c and d present, the last situated between and
slightly dorsal to bases of setae u and v. Mandibles (Fig. 2) with typical scooplike distal
portion, medial right angle twist and bicondylar basal attachments; anterior end of
scoop with about 12-14 short, serrated teeth and posterior portion with about 4 longer,
finer, hairlike teeth. Hypopharynx (Fig. 3) with dorsal portion (dhy) short, boat-shaped,
bearing two lateral wings (Iw) that are about 1.5x width of dorsal portion; ventral
portion of hypopharynx (vhy) an inverted saddle; supporting these and running to base
of labium are two lateral rods (lr).
Thorax: Chaetotaxy as in Fig. 4. Prothorax and metathorax with seta a lanceolate,
shorter than mesothoracic spatulate seta a, which is equal to those of the abdomen.
Setae c, d, e and f simple, fine, moderately elongate; seta g paired in prothorax; a trio
in mesothorax and metathorax, comprising a paired and an independent seta.
Prothoracic pseudopod (Fig. 5) a single spinose mound, four-fifths as deep as long (Fig.
Abdomen: Chaetotaxy in segments I-VII similar, as figured (Fig. 7). Setae a in each
segment except last spatulate, tall, with square, serrate tip, arising from prominent
separate tubercles. Setae a in last (IX) segment lanceolate, the pair (precaudal setae)
separated at an angle of about 330, arising from a common, fused, prominent tubercle
(Fig. 9). Seta b in all abdominal segments except VIII and IX as in thoracic segments,
stouter than other setae except seta a; thinner as in setae c, d, and e in segments VIII
and IX (Fig. 8). Anal pseudopod (Fig. 8, 10) a simple ridge with two anteriorly directed
rows of hooks, the anterior row bearing 10 shorter hooklets and the posterior row
bearing 8 longer hooklets. Cauda (Fig. 8, 10) tapering to a point, about as long as
precaudal setae in segment IX.
PUPA (Fig. 11-20)

Florida Entomologist 72(2)

June, 1989

q 7 s eye b

t e
s b

pa W e e:

0 V p./


2 3 1w 5

vhy d

VIIeli showing hata gl d. 3. ypo
a precaudal setaa

reb c audal setae al

pecaduda / g
d ;\b

Head, lateral view, showing chaetotaxy. 2. Mandibles, various views. 3. Hypopharynx,
VIII IX e 4d
anterior-posterior view. 4. Thoracic segments, laterecaudal view, showing chaetotaxy. 5.

Prothoracic pseudoprecantrdal setae 9 Seta a of 2nd anal segment, lateral view.


Fig. 1-10. Forcipomyia (Euprojoannisia) dolichopodida sp. n., 4th instar larva. 1.
Head, lateral view, showing chaetotaxy. 2. Mandibles, various views. 3. Hypopharynx,
anterior-posterior view. 4. Thoracic segments, lateral view, showing chaetotaxy. 5.
Prothoracic pseudopod, ventral view. 6. Seta a of 2nd abdominal segment, lateral view.
7. 6th abdominal segment, lateral view, showing station. 8. Abdominal segments VIII
and IX, lateral view, showing station. 9. Precaudal setae setaee a), dorsal view. 10.
Posterior pseudopod, ventral view, showing station, anal gills and cauda.
ant, antenna; dhy, dorsal portion of hypopharynx; Ir, lateral rod; lw, lateral wing;
pa,pc,pd, sensory pits a,c,d, respectively; vhy, ventral portion of hypopharynx.


Chan & Linley: New Florida Ceratopogonidae

respiratory horn --







o '

Fig. 11-20. Forcipomyia (Euprojoannisia) dolichopodida sp. n., pupa. 11. Male
pupa, dorsal view, showing respiratory horn and chaetotaxy. 12. Pcsterior region of
head, ventral view. 13. 1st abdominal segment, lateral view, showing station. 14. 6th
abdominal segment, lateral view, showing station. 5. 6th abdominal segment, dorsal
view, showing station. 16. 6th abdominal segment, ventral view, showing station. 17.
7th abdominal segment, dorsal view, showing station. 18. 7th abdominal segment,
ventral view, showing station. 19. Abdominal segments VIII and IX, dorsal view,
showing dorsal tubercles, male sexual processes (msp) and terminal processes (tp). 20.
Abdominal segments VII-IX, lateral view, showing station, male sexual processes (msp)
and terminal processes (tp).
dt, dorsal tubercles; dlt, dorsolateral tubercles; It, lateral tubercles; ml-m6, thoracic
dorsal tubercles; msp, male sexual process; tp, terminal process; vt, ventral tubercles.

256 Florida Entomologist 72(2) June, 1989

Length: 2.43 mm (range 2.36 2.52 mm, n = 3).
Color: Brown. Body smooth, without prominent or elongate setae. Cephalothoracic
dorsal and ventral length and width respectively 0.77 mm, 0.98 mm and 0.56 mm (n =
Head: Eyes (Fig. 11) lying under epicranium, moderately large, set high. Frons with 3
small frontal knobs, the anterior pair smaller (Fig. 11). Epicranium without setae.
Ventral posterior region (Fig. 12), with two minute sensory pits.
Thorax: Prothoracic respiratory horn (Fig. 11) small, narrow, parallel-sided, boot-
shaped, bearing about 16 spiracular papillae around extremity of horn, in a double
palisade. Mesothoracic dorsum bearing 5 pairs of small, cuticular nodules (ml, m2, m3,
m4, m6), ml with single seta (Fig. 11), others bare; mesothoracic dorsum also bearing
a central low ridge and a single small central cuticular nodule between nodules m3.
Mesothoracic posterior median point bisects metathorax and first abdominal segment,
reaching to posterior margin of latter (Fig. 11).
Abdomen: Chaetotaxy on segments III-VII similar, each segment bearing 12 pairs of
tubercles: 4 pairs dorsal (dt), 1 pair dorsolateral (dlt), 5 pairs lateral (lt) and 2 pairs
ventral (vt) (Fig. 14). All armed tubercles with very minute setae pointing posteriorly.
Dorsal tubercles (dt) in segments III-VII ringed by darker cuticular ridge in incomplete
circle (Fig. 11, 3 pairs bare, 1 pair (the outermost) with single seta (Fig. 14, 15) except
segment VII with 2 pairs bare and 1 pair with single seta (Fig. 17). Ventral tubercles
(vt) in segments III-VIII each with single seta, the outer pair with seta longer than
inner pair (Fig. 16, 18, 20), longer than all other setae of armed tubercles. First abdom-
inal segment (Fig. 13) bearing 5 pairs of tubercles, 3 each with single seta, 2 bare.
Eighth abdominal segment bearing 2 pairs dorsal, 3 pairs lateral and 2 pairs ventral
tubercles (Fig. 20), all except inner dorsal pair with single seta. Terminal processes
closely appressed (Fig. 19). Male sexual processes dorsal, small (Fig. 19, 20). Larval
exuviae retained on last two abdominal segments.
MALE (Fig. 21-27)
Color: Brown, with first 3 hind tarsomeres dark brown.
Total length: 1.73 mm (range 1.68-1.74 mm, n = 4) from front of head to wing tip.
Head: Maxillary palpus (Fig. 21) with 3rd segment scarcely swollen, bearing a small
sensory pit, 4th and 5th segments fused and about as long as 3rd segment; PR (length
divided by maximum width of 3rd segment) 4.50 (range 4.31-4.62, n = 4). Antenna (Fig.
22) with flagellomeres 10 and 11 elongate, 12th flagellomere only slightly elongate, 13th
almost oval with usual nipple tip; flagellomeres 1-7 short, globular, basal ones larger;
flagellomeres 8 and 9 almost oval.
Thorax: Wing (Fig. 23) covered with coarse macrotrichia (not shown); 1st radial cell
narrow, elongate, closing; 2nd radial cell wider and 1/2 length of 1st. Wing length 0.95
mm (range 0.92-0.96 mm, n = 4), wing width 0.30 mm (n = 4); CR 0.42 (range 0.41-0.42,
n = 4). Legs brown, fore TR 2.10 (range 1.97-2.18, n = 4); mid TR 1.84 (range 1.80-1.89,
n = 4); hind TR 1.75 (range 1.69-1.77, n = 4). Hind tarsomeres 1-3 (Fig. 27) dark
brown, darker than remainder of leg, greatly enlarged. Hind basitarsus wider than
adjacent end of tibia (Fig. 27). Foreleg with apical tibial comb bearing one large thick
spur, 2 rows of 6 (2 + 4) spines, and about 5 adjacent somewhat long, slender setae
(Fig. 24). Midleg lacks comb but bears row of about 5 long, somewhat stouter, setae at
tibial apex (Fig. 25). Hindleg with apical tibial comb bearing one large spur and 2 rows
of 6 (2 + 4) spines and about 5 adjacent somewhat long, slender setae (Fig. 24). Midleg
lacks comb but bears row of about 5 long, somewhat stouter setae at tibial apex (Fig.
25). Hindleg with apical tibial comb bearing one large spur and 2 rows of spines, anterior
row (at same level as spur) comprising about 5 longer and thicker spines, and posterior
row consisting of about 12-14 closely touching, shorter and thinner spines (Fig. 26).
Abdomen: Terminalia (Fig. 28) with 9th sternite about as long as wide, bearing about

Chan & Linley: New Florida Ceratopogonidae 257

12 21 // c. '24


23 2


25. Tibio-tarsal joint of il. 26. Tibio-tarsal rooin oran of inl. 27. Hin
o 0 o



Maxillary palp. 22. Antenna. 23. Wing. 24. Tibio-tarsal grooming apparatus of foreleg.
25. Tibio-tarsal joint of midleg. 26. Tibio-tarsal grooming organ of hindleg. 27. Hind
tarsus. 28. Male terminalia.
34 bristles; 9th tergite about 1.5x as long as wide. Gonopod or clasper with gonostylus
(dististyle) 0.78 (range 0.76-0.80) times as long as gonocoxite (basistyle). Gonocoxite
105.11 pxm (range 102.90-105.84 um, n = 4) long. Gonostylus 81.97 pm (range 80.85-
82.32 txm, n = 4) long. Aedeagus small, short, shield-shaped distal portion divided
medially, early to basal arch; apex with slender, crescent-shaped tip. Parameres ab-
sent, basistylar apodemes forming a tall, broadly rounded arch, broader distally and
narrower proximally. Summary of measurements of key characters in 4 specimens
shown in Table 1.

Florida Entomologist 72(2)

Lm (mm).

Character Mean SE

Total length* 1732.53 (1.73) 14.48 (0.014)
9-13 357.77 5.22
Antenna 1-8 65.75 3.72
AR (9-13/1-8) 1.17 0.01
Maxillary Length (L) 87.47 1.21
palp width (W) 19.49 0.24
(3rd segment) PR (L/W) 4.50 0.11
Length (L) 945.72 (0.95) 5.66 (0.006)
Wing Width (W) 300.00 (0.30) 0.00 (0.000)
Costal length (CL) 389.28 (0.39) 3.09 (0.003)
CR (CL/L) 0.42 0.003
1st 186.88 2.36
Fore 2nd 99.95 1.22
TR (lst/2nd) 2.10 0.03
1st 173.82 1.95
Tarsus Mid 2nd 94.16 1.32
TR (lst/2nd) 1.84 0.01
1st 246.17 1.12
Hind 2nd 141.27 1.22
TR (1st/2nd) 1.75 0.01
Gonsylus (gs) 81.97 0.37
Gonopod Gonocoxite (gc) 105.11 0.74
GR (gs/gc) 0.78 0.01
Length (L) 119.07 4.24
9th Sternite Width (W) 125.69 3.26
Ratio (L/W) 0.95 0.04

*From front of head to wing tip

FEMALE (Fig. 29-37)
Color: As in male but hind tarsomeres 1-3 not darker than remainder of leg.
Total length: About 1.5 mm from front of head to wing tip.
Head: Maxillary palpus (Fig. 29) with 3rd segment scarcely swollen, bearing a sunken
sensory pit with about 6 club-shaped sensilla; PR 3.5. Antenna (Fig. 30) with flagello-
meres 1-8 generally short and globular, especially towards basal portion; flagellomeres
9-13 more elongate; AR 0.92 (range 0.91-0.93, n = 2). Mandible with numerous minute
Thorax: Wing (Fig. 31) with 1st radial cell narrow, short, 2nd radial cell wider, twice
as long as Ist; wing length 0.87 mm (range 0.87-0.88 mm, n = 2), wing width 0.38 mm
(range 0.37-0.39 mm, n = 2); CR 0.45. Legs with fore TR 2.17 (range 2.08-2.27, n =
2), mid TR 1.93 (range 1.82-2.00, n = 2), hind TR 1.86 (range 1.78-1.95, n = 2). Tibial
comb of foreleg (Fig. 32) bearing spur and row of about 5 closely touching fine spines,


June, 1989

Chan & Linley: New Florida Ceratopogonidae









VIII sternum
(distal edge)


Fig. 29-37. Forcipomyia (Euprojoannisia) dolichopodida sp. n., adult female. 29.
Maxillary palp. 30. Antenna. 31. Anterior veins of wing. 32. Tibio-tarsal grooming
organ of foreleg. 33. Tibio-tarsal joint of midleg. 34. Tibio-tarsal grooming organ of
hindleg. 35. Scutellum. 36. Spermathecae. 37. Genitalia.

and a few adjacent longer and thicker setae. Midleg (Fig. 33) with apical row of about
6 long bristles. Hindleg (Fig. 34) with apical tibial comb bearing one large spur and 2
rows of spines, anterior row comprising about 6 longer and thicker spines and posterior
row consisting of about 10 closely touching, shorter and thinner spines. Hind tarsomeres
1-3 not enlarged as in male. Scutellum (Fig. 35) bearing about 10 larger and about 18
smaller and shorter bristles.

Florida Entomologist 72(2)

June, 1989

MENTS IN Jm (mm).

Character Mean SE

Total length* 1476.69 (1.48) 20.51 (0.02)
9-13 247.05 1.46
Antenna 1-8 267.38 1.35
AR (9-13/1-8) 0.92 0.50
Maxillary Length (L) 82.32 0.00
palp Width (W) 23.52 0.00
(3rd segment) PR (L/W) 3.50 0.00
Length (L) 872.04 (0.87) 2.83 (0.003)
Wing Width (W) 378.00 (0.38) 4.91 (0.005)
Costal length (CL) 392.04 (0.39) 2.83 (0.003)
CR (CL/L) 0.45 0.00
1st 167.58 5.23
Fore 2nd 77.18 0.74
TR (lst/2nd) 2.17 0.05
1st 166.49 2.35
Tarsus Mid 2nd 86.38 1.10
TR (lst/2nd) 1.93 0.04
1st 212.42 2.21
Hind 2nd 114.31 1.52
TR (lst/2nd) 1.86 0.04
Spermatheca Length 68.74 2.20
Width 50.72 0.74

*From front of head to wing tip

Abdomen: Spermathecae (Fig. 36) two, darkly sclerotized, about equal, globular with
short necks, the larger measuring 68.74 pim, by 50.72 pm. Distal edge of 8th sternite
(Fig. 37) with slight concavity; gonopore edged with slight sclerotization, internal
apodemes crescent-shaped; subgenital sclerotization not visible; X sternite bearing
many minute spines and 2 bristles. Summary of measurements of key characters in 2
specimens shown in Table 2.
HOLOTYPE: Slide preparation of whole male pupa with 4th instar larval exuviae at-
tached, collected from leaves of water lettuce, Pistia stratiotes, in early September
1987, at Chinese Farm, Fort Pierce, St. Lucie County, Florida.
PARATYPES: 3 slide preparations of male, female and pupa reared from larvae deposited
in U.S. National Museum collection, Washington, D.C.


Saunders (1959) and Bystrak & Wirth (1978) pointed out that females of Eupro-
joannisia are difficult to identify. Normally, characters of the male terminalia are most
distinctive in separating ceratopogonid species, but for Euprojoannisia, as for At-
richopogon (Chan & Linley 1988), even the male terminalia do not offer sufficiently good


Chan & Linley: New Florida Ceratopogonidae

and distinctive features. This is borne out by the fact that 12 synonyms were listed by
Wirth & Messersmith (1977) for the widespread African species F. (Eu.) psilonota
For most species of Forcipomyia, the larvae and pupae provide the best characters
for species recognition and because of this we have designated a male pupa with its 4th
instar larval exuviae as the holotype. Although one of us (KLC) has reared several
larvae through to adults, not a single undamaged larva was preserved in 70% alcohol.
Based on larval morphology, F. (Eu.) dolichopodida resembles F. (Eu.) spatulifera
Saunders (1956) most closely in having very large and conspicuous a setae on its body
(Saunders 1956, p. 668), but differs from that species in that the p setae on the larval
head are not spatulate but lanceolate. The pupa ofF. (Eu.) dolichopodida also resembles
that of F. (Eu.) spatulifera Saunders in overall features but differs from it in having
about 16 spiracular papillae instead of about 40 in the latter. Saunders (1956) did not
give sufficient details of the pupal chaetotaxy to allow comparison.
For the adult stages, the keys provided by Bystrak & Wirth (1978) identify the adult
female F. dolichopodida as F. navaiae Bystrak & Wirth and the male as near F.
fuscicalcarata Bystrak & Wirth. A summary of the characters that may be useful in
separating the three species is given below.

dolichopdida fuscicalcarata navaiae
9 spermathecae subequal very unequal equal
0.069x0.051mm 0.074x0.051mm
6 apodemes arched arched angled
S aedeagus slightly straight deeply
anterior arched arched
S ninth longer than 2x broader 1.5x broader
sternum broad than long than long
S hind 1st three 1st three not expanded,
basitarsus segments ex- segments ex- pale
panded, brown panded, brown
Shind TR 1.75mm 1.73 1.71
9 hind TR 1.86 2.03 1.86
Swing length 0.87mm 1.1mm 1.0mm

The best male characters are the aedeagus and 9th sternum. The aedeagus is particu-
larly useful as it differs clearly in shape from both fuscicalcarata and navaiae (see Fig.
28 and Bystrak & Wirth (1978)). The females are more difficult and it may prove impos-
sible to separate them reliably. The wing of dolichopodida is shorter, but this character
is likely to vary considerably between populations, and also seasonally.
Unlike the immature stages of Dasyhelea sp. and Atrichopogon wirthi which were
common on Pistia leaves, immatures of F. (Eu.) dolichopodida were rarely found.
When seen, they were associated with the immature stages of a species of dolichopodid
fly which characteristically inhabited holes made by a caterpillar, Samea sp. (Pyralidae),
typically at the base of young leaves of the plant. There may be an ecological succession
of the three insects on the leaves, the pyralid first, followed next by the dolichopodid,
then finally the ceratopogonid. Food for the ceratopogonid larvae is probably produced
by the activity of both the pyralid and dolichopodid larvae at the bases of young Pistia
leaves. It was usual on such leaves to see a dark brown detritus formed from pyralid
fecal pellets as well as decomposing bracts covering the young leaves. It was in these


262 Florida Entomologist 72(2) June, 1989

decaying media that larvae of F. (Eu.) dolichopodida were found. The larvae were often
seen with tiny droplets of fluid on the tips of their setae.
In the laboratory, F. (Eu.) dolichopodida survived well on collected natural sub-
strate supplemented with small amounts of lactalbumin/brewer's yeast (1:1) sprinkled
sparingly on portions of Pistia leaves kept in petridishes. Six 3rd and 4th instar larvae
were reared to adults on this diet. They completed their pupal stage in 2-3 days, 2 & &
and 1 9 completing the stage in 2 days, 1 S and 1 9 completing it in 2.5 days and 1 9
in 3 days The pupae were always oriented with the abdomen down and the
cephalothorax up and away from the substrate, exactly as observed by A. Dyce for the
Australian F. (Eu.) dycei (Debenham & Wirth 1984, p. 875), a behavior that is perhaps
consistent with many ceratopogonids inhabiting semiaquatic situations.


We are grateful to Bonnie Pattok of the Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory
for labelling the figures. We also thank Dr. W. W. Wirth for critical reading of the
manuscript. This paper is Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of
Florida Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 9555.


BYSTRAK, P. G., AND W. W. WIRTH. 1978. The North American species of For-
cipomyia, subgenus Euprojoannisia (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). US Dept.
Agri. Tech. Bull. 1591: 1-51.
CHAN, K. L., AND E. J. LEROUX. 1971. Nine new species of Forcipomyia (Diptera:
Ceratopogonidae) described in all stages. Canadian Entomol. 103: 729-762.
CHAN, K. L., AND J. R. LINLEY. 1988. Description of Atrichopogon wirthi new
species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from leaves of the water lettuce (Pistia
stratiotes) in Florida. Florida Entomol. 71: 186-201.
DEBENHAM, M. L., AND W. W. WIRTH. 1984. Australian and New Guinea species
of the Forcipomyia subgenus Euprojoannisia (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Aus-
tralian J. Zool. 32: 851-889.
DE MEILLON, B., AND W. W. WIRTH. 1979. Subsaharan Ceratopogonidae. (Diptera)
II. Ceratopogonidae taken on flowers of avocado, Persea americana, in South
Africa. J. Entomol. Soc. South Africa 42: 187-189.
DOWNES, J. A., AND W. W. WIRTH. 1981. Ceratopogonidae, pp. 393-421, in McAl-
pine, J. F., et al., [eds.], Manual of Nearctic Diptera, Vol. 1. Agric. Canada
Monogr. No. 27. 674 pp.
HOWARTH, F. G. 1973. The cavernicolous fauna of Hawaiian lava tubes, 1. Introduc-
tion. Pacific Ins. 15: 139-151.
LUPTON, D. W. 1962. Forcipomyia ingrami Carter. Proc. Hawaiian Entomol. Soc.
8: 8.
SAUNDERS, L. G. 1924. On the life history and the anatomy of the early stages of
Forcipomyia (Dipt. Nemat. Ceratopogoninae). Parasit. 16: 164-213.
SAUNDERS, L. G. 1956. Revision of the genus Forcipomyia based on characters of
all stages (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae). Canadian J. Zool. 34: 657-705.
SAUNDERS, L. G. 1959. Methods for studying Forcipomyia midges, with special ref-
erence to cacao-pollinating species (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae). Canadian J. Zool.
37: 33-51.
WIRTH, W. W. 1956. The heleid midges involved in the pollination of rubber trees in
America (Diptera, Heleidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Washington 58: 241-250.
WIRTH, W. W., AND F. G. HOWARTH. 1982. The "Foricpomyia ingrami" complex
in Hawaii (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Proc. Hawaiian Entomol. Soc. 24: 127-
WIRTH, W. W., AND D. H. MESSERSMITH. 1977. Notes on the biting midges of the
Seychelles (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Washington 79: 293-

Young: New Florida Dytiscidae 263


Department of Biology
Indiana University
Bloomington, IN 47405


Agaporomorphus dodgei sp. nov. is described from ultraviolet light trap collections
from various counties of Florida. The genus has been recorded previously from South
and Central America. The absence of males in the collections, which is also characteristic
of some other species of the genus, suggests that parthenogenesis may be involved.


Se describe a Agaporomorphus dodgei sp. nov. colectado en trampas de luz ul-
travioleta en various condados de la Florida. El g6nero ha sido previamente registrado
en Sur y Centro Am6rica. La ausencia de machos en las colecciones, lo cual es caracteris-
tico de otras species de este genero, sugiere que partenog6nesis pudiera estar involuc-

Various species of the genus Agaporomorphus, described by Zimmermann from the
Mato Grosso of Brasil, have been taken in Belise (British Honduras), Bolivia, Guyana,
Colombia, Suriname, Trinidad, and Venezuela. Several species are represented, but the
material is still inadequate except for more recent records from Florida (U.S.A). The
specimens from Florida are similar to A. opalinus Zimmermann but differ in several
Several of the supposed species in this genus are represented in collections only by
females. This may indicate that they are actually parthenogenic or else males are unat-
tracted by ultraviolet light. The latter has not been a condition recognized in other
aquatic beetles. The collections from different localities seem to represent different
species, which may indicate that parthenogenesis has allowed the evolution of popula-
tions by selection of viable mutations.
The genus Agaporomorphus contains the smallest known members of the Colym-
betinae. One undescribed species from Brasil is barely 1.68 mm long by only 0.8 mm
wide at the widest point. Aside from their small size, the various species are distinguish-
able from other colymbetines by the lack of setae on the fore and middle femora and
from members of the genus Copelatus, which they closely resemble, by the lack of
curved strigae on the venter, particularly on the basal abdominal sternites. The pro-
notum is unmargined or very finely margined, and both dorsal and ventral surfaces are
very smooth with reduced punctation and usually with iridescent or opalescent micro-
sculpture throughout.
I take pleasure in naming the new species from Florida after the late Dr. H. Rodney
Dodge who first recognized it in an ultraviolet light trap collection made by Dr. W. H.

Florida Entomologist 72(2)

June, 1989

Agaporomorphus dodgei sp. nov.

Diagnosis: Similar to A. opalinus Zimmermann but somewhat broader with the
outline of elytra and pronotum feebly discontinuous. Front of head distinctly more
coarsely punctate than in opalinus or other species seen. Prosternal process margined
and keeled, much as in opalinus, the apex acute. Scutellum distinct, the apex pointed
not rounded. Discal elytral stria of coarser punctures less distinct than in opalinus, the
punctures finer. Male unknown. Total length 2.3 to 2.65 mm; greatest width near middle
of elytra 1.0 to 1.2 mm.
Holotype Female: Elongate oval acuminate behind with dorsal outline somewhat
interrupted at pronotal-elytral juncture. Punctation throughout relatively fine, weakly
impressed, and not conspicuous. Surface between punctures shining or somewhat less
strongly iridescent or opalescent than in opalinus. Elytra with an irregular row of
moderately large punctures as in opalinus but punctures shallow only feebly impressed.
Pronotum finely, sparsely punctate on disk, more closely and coarsely punctate in a
transverse row just behind the nearly impunctate anterior margin. Head with frontal
punctation distinctly coarser and more irregular than in other species. Head with a welt-
like transverse swelling just behind eyes not noted in other species. Antennae slender,
not detectibly modified. Prosternal process as described under the diagnosis. Color
generally light reddish brown, about same as in opalinus. Bases of elytra lighter yel-
lowish brown distinctly contrasting with darker discal and apical color. Pronotum and
head about same color as elytral bases. Venter and appendages mostly yellowish or
reddish brown. Total length 2.36 mm; greatest width near bases of elytra 1.12 mm;
width of pronotum at base 0.96 mm; width of pronotum at apex 0.56 mm; length of
pronotum at midline about 0.40 mm.
Holotype female from FLORIDA (U.S.A.), Alachua County, Gainesville, at ul-
traviolet light trap, 15 Sept. 1972, W. H. Pierce, in Florida State Collection of Ar-
thropods, Gainesville, Florida (U.S.A.).
Paratypes all from Florida collected at ultraviolet light traps as follows: Same as
holotype (6). Same except 10 Sept. 1972 (1); 13 Sept. 1972 (1). Same except 28-31 July
1972, F. W. Mead (1); 1-7 Sept. 1972, F. W. Mead (1). Same data except, Forest Insect
Laboratory, Gainesville, 12-13 Aug. 1985, F. N. Young (2). Florida, Baker County, at
U.S. 90, 28 Oct. 1976 J. R. Wiley (2). Florida, Columbia County, Osceola National
Forest, 22 Sept. 1976, 28 Oct. 1976 J. R. Wiley (4). Florida, Dade County, Miami, 23
May and 22 June 1983, F. N. Young (2). Marion County, 9 mi. S.S.W. Ocala, 28 June
1975, 10 Sept. 1975, 10 Sept. 1976, J. R. Wiley (4); Sharpe's Ferry, 27 Aug. 1975, J.
R. Wiley (2); Lake Eton, 8 July to 25 July 1975, J. and S. Knox (2). Putnam County, 2
mi. N.W. Orange Springs, 12-13 Sept. 1975, D. Bowman (2).
Paratypes will be distributed to various museums in the United States and abroad.


ZIMMERMANN, A. 1921. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der sudamerikanischen
Schwimmkaferfauna nebst 41 Neubeschreibungen. Arch. Naturg. 87, Abt. A.
Heft 3, pp. 181-206.


Taylor & McPherson: Florida Aradidae


Department of Zoology
Southern Illinois University
Carbondale, Illinois 62901


The presence of 5 aradid species, Calisius contubernalis Bergroth, Acaricoris
floridus Drake, Neoproxius gypsatus (Bergroth), Mezira sayi Kormilev, and Notapic-
tinus aurivilli (Bergroth), in Florida is confirmed and new county records are provided.
The occurence of Acaricoris ignotus Harris and Drake is also added as a new Florida
state record.


Se confirm y se provee un registro nuevo en los condados sobre la presencia de 5
species de arAdidos: Calisius contubernalis Bergroth, Acaricoris floridus Drake,
Neoproxius gypsatus (Bergroth), Mezira sayi Kormilev, y Notapictinus aurivilli (Ber-
groth). La ocurrencia de Acaricoris ignotus Harris y Drake tambi6n se afiade como un
nuevo registro para el estado de la Florida.

Blatchley's 1926 treatment of Aradidae in his "Heteroptera of Eastern North
America" provided several Florida records. However, as is typical for North American
aradid literature, the amount of additional biological information associated with those
records was very limited.
Since 1926, the only literature published on Florida aradids has involved descriptions
of new species, which included this state within their geographical distributions. These
include Acaricoris floridus (Drake 1957) and Mezira sayi (Kormilev 1982).
This paper presents information on 156 adults of 6 species collected in Florida.
Except for M. sayi Kormilev, all specimens were collected with a Berlese funnel. Col-
lections from mixed hardwood litter are indicated as MHL. Numbers of d and 9 and
additional habitat data are indicated in parentheses following each locality. Specimens
collected by C. W. O'Brien, G. B. Marshall and G. J. Wibmer are indicated by CWO,
GBM and GJW, respectively. Immature stages were not included in counts because
they cannot be reliably identified. The sequence of taxa follows Kormilev & Froeschner
(1987). Specimens are deposited in the personal collection of SJT and the Southern
Illinois University Entomology Collection


Calisius contubernalis Bergroth has been reported from St. George Island, Franklin
County (Bergroth 1913); Dunedin, Pinellas County, Florida; and Guadeloupe Island,
West Indies (Blatchley 1926). The specimen reported here is a new county record. An
additional species of Calisius is known from Florida, i.e., C. anaemus Bergroth, from
Biscayne Bay, Dade County, Florida (Blatchley 1926).
Monroe County, Upper Key Largo, 14 June 1977 (1 9, hammock litter), CWO and
GJW, coll.


266 Florida Entomologist 72(2) June, 1989


Acaricoris floridus Drake has been reported only from the type locality in Highlands
Hammock State Park, Highlands County, Florida (Drake 1957) We here report a new
county record. Two specimens were collected from a packrat nest and apparently repre-
sent only the 2nd report of aradids found in rodent nests (Blatchley 1934, Usinger 1936).
Monroe County, Upper Key Largo, 14 June 1977 (1 6, 1 9, packrat nest], [5 6, 4 9,
hammock litter]), CWO and GJW, coll.
Acaricoris ignotus Harris and Drake has been reported from Texas (Taylor & Lewis,
in press), Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Georgia (Drake & Kormilev 1958), but
previously has not been reported from Florida. Harris & Drake (1944) commented that
it "has much the faces of an unfed tick."
Hamilton County, 8 mi S of Jasper, Hwy 129, 24 March 1977 (4 6, 3 2, MHL), CWO
"et al.", coll.
Lafayette County, 10 mi NW Mayo, Hwy 27, 24 March 1977 (3 6, 2 9, MHL), CWO
"et al.", coll.
Leon County, Tall Timbers Res. Sta., Woodyard Hammock, 23 January 1976 (9 6,
6 9), CWO and GBM, coll.; 25 December 1976 (1 9, beech-magnolia litter), CWO
and GJW, coll. 3 mi NW Alligator Pt., 12 March 1976 (1 9, sand pine, oak,
palmetto litter), CWO and GBM, coll. Tallahassee, 29 March 1976 (1 9, MHL),
CWO and GBM, coll.; 2 April 1976 (3 3, 1 9, MHL), CWO and GBM, coll.; 2
December 1976 (19 6, 16 9, MHL), GBM, coll.; 17 December 1976 (2 6, 2 9,
MHL), CWO and GJW, coll.; 24 December 1976 (2 6, 1 9, MHL), CWO, coll.
Monroe County, Upper Key Largo, 14 June 1977 (1 6, 1 9, hammock litter), CWO
and GJW, coll.
Neoproxius gypsatus (Bergroth) has been reported from St. Augustine, St. Johns
County, Florida; Venezuela; Guatemala; and Panama (Blatchley 1926). The specimens
reported here are a new county record. A 2nd species of Neoproxius, N. schwarzii
(Heidemann) is known from Tampa, Hillsborough County, Florida (Blatchley 1926).
Leon County, Tall Timbers Res. Sta., Woodyard Hammock, 23 January 1976 (1 9),
CWO and GBM, coll.; 25 December 1976 (1 6, 3 9, beech-magnolia litter), CWO
and GJW, coll. Tallahassee, 4 February 1976 (1 6, 1 9, hardwood litter), GBM,
coll.; 20 March 1976 (1 9, MHL), CWO and GBM, coll.; 2 December 1976 (1 d,
1 9, MHL), GBM, coll.; 17 December 1976 (6 6, 4 9, MHL), CWO and GJW,
coll.; 24 December 1976 (2 6, 1 9, MHL), CWO, coll. 2 mi NW Tallahassee, 6
January 1977 (1 6, MHL), CWO "et al.", coll.


Mezira sayi Kormilev has been reported from Florida, Georgia, South Carolina,
Indiana (Kormilev 1982), and Arkansas (Taylor & McPherson, in press). It has been
only recently described (Kormilev 1982) and is closely related to Mezira granulata
(Say), also reported from Florida (e.g., Blatchley 1926). However, the presence of M.
granulata in Florida has not been confirmed since Kormilev's study and it is probable
that some of the existing records upon which its presence in the state is based actually
apply to M. sayi.
Suwannee County, Suwannee River State Park, 14 December 1985 (6 6, 7 9, under
bark of fallen dead hardwood), S. J. Taylor, coll.
Notapictinus aurivilli (Bergroth) has been reported from Crescent City, Putnam
County, Florida; Georgia; and Bayou Sara, Louisiana (Blatchley 1926). The specimens
reported here represent a new county record.
Leon County, Tall Timbers Res. Sta., Woodyard Hammock, 23 January 1976 (1 6,

_ ___

I ____

Taylor & McPherson: Florida Aradidae 267

1 9, CWO and GBM, coll. Tallahassee, 4 February 1976 (8 6, 5 9, hardwood
litter), GBM, coll.; 16 February 1976 (3 3, 3 ?, hardwood litter), CWO, coll.; 28
June 1976 (1 6, MHL), GBM and Justice, coll.; 21 October 1976 (1 d, 3 9, MHL),
L. D. Justice, coll.; 27 October 1976 (2 6, MHL), L. D. Justice, coll. 2 mi NW
Tallahassee, 6 January 1977 (1 9, MHL), CWO "et al.", coll.


We thank Richard C. Froeschner, National Museum of Natural History,
Washington, D.C., for his help in identifying specimens; and Merrill H. Sweet, Texas
A&M University, for providing us with most of the material presented in this paper.


BERGROTH, E. 1913. Notes on American Hemiptera. Canadian Entomol. 45: 1-8.
BLATCHLEY, W. S. 1926. Heteroptera or true bugs of eastern North America, with
especial reference to the faunas of Indiana and Florida. Nature Publ. Comp.,
Indianapolis. 1116 pp.
BLATCIILEY, W. S. 1934. Notes on a collection of Heteroptera taken in the vicinity
of Los Angeles, California. Trans. Amer. Entomol. Soc. 60: 1-16.
DRAKE, C. J. 1957. New apterous Aradidae (Hemiptera). Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington
70: 35-40.
DRAKE, C. J., AND N. A. KORMILEV. 1958. Concerning the apterous Aradidae of
the Americas (Hemiptera). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 51: 241-247.
HARRIS. H. M., AND C. J. DRAKE. 1944. New apterous Aradidae from the Western
Hemisphere (Hemiptera). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Washington 46: 128-132.
KORMILEV, N. A. 1982. On Mezira granulata (Say) group (Hemiptera: Aradidae). J.
Natur. Hist. 16: 775-779.
KORMILEV, N. A., AND R. C. FROESCHNER. 1987. Flat bugs of the world. A
synonymic list (Heteroptera: Aradidae). Entomography 5: 1-246.
TAYLOR, S. J., AND J. E. MCPHERSON. 1989. State records and confirmations of
Arkansas flat bugs (Heteroptera: Aradidae). Great Lakes Entomol. (in press).
TAYLOR, S. J., AND S. P. LEWIS. 1989. Notes on the habitat and distribution of
Acaricoris ignotus Harris and Drake (Heteroptera: Aradidae). Southwestern
Natur. (in press).
USINGER, R. L. 1936. Studies in the American Aradidae with descriptions of new
species (Hemiptera). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 29: 490-516.

Florida Entomologist 72(2)

June, 1989


Florida Dept. of Agriculture
Division of Plant Industry
P.O. Box 1269
Gainesville, FL 32602


The workers, males and females of 2 new species of thief ants. Solenopsis abdita
and S. tonsa, are described. The female of S. nickersoni Thompson is described for the
first time, and the 1945 discovery and 1980 rediscovery of S. corticalis Forel in Florida
are reported. The workers of all 8 Florida species are figured and placed in a taxonomic


Las obreras, machos y hembras de 2 nuevas species de hormigas ladronas, Solenop-
sis abdita y S. tonsa son descritas. La hembra de S. nickersoni Thompson es descrita
por primera vez, y el descubrimiento en 1945 y redescubrimiento en 1980 de S. corticalis
Forei son anumciados. Las obreras de todas las 8 species de la Florida estAn ilustradas
y puestas en una clave taxon6mica.

The genus Solenopsis is essentially cosmopolitan, living in all but the coldest parts of
the world. The genus was divided by Creighton (1930) into three subgenera: Solenopsis,
Euophthalma and Diplorhoptrum. The painful stings inflicted by members of Solenop-
sis (Solenopsis) have attracted public attention as the red imported fire ant Solenopsis
invicta Buren continues to spread in the southern United States.
While not endearing themselves to the general public, the genus Solenopsis is also
no favorite of ant taxonomists. Creighton (1950) grumbled, "The student of North Amer-
ican ants may count himself fortunate that so few species of this difficult genus occur
in our latitudes". He pointed out that the worker caste in Solenopsis has undergone
considerable convergence, making species identification difficult. Much of this con-
vergence has occurred in Solenopsis (Diplorhoptrum).
The taxonomic position of Diplorhoptrum itself is subject to argument. Ettershank
(1966), in his revision of the Solenopsidini, synonymized Diplorhoptrum under Solenop-
sis. Baroni-Urbani (1968) resurrected the group and gave it full generic status. Unfor-
tunately, he based his determination on the male genitalia of the common European
species Diplorhoptrum fugax (Latreille), without knowledge of the nearctic and neot-
ropical faunas. Creighton suspected that male and female morphology might be the only
reliable source of characters on which to base Diplorhoptrum taxonomy, but the fact
remains that few of the males are known. Retaining Diplorhoptrum as a subgenus
might be acceptable simply for convenience: as a group Diplorhoptrum species are
usually small and monomorphic as opposed to the larger, polymorphic, epigeic fire ants
(Creighton 1930). However, in light of Barry Bolton's review of the Solenopsis genera
(1987), I have abandoned the middle-of-the-road subgeneric position (Thompson 1982).
Bolton presents convincing arguments that the morphological differences among the
Solenopsis groups will not bear more than species-specific weight; the subgenus Dip-

Thompson: Thief Ants of Florida 269

lorhoptrum should be returned to synonymy. The thief ants discussed in this paper are
taxonomically designated as Solenopsis species.
An additional taxonomic problem has been the widespread tendency to identify every
North American small yellow thief ant as S. molesta. This is probably because S.
molesta is the species reported to be an economic pest (Smith 1965). As a result, much
of the literature concerning the group is based on misdeterminations. The confusion is
increased by the nomenclature of thief ants: S. molesta has five synonyms.
Creighton (1950) listed 12 taxa of Diplorhoptrum for North America. The most
recent compilation (Smith 1979) also contains 12 thief ant taxa: 10 from Creighton's
original list, one species renamed, and one placed in synonomy. Smith (1979) records at
least one thief ant species from each of the lower 48 states with S. molesta (Say), the
most widespread species, reported from 30 states. The species reported from Florida
are: S. molesta (Say), S. pergandei Forel, S. picta Emery, S. tennesseensis Smith, S.
texana Emery and S. truncorum Forel (Smith 1979).
Most of the information on thief ants indicated that they were present in relatively
small numbers in the soil, and usually in close association with nests of larger ants. With
the use of baited traps, however, thief ants were found in large numbers with a wide
distribution in the soil (Thompson 1980). These ants were present in all but extremely
hydric habitats in Florida. I found that, despite their name, they were most often
freeliving and highly predatory. They readily killed and consumed colony-founding im-
ported fire ant queens and the larvae of the sugar cane root stalk borer, Diaprepes
abbreviatus (L.) (Thompson 1980). This indicates that thief ants are important subterra-
nean predators and may have potential as biological control agents.
In this paper two new thief ant species are described, the previously unknown
female of a known species is described and all Florida species are figured and placed in
a taxonomic key.


Because the largest Florida thief ant worker is ca. 1.8 mm long, it is imperative that
anyone wishing to study this group employ a microscope with an ocular micrometer and
at least 50X magnification. I also recommend study of the figures before using the key
to fix in the mind a "Gestalt" image of the various species; something nearly impossible
to picture in words.
Specimens for this study were collected from various Florida locations. The following
measurements were made:
HL length of head in full face view (excluding mandibles)
HW width of head
SL length of antennal scape (not including basal knob and stalk)
FL funiculus length (males only)
WL Weber's length-length of thorax in lateral view from anterior of pr6notum
to rear edge propodeum
EL greatest eye length
Indices used were calculated as follows:
CI cephalic idex = (HW x 100)/HL
SI scape index = (SL x 100)/HL
HTL HL + WL (Highly variable gaster length not measured.
This measurement was used in place of total body length).
Specimens were compared with types at the U.S. National Museum of Natural
History, Washington, D.C., and the Museum of Comparative Zoology (MCZ) at Har-
vard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Florida Entomologist 72(2)

Plate 1. Worker of S. abdita n. sp. (90X, 140X, 460X, 50X)

The micrographs in this paper were made with an Hitachi scanning electron micro-
scope. Difficulties were encountered using the standard black carbon cement because
of the small size of the ants. Split-second timing was needed, otherwise the cement
dried before the insect was positioned or the specimen disappeared under the cement.
These problems were finally overcome with double-stick white labels: the ants were
arranged on the label and pushed into the adhesive.
A second SEM problem was charging, although the specimens had been double-gold-
coated at 3 min./coat with a break between coats to dissipate heat. This problem was
finally solved by putting the ants on the sticky labels and smearing spots of carbon glue


June, 1989

Thompson: Thief Ants of Florida

near the specimens into contact with tarsi or other body parts. This method increased
conduction and charging was reduced.

Key to workers of Florida thief ant species

1. Petiolar node (Fig. 23) placed somewhat anterior to the petiolar-post-
petiolar juncture so that the petiole has a distinct slender posterior
peduncle; body either uniformly dark brown or with lighter reddish brown
head and/or thorax; arboreal ................................................. picta Emery
1'. Petiolar node placed near the petiolar-postpetiolar juncture (Fig. 15);
body usually pale yellow, or if dark, then the appendages are pale; sub-
terranean (except one yellow arboreal species) ....................................... 2
2(1'). Head, thorax and gaster dark brown; appendages pale brown to pale
yellow; (Fig. 13-16) ............................................... nickersoni Thompson
2'. Usually entire body pale yellow to somewhat darker yellow, but one
species carolinensiss) often with moderate infuscation on head and gaster .... 3
3(2'). Eyes small (length < 0.02 mm), most of eye area the same color or only
slightly darker than the rest of the head; head with distinct median strip
free of punctures and hairs which is weakly impressed forming longitudinal
furrow (Fig. 3) ............................................................................... 4
3'. Eyes normal size (length at least 0.03 usually 0.04 mm); eye area mostly
brown to black; head without median strip free of hairs and punctures ........ 5
4(3). Head narrow, elongate (Fig. 26) and flat (HI 72-81) (Fig. 25); very small
species (HTL 0.61-0.69 mm) ............................. tennesseensis M. R. Smith
4'. Head proportionately not as narrow, only slightly oblong and convex
ventrally (HI 89-94) (Fig. 29); medium-sized species (HTL 0.76-0.83 mm
.................................. .............. tonsa n. sp.
5(3'). Large species (HTL 0.84-1.14 mm); head nearly square (HI 91-100) with
numerous (ca. 200) hairs arising from punctures which, from side front, lie
in parallel rows (Fig. 18); head in profile with great depth due to very
convex ventral side ........................................................ pergandei Forel
5'. Smaller species (HTL 0.64-0.80); head clearly oblong (HI 82-92) with far
fewer (< 100) hairs which, from side front, do not lie in parallel rows; head
in profile not greatly convex ventrally ................................................. 6
6(5'). Eye longer than broad, nearly oval, but wider anteriorly giving a slightly
almond shape; eyes with one black facet anteriorly followed by a central
yellow area with a second smaller black facet at the posterior eye corner;
body entirely light brownish yellow or with gaster slightly infuscated;
arboreal ....................................................................... corticalis Forel
6'. Eye nearly circular, facets light-colored, and surrounded by black line, or
by uniform black areas that are not concentrated at the anterior and pos-
terior eye corners; body yellow to brownish yellow with or without infusca-
tion; subterranean ............................................................................. 7
7(6'). Eye normal sized (0.04 mm); body yellow to brownish-yellow; promeso-
pleural suture, below mesothoracic spiracle, only slightly darker than rest
of thorax and shaped like a half-boomerang, the tapered dorsal end of the
suture extends posteriorly but does not encircle the spiracle; thorax, in
profile, with flattened area before and after the metanotal groove (Fig. 5,
but not completely aligned) .......................................... carolinensis Forel
7'. Eye smaller (0.03-0.03 mm); body clear yellow; promesopleural suture
somewhat hourglass-shaped with a reddish-orange outline which extends
to encircle the spiracle; dorsum of thorax smoothly curved, not flattened
before and after the metanotal groove (Fig. 1) ........................ abdita n. sp.

272 Florida Entomologist 72(2) June, 1989

Plate 2. Worker of S. carolinensis Forel (60X, 130X, 290X, 56X)

Solenopsis tonsa NEW SPECIES
Fig. 29-32


DIAGNOSIS-Workers pale yellow and densely covered with short hairs. Head strongly
marked with prominent punctures but with a clear median strip free of punctures and
hairs. Eyes pale and small. Most similar to pergandei and tennesseensis, but hairs on
hairs. Eyes pale and small. Most similar to pergandei and tennesseensis, but hairs on


I ~___

Thompson: Thief Ants of Florida 273


Plate 3. Worker of S. corticalis Forel (90X, 200X, 360X, 65X)
Photos by T. C. Carlysle

thorax are as dense as on the head and all of the same length, not of various engths or
longer than those on the head. Although similar to tennesseensis in having a median
hair-free strip on the head, tonsa is much larger and does not have the long flat head
of tenesseensis.
MEASUREMENTS-HL 0.31-0.39; HW 0.32-0.34; HI 83-94; SL 0.22-0.24; SI 65; EL
0.02; WL 0.42-0.46. (N = 9 from Alachua Co.).
STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS-Head longer than wide, rectanguloid with faintly
convex sides, the posterior border slightly excised in the center. The head is slightly
narrower anteriorly. The eyes are very small compared to most Florida species and are
often hard to locate because eye coloration is the same as, or only slightly darker than,

274 Florida Entomologist 72(2) June, 1989

the head. Ventral border of head moderately convex in profile. Anterior edge of clypeus
widely and angularly separated from dorsal surface of mandible in profile.
Promesonotum of thorax weakly convex in profile, propodeal base somewhat more
convex. Petiole large in profile with a prominent anteroventral tooth and prominent
ventral swelling (Fig 31). From above, petiole and postpetiole nearly equal in width.
Postpetiole with rounded sides as seen from above, not trapezoidal.
SCULPTURE-All surfaces smooth and shining except for head which is heavily and
densely marked with prominent piligerous punctures and dorsum of the promesonotum
which is moderately marked with weaker punctures. Head has characteristic median
streak free of punctures.
PILOSITY-Head and thorax with numerous short hairs. Petiole, postpetiole, legs
and gaster also with numerous short hairs which may be longer than those on the head
(Fig. 32).
COLOR-Entirely light yellow to light yellowish brown.


DIAGNOSIs-Large and dark with hyaline wings. Head distinctly trapezoidal in
shape. Head and dorsum of thorax covered with numerous strong piligerous punctures.
Most similar to nickersoni but its non-rectanular head and larger size set it apart from
nickersoni and picta while the hyaline wings separate it from both tenesseensis and
nickersoni. Largest dark female among the Florida species.
MEASUREMENTS-HL 0.72; HW 0.76-0.77; H1 106, SL 0.42-0.44; S1 59.4; EL 0.22-
0.24; WL 1.44-1.46 (N = 2 from Leon and Alachua Counties).
STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS-Head distinctly trapezoidal, with nearly straight
sides and hind border, sides of head distinctly convergent toward the clypeus. Scapes
short, not reaching hind corners of head. Sublateral clypeal teeth easily seen beside
each of the two more prominent submedian teeth.
Thorax slightly narrower than head. The sides of the scutum, from above, narrow
posteriorly in nearly straight lines; the transcutal suture V-shaped. Petiole with blunt
node, slightly excised above as seen from behind. Petiole, in profile, with a small post-
erior ventral tooth. Postpetiole wider than petiole and trapezoidal as seen from above,
wider posteriorly.
SCULPTURE-All body parts smooth and shining except postpetiole and sides of
petiole, which are covered with very fine granular punctation.
PILOSITY-Head and thorax with numerous hairs arising from strong punctures.
Gastric pilosity also abundant but arising from less prominent punctures.
COLOR-Head including mandibles, thorax, petiole, postpetiole and gaster dark red-
dish brown, shading to lighter tones on ventral surfaces. Legs and antennae light brow-
nish yellow. Wings hyaline.


DIAGNOSIS-Dark reddish brown with hyaline wings. Head distinctly trapezoidal
with the greatest width across the eyes. Legs, mandibles and chitinous areas near
mouthparts are whitish to light tan. Most similar to abdita, but distinguished by non-
dusky wings, blunt knobs on the dorsum of the petiole and gradual color shading on the
thorax. Largest dark male among the Florida species.
MEASUREMENTS-HL 039-0.42; HW 0.52-0.56; HI 132-135; FL 0.86-0.92; EL 0.22-
0.24; WL 1.18-1.26 (N = 4 from Leon Co.).
STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS-Head trapezoidal, seen from above, and widest at
the eyes. Ocelli prominent. Eyes occupy approximately 1/4 of total head width. Eyes
longer than broad, narrowed and flattened toward top of the head.

Thompson: Thief Ants of Florida

Thorax, from above, tapers smoothly from pronotum to propodeum. Petiole with 2
trianular rounded knobs, one at each corner of the dorsum. Petiole narrower than
postpetiole. Postpetiole from above nearly circular but flattened on the anterior face.
SCULPTURE-Entire propodeum, sides of petiole and postpetiole and sclerites sur-
rounding the wings covered with granulose punctation. Remainder of body smooth and
PILOSITY-Suberect clear hairs most prominent on dorsal body surfaces, particular-
ily the thorax, but also on head, petiole and terminal segments of gaster.
COLOR-Body dark reddish brown. Thorax shades from dark brown dorsally to
medium brown pleurites to light brown ventrally. Legs and antennae cream colored,
shading to light brown on coxae and basal antennal segments. Wings hyaline.
TYPES-Holotype is a worker from Tall Timbers Research Station, Leon Co.,
Florida, collected June 1975 by M. A. Naves. Paratypes are remainder of the Leon Co.
series including 2 females, 4 males and 3 workers. Additional paratype material includes
numerous workers from Gainesville Airport area, Alachua Co., Florida, 16 June 1979,
captured with baited subterranean trap by C. R. Thompson.
The holotype and several paratypes will be deposited in the Florida State Collection
of Arthopods, Gainesville, Florida. Paratypes will also be deposited in MCZ and Los
Angeles County Museum of Natural History (LACM).
ETYMOLOGY-The word "tonsa" is Latin for "shaven" and is dubbed upon this
species because of the distinctive hairless vertical strip down the center of the worker's
DIscussION-This species has been found in Gainesville, Tall Timbers Research
Station north of Tallahassee, and Orange Co. in central Florida. It is relatively common
in Gainesville although not as abundant as carolinensis. This species may not be rare,
but merely previously unrecognized.
Virtually nothing is known about tonsa biology. I have never collected sexual of
this species. I suspect that mating flights occur in late summer since the two females
in my possession are fully sclerotized, have wings and bear the dates 15 August (swept
from a soybean field) and 2 July (nest collected). They are probably day flyers since I
have never taken them in light traps.
Curiously, the dense pilosity of this species led to its discovery. I noticed that
workers in certain vials had many more dirt granules trapped in their hairs-which
prompted a closer look and the new species discovery. This ant looks very much like a
golden-haired pincushion under the microscope. This character was not used in the key,
however, because of the perennial problems associated with the description of hair

Solenopsis abdita NEW SPECIES
Figs. 1-4


DIAGNOSIS-A small, pale species. Eyes somewhat small but darkly pigmented.
General characters of workers very similar to carolinensis. There is no easy way to
separate the workers of these two species. Measurements of HL, HW, SL, WL, EL
etc. average smaller than for carolinensis, but fall within the lower carolinensis normal
ranges. It has shorter, less-shiny pilosity than carolinensis, a smaller, rounder, darker
eye, differently shaped promesopleural suture, and a more convex dorsal curvature to
the thorax.
MEASUREMENTS--HL 0.34-0.39; HW 0.30-0.34; HI 92-94; SL 0.22-0.24; SI 58-67;
WL 0.42-0.16, EL 0.03-0.03S (N = 12 from Alachua and Broward counties).

Florida Entomologist 72(2)

Plate 4. Worker of S. nickersoni Thompson (75X, 120X, 420X, 65X]

STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS-Head rectangular, longer than broad with weakly
convex sides and slightly excised posterior border. Eyes nearly circular, somewhat
small, but darkly pigmented. Ventral border of head moderately convex.
Promesonotum in profile somewhat angular anteriorly, then slightly convex to the
metanotal groove. Propodeum smoothly rounded in profile without definite base or
declivity; combines with promesonotum to form a curve that is not flattened at the

June, 1989

Thompson: Thief Ants of Florida

Plate 5. Worker of S. pergandei Forel (79X, 98X, 165X, 75X)

metonotal groove. Petiole in profile triangular with slightly rounded node and ventral
swelling. Postpetiole noticeably wider than petiole when seen from above, weakly
trapezoidal, and widest anteriorly.
SCULPTURE-Head with barely visible small punctures, these much stronger than
on the thorax. Remainder of integment smooth and shining.
PILOSITY-Head, in profile, with moderate numbers of short hairs, thorax and
gaster with fewer, sometimes longer hairs.


Florida Entomologist 72(2)

June, 1989

COLOR-Pale yellow-orange shading to darker reddish-orange on the gaster and at
various sutures.


DIAGNOSIS: Small, and medium to dark brown with hyaline wings. Much smaller
than the dark females of tennesseensis, tonsa and nickersoni. Most similar to picta but
has a more robust thorax with a definite hump on the propodeum instead of a continuous
curve, does not have a forward-placed petiolar node and has greater pilosity.
MEASUREMENTS-HL 0.52-0.56; HW 0.52-0.56; HI 93-104; SL 0.34-0.38; SI 65-69;
EL 0.18; WL 0.91-1.03 (N = 11 from Alachua and Broward counties).
STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS-Head as long as broad with convex sides and straight
or very slightly concave posterior border. Clypeal teeth weak. Eyes and ocelli small,
ocelli not at all prominent but lying nearly flat to the head. Head distinctly more narrow
behind than at eyes. Scapes short, not reaching posterior corners.
Thorax distinctly narrower than the head and nearly a perfect long oval with little
or no widening at the wing insertions. Petiole with a high node, and without anteriovent-
ral teeth. Postpetiole, from above, wider than petiole and weakly trapezoidal with
greatest width anteriorly.
SCULPTURE-Head with numerous well marked punctures. These are weaker but
noticeable on the thorax.
PILOSITY-Head with numerous hairs, pilosity less abundant on thorax, petiole,
postpetiole and gaster.
COLOR-Head including mandibles, thorax, petiole, postpetiole and gaster can be
medium reddish brown to almost black. Legs and antennae shade from light tan to
medium brown. Wings hyaline.


DIAGNOSIS-Small, and medium to dark brown with hyaline wings. As with the
female, the male is also smaller than other dark Florida species, except picta. Not easily
separated from picta but, as with the female, the node of the petiole is not forward-
MEASUREMENTS-HL 0.38-0.40; HW 0.50-0.52; HI 125-135; FL 0.90-0.95; EL 0.20-
0.22; WL 1.0-1.06 (N = 6 from Alachua Co.).
STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS-Head, excluding eyes, nearly square. Eyes occupy
approximately 1/3 of total head width. Ocelli prominent. Eyes slightly longer than broad
on the axis from mandible to lateral ocellus.
Thorax from above tapers smoothly from pronotum to propodeum. Corners of petiole
sharp, angular and joined by a sharp and nearly straight ridge across. Petiole, from
above, narrower than postpetiole and trapezoidal, with greatest width at the center.
Postpetiole nearly circular from above.
SCULPTURE-Posterior 2/3 of thorax as well as petiole and postpetiole largely co-
vered in granulate punctation. Remainder of integument smooth and shining.
PILOSITY-Moderate numbers of clear, suberect hairs present on all body areas,
but most numerous on head.
COLOR-Uniform medium brown, but specimens from the Keys are uniformly dark
brown, almost black. Legs and antennae very light tan. Wings hyaline.
TYPES-Holotype a worker from a large series of males, females and workers col-
lected from a palm log, or subsequently reared by this colony, taken 26 April 1984 in
Ft. Lauderdale, Broward Co., Florida, by C. R. Thompson.
The holotype and several paratypes will be deposited in the FSCA, with paratypes
also deposited in MCZ and LACM.


Thompson: Thief Ants of Florida

Plate 6. Worker of S. picta Emery (70X, 140X, 378X, 70X)
Photos by T. C. Carlysle

ETYMOLOGY-The word "abdita" is Latin for concealed or secret and is given to
this species of the Florida thief ant complex because it so closely resembles the most
common species, carolinensis.
DISCUSSION-This species is widespread in Florida. It has been collected from 23
counties: Alachua, Broward, Collier, Dade, Highlands, Hillsborough, Lake, Lee, Levy,
Manatee, Marion, Monroe, Nassau, Palm Beach, Pasco, Polk, Putnam, Santa Rosa,


280 Florida Entomologist 72(2) June, 1989



Plate 7. Worker of S. tennesseensis Smith (83X, 150X, 160X, 81X)

Sarasota, Seminole, Sumter, Volusia and Walton. Almost certainly, the great similarity
of abdita to carolinensis prevented earlier discovery.
Very little is known about this new species. I collected a large colony in a rotted
palm log (26 April 1984, Broward Co.) in semiswamp. This is a polygynous species:
there were 8 queens in the colony. It is easily cultured in the laboratory and thrives on
honey and dead insects. The 1981 palm log colony produced hundreds of females but
only two males in August 1985. In July-August 1986 hundreds of males and females
were produced. These exhibited preflight behavior late in the morning, and mated in

__ __

Thompson: Thief Ants of Florida

the laboratory, with numerous fertile females remaining amicably in the same container.
I have not obtained laboratory mating with any other thief ant species. J. C. Trager
collected abdita males at a Gainesville blacklight at 5:45 a.m. on 26 June 1980, and found
sexual and workers of this species beneath a stone at the edge of woods on 29 June 1980.

Solenopsis nickersoni Thompson


DIAGNOSIS-Easily separated from most other dark Florida thief ant females (ab-
dita, picta, tonsa) by the dusky wings. If wingless, it can be separated from all the dark
species by its much greater size which is easily determined by utilizing Weber's mea-
surement of thorax length.
MEASUREMENTS-HL 0.60-0.64; HW 0.60-0.65; CI 97-104; SL 0.38-0.12; SI 64-68;
EL 0.18-0.19; WL 1.16-1.22; HTL 1.76-1.86 (N = 6 from Highlands, Levy and Marion
STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS-Head nearly square, narrowing slightly in front of
the eyes, the posterior border slightly excised in the center. Eyes large and nearly
circular. Area enclosed by the prominent ocelli is much darker than remainder of the
head. Scapes not quite reaching hind corners of head.
Promesonotum of thorax weakly convex in profile, dorsum of propodeum slightly
more convex. Thorax almost perfectly oval from above. Transcutal suture smoothly
rounded. Petiole and postpetiole without prominent teeth or swellings. Postpetiole
nearly circular, from above, and slightly wider than petiole while petiole has a slight
indentation of the median dorsal border.
SCULPTURE-All surfaces smooth and shining except for numerous piligerous
punctures. Punctures most numerous on dorsum of gaster. Posterior lower half of prop-
odeum, upper 2/3 of petiole and all of postpetiole covered with punctations and slight
PILOSITY-Entire body covered with thick-looking clear suberect hairs. Hairs arise
from punctures and are most numerous on dorsum of head, thorax and gaster.
COLOR-Entirely medium reddish-brown with dusky wings.
DISCUSSION-This species has been collected from 13 counties scattered over
Florida: Alachua, Collier, Gilchrist, Highlands, Indian River, Leon, Levy, Marion,
Orange, Polk, Putnam, Sarasota, and Sumter. Despite this wide distribution, the
species seems to be nowhere common.
Mating flights probably occur in midsumer since 2 winged specimens in my collection
are labeled 2 July. The worker of this species has been described (Thompson 1982); the
male of S. (D.) nickersoni is the only unknown Florida thief ant taxa. I have never
collected a colony in the field and the sexual forms are not attracted to lights.

Solenopsis corticalis Forel
Figs. 9-12
Solenopsis corticalis Forel, 1904. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belgium 48:172.
TYPES-Museum d' Histoire Naturelle, Geneva, Switzerland. None in this country.
RANGE-West Indies and southern Florida
DIAGNOSIS-Small arboreal species. Head rectangular; eyes with unusual almond shape
with dark facets at the corners and a light median area. Petiole with small anteroventral
tooth. Hairs rather sparse, of uneven lengths and not arising from punctures. Integu-
ment highly shining.
COLOR: Yellow or light brownish-yellow, usually without trace of infuscation, or that
present only on the gaster. Males and females are also yellow.


Florida Entomologist 72(2)

Plate 8. Worker of S. tons n. sp. 65X, 120X, 340X, 50X)

DIscussION-This is one of the two arboreal Solenopsis of Florida, but appears to have
a much smaller geographic range than picta and is yellow whereas picta is black to
reddish-brown. It is restricted to southern habitats, or more precisely, to the distribu-
tion of mangrove.
Although S. corticalis had not been previously reported from the United States, a
series of this species was taken near Manalapan, a coastal town south of Palm Beach in
November 1945 by Dr. William F. Buren. It was found in branches of red mangrove


June, 1989

Thompson: Thief Ants of Florida 283

(Rhizophora mangle L.). It was subsequently rediscovered by Dr. J. E. Nickerson in
the same habitat in May 1980 on Park Key (Monroe Co.). It has also been found on Big
Pine Key and No Name Key (Deyrup et al. 1988). This species is polygynous.


Contribution No. 689, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida
Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, FL 32605.


BARONI-URBANI, C. 19i8. Uber die eigenartige Morphologie der mannlichen Genita-
lien des Genus Diplorhoptrum Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) und die
taxonomischen Schlussfolgerungen. Z. Morph. Tiere 63: 63-74.
BOLTON, B. 1987. A review of the Solenopsis genus-group and revision of Afrotropical
Monomorium Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bull. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.)
51: 263-452.
CREIGHTON, W. S. 1930. The New World species of the genus Solenopsis (Hymenopt-
era: Formicidae). Proc. American Acad. Arts Sci. 66: 39-151, VIII plates.
CREIGHTON, W. D. 1950. The Ants of North America. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 104:
DEYRUP, M. A., N. CARLIN, J. TRAGER, AND G. UMPHREY. 1988. A review of the
ants of the Florida Keys. Florida Entomol. 71: 163-176.
ETTERHANK, G. 1966. A generic revision of the world Myrmicinae related to Solenop-
sis and Pheidologeton (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Australian J. Zool. 14: 73-
SMITH, D. R. 1979. Superfamily Formicoidea, pp. 778-875, in Krombein, K. V. et al.
(eds.), Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. Agric. Monogr. 2,
Washington: Smithsonian Inst. Press.
SMITH, M. R. 1965. House-infesting ants of the eastern United Sates. USDA-ARS
Tech. Bull. 1326: 1-105.
THOMPSON, C. R. 1980. Monograph of the Solenopsis (Diplorhoptrum) of Florida.
PhD. Dissertation. University of Florida.
THOMPSON, C. R. 1982. A new Solenopsis (Diplorhoptrum) species from Florida
(Hym: Formicidae). J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 55: 485-488.

Florida Entbmologist 72(2)


Department of Entomology & Nematology
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611
Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods
Division of Plant Industry
Gainesville, Florida


Two new genera of Ichneumonidae belonging to the subfamily Porizontinae are de-
scribed from Florida. They are Aspidon (type species: Aspidon niger, new species) and
Charmops (type species: Charmops granulosa, new species).


Se described de la Florida dos g6neros nuevos de Ichneumonidos pertenecientes a
la subfamilia Porizontina. Ellos son Apsidon (especie tipo: Aspidon niger, nueva especie)
y Charmopos (especie tipo: Charmopos granulosa, nueva especie).

For the past several years the parasitic Hymenoptera belonging to the family
Ichneumonidae have been collected from different parts of Florida using Malaise traps.
This material is yielding valuable data on the distribution and abundance of
Ichneumonidae in Florida. Several new genera belonging to different subfamilies also
have been discovered. The two new genera belonging to the subfamily Porizontinae,
namely Aspidon and Charmops are described in this paper and their affinities are
The collections of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville (FSCA),
the American Entomological Institute, Gainesville (AEI), and of Dr. David Wahl
(WAHL) also have been examined and their specimens incorporated in this study. The
locations of the specimens are indicated in the text by the above mentioned abbrevia-

Genus Aspidon Gupta, new genus, Porizontinae

Type species: Aspidon niger Gupta, new species.
Diagnosis: Aspidon is a rather distinctive genus with clypeus slightly convex and
having a blunt tooth-like projection in the middle of its apical margin and a polished
depression just above it, nervellus slightly inclivous, straight, or angulate and with a
faint suggestion of interception, nervulus slightly distad of basal vein and inclivous,
glymma present, and thyridium of tergite 2 distad from base of tergite by about its
diameter. Its relationships are unclear.
Description: Face and clypeus rugose with junction of face and clypeus depressed,
suggesting a demarcation of clypeus from face and a depressed epistomal area (Fig. 1).

'Address for correspondence: 3005 SW 56th Avenue, Gainesville, Florida 32608.


June, 1989

Gupta: New Genera of Ichneumonidae

Figs. 1-4. Aspidon niger sp. n. 1-2, front view of head. 3, back view of head. 4,
abdomen and ovipositor.

Tentorial pits rather deep and wide, demarcating the clypeus laterally from face.
Clypeus weakly convex, slightly wider than the distance between tentorial pits, its
lateral margins reflexed and smooth. Apical margin of clypeus convex, smooth, and
somewhat impressed, with a polished bifid tubercle in the middle, area just above the
tubercle with a pit-like polished depression (Fig. 2). Malar space about 0.4x the basal


Florida Entomologist 72(2)

width of mandible. Mandible stout, without any flange along its lower margin, but the
lower margin with a smooth thick border. Mandibular teeth equal. Occipital carina
obsolete ventrally, slightly curved towards hypostomal carina but not joining it (Fig.
3). Hypostomal carina slightly raised near base of mandible.
Epomia strong and close to front margin of pronotum, its upper end curved and
merging with striations on pronotum. Notauli absent, its position indicated by different
sculpture. Scutellum weakly convex, its lateral carina on basal 0.3 only. Prepectal carina
strong, curved, and extending to the level of the notch along the posterior border of
pronotum. Postpectal carina complete and slightly raised except in front of middle
coxae. Speculum weakly convex, finely granulose, and shiny (Fig. 9). Propodeum
rugose, with a moderately deep median groove. Areola wider at costulae and open
apically, its lateral carinae diverging away from the median groove; costulae incomplete;
lateral lonitudinal carinae weaker as compared to other carinae. Propodeal spiracle oval.
Fore wing with a pentagonal and sessile areolet, the second recurrent vein joining at
or slighlty distad of its middle (Fig. 5); nervulus distad of basal vein by 0.2-0.3x its
distance, inclivous, its lower end a little curved. Hind wing with nervellus either
straight or angulate below the middle (Figs. 7-8). Discoidella in the form of a spectral
vein represented by a convex crease surrounded by a pair of closely spaced microtrichial
lines that do not touch the nervellus (the convex crease may reach up to nervellus)
(Figs. 7-8). Axillus in the form of a nebulous vein represented by an arc of brown
pigment with orderly row of microtrichia along its edges (Figs. 7-8). Submedian cell in
fore wing and hind wing largely devoid of microtrichia (Figs. 5-8). Legs of normal
proportions. Hind basitarsus without a midventral row of closely spaced hairs. Longer
hind tibial spur 0.5-0.6 the length of basitarsus. Tarsal claws strongly pectinate.
Abdomen slender. Petiole flattened dorsally and smooth dorsally, with a pit-like
glymma just below and touching the dorsolateral carina, the latter forming the dorsolat-
eral edge on the tergite and extending only up to the spiracle (Fig. 10). Thyridium of
tergite 2 oval and away from base of tergite by its diameter (Fig. 11). Ovipositor
compressed, about 2.0x as long as the apical depth of abdomen, slightly upcurved and
with a subapical notch (Fig. 4). Ovipositor sheath weakly spatulate.
The name of the genus is derived from the Greek, aspis, meaning shield clypeuss)
+ odon, tooth, referring to the tooth-like formation on the clypeus. The name is mas-
Affinities: The affinities of Aspidon are uncertain. The modification on the clypeal
margin reminds one of Campoletis, but the two genera are rather different in the nature
of the areolet, clypeus, and other structures. The structures of the clypeus, areolet,
areola, first tergite, and ovipositor readily separate the new genus from Rhimphoctona,
Pyracmon, Tranosema, and Lathrostizus, whereabout it may key out in the keys given
in Townes (1970). It shows some resemblance with Campoctonus, but the latter genus
has a flat clypeus without any teeth, occipital carina meeting hypostomal carina, areolet
petiolate, and the first tergite without a dorsolateral margin. The shape of areola is
different in the two genera. The eyes are a little more strongly indented in Campoc-
tonus, and the nervellus is straight.

Aspidon niger Gupta, new species
(Figs. 1-11)

Male and female: Body covered with white pubescence; pubescence on propodeum
longer and on abdomen shorter. Tergites with sparser pubescence dorsally.
Face and elypeus rugose (Fig. 1). Frons rugose centrally. Frons otherwise, area
around ocelli, vertex, occiput, and temple finely granulose. Lower portion of temple
subpolished and shiny. Interocellar distance about 2.0x the ocellocular distance. Pro-
notum rugoso-striate. Mesoscutum finely rugoso-punctate on a granular surface, its

June, 1989


Gupta: New Genera of Ichneumonidae


Figs. 5-8. Aspidon niger sp. n. 5, fore wing. 6, hind wing. 7-8, enlarged portions of
hind wing.

PP' *' ""

---hMr .- .

Av' *-.,
""-*" h*Un"a-


288 Florida Entomologist 72(2) June, 1989

central area more rugose than punctate. Scutellum weakly convex, with shallow but
close punctures and shiny. Mesopleurum rugoso-punctate (Fig. 9). Mesosternum with
distinct, well formed punctures. Metapleurum rugose, rugosities finer than on mesop-
leurum. Propodeum rugose. Structure of propodeum, wings, and legs as described
under the genus.
Petiole smooth dorsally and laterally, with a glymma and its dorsolateral carina
extending up to the spiracle only (Fig. 10-11). Postpetiole granulose (Fig. 11). Tergite
2 narrowed basally, granulose, its thyridium oval, distant from base of the tergite by
about its diameter, and with a shallow groove-like connection with the base (Fig. 11).
Tergite 3 and the following tergites subpolished and with shallow granulations.
Ovipositor as described under generic description.
Black. Tegula, fore, and middle tibiae and tarsi dorsally, base of hind tibia, basal 0.
3 of tergite 2, apical band on tergite 2, sternite 2, and membranous portion of sternite
1, yellow. Legs otherwise black with reddish-brown marks on fore and middle tibiae
and tarsi. Fore femur with a orange brown dorsal line. Wings brownish-hyaline, with
a blackish-brown patch covering the radial cell and part of 3rd cubital cell.
Length: 11-13 mm.; fore wing 7-8 mm.; ovipositor 3 mm.
Holotype: Female, U.S.A.: Florida: Alachua County: Gainesville: Rock Creek,
Malaise trap 2, April 1984, Virendra & Santosh Gupta (UF, GAINESVILLE). Allotype:
Male, Georgia: Athens: University Botanical Garden, Malaise trap 4, July 1983,
Matthews & Gupta (UF, GAINESVILLE).
Paratypes: 31 females and 9 males. Florida: Gainesville, 1 female, same data as for
the holotype but collected in June 1984. Gainesville: Forests around DPI, 1 female,
18-27.V.1987. D. B. Wahl (WAHL). Florida: Lake Co.: Greenswamp Water Manage-
ment Dist., 2 females, 15.V.1987, H. Nigg & Gupta (UF, GAINESVILLE).
Georgia: Athens: University Botanical Garden, 1 male, June 1983; 6 males and 7
females, July 1983, Matthews & Gupta (UF, GAINESVILLE).
Texas: Fredericksburg, 2 males and 20 females, 7-19.V.1988, H. & M. Townes;
Kerrville, 1 female, 12.V.1988, H. & M. Townes (AEI, GAINESVILLE).
The specimens show variations in a few characters. The apical protuberance on the
clypeus is not bifid in the specimens from Texas, except rarely. The nervellus varies
from being straight, without a bend, to distinctly angulate below the middle, sometimes
angulate close to its lower end. The discoidella is always represented as an unpigmented
groove bordered by rows of closely spaced microtrichia (spectral vein); the discoidella
comes close to and touches the nervellus when the latter is angulate, but the microtrichia
are always disorderly near the nervellus and are not arranged in rows.

Genus Charmops Gupta, new genus, Porizontinae

Type species: Charmops granulosa Gupta, new species
Diagnosis: Charmops appears distinctive by its smaller size, body largely granulose
with abdomen largely polished and shiny, inner eye margins parallel-sided, and areola
broadly open behind and confluent with a trough-like petiolar area. The areolet is ab-
sent, nervellus is not intercepted, hind basitarsus is without any midventral row of
closely spaced hairs, and the glymma is absent.
Description: Inner eye margins parallel-sided. Face appears wider (Fig. 12). Face
and clypeus 0.8x as long as their width between inner eye margins, covered with long
white pubescence. Clypeus without any demarcation from face (Fig. 12). Apical margin
of clypeus convex, somewhat thickened medially, and shiny. Lateral margins of clypeus
slightly extending beyond the level of tentorial pits and separated from face by a groove.
Mandibles of normal shape, without any wide flange along its lower margin. Upper
tooth more pointed and slightly longer than the lower. Occipital carina joining hypos-
tomal carina very close to the base of mandible.

Gupta: New Genera of Ichneumonidae

Figs. 9-11. Aspidon niger sp. n. 9, side view of thorax. 10, side view of petiole. 11,
dorsal lateral view of postpetiole and tergites 2-3.



290 Florida Entomologist 72(2) June, 1989

Epomia distinct along pronotal collar. Notauli absent. Scutellum weakly convex, its
lateral carina on basal 0.3 only. Prepectal carina rather strong, curved, and extending
to the level of the notch along posterior margin of pronotum (Fig. 13). Postpectal carina
complete and not effaced or weakened opposite middle coxae. Propodeum with a median
trough in the combined areola and petiolar area (Fig. 17). Areola broadly confluent with
petiolar area. Propodeal carinae strong. Costula complete. Propodeal spiracles small
and circular. Areolet absent (Fig. 14). Nervulus opposite basal vein or slightly distad
of it, moderately inclivous. Nervellus not intercepted (Fig. 15); a concave flexion line
visible passing through a bulla in the lower part of nervellus. Discoidella absent (Fig.
15), sometimes with only very faint trace of a spectral vein (no closely set row of
microtrichia). Brachiella in the form of an unpigmented spectral vein represented by a
row of closely set microtrichia. Axillus in the form of a nebulous vein represented by
an arc of brown pigment with orderly row of microtrichia along the arc. Submedian cell
in fore wing with microtrichia (Fig. 16). Submedian cell of hind wing without micro-
trichia in its basal half (Fig 22). Legs of normal proportions except hind femur thicker
and shorter. Tarsal claws without pectination. Hind tibia without any midventral row
of closely set hairs.
Petiole with dorsolateral carina present between base and spiracle; without glymma;
with a few rugosities laterally (Fig. 23). Epipleura of tergite 3 partly separated from
tergite. Thyridium of tergite 2 almost circular and separated from base of the tergite
by about its diameter (Figs. 18-19). Tergites shiny and with sparse hairs (Fig. 20).
Ovipositor about 2.0x as long as the apical depth of abdomen, slightly upcurved, and
moderately sclerotized and stout, its apical notch somewhat distant from tip (Fig. 21).
Ovipositor sheaths slender and moderately widened apically.
The name of the genus is derived from the Greek, charma, meaning joyous or
happy + ops, face, referring to the facial expression of the genus. The name is feminine.
Affinities: Charmops keys to couplet 31 in Townes' 1970 key to the porizontine
genera, by virtue of having a non-intercepted nervellus, hind basitarsus without a con-
tinuous row of short hairs midventrally, areolet absent, occipital carina joining hypos-
tomal carina (close to mandibular base), and by the absence of glymma. It is, however,
different from Philositus (keyed under couplet 31) by having a wider clypeus with its
apical margin convex, propodeum with a deeper trough, non-pectinate tarsal claws,
circular thyridium that is away from the base of 2nd tergite by about its diameter, and
slender ovipositor not more than 2.5x the apical depth of abdomen and slightly up-
curved. From other related genera it is different by the absence of glymma and the
nature of epipleura of tergite 3. Species of Charmops are smaller and more slender.

Charmops granulosa Gupta, new species
(Figs. 12-23)

Female: Face and clypeus granulose to ruguloso-granulose, with a few scattered
punctures (Fig. 12). Apical margin of clypeus impunctate, shiny, and somewhat thic-
kened medially. Malar space 0.6x the basal width of mandible. Frons rugulose. Vertex
and occiput dorsally granulose. Interocellar distance 1.4x the ocellocular distance. Tem-
ples shallowly granulose and subpolished.
Pronotum subpolished, ruguloso-granulose, its median trough with some striations.
Pronotal collar shiny with epomia running parallel to its anterior margin. Mesoscutum
and mesopleurum granulose (Fig. 13). Speculum shiny, impunctate, area anterior to
speculum with some striations. Mesosternum more finely granulose than mesopleurum.
Metapleurum with coarser granulations than the lower part of mesopleurum. Propodeal
trough largely rugose (Fig. 17); basolateral areas rugulose; median lateral area and
pleural area granulose, granulation similar to that of metapleurum. Legs, wings, and


Gupta: New Genera of Ichneumonidae

Ll' -ILaP'~

'+ 16 :"+: ' iri+ **1 'i +

.^ :: -: ..: ++, .;.;; ?
p .' 6 ". '.': ... "++'l* ++. -+++: *:i :;
. ++ . t.-. . -r;':' :' + .:. *:.
:: .+ :.;. i +..: ++ + + +..++ ++:++ + ++

Fig. 12-16. Charmops granulosa sp. n. 12, front view of head. 13, side view of
thorax. 14, fore wing. 15, hind wing. 16, enlarged view of fore ing.






r. -


::r~ :
. -
~ - -

~, +, .]+
., ".+.,

Florida Entomologist 72(2)


; ;;;

Figs. 17-21. Charmops granulosa sp. n. 17, propodeum and tergite 1. 18-19. tergites
1-2. 20, dorsal view of abdomen. 21, lateral view of abdomen and ovipositor.

June, 1989



Gupta: New Genera of Ichneumonidae 293

- -

Figs. 22-23. Charmops granulosa sp. n. 22, enlarged view of hind wing. 23, lateral
view of petiole.

abdominal structures similar to that described under the genus. Postpetiole granulose,
finely granuloso-striate at places (Fig. 18). Second and the following tergites polished
and shiny (Figs. 19-20). Tergite 2 superficially punctate basally; others impunctate and
with sparse hairs.
Black. Mandible except apically, scape, pedicel, tegula, wing bases, and legs largely
yellow to yellowish-brown. Mandibular teeth, flagellum, apical 0.3 of hind tibia, and
hind tarsus dorsally, brownish to brownish-black. Hind coxa black in basal half. Tergite
1 and base of tergite 2 black. Tergites 2-6 blackish-brown, and tergite 7 yellowish-brown
to blackish. Sternites white with blackish median marks. Ovipositor sheaths blackish.
Color of abdomen variable. Sometimes whole abdomen uniformly blackish or tergite 1
black and the rest of abdomen brownish-black, or apical tergites yellow laterally. Speci-
mens from Pine Hill Estates, Gainesville have the apical smooth margin of clypeus
Male: Similar to the female but face more hairy, hairs longer and denser, smooth
apical margin of clypeus wider and brownish, granulations on meso- and metapleura
weaker, tending to be granuloso-mat rather than granulose, and abdomen brownish-
Length: 4-4.5 mm.; fore wing 3-3.5 mm; ovipositor about 1.5 mm.
Holotype: Female, U.S.A.: Florida: Alachua County: Gainesville: Rock Creek Devel-
opment, 1-9.X.1983, V. & S. Gupta (UF, GAINESVILLE). Allotype: Male, Florida:
Alachua County, Gainesville: Pine Hill Estates, 15.IX.1973, H. V. Weems, Jr. (FSCA,
GAINESVILLE). Paratypes: 21 females. Florida: Gainesville: Rock Creek, 8 females,
15.VII-19.X.1983, V. & S. Gupta (UF, GAINESVILLE); Gainesville: Pine Hill Estates,

294 Florida Entomologist 72(2) June, 1989

7 females, 25.IX.-4.X.1973, H. V. Weems, Jr. (FSCA, GAINESVILLE); Gainesville, 1
female, 26.VIII.87. D. B. Wahl (WAHL). Florida: Marion Co.: Ocala National Forest,
1 female, 13.VII.1976, G. B. Fairchild; Marion Co.: 9 mi SSW of Ocala, female, 19.IX.-
2.X.1975, female, 10-19.X.1975, J. R. Wiley (FSCA, GAINESVILLE). Florida: Okaloosa
County: 4.5 mi NW of Holt, Florida A & M University Research Station, Blackwater
River Estate Forest, 1 female, 31.VIII.1978, L. A. Stange (FSCA, GAINESVILLE).
Georgia: Grady County: 14 mi S of Cairo, 1 female, 22-27.VIII.1983, Gupta (UF,
The specimen from Georgia has the apical compressed portion of abdomen largely
yellowish-brown as is the coloration of the legs. The ovipositor appears a little shorter
than in the specimens from Florida.


I thank Dr. Henry Townes for confirming the identities of the new genera. Drs.
Henry Townes, David Wahl, and Howard V. Weems, Jr. read the draft of the manu-
script and offered valuable suggestions for its improvement.
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 9686.


TOWNES, HENRY. 1970. The Genera of Ichneumonidae, Part 3. Mem. American En-
tomol. Inst. No. 13: 1-307 (1969).

-^ -**- -- ---- - -C -- -- *-- -- *-- 2_


Professor of Biology
Department of Biological Sciences
Fordham University
Bronx, NY 10458 USA
Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods
Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services
Gainesville, FL 32602 USA


The ophionine ichneumonid genus Athyreodon occurs from Florida, Cuba, and Texas
to Brasil. Its 3 northernmost continental species are found on the Atlantic and Gulf
Coastal Plains of the southern United States and eastern M6xico. Athyreodon umbrifer
n. sp. inhabits peninsular Florida, A. rivinae (Porter) extends from south Texas to
Costa Rica, and A. atriventris (Cresson) ranges between M6xico and Brasil. Athyreodon
flies mostly at night. It is collected often at light, and some species flock to mercury
vapor lamps. It becomes most abundant from late spring to mid summer, when many

Porter: New Florida Athyreodon

other Neotropic ichneumonids are scarce. Its known hosts include larvae of sphingid


El g6nero Athyreodon se halla en la Florida, Cuba, y de Texas al Brazil. Sus 3
species continentales mas nortenas se encuentran en los llanos costeros del Atlantico
y del Golfo del sur de los Estados Unidos y del este de Mexico. Athyreodon umbrifer
n. sp. habitat la peninsula de la Florida, A. rivinae (Porter) se extiende del sur de Texas
hasta Costa Rica, y A. striventris (Cresson) habitat entire M6xico y Brazil. Athyreodon
vuela mayormente de noche y es atraido a la luz, especialmente a limparas de vapor de
mercurio. Es mas abundante hacia fines de la primavera hasta mediados del verano,
que es cuando muchos otros ichneumonidos neotropicales escasean. Sus hospederos
conocidos incluyen larvas de Lepidoptera de la familiar Sphingida.


Athyreodon includes a small assemblage of large and brightly colored ophionine
Ichneumonidae. As far as known, it parasitizes larvae of sphingid moths. The genus is
well represented in Middle and South America, has a poorly known assortment of
species on numerous Caribbean islands, and reaches the United States disjunctly in
Florida and the Lower Rio Grande Valey of Texas. Like many other ophionines,
Athyreodon flies mostly at night, and some species come in striking quantities to mer-
cury vapor lamps, while others have been taken only at black light.
Townes (1966:185) synonymized Athyreodon with Thyreodon BrullB. The 2 taxa are
practically sympatric and closely related. Athyreodon, as here recognized, could have
been derived from several Thyreodon stocks that independently abandoned diurnal
activity. However, Athyreodon differs from Thyreodon in several disparate and perhaps
adaptively and genetically independent morphological features (Cushman 1947:424).
These include its very large ocelli, inflated 2nd maxillary palpomere, and hind coxae
which reach well distad of the propodeal apex. This correlation of diverse and specialized
characters supports the idea that Athyreodon is monophyletic and so entitled, phaenet-
ically and evolutionally, to generic status.
In this contribution, I describe a new Athyreodon from Florida and redefine the 2
species previously known from south Texas and/or northeast Mexico. This work is based
on examination of available holotypes of all Caribbean and Middle American species, on
material obtained personally in Mexico, and on collections borrowed from several major


1. 1st brachial cell 0.6-0.8 as long as 2nd discoidal cell; propodeum grossly
reticulate, with prominent baso-lateral tubercles and with the area-basalis
prominently elevated; clasper in lateral view with tip concave and provided
dorsally with a long, acuminate spine and ventrally with a distinct angle;
forewing hyaline with variably extensive brown areas 3. A. atriventris (Cresson)
1'. 1st brachial cell 0.9-1.1 as long as 2nd discoidal cell; propodeum, strongly but
not grossly reticulate, without prominent baso-lateral tubercles and with
area-basalis scarcely raised; clasper in lateral view with tip bluntly angled
and lacking a dorso-apical spine or a ventro-apical angle; forewing uniformly


296 Florida Entomologist 72(2) June, 1989

brown or blackish, with a large hyaline blotch centered in discocubital and
2nd discoidal cells ............................................................ ........... 2
2. Occipital carina joining hypostomal carina below; mesopleural disc with a
row of foveae marking front margin of speculum and on lower 1/2 with dense
small punctures and widespread wrinkling; sternaulus boad and percurrent;
forewing uniformly brownish ......................... 1. Athyreodon umbrifer n. sp.
2'. Occipital carina fading out above hypostomal carina; mesopleural disc mostly
smooth and finely punctate, with speculum scarcely differentiated; stern-
aulus absent or only slightly suggested near base; forewing blackish with a
hyaline blotch in discocubital and in 2nd discoidal cells ........................
......... .................................................. 2. Athyreodon rivinae (Porter)

1. Athyreodon umbrifer Porter, NEW SPECIES
(Fig. 3)

FEMALE. Color: antenna dull yellow, head with yellowish fulvous on face and
clypeus, dull yellow on malar space and on anterior orbit as far dorsad as antennal
socket, fulvous on stemmaticum, yellow grading apicad into fulvous on occiput and
temples, fulvous on postocciput, blackish in anterior tentorial pits and black on mandibu-
lar teeth; mesosoma dark fulvous, shining on most of thorax, more opaque on lower
metapleuron and propodeum; gaster moderately dark shining fulvous with 2nd tergite
black on most of basal 2/3 dorsally and dorso-laterally, as well as with less conspicuous
dusky staining that is best developed ventrad on tergites 2-6 and on sternites beyond
1st; legs mostly shining fulvous, becoming more yellowish on tibia and tarsomeres 1-4
and dusky on 5th tarsomere; wings dark brown.
Length of forewing: 18.80 mm. Face: 0.74 as wide at anterior tentorial pits as at
lower margin of antennal sockets; smooth and shining with dense, small, mostly discrete
punctures. Clypeus: shining with large, mostly sparse punctures. Temple: 0.58 as long
as eye in lateral view. Ocelli: lateral ocellus touches eye, distance between lateral ocelli
0.37 maximum diameter of 1 of them; mid ocellus very large, separated from eye by
0.25 its width. Occipital carina: reaches hypostomal carina below. Pronotum: scrobe
with a well defined epomia and some other weaker wrinkles. Mesoscutum: shining and
with abundant, rather small, largely subadjacent punctures; notauli strong and nearly
percurrent. Mesopleuron: disc strongly wrinkled on upper 0.20 below subalarum,
polished on most of speculum, broadly traversed just anteriad of speculum by a strong
oblique band of transverse wrinkles and foveae, swollen and polished with small, sparse
punctures on anterior 0.40 opposite speculum, and on lower 0.40 duller with very dense
small punctures and extensive, rather coarse, longitudinally biased wrinkling that be-
comes conspicuous on anterior 0.50 toward prepectal carina; sternaulus represented by
a nearly percurrent band of large foveae. Lower metapleuron: most of disc with strong
reticulate wrinkling that is coarsest anteriad and weakest near apex, where some inter-
calated punctures become visible. Propodeum: with strong but not gross wrinkling
throughout, except becoming smoother based on dorsal face; area-basalis only slightly
raised; baso-lateral corner with a weak, subligulate excrescence but not tuberculate.
Wing venation: 1st brachial cell 1.00 as long as 2nd discoidal cell; 2nd discoidal cell 2.20
as long as high; nervulus interstitial.
MALE: Differs from female as follows: Color: antenna brighter yellow; mesosoma
brighter fulvous; tibiae and tarsi more contrastingly yellow.
Ocelli: lateral ocelli separated by 0.50 the maximum diameter of 1 of them; mid
ocellus distant from eye by 0.33 its width. Temple: 0.68 as long as eye in lateral view.
Mesopleuron: anterior callus of upper disc broadly invaded by irregular wrinkling and
small punctures. Clasper: semicrescentic in lateral view, without a dorso-apical spine
or a ventro-apical angle.

Porter: New Florida Athyreodon

Fig. 1. Athyreodon atriventris, 9. Mid section of forewing, showing venation and
color pattern.

Fig. 2. Athyreodon rivinae, 9, Mid section of forewing, showing venation and color

Fig. 3. Athyreodon umbrifer, d. Paratype. Lateral view of mesopleuron, showing
sculpture and punctation.

Fig. 4. Athyreodonfulvescens, d. Holotype. Lateral view of mesopleuron, showing
sculpture and punctation.


298 Florida Entomologist 72(2) June, 1989

TYPE MATERIAL. Holotype 9: FLORIDA, Monroe County, Bahia Honda State Park
on Bahia Honda Key, 2-5-VII-1973, blacklight trap, R. E. Woodruff. Paratypes: 3 9
and 1 6: FLORIDA, Duval County, Fort George, 5-V-1888, T. Pergande; Indian River
County (?), "Indian River", Frederick Allen Eddy; Monroe County, Lower Matecumbe
Key, 24-VI-1960, W. W. Warner. Holotype in Florida State Collection of Arthropods.
Paratypes in Henry K. Townes collection, Museum of Comparative Zoology, and United
States National museum of Natural History.
VARIATION. The foregoing description covers the 9 holotype and the & paratype.
The 3 9 paratypes show variation in the extent of yellow coloration on the antennae,
head, and mesosoma (yellow marks never prominently contrasting), in the development
of dusky shading on the mesosoma and gaster, in forewing length (16.0-18.8 mm), in
facial width (0.74-0.77 as wide at anterior tentorial pits as at lower margin of antenna
sockets), in temple length (0.54-0.60 as long as eye in lateral view), in ocellar size
(lateral ocelli separated by 0.21-0.35 the maximum diameter of 1 of them, mid ocellus
distant from eye by only 0.14-0.17 its width), in the occasional effacement of the epomia,
and in several details of wing venation (1st brachial cell 0.9 as long as 2nd discoidal cell,
2nd discoidal cell 2.60 as long as high, nervulus varying from slightly antefurcal to
RELATIONSHIPS. This species closely resembles the Cuban A. fulvescens (Fig. 4),
of which I have examined the S holotype (Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia).
Infulvescens the wings are faint golden yellow with dusky tips, the face is 0.88 as wide
at anterior tentorial pits as at lower margin of antennal sockets, the temple is 0.96 as
long as the eye in lateral view, the mesopleuron is mostly smooth and polished with
rather weak foveae along front margin of speculum and with fine and dense punctures
but no wrinkling on lower 1/2 of disc, and the entire ground color is very bright fulvous
tending to orange.
There is a 3rd undescribed species or subspecies related to fulvescens and umbrifer
and known only from a single Bahaman 9 (Mangrove Cay, Andros Island, W. M. Mann,
United States National Museum). It differs from umbrifer by its slightly shorter temple
(0.36 as long as eye in lateral view) and from both the Cuban and Floridian species
because of its more coarsely punctate mesocutum and strongly antefurcal nervulus. The
wings are faintly golden and the ground color orangish fulvous, as in fulvescens.
More material will be needed to elucidate the taxonomic status of these closely
related but rigorously allopatric Athyreodon. Probably, they should all be regarded as
distinct species, because they are separated by geologically ancient water gaps that
preclude gene flow. Thus, they should have attained some genetic incompatibility.
FIELD NOTES. Bahia Honda Key, the holotype locality, is on highway US 1 north
of Big Pine Key. It has dune vegetation, mangrove swamps, and patches of tropical
hardwoods, among which the orange-flowered shrub, Cordia, is especially conspicuous.
North of the Keys, Athyreodon umbrifer extends up the Atlantic Coast to Fort George
near Jacksonville. I have not seen the paratype localities but suspect they were in
coastal hardwood hammocks.
PHAENOLOGY. Collecting dates range from May to July. Most other North and
Middle American Athyreodon and Thyreodon also become active at this time.
SPECIFIC NAME. From the Latin adjective umbrifer, "shady or shade-bringing",
referring to the dark colored wings.

2. Athyreodon rivinae (Porter), NEW COMBINATION
(Fig. 2, 6)

Thyreodon rivinae Porter, 1980. Holotype 9: TEXAS, Hidalgo County, Bentsen Rio
Grande Valley State Park, 25-VII-1979, C. Porter (Florida State Collection of

Porter: New Florida Athyreodon

Fig. 5. Athyreodon atriventris, 6. Lateral view of clasper.

Fig. 6. Athyreodon rivinae, d. Lateral view of clasper.

Fig. 7. Athyreodon maculipennis, 6. Lateral view of clasper.

:, --c-.;zT
-' i":
4 .'c , r
., 2':

:-~s~;:: I~~
' -~.vl~

-~. '
: .... ,'~tt~S~ ',::.~

Florida Entomologist 72(2)

I described this species from a single south Texan female but now have more than
100 specimens of both sexes obtained in M6xico and Central America. The following
revised diagnosis takes into account the new material.
FEMALE. Color: antenna mostly yellow; head and mesosoma shining, varying from
mostly black (especially in northern populations) to largely dull red; gaster glistening
black with a bluish tinge; legs shiny black with slight to extensive reddish or brownish
staining; forewing blackish, with a conspicuous hyaline blotch that occupies about me-
dian 0.40 of discocubital cell and often much of anterodorsal 0.50 of 2nd discoidal cell,
and sometimes part of 2nd brachial cell; hindwing blackish.
Length offorewing: 15.6-19.00 mm. Face: 0.86-0.93 as wide at anterior tentorial pit
as at lower margin of antenna sockets; shining with abundant small punctures that vary
from largely subadjacent to mostly well separated. Clypeus: shining with punctures
variably large and dense but mostly sparser than those on face. Temple: 0.48-0.56 as
long as eye in lateral view. Ocelli: lateral ocelli touch or almost touch eye, distance
between lateral ocelli 0.38-0-50 the maximum diameter of 1 of them, mid ocellus very
large, separated from eye by 0.29-044 its width. Occipital carina: fades out well above
hypostomal carina. Pronotum: scrobe often with epomia well defined among other more
irregular wrinkles. Mesopleuron: disc smooth and polished with abundant, mostly well
spaced tiny punctures and with no wrinkling, except narrowly along prepectal carinae;
speculum polished and largely impunctate, only slightly differentiated by a faint depres-
sion and a few small foveae along anterior margin, especially dorsad; sternaulus absent.
Lower metapleuron: disc smooth and polished with numerous small punctures. Prop-
odeum: with strong but not gross reticulate wrinkling that becomes only a little weaker,
and mingled with large punctures, toward base of dorsal face; area-basalis scarcely
elevated; baso-lateral corner with a weak, ledge-like swelling but not tuberculate. Wing
venation: 1st brachial cell 1.00-1.10 as long as 2nd discoidal cell; 2nd discoidal cell 2.00-
2.10 as long as high; nervulus 1/4 its length antefurcal to interstitial.
MALE. Differs from female as follows: Color, in many specimens with yellow staining
on mandible and, less conspicuously, on clypeus, facial orbit or much of face, and on
front femur and tibia.
Ocelli: lateral ocelli separated by 0.48-0.57 the maximum diameter of 1 of them.
Mesopleuron: disc sometimes with an area of large punctures anteriorly on lower 0.50;
sternaulus sometimes faintly indicated for a short distance anteriorly. Clasper: in lateral
view stout, semicrescentic, with ventral margin upcurved, dorsal margin practically
straight, and apex obtusely angulate and without a dorsal tooth or spine or a ventral
angle; 1.00-1.10 as long from dorsal notch to tip as high at notch.
Tamaulipas State, 5 mi W. Antiguo Morelos, 30-VII-1965, at light, Burke, Meyer and
Schaeffner; Ciudad Victoria, Motel Las Fuentes, 22-VI-1981, at mercury vapor light,
C. Porter, L. Stange, B. Miller; 5 mi N. Llera, 4-VI-1965, Burke, Meyer, and
Schaefffner; 43 km E. Mante, 27-V-1948, at light in dense scrub area, W. Nutting, F.
Werner; Rio Corona, 18 mi N. Ciudad Victoria, 3-VI-1978, J. Gillaspy; Soto La Marina,
30-VI-1981, at fluorescent light, C. Porter, L. Stange, B. Miller; Villagraf, 7-VI-1951,
at light, H. E. Evans; 11 km S. VillagrAn, Rt. 1, km 801, 25-V-1948; Nuevo Le6n State,
Montemorelos, 15-X-1954, Bauer; San Luis Potosi State, 11 km E. Ciudad Valles, 29-V-
1948, in jungle pass at light, F. Nutting, W. Werner; Ciudad Valles, El Bafito, 26-VI-
1940, Hoogstroal and Knight; El Pugal, 17-21-VII-1939, Ralph Haag; El Salto Falls,
3-VII-1968, H. V. Weems, Jr.; Tamazunchale, Rt. 1, km 365, 30-V-1948, along river
banks, at light; Tamazunchale, 7-VII-1940, P. Rau; Hidlago State, 5-VII-1939, 4500 ft,
Ralph Haag; Veracruz State, U. Galvan, Cardel, 10-VII-1939, J. Camelo G.; Yucatan
State, Chichen Itza, 22-V-1956, E. C. Welling, 29-VI, J. Bequaert; COSTA RICA,
Guanacaste province, Santa Rosa National Park, 15-17-V-1980, 18-20-V-1979, 23-24-V-


June, 1989

Porter: New Florida Athyreodon

1978, 23-25-V-1980, 26-28-V-1980, 6-7-VI-1980, 8-10-VI-1980, 9-14-VI-1978, 14-16-VI-
1980,15-19-VI-1978, 16-18-VI-1979, 23-25-VI-1980, 19-21-VII-1979, D. H. Janzen, W.
Hallwachs. These specimens are on deposit in the collections of Charles C. Porter and
Henry K. Townes, in the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, in the Museum of
Comparative Zoology, in the Texas A & I University collection, in the Texas A & M
University collection, and in the United States National Museum of Natural History.
VARIATION. As detailed in the foregoing description, A. rivinae shows considerable
intra-population variability in many features of color, sculpture, punctation, and propor-
tion. In particular, some specimens have the mesosoma largely or wholly dull red. Such
individuals occur through the species' range but are most common between central
M6xico (San Luis Potosi) State) and Costa Rica.
RELATIONSHIPS. Athyreodon maculipennis (Cresson) seems taxonomically very
close to A. rivinae. The 2 have been taken sympatrically in several localities between
Veracruz State, M6xico, and Guanacaste Province of Costa Rica. Examination of Cres-
son's holotype from Orizaba, M6xico (Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia) as
well as of 18 Y and 4 & collected by D. H. Janzen and W. Hallwachs at Santa Rosa
National Park, Guanacaste, Costa Rica in 1980 and 1981 during the same late May to
early July flight period already noted for A. rivinae, shows that A. maculipennis differs
from A. rivinae in the following qualitative and often unstable features.
Antenna dusky (instead of yellow); bluish tint of gaster more intense; median hyaline
blotch on forewing covering most of discocubital cell, all of 2nd discoidal cell, much of
1st brachial cell, much of basal 1/2 of 2nd brachial cell, apex of submedian cell, and base
of radial cell (hyaline blotch in rivinae mostly confined to discocubital and 2nd discoidal
cells); malar space 0.36-0.42 as long as basal width of mandible (0.31-0.33 in rivinae);
lateral ocelli distant from eyes by 0.14-0.38 the maximum diameter of 1 of them (touch-
ing or slightly separated from eyes in rivinae) and separated from one another by
0.55-0.60 the maximum diameter of of 1 of them (0.38-0.50 in rivinae); mid ocellus
distant from eye by 0.46-0.69 its width (0.29-0.44 in rivinae); lower metapleuron a little
more polished and with smaller and sparser punctures than in rivinae; clasper more
elongate than in rivinae, with both upper and lower margins rather palpably upturned,
1.3-1.5 as long from dorsal notch to tip as high at notch (1.00-1.10 in rivinae).
If rivinae and maculipennis replaced one another geographically, it would be reason-
able to consider them subspecies. However, their mostly coextensive distributions and
synchronous phaenologies suggest specific differentiation, although more specimens will
be needed to assess reliability of the features that apparently distinguish them.
FIELD NOTES. This species frequents a variety of lowland, wet to semihumid forest
and scrub associations in subtropical and tropical Middle America. It has been found in
Celtis woods (south Texas), subtropical thorn scrub (e.g., at Ciudad Victoria, Mexico),
disturbed tropical evergreen forest (e.g., at Valles, M6xico), and tropical deciduous
forest (Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica). These habitat preferences adumbrate a plu-
vial tolerance of 600-1400 mm yearly with activity temperatures (in the May to July
peak season) of 25-330C. Like most "tropical" insects, A. rivinae tolerates moderate
winter frosts, since it extends north through Tamaulipas State of Mexico and the Lower
Rio Grande Valley of Texas, where lows of -2 or -3C are reported almost every year.
The species is active mostly after dark, but occasionally flies by day in dense woods
(Porter 1980:245). I have collected it abundantly at mercury vapor lamps, and in lesser
quantities around fluorescent and incandescent lights but have not found it at black light
traps (even when operated simultaneously with other light traps).
PHAENOLOGY. 38 9 and 4 6 in V, 66 9 and 3 6 in VI, 12 9 in VII, and 10 9 in X.
Throughout its range, A. rivinae seems to emerge massively during May, peak in
June, and gradually decline throughout July. There are 10 Mexican records for October,
so that rivinae may prove bivoltine.

Florida Entomologist 72(2)

Most other Middle American Athyreodon and Thyreodon agree with A. rivinae in
becoming very common during late spring and the 1st part of the summer. Conversely,
many other Neotropic ichneumonid genera avoid summer and appear most consistently
from mid fall to mid spring (Porter 1980:245).

3. Athyreodon atriventris (Cresson)
(Fig. 1, 5)

Ophion atriventris Cresson, 1874. Holotype 9: MExIco, Orizaba (Academy of Natural
Sciences of Philadelphia).
FEMALE. Color: antenna dusky with scape and pedicel mostly pale red; head and
mesosoma pale red with black on stemmaticum, mandibular teeth, and vaguely around
anterior tentorial pits; gaster dark reddish brown with metallic bluish reflections and
extensive but irregular dusky staining; fore and mid legs pale red with blackish on last
2 fore tarsomeres and on most of mid tarsus; hind leg pale red on coxa, trochanter, and
most of trochantellus but otherwise shining dark brown with obscure reddish staining
on femur and tibia; forewing hyaline with brown in most of median cell, in discocubital
cell narrowly along basal vein and more broadly along discoideus, in all of radial cell,
and irregularly in basal 0.50 of 3rd cubital cell; hindwing hyaline with faint brownish
staining toward front margin.
Length offorewing: 23-27 mm. Face: 0.89 as wide at anterior tentorial pits as at
lower margin of antennal sockets; shining with abundant moderately large and dense
punctures. Clypeus: shining with numerous large but well spaced punctures. Temple:
0.37 as long as eye in lateral view. Ocelli: lateral ocelli touch eye, distance between
lateral ocelli 0.30 the maximum diameter of 1 of them; mid ocellus very large, separated
from eye by 0.15 its width. Occipital carina: does not reach hypostomal carina below.
Pronotum: scrobe with weak wrinkles among which the epomia is not differentiated.
Mesopleuron: disc shining, swollen on much of subdorsal 0.50, which has moderately
dense, tiny, sharp punctures, with speculum set off anteriorly by only a few faint
wrinkles, and on lower 0.50 with dense, fine, moderately small punctures and no wrink-
ling; sternaulas strong, broad, percurrent and foveolate. Lower metapleuron: disc
opaque, granular, with gross wrinkling on basal 0.25 and fine wrinkling elsewhere.
Propodeum: with gross, vermiculately reticulate wrinkling, except smooth on dorsal
face; area-basalis sharply defined but incomplete, set off apically by the strongly raised
median abscissa of the basal trans-carina, which continues well defined across entire
propodeal dorsum; baso-lateral corner with a considerably projecting, bluntly subligu-
late tubercle. Wing venation: 1st brachial cell 0.65 as long as 2nd discoidal cell; 2nd
discoidal cell 3.1 as long as high; nervulus a little postfurcal.
MALE. Clasper: in lateral view with tip concave and provided dorsally with a long,
acuminate spine and ventrally with a distinct angle.
Potosi, "Palitla" (Xilitla?), 21-VII-1970, at light, Schaeffner, Murray, Phelps, Hart.
This specimen is in the collection of Texas A & M University.
RELATIONSHIPS. I have seen specimens probably conspecific with the holotype of
A. atriventris from tropical M6xico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Panama and southern
Brasil. There are related undescribed or unrecognized species in southern M6xico,
PanamA, Venezuela, Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and Trinidad. These differ from at-
riventris in their smaller average size, details of wing coloration (apex of forewing often
wholly brown, wing membrane frequently tinged with pale orange), often less promi-
nent baso-lateral propodeal tubercles, and in the shorter and stouter dorso-apical spine
of the clasper. Probably, one of these species corresponds to Thyreodon atriventris
(Kriechbaumer), as interpreted by Townes (1966:186). Since the type of gigas is in the

June, 1989

Porter: New Florida Athyreodon

Transvaal Museum at Pretoria, South Africa (Townes 1973:377), I have been unable to
examine it and hesitate to assign the name gigas from Kriechbaumer's description alone.
Among described species of which I have examined the holotypes, A. atriventris is
most intimately related to Athyreodon armstrongi Hooker. This taxon, considered a
subspecies of atriventris by Townes (1966:185), is known only from the holotype male,
which was collected on Santo Domingo in the San Francisco Mountains during Sep-
tember 1905 by August Busk (United States National Museum). A. armstrongi may be
distinguished from atriventris by the following diagnosis.
Antenna pale yellowish brown (dusky in atriventris); head and mesosoma with
ground color orange to yellowish brown (pale red in atriventris); stemmaticum pale
(blackish in atriventris); gaster shining orange-brown with some diffuse dusky staining
and with 1st tergite dusky on apical 0.33 and 2nd tergite largely black on dorsum and
laterally as far rearward as spiracle (dark reddish brown with bluish reflections and
dusky staining in atriventris); legs uniformly reddish brown to brown (hind leg in at-
riventris dark brown on femur, tibia, and tarsus with pale red on basal leg segments);
forewing hyaline with faint brown staining along basal vein and irregularly in median
cell and with a dark brown blotch occupying much of proximal 0.67 of radial cell and
extending into proximal 0.50 of 3rd cubital cell (in atriventris, hyaline with brown in
most of median cell, in discocubital cell narrowly along basal vein and more broadly
along discoideus, in all of radial cell, and irregularly in basal 0.50 of 3rd cubital cell);
distance between lateral ocelli 0.50 the maximum diameter of 1 of them (0.30 in atriven-
tris); speculum set off anteriorly by a conspicuous band of transverse foveae (scarcely
differentiated in atriventris); lower 0.50 of mesopleural disc somewhat wrinkled
(punctate only in atriventris); lower metapleuron very coarsely reticulate on most of
disc (with strong wrinkling only on basal 0.25 in atriventris); propodeum even more
grossly wrinkled and tuberculate than in atriventris; clasper as in atriventris, except
that the dorse-apical spine is shorter and stouter and the apical emargination shallower.
FIELD NOTES. Like fulvescens and rivinae, this Athyreodon appears to fly mainly
at night and is most abundant during early summer. It has been taken in tropical wet
forest and tropical deciduous forest.


This study is based on material in the 8 public and private collections listed below.
Philadelphia, PA 19103.
and Consumer Services, Entomology Bureau, Doyle Conner Building, Division of
Plant Industry. Gainesville, FL 32602.
MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. Harvard University, Cambridge, MS 02138.
PORTER. Collection of Charles C. Porter, now housed with the Florida State Collection
of Arthropods.
TEXAS A & I UNIVERSITY. Department of Biology, Kingsville, TX 78363.
TEXAS A & M UNIVERSITY. Department of Entomology, College Station, TX 77843.
TOWNES. Collection of Henry K. Townes, American Entomological Institute, 3005 S.
W. 56th Avenue, Gainesville, Florida 32608.
DC 20560.


This research was supported in part by a grant subsidizing field studies in Mexico
awarded for the summer of 1981 by the Committee for Research and Exploration of


Florida Entomologist 72(2)

the National Geographic Society. The Florida State Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services expedited work in Florida and furnished supplies vital to the whole
project. Collecting in Bentsen Rio Grande Valley State Park was done under permits
from the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (current permit number 1-82). Dr. Luis
O. Tejada and Lic. Enrique Ruiz C. of the Instituto Tecnol6gico de Monterrey helped
arrange my Mexican itineray. Dr. Lionel A. Stange of the Florida Department of Ag-
riculture, Dr. James E. Gillaspy of Texas A & I University, and Mr. Bruce Miller of
project City, California joined me for trips into M6xico and contributed numerous
Athyreodon. Mr. Donald Azuma of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia
and Mr. Terry Nuhn of the United States National Museum of Natural History pro-
cessed loans of holotypes from their respective institutions.
Contribution No. 693, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida
Dep. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, FL 32602.


CRESSON, E. T. 1874. Descriptions of Mexican Ichneumonidae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.
Philadelphia 1873: 374.
CUSHMAN R. A. 1947. A generic revision of the ichneumon-flies of the Tribe
Ophionini. Proc. United States Natl. Museum 96: 417-82.
PORTER, C. C. 1980. A new Thyreodon Brulle (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) from
south Texas. Florida Ent. 63: 242-6.
TOWNES, H. K. 1966. A catalog and reclassification of the Neotropic Ichneumonidae.
Mem. American Ent. Inst. 8: 1-367.
TOWNES, H. K. 1973. A catalog and reclassification of the Ethiopian Ichneumonidae.
Mem. American Ent. Inst. 19: 1-416.


Department of Biological Sciences
Fordham University
Bronx, NY 10458 USA
Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods
Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services
Gainesville, FL 32602 USA


Zacremnops cressoni Cameron (Braconidae: Agathidinae), known previously from
Central America, Mexico, and Texas, is cited for the 1st time from Florida. Zacremnops
closely resembles Cremnops Foerster but differs by its black gaster, white hind tarsus,
ecarinate frontal impressions, nearly parallel-sided 1st gastric tergite, and more elon-
gate hind femur. Z. cressoni is adult mostly during summer. It inhabits woodlands but

June, 1989

Porter: Biosystematics of Zacremnops 305

often occurs in more sunny and exposed situations than those preferred by most parasi-
tic Hymenoptera.


Zacremnops cressoni Cameron (Braconiidae: Agathidinae), especie conocida pre-
viamente de America Central, M6xico, y Texas, es citada por primera vez para la
Florida. Zacremnops se asemeja intimamente a Cremnops Foerster, pero puede recon-
ocerse por el gaster negro, el tarso posterior blanco, impresiones frontales escarinadas,
por los bordes casi paralelos del primer terguite gastrico, y por el femur posterior mas
alargado. Z. cressoni es principalmente adulto durante el verano. Vive en ambientes
boscosos, pero prefiere micro-ambientes mas soleados y abiertos que los frecuentados
por muchos himen6pteros parasiticos.


Zacremnops Sharkey and Wharton (1985), previously assigned to Megagathis
Kriechbaumer (1894), is a Neotropic genus. Only Z. cressoni (Cameron) is known from
the United States, where it abounds in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas and
recently has been collected in Dade County, Florida. Outside the United States, Z.
cressoni ranges over "M6xico, Central America, and the West Indies" (Marsh 1979:
198). Sharkey and Wharton (1985) have stressed that mainland and West Indian popu-
lations currently assigned to Z. cressoni may represent at least 2 species. This question
can be resolved only when more specimens become available from Cuba and other
poorly collected or poorly accessible Caribbean islands.
As represented by Z. cressoni, Zacremnops belongs to Bhat and Gupta's (1977:41-2)
Cremnops group of the Agathidinae. It especially resembles Cremnops in having the
face anthophilously prolonged and beak-like, the 2nd submarginal cell quadrate, the 2nd
abscissa of the radius longer than the 1st, the 1st submarginal and 1st discoidal cells
confluent, the trochantellus externo-ventrally ecarinate, the fore and mid tarsal claws
cleft, the propodeal spiracle elongate, the propodeum areolated, the 1st and 2nd gastric
tergites polished, and the ovipositor prominently exserted. Z. cressoni differs most
saliently from the Nearctic Cremnops by its uniformly shining black gaster, white or
cream hind tarsus, dorsally immargined frontal or supra-antennal impressions, very
long and almost parallel-sided 1st gastric tergite, and more elongate, slender femur
(5-7X as long as deep).
In this contribution, I offer a revised taxonomic diagnosis of Z. cressoni, document
this species' occurrence in Florida, and discuss the ecology of its south Texas popula-

Zacremnops cressoni (Cameron)
(Fig. 1, 2)

SPECIMENS EXAMINED. 17 9 and 23 6: UNITED STATES, Florida, Dade County,
Matheson Hammock Park west of Old Cutler Road, 9, 12-X-1981, C. Porter, L. Stange;
Texas, Hidalgo County, Bentsen Rio Grande Valley State Park, 1 9, 1-VI-1979, 1 6,
15-VI-1981, 1 6, 16-VI-1981, 1 6, 9-VII-1981, 1 9, 15-VII-1981, 1 9, 17-VII-1981, 1
9, 27-VII-1979, 1 9, 3-VIII-1979, 2 9,2 6, 3-VIII-1981, 1 9, 4-VIII-1981, 2 6, 7-VIII-
1981, 2 9, 1 6, 8-VIII-1981, 1 9, 9-VIII-1981, 1 6, 11-VIII-1981, 1 9, 2 6, 13-VIII-
1981, 1 6, 23-VIII-1981, C. Porter; McAllen Botanical Gardens at McAllen, 4 6, 16-30-
V-1974, 1 6, 21-V-1977, 1 6, 1-VI-1976, 1 6, 2-VI-1976, 1 6, 3-VI-1973, 1 9, 3-VII-

Florida Entomologist 72(2)

Fig. 1. Zacremnops cressoni, Q. Head in front view.

1980, 1 Y, 2-IX-1975, 1 6, 12-IX-1976, 1 9, 1 6, XI-1973, insect flight trap, 1 9,
29-XI-1981, C. Porter; MEXICO, Tamaulipas, 80 km S. Ciudad Victoria, Ruta 85, near
La Gloria, 1 6, 25-VI-1981, B. Miller, C. Porter, L. Stange.
TAXONOMY. The following combination of characters separates Zacremnops cres-
soni from the described North American species of Cremnops: Gaster shining black;
hind tarsus white to cream; length 10-12 mm; frontal ledge between antennae practically
unarmed or, at most, with a pair of low tubercles; frontal or supra-antennal impressions
not bordered dorsally by a carina; dorso-posterior part of pronotum with a pair of broad
and deep excavations that are separated on mid line by a low and sometimes obsolescent
longitudinal ridge; epomia strong, reclivous; front margin of pronotum with a conspicu-
ous triangular projection opposite lower end of epomia; mesopleural furrow (sternaulus)
broad, complete between base of hind coxa and lower end of prepectal carina, curved
dorsad anteriorly to summit of prepectal carina, grossly and extensively foveolate; 1st
gastric tergite very long and slender, parallel-sided, about 1.4 as wide at apex as at
base; hind femur 5.0-5.8 as long as deep; hind tibia with 2-3 robust spines at its lower
distal end.
In Cremnops, the gaster may be yellow, orange-red, or red (sometimes partly stain-
ned with black); the hind tarsus is blackish, reddish, or yellowish; the length varies from
5.5-12.0 mm; the front has a pair of conspicuous, dorsally projecting tubercles or plates
on the interantennal ledge; the frontal impressions are carinate dorsally between the
eye and the lateral ocellus; the dorso-posterior pronotal pits often are separated by a
broad median ridge or elevation; the epomia may be incomplete and vertical or arcuate;
many species have no triangular projection on the anterio-lateral margin of the pro-


June, 1989

Porter: Biosystematics of Zacremnops

2 . .4

Fig. 2. Zacremnops cressoni, $. First gastric tergite in dorsal view.

notum; the mesopleural furrow rarely curves dorsad along the prepectal carina and
often is less conspicuously foveolate than in Zacremnops; the 1st gastric tergite is
comparatively stout and rather strongly expanded toward apex; the hind femur is com-
paratively robust (often 3.0-4.0) as long as deep); and the hind tibia often has 4 or more
strong spines at its outer distal end.
HABITAT. My Florida specimen was netted at the edge of a subtropical hardwood
hammock in weedy vegetation exposed to bright sun. In south Texas and Mexico,
cressoni occurs in diverse types of wet to semihumid subtropical woods and forests,
often amid second growth vegetation.
Biogeographically, Zacremnops cressoni pertains to the Middle American Neotropic
complex (Porter 1980:15-6). It thrives both in subtropical wet forests and thorn scrub
associations. This euryhygric capability probably explains why the species has over-
spread most of northeast M6xico and extends abundantly into Texas' Lower Rio Grande
Valley. Z. cressoni may have reached the West Indies from Florida by over-water
dispersal or casual introduction by man. Its tolerance of relatively arid conditions
suggests that it might also have moved east into Florida along the Gulf Arc during some
Pleistocene interglacial xerothermic episode.
It darts in and out ot tall grass or circles around creeping and climbing vines. Texas
plant records for Z. cressoni include 4 9 and 3 & from Ipomoea (Convulvulaceae), 1 ?
from Cissus (Vitaceae), 1 9 from Clematis (Ranunculaceae), and 1 9 from Melothria


Florida Entomologist 72(2)

MONTHLY PHAENOLOGY. 5 6 in V, 1 9 and 5 3 in VI, 4 Y and 2 5 in VII, 8 9
and 9 6 in VIII, 1 9 and 1 din IX, 1 9 in X, and 2 9 and 1 & in XI.
The monthly phaenology of Z. cressoni serves to emphasize it xerothermic pro-
clivities. In south Texas, it appears during May, becomes most common in the hottest
months of July and August (71% of all records), and disappears by the end of November.
This phaenology agrees with that of many aculeate Hymenoptera, particularly
Sphecidae (e.g., Porter 1978), but deviates strongly from the pattern fulfilled by most
south Texas Parasitica. Local Ichneumonidae, for example, mainly peak during the
coldest months of December to January (Porter 1977). These ichneumonids fly at tem-
peratures of 16 to 30C (versus 26 to 37C for Zacremnops).
TEMPERATURE AND DIEL PERIODICITY. This braconid flies on hot, sunny days.
It is most active at shade temperatures between 26 and 37C.
I recorded hourly occurrence for 23 Z. cressoni taken in Hidalgo County, Texas
during June 1981, July 1980 and 1981, August 1981, and the last week of November
1981. All were found between 0900 and 1400 CST, with 2 specimens collected from 0900
to 1000, 5 from 1000 to 1100, 10 from 1100 to 1200, 3 from 1200 to 1300, and 3 from 1300
to 1400.
The diel periodicity of this braconid perhaps constitutes an adaptation for avoiding
extreme heat. It becomes active between 0900 and 1400 CST, with most records concen-
trated between 1000 and 1200 (65% of hourly observations). Other south Texas summer
Hymenoptera (especially some Vespidae, Eumenidae, Sphecidae, and Apoidea) remain
at least marginally active during the most torrid afternoon period (1400-1600), when
shade temperatures often approach 40C.


This study is based on collections made by the author. Material covered in this study
has been deposited in the Florida State Collection of Arthropods (Division of Plant
Industry, P. O. Box 1269, Gainesville, FL 32602) and in the author's private collection
(now housed at Gainesville with the Florida State Collection).


Dr. Howard V. Weems, Jr., Dr. Lionel A. Stange, and Mr. Harold A. Denmark of
the Florida Department of Agriculture made possible my south Florida fieldwork done
in October 1981. Studies in south Texas were supported during 1973-75, in 1979, and in
1981 by grants from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geo-
graphic Society, and from 1976-77 by United States National Science Foundation Grant
DEB-75-22426. Collecting in the Bentsen Rio Grande Valley State Park was done under
permits issued by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (current permit number
Contribution No. 694, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida
Dep. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, FL 32602.


BHAT, S., AND V. K. Gupta. 1977. Ichneumonologica Orientalis, Pt. VI, The Subfam-
ily Agathidinae (Hymonoptera: Braconidae). Oriental Insects Monograph 6:1-353.
Association for the Study of Oriental Insects, c/o Department of Zoology, Univer-
sity of Delhi, Delhi-110007, India.
KRIECHBAUMER, J. 1894. Hymenoptera Ichneumonoidea a medico nautico Dr. Joh.
Braune in itinere secundo ad oras Africae lecta. Berliner Ent. Zeits. 39: 297-318.

June, 1989


Porter & O'Neill: New Florida Xiphosomella 309

MARSH, P. M. 1961. A taxonomic study of the genus Cremnops Foerster in America
north of Mexico (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Annals Ent. Soc. America 54: 851-
1979. Family Braconidae, p. 144-295, in Krombein, K. V., P. D. Hurd, D. R.
Smith, and B. D. Burks, Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico,
Vol. 1, Symphyta and Apocrita (Parasitica) Smithsonian Institution Press,
Washington, D. C.
PORTER, C. 1977. Ecology, zoogeography, and taxonomy of the Lower Rio Grande
Valley mesostenines. Psyche 84: 28-91.
.1978. Ecological notes on Lower Rio Grande Valley Sphecini. Florida Ent.
61: 159-67.
SHARKEY, M., AND R. WHARTON. 1985. Redefinition of Megagathis Kriechbaumer
and reassignment of New World species to Zacremnops New Genus (Hymenopt-
era: Braconidae: Agathidinae). Canadian Entomologist 117: 599-603.

e0 40 40- n a e- -aa a


Department of Biological Sciences
Fordham University
Bronx, NY 104558


Xiphosomellaflorens n. sp., known only from Fleming Key in Florida, differs from
other Nearctic congeners by the following combination of characters: occipital carina
complete dorsally, mesoscutum polished, notauli strong, stigma broad, areolet present,
ventral tooth of hind femur small, and costula inserted near middle of areola.
Xiphosomella dubia (Brues) is recorded for the 1st time from south Texas.


Xiphosomella florens n. sp. conocida unicamente de Cayo Fleming en la Florida,
difiere de las otras species nearticas congen6ricas por la siguiente combinaci6n de
caracteres: parte dorsal de la carena occipital complete, mesoescudo reluciente, notauli
fuerte, estigma ancha, segunda celda cubital present, femur posterior con un pequeio
diente ventral, y c6stula insertada cerca de la mitad del areola. Xiphosomella dubia
(Brues) es citada por primera vez del sur de Texas.

Xiphosomella Sz6pligeti is a genus of cremastine Ichneumonidae that includes 4
species in the eastern United States and many more in the Neotropics. Cushman
(1924:14) described X. stenomae from Panama as a parasite of the gelechioid moth,

'Research Associate, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer
Services, Gainesville, FL 32602 USA

310 Florida Entomologist 72(2) June, 1989

Stenoma catinifer Walshingham (Lepidoptera: Stenomidae). There are no host data for
the Nearctic Xiphosomella.
Dasch (1979) revised the Xiphosomella of America north of M6xico, keying and
describing 3 species. I now describe a 4th species from the Florida Keys and give new
data on the geographic distribution of X. dubia.


1. Hind femur edentate ventrally; notaulus weak; stigma narrow, much more
than 2.2 as long as wide .............................................. 3. X. setoni Johnson
1'. Hind femur dentate ventrally; notaulus strong; stigma about 2.2 as long as
wide ....................................... ... ............. ............... ... ......... 2
2. Areolet absent; hind tibia and tarsus stout and compressed; hind leg mostly
black ........................................ ........................... 4. X crassipes Dasch
2'. Areolet present; hind tibia and tarsus slender; hind leg mostly pale .............. 3
3. Flagellomeres 32-35; occipital carina fades out medially; mesoscutum uni-
formly rather dull and with fine puncto-reticulation; areola receives costula
near basal 1/3; hind femur ventrally with a conspicuous tooth that is followed
by 2-3 tiny teeth; 2nd gastric tergite fulvous with dusky on basal 1/2; 3rd
tergite fulvous with a little dusky on base ....................... 2. X. dubia (Brues)
3'. Flagellomeres 26; occipital carina complete medially; mesoscutum polished
with a little aciculation on median lobe; areola receives costula near middle;
hind femur ventrally with a small and inconspicuous tooth that is not fol-
lowed by smaller teeth; 2nd gastric tergite black with white on apical 3/8;
3rd gastric tergite mostly shining black .......................... 1. X. florens n. sp.

1. Xiphosomella florens Porter and O'Neill, NEW SPECIES
(Fig. 1, 2)

FEMALE. Color: flagellum blackish; scape and medical bright fulvous with dusky
above; head bright fulvous with mandibular teeth blackish, some dusky around stem-
maticum, and with extensive dull to conspicuous yellow markings, especially on most
of mandible, clypeus, malar space, broad anterior orbits, and more irregularly on hind
orbits; mesosoma bright fulvous with some rather prominent to faint yellow staining,
especially on pronotum anteriorly, and with dusky to blackish (darkest mesad) on much
of propodeal dorsum, including particularly the areola, area-basalis, and sometimes the
petiolar area; 1st gastric tergite whitish with a median longitudinal black stripe that
sometimes is narrowed near base of petiole and which grades into dull white on apical
1/2 of postpetiole; 2nd tergite black on basal 5/8 and whitish on apical 3/8; 3rd-4th
tergites mostly shining black; 5th shining black with brown toward apex; and the follow-
ing tergites largely brownish; ovipositor sheaths blackish; fore and mid legs dull whitish
brown, palest on coxae and tarsomeres 1-4, and with black on 5th tarsomere; hind leg
with coxa dull whitish brown and faintly dusky (especially laterad, below, and pos-
teriorly), trochanter dusky with whitish apicad, trochantellus whitish basad and dusky
apicad, femur anteriorly brownish with base and apex a little paler and with broad,
obscure preapical and subbasal dusky areas but on hind face more extensively dusky,
tibia dull whitish with dusky on basal 1/4 and apical 1/5, tibial spurs whitish, and tarsus
dull brownish white, becoming darker on apex of segments 1-4 and black on segment
5; wings hyaline with stigma dark brown.
Length offorewing: 2.5-2.9 mm. Flagellum: with 26 segments. Face: 1.4 as wide as
high, 0.46 as wide as head, shining with numerous but well separated small punctures,
lateral margins only slightly converging ventrad. Malar space: 0.50 as long as basal

Porter & O'Neill: New Florida Xiphosomella 311


Fig. 1. Xiphosomella florens, 9 Holotype. Dorsal view of propodeum.
Fig. 2. Xiphosomella florens, 9 Holotype. Lateral view of hind leg.
Fig. 3. Xiphosomella dubia, 9. Lateral view of hind leg.

Florida Entomologist 72(2)

width of mandible. Clypeus: apical margin gently convex. Temple: slightly convex, its
width 0.75 greatest diameter of lateral ocellus. Occipital carina: complete medially.
Ocelli: distance between lateral ocellus and eye equals 1.0 greatest diameter of lateral
ocellus; distance between lateral ocellus and occipital carina equals 1.0 greatest diameter
of lateral ocellus. Pronotum: epomia strong in scrobe. Mesoscutum: smooth, polished,
almost impunctate, faintly aciculate on median lobe, with broad and strong notauli that
reach about 2/3 its length. Mesopleuron: polished with numerous but well separated,
small, sharp punctures and with some oblique wrinkling that is most conspicuous along
front margin of speculum. Lower metapleuron: finely and dully puncto-reticulate. Prop-
odeum: surface dully shining, with fine, dense, transversely biased wrinkling; areola
elongate, receiving costula near middle; median longitudinal carinae complete, nearly
confluent and definitely elevated at base of areola; spiracle short oval. Wing venation:
stigma broad, 2.2 as long as wide; areolet fully developed, briefly petiolate, oblique,
elongately trapezoidal. Hind femur: 4.7-5.0 as long as high, with a weak ventral tooth
that is not followed by any smaller teeth. 1st gastric tergite: surface polished and with
only faint aciculation; postpetiole 1.3 as long as wide at widest point. 2nd gastric tergite:
3.0 as long as wide, shining but with well developed fine longitudinal striation.
Ovipositor: 2.0 as long as hind tibia, gently downcurved at apex.
MALE. Unknown.
TYPE MATERIAL. Holotype 9: FLORIDA, Monroe County, Fleming Key, 25-III-
1980, insect flight trap, H. E. Williams & H. V. Weems, Jr. Paratype 9: FLORIDA,
Monroe County, Fleming Key, 18-III-1980, insect flight trap, H. E. Williams & H. V.
Weems, Jr. Holotype and paratype in Florida State Collection of Arthropods at Gaines-
RELATIONSHIPS. All 3 previously described Nearctic Xiphosomella reach mainland
south Florida and may occur sympatrically with X. florens. These species differ from
florens by the characters given in the key as well as in some additional features that
are summarized below.
Xiphosomella setoni has 28-31 flagellar segments (26 inflorens), has a pair of vertical
grooves above the clypeus (no grooves in florens), the malar space 0.35 as long as the
basal width of the mandible (0.50 inflorens), the temple 1.20-1.45 as long as the greatest
diameter of a lateral ocellus (0.75 in florens), the mesopleuron and mesoscutum shag-
reened (mostly smooth and shining inflorens), the areola comparatively short (elongate
inflorfens), and the postpetiole shagreened (mostly polished in florens).
In X. crassipes the lateral margins of the face are a little divergent ventrally (slightly
convergent inflorens), the temple is 0.95 as wide as the greatest diameter of a lateral
ocellus (0.75 in florens), the epomia is weak (strong in florens), the median longitudinal
carinae of the propodeum are partly effaced along the areola (percurrent in florens),
and the postpetiole is 1.7 as long as wide (1.3 in florens).
Xiphosomella dubia seems more closely related to florens than do the 2 foregoing
species. It may be distinguished by the key characters and also by such features as its
shagreened face (shining in florens), wider temple (0.9-1.2 as wide as greatest lateral
ocellar diameter, versus 0.75 inflorens) shagreened mesoscutum and mesopleuron (shin-
ing in florens), and slightly longer 2nd gastric tergite (2.4-2.5 as long as wide, versus
3.0 in florens).
FIELD NOTES. This species is known only from Fleming Key, a small and exiguously
vegetated island near Key West. The type series was collected by insect flight traps
set up in the partial shade of introduced Casuarina trees and near a coastal marsh
dominated by mangroves (Avicennia nitida Jacq., Languncularia racemosa L., and
Rhizophora mangle L.).
SPECIFIC NAME. From the Latin adjective florens, "blooming" or "glittering", in
allusion both to the polished mesoscutum of this species and to the state which it in-


June, 1989

Porter & O'Neill: New Florida Xiphosomella 313

2. Xiphosomella dubia (Brues)
(Fig. 3)

SPECIMENS EXAMINED. 7 9 and 3 6: NEW JERSEY, Metuchen, Woodwild Park,
1 9, 21-VII-1953, 1 9, 15-VIII-1956, C. Porter; TEXAS, Hidalgo County, Bentsen Rio
Grande Valley State Park, 1 9, 2 S, 16-31-III-1976, 1 6, 15-30-IV-1976, 2 9, 16-31-V-
1976, 1 9, 1-15-VI-1976, in insect flight trap, C. Porter.
FIELD NOTES. The Texas specimens were caught by an insect flight trap placed
under an ebony tree (Pithecellobium) in dense subtropical semihumid woodland. The
New Jersey material was swept from undergrowth in moist temperate deciduous forest.
GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION. According to Dasch (1979:11), X. dubia occurs in
most of the eastern Un;ted States from Florida and central Texas north as far as
Minnesota and Massachusetts. My records from Bentsen Rio Grande Valley State Park
constitute the 1st notice of dubia in subtropical Texas and suggest that this species may
range south into Mexico.


This study is based on collections made by the author and by employees of the
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. The holotype and paratype
of Xiphosomella florens have been deposited in the Florida State Collection of Ar-
thropods (Division of Plant Industry, P. 0. Box 1269, Gainesville, FL 32602). Material
of X. dubia has been divided between the Florida State Collection of Arthropods and
the senior author's private collection (now housed with the Florida State Collection of


Study of insect flight trap collections made on Fleming Key was facilitated by Drs.
Lionel A. Stange and Howard V. Weems, Jr. of the Florida State Collection of Ar-
thropods. Fieldwork in south Texas was supported during 1976-77 by United States
National Science Foundation Grant DEB-75-22426. Collecting in Bentsen Rio Grande
Valley State Park was done under permits issued by the Texas Parks and Wildlife
Department (current permit number 1-82). Mr. Thomas J. O'Neill of Fordham Univer-
sity prepared the illustrations.
Contribution No. 692, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Florida
Dep. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, FL 32602.


CUSHMAN, R. A. 1924. New genera and species of ichneumon-flies. Proc. United
States Natl. Mus. 64(4): 1-16.
DASCH, C. E. 1979. Ichneumon-flies of America north of Mexico: 8. Subfamily Cremas-
tinae. Mem. American Ent. Inst. 29: 1-702.

Florida Entomologist 72(2)


Department of Entomology and Nematology
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611


A trap was developed for Euphasiopteryx spp. that caught as many E. ochracea
females as a sticky trap but kept them healthy. Traps worked well for more than a year
without repair. A trap in a north Florida pasture caught 1059 E. ochracea in one year;
a trap in a nearby woods caught 1576. Seasonal patterns of captures in the two habitats
were similar. Numbers captured correlated with moon phase, periodically peaking
within a few days after new moon.


Se desarroll6 una trampa para Euphasiopteryx spp. que atrap6 tantas hembras de
E. ochracea como las trampas pegajosas, pero las mantuvo mis saludables. Las trampas
funcionaron bien por mis de un afio sin reparaciones. Una trampa en el norte de la
Florida atrap6 1059 E. ochracea en un afio; una trampa en un bosque cercano atrap6
1576. El nfimero capturado esta correlacionado con las fases de la luna, periodicamente
el auge ocurre pocos dias despu6s de la luna nueva.

Tachinid flies of the tribe Ormiini are parasitoids of crickets and katydids. Gravid
females home in on their host's calling song and deposit living larvae on or near the
caller. If a larva contacts a host, it burrows in and completes its development in about
two weeks (Sabrosky 1953, Cade 1975, Mangold 1978, Fowler 1987).
Studies of the ormiine genus Euphasiopteryx have recently been stimulated by
plans to release in Florida a South American species, E. depleta (Wiedemann), as a
biocontrol agent against introduced pest mole crickets. A closely related species,
Euphasiopteryx ochracea (Bigot), occurs throughout the southeastern United States
and parasitizes field crickets (Gryllus spp.). Learning about the readily accessible
ochracea facilitates work with depleta. For example, attempts to rear depleta failed
until techniques developed for rearing ochracea were applied (Wineriter & Walker,
This paper describes a new type of live trap for Euphasiopteryx, tests of the trap
using E. ochracea, and results of using it to monitor E. ochracea for one year.

Developing and Testing a New Type of Live Trap

The only Euphasiopteryx spp. adults that can be collected readily are gravid females
attracted to recorded or synthesized calls of their hosts. Because the numbers are
usually low and the flies arrive from dusk until dawn, some means of retaining the
attracted flies is needed. High voltage grids and sticky materials (e.g., Tack Trap) work
well if the flies are only to be counted (Fowler 1987, Walker 1986), but if healthy flies
are needed for biological studies or for shipment and release, a live trap must be used.
Cade (1979) and Fowler (1988) devised live traps for E. ochracea and E. depleta that

June, 1989

Walker: Acoustical Trap for Euphasiopteryx

2.0 cm
x 2.5 cm
support ----j

path of

plastic vial

screw cap
screen funnel
plastic vial
screw cap

screen wall

screen bottom

1/2" plywood


1/2" plywood front
and back, all
wood parts with
2 coats of spar varnish

lid of 2 liter
jar with 9 cm %
opening, glued
with silicon
caulk to funnel -

2 liter
plastic jar
with screen

19 liter

path of

in plastic bag
to protect
from rain

plastic funnel
with 12 cm 0
exterior opening,
2.3 cm 0 interior
opening, upper
lip glued with
silicon caulk
to underside of
bucket lid

cord of sound
placed through
a small drain
hole in side
of bucket

screw cap glued to bottom
of 120 cc plastic vial,
3.8 cm a opening through both

screw cap stapled to
wood support; screen attached
to screw cap with silicon caulk
2cm -.

13 cm(h) x 20.5 cm(w)
--_- x 1/2" hinged
plywood door

Fig. 1. Construction details of live traps. A. Cross-section through bucket trap B.
Cross-section through slit trap. C. Perspective view of slit trap. (For a photo of slit
trap, see Walker 1988.)

consisted of screen and muslin funnels leading into holding cages. Fowler (1988) re-
ported that his best funnel trap, a complex arrangement of five muslin funnels, caught
only a third as many depleta as a sticky trap.
My version of a funnel trap, the bucket trap, was simple to construct and service.
Unfortunately it caught few E. ochracea at a time of year when they were abundant.

Florida Entomologist 72(2)

My next trap, the slit trap, was intended to exploit the tendency of gravid females to
land on vertical surfaces near an attracting sound and run straight down-which I had
observed while using a thin vertical shaft to set the distance of a sound level meter from
a sound source.
Trap construction. The bucket trap consisted of a 19-liter plastic bucket with a
sound synthesizer (Walker 1982) at bottom and a two-liter, screen-bottomed, plastic
collecting jar at top. Flies entered the collecting jar through a plastic funnel 10 cm dia
above and 2.3 cm dia below (Fig. 1A).
The slit trap had two screen inclines that led to a valve 30 cm long made of two
vertical, parallel pieces of aluminum screening ca. 1 cm apart (Fig. 1B-C). The valve
gave access to a screen cage 33 x 28 x 30 cm. Flies that entered the cage eventually
went through a small screen funnel into a plastic collecting tube that could be replaced
with an empty tube when the trap was serviced. Construction details are in Fig. 1B-C.
Tests of traps. Two trapping stations 30 meters apart were established in woods
near Gainesville, Florida, where E. ochracea was abundant. Each evening for nine
nights a slit trap was operated at one station and a bucket trap at the other. Each trap
was baited with a microprocessor-based sound synthesizer programmed to produce 50
pulses per second of a 4.8 KHz carrier frequency (= synthetic Gryllus rubens call of
Walker 1986). Sound level was set at 100 dB, as measured 15 cm above the entrance to
the trap with a Bruel & Kjaer model 2219 sound level meter. A clock turned the synthe-
sizers on at sunset and off at sunrise. The traps were swapped between stations every
third night. The slit trap outperformed the bucket trap every night. A Wilcoxon paired
sample test rejected the hypothesis that the traps were equal (P = 0.02). Two nights
were excluded from the analysis because the lack of flies in the bucket trap could be
attributed to tree frogs the trap had captured. Total flies caught during the nine nights
was 206 for the slit trap and 11 for the bucket trap (excluding the two tree-frog nights,
when the traps caught 134 and 10 flies).
The efficiency of the slit trap was compared to that of a sticky trap in tests at the
same two stations, 15-24 Oct 1987. The sticky trap was made by smearing Tack Trap
on the top and the upper 1 cm of the sides of the rainproof plastic bag that enclosed the
sound synthesizer. The sound level of the synthetic rubens call was set at 106 dB at 15
cm above each synthesizer. Traps were swapped the first night and every second night
thereafter (two nights were disregarded because fewer than three flies were caught).
During the course of the tests, each trap operated at each site for four nights. The total
catch for the sticky trap was 97, for the standard trap 103. The sticky trap out-per-
formed the slit trap four of the eight nights, and one night was a tie.
Discussion. The poor performance of the bucket trap may have been due to the
acoustics of the bucket rather than the funnel valve. However, Fowler (1988) had poor
results relative to sticky traps even when he used a trap with good acoustics and
multiple funnels.
The approximate equivalence of catches between the sticky and slit trap was a
surprise, because flies were observed landing on the slit trap and not entering. Removal
of flies from the sticky trap by birds was apparently not a problem, because flies left
on it for several days remained intact.
A slit trap operated briefly in Brazil caught some E. depleta, but its efficacy for that
species, compared to a sticky trap, has not been tested (J. H. Frank, personal communi-
cation). The behavior of depleta attracted to sound may be substantially different from
that of ochracea. Fowler (1987) timed 20 depleta females, and all left the sound source
3 sec or less after arrival. On the other hand, in field tests of phonotaxis in ochracea,
most females stayed at the sound source for at least several minutes (Walker, unpub-
lished). When Fowler and I watched depleta and ochracea, respectively, at the traps
we were testing, their behaviors seemed more similar. Fowler (1988) reported "Field

June, 1989

Walker: Acoustical Trap for Euphasiopteryx






n -






Pasture 1987
= 1059

.- ,JiL

B. Woods 1987

1 Jan

27 Sep
27 Sep

16 Apr

31 Dec
31 Dec

Time (Weeks)
Fig. 2. Weekly numbers of E. ochracea caught in slit traps west of Gainesville,
Florida, 1987. A. Trap at pasture station. B. Trap at woods station.

observations indicated that flies alighted on the muslin and walked extensively over the
trap's external surface until they were channeled into its interior through the funnels.".

Seasonal Abundance of E. ochracea
Methods. To test trap durability and to collect data on seasonal abundance of E.
ochracea, two slit traps were operated for all of 1987 in an area west of Gainesville
(township R19E T9S, nw 1/4 of section 31). One trap was in a 5 ha pasture surrounded
by woods (Walker 1986) and the other was ca. 380 m away and 200 m into the woods.
Sound and sound level were the same as in the tests with a sticky trap. The two traps
were serviced daily, and captured flies were permanently removed from the area.
Results. The first fly caught at the pasture trap was 22 April; at the woods trap, 26
April. The numbers gradually increased until late September and remained high during
October and November (Fig. 2). Total catch for the pasture trap was 1059; for the
woods, 1576. At both stations five cycles of increase and decline in numbers trapped

- 11_-11-,



318 Florida Entomologist 72(2) June, 1989


0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
-v 30

S. 20

-L O 10

Ar May Jun July Aug Sep 27
Apr Sep
Fig. 3. Seven-day moving average of daily totals of trapped E. ochracea, 16 Apr to
27 Sep 1987 (period indicated by arrows in Fig. 2) [yi = (sum of catches for days i-3,i-2,
i-l,i,i + ,i +2,i +3)/7]. Phase of moon is indicated by black dots (new moon) and circles
(full moon).

occurred between April and late September. These cycles, partly obscured when data
were grouped by week, were evident in the daily data from each trap. To reveal the
modes of the peaks, summed daily catches were smoothed with a 7-day moving average
(Fig. 3).
Discussion. The traps worked well with no repair or maintenance for more than a
year but were in need of revarnishing after 15 months of service.
Modal dates for successive periods of abundance (Fig. 3) were 28 Apr, 28 May/6
June, 30 June, 24 July, 31 Aug, 28 Sep, making peak-to-peak periods of 35, 28, 24, 38,
and 28 days. The mean period was 30.6 days. Since the lunar month is 29.5 days, a
possible explanation of the cycles is that trap catch depends significantly on phase of
the moon. The peaks of abundance came, on average, 4 days after the new moon (range
= 1 to 7 days), but why more flies should be caught at a sound-baited trap near new
moon than near full moon is not evident. A second possible explanation is that the peaks
represent successive synchronous generations of flies. The period of a generation-27
to 32 days from planidia to first planidia in a laboratory colony at 250 C (Wineriter &
Walker, unpublished)-is compatible with this explanation but because females deposit
planidia for several weeks, synchrony of generations is not expected. Periods of cold
weather after mid-September confounded any other periodism of the trapping data.
E. ochracea was trapped during all of 1983 at the pasture site (Walker 1986) and
during all of 1988 at the wood site (Walker, unpublished). In both instances most flies
were captured during September to December. So few flies were captured during April
to August that the data could not show the sort of conspicuous cycles evident in the
1987 data.


I thank J. H. Frank, J. P. Parkman, and S. A. Wineriter for review of this manu-
script. S. A. Wineriter drew Fig. 1. This research was supported in part by USDA/
CSRS Tropical and Subtropical Agriculture funds (83-CRSR-2-2162). Florida Agric.
Exp. Stn. Journal Series No. 9404.

Prokopy et al.: Discrimination by Dacus Females


CADE, W. H. 1975. Acoustically orienting parasitoids: fly phonotaxis to cricket song.
Science 190: 1312-1313.
CADE, W. H. 1979. The evolution of alternative male reproductive strategies in field
crickets. Pages 343-379 in M. S. Blum and N. A. Blum, eds. Sexual selection and
reproductive competition in insects. Academic Press, New York.
FOWLER, H. G. 1987. Field behavior of Euphasiopteryx depleta (Diptera: Tachinidae):
phonotactically orienting parasitoids of mole crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae:
Scapteriscus). J. New York Entomol. Soc. 95: 474-480.
FOWLER, H. G. 1988. Traps for collecting live Euphasiopteryx depleta (Diptera:
Tachinidae) at a sound source. Florida Entomol. 71: (654-656).
MANGOLD, J. R. 1978. Attraction of Euphasiopteryx ochracea, Corethrella sp. and
gryllids to broadcast songs of the southern mole cricket. Fla. Entomol. 61: 57-61.
SABROSKY, C. W. 1953. Taxonomy and host relations of the tribe Ormiini in the
western hemisphere. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Washington 55: 167-183, 289-305.
WALKER, T. J. 1982. Sound traps for sampling mole cricket flights (Orthoptera: Gryl-
lotalpidae: Scapteriscus). Florida Entomol. 65: 105-110.
WALKER, T. J. 1986. Monitoring the flights of field crickets (Gryllus spp.) and a
tachinid fly (Euphasiopteryx ochracea) in North Florida. Florida Entomol. 69:
WALKER, T. J. 1988. Acoustic traps for agriculturally important insects. Florida
Entomol. 71: (484-492).


Department of Entomology, University of Massachusetts
Amherst, MA 01003 U.S.A.

Tropical Fruit and Vegetable Research Laboratory
Agricultural Research Service, USDA
Honolulu, Hawaii 96804, U.S.A.


In laboratory assays of Dacus dorsalis Hendel populations that had been cultured
on host fruit in the laboratory for one generation, we found that ovipositing females
discriminated strongly against kumquat fruit infested by young conspecific larvae or
young larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) but not against uninfested kumquat
fruit whose surface was treated with fly-deposited substances such as kumquat juice,
feces, or host marking pheromone. Discrimination against larval-infested fruit could
allow D. dorsalis to avoid possible detrimental effects of intraspecific as well as in-
tergeneric competition among larvae for limited host fruit resources.


Florida Entomologist 72(2)


Encontramos que ensayos en el laboratorio con poblaciones de Dacus dorsalis Hen-
del que habian sido cultivadas en frutas hospederas por una generaci6n, las hembras
ponedoras de huevos discriminan fuertemente contra las frutas de kumquat infestadas
con larvas j6venes coespecificas o larvas j6venes de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann),
pero no contra frutas de kumquat no infestadas cuya superficie fue tratada con substan-
cias depositadas por moscas, tales como jugo de kumquat, feces, o feromonas que marcan
al hospedero. Discriminaci6n contra frutas infestadas con larvas pudiera permitir a D.
dorsalis evitar el possible efecto adverse de competencia intraespecfica asi como in-
tergen6rica entire las larvas cuando hay un nfimero limitado de frutas hospederas.

Over the past 2 decades, numerous species of insects have been shown to respond
to chemical stimuli that signal occupation of a resource site by conspecifics and mediate
against overcrowding (Prokopy et al. 1984). Among these are species of Rhagoletis,
Anastrepha, and Ceratitis fruit flies that are deterred from attempting oviposition in
occupied host fruit by marking pheromone deposited on the fruit surface after egglaying
by a previous individual (Roitberg & Prokopy 1987). To date, there is no evidence that
Dacus fruit flies deposit such marking pheromone after egglaying (Fitt 1984, Fletcher
1987). However, immediately after oviposition, female D. oleae Gmelin suck up juice
that exudes from egglaying punctures in olive fruit and spread the juice over the fruit
surface, thereby signaling the presence of occupied fruit (Cirio 1971). Moreover, females
of D. oleae, D. cucurbitae Coquillett, D. tryoni (Froggatt) and D. jarvisi (Tryon) are
able to detect fruit occupied by conspecific larvae on the basis of chemical changes in
the fruit associated with decomposition that accompanies larval feeding (Cirio 1971,
Prokopy & Koyama 1982, Fitt 1984).
Here, we asked whether females of the oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel,
are able to discriminate against host fruit occupied by conspecific larvae and against
fruit occupied by larvae of the Mediterranan fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Widemann).


Each experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions of ca. 260, 80% R.H.,
and natural daylight (13L:11D). The parents of the D. dorsalis flies used here originated
from puparia formed by larvae that infested fruit of guava (Psidium guajava) collected
in nature in Kauai. The parents were maintained under laboratory conditions and al-
lowed to oviposit in fruit of papaya (Carica papaya), the source of flies used in our
study. After eclosion, the flies were maintained in screen cages (ca. 120 females and 30
males/cage) containing food (sucrose and yeast hydrolysate) and water until sexually
mature (29-34 days old), at which time they were employed in tests. C. capitata were
obtained from a laboratory population that had been in continuous culture for more than
300 generations at the USDA Fruit Fly Laboratory in Hawaii. From eclosion, they
were maintained until sexually mature (9-13 days old) under the same food and fly
density conditions as D. dorsalis flies.
All test fruit were 20-cm-diam kumquats, Fortunella japonica, purchased non-in-
fested at a supermarket and washed thoroughly before use. The purpose of the first
experiment was to assess female ovipositional response to larval-infested versus clean
test fruit. For this experiment, 7 kumquats (each punctured twice with an insect pin to
facilitate ovipositor entry) were placed in each of several cages containing ca. 120 mature
D. dorsalis or C. capitata females. After 24 h, the fruit were removed and placed at
260C for 48 h in cages without flies to permit egg hatch. All eggs were deposited

June, 1989

Prokopy et al.: Discrimination by Dacus Females

exclusively in the 2 pin-puncture holes. Eggs of both species hatch within 48 h of
deposition (Vargas et al. 1984). Similar numbers of twice-punctured kumquats were
held for 72 h at 260 C in cages without flies to serve as non-infested check fruit. For
the second experiment, we aimed to determine whether substances on the surface of
infested fruit might affect female propensity to oviposit. For this experiment, 7 kum-
quats per cage were placed in cages containing ca. 120 mature D. dorsalis or C. capitata
females. However, each fruit was wrapped in parafilm before being puncturd twice with
an insect pin. The parafilm protected the fruit surface from post-oviposition deposition
of fruit juice, feces, marking pheromone or other products emitted by egglaying flies.
But it still permitted extensive egg deposition into the 2 pin-punctured holes. After 24
h, the parafilm was lifted gently from each fruit and wrapped around non-infested,
twice-punctured (24 h earlier) kumquats in such a way that the outer parafilm surface
was now in contact with the surface of the fruit. Using this procedure, we showed
earlier that marking pheromone and other sustances on the fruit surface can be transfer-
red in biologically significant amounts from one fruit to another (Papaj & Prokopy 1986,
Papaj et al. 1989). All fly-exposed fruit (with and without parafilm) were then kept at
26C for 48 h in cages without flies, at which time the parafilm was removed. As before,
twice punctured kumquats were held for 72 h in cages without flies to serve as non-in-
fested check fruit.
Assays were conduct by offering each of 12 D. dorsalis females in each experiment
2 fruit of each treatment. Prior to testing, assay females had been exposed to punctured
kumquats for 24 h (1 fruit per ca. 12 females) to permit a limited amount of egg depos-
ition. Only those females observed ovipositing just prior to testing were selected for use.
Assay fruit were offered singly by allowing an individually-caged female to walk or hop
onto a fruit and to remain there until it either accepted (bored into) or rejected (left
without boring into) the fruit or until 10 min elapsed without acceptance (these cases
comprised fewer than 2% of the total and were considered as rejection of fruit). If a fly
bored, it was allowed to continue until withdrawal of the ovipositor, at which time the
fly was removed from the fruit. All borings occurred into one of the 2 pin-punctured
holes. Only 4% lasted fewer than 30 sec (in a preliminary test of 94 observed borings
into non-infested pin-punctured holes in kumquats, none of the 6 borings that lasted
less than 30 sec resulted in egg deposition, while 60 of the 88 borings that lasted 30 sec
or more-including one of 33 sec-resulted in egg deposition). Females were allowed
ca. 3 min between fruit offerings. To minimize experimental error, we ensured that each
fruit type was represented an equal number of times in the 1st, 2nd etc. position of the
assay sequence, and the same fruit specimen was offered no more than twice.
For making paired comparisons, we employed Goodman's method for multiple con-
trasts (Goodman 1964).


In Experiment 1, D. dorsalis females bored significantly more often into non-in-
fested fruit (92%) than into fruit infested by D. dorsalis larvae (29%) or C. capitata
larvae (21%), between which there was no significant difference (Table 1). In Experi-
ment 2, there was no significant difference in proportion of females boring into non-in-
fested fruit (96%), non-infested fruit whose surface was treated with feces and/or possi-
ble post-ovipositional substances deposited by D. dorsalis females (79%), and non-in-
fested fruit whose surface was treated with marking pheromone of C. capitata females
(92%) (Table 1). In all 3 of these treatments, the proportion of females boring into test
fruit was significantly greater than the proportion boring into clean-surface kumquats
infested with D. dorsali larvae (17%) or C. capitata larvae (33%), between which there
was no significant difference (Table 1).

Florida Entomologist 72(2)


Exp. Fruit N % females boring*

1 Non-infested 24 92a
Infested by young
D. dorsalis larva 24 29b
Infested by young
C. capitata larvae 24 21b
2 Non-infested 24 96a
Non-infested, surface
treated with D.
dorsalis products** 24 79a
Non-infested, surface
treated with C.
capitata products** 24 92a
Infested by young D.
dorsalis larvae*** 24 17b
Infested by young C.
capitata larvae*** 24 33b

*Values in the same experiment not followed by the same letter are significantly different at the 0.05 level
*Fruit surface was treated with fly products using the "reverse-wrapped" parafilm technique described in
***Fruit surface was protected from depostion of fly products by covering it with parafilm as described in Methods.
Approximate mean no. eggs deposited per pin-puncture during 24 h exposure to flies in cages prior to assay: by D.
dorsalis = 142; by C. capitata = 391.


Our finding that D. dorsalis females are able to discriminate against fruit containing
conspecific larvae is consistent with aforementioned findings that females of 4 other
Dacus species likewise are able to discriminate against fruit containing conspecific lar-
vae. Our finding, through use of the parafilm transfer technique, that substances on the
surface of infested fruit play no significant role in fruit discrimination supports the
conclusion that the stimuli indicative of infested fruit emanate largely or exclusively
from the interior of such fruit.
We did not address directly the question of whether the stimuli signaling occupied
fruit were of insect origin (emanating directly from egg shells or larvae) or whether the
stimuli arose from changes in the fruit owing to the presence of eggs or larvae. The fact
that presence of C. capitata larvae proved just as deterrent as presence of conspecific
larvae suggests, as appears true for other Dacus species (Fitt 1984), that the latter
explanation may be the more likely one. Because punctures without eggs or larvae were
highly acceptable for boring, we conclude that the deterrent stimuli are not produced
simply as a consequence of the wounding of fruit tissue. Also, because discrimination
against infested fruit occurs prior to boring, we believe that odor emitted from
punctures containing larvae furnishes important information facilitating discrimination,
although contact chemoreception of stimuli via the mouthparts, tarsi, or ovipositor can
not be ruled out.
C. capitata, native to Africa, became widespread in Hawaii soon after establishment
there in 1910. D. dorsalis, native to the Pacific region, became established in Hawaii in
1946. C. capitata females are much more readily able to penetrate the surface of intact
host fruit than are D. dorsalis females (Wong & Prokopy, pers. obs.). The latter are


June, 1989

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs