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ARCHAEOLOGY INSTITUTE OFFOUNDERS George F. Bass, Ph.D., Chairman EmeritusJack W. KelleyJohn BairdMichael KatzevOcers/Administration Deborah N. Carlson, Ph.D., President*Cemal M. Pulak, Ph.D., Vice PresidentKevin J. Crisman, Ph.D., Vice PresidentTamara Hebert, Oce ManagerJim Jobling, Dive Safety OcerBodrum Research Center Tuba Ekmeki, Directorzlem Dog an, Finance ManagerAliated Scholars Kroum Batchvarov, Ph.D., University of ConnecticutJohn Broadwater, Ph.D., Tidewater Atlantic ResearchArthur Cohn, J.D., Lake Champlain Maritime MuseumMari del Pilar Luna Erreguerena, M.A., National Institute of Anthropology and History Ben Ford, Ph.D., Indiana University of PennsylvaniaJeremy Green, M.A., Western Australia Maritime MuseumElizabeth Greene, Ph.D., Brock UniversityJerome Hall, Ph.D., University of San DiegoFaith Hentschel, Ph.D., Central Connecticut State UniversityNicolle Hirschfeld, Ph.D., Trinity UniversityFrederick Hocker, Ph.D., Vasa MuseumRobert Hohlfelder, Ph.D., University of ColoradoMark Lawall, Ph.D., University of ManitobaJohn McManamon, S.J., Loyola UniversityHarun zdas Ph.D., Dokuz Eyll Universitei David Stewart, Ph.D., Eastern Carolina UniversityPeter van Alfen, Ph.D., American Numismatic SocietyWendy van Duivenvoorde, Ph.D., Flinders UniversityCheryl Ward, Ph.D., Coastal Carolina UniversityGordon P. Watts, Jr., Ph.D., Tidewater Atlantic ResearchNautical Archaeology Program Faculty Texas A&M University Deborah N. Carlson, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Sara W. and George O. Yamini FellowLuis Filipe Vieira de Castro, Ph.D., Professor, Frederick R. Mayer Faculty Fellow of Nautical ArchaeologyKevin J. Crisman, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Nautical Archaeology Faculty Fellow Donny L. Hamilton, Ph.D., Professor, George T. & Gladys H. Abell Chair in Nautical Archaeology, Yamini Family Chair in Liberal ArtsCemal M. Pulak, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Frederick R. Mayer Faculty Professor of Nautical ArchaeologyC. Wayne Smith, Ph.D., Associate Professor, INA Faculty Fellow Shelley Wachsmann, Ph.D., Professor, Meadows Professor of Biblical Archaeology Board of Directors Og uz Aydemir Gordon W. Bass Jos L. Bermdez, Ph.D.* Edward O. Boshell, Jr. John Cassils, MD Lucy Darden* omas F. Darden John De Lapa, Chairman* Elmer Doty Claude Duthuit Danielle J. Feeney* James Goold, Secretary & General Counsel* Marc Grodman, MD Je Hakko R. Bowen Loftin, Ph.D. Rebecca Martin Greg Maslow, MD Alex G. Nason George Robb, Jr. Lynn Baird Shaw Jason Sturgis* Robert L. Walker,Ph.D.* Lew Ward Robyn Woodward, Ph.D., Vice-Chairman* Sally M. Yamini Kenan Yilmaz Associate Directors Raynette Boshell Allan Campbell, MD Stephen Chandler William C. Culp, MD Glenn Darden Nicholas Gris Robin P. Hartmann Faith Hentschel, Ph.D. Susan Katzev William C. Klein, MD George W. Lodge omas McCasland, Jr. Dana F. McGinnis Jerey Morris Michael Plank Terry Ray Anne Darden Self Betsey Boshell Todd Mary Tooze Ken Trethewey, Ph.D. Garry A. Weber Roger A. Williamson, MDNautical Archaeology Program Emeritus Faculty Texas A&M University George F. Bass, Ph.D. George T. & Gladys H. Abell Chair in Nautical Archaeology, Yamini Family Chair in Liberal Arts, Distinguished Professor, Emeritus Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr., Ph.D. Frederick R. Mayer Faculty Professor of Nautical Archaeology, EmeritusJ. Richard Stey Sara W. and George O. Yamini Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus Texas A&M University Graduate Fellows Mr. & Mrs. Ray H. Siegfried II Graduate Fellows: Lilia Campana, Megan Collier and Staci Willis Marian M. Cook Graduate Fellows: Chris Cartellone and Meko Kofahl Mary and Lamar Tooze Graduate Fellow: Ryan Lee Bilge Gnedog du Akman Miray Olcay Ata Mustafa Baback Mehmet iftlikli Zafer Gl Seil Kayack Glser Kazancog lu Orkan Kyaasog lu Nurgl Klah Sheila Matthews Muammer zdemir Adem irin Murat Tilev Aysel Tok Edith Trnka Sleyman Trel Gne Yaar Bodrum Research Center StaExecutive Committee Non-voting Board Deceased
www. INA discover .com 3 Dear Directors, Members, and Friends of INA, For most archaeologists both terrestrial and maritime summer is the busy season, but this has been an especially and unusually active winter for everyone here at INA! First I would like to thank everyone who attended the November meeting of the INA Board of Directors in Bermuda. Our thanks to Dr. Edward Harris, Director of the National Museum of Bermuda, who hosted a private tour of the museum grounds and their handsome new exhibits. From our base at the lovely Fairmont Hamilton Princess, we enjoyed the relaxed atmosphere and superb local cuisine of historic Hamilton. We are grateful that so many attendees were able to escape the wrath of Superstorm Sandy in order to join us for a congenial, productive weekend in Bermuda. As a result of the 2012 annual meeting, I am delighted to announce that INA has two new directors in Rebecca Martin of National Geographic's Expeditions Council and Lynn Baird Shaw, who continues the legacy of her father John Baird, a fiery, fervent supporter of INA and first Chairman of the INA Foundation. As a result of the annual meeting, funds have been allocated toward the improvement of the INA fleet and the expansion of the INA campus in Bodrum, Turkey. We attended terrific presentations summarizing ongoing work and detailing future INA projects in the Caribbean, the Mediterranean, the South Pacific, and the Indian Ocean. One of those projects is the excavation of an ancient shipwreck at Godavaya, Sri Lanka the oldest known shipwreck in the Indian Ocean which represents a collaboration of scholars, students, and researchers from three continents. The pivotal first season has just concluded and you can read all about the ups and downs in the project blog on the INA website. insideINA While INA archaeologists and Texas A&M University graduate students were working hard to get things off the ground in Southeast Asia, building contractors halfway around the world in College Station, Texas were finalizing the remodeling of the INA offices inside the Anthropology Building on the TAMU campus. In this issue of the INA Quarterly we are honored to showcase the experiences of three dynamic female members of the INA family INA Treasurer Robyn Woodward, INA Affiliated Scholar Elizabeth Greene, and INA Research Associate Laura Gongaware as they pertain to some of the Underwater Cultural Heritage issues that are central to our discipline and history at large. In this context I hope you enjoy the timely reprint of The Men Who Stole the Stars' another classic from INA founder George Bass. Also in this issue, Colin Martin and Wayne Smith document their own separate but similar efforts to reconstruct a decidedly personal element of maritime history the seafarers themselves. Finally, some of INA's many Project Directors provide an overview of their 2012 field seasons, with more information always available at www.inadiscover.com. While it is hard to believe that 2012 is already behind us, I urge you to consult the INA website for a complete list of upcoming 2013 field projects, as well as the newest in INA apparel, in and out of the field! Thank you for being part of INA!A Letter from the PresidentDeborah CarlsonINA President BELOWDebbie Carlson aboard Millawanda at the Kzlburun excavation site. For more information see and hear Debbie's National Geographic interview at nationalgeographic. com /explorers/bios/ deborah-carlson/ PHOTO Don Frey
FALL-WINTER 2012 VOLUME 39 Nos. 3 and 4 1ON THE COVER (Upper image) Michael Jones catalogs a YK 14 plank in the outdoor storage tanks at INA's Bodrum Research Center. See page 20. PHOTO R. Ingram(Lower) Measurements being taken from the submerged bridge structure on the Anaxum River. See page 15. PHOTO M. Capulli contentse Belitung ShipwreckINA's Treasurer Dr. Robyn Woodward on a question of ethics. PHOTO Creative CommonsUnderwater Cultural HeritageWhat is it and why does it matter?PHOTO Author Liz Greene at Pabu Burnu 22 The Institute of Nautical Archaeology T h e I n s t i t u t e o f N a u t i c a l A r c h a e o l o g y is a non-profit organization whose mission i s a n o n p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n w h o s e m i s s i o n is to continue the search for the history of i s t o c o n t i n u e t h e s e a r c h f o r t h e h i s t o r y o f civilization by fostering excellence in c i v i l i z a t i o n b y f o s t e r i n g e x c e l l e n c e i n underwater archaeology. u n d e r w a t e r a r c h a e o l o g y The INA Quarterly T h e I N A Q u a r t e r l y (ISSN 1090-2635) ( I S S N 1 0 9 0 2 6 3 5 ) is published by the i s p u b l i s h e d b y t h e Institute of Nautical Archaeology. I n s t i t u t e o f N a u t i c a l A r c h a e o l o g y Publication of P u b l i c a t i o n o f The INA Quarterly T h e I N A Q u a r t e r l y is made possible by a grant from the i s m a d e p o s s i b l e b y a g r a n t f r o m t h e Ed Rachal Foundation E d R a c h a l F o u n d a t i o n INA Quarterly Editor Deborah N. Carlson, D e b o r a h N C a r l s o n Ph.D. P h D Publication Design Sandy Robson & Po Wan S a n d y R o b s o n & P o W a n Blackberry Creative B l a c k b e r r y C r e a t i v e Printed by Newman Printers N e w m a n P r i n t e r s College Station, Texas C o l l e g e S t a t i o n T e x a s Institute of Nautical Archaeology P.O. Drawer HG P O D r a w e r H G College Station, Texas C o l l e g e S t a t i o n T e x a s 77841-5137 USA 7 7 8 4 1 5 1 3 7 U S A email e m a i l email@example.com i n f o @ i n a d i s c o v e r c o m phone p h o n e (979) 845-6694 ( 9 7 9 ) 8 4 5 6 6 9 4 fax f a x (979) 847-9260 ( 9 7 9 ) 8 4 7 9 2 6 0 www. w w w INAdiscov d i s c o v er e r .com c o m The opinions expressed in T h e o p i n i o n s e x p r e s s e d i n The INA T h e I N A Quarterly Q u a r t e r l y articles a r t i c l e s are those of the authors and do not necessarily a r e t h o s e o f t h e a u t h o r s a n d d o n o t n e c e s s a r i l y reflect the views of the Institute. r e f l e c t t h e v i e w s o f t h e I n s t i t u t e If you are interested in submitting an article for I f y o u a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n s u b m i t t i n g a n a r t i c l e f o r publication please contact the Editor at p u b l i c a t i o n p l e a s e c o n t a c t t h e E d i t o r a t firstname.lastname@example.org i n a e d i t o r @ i n a d i s c o v e r c o m December 2012 by the Institute of D e c e m b e r 2 0 1 2 b y t h e I n s t i t u t e o f Nautical Archaeology. All rights reserved. N a u t i c a l A r c h a e o l o g y A l l r i g h t s r e s e r v e d 4 6 13 18A cautionary tale originally written by Dr. George F. Bass for Sea History magazine. e Men Who Stole the StarsUpdates from INA Project Directors PHOTO John Albertson on the NOVY SVET PROJECTOur 2012 Projects INA inDepthAn interview with the BRC's zlem Do gan PHOTO T. Ekmeki 33 featuring
5www. INA discover.comINAnewsEvents Announcements UpdatesBELOW B E L O W The INA family poses while touring the National Museum of Bermuda. T h e I N A f a m i l y p o s e s w h i l e t o u r i n g t h e N a t i o n a l M u s e u m o f B e r m u d a RIGHT R I G H T (from top) ( f r o m t o p ) INA held their meetings at the Fairmont Hamilton Princess; participants watching the dolphins; I N A h e l d t h e i r m e e t i n g s a t t h e F a i r m o n t H a m i l t o n P r i n c e s s ; p a r t i c i p a n t s w a t c h i n g t h e d o l p h i n s ; Loren Steffy discusses his book with INA Director Danielle Feeney; Dr. Bass enjoyed finding himself quoted in the L o r e n S t e f f y d i s c u s s e s h i s b o o k w i t h I N A D i r e c t o r D a n i e l l e F e e n e y ; D r B a s s e n j o y e d f i n d i n g h i m s e l f qu o t e d i n t h e museum exhibit. m u s e u m e x h i b i t MEETINGBOARD of DIRECTORS'ANNUAL The Institute of Nautical Archaeology is governed by a Board of Directors, and T h e I n s t i t u t e o f N a u t i c a l A r c h a e o l o g y i s g o v e r n e d b y a B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s a n d their decisions chart a course for the future of the organization. There are several t h e i r d e c i s i o n s c h a r t a c o u r s e f o r t h e f u t u r e o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l committees that provide input and recommendations in areas such as nance, c o m m i t t e e s t h a t p r o v i d e i n p u t a n d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s i n a r e a s s u c h a s n a n c e communications and archaeological project selection. The men and women who c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a n d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p r o j e c t s e l e c t i o n T h e m e n a n d w o m e n w h o provide nancial support to this institute also donate their time and expertise to p r o v i d e n a n c i a l s u p p o r t t o t h i s i n s t i t u t e a l s o d o n a t e t h e i r t i m e a n d e x p e r t i s e t o guiding the organization, all of which is critical to the continued success of INA. g u i d i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l o f w h i c h i s c r i t i c a l t o t h e c o n t i n u e d s u c c e s s o f I N A In November, INA's directors, associate directors, ofcers & administrators, faculty I n N o v e m b e r I N A s d i r e c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d i r e c t o r s o f c e r s & a d m i n i s t r a t o r s f a c u l t y of the Nautical Archaeology Program (NAP) at Texas A&M University, research o f t h e N a u t i c a l A r c h a e o l o g y P r o g r a m ( N A P ) a t T e x a s A & M U n i v e r s i t y r e s e a r c h associates, and other colleagues convened for the 2012 Board of Directors' a s s o c i a t e s a n d o t h e r c o l l e a g u e s c o n v e n e d f o r t h e 2 0 1 2 B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s Meeting held in Bermuda. M e e t i n g h e l d i n B e r m u d a The three-day event featured a presentation by guest speaker Dr. Edward Harris, T h e t h r e e d a y e v e n t f e a t u r e d a p r e s e n t a t i o n b y g u e s t s p e a k e r D r E d w a r d H a r r i s Director of the National Museum of Bermuda, as well as updates from INA's eld D i r e c t o r o f t h e N a t i o n a l M u s e u m o f B e r m u d a a s w e l l a s u p d a t e s f r o m I N A s e l d projects in 2012, and a tour of the many displays and lovely grounds of the p r o j e c t s i n 2 0 1 2 a n d a t o u r o f t h e m a n y d i s p l a y s a n d l o v e l y g r o u n d s o f t h e National Museum of Bermuda. It was a wonderful opportunity to re-connect with N a t i o n a l M u s e u m o f B e r m u d a I t w a s a w o n d e r f u l o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e c o n n e c t w i t h friends and supporters of INA, and to celebrate the many accomplishments of the f r i e n d s a n d s u p p o r t e r s o f I N A a n d t o c e l e b r a t e t h e m a n y a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s o f t h e organization this year, while also enjoying the warm weather and blue skies of o r g a n i z a t i o n t h i s y e a r w h i l e a l s o e n j o y i n g t h e w a r m w e a t h e r a n d b l u e s k i e s o f Bermuda. B e r m u d a 2012
6INA Quarterly VOLUME 39 Nos. 3 & 4 Danielle J. Feeney was born in Algeria of French parents. Her family moved to Paris after World War II when her father, a psychiatrist, opened a practice there. Danielle studied Psychology at the Sorbonne and the Psychology Institute of Paris, while working in her father's office and tutoring students in Math and English. She married, raised 5 children, and has 13 grandchildren. Danielle has lived in several countries including Switzerland, the United States, Hong Kong, and Bermuda and today lives in London. She has been a longtime supporter of INA.Danielle reflects upon her experience as a member of the INA family...I became involved with INA in the summer of 1988 on my first trip to Turkey. At the time I knew nothing of underwater archaeology, but a visit to the Uluburun excavation site gave me the opportunity to become acquainted with this new field of science, and attracted me right away to this adventure that was INA. I met Cemal Pulak and Don Frey during that first visit, and when Cemal put around my neck the gold medallion found that same day on the wreck, I became captivated by this group of young men and women working under water. When Don visited me in Paris the following winter and asked me to be a member of the board, I didn't hesitate, and since then I have been an ardent admirer and active supporter of INA as an Executive Committee Member. In the years that followed, I spent some time in Bodrum every summer, visiting Uluburun and working at the lab in the castle, cleaning amphorae and putting together glass artifacts found on the site of Sere Liman. In 1995, the beautiful stone building that would become INA's headquarters in the Mediterranean was completed, and I was proud to have been chosen to cut the ribbon at the opening ceremony. Bodrum became INA's main center in Turkey, a meeting place for students, directors and visitors in the summer, and a place to live for young archaeologists who were diving on the sites. The site would eventually include an important library, and laboratories, and without taking away from its accomplishment in other parts of the world, the Bodrum Center stands as the pride of INA and represents a high standard in research, conservation and publication, and established INA as the "premier" center of world-class maritime studies. INA's potential is constantly growing through the expanding pool of nautical archaeology students joining INA, and as regions that were once politically closed to us, such as Bulgaria, Albania, the Black Sea and North Africa, begin to open up their ports, there will be more possibilities for exploration, and for discovering interesting shipwrecks. It is wonderful and rewarding to be associated with INA, an ever enriching and fulfilling experience, and I consider myself so lucky to have been able to live on several excavation sites, to work in the lab, and to learn about ancient maritime history and shipbuilding. I will be forever grateful to George Bass and to all my old friend archaeologists for opening up this new world to me. As George Bass has always said, "excavating is only the first step; the true archaeologist goes on to conserve, study and publish" and INA is certainly the best at doing that. ABOVEINA Director Danielle Feeney (center) with Faith Hentschel (left) and Tba Ekmeki. (2011)PHOTO J. Littlefield Touring the conservation lab with BRC Director, Tba Ekmeki.PHOTO INA ARCHIVES (2010) Danielle cuts the ribbon at the opening ceremony for INA's Bodrum Research Center as Dr. George F. Bass looks on.PHOTO INA ARCHIVES (1995)DIRECTORprofile
www. INA discover.com7INAin depth zlem at work in the BRC office. Describe your first contact with INA. D e s c r i b e y o u r f i r s t c o n t a c t w i t h I N A When I accepted the position with INA in W h e n I a c c e p t e d t h e p o s i t i o n w i t h I N A i n 2004 I had no real idea of the history of 2 0 0 4 I h a d n o r e a l i d e a o f t h e h i s t o r y o f the organization, but three or four months t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n b u t t h r e e o r f o u r m o n t h s after I began work here I met Claude a f t e r I b e g a n w o r k h e r e I m e t C l a u d e Duthuit and George Bass. Despite being D u t h u i t a n d G e o r g e B a s s D e s p i t e b e i n g "seniors" they were both so energetic and s e n i o r s t h e y w e r e b o t h s o e n e r g e t i c a n d full of life. They showed me their B&W f u l l o f l i f e T h e y s h o w e d m e t h e i r B & W photos of Bodrum and various early p h o t o s o f B o d r u m a n d v a r i o u s e a r l y projects from the 1960s... it was fascinat p r o j e c t s f r o m t h e 1 9 6 0 s . i t w a s f a s c i n a t ing! And when I learned that George Bass i n g A n d w h e n I l e a r n e d t h a t G e o r g e B a s s is considered the Father of Underwater i s c o n s i d e r e d t h e F a t h e r o f U n d e r w a t e r Archaeology I thought, "I am in the right A r c h a e o l o g y I t h o u g h t I a m i n t h e r i g h t place." I enjoy history, and grew up p l a c e I e n j o y h i s t o r y a n d g r e w u p watching those Jacques Cousteau docu w a t c h i n g t h o s e J a c q u e s C o u s t e a u d o c u mentaries of the underwater world, and m e n t a r i e s o f t h e u n d e r w a t e r w o r l d a n d now, unbelievably, I am at the center of n o w u n b e l i e v a b l y I a m a t t h e c e n t e r o f this in Turkey! t h i s i n T u r k e y What are your daily responsibilities? W h a t a r e y o u r d a i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ? My work at INA-BRC includes providing M y w o r k a t I N A B R C i n c l u d e s p r o v i d i n g accounting services for INA's operations a c c o u n t i n g s e r v i c e s f o r I N A s o p e r a t i o n s in the region, establishing the annual i n t h e r e g i o n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e a n n u a l budget and monitoring expenditures, b u d g e t a n d m o n i t o r i n g e x p e n d i t u r e s administering various systems (payroll, a d m i n i s t e r i n g v a r i o u s s y s t e m s ( p a y r o l l taxes, and social security), human t a x e s a n d s o c i a l s e c u r i t y ) h u m a n resources duties, purchasing, and generat r e s o u r c e s d u t i e s p u r c h a s i n g a n d g e n e r a t ing monthly reports about all of INA's i n g m o n t h l y r e p o r t s a b o u t a l l o f I N A s activities throughout the year. My work a c t i v i t i e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r M y w o r k often extends beyond finances, and I o f t e n e x t e n d s b e y o n d f i n a n c e s a n d I spend a great deal of time also ensuring s p e n d a g r e a t d e a l o f t i m e a l s o e n s u r i n g that information critical to the organiza t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n c r i t i c a l t o t h e o r g a n i z a tion and its many projects is filed and t i o n a n d i t s m a n y p r o j e c t s i s f i l e d a n d archived correctly. a r c h i v e d c o r r e c t l y What are the challenges you face? W h a t a r e t h e c h a l l e n g e s y o u f a c e ? Well, I am the person who is always W e l l I a m t h e p e r s o n w h o i s a l w a y s reminding everyone about money, so r e m i n d i n g e v e r y o n e a b o u t m o n e y s o sometimes I feel like that makes me the s o m e t i m e s I f e e l l i k e t h a t m a k e s m e t h e bad guy... nobody wants to hear "sorry b a d g u y . n o b o d y w a n t s t o h e a r s o r r y but that's not in the budget!" Since 19 b u t t h a t s n o t i n t h e b u d g e t S i n c e 1 9 people work here in many capacities, it is p e o p l e w o r k h e r e i n m a n y c a p a c i t i e s i t i s really important to work as a team. r e a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o w o r k a s a t e a m zlem Dog an began working for INA as an executive secretary & accountant in 2004, and since 2008 has served the organization as Finance Manager, working closely with colleague Tuba Ekmeki, Director of the Bodrum Research Center. Sometimes my work is like being in a S o m e t i m e s m y w o r k i s l i k e b e i n g i n a restaurant kitchen and I am in charge of r e s t a u r a n t k i t c h e n a n d I a m i n c h a r g e o f the ingredients: everyone enjoys the meal, t h e i n g r e d i e n t s : e v e r y o n e e n j o y s t h e m e a l but they do not neccesarily know what it b u t t h e y d o n o t n e c c e s a r i l y k n o w w h a t i t took to make it taste so delicious. t o o k t o m a k e i t t a s t e s o d e l i c i o u s Your favorite moments so far? Y o u r f a v o r i t e m o m e n t s s o f a r ? Being descended from many generations of B e i n g d e s c e n d e d f r o m m a n y g e n e r a t i o n s o f Bodrumites, I know what Bodrum was like B o d r u m i t e s I k n o w w h a t B o d r u m w a s l i k e years ago. Every summer when Fred Van y e a r s a g o E v e r y s u m m e r w h e n F r e d V a n Doorninck & B.J. would come to Bodrum, D o o r n i n c k & B J w o u l d c o m e t o B o d r u m we would talk about the old times, and I w e w o u l d t a l k a b o u t t h e o l d t i m e s a n d I miss that very much. Interestingly, when I m i s s t h a t v e r y m u c h I n t e r e s t i n g l y w h e n I used to visit museums with my friends I u s e d t o v i s i t m u s e u m s w i t h m y f r i e n d s I would say that "if the artifacts & amphoras w o u l d s a y t h a t i f t h e a r t i f a c t s & a m p h o r a s could speak they would tell us a long c o u l d s p e a k t h e y w o u l d t e l l u s a l o n g story." Now, I get to hear these stories s t o r y N o w I g e t t o h e a r t h e s e s t o r i e s from the artifacts themselves at the f r o m t h e a r t i f a c t s t h e m s e l v e s a t t h e BRC every day. B R C e v e r y d a y My grateful thanks to my friends here at M y g r a t e f u l t h a n k s t o m y f r i e n d s h e r e a t INA from the gardening and custodial I N A f r o m t h e g a r d e n i n g a n d c u s t o d i a l staff to the conservators and everyone else s t a f f t o t h e c o n s e r v a t o r s a n d e v e r y o n e e l s e who makes up the team in Bodrum. w h o m a k e s u p t h e t e a m i n B o d r u m
8INA Quarterly VOLUME 39 Nos. 3 & 4 According to its mission statement, the Institute of Nautical Archaeology "conducts archaeological research to increase knowledge of the evolution of civilization through the location and excavation of submerged and buried ships, submerged ruins, and their associated artifacts." INA's guiding principles "are based on scholarship and an equal regard for every aspect of a project, from excavation of the site and the conservation and preservation of artifacts, to the publication of research and the distribution of the knowledge gained." An organization devoted to the archaeology of shipwrecks and other maritime sites, INA seeks answers about the maritime past from the scientific exploration of underwater cultural heritage. But what is underwater cultural heritage and why does it matter? Asked to provide an overview for this issue of The INA Quarterly devoted to current themes of underwater cultural heritage (UCH), I begin with the legal definition of the topic, as set out by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and other national and international organizations and instruments, then move on to what I see as a larger meaning of UCH that goes beyond the basic requirements of location, age, and national ownership that tend to characterize definitions of heritage in the legal terminology. The most pertinent definition of UCH comes from the 2001 UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage. Article 1.1(a) offers a clear statement: 1.(a) Underwater cultural heritage means all traces of human existence having a cultural, historical or archaeological character which have been partially or totally under water, periodically or continuously, for at least 100 years such as: (i) sites, structures, buildings, artefacts and human remains, together with their archaeological and natural context; (ii) vessels, aircraft, other vehicles or any part thereof, their cargo or other contents, together with their archaeological and natural context; and (iii) objects of prehistoric character. With its focus on "traces of human existence with a cultural, historical, or archaeological character more than 100 years in age," the nature of submerged cultural heritage here is not far off from the definitions provided in multiple other conventions and acts that address "terrestrial" cultural heritage and property broadly. These include, but are by no means limited to the following: 1. The 1995 International Institute for the Unification of Private Law (UNIDROIT) Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects, defines cultural objects as "those which, on religious or secular grounds, are of importance for archaeology, prehistory, history, literature, art or science (Article 2). 2. The 1990 Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), defines cultural items as human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, and objects of cultural patrimony, having ongoing historical, traditional, or cultural importance central to the Native American group or culture itself" (Section 2.3). 3. The 1970 UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export, and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property describes "property which, on religious or secular grounds, is specifically designated by each State as being important for archaeology, prehistory, history, literature, art, or science" and belongs to a series of categories ranging from flora and fauna, to archaeological sites and monuments, to ethnographic items, art, and antiquities more than 100 years old (Article 1). 4. The 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict describes "movable or immovable property of great importance to the cultural heritage of every people" (Article 1a).and Why Does It Matter?Underwater Cultural HeritageWhat isElizabeth S. GreeneBrock UniversityINA Affiliated Scholar
www. INA discover.com9Each of these definitions shares a similar concept of heritage or protected property as viewed through its cultural, historical, or archaeological importance. Not surprisingly, age often forms an integral part of the definition, especially the magical century mark. Location is the second critical element in the definition. UNIDROIT, the 1970 UNESCO Convention, and the Hague Convention define ownership of cultural property based on the nation state in which it is located; NAGPRA focuses on cultural affiliation of Native American nations, geographic proximity, and demonstrated relationship to the property in question. For the most part, the 2001 UNESCO Convention and the principles set out in the 1996 Charter of the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) follow a similar framework in defining cultural heritage, but the "U" in UCH distinguishes this particular heritage from its counterpart on dry land. Is the definition of UCH fundamentally different from that of other cultural heritage? On a basic level, the fluidity and movement inherent to sailing and seafaring problematize any meaningful characterization from a legal jurisdictional standpoint of location, especially when UCH lies outside national boundaries. Ships and seafarers imperceptibly cross boundaries that we may think of as very real in a cartographic sense, making a definition difficult with such locational terms alone. As the material manifestation of complex sociocultural interaction between nations and peoples, communities and individuals, UCH is, on some levels, a moving target for definition through legal vocabulary; it requires an awareness of the complexity that contributed to its formation. While the maritime boundaries of modern nation states provide the obvious and necessary framework for oversight of UCH, they fit uneasily with the shifting political spheres and cultural fluidity that are characteristic of the sea. Individual components of a ship's cargo might have originated in locales that are today occupied by multiple modern states; the vessel's construction technology might belong to another cultural tradition entirely; and its present location might make it subject to overlapping claims from different states. Consider the Late Bronze Age shipwreck at Uluburun, excavated by INA between 1984 and 1994. The discovery of the site off the coast of Turkey defines its modern ownership. It carried a cargo of goods from lands today belonging to Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Egypt, and possibly others as well. Any of these countries might claim a cultural connection to the wreck had it been discovered outside Territorial waters. Its cargo of copper ingots and ceramic storage containers far overshadows in tonnage individual items of jewelry and religious significance, and the scant remains of the ship itself. And yet each itema unique marker of bulk trade and shipboard culturecontributes to a picture of the economic mechanisms in the Bronze Age eastern Mediterranean. The ninth-century C.E. Belitung wreck, discovered in 1998 off the coast of Indonesia with its massive cargo of Tang dynasty fine ware pottery, represents what may be a vessel constructed in building techniques reminiscent of Arab or Indian traditions. With proper study, the vast cargo assemblage of pottery could reveal evidence for the development of Chinese economic production. Detailed analysis of the shipboard and personal items, hull remains and their context could shed light on mechanisms of trade between China and the Indian Ocean. The wreck could help reveal the organization and role of new manufacturing enterprises and export trade for an economically powerful Chinese dynasty of the late first millennium. The situation obviously echoes that of China in the world economy today, and presents us with just one of the many examples of how the human past can not only reflect but also help inform the present. A key difference between these two wreck sites, however, lies in their scientific treatment, or lack thereof. Originally discovered by local sponge divers, the Uluburun wreck was excavated over an 11-year period by an international team of archaeologists under the direction of George Bass and Cemal Pulak with the permission and oversight of the Ministry of Culture of Turkey. Conservation Liz examining a mooring stone from Knidos.
and study of the collection continues today in the Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology; accounts of the research and its implications have been published in scholarly journals and popular venues. In the case of the Belitung site, that ship has sailed, metaphorically speaking. The wreck was initially discovered by sea cucumber divers, and its location sold to a commercial salvage company, Seabed Explorations, which obtained permission from the Indonesian government to recover the materials. In the first two-month season of the project, Seabed raised approximately two thirds of the ceramics from the site; no archaeological mapping of items from this stage of work has been published, nor was an archaeologist involved in the project. Only in the following year was an archaeologist brought in to study the construction of the ship's hull and the remaining cargo and shipboard objects. At no stage did the project integrate Indonesian archaeologists and heritage managers. After conservation, the majority of the collection was bought in 2005 for approximately $32 million with funds from the estate of philanthropist Tan Sri Koo Teck Puat and the Sentosa Leisure Group, a statutory entity subject to the direction of the Singapore Ministry of Trade and Industry. The artifacts were displayed in 2011 at the ArtScience Museum in Singapore, and are now visible in the Marine Experiential Museum, both located in private resort complexes. Future return to the site may help local archaeologists evaluate what information was lost by the rapid salvage. Despite these significant differences in excavation, study, and display, each cargo holds a value beyond a monetary one, a value tied to its role as a window into not only ancient cultural interaction, but also modern identity and the very real connections between past and present. But that intangible value changes depending on the circumstances of intervention on sites and the motivations that drive the recovery of cultural remains. With responsible survey and excavation, UCH holds the potential to provide meaningful answers to questions about trade and economics, seafaring patterns, shipboard life, cargo assemblages, and nautical technology. Artifacts of trade, such as coins, raw materials, or bulk shipments of ceramics, reflect items that, upon arrival at an intended destination, probably would have been dispersed and consumed. More than the simple contents of a time capsule, these items take on individual and particularized meaning in the cultural context of shipboard transport. The context of the objects naturally directs our attention toward questions of cultural interaction on the sea, yet the nature of the inquiry is fundamentally identical to what any archaeologist asks of any cultural heritage, on land or under water. UCH is, of course, not limited to shipwrecks, though shipwrecks tend to feature prominently in discussions of preservation and are the focus of many INA projects. We must understand UCH as including the remains of anchorages, harbors, submerged terrestrial sites, and other markers of human interaction within the broader maritime cultural landscape. In light of present threats to UCH from multiple directions, decisions must be made as to what is most important to save, and how to save the greatest breadth of culturally significant heritage. Judging the "cultural, historical or archaeological character" of submerged material remainsto use UNESCO's terminologysituates the archaeological and heritage management community squarely in the middle. Archaeologists must be responsible from the outset for identifying what counts as culture, what holds interpretative value, and what should be defined as UCH. Included in the legal constructs for UCH protection, an explicit mandate in the 2001 Convention sets private profit-driven activity at odds with basic principles designed to protect cultural heritage: Article 2.7 and Annex Rule 2 state that "underwater cultural heritage shall not be commercially exploited." Salvage companies have suggested that What Is Underwater Cultural Heritage and Why Does It Matter?
www. INA discover.com11shipwrecks should be recovered by for-profit companies because they have expertise and finances that traditional academic archaeologists and many governments lack. Such sentiments are unfortunately typical of a neocolonialism where those people or nations with poweror in this case the money and high-tech toolsexploit the heritage of those without. Simply put, a concern for individual financial gain trumps cultural meaning. As such, these approaches are fundamentally at odds not only with the 2001 Convention, but with more progressive and collaborative research and preservation agendas that lie at the core of best practices in archaeology and heritage management. Even in the absence of formal ratification by all statesat present the United States has not become a signatorythe 2001 Convention's premises and Annex rules provide a useful ethical framework for underwater archaeological research, regardless of location in territorial or extra-territorial waters, and regardless of whether the Convention is specifically in force in that country or the research state. Moreover, the study and preservation of UCH must be directed by archaeologists and cultural heritage professionals. Collaborative work, connecting professional archaeologists with other professional researchers, creates a strong program for the discovery of new information about the past by providing access to new technologies and methodologies. But these new approaches must keep the ideology and definition of UCH at the forefront. When we consider the spectacular shipwrecks recently discovered by archaeologists and salvors in the deep international seas or those located in countries that do not fully protect the heritage in their own territorial waters, we tend to turn quickly to legal frameworks for exploitation and protection visible in the Law of the Sea Convention (1982) and the basic tenets of salvage law. But as we think about the mechanisms in place to protect UCH, we should consider not just the letter of the lawthe global position or flag of ships and other cultural remains underwater in association with the calendar date on which they sankbut the ideals or spirit behind legislation designed to protect and preserve cultural heritage on land and under water for its role in preserving human identity: past, present, and future. Suggested readings Greene, E.S., J. Leidwanger, R. Leventhal, and B. Daniels. 2011. "Mare Nostrum? Ethics and Archaeology in Mediterranean Waters." American Journal of Archaeology 115:311-19 Grenier, R., D. Nutley, and I. Cochran, eds. 2006. Underwater Cultural Heritage at Risk: Managing Natural and Human Impacts. ICOMOS Heritage at Risk Special Edition. Gurin, U. and B. Egger, eds. 2011. UNESCO Manual for Activities Directed at Underwater Cultural Heritage. UNESCO, Paris. Available online at: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/culture/themes/underwatercultural-heritage/unescomanual-for-activities-directed-at-underwater-culturalheritage/unesco-manual/ Kingsley, S. 2011. "Challenges of Maritime Archaeology: In Too Deep." In A Companion to Cultural Resource Management Edited by T.F. King, 223-44. Malden, MA. Maarleveld, T.J. 2011. "Ethics, Underwater Cultural Heritage, and International Law." In The Oxford Handbook of Maritime Archaeology Edited by A. Catsambis, B. Ford, and D. L. Hamilton, 917-41. Oxford. A graduate of Texas A&M University's Nautical Archaeology Program, Elizabeth Greene (in photo at left during the Pabu Burnu site excavation) is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Classics at Brock University in St. Catharines, Ontario and a specialist in the maritime economy of the Archaic eastern Mediterranean. Greene holds a Ph.D. in Classics from Princeton University. Liz has been involved in many INA projects including those at Pabu Burnu and Tekta s Burnu (Turkey), Butrint (Albania) and Kekova Adas (Turkey). Her interest in the Mediterranean maritime environment extends to legal and ethical issues associated with the excavation and preservation of underwater cultural heritage.
12process culminated in the development of Brazil's first federal legislation concerning underwater cultural resources in 1986, regulating the exploration of shipwreck sites and the removal of artifacts from waters under national jurisdiction. The law stated that artifacts of artistic, historic or archaeological interest were the exclusive property of the State, and therefore not subject to appropriation, transfer, or of being fixed as payment to the explorer, which providentially ended the 80/20 split that had once been the incentive for these operations. However, fourteen years later in 2000, yielding to lobbying pressure within the Brazilian Congress, a new federal law was enacted which set back the spirit of the 1986 legal directive by permitting the commercialization of up to 40% of artifacts excavated from shipwreck sites in Brazil. Though this law still stands, new legislation has been drafted with the cooperation of the Brazilian Navy, the Ministry of Culture, and the Brazilian Archaeological Society, and is currently under consideration by the congress. In the meantime, new directives have been discussed between the Ministry of Culture and the Brazilian Navy, and these have established shared responsibilities to authorize and supervise explorations of underwater sites. In practice this means that the authorization of new salvaging permits within Brazil has been halted for the time being. Heritage preservation in a vast and rapidly developing country such as Brazil is not an easy task. In the future, Brazil faces the challenge of balancing modernization with the preservation of a rich and complex historical past. INA-supported projects in Brazil (see facing page) have the potential to create greater awareness of the importance of rigorous archaeological investigation for the protection of our common underwater cultural heritage, as well as providing opportunities for specialized studies in nautical and maritime archaeology. Through cooperation and exchange, these INA projects build capacity and develop human resources for underwater archaeology and conservation within Brazil.INA Quarterly VOLUME 39 Nos. 3 & 4 Rodrigo de Oliveira TorresNAP/Texas A&M UniversityABOVERare Dutch gold coins suspected of being exported from Brazil illegally. Rodrigo Torres examining artifacts. Suggested Readings Rambelli, Gilson. 2008. "Safeguarding the Underwater Cultural Heritage of Brazil: Legal Protection and Public Archaeology." Museum International 240 Vol. 60, No. 4. UNESCO Publishing and Blackwell Publishing. Torres, Rodrigo & Castro, Filipe. 2012. The Utrecht Shipwreck Research Effort Preliminary Report and Catalogue. Mutual Heritage Program RCE, Netherlands and Nautical Archaeology Program, Texas A&M University, College Station, USA. Brazil is the world's fifth largest country. It is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean along a 5,500 mile coastline, and crisscrossed by an extensive river network. Brazil's waterways have been a major contributing factor to the growth and development of the region since the 16th century, setting the stage for thousands of shipwrecks, and a wealth of submerged cultural heritage. The path to preservation for these cultural resources has been a long one, through often troubled waters. A lack of specific legislation for the protection of underwater sites made Brazil an easy target for international treasure hunters and their lobbyists during the 1970s and 80s. In other countries these activities had been curtailed by the development of legal instruments of protection, as well as by the advent of underwater archaeology as a respected scientific discipline. Opportunistic exploration' companies working with Brazilian counterparts, operated under contracts established with the Brazilian Navy, which authorized treasure hunters to survey and recover objects of historical value found in specific areas on the seabed. Following precedents established by colonial mining laws, the artifacts resulting from these operations were divided 80/20, with the majority going to the salvors, after the Brazilian Navy had selected the artifacts they considered to be of outstanding historical and nautical value for collections in the navy museums of Rio de Janeiro and Bahia. These exploration' companies operated fairly freely, salvaging a number of shipwrecks from the colonial period. That would change in May 1983, however, when news of an auction of shipwreck artifacts held by Christie's (Amsterdam) raised the fear that valuable artifacts were being smuggled out the country. A set of exceedingly rare Dutch golden coinsminted in Brazil in 1645 and 1646, and presumably recovered from the Utrecht wreck sitewere sold by the auction house and were suspected of having been exported illegally. In response, the Brazilian Navy admiralty suspended all new contracts and began a criminal investigation. Following this incident Brazil began working on specific legislation to regulate and protect the country's underwater cultural heritage. This Brazil's Future:The Path & Potential for Underwater Cultural Heritage
www. INA discover.com13Colonial Shipwrecks of BrazilDuring a recent field season in Brazil,I travelled approximately 500 km along the shoreline, with a small team of archaeologists from a local university, to document wreck sites, taking measurements, capturing images, and assessing the general state of preservation. Previously unrecorded wreck features were identified and entered into our database; however, as we were unable to relocate a previously known wreck site, the state of preservation of shipwrecks in this province warrants concern. Since the beginning of this project in 2001, degradation of the monitored sites due to environmental and human factors is visible. These human factors include deliberate vandalism, the reuse of timbers for fire and hut building, extensive cattle grazing, and year round vehicular traffic. Of all the environmental effects, the most noticeable is the net erosion of the beach profile, something that has been recorded all along the southern Brazilian shoreline, and attributed to a rising sea level Rodrigo de Oliveira Torres NAP/TAMUbrought about by climatic changes. A comprehensive report on the observed degradation of the shipwreck sites has been sent to Brazilian authorities in hopes of establishing a management program for this important cultural resource. Though extensively disturbed after nearly 30 years of official and unofficial interventions, even the heavily looted shipwreck sites can still yield enormous amounts of information if properly studied. In 2011, researchers from the Ship Reconstruction Laboratory of the Nautical Archaeology Program at Texas A&M University began a joint project with researchers from Brazil and other international institutions to document previously salvaged shipwreck sites from the colonial period in Brazil and assess their significance. Some of the wrecks in which we are most interested are the Dutch galleon Utrecht (1648), the Portuguese frigate Nossa Senhora do Rosrio (1648), the galleon So Paulo (1652), the galleon Sacramento (1668), the frigate Santa Escolstica (1701) and the India nau Nossa Senhora do Rosrio e Santo Andr (1737). The project's recent efforts have involved building a shipwreck database for the region, reconstructing the chronology and scope of any salvage events, studying related publications, site plans, photos, videos and surviving artifact collections produced during those events, and reviewing the history and nautical context of each ship. Next steps will focus on in situ assessments and the potential for future field seasons. in BRAZIL
INA Quarterly SPRING 2010 14INA Quarterly VOLUME 39 Nos. 3 & 4 Lilia Campana INA Research Associate, NAP/TAMUThe Bermuda Sloop ProjectIn the 17th and 18th centuries, Bermuda-built sloops became one of the most popular and sought after vessels in the western Atlantic. Although generally small, they were fast and weatherly. Thousands of Bermuda sloops served merchants, fishermen, privateers, buccaneers and the Royal Navy. While they were most commonly utilized on established trade routes between Bermuda and North American colonies, in the Caribbean, the Bahamas and the West Indies, we know from historical records that Bermuda sloops ranged far from the western Atlantic. They were regularly sailed transAtlantic from Bermuda and North America to ports in England, the Canadian Maritime Provinces, slaver stations on the West African coast, and into both the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean. In spite of their numbers and impact on the maritime activities of the period, our knowledge of their design and construction characteristics is limited. Our most revealing sources of information come from historical references to their qualities and performance, paintings and illustrations, and the documentation of one Bermuda sloop by Swedish naval architect Fredrik Chapman. To date, the fragmentary remains of Hunter Galley a Bermuda sloop lost off the west end of Bermuda in 1752, represent the only archaeologically documented remains of the vessel type. Clearly, the most comprehensive source of specific design and construction information would be generated by the archaeological investigation of the remains of additional lost Bermuda sloops. For over a decade the North Carolina-based Institute for International Maritime Research (I2MR) has collected data on Bermuda sloops and their losses. One of the most exciting references is to the mid 18th-century loss of a Bermuda sloop in the Albemarle Sound region of North Carolina. That vessel was blown aground in a storm and sank into sandbank sediments so quickly that salvage proved impossible. Cartographical research has provided possible clues as to the location of the lost sloop. In the eastern end of the Albemarle Sound, now known as Kitty Hawk Bay, historical charts identified a long inundated "Bermuda Island," while contemporary charts and topographical maps identify this area as a "sloop marsh," or "sloop island" marsh. With financial assistance from INA, volunteers associated with I2MR initiated a remote-sensing survey designed to determine if these cartographical clues are indeed related to the lost Bermuda sloop. An investigation of the aforementioned area was initiated by Dr. Gordon Watts, Dr. John Broadwater and Mr. Joshua Daniel during the summer of 2012. However, the elements proved to be decidedly uncooperative. Future plans call for a resumption of the remote sensing during late autumn 2012, when the prevailing weather patterns should bring more favorable winds from the north and northeast. INA in BERMUDA ITALY TURKEY This past summer I spent more than three months researching in various European libraries and archives, and this was particularly productive for me, as I discovered an impressive number of unpublished manuscripts. The documents I uncovered will add much information to my dissertation, which focuses on Vettor Fausto (1490-1546), a Venetian humanist and naval architect who gained a place of honor among Renaissance inventors for the contruction of his "quinquereme," which later evolved into the galleass. Among these newly identified documents, the most intriguing is a 16th-century manuscript that records the shipbuilding instructions for several types of ships, including light and great galleys, and galleasses. But the most exciting discovery from this research season is a new document recording in detail the life, literary works, and ships built by Vettor Fausto. This document is of paramount significance for my dissertation as it discloses unprecedented information that traces Fausto's achievements both as a humanist and a naval architect. Since 2006, I have spent every summer researching archival documents for my dissertation, and I owe a debt of gratitude to the NAP faculty, in particular to Cemal Pulak, my Ph.D. advisor and mentor, who has been unwavering in his support for my project, and also provided me with excellent professional opportunities. My special thanks go to INA directors for their kind and generous support, and in particular to Gregory and Laurie Maslow, and Robyn Woodward.The Immortal FaustoGordon Watts Tidewater Atlantic Research, Inc. ABOVE (from top)Drawing from an engraving of Bermuda Sloop, 1740 in Chapman's Architectura Navalis Mercatoria Plate LVII, No. 15 Bermuda Sloop Project Director and INA Affiliated Scholar, Dr. Gordon Watts at the helm. INA Affiliated Scholar, Dr. John Broadwater (Tidewater Atlantic Research) launching the magnetometer.
www. INA discover.com17The Gnalic shipwreck is a little over three nautical miles distant from Biograd na moru, Croatia, on the Dalmatian coast. Previous archaeological investigations exposed the remains of a large ship dating to the late 16th century. Artifacts excavated at the time include a rich assortment of items and materials including: glass vessels and mirrors, brass chandeliers, shaving razors, and candle snuffers. One of the most interesting and rare finds was a collection of spectacles packed in little wooden boxes. Determining the provenience and destination of all these items will shed light on the nature of commerce routes in the central Mediterranean world of the late 16th century. The ships hull, partially preserved under the sediment, is for some the most interesting component of this site. The ships of the late 16th-century Mediterranean are largely unknown, and we believe that detailed study of these hull remains could significantly advance knowledge of this eras shipbuilding techniques and practices. The current condition of the wreck site was ascertained through an abbreviated diving and excavation season, using the most current site plan availablefrom a 1996 excavationto plan a cross-sectional trench across the ships hull. A 14 x 2 m aluminum grid was placed over the area to be excavated. The neighboring area was protected with a layer of geotextile cloth on each side, and the excavation was performed with four water dredges. Excavation has confirmed that the preservation of the hull is remarkable, and that numerous artifacts remain on the bottom. Artifacts recovered for conservation this season include barrel staves, lead carbonate cones, hundreds of glass fragments, glas s beads, and brass pieces of chandeliers. Photogrammetric mapping of exposed hull sections recorded massive wooden beams and planks that will require additional study in future excavation seasons to develop a complete picture of the ships size and construction, as well as its cargo. The 2012 exploratory dive season demonstrated that the Gnalic wrecks condition supports continued excavation, and that the hull holds great potential to provide unique insight into 16th-century merchant ship construction. Parallel archival research, by Mauro Bondioli and Mariangela Nicolardi in the Venetian archives, is turning up numerous interconnections associated with the ship and its cargo. The ship was possibly owned by a family originating from the glorious Maritime Republic of Dubrovnik, for centuries a well known Venetian rival, and some of the cargo items appear to have been ordered by a Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Considering the quantity, state of preservation and diversity of the finds, the Gnalic shipwreck appears to be a truly exceptional window into early Renaissance ship construction and trade networks. Future study of this wreck has the potential to fill in some of the currently missing pieces in our understanding of Mediterranean maritime culture and international trade from an important period in world history. The University of Zadar continues to emphasize the importance of nautical archaeology studies in the Eastern Adriatic region as a crucial window into Croatian and Mediterranean maritime heritage, and the Institute of Nautical Archaeology has strongly supported international collaboration whenever important wrecks are identified, to benefit all of the associated institutions while producing valuable results. The Gnalic Shipwreck: New Excavation, New InsightsDr. Irena Radi Rossi, Assistant Professor, University of Zadar, Department of ArchaeologyDavid Ruff, NAP/TAMU ABOVE (L to R) Irena Radi Rossi, excavation leader, and Peter Fix, Texas A&M conservator, study a wooden fragment retrieved from the wreck site. PHOTO Sebastijan Govorc in Olivier Bianchimani photographing squares A and B. PHOTO Marino Brzac
In 1979, I n 1 9 7 9 Peter Stanford, P e t e r S t a n f o r d editor of e d i t o r o f Sea History S e a H i s t o r y Magazine, M a g a z i n e asked a s k e d George Bass if he G e o r g e B a s s i f h e would write an article w o u l d w r i t e a n a r t i c l e on the difference o n t h e d i f f e r e n c e between archaeology b e t w e e n a r c h a e o l o g y and treasure hunting. a n d t r e a s u r e h u n t i n g Bass began a letter in B a s s b e g a n a l e t t e r i n response, but some r e s p o n s e b u t s o m e where in the middle w h e r e i n t h e m i d d l e began to turn the letter b e g a n t o t u r n t h e l e t t e r into a short story to i n t o a s h o r t s t o r y t o make his point. m a k e h i s p o i n t Since its first appear S i n c e i t s f i r s t a p p e a r ance in a n c e i n Sea History S e a H i s t o r y , this part of his letter t h i s p a r t o f h i s l e t t e r has been published in h a s b e e n p u b l i s h e d i n several other American s e v e r a l o t h e r A m e r i c a n and Dutch magazines as a n d D u t c h m a g a z i n e s a s "The Men Who Stole T h e M e n W h o S t o l e the Stars." t h e S t a r s 18INA Quarterly VOLUME 39 Nos. 3 & 4 When I looked into the sky that night, I thought W h e n I l o o k e d i n t o t h e s k y t h a t n i g h t I t h o u g h t at first that a cloud covered part of the Big a t f i r s t t h a t a c l o u d c o v e r e d p a r t o f t h e B i g Dipper. But the crisp night air had not a trace of D i p p e r B u t t h e c r i s p n i g h t a i r h a d n o t a t r a c e o f moisture. After cleaning my glasses and looking m o i s t u r e A f t e r c l e a n i n g m y g l a s s e s a n d l o o k i n g again, I realized that Mizar simply was not there a g a i n I r e a l i z e d t h a t M i z a r s i m p l y w a s n o t t h e r e any longer. I called the observatory of the a n y l o n g e r I c a l l e d t h e o b s e r v a t o r y o f t h e university nearest me. u n i v e r s i t y n e a r e s t m e "There's a star missing," I said. "Mizar isn't T h e r e s a s t a r m i s s i n g I s a i d M i z a r i s n t there any more." "We have no comment at this t h e r e a n y m o r e " W e h a v e n o c o m m e n t a t t h i s time," was the reply. t i m e w a s t h e r e p l y The next issue of Tempus, our leading news T h e n e x t i s s u e o f T e m p u s o u r l e a d i n g n e w s magazine, provided an explanation. Under the m a g a z i n e p r o v i d e d a n e x p l a n a t i o n U n d e r t h e "Science" heading was a brief news item: S c i e n c e h e a d i n g w a s a b r i e f n e w s i t e m : "Astronomer Claude Blakely, after years of A s t r o n o m e r C l a u d e B l a k e l y a f t e r y e a r s o f research and experimentation, has at last r e s e a r c h a n d e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n h a s a t l a s t developed a method of capturing stars. For d e v e l o p e d a m e t h o d o f c a p t u r i n g s t a r s F o r an undisclosed price, he has sold Mizar to a n u n d i s c l o s e d p r i c e h e h a s s o l d M i z a r t o an anonymous dealer in Geneva. The a n a n o n y m o u s d e a l e r i n G e n e v a T h e dealer, through a Near York spokesman, d e a l e r t h r o u g h a N e a r Y o r k s p o k e s m a n assures the public that the star will be put a s s u r e s t h e p u b l i c t h a t t h e s t a r w i l l b e p u t on display in a private planetarium within o n d i s p l a y i n a p r i v a t e p l a n e t a r i u m w i t h i n the next two years, and that hundreds of t h e n e x t t w o y e a r s a n d t h a t h u n d r e d s o f citizens will be able to see it there." c i t i z e n s w i l l b e a b l e t o s e e i t t h e r e I began a flood of outraged letters to magazines, I b e g a n a f l o o d o f o u t r a g e d l e t t e r s t o m a g a z i n e s syndicated editorial writers, and politicians. The s y n d i c a t e d e d i t o r i a l w r i t e r s a n d p o l i t i c i a n s T h e stars, I said, belong to everybody. Astronomers s t a r s I s a i d b e l o n g t o e v e r y b o d y A s t r o n o m e r s were supposed to map the stars, measure them, w e r e s u p p o s e d t o m a p t h e s t a r s m e a s u r e t h e m and study them in the most minute detail. But, I a n d s t u d y t h e m i n t h e m o s t m i n u t e d e t a i l B u t I added, astronomers were supposed to be after a d d e d a s t r o n o m e r s w e r e s u p p o s e d t o b e a f t e r knowledge. They were not supposed to own the k n o w l e d g e T h e y w e r e n o t s u p p o s e d t o o w n t h e stars. I didn't believe that Mr. Blakely should s t a r s I d i d n t b e l i e v e t h a t M r B l a k e l y s h o u l d really be called an astronomer. r e a l l y b e c a l l e d a n a s t r o n o m e r "Your attitude strikes me as hoity-toity," replied Y o u r a t t i t u d e s t r i k e s m e a s h o i t y t o i t y r e p l i e d one of the best known of the columnists. o n e o f t h e b e s t k n o w n o f t h e c o l u m n i s t s "Claude Blakely knows more about astronomy C l a u d e B l a k e l y k n o w s m o r e a b o u t a s t r o n o m y than any Ph.D. or he couldn't have gone out and t h a n a n y P h D o r h e c o u l d n t h a v e g o n e o u t a n d netted that star. And anyway, why should profes n e t t e d t h a t s t a r A n d a n y w a y w h y s h o u l d p r o f e s sional astronomers have all the stars? There are s i o n a l a s t r o n o m e r s h a v e a l l t h e s t a r s ? T h e r e a r e enough to go around. You're just jealous that you e n o u g h t o g o a r o u n d Y o u r e j u s t j e a l o u s t h a t y o u didn't make a buck out of it." d i d n t m a k e a b u c k o u t o f i t My response that the public as well as astrono M y r e s p o n s e t h a t t h e p u b l i c a s w e l l a s a s t r o n o mers had a right to the stars, and that future m e r s h a d a r i g h t t o t h e s t a r s a n d t h a t f u t u r e generations had a right to see them, went g e n e r a t i o n s h a d a r i g h t t o s e e t h e m w e n t unanswered. u n a n s w e r e d Some of the public did write to their congress S o m e o f t h e p u b l i c d i d w r i t e t o t h e i r c o n g r e s s men, but since most lived in smoggy cities and m e n b u t s i n c e m o s t l i v e d i n s m o g g y c i t i e s a n d never saw the stars anyway, few letters were sent. n e v e r s a w t h e s t a r s a n y w a y f e w l e t t e r s w e r e s e n t A young congressman from one of the states with A y o u n g c o n g r e s s m a n f r o m o n e o f t h e s t a t e s w i t h an exceptionally clear sky did, eventually, a n e x c e p t i o n a l l y c l e a r s k y d i d e v e n t u a l l y introduce legislation to ban star catching. By i n t r o d u c e l e g i s l a t i o n t o b a n s t a r c a t c h i n g B y then, however, Blakely had sold rights to his t h e n h o w e v e r B l a k e l y h a d s o l d r i g h t s t o h i s star-stealing device to a number of partners. s t a r s t e a l i n g d e v i c e t o a n u m b e r o f p a r t n e r s "The clammy hands of big brother govern T h e c l a m m y h a n d s o f b i g b r o t h e r g o v e r n ment are trying to take away the hard-won m e n t a r e t r y i n g t o t a k e a w a y t h e h a r d w o n spoils of the last of the great inventors," s p o i l s o f t h e l a s t o f t h e g r e a t i n v e n t o r s thundered the columnist. "Claude Blakely t h u n d e r e d t h e c o l u m n i s t C l a u d e B l a k e l y and his partners represent the last frontier a n d h i s p a r t n e r s r e p r e s e n t t h e l a s t f r o n t i e r of free enterprise." o f f r e e e n t e r p r i s e The night that I noticed Sirius was no longer in T h e n i g h t t h a t I n o t i c e d S i r i u s w a s n o l o n g e r i n the sky, I opened the Newsletter of Private Star t h e s k y I o p e n e d t h e N e w s l e t t e r o f P r i v a t e S t a r Lovers that had arrived in the afternoon mail. It L o v e r s t h a t h a d a r r i v e d i n t h e a f t e r n o o n m a i l I t had as a logo a bald eagle holding a star in its h a d a s a l o g o a b a l d e a g l e h o l d i n g a s t a r i n i t s talons, flanked by waving American flags. t a l o n s f l a n k e d b y w a v i n g A m e r i c a n f l a g s e Men Who Stole the
George F. Bass, Ph.D. is Chairman Emeritus of the Institute of Nautical Archaeology, the non-profit organization he helped found in 1973. Dr. Bass is acknowledged as the father of Nautical Archaeology, and along with his collegues pioneered the science of underwater archaeology in the 1960s. www.INAdiscover.com19"Fellow citizens. Write to your congressmen about the communist-inspired plot F e l l o w c i t i z e n s W r i t e t o y o u r c o n g r e s s m e n a b o u t t h e c o m m u n i s t i n s p i r e d p l o t to take away our rights to catch and sell stars. There are millions of stars in the t o t a k e a w a y o u r r i g h t s t o c a t c h a n d s e l l s t a r s T h e r e a r e m i l l i o n s o f s t a r s i n t h e heaven, as any schoolboy knows. You can't even see some of them they are so h e a v e n a s a n y s c h o o l b o y k n o w s Y o u c a n t e v e n s e e s o m e o f t h e m t h e y a r e s o dim. There cannot be any rational reason to keep them all up there. Especially d i m T h e r e c a n n o t b e a n y r a t i o n a l r e a s o n t o k e e p t h e m a l l u p t h e r e E s p e c i a l l y when there are billions of dollars to be made by private investors. Stand up for w h e n t h e r e a r e b i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s t o b e m a d e b y p r i v a t e i n v e s t o r s S t a n d u p f o r your rights as Americans. Stand up for free enterprise." y o u r r i g h t s a s A m e r i c a n s S t a n d u p f o r f r e e e n t e r p r i s e By then the night sky was beginning to look a bit faded. Investors were after the really B y t h e n t h e n i g h t s k y w a s b e g i n n i n g t o l o o k a b i t f a d e d I n v e s t o r s w e r e a f t e r t h e r e a l l y bright, sparkling stars first, so the first-magnitude stars were disappearing at an b r i g h t s p a r k l i n g s t a r s f i r s t s o t h e f i r s t m a g n i t u d e s t a r s w e r e d i s a p p e a r i n g a t a n alarming rate. a l a r m i n g r a t e Astronomers made joint and private outcries about what was happening. "Precious A s t r o n o m e r s m a d e j o i n t a n d p r i v a t e o u t c r i e s a b o u t w h a t w a s h a p p e n i n g P r e c i o u s knowledge about the creation of the universe is being lost forever. It doesn't do me k n o w l e d g e a b o u t t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e u n i v e r s e i s b e i n g l o s t f o r e v e r I t d o e s n t d o m e any good to see Betelgeuse in the cavern of some Austrian duke," one wrote. "It's a n y g o o d t o s e e B e t e l g e u s e i n t h e c a v e r n o f s o m e A u s t r i a n d u k e o n e w r o t e I t s being taken out of context." b e i n g t a k e n o u t o f c o n t e x t A senator from a rather foggy state submitted a piece to a family weekly: A s e n a t o r f r o m a r a t h e r f o g g y s t a t e s u b m i t t e d a p i e c e t o a f a m i l y w e e k l y : "At last astronomy's making money, not simply spending. Millions of dollars of A t l a s t a s t r o n o m y s m a k i n g m o n e y n o t s i m p l y s p e n d i n g M i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s o f National Science Foundation grants will now be saved that would otherwise have been N a t i o n a l S c i e n c e F o u n d a t i o n g r a n t s w i l l n o w b e s a v e d t h a t w o u l d o t h e r w i s e h a v e b e e n wasted on larger telescopes and more radio telescopes. Have all the astronomers, w a s t e d o n l a r g e r t e l e s c o p e s a n d m o r e r a d i o t e l e s c o p e s H a v e a l l t h e a s t r o n o m e r s spending all that money for centuries, ever made a dime for the public? They talk s p e n d i n g a l l t h a t m o n e y f o r c e n t u r i e s e v e r m a d e a d i m e f o r t h e p u b l i c ? T h e y t a l k about knowledge. Claude Blakely is the first one ever to show common sense!" a b o u t k n o w l e d g e C l a u d e B l a k e l y i s t h e f i r s t o n e e v e r t o s h o w c o m m o n s e n s e When Polaris was snatched, I was sure that the tide would turn in favor of amateur W h e n P o l a r i s w a s s n a t c h e d I w a s s u r e t h a t t h e t i d e w o u l d t u r n i n f a v o r o f a m a t e u r star gazers and professional astronomers. But, except for a few yachtsmen, most s t a r g a z e r s a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l a s t r o n o m e r s B u t e x c e p t f o r a f e w y a c h t s m e n m o s t people were watching their TV screens and couldn't be bothered about it. p e o p l e w e r e w a t c h i n g t h e i r T V s c r e e n s a n d c o u l d n t b e b o t h e r e d a b o u t i t "Why didn't he use Loran to navigate!" my sister asked when she read the article W h y d i d n t h e u s e L o r a n t o n a v i g a t e m y s i s t e r a s k e d w h e n s h e r e a d t h e a r t i c l e about the sailor who lost his way because of the disappearing stars and ended on the a b o u t t h e s a i l o r w h o l o s t h i s w a y b e c a u s e o f t h e d i s a p p e a r i n g s t a r s a n d e n d e d o n t h e rocks. "That's what all those satellites are for, anyway, isn't it?" r o c k s T h a t s w h a t a l l t h o s e s a t e l l i t e s a r e f o r a n y w a y i s n t i t ? "They'll be snatching satellites next," I answered. I let the sharp photographs of the T h e y l l b e s n a t c h i n g s a t e l l i t e s n e x t I a n s w e r e d I l e t t h e s h a r p p h o t o g r a p h s o f t h e starry night drop one at a time in a pile on the floor between my feet. "That's the way s t a r r y n i g h t d r o p o n e a t a t i m e i n a p i l e o n t h e f l o o r b e t w e e n m y f e e t T h a t s t h e w a y it used to be," I mumbled. i t u s e d t o b e I m u m b l e d George F. G e o r g e F Bass B a s s Stars
20INA Quarterly VOLUME 39 Nos. 3 & 4 A carved railing fragment from Warwick PHOTO P. BojakowskiWarwick: The Final Season of ExcavationPiotr BojakowskiandKatie Custer Bojakowski, INA Research Associates, NAP/TAMUThis summer INA completed its third and final season of excavation of one of the most remarkable early 17th-century English galleons in the New World, the shipwreck known simply as Warwick Originally belonging to Sir Robert Rich, the second Earl of Warwick, the ship arrived in Bermuda in October 1619. Its mission was to bring supplies and settlers, and to deliver Captain Nathaniel Butler, the new governor, to the nascent colony. At the end of November, while the crew was preparing Warwick for its return voyage, a hurricane struck, driving the ship onto the rocky cliffs surrounding its anchorage in Castle Harbour. Over the course of nine weeks, a team of archaeologists, students, and volunteers excavated the forwardmost part of Warwick, near its original bow. The hull in this section is preserved from the turn of the bilge, where the hull broke during the wrecking, to just above the gun deck. According to Nigel Nayling, a dendrochronology expert from the University of Wales, the timbers used to build Warwick were primarily oak and elm. They were felled during the period between the winter of 1616 and the summer of 1617, and likely came from southern Britain. The team mapped and excavated a large collection of material comprised of cargo, armament, rigging, and structural elements, including a carved railing fragment. A highlight of the season was the discovery of a well preserved muzzle-loading cast iron cannon with rope still lashed to its cascabel. A wooden gun-port lid and large number of naval ordnance such as cannonballs, expanded-bar shots, spike shots, and musket shots were found alongside the cannon. Although the three-year excavation of the galleon Warwick ended, the research and analyses still continue. Archaeological evidence has already revealed that Warwick was built in a traditional style at a vital period in English ship design and construction. It holds a unique place in both the history of shipbuilding and the social history of the broader Atlantic seafaring world. INA i n BERMUDA TURKEY S PAINThis year we completed the pre-conservation documentation of two Byzantine merchant ships at the Institute of Nautical Archaeology's Bodrum Research Center. These two ships, YK 11 (c. seventh century C.E.) and YK 14 (c. 900 C.E.), were excavated and dismantled in 2007-8 at Yenikap in Istanbul, where one of the main commercial harbors of Byzantine Constantinoplethe Theodosian Harborwas uncovered during subway tunnel construction in 2004. The excavation, under the direction of the Istanbul Archaeological Museums, is currently nearing completion. YK 11 and YK 14 are part of a group of eight shipwrecks from the site being studied by a team of INA archaeologists led by Dr. Cemal Pulak, associate professor at Texas A&M University and Vice President of INA. Pulak's research on these ships, an important part of the massive salvage archaeology project at Yenikap, aims to record these ancient remains, and promises to make a valuable contribution to the study of first-millennium C.E. transitional shipbuilding. The timbers of shipwrecks YK 11 and YK 14 were transported from Istanbul to INA's Bodrum Research Center, where the post-excavation documentation of the shipwrecks began in the summer of 2009 and continued year-round from June 2010 through the summer of 2012. This detailed documentation of the shipwrecks, which has included a written catalog, measurements, photographs, sketches, and 1:1 scale drawings, will be used to create reconstructions of the ancient ships. These reconstructions, as well as a study of each vessel's design and use in antiquity, will be presented by the authors as Ph.D. dissertations. The next step for the ship timbers will be a conservation treatment in polyethylene glycol (PEG), a polymer used for the preservation of archaeological wood. PEG treatment will take several years, after which the timbers will be returned to Istanbul for reconstruction and display in a planned museum at the Yenikap site. The dormitory, staff, and laboratory facilities at INA's Bodrum Research Center, as well as funding provided by INA, have been essential for completing a long-term, comprehensive study of these ships on a modest budget. Ingram and Jones plan on completing their dissertations in 2013.The Byzantine Ships from YenikapRebecca Ingram and Michael Jones, INA Research Associates, NAP/TAMU Rebecca photographs a YK 11 frame outside the Hethea Nye Wood Conservation Laboratory at INA's Bodrum Research Center. Column drums from the Kzlburun shipwreck are visible in the background. PHOTO M. Jones
www. INA discover.com23What we do know is that the ballast pile of cargo was as much as two-meters in depth and there was a significant amount of hull structure present; however, there is almost no provenience for the 60,000 items of ceramic, gilded bronze, coins and other miscellaneous artifacts. As much as a third of the shipwreck remains, including the hull, organic artifacts, thousands of lead ingots and all the iron concretions, were not recovered from the site. Ceramic objects that were damaged in any way were discarded, and no attempt was made to screen any sediments from the large earthenware storage jars to ascertain what they may have contained. The stern of the ship, where the captain and the crew would typically have stored the ship's tools, fittings and their own personal gear, was also not investigated. Tragically, some of the recovered materials from this wrecksite have gone missing, while other items have been sold separately to collectors through eBay. During the second season the archaeologist on site did manage to "observe" a 2 m section of the hull and collect a few wood samples. From this we know that the ship is of sewn hull-construction, possibly an Arab dhow, with an estimated length of 15 m, constructed of wood from Africa and India. The extant port side of the ship measured 5 m from the keel, and the site archaeologist believes that the stem and sternpost of the ship survived. Unfortunately, time is money to salvage companies, and archaeological excavations adhering to professional standards would have taken infinitely more time than was allotted to this project. Could we have learned much more about the crew, shipbuilders, the voyage itself, and seafaring along the maritime Silk Route if this unique wreck had been excavated and studied by qualified underwater archaeologists? Most assuredly, yes! An Arab ship, thousands of miles from its homeport loaded with a cargo of Chinese ceramics and spices from Indonesia is globalization in the 9th century...who knew? The cargo contained the earliest known pieces of Blue on White porcelain, but might it also have carried the earliest known magnetic compass? Belitung is truly a tale of lost opportunities and the stories we missed. Sadly, there has been a long history of looting shipwrecks in Indonesia and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. Most of their cargos of rare porcelains and ceramics have been dispersed and sold without being studied by archaeologists or art historians. And while there are many parties within the Indonesian government who are working to find better solutions to preserving their cultural patrimony, there are other departments of government who have been all too easily persuaded to sell off their history by awarding salvage contracts to groups like Seabed Explorations. Since the 2003 UNESCO Convention for the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage, many countries in Southeast Asia (China, Vietnam, Thailand, Sri Lanka, India and more recently, Indonesia) have been making great progress towards site protection through educating the stakeholders, training professional archaeologists, and creating legislation that curtails site looting both on land and under their territorial waters. Their efforts should be applauded and supported. UNESCO and the many archaeological and museum associations who objected to Freer/Sackler's proposed exhibit believed that the efforts of the cultural and academic authorities in Indonesia and Southeast Asia with regards to site protection in these jurisdictions would be substantially weakened if institutions such as the Smithsonian were to mount exhibits of material salvaged by treasure hunters. Especially, when the display of these materials is not only expressly against the Smithsonian's own code of ethics, but also against the policies of the Council of American Maritime Museums (CAMM) and the International Congress of Maritime Museums (ICMM), of which the Smithsonian is a leading member. Both INA's and the AIA's opposition to this exhibit is based not only on the lack of scientific controls, but more importantly on the much larger question of whether the Smithsonian Institution should blithely ignore its own Code of Ethics for the sake of mounting an exhibit on treasure for the sake of ticket revenue. (continued on page 24) Belitungis truly a tale of lost opportunities and the stories we missed.
AT LEFT Dr. Woodward in the field during the 2011 Yukon River Steamboat Survey Project... with nary an armchair in sight! PHOTO J. PollackThe majority of the attendees at December's conference in Washington believe that as the Smithsonian Museum is a national institution representing the US Government, it should show leadership in this matter by refusing to display artifacts from a commercially exploited site and hold itself up to the highest standards of ethical practices, precisely because it is the Smithsonian Institute. Failure to do so in the matter of the Belitung Wreck would severely undermine site preservation efforts worldwide, not just for underwater sites, but for terrestrial sites as well. This test case may be a shipwreck, but the next proposed exhibit might well be a horde of looted Roman bronzes and pottery, or Native American Indian burial pots. The purpose of the conference was not just to re-iterate objections to the exhibit, but to come up with a way forward that would benefit both the archaeological site in Indonesia and the public. Several of us met the day before the meeting to put the final touches on presentations we had been asked to make and to come up with a list of potential alternatives to having an exhibit of this extraordinary collection at the Smithsonian. The solution of our dreams was of course to revisit the site and do a proper scientific excavation of the area given that, by the salvors own admission, they did not touch the ship, ballast or any cargo that required extensive conservation. In his presentation at the start of the conference, Dr. Bass opened the door to this scenario by pointing out that, in the case of the Molasses Reef Wreck and more recently the Warwick Project, researchers from INA had, and are, managing to retrieve valuable information from sites that had previously been salvaged by treasure hunters. After two days of discussions and breakout sessions, it was agreed that the exhibit as it was originally conceived would not be mounted at the Freer/Sackler Gallery, and any material from the Belitung wreck would only be presented after the site had been excavated scientifically. More excitingly, given the significance of the 9th-century cargo and ship, it was hoped that once such a re-excavation had been done, and the conservation and analysis of the materials complete, then the Freer would revisit the possibility of mounting a completely different exhibit on the Belitung Wreck. The participants came up with a long list of mini-exhibits, which the Smithsonian could mount by engaging archaeologists, scientists and curators from several of the museums along the Mall. Subsequent to the conference, representatives from UNESCO had some very preliminary discussions with the cultural authorities in Indonesia about revisiting the site and supporting the newly trained Indonesian underwater archaeologists in conducting a proper scientific excavation. This was seen as a positive step towards building local capacity and expertise. In the past year the site has been revisited, and remains stable. The country has recently undergone an election and it is hoped that in the near future this project will be advanced. Belitung Shipwreck continued In an interview with Akshita Nandat of the I n a n i n t e r v i e w w i t h A k s h i t a N a n d a t o f t h e Singapore-based Straits Times, Michael S i n g a p o r e b a s e d S t r a i t s T i m e s M i c h a e l Flecker ( F l e c k e r ( who directed part of the original w h o d i r e c t e d p a r t o f t h e o r i g i n a l 1998-1999 salvage operation) dismissed as 1 9 9 8 1 9 9 9 s a l v a g e o p e r a t i o n ) d i s m i s s e d a s a farce' the call to re-excavate the Belitung a f a r c e t h e c a l l t o r e e x c a v a t e t h e B e l i t u n g shipwreck to "reveal context that was lost s h i p w r e c k t o r e v e a l c o n t e x t t h a t w a s l o s t or ignored in the original salvage opera o r i g n o r e d i n t h e o r i g i n a l s a l v a g e o p e r a tion." To Flecker, "this is more proof of t i o n T o F l e c k e r t h i s i s m o r e p r o o f o f the disconnect between t h e d i s c o n n e c t b e t w e e n armchair academics a r m c h a i r a c a d e m i c s and those confronting the reality of a n d t h o s e c o n f r o n t i n g t h e r e a l i t y o f preserving maritime heritage in South-east p r e s e r v i n g m a r i t i m e h e r i t a g e i n S o u t h e a s t Asia." A s i a Editor's Note
www. INA discover .com25The Lawyer's Committee for Cultural Heritage Preservation (LCCHP) is a not-for-profit organization composed of lawyers and law students interested in protecting cultural heritage in both the United States and abroad. Each year, the LCCHP holds an annual conference at the National Trust for Historic Preservation in Washington, D.C. Although the LCCHP focuses on all areas of cultural heritagesuch as archaeology, historic preservation, and the international art marketlast year's annual conference was dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the sinking of RMS Titanic and the 10th anniversary of the 2001 UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage (2001 UNESCO Convention).Keeping the Lid on Davy Jones LockerThe Lawyers' Committee for Cultural Heritage ProtectionTitanic 's International Character As a British-flagged vessel sailing from Southampton, England to New York City and carrying passengers and crew from over thirty-five different countries, it would be hard to argue that Titanic belongs exclusively to one country. Therefore, for a conference on Titanic to be truly successful, the conference must also have an international character. With presenters from Australia, Canada, England, France, Spain, and the United States, last year's LCCHP conference was able to accomplish just that. Mary Lou Doyle, Manager of Government Relations and Legislation for Parks Canada, was among the speakers from Canada at the conference. In her presentation, Doyle discussed the Canadian laws that protect underwater cultural heritage as well as Parks Canada's strategy for managing its underwater cultural heritage. Although there were few Canadian citizens aboard Titanic when it sank, Titanic 's current location is of particular interest to Canada. Titanic is currently located in an area known as the high seasthe maritime zone beyond the exclusive economic zone and not subject to the control of any country. Despite its location in the high seas, Titanic is also located on Canada's extended outer continental shelf. Whereas all countries are allowed to claim certain rights over their continental shelf, those rights do not extend beyond two hundred nautical miles from that country's shore. The continental shelf of some countries, like Canada and the United States, extends beyond that two-hundred-nauticalmile boundary. Those countries are allowed to claim their extended continental shelf through a process outlined in the Law of the Sea Convention; Canada's application is currently under review. If Canada's application is approved, Canada will play a significant role in the wreck's management. David Bederman, recently deceased Professor at Emory School of Law and attorney for R.M.S. Titanic Inc. (RMST), presented at the conference on behalf of RMST. In 2010, the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia awarded RMST, as salvor-in-possession of Titanic a salvage award of 100% of the fair market value of the artifacts that RMST raised from Titanic A year later, the court determined that the award could only be fulfilled by granting RMST title to the artifacts on the condition that RMST fully abide by a list of archaeological principles (known as the Covenants and Conditions) drafted by the U.S. government. As salvor-inpossession, RMST has the exclusive right to salvage Titanic a right which is only legally enforceable against U.S. citizens and U.S.flagged vessels. At the conference, Bederman explained RMST's status as salvor-inpossession of Titanic, and also discussed the Covenants and Conditions, requiring RMST to keep the collection intact and to conserve and maintain the collection up to archaeological standards, and stipulating that RMST can only sell the collection to a court-approved buyer who must also agree to be bound by the terms of the Covenants and Conditions. Ulrike Guerin, Secretariat of the 2001 UNESCO Convention, presented on the current status of the Convention, and Mariano Aznar Gomez, Chair of Public International Law at the University of Jaume I in Castellon, Spain, presented on the Convention's application to Titanic The provisions of the 2001 UNESCO Convention are only legally binding on countries that have signed the Convention. Under the Convention, all parties to the Laura Gongaware, J.D. candidate 2013, Tulane University Law School; Senior Managing Editor, Vol. 37, Tulane Maritime Law Journal; M.A. candidate in Nautical Archaeology 2013, TAMU
Keeping the Lid on Davy Jones Locker continued 26INA Quarterly VOLUME 39 Nos. 3 & 4 Convention have the duty to protect underwater cultural heritage, thus any country that has signed the Convention has a duty to protect Titanic None of Titanic 's major stakeholders (England because Titanic is a British-flagged vessel, France because its Institut Francais de Recherche pour l'Exploration de la Mer was part of the joint team that discovered Titanic Canada because the wreck is located on its extended outer continental shelf, and the United States because of RMST's status as salvor-in-possession) are parties to the 2001 Convention. However, both France and Canada have suggested that they will be signing the Convention in the near future, and England and the United States have arguably accepted the Convention's Annex Rules as a matter of customary international law. British and U.S. laws that protect archaeological resources embody the principles of the Annex Rules, and because both countries have used their laws to protect their underwater cultural heritage, regardless of location, England and the United States have arguably accepted the Annex Rules. Bonnie Magness-Gardiner, Director of the FBI's Art Theft Program, Michael Marous, Assistant U.S. Attorney, and I jointly presented on the U.S. trafficking laws that could potentially be used to prosecute U.S. citizens involved in the trafficking of artifacts illegally taken from Titanic or any other historically significant shipwreck. Our presentation focused on several laws, including section 6(c) of the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, under which "no person may sell, purchase, exchange, transport, receive, or offer to sell, purchase, or exchange, in interstate or foreign commerce, any archaeological resource excavated, removed, sold, purchased, exchanged, transported, or received in violation of any provision, rule, regulation, ordinance, or permit in effect under State or local law." In the past this provision has been used to successfully prosecute an artifact collector who illegally trespassed onto private land, removed artifacts from a Native American site, and then sold those artifacts in a neighboring state, and to charge an Ohio State professor who stole several 16th-century manuscript pages from the Vatican library, then brought the stolen manuscript pages back to the United States in violation of U.S. customs laws, and later tried to sell those manuscripts to an art dealer. A Highly Successful DayThese five presentations covered just a fraction of the topics that the nineteen speakers discussed during day one of the conference and then continued to discuss during the round-table discussion that took place during day two. The conference was not only incredibly informative for the presenters, but it was also well attended by students, lawyers, and professors interested in the protection of cultural heritage. It is conferences like these that prove that international cooperation is imperative to protect underwater cultural heritage. BELOW Dr. Bass participated in the 2003 mission to visit the Titanic wreck site aboard the submersible Mir as part of NOAA's Office of Exploration program.PHOTO D. ConcannonA view of the steering motor on the bridge of Titanic.PHOTO Emory Kristof National Geographic Courtesy of NOAA Visit the UNESCO website to: Read more about the 2001 convention. Discover the role UNESCO plays in the preservation of underwater cultural heritage. Download a training manual for the UNESCO Foundation Course on the Protection and Management of Underwater Cultural Heritage (UCH) in Asia and the Pacific. Learn more about the 36 rules of the convention that guide activities directed at UCH. Go to www.unesco.org and search: underwater
www. INA discover.com27What he was doing in the stern cabin of the small Cromwellian warship Swan when she sank off Duart Point on Mull in Scotland's Inner Hebrides on 13th September 1653 we will never know. He was a stocky man some 5'6" tall, aged about 23, born and bred in Yorkshire. His legs were bowed and spindly, the legacy of childhood rickets, but above the waist he was strongly built, with shoulder, arm, and wrist muscles equally developed on either side by the robust physical duties of a sailor. His hip joints, jarred by frequent impact when dropping the last few feet onto the deck after working aloft, gave him an occasional twinge, but this was nothing compared to the agonies of toothache caused by years of untreated dental decay, exacerbated by grit from the stone-ground flour which had worn his molars almost flat. For all that he was fit, agile, and well-nourished. We first met the individual we have since come to know as "Seaman Swan" while investigating the wreck of his ship in 1992. Seabed erosion had revealed fragile organic material, including carvings from the decorated stern, and among it were several human bones. A ten-year research excavation followed, and as work progressed, more bones came to light. Although they were disarticulated and scattered across the area of the upper stern it soon became apparent that this was a single skeletal assemblage. That the bones all lay within a clearly defined archaeological context the collapsed Saving Seaman SwanResurrecting a 17th-Century Sailor off Western ScotlandColin Martin, Ph.D., INA Research Associate interior of the panel-lined stern cabin told us that Seaman Swan was in here when the ship sank, and the containing structure stayed intact long enough for biological action (the little green crabs that still populate the site are astonishingly voracious) to tear apart and deposit his remains throughout its dark interior. This in turn has helped us to understand the break-up sequence and formation processes in this part of the wreck. Having met our 17th-century sailor, the next step was to get to know him. Dr. Sue Black, Professor of Anatomy and Forensic Anthropology at Dundee University, carried out the detailed analyses which determined his physical characteristics, health, and the activity-induced bone signatures indicative of work associated with seafaring. Dr. Wolfram Meier-Augenstein of Queen's University Belfast conducted the isotopic analysis of tooth and bone samples which suggested that Seaman Swan grew up imbibing water traceable to Yorkshire. Further stable isotope analysis by Dr. Peter Ditchfield of the Oxford Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art showed that during the earlier years of life his diet had mainly been land-based, later shifting to one with a limited marine protein element though the terrestrial component remained strong. These dietary conclusions are supported by evidence from the wreck. Quantities of fish bones were found, almost all of them lingcod What matters is that we have encountered a fellow human being from another age who, from his own remains and those of his ship, has spoken eloquently to us about the world he knew. ABOVE Professor Sue Black of Dundee University in Scotland examining Seaman Swan's remains. PHOTO C. Martin
28INA Quarterly VOLUME 39 Nos. 3 & 4 Saving Seaman Swan continuedbigger than any caught in these over-fished waters today. That they were obtained fresh is evident from the presence of skull bones, which would have been removed had the fish been dried and salted as shipboard provisions usually were. Sheep and cattle bones were numerous, and of the distinctive pygmy types common in the contemporary Scottish Highlands. Surprisingly there was no pork at all, for it is usually the dominant species in a naval diet of casked salt meat. But pigs were virtually unknown in the subsistence economy of this area, because as non-grazers they competed for the same plants as humans in an unfenced marginal landscape. The explanation seemed to be that the ship's food was locally resourced. The clincher was a stone hand-mill found among the debris of the galley. Flour was not normally ground on board ships but supplied in processed form, usually as bread or biscuit. That the 1653 campaign was conducted in September, when the grain was ripe, suggests that Swan 's men harvested it on shore and used the mill to grind it. When hostilities ended the inhabitants of a neighbouring island complained that the fleet of which Swan was part had plundered most barbarously and inhumanely... goods, gear, sheep and nolt [cattle].' So Seaman Swan, engaged on inshore patrol work among a hostile population whose food resources were considered fair game, was probably better fed than his compatriots in the offshore fleet. Seamen were essential pieces of equipment who needed to be kept in good working order. They were carefully programmed mobile power sources, able to apply co-ordinated energy through their muscles to the simple machinery which harnessed the wind and regulated the management of the ship hauling on ropes, setting and adjusting spars and sails, heaving on oars, operating the whipstaff, manning the pumps and windlass, and working the guns. It made sense to keep them in top condition. We feel a considerable affinity with this nameless young man who long ago perished far from home. Over the years he has become a trusted informant and friendly presence as we have pursued our work among his bones and among the timbers of his wrecked ship. He has helped us to lift the corner of a veil into a lost world, and what we have glimpsed there has enlightened and enriched us in many ways. The systematic study of artifacts, ship construction, armament, activities on board, and domestic life, though of great value in themselves, are ultimately only a means to an end. What matters is that we have encountered a fellow human being from another age who, from his own remains and those of his ship, has spoken eloquently to us about the world he knew. Soon we will bring closure to Seaman Swan by burying his bones in a special place overlooking the wreck, with our deep respect and affection. He deserves nothing less. Colin Martin, Ph.D., INA Research Associate ABOVE (from left) Showing severe decay cavity and ground-down molars. PHOTO C. MartinCarved wooden cherub from the decorated stern, with a small staved vessel in front. A human ulna, or lower arm bone, lies between. PHOTO Archaeological Diving UnitThe collapsed cabin interior, with an intact panelled door.PHOTO C. Martin Colin retired from St. Andrew's University in 2003. He is a past President of the Nautical Archaeology Society, a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, and the Royal Historical Society, and a member of the UK government's Advisory Committee on Historic Shipwrecks. He's currently working on a maritime landscape project in the west of Scotland.
www. INA discover.com29The raising of the turret of USS Monitor a Union Civil War Ironclad, was a major task that in of itself is a fascinating story. Important artifacts recovered from the turret include remnants of a coat with buttons, leather shoes, a comb and a lantern with glass lenses. All of the artifacts are exceptionally well preserved because of the heavy silts that sealed them inside the turret. The largest artifacts from the site are two large Dahlgren guns which, unlike some of the small organic finds, will remain in treatment for years to come. The contents recovered from the turret point to two other amazing stories based on the remains of two sailors. With the turret and all of its contents safely excavated at the Batten Conservation Laboratory Complex of The Mariners' Museum in Newport News, VA, David Krop, Conservation Project Manager for USS Monitor, and his team of specialists devised treatment strategies for the preservation of each artifact. Apart from the obvious challenge of preserving so many one-of-a-kind artifacts, determining the identities of the two sailors from their remains posed a challenge of a different sort. David Alberg, Superintendent of the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary, approached the Advisory Council about possible projects to commemorate the vessel and her crewmembers. One suggestion was to determine whether it would be possible to combine the DNA data, archival information, the well-preserved cranial remains, and modern scientific technology to create facial reconstructions. This process is becoming increasingly common in forensics, as well as archaeological research. Human skeletal remains from La Salle's vessel Belle were discovered by archaeologists from the Texas Historical Commission (THC) on October 31, 1996. Shortly afterward, Drs. Donny Hamilton and I worked with Lois Liehman from the Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children, and Marc McAllister of CyberForm International, to create a CT scan of the cranium for duplication and facial reconstruction. Professor Dennis Lee undertook the task of sculpting facial features for the French sailor. Although some aspects of CT scanning technology have improved vastly since 1996, the exacting work of recreating facial features is still best done by the hand of a skilled and knowledgable sculptor. Because official records for the sailors on board USS Monitor are incomplete, Lisa Stansbury, a genealogist working with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Placing Faces in HistoryFacial reconstruction of Monitor 's lost sailors.Wayne Smith, Ph.D., Nautical Archaeology Program Texas A&M UniversityABOVE (from left) Facial reconstruction in progress showing the process of adding tissues to the facsimile skull to build up facial features. Several tissue depth markers are visible. The completed reconstruction of the two sailors, one of whom was determined to be considerably younger than the other.PHOTOS NOAA
(NOAA), conducted extensive research of pension records and other documents in the National Archives to gather information that would permit a possible identification. Mary Manhein, Director of the Faces Laboratory at Louisiana State University, was intrigued by the prospect of placing faces on men who died so long ago. The LSU team created two clay models of the sailors' faces, which were recently unveiled in a ceremony at the United States Navy Memorial Foundation in Washington, DC. The scientific and artistic expertise of the scientists at the Faces Laboratory has resulted in likenesses that are fitting memorials of the sailors lost on USS Monitor Now that John Broadwater has released his new book, "USS Monitor : A Historic Ship Completes Its Final Voyage," and an amazing team of archaeologists, historians and scientists have assembled a storehouse of data for additional research on the crew, including the creation of these wonderful likenesses of the two sailors, hopefully all of these resources will assist in finding the relatives and the names of these sailors. It has been an honor to work with such a fine and diverse group of people, and to have played a small part in this project. To quote James Delgado, Director of NOAA's Maritime Heritage Program, like all who served and all who do pay the price, that in itself makes them important and worthy of remembrance and recognition.'Placing Faces in History... 30INA Quarterly VOLUME 39 Nos. 3 & 4 US Navy Color Guard and the sailors from the reenactment.PHOTOS NOAAKeep Up-to-Date with all things INA...Joinin the conversation on our Facebook pageFollowINA Project Blogs on our websiteReadpast issues of The INA Quarterly and the INA Annual onlineView videos on INA's Youtube ChannelSupport the organization by renewing your membership!www. INA discover.com
www. INA discover.com31Hello from Bodrum to all our INA family and friends! Much of the spring season was spent performing maintenance on the BRC facilities. Preventing water damage was the theme of this year's repairs and maintenance, as the building is approaching twenty years of age. I would like to thank Danielle Feeney once again for her support that facilitated many of these repairs. One of the largest projects undertaken this year was the installation of an underground waterproofing system, to protect the middle and lower levels of the BRC from water damage, and thereby assuring the safe storage of artifacts during the conservation process. This project involved digging up most of the north garden just outside the administration offices, and created quite a mess, but the area has now been restored to its former beauty. We had a new roof installed on the dive equipment storage area to prevent further damage to our equipment. We also replaced the doors of the main building and dormitory entrances with longerlasting faux wood PVC doors to match the look of the originals. Repairs were made to the cupolas of the main building as well to prepare them for winter rains. Additionally, we serviced several cracked staircases, window frames, and the fountain in the garden which looks beautiful once again. On a more functional note, repairs were made to several of our PEG tanks by our fleet captain and mechanic, Zafer Gl. I would like to thank Mrs. Lucy Darden for her financial gift designated to make these crucial repairs. Finally, we carried out repairs on several hull-wood storage tanks housed at the Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology in order to assure safe storage of hull remains prior to conservation efforts. This year, we once again hosted many distinguished guests, visiting and returning scholars, as well as students and interns from all over the globe: INA President Dr. Deborah Carlson arrived in Bodrum in May. She hosted excavation teams from both Claros and Didyma during her stay to consult on the future home of the large marble drums and capital raised from the Kizilburun wreck site in 2009 and 2011. Debbie also hosted a large group of guests from the National Geographic Society Committee for Research and Exploration. She, Dr. Cemal Pulak, Dr. Matthew Harpster and Ms. Sheila Matthews gave them a very special tour of the Bodrum museum before the group visited the BRC for a behind-the-scenes tour of the conservation facilities. Dr. Cemal Pulak, on sabbatical from teaching at Texas A&M University, spent much of his time in Bodrum working on various projects. It was a pleasure having him involved in daily activities during his extended stay. In late June, Dr. Elizabeth Greene, Dr. Justin Leidwanger and their team of students from Brock University (Canada) arrived and prepared for their survey project at Burgaz, near Knidos. After the project's completion they and some of their students remained in Bodrum to work in the museum on the objects recovered last year at Burgaz. Also in 2012 we hosted Ms. Elizabeth Brill from the Corning Museum, a group from the Herodot Academy of Bodrum, Texas A&M alumni Mr. and Mrs. Brent and family, Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth S. Beall, Jr. from Palm Beach, Florida, Mr. Rob Kendall and guests from Dallas, Mr. and Mrs. Ian Cohn from New York, Mr. Francis Ricciardone (US Ambassador to Turkey), and Dr. Tomas Wazny from the University of Arizona, whose team took wood samples from the Yenikap Wrecks for dendrochronological analysis. We also had a distinguished group from the American Institute of Archaeology (AIA) visit after their tour of the Bodrum museum, and we had the pleasure of hosting them with a small cocktail reception in the BRC. And as usual, we were busy leading tours for a number of Turkish groups, research teams, schools, and organizations visiting the BRC.2012 Report from the Bodrum Research CenterABOVE (from top) Tba with Dr. Bass at the 2011 Annual Board Meeting in College Station. PHOTO J. LittlefieldA visit this summer by the US Ambassador to Turkey, Francis Ricciardone. PHOTO B. LledoDr. Carlson and French architects, museum curators and archaeologists from the Claros excavation team.PHOTO T. Ekmeki Tba Ekmeki, BRC Director
As the BRC is a rare commodity in the field of conservation, we have an ever-growing list of students that would like to intern in our facilities. Members of the administration and conservation staff were hosts to several student interns during 2012: Elizabeth La Duc from Buffalo State College (USA), Omayra Grostidi Eibar from the University of Pontevedra (Spain), Corinne Soued from Queen's University (Canada), Rebecca Schaffeld and Eva Huber from Philipps-Universitt Marburg (Germany), Kent Hamlin from Choate Rosemary Hall (USA), Beau Baldwin from Menlo School (USA), Bedir zuslu from Ko Lisesi (Turkey), and Ihya Sarc from Batman University (Turkey). Ph.D. student John D. Littlefield from Texas A&M University assisted both Dr. Pulak and Dr. Carlson as artifact photographer and research assistant in the museum and in the BRC. Ph.D. student and INA researcher Lilia Campana, of Texas A&M University, assisted Dr. Pulak's work in the museum and in the BRC. And Ph.D. student Kevin Melia, also from Texas A&M University, worked on the Uluburun amphora capacity measurements. During her short visit to Bodrum, Ph.D. student Laura White from Texas A&M University took biological samples to be analyzed in England. Regular visitor and scholar, Dr. Harun zdas of Dokuz Eyll University in Izmir (Turkey), returned with some of his students to make use of our library, as did other students from various Turkish universities. Dr. zdas was also responsible for obtaining an extension to a temporary importation permit for the submersible Carolyn for use in Turkey. Long-term visiting student researchers Rebecca Ingram, Michael Jones, and Ryan Lee finalized the laboratory portion of their work on some of the Yenikap wrecks, and they will be missed by all of us in Bodrum. And we also were pleased to have INA Chairman, John De Lapa, in Bodrum at the end of September. Our conservation team continues to work on materials from various shipwrecks that INA has excavated over the years, including those at Uluburun, Yassiada (17th-century Ottoman wreck), Kizilburun, Bozburun, Tektas, Sere Liman, and the Yenikap vessels. Our illustrator, Seil Kayack, is also working diligently to finish drawings for various upcoming publications. On a more personal note, we had two weddings this year. Our conservation supervisor Esra Altnant and conservation technician Miray Olcay both married in May, and we all enjoyed sharing their happy day as an INA-BRC family. Unfortunately, Esra recently announced she would be leaving both the BRC and Bodrum to begin a life with her husband. She will certainly be missed. As for the BRC administration we are continually busy. It is that time of year when preparing reports of the year's field work, and new season applications and permits occupy much of our time and efforts. Until the next newsletter, all the best from the INA BRC family.Bodrum Research Center Report cont. 32INA Quarterly VOLUME 39 Nos. 3 & 4 Installation of an underground waterproofing system to protect the middle and lower levels of the BRC from water damage and assuring safe storage of artifacts during the conservation process.PHOTO T. EkmekiStorage areas were painted and repaired, and the artifacts happily returned to their shelves by INA lab technicians. PHOTO T. Ekmeki
www. INA discover.com33one more... This year many of us lost a friend and mentor when Dave Switzer passed away. Dave first became involved with INA in 1974 during the field school at Yassi Ada, Turkey. He was then a History professor at Plymouth State College who, besides enjoying a full-time teaching position, wanted to conduct research in maritime history in the field. As American scholars became interested in Historical Archaeology, Dave became a quiet but driving force in expanding the movement into maritime history. Right up until last year, Dave directed or participated in nautical archaeology investigations almost without a pause. Dave grew up in Portland, Maine, and received his BA in History at the University of Maine, and his Ph.D. at the University of Connecticut. Between his undergraduate and graduate studies he served as an officer in the US Army. He started and ended his higher education teaching career in the History Department at Plymouth State College, now University, achieving Professor's rank and serving a term as chair of the department. Most of us within INA remember Dave from archaeology expeditions in the field, as well as from seeing him at various conferences. When the remains of the Revolutionary War privateer Defence were located in Stockton Springs, Maine, the state contacted George Bass, who chose Dave to be the director of the INA/Maine State Museum/Maine Maritime Academy (MMA) joint venture to investigate the site. Each summer from 1975 through 1981with the enormous logistical help of Dave Wyman at MMADave directed a field school that introduced many of the discipline's current nautical archaeologists to the intricacies of field work. Though the waters in Stockton Springs were cold and murky, and those typical underwater archaeology problems would pop up at the wrong time, Dave's consistently even, and calm approach to every situation, and his friendly demeanor in the face of difficulties, served as an important example to many of us who would someday direct our own research projects. In fact, although many former Defence students and staff eventually left archaeology behind, many retained the people skills they learned from Dave Switzer. After the Defence fieldwork, Dave directed a number of projects in New Hampshire and Maine, including the Piscataqua Shipwreck Survey, the investigation of a 17th-century site in Hart's Cove, N.H., and the Wallace Sand Beach shipwreck in Rye, N.H. Recently he had begun to organize a team to write a manuscript for a final Defence volume, a project we will continue in his memory. Dave encouraged students and peers to achieve more than they thought possible. He allowed team members to solve problems and make discoveries on their own, while keeping their endeavors within the scope of the project parameters and goals. When there was an important decision to be made, or a disagreement, he would not rush to a conclusion without first gathering evidence and thinking it through. He would then offer a solution with a slight grimace and a long "Well" Anyone who knew Dave in any capacity surely misses him, and we will certainly miss him whenever we think of good friends and archaeology expeditions. Dave leaves behind his wife Judy, of fifty-five years, along with their two children Kate and Steve (who often worked with us in the field in the 1970s), and two grandchildren. Warren RiessDave Switzer (1934-2012) Dave Switzer INAremembers
INA Quarterly SPRING 2010 34INA Quarterly VOLUME 39 Nos. 3 & 4 INAreadsREVIEWS & ANNOUNCEMENTS OF NAUTICAL ARCHAEOLOGY TITLESUSS Monitor : A Historic Ship Completes Its Final Voyage by John D. Broadwater Given Dr. John Broadwater's long and intimate involvement in the discovery and subsequent archaeological investigation of the sunken Civil War armored warship USS Monitor off Cape Hatteras, it is difficult to envision a more appropriate person to author this book. The discovery in 1973 of the first monitor-class vessel that played a significant role in the development of the modern warship and naval battle tactics drew worldwide attention. Proving to be a tremendous source of archaeological information, the wreck site's national significance and status as a gravesite for a number of US Navy sailors led to its designation as the first National Marine Sanctuary of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Additionally, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places and designated a National Historic Landmark. Through the combined use of archival materials and data recovered from the wreck site, the author provides a highly informative and intriguing account of Monitor 's conception by designer John Ericsson, hesitant acceptance by the US Navy, aggressive construction schedule, and famous encounter with CSS Virginia at Hampton Roads. Broadwater also presents an accurate and gripping depiction of the vessel's sinking off Cape Hatteras and the probable factors leading to the ship's misfortune. He likewise brings to light the nation's enchantment with Monitor in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by incorporating contemporary poems, magazine articles, postcards, and memorabilia used to celebrate the ship. As a participant and eventual leader of Monitor 's investigation and partial recovery, Broadwater uses expedition notes, contemporary correspondence, and his own experiences to provide an in-depth chronicle of the numerous Monitor projects that have taken place since the early 1970s. He begins with a stirring account of his first visit to the sunken vessel and the challenges of diving and working at a depth of 240 ft. Through the author's participation on Monitor projects spanning three decades, he provides detailed insight into the multi-agency cooperation involved in managing and preserving the site; the development of technology used for deep sea diving, investigation, and large artifact recovery; complications with protecting the shipwreck from unauthorized disturbance; the development of historic preservation policy regarding the site's protection; and the research, conservation, and long-term preservation of the artifacts recovered from the vessel. Broadwater does a remarkable job of defining nautical terminology and technical vocabulary for the general reader in order to accommodate a wide audience. While a technical report is forthcoming, this book also serves maritime archaeologists as a record of events, collaborations, and methodologies developed during the several Monitor expeditions. It is, however, just as accessible to students of naval history, the Navy divers who assisted with the investigation, and the general public interested in American history. The color inserts interspersed throughout the volume are especially useful, and are used to elaborate on little-known facts as well as specific events, people, and technologies without detracting from the main text. Broadwater also includes rare photos and images from the Monitor collection to vividly illustrate this unique story. Other than minor editorial improvements, the only suggestion from this reviewer might be a more detailed account of Monitor 's pivotal battle with Virginia at Hampton Roads. As this has been the focus of several other publications on Monitor however, the author's somewhat abbreviated description of the encounter is not a major factor in this review. Broadwater's previously untold story of the Monitor investigations is a valuable contribution to naval history, the field of maritime archaeology, and the general public's understanding and appreciation of submerged cultural resources and naval heritage. Anyone with an interest in naval or maritime history, or the field of underwater archaeology, is encouraged to read this informative and engaging book. Review by George Schwarz, INA Research Associate The front cover of USS Monitor: A Historic Ship Completes Its Final Voyage by John D. Broadwater TAMU Press. (www.tamupress.com)
Institute of Nautical Archaeology INA Research Associates J. Barto Arnold, M.A. Piotr Bojakowski, Ph.D. Lilia Campana, M.A. Chris Cartellone, M.A. Alexis Catsambis, M.A. Katie Custer Bojakowski, Ph.D. Joshua Daniel, M.A. Fabio Esteban Amador, Ph.D. Jeremy Green, M.A. Matthew Harpster, Ph.D. Heather Hatch, M.A. Kenzo Hayashida, M.A. Rebecca Ingram, M.A. Akifumi Iwabuchi, Ph.D. Michael Jones, M.A. Jun Kimura, Ph.D. Justin Leidwanger, Ph.D. Margaret E. Leshikar-Denton, Ph.D. Berta Lled Colin Martin, Ph.D. Veronica Morriss, M.A. Ralph K. Pedersen, Ph.D. Charlotte Minh H Pham, M.A. Robin C. M. Piercy Juan Pinedo Reyes John Pollack, M.Sc., F.R.G.S. Mark Polzer, M.A. Kelby Rose, Ph.D. Donald Rosencrantz Jeffrey Royal, Ph.D. Randall Sasaki, M.A. George Schwarz, Ph.D. Ulrica Sderlind, Ph.D. INAretrospectiveFaith Hentschel (INA Associate Director) balanced delicately at the ULUBURUN shipwreck site while taking measurements with a plumb bob (1987).PHOTO INA ARCHIVES