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STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
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George F Bass, Ph.D.. Chairman Eienrus', Jack WV. Kelley^'.John Baird t. Michael Katzev f
Deborah N. Carlson, Ph.D., President*'
Cemal M. Pulak, Ph.D., Vice Presideri
Kcvin J. Crisman, Ph.D., \5ce President
Tamara Hebert, Lead OIlier .Asnriate
Budrum Reseat I'n GCnlr
Tuba Ekmekci. Director
Ozlem Doan, Finan r Manager '. /
Board of Directors
Robert Atwater * O.ttz Aydemir, MD * Gordon W. Bass* *Jose L. Bermnudez, Ph.D.* * Edward 0. Boshell,Jr.
John Cassils, MID * Gregory NM. Cook * Lucy Darden* * Thomas F Darden *John De Lapa, Chairman*
Elmer Doty * Carl Douglas * Claude Duthuit* * DanielleJ. Feeney* *James Goold, becrear & General Counsel*
Marc Grodman, MD * Robert Hohlfelder, Ph.D. * Gregory M. Kiez * Mustafa Koc * R. Bowen Loftin, Ph.D.
Captain Alfred Scott McLaren, LISN IRet. Ph.D. * Greg Masluw, MD * Alex G. Nason * George E. Robb,Jr.
A\'han Sicimoglu 'Jason Sturgis * Peter van Alfen, Ph.D. * Frederick H. van Doorninck,Jr., Ph.D.
Robert L. Walker, Ph.D.* Lerw Ward * Robyn Woodward, Ph.D., \'ire Chairman* * Sally M. 1Yamini
Ercan Acikel * George R. Belcher * Raynette Boshell * Allan Campbell, MD * Stephen Chandler * William C. CuIp. MD
Glenn Darden * Nicholas Gritlis *Jell' Hakko * Robin P. Hartmann * Faith Hentschel, Ph.D. * Susan Katzcv
William C. Klein, MD * Selquk Kolay * George W. Lodge * Thomas McCaslandJr. * Dana McGinnis *Jeffrey Morris
Michael Plank * Avery Battle Russell * Anne Darden Self * Lynn Baird Shaw * Betsey Boshell Todd * Mary Tooze
Garry A. Weber * Roger A. Williamson, Ph.D.
Nautical Archaeology Program Faculty, Texas A&M University
Deborah N. Carlson, Ph.D., .Assuoc'iate Professor, Sara \\. and George 0. Yamniiii Fellow
Luis Filipe Vieira de Castro, Ph.D.. Associaie Professor. Frederick R. Maver Faculty Fellow of Nautical Archaeology
Kein J. Crisnian, Ph.D.. Ass.oriate Professo;r Nanncal Arrhaeoloig FarulrN Fellow
Donny L. Hamilton, Pnofessor, Ph.D., Georce . & Glad\s I. .Abell Chair in Nauucal Archaeolog., YaminiiU Famil\ Chair in Liberal Art
Cemal M. Pulak, Ph.D., Frederick R. MaNer FacultI Professor of Nautical Archaeology
C. Wayne Smith, Ph.D., Assuciate Prolessor, INA Faculty Fellow
Shelley Wachsmann, Ph.D., NAP Coordinator, Meadows Professor of Biblical Archaeology ')
Nautical Archaeology Program Faculty Emeritus, Texas A&M University
George F. Bass, Ph.D. o
George T. & Glad\s H. Abell Chair in Nautical Archaeolor,, Yamini Fanilk Chair in Liberal Ans, Diutinguished Prou'ess:r. Emeritus
Frederick H. van Doorninck,Jr., Ph.D. o
Fre dlnck R. Maer FaculIr Prnflssorr nr Naurical .\rchaclrmi'., Emreriijsj
J. Richard Stef v t
Sara W\ and Genrier O Y'amini Pnfr.c.,i ol Nauiical Aithat,Ilo . Emneriiu
Mr. & Mrs. Ray H. Siegrried II Graduate Fellho-s: NMichaelJones and John Littlelield L
Marian M. Cook Graduate Fellow: Chris Cartellone
A Letter from the President
I am delighted to greet you, and introduce
myself, as the new president of INA!
For those of you who don't know me, I came to
INA and Texas A&M University 15 years ago,
as a graduate student in the Nautical Archae-
ology Program (NAP). Like so many before
me, I had the good fortune to study and
conduct fieldwork with INA Founder Dr.
George Bass, in my case on the fifth-century
B.C. Classical Greek shipwreck at Tekta�
Burnu, Turkey. I completed my Ph.D. in
Classical Archaeology at the University of
Texas in 2004 and became a faculty member
of the Nautical Archaeology Program that
same year. In 2005, together with then INA
President Dr. Donny Hamilton, I launched the
excavation of a ship that sank off the coast of
Kizilburun, Turkey in the first-century B.C.
while transporting a marble column weighing
more than 50 tons. Now a tenured Associate
Professor at Texas A&M, I teach courses in
Greek and Roman Archaeology and Classical
Seafaring, and hold the Sara W. and George
0. Yamini Professorship in Nautical Archaeol-
ogy. Like me, my six NAP colleagues are
privileged to enjoy and share the benefits of
Texas A&M faculty endowments which were
established by a handful of very generous INA
Directors at the initiative of Dr. George Bass
more than two decades ago.
One of the key figures assisting Dr. Bass with
the INA-A&M endowment drive of the late
1980s, which led to the establishment of a
faculty chair, four professorships, two faculty
fellowships, and two graduate student fellow-
ships, was then Vice President for Develop-
ment, Dr. Robert Walker. Bob has been an
active and loyal member of the INA Board for
almost a quarter of a century, serving for the
past six months as Interim President following
the departure of Dr. James Delgado. It was
Bob's composure and steady hand on the tiller
that guided INA so successfully through this
most recent transition. On behalf of everyone
who shares a passion for old ships, maritime
history, nautical archaeology, and this unique
organization, I thank Dr. Walker for his
selfless guardianship of INA over these past five
months, despite his numerous other duties as
Texas A&M's Senior Executive for Develop-
In trying to decide how best to organize my first
letter as INA's president, I realized just how long
is the list of reasons to be very optimistic about
INA's future! As you will see in this issue of the
Quarterly, five new directors have joined the
board and we are thrilled to welcome them all
to the INA family! Our Executive Committee
has been reinvigorated with several new
officers, including Chairman of the Board John
De Lapa.John first became involved with INA
in 1994, serving on the Archaeological Com-
mittee for many years. He and I agree that our
primary commitment is to ensure the Institute's
legacy of quality scholarship through enhanced
support for INA-approved fieldwork and
Among the 20 projects approved by the INA
Archaeological Committee for 2011 are ongoing
projects in Spain, Bermuda, and Canada's
Yukon. New projects, spearheaded by current
and former NAP graduate students, will begin
off the coast of Crimea, in Lake Ontario, the
Caribbean coast of Nevis, and along the James
River in Virginia. I myself will return to
Kizilburun, Turkey with Donny Hamilton to
finalize the excavation there, while various
students, colleagues, and conservators gather at
the Bodrum Research Center to continue their
work on material from INA shipwreck excava-
tions at Yassiada, Yenikapi, Kizilburun and
Uluburun, among others.
This has proven to be a lengthy introduction,
so I will close by saying that I am deeply
honored to have been elected INA president
and I am very excited for INA's future. I have
conducted archaeological fieldwork in Turkey
every summer for the better part of a decade,
and enjoy an excellent working relationship
with the talented staff of the Bodrum Research
Center. I look forward to working with all
members of the INA family to perform, inform,
and transform the very best in the field of
" ogelher we share
a commitment to
ensure the Institute's
legacy of quality
Debbie Carlson excavates
hull remains discovered
under one of the marble
column drums at
See the PROJECT pages
on the INA website for
PHOTO Don Frey (INA)
WINTER 2010-2011 VOLUME 37 * No. 4
INA Founder Honored
Dr. George Bass to receive the 2011
Bandelier Award from AIA
PHOTO National Geographic Society
The Technology of Where
Dr. Jeff Royal, RPM Nautical Foundation
PHOTO RPM Nautical Foundation
Ghost in the Machine
Deep Sea Technology in the Baltic
IMAGE MMT/Deep Sea Productions
Dr. Robyn Woodward and John Pollack
report from the Yukon
PHOTO Yukon Archives
ON THE COVER
RPM's underwater remote operated vehicle (ROV)
at the Levanzo I wreck in Sicily.
PHOTO RPM Nautical Foundation
Events * Announcements * Celebrations * Opportunities
Bob Atwater is a I'rmer Chief' of' Police, and retired Federal La\\ Enlorcciment Senior
Nlanager-Executie, a.s tell a _a former Interpol Agent and securit- adisor. For the past
three \cars he has served as the Mlemberdhip Dircctoui f'r the W\ashington DC Chapt-er
of the Explorers Club, and has Iraveled the globe as an explorer, public speaker, educator
and photographer. He sits tin Executi e Boards for -several Bo\ Sicou Councils, as
Chapter and Nalional Aernc\ President for the Federal La\\ Enfitrcement Oflicer,
Association, and as a Trustee t'r the Archarol',-ical Institute of America. He is a Life
Fellow. ol the Explorers Club, a Felloi of the Ro\al Geographical Srcietr, a Fello\ of
the world d Scout Foundation, a Life Member of the Archaeological Institute of America,
tile National Eagle Scout Associarion and tile Amnerican Polar Society. He has received
numeroti awards for Icoillmunit\ seenrice and heroism including a Medal of Freedoim,
and a Medal o Merili, frol tile US Senate and Congress.
Elmer L. Doty has \uti thiriN \ears (f leadcrshlip cnpei'ence in hus.iness, with (G-enrdal
Electric, Black & V.atch, FMIC C_,rporarion, United Del'en(s, BAE S\stcms, and \'ought
Aircraft Industries, Inc. NMoh-t recently\ he %Ias President and CEO otf 1Vought, and respon-
sible :iir strengthening th[lie company's performance and position prior to successuilly
mnerging w'ithl Triumiph Group, Inc. He is a Director of Triumph Group, Inc., the Dallas
Chapter o'f the American Heart Asociation, and the CGinireiional C:oralition on Adioption
ln-titute. F.lnier is al. a imeinder olf tile Board c0' Trustee, i(& tile C cooper Institute, and the
Bo card o01 Go ierniors oI the Aerospace Industrie' As ciation
\\ith a BSc in nuclear enu-ineering, a .MSc in mechanical engineering r-nim the Lni\er-
sit\ f1' Missuri., .in( Execuutie Eduication at Harxaid Business School and Unin ersit\s ot
Chica.,o, Elmer also holds a UISC(G 51i ton Mater Captain Licene, thie FCC General
Radio Operar'o Licins', and i, a NAl I scuba insrui tor. H' and his wii Saindra hla\v
lour ciuldircn and reside in Dallas, Texa.s and Nas.au, Bahama,.
Marc D. Grodman. MD is the C:hairman, President and CEO ofl BioReference
Laboratories INC., a company\ lie founded in 1981. With o\ er 2700 employees. BioRefer-
ence is one of tlie largest clinical laboratories in thile country . Under Nlarc's direction tile
coimpani has introduced ne\ tecliniloe-ies that are used in cancer, cardiac geneiics,
se\uall\ Iranlmitted inieclions and prenatal screening,, whilel e Iborging ahead witih coillab-
orati\e partner.liips \with institutionin like Massachuiset[t_ General Hospital, Co-lumbia
UnLi\ersit\ and Linil\ersit\ of Rocliheter.
Alter earning hi, BA from thile nikcrsit\ _of Pernn:.l\ania, Marc received hi- NID from
Ci0 olunilia Unix en sity and then attended H.a- ard UtnilersitN's Kenned\ Sclhoo l oI
Goi%\-i nment. He a,.t' a Prima .tr\ Cae Clinii al Fellowi at Mass\L' husetts. ( general Hi opital
and currently series as an Assis-tant Prollessor of Clinical Meditine at Columbia Uniner-
sity College ot Physicians and Surgecons. Marc also serves as a memniber and thei- secretary
of the Board of Trustees of the Actors Fund of America.
New INA Directors:
New INA Director
and Associate Director
Dr. George F Bass
recipient of this year's
PHOTO Jonathan Blai
� National Geographic 1977
Events * Announcements * Celebrations * Opportunities
\\th a keen inteiert in history, archaeology, art and t.r lhileLturt Dr. Greg Maslow dec-ided
carlI\ nn that he %\ant(Ald [o kno(i aboul everything! He ~,as named an Interunational Honi.rs
Scholar by the Linivcrsicv of Penns\l\'vania in 11166 and hal lbe.n travitling and learning
c\er since . Greg completed his rceidenci program at the L ni\(rsijt of Pennsvyl ania and is
an orthopedic surgeon \horje career has centered around arthrrocopic knee surgery-a
field , which ,a� in it. infancy. %%hcn he ;tarted.
For a decade Greg send on the Board of Oerseers of the Linicersit of Pennis\lania
Mus.eumi. He joined the N Mu.eum Applied Stien.e Ccinter I.I Ai.chaitoloig i NIASCAi. .and
helped proinottc ihe de\elopmienti If a ,ine\ 'Liur.,eing iool, in u et- niwi, at man\ archactclo gi-
,al -.iics aroundtl the liorld. He sponstorel an e'hibititn of Roman gla'.' and >~\tenda\ liif.
while also expandingg hi',i kni',.ledgei if' (-,r.'k and Roman medicine. Laurie., Grc&r',,s %ilie of'
41 Nears, jo'ins him on hi, man\ tra\cls, which h tend to locus on Greece antd hal\.
Sailing on Ch(sapeake Bay as a child \,ith his parents had a prolbund influence o-,n new
.As,,ociate DirectorJeff Morris, igniting a lil'elong passion Ib01 the sea. In 20100 AJelT earned
hi', Nlaster's degree Iron East Carotlina L nitrrsir N ECUL in Maritime Hi'tory and Nautical
Ant:haeolog. Sincr '-21(3 jel has been the Dir'cmitor or .A1i7ulmtar Re-'.an.h LLCai a.nd Gei.Imllar
Research LLC. He scrtved a, tie Principal Sn mar Anal\,t fi r Nautico's, LLC during their
2006 sur\c\ in search of .Ameila Earliart' airplane in the South Pacilic. He "as' also the
Director of Surc\ Operations lor the \'aitt Institute I:r Discoe.rN \VIDi during hlieir
End\mion Reef and Chinchorro Banks Sur,\e\s. a? \\ell as being one of the principal
art litcit Ilri \'ID's C:atal\',t Aut mionomu LlUnderiaicr Vehicle .AL'U . Program. Toda\ J-lff
live, in Mar Iland \with hii wife Sue and their Iour c:hildirn.
-Bandeier Award for Servic oAchelg
Fo mor inomto an to PUCHS TIKT to th Gala
* INA Quarterly WINTER 2010-11
STUDENT PERSPECTIVES IN NAUTICAL ARCHAEOLOGY
A Greek mythology class my sophomore year of
high school was my introduction to archaeology.
The colorful stories of gods and heroes fascinated
me, and from then on a hobby was born. In my
free time I learned all I could about the historical
and cultural landscapes of the ancient world,
especially the early empires of Greece, Italy,
Despite my growing affinity for classical civiliza-
tions, a youthful mind told me that a career in
world history would not be very practical. Taking
a different route, I enrolled in an architecture
program at a small private university in Michi-
gan. This is where I took my first anthropology
course and, being instantly captivated, fell in love
with the field of archaeology. Ultimately, archi-
tecture did not suit me as and I withdrew from
the program, instead deciding to continue my
education in anthropology at the University of
U of M is where I evolved from an eager student
into a budding archaeologist. Over the course of
my undergraduate studies, I became increasingly
intrigued by the history and archaeology of my
native Michigan. I pursued these interests further
in 2004 by participating in my first archaeologi-
cal field school, investigating a series of late
Woodland mounds and earthworks situated in
Michigan's northern lower peninsula. By day I
worked beneath the unyielding sun, meticulously
removing layers of stratified sediment, while at
night I assisted with cleaning and analysis of
prehistoric finds. The six week course challenged
me both mentally and physically, but at the same
time offered an extreme sense of satisfaction.
The world of archaeology lay before me, now all
I needed was to find my place within it.
It was during this time that my professor, Dr.
John O'Shea, discussed with me the merits of
underwater archaeology. The whole notion of
conducting archaeology under water, especially
on the Great Lakes, hit me like a ten ton
freighter. Boats, ships, and shipwrecks are
commonplace throughout the region, so much so
that I took for granted the rich maritime heritage
surrounding me. My first steps toward a career
in nautical archaeology included assisting in the
design and execution of an underwater survey in
Lake Huron, which required me to obtain my
scuba certification. Armed with the means to
traverse the sub-aqueous environment of the
Lakes, my passion for Great Lakes maritime
history and archaeology intensified.
After a short time working as a contract archae-
ologist following graduation, my desire to pursue
graduate studies was stronger than ever. In the
fall of 2007, I came to the Nautical Archaeology
Program at Texas A&M University in order to
work with Dr. Kevin Crisman and further study
the nautical traditions of the Great Lakes.
I have achieved my goals since arriving in the
program, having participated in archaeological
investigations in Ohio, New York, Oklahoma,
Vermont, Ontario, and Puerto Rico, the scope
of work ranging from shipwreck documentation
to pedestrian, diver, and remote sensing surveys.
In 2008 I took the reins and led my first ever
field project. The result was the Anthony Wayne
Shipwreck Survey, an historical and archaeologi-
cal analysis of an early 19th century side-wheel
steamboat. Lost in 1850 due to a devastating
boiler explosion and found in the fall of 2006,
Anthony Wayne is believed to be the oldest surviv-
ing steamboat shipwreck in the Great Lakes.
During this project, co-directed by Carrie
Sowden, archaeological director of the Great
Lakes Historical Society, and sponsored in part
by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology, our
team dived to the depths of Lake Erie for two
summers, carefully taking measurements and
recording details of the wreck. The days were
long and the dives cold, but all things considered,
directing this project has been one of the most
rewarding experiences of my life.
My career as a nautical archaeologist is still in its
early stages, but I am as excited now as when I
first opened my mythology textbook. What keeps
me going in this field is the desire to know more
about the region where I grew up. The Great
Lakes are my home, and I feel both honored and
privileged to be studying its early maritime
technology and traditions. Whether hunkered
down in a library or diving off a rocking boat,
adding to the compendium of Great Lakes
nautical archaeology is extraordinarily fulfilling.
INA Research Associate
with it a story
and it is my hope
to share those stories
Over the past two years,
the Great Lakes Historical
Society, the Cleveland
(CLUE), INA and Texas
A&M have partnered to
examine the archaeologi-
cal remains of Anthony
Wayne, a mid-19th
passenger and cargo
The wreck, which rests
approximately six miles
north of Vermilion, OH,
was discovered using side
scan sonar technology in
2006 by Tom Kowalczk,
a member of CLUE.
At present, Anthony
Wayne is thought to be
the oldest surviving
of a steamboat shipwreck
in Lake Erie.
For more information on
the Anthony Wayne
Shipwreck Survey, check
out the project pages on
the INA website.
When I was asked to write an article for this issue
about the use of technology in underwater
archaeology, I began to think about the myriad
of systems utilized in my field work each season.
Between the research vessel, guidance and
steering systems, the ROV, remote sensing
equipment, array of video feeds, data processing
systems, display graphics, etc. a wide variety of
technical explanations and themes readily
present themselves. What came to mind is one of
the crucial questions technology is used to
answer... "Where is it?"
Determining the location of a site seems simple
enough, however working under water increases
the difficulty of doing so and is further compli-
cated when working beyond diver depths. It is
surprising how often archaeologists don't know
the answer to "Where is it?" Determining the
location of a site begins with one or more sets of
accurate coordinates. All too often when the time
comes to revisit a site an archaeologist begins
divining the location on the surface from the
positions of houses on shore, a point of land, or
memories of nearby rock formations. Unfortu-
nately, official reports also too often feature such
location references. Without an accurate location
on the surface, the location of the site on the
seafloor below also remains unknown. These
situations often result in a new search by system-
atic survey, and if the last visit was years before
then the site may never be found.
Differential GPS (DGPS) is a crucial component
in the technology of determining location; this
system tells you where you are (your coordinates)
on the earth. Although studies about the accu-
racy of DGPS are ongoing, it has generally been
found to be accurate to within 1-2 meters. The
accuracy is partly a function of distance to
broadcasting stations, and given their distribu-
tion within the Mediterranean, accuracy is
typically around a meter or less. A well-
maintained DGPS system will very accurately
provide position information for a vessel on the
sea's surface; however shipwreck sites are on the
seafloor, so several methods are typically used to
determine position below the surface. A tried-
and-true method in shallow water calls for divers
to raise some form of buoy to the surface on a
line where its position can be determined by the
research vessel. The accuracy of this method is
determined by how straight the line between the
wreck site and buoy is and how carefully the
distance from the DGPS receiver to the buoy is
measured. The deeper the water the more
difficult it is to maintain a straight line and the
greater the error. It is usually an adequate
method in shallow water when coupled with a
depth reading for the point and an accurate
representation of where on the seafloor the point
is located. Problematically the error from the
buoy line's deviation off vertical is not consistent,
nor is the buoy position calculation; hence,
comparing multiple points, of scattered artifacts
or the limits of a site for example, is less reliable.
Once fixed absolute points are determined on
the site, relative position data can be taken with a
variety of methods that utilize measuring tapes, a
compass, and datum points. These measure-
ments are then processed in software to deter-
mine relative position information.
A more labor intensive, costly, and technical
method is to produce a high-quality bathymetric
map of the seafloor. It is a precise and accurate
method for determining location, can be utilized
far beyond diver depth, and has a variety of
other capabilities that include 3-D modeling and
an indication of sediment types. Bathymetric
maps are produced from data gathered by
multibeam echosounder sonar systems. The
sonar part of the system shoots hundreds of
soundings multiple times per second at the
seafloor, in a fan shape from the research vessel,
and records millions of depth measurements.
Each individual depth measurement is coded
with a position calculated from many sources
including the research vessel's position via DGPS,
the angle of the beam, and the beam's depth
measurement. Each of the millions of individual
depth measurements used to create the bathy-
metric map has a coordinate and a depth
measurement and can be individually repre-
sented. As the maps are three-dimensional, the
absolute position of any point on a site can be
accurately and precisely determined. Addition-
ally, it is possible to measure between points,
which allows relative positions and absolute
distances to be measured.
* INA Quarterly * WINTER 2010-11
RPM's Jeff Royal
aboard R/V Hercules
of data being collected
from the seafloor
All images courtesy of
RPM Nautical Foundation
.... . ,.. .
: . . h. .. .. �M
N o - A- -
r-- . l
Another method for gathering location data
in deep water utilizes an ROV fitted with a
transponder beacon, as well as additional
beacons placed by the ROV A beacon on the
ROV communicates with the research vessel,
and systems on board calculate the beacon's
position based on the relative position
(coordinates) of the research vessel. As the
distance of the beacon from the research
vessel increases, the potential error increases;
hence, keeping the beacon still over a period
of time can assist in honing its location.
Additional beacons can also be placed on
datum poles or near artifacts, which assists in
accurately mapping sites and the artifacts
within them. Knowing the beacon's position
relative to objects, where it is on the ROV or
the pole to which it's attached assists in the
depth measurement calculation. The position
information from the beacon can also be
integrated into the bathymetric map in order
to track it, and thus the equipment carrying it,
in real time so that researchers know where
they are and where they have been. Using a
beacon affixed to the ROV or placed on the
seabed is a very good method for mapping
individual finds on the seafloor, as well as
taking check points on the extent of sites and
specific artifacts within them. This method
was used extensively during excavation with
the ROV of the Levanzo I wreck in Sicily.
The systems that exist to aid in determining
the location of wrecks and artifacts under
water are numerous, varied, and highly
integrated. For work in deeper water, this
complex system allows us to achieve high
standards in location documentation and
utility. This technology makes it possible to
document the position of an individual
amphora lying among rocks 8 km offshore of
the Egadi Islands at 80 m of depth, return a
year later, and relocate the amphora in
minutes for retrieval, which is both efficient
and cost effective. Only through these complex
technological systems working in unison to
provide precise and accurate location data can
we hope to attain the accuracy required for
deep water archaeological research, and
answer the question "Where is it?"
Jeffrey Royal, PhD
Archaeological Director, RPM Nautical Foundation
INA Research Associate
LEFT (from top)
Photo-illustration of sonar
soundings fanning out
from the research vessel
to the wreck site below.
Tried and true measure-
ment techniques for
map generated from the
beacon allowing real time
Beacon and equipment
used to accurately map
the position of a wreck
and the artifacts within it.
All images courtesy of
RPM Nautical Foundation
p . .*
Author, Donovan Griffin
Detailed drawing by
shows an overhead
view of Ghost
MARIS/Ghost Wreck Project
ROV Photo of the
knight near Main mast
ROV view of the
Multibeam data was
used to create 3D
models of the wreck
All Photos courtesy of
Deep Sea Productions
courtesy of MMT
Drawing courtesy of
Niklas Eriksson, MARIS
STATE OF THE ART TECHNOLOGY USED TO SURVEY A BALTIC SHIPWRECK
It is fair to say that many teenage boys dream of having the newest, fastest, and brightest
car, phone or gaming station on the market, and as a young man studying nautical
archaeology I am no different. The latest technology tempts me, and others, with endless
possibilities and has the potential to expand areas of exploration in the field. Yet budgets
and financial constraints time and again fail to grant us access to this level of technology.
Often technology is a siren that calls to us, yet stays just out of reach.
Since Dr. George Bass' first expedition at Cape
Gelidonya, nautical archaeologists have had to
make the best of what was available to them,
often making do with limited resources and
makeshift materials. And yet out of those less
than perfect working conditions came many of
the techniques that form the basis for excava-
tion work being done today. Improvise, Adapt, &
Overcome is the often the unofficial motto of the
intrepid nautical archaeologist. And being
schooled in such an environment one can
imagine my surprise when I stepped aboard the
M/V Icebeam moored in Visby, Gotland in the
heart of the Baltic Sea region, and prepared to
set sail to survey the "Ghost Wreck."
Icebeam bristled with all the latest and greatest
oceanographic survey technology. Fresh from a
job for a trans-Baltic pipeline, she was outfitted
to be every nautical archaeologist's technologi-
cal dream, and was accompanied by an equally
impressive crew. ROV pilots, remote survey
technicians, cameramen, and highly skilled ship
operators where busy throughout the ship. Add
in a handful of some of the best nautical
archaeologists in the business and you have
yourself a "dream team" for underwater
maritime research. This project would set a
new standard for deep submergence archaeo-
logical research and survey. Such work relies on
the cooperation of many experts from various
fields, all working toward a single goal. This is
what made the "Ghost Wreck" expedition such
an exciting and amazing experience for me.
Under normal circumstances, the research
vessel is merely a mode of transport for getting
to and from the site. Technology is often towed
from and hung off of the boats being used in
this field, but on Icebeam the vessel itself is the
foundation of all the high-tech survey equip-
ment. She is like a living, breathing creature
with computing power that would make many
an IT expert envious.
Icebeam started life as ferry, the perfect platform
for a research ship, as the large spaces onboard
provide room for servers, monitors, and control
stations that power the survey capabilities
onboard. This ship is a prime example of
multi-tasking, with data gathering occurring
simultaneously on many levels. Every monitor
onboard ship is networked and able to display
any operation at any given time. One can sit in
the galley and watch ROV operations as they
take place, or have images and data beamed
directly to a laptop. Using an iPhone, it was
even possible to be in your bunk and watch
display operations as they happened. This level
of connectivity and data sharing was truly awe-
inspiring. I could be involved in one operate lnn the ship-and also be observing, in real time, the
progress of another operation on the opp_ ~t. r.. _I thli vessel. This allows the research team as
whole to monitor all aspects of the proj , i an.I n.kr r iiical adjustments as needed.
Accuracy of position is of utmost importance when operating over 130 meters above an underwater
site. Icebeam was able to maintain a specific point in s ace due to its dynamic positioning system. A
series of bow and stern thrusters in conjunction with centrally located azipod propulsion system
used GPS and navigation computers to stay in place and maneuver during surveys.
Sonar technology is nothing new in maritime archaeology. It uses an acoustic energy transmitter and
receiver to develop a picture of the seafloor and whatever sits upon it. For years, side-scan sonar has
been used by maritime archaeologists to discover and identify wrecks. This tried-and-true technol-
ogy was responsible for the discovery of the "Ghost Wreck" by Marin Matteknik's chief surveyor
Olof Nilsson. While side-scan offers a great overall view of the bottom and can be easily inter-
preted, multi-beam sonar can take shipwreck analysis much further.. A newer technology, multi-
beam produces extremely accurate digital reproductions of the ship. Several acoustic beams at
varying angles are fired from the ship or ROV. That information is then received in raw form and
refined by the survey experts at MMT to produce an amazing digital 3D model. These models can
be rotated and viewed from any angle, allowing a wide array of precise measurements to be taken of
the ship from any computer that has access to the data. One impressive side effect of this technology
is the ability to penetrate wooden wrecks, resulting in an x-ray like view of the ship. These cross-
sections allow researchers to see construction details and deck layouts. For the expedition team,
multi-beam technology helped set a new precedent in deep survey work on shipwrecks. ...
Remotely Operated Vehicles
The remotely operated vehicle or ROV, was the heart and soul of this expedition. It allowed the
research group to survey the ship, recover diagnostic samples, and capture high definition video of
the wreck for Deep Sea Productions, and also served as a platform for the remote survey sonar. The
ROVs used in the "Ghost Wreck" expedition were normally tasked with doing commercial oceano-
graphic survey. Their operators have thousands of hours of experience in some of the roughest
working conditions on the Baltic and beyond. This combination of technology and highly skilled
pilots lead to ground breaking research and amazing video of a ship lying at 130 meters under the
surface of the sea. Even more impressive, the ROVs, in conjunction with tech-divers from MMT
and Deep Sea Productions, successfully raised a sculpture from the stern of wreck for conservation
The Most Valuable Technology of All
Computers humming, cameras running, ship maneuvering, and underwater vehicles doing the work
at hand, a ballet of synergy unfolded every day on the expedition. It was truly a miracle of the
modern age to watch the whole operation in motion. And one constant above all kept this techno-
logical juggernaut on track. In a chair and standing just behind the operators and technicians,
observant nautical archaeologists stood guard. Meticulously taking notes with the old fashioned (but
still useful) pencil and paper, maritime archaeologist, Dr.Johan R6nnby, and Dr. Fred Hocker,
Director of Research for the Vasa Museum in Sweden, kept dedicated and knowledgeable eyes on
the video monitors. It was their expertise, suggestions and observations that ensured all of the
available technology was used in an efficient and effective manner. Thus allowing the research team
to stay on track and the focus of the expedition to remain on the archaeology of the wreck. Years of
experience taught them to keep on task and look for the vital construction clues and artifacts which
would help solve the mystery of the wreck.
- Donovan Griffin
For more information on the Ghost Wreck Survey Project, please visit the INA website.
There is also a project field report in the Summer 2010 issue of The INA Quarterly.
THE AUGUST CAMPAIGN
and Vice Chair,
Dr. Robyn Woodward,
in the bow of Evelyn.
PHOTO Donnie Reid
(from left to right)
The wreck of Klondike 1
at low water, June 2010.
PHOTO Donnie Reid
Columbian's hog chains
protrude above the
surface at low water
PHOTO Robyn Woodward
Nadine Kopp in the
bow of Julia B.
PHOTO John Pollack
Archival image of the
stern wheeler Columbian
PHOTO Yukon Archives
The Yukon River Survey continues a multi-
year mission to document the numerous
and well-preserved historic steamboats of
the Yukon Gold Rush, and the 2010 accom-
plishments represent a zenith of activity,
with the involvement of no less than three
graduate students on three major projects.
This year our field season involved three
distinct projects - Phase One, as reported in
the last INA Quarterly, saw Lindsey Thomas,
an M.A. candidate in the Nautical Archae-
ology Program at Texas A&M University,
together with a large team at the site of A.J.
Goddard. This article concerns the work and
discoveries made two months later, both on
the river to the north of the A.J. Goddard,
and at the West Dawson "boneyard."
Our Phase Two project began in mid-
August when John Pollack, Dr. Robyn
Woodward, Jason Sturgis, Donnie Reid,
and historian Robert Turner were dropped
off by riverboat at the US Bend north of
Lake Laberge, and used canoes to progres-
sively move a camp downstream to
Carmacks. The team was accompanied by
Andreas Sawall of Spiegel-TV, whose crew
shot film in preparation for a documentary
on INA's work in the Yukon.
This trip required a wilderness traverse of
253 km and concentrated on three sites.
Our first stop was a short one to collect a
small amount of supplemental data from
the bow of an intact 1908 stern wheel
steamboat, the 39.6x8.7 m Evelyn still sitting
in an abandoned shipyard on an island near
Hootalinqua. These data were used to fill
in a "blind spot" near the bow in an area
partially obscured during the earlier
LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging,
remote sensing technology) survey. Within
a few hours the documentation of this vessel
was completed such that a set of plans and
description are now possible.
Thirteen km to the north of Evelyn lies the
wreck of Klondike 1, a large (64.1xl2.8m)
wooden-hulled stern wheel steamboat
constructed in 1926, and normally awash
mid-channel in the river. It is a spectacular
but difficult location to reach, and on two
earlier occasions high water and current
prevented any meaningful work on this site.
This time unseasonably low water had exposed
most of the hull, and it was possible to perform a
total station survey of the main deck, frames,
hatches, openings, and longitudinal bulkheads.
We inspected half-flooded compartments near
the bow and stern, but gravel filled the hull
amidships. A large amount of machinery was
found in situ within the holds, including intake
and exhaust steam piping, condensers, and a
previously undocumented variant of a rudder-
and-tiller system with four slave rudders
attached to a single master pivot arm without a
Our third site involved an on-going search for
the elusive wreck of the 1898, 44.7x10.2 m
Columbian- from the most famous steamboat
disaster in the Yukon. This large and fully-laden
vessel was destroyed in 1906 by a dramatic
explosion and fire, when three tons of blasting
powder ignited on the bow. The captain and
engineer managed to get the blazing and
shattered ship to shore, where it burned to the
waterline. Six crewmen died despite heroic
efforts by the crew to get the word of the
accident to a telegraph operator some 35 miles
distant. The loss of the ship and the courage of
the crew became a legend in the North.
INA searches located minor wreckage above the
high water mark along the river in 2005 and
2008, and these finds helped us narrow the
search area to a 1 km section. Unfortunately the
strong current and shallow water prevented the
use of sidescan technology in the area in 2008.
Then in 2009 a chance discovery of an historic
river navigation map in the Library of Congress,
confirmed we were in the right area.
This year the low water presented us with a
golden opportunity, and we spent a day search-
ing for the elusive wreck. The trip was running
late because of the film work, and in order to
stay on schedule, we had to cover 80+ km in a
single day with heavily loaded canoes, two of
which were paddled solo. The trip soon deterio-
rated with rain squalls, and stiff headwinds, and
ended with an encounter with two brown bears
at the prospective camp site. A tired and soaked
team finally set up a rough camp on a sodden
island above the search area.
The next day we searched 4km of shoreline for
wreckage, until the sharp eyes of INA Director
Jason Sturgis located Columbian in shallow water
at the head of a side channel. The majority of
the hull was intact below the chines, as were
INA Quarterly * WINTER 2010-11
some of the side frames and lower portions of longitudinal bulkheads and keelsons. Hog chains and
turnbuckles, engine beds, and a boiler feed pump were observed and an ornate white metal drinking
mug was recovered during a solitary snorkeling inspection of the wreck. This vessel was loaded with
cargo at the time of the disaster, and a substantial number of artifacts may be scattered downstream
of the hull in the 700 m-long side channel. Precise location of the site was our sole objective for 2010,
and documentation and mapping can now be organized for the upcoming field season.
Upon reaching Carmacks, our first phone call was made to Doug Davidge, the key person responsible
for discovering the location ofA.J. Goddard. Doug, a typically calm northerner, whooped with excite-
ment over the phone, as yet another legendary Yukon site had been discovered with minimal equip-
ment, good archival research, and simple determination.
Phase Three began following a crew change after the river trip. We once again visited the "boneyard"
at West Dawson, 530 km to the north of Whitehorse, where seven large stern wheelers lie in close prox-
imity. This year the goal was to prepare a detailed plan of a lower Yukon River stern wheel steamboat,
Julia B. Participants included John Pollack, Dr. Robyn Woodward, Nadine Kopp (ECU MA candi-
date), and Chris Cartellone (TAMU PhD candidate).
The 1908, 43.3x 11.6 m Julia B is a heavily constructed vessel containing a large number of longitudi-
nal bulkheads, machinery and a relatively intact hull except for extensive ice damage on her port side.
Most stern wheel vessels of the era have a single centerline longitudinal bulkhead combined with two
truss-built side longitudinal bulkheads to provide hull rigidity fore and aft. Julia B's hull contains a
solid central longitudinal bulkhead comprised of a wall of heavy timbers atop a keelson plus two solid
side longitudinal bulkheads. Four additional side keelsons support either hold stanchions or combina-
tions of hold stanchions and trusses. Finally, two short truss-built engine girders are present, for a
grand total of nine longitudinal strength members. On the main deck, the remains of one (of two origi-
nal) engines, a heavily-constructed three rudder steering system, the paddle wheel, and two locomo-
tive style boilers were mapped. A standard chine displayed cocked hat construction, and the boilers
were supported by massive transverse carriers. Draft diagrams were prepared and hull measurements
were taken using both baseline survey and total station techniques. The survey included a plan view,
longitudinal and transverse elevations, and lines at the bow and stern.
The successes of this season, when combined with earlier work, suggest the Yukon effort has reached
the point where a comprehensive refereed journal article or monograph is feasible. Our primary field
goal for 2011 will be to prepare for that publication by gathering missing data from several known
sites. Secondarily, we will examine two reported sites at Rink Rapids, and assess the wreck of Colum-
bian. Annual papers will continue to be given at the SHA annual conference and published in the
ACUA proceedings prior to the planned journal publication in 2012.
Behind the scenes site protection efforts have continued. A February 2010 presentation by Pollack and
Davidge to the Yukon Heritage Resources Board resulted in the Government of Yukon declaring A.J.
Goddard as the first underwater Historic Site to be designated by the territory. Subsequent to this
announcement, the Federal Receiver of Wreck (Transport Canada) assigned full ownership rights for
the site to the Government of Yukon. Canadian INA members are actively collaborating with the
Government of Yukon to afford similar protection for the wreck of Columbian, as well as the West
-John Pollack & Robyn Woodward, PhD
The authors wish to
acknowledge the following
for their direct support of
the 2011 field season:
Government of Yukon
Institute of Nautical
Texas A&M University
Jim Delgado, Gregg Cook,
Jeff Hunston, Tim Dowd,
Kevin Crisman, Doug Olynuk,
Stockton Rush, Lee
Finally, we thank the
Ta'an Kwach'an Council
and elders for their
Yukon Gold Rush Steamboat
Survey Project Director,
A JOURNEY BEGINS IN THE FIELD
in the Algarve.
o Sam Koepnick
is can be a
ous path to
but in my
erzence It is
I did not grow up with any particular passion to
study our submerged cultural resources, and
was only dimly aware of the field as a first
year undergraduate student, but somehow
stumbled into a career in nautical archaeology.
Initially, I had pursued an interest in Meso-
american archaeology and participated in
related projects in Belize while working toward
a Bachelor's degree in anthropology. But I did
have a strong interest in Iberian maritime
history, which I focused on while completing
coursework toward a minor in Spanish. By the
time I started applying for graduate schools in
anthropology, I had a keen interest in both
Maya archaeology and the European Age of
Expansion. In fact, because the developments
of the Post-Classic Period of Maya Civilization
were inextricably linked to the arrival of
Iberian explorers, these two themes often
overlapped during my undergraduate work.
In 2003 I decided to attend Texas A&M
University, thereby launching my career in
nautical archaeology and I continued studying
Iberian seafaring and ships of discovery for my
Master's thesis. While in the Nautical Archaeol-
ogy Program (NAP) I participated in a range of
projects in the USA, Europe, and Asia, and
gained experience in project management and
underwater archaeological field methods. I
worked at TAMU's Conservation Research
Laboratory for four years and was trained in
artifact conservation, research, collections, and
laboratory management. I also served as
divemaster for multiple INA projects. Like
other students exposed to a range of subjects
during graduate studies, I developed an interest
in other areas of maritime history, specifically
the development of steam-propelled vessels in
the United States. Currently pursuing a doctor-
ate, I worked for the past three summers in
Lake Champlain on the documentation of
passenger steamer Phoenix (1815-1819), an early
example of an American steamboat. This
dissertation project involves fully recording the
hull of Phoenix and gathering data which will
allow for a reconstruction of the ship's lines and
design characteristics, as this was one of the
earliest vessels in the world to combine both sail
and steam for propulsion.
0 INA Quarterly - WINTER 2010-2011
In 2008, I began working for the Naval History
and Heritage Command's Underwater Archae-
ology Branch (UAB) in Washington, DC, as an
underwater archaeologist and manager of the
branch's Archaeology and Conservation
Laboratory. As a member of UAB, I am
involved in archaeological research, conserva-
tion, historic preservation policy, and educa-
tional outreach. We conduct research on
sunken military craft, including ships and
aircraft, and plan surveys and excavations on
significant examples of US Navy's submerged
cultural resources. Two current projects include
the search for Revolutionary War vessel
Bonhomme Richard in the North Sea and the
excavation of a War of 1812 gunboat in the
Patuxent River, Maryland.
I have found that it is immeasurably important
to remain aware of new or improved archaeo-
logical techniques, computer programs,
remote-sensing equipment, theoretical frame-
works, and conservation treatments. In addi-
tion, attending professional conferences and
engaging in educational outreach initiatives not
only expands our professional network, it also
reinforces enthusiasm for the field. Consulting
with other archaeologists or conservators
working on similar projects will introduce you
to new approaches, and opportunities for
Although I began as an anthropology student
with little knowledge of the field of nautical
archaeology, over the past ten years I've been
fortunate enough to participate in the study of
ship and aircraft wrecks from eras ranging from
the 1st century BC to the Second World War.
As unique opportunities have presented them-
selves, it has been compelling to expand my
knowledge of the field, as well as the historic
preservation laws that have been established to
protect these fragile and nonrenewable
resources. Though not typically a lucrative or
easy field to work in, the analysis and protec-
tion of our collective maritime past is a worth-
while contribution to the study of humankind.
- George Schwarz
Visit Athens' Acropolis and new Acropolis
Museum. Walk through the famous Lion
Gate into the Bronze Age fortress of
Mycenae. Explore the Minoan palace of
Knossos. Discover .hi.-,' Old Town,
once home to the Knights of St. John.
Discover the vast and splendid ancient
Sii,-. of Ephesus and Aphrodisias.
View the mighty . -il s of fabled Troy.
See Byzantine and Ottoman architectural
wonders in Istanbul. Explore Greek
Islands such as sacred Delos, Samos,
Mykonos, and Skiathos.
ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA TOURS
Join LA1 Research Associate
as she explores ,'/ni,' of the
, old's most glorious
a, //,', l i gi / sites thro iugh the
Greek Isles, Crete and
the coast o(f Turkey.
See the ancient world thr ugh
the eyes (f this Bronze Age Scholar
and nautical archaeologist,
and gain in igltIfar
beyond the guidebooks!
A portion of the proceeds will be directed to INA!
When you book your spot on this fabulous tour, mention that you are
an INA supporter and that helps our organization, too!
For complete details and booking information visit the AIA website at
J. Barto Arnold, MN.A.
Kroum Barchvarov, Ph.D.
Piotr Bojakos "ki, M.A.
Katie Custer, M.A.
Maria del Pilar Luna
Ben Foid, Ph.D.
Donald A. Frev Ph.D.
Jeremy Green, M.A.
Elizabeth Greene, Ph.D.
Jerome L. Hall, Ph.D.
Frederick Hanselmann, M.A.
Kenzo Hayashida, MI.A.
Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D.
Nicolle Hirschfeld, Ph.D.
Frederick Hocker, Ph.D.
Rebecca Ingram. M.A.
Michael Jones, M.A.
Jun Kimura, MN.A.
Carulyn G. Koehler, Ph.D.
Bradley A. Krueger
.Justin Leidc, anger, M.A.
Margaret E. Leshikar-
Colin Martin. Ph.D.
Asaf Oron. M.A.
Ralph K. Pedersen. Ph.D.
Charlotte Nlinh Ha Pham
Robin C.M. Piercy
Juan Pinedo Rcyes
John Pollack, NISc FRGS
Mark Polzer, M.A.
Jeff Royal. Ph.D.
Randall Sasaki, M.A.\
George Schlarz, M.A.
Carrie Sowden, M.A.
Ulrica Soderlind. Ph.D.
David Ste\ art, Ph.D.
Peter van Alfen, Ph.D.
Wendy van Duivcnvoordc, Ph.D.
Cheryl Ward, Ph.D.
Gordon P. Watts,Jr., Ph.D.
Robvn Woodviard, Ph.D.
Dr Hirschfeld is a Bronze
Age scholar and Associate
Professor in the Depart-
ment of Classical Studies
at Trinity University (San
Antonio, TX). She is
especially interested in
the movement of goods,
people, and ideas along
the coasts of the Aegean
and Levant during the
Late Bronze Age, the era
of Homer's Mycenaeans
and the Trojan War.
Nicolle co-directed the 2010
INA expedition to Cape
Gelidonya, Turkey, with Dr.
(Bottom) Dr. Hirschfeld and
John Littlefield after a dive
to the wreck site.
PHOTOS Ryan C. Lee
Ships from the Depths surveys the dramatic advances in technology
over the last few years that have made it possible for scientists to
locate, study, and catalogue archaeological sites in waters previously
inaccessible to humans.
86 x 11.200 pp. 103 color, 14 b&w photos.
28 line art 4 maps. 3 tables. Bib. Index
$45 00 hardcover
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