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STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
G>orge F Bas%. Ph.D., Chairman Emnnnist, NMi hael Katzev -drcr'erd, Jack \. Kelles t, John Baird ,d.c- ail d
James P. Delgado. Ph.D., President'
Cermal NI. Pulak, Ph.D., Vice President
KevinJ. Crisman., Ph.D. Vice President
lrrderu k Hanselmann, 'irld .\rchaeologit - Dire Sail-r\ OlTi'er
Chasirv M. Hedllund, OTicir Manager
Tdirara Hcbirt, Lead OlliCe Aiotxiate
'Oliba Ekmekci, Directr. Bodrum Re,ct-arch Ce(nter
Ozlem Dofan. linanct NManagt r. Bodrum Research Ctnter
Board of Directors & Officers
Dr. O()gz Aydemir * Robert D. Ballard, Ph.D. * Edward (). B(shell.Jr. -John Ca,.ilk, M.D. * (.regnor\ NI. Co-(ik
Luc\ Dardcn' * Thoma, F. Darden *John Dc Lapa * Carl Douglas * Claude Duthuit' * DanielleJ. F-en,:\'
Charles P. Garrison, M.D., Chairmani* Donald Geddes III. Past Chairmann -James Goold, Secretarn & Gcrnral Cuuns.el
Dr. Robert Hohlfelder. Ph.D. * Charle, Johnson, Ph.D. * (.regor, MNI. Kice * Mus.tafa Koc * Captain Alfred Scott
McLaren, L'SN iRei., Ph.D. * Alex G. Na.on * George E. Robb,Jr. * Andre% Sansom* * Ayhan SicinmoElu
Cli\d P. Smith. Trea,.urer" *Jason Sturgs * Petcr \an Alfen, Ph.D. * Frederick \'an DoorninckJr., Ph.D."
Robert L. Walker, Ph.D.' * L-w Ward * Peter NI. W\a\ * Robyn W\oiodard, Ph.D. * .Sall NI. Vamini
EL.an .A.ikel * Gordon \V. Bas-, * George R. Belcher * Ra\nette Boshell * Allan Campbell. M.D. * Stephen Chandlei
\\illiiam C. Culp, M.D * Glenn Darden * Nicholas GiUTis *JelT Hakko * Robin P Hartmann * Faith Henischel. Ph.D.
Susani Kt7e\ * \Villiam C. Klein. M.D. Selt;uk Kolay\ * I lomlas NI.tCasland,Jr. * Michael Plank * .\erv Battle Ruissrll
Anne Darden Sell' * Lynn Baird Shayt * Bet,.e\ Bushell Todd * MaNIn Touze * Gai A. W\\'ebet * Roger .\. W\\illiamson. Ph.D.
Nautical Archaeology Program Faculty, Texas A&M University
Deborah N. Carlson, Ph.D.. A,,isttant Pror's,-r. Sara \\' and George 0 \namnn Fell-,,
Ltis Filipe Vieira de Castro, Ph.D.. A.,si.rant Prlfe'%srr Fredericnk R. MNascr Fatm iltr FI-llu, of NauuL al Archarol'og\
KetinJ. Crismnan, Ph.D.t .\ss~i:Lae Prol'ssor. Natuncal Archa-olog\ ljactl\ Fl-cloi
Donnr L. Hamilton, Ph.D.. Georg- T. & Glaid\, H Abhll Chair in Naurical Ai-ha.olog,, Yanmni Farm:l\ Chan in Lihi-ral Arti
Cenial Pulak. Ph.D., -nu denrik R. Nla\r Fat-ult\ Prof .srr of Nautical Arc:haeolog.i
C. Wayne Smith. Ph.D., Associate Proflissor. INA lacul. iclloV "
Shelles\ \\arhinann, Ph.D., McadoMs Prof sore ofl Bibhlical Archa--logs
Nautical Archaeology Program Emeritus Faculty, Texas A&M University
George E Ba,,,, Ph.D.
GU"t'Org- I & Gladv, H Abldi Chai.r i Natiutal . \r..ha-tl.,'.,.-., arinrit harrnIl', Chair ii Libel.J. Arti, Di ntiguuhird Prol-.ur, LmrL riltu
Frederick H. van Doorninck.Jr., Ph.D.
Frcdr ni k R Mav. r FatjurIl Pr1.c--..r o1 Nauintl \rthaujinm., Emcnrnj-
Supporting University Partners
East Carolina University Flinders University
Lau rence E. Babit-,, Ph.D. Mark Stanilforth, Ph.D.
Wade Dudle,. Ph.D. Jennifet McKinnun ",
Susanne Grieve, \.L\ EmilvJ.ctT
L\'nn Harri,. Ph.D. Ju.lin Naumann .
Calkin Mires, MA
Michael Palmer. Ph.D.
Gerald Prokopo)wicz, Ph.D.
Nathan Richards. PhD.
Bradley Rodgers, PhD.
Datid 'btwart, Ph.D. .
Carl Sssanson,, Ph.D 3
A Letter from the President
As I write this, INA field teams are deployed
across the globe, conducting research, survey-
ing sites, excavating, conserving, analyzing
finds in the laboratory, and writing up the
results of their work. Working with our
academic partners at Texas A&M University,
Flinders University and East Carolina Univer-
sity, as well as with Research Associates and
affiliated scholars from other institutions and
schools, INA is represented, participating in,
or lending support to, nearly 30 projects in
These range from our major endeavors-the
excavation of the Phoenician shipwreck at Bajo
de la Campana, Spain; the 50th Anniversary
Cape Gelidonya project; the Battle of Bach
Dang (1288) Survey in Vietnam; and the Gold
Rush Steamer Survey in Canada's Yukon-to a
number of exciting exploratory assessments,
research, and writing being done by students at
Texas A&M in support of their studies and their
Master's Theses or Ph.D. dissertations.
An integral part of INA's mission, in addition
to archaeology, is the mentoring and support
of emerging scholars in the field. We've been
proud participants with Texas A&M University
since 1973, when Dr. George Bass and
colleagues founded the Nautical Archaeology
Program at A&M, and we remain committed
to an ongoing, and even increased, role in that
regard in the future at A&M and other selected
institutions around the world.
The INA family has grown with important new
additions to the team, a new Field Archaeolo-
gist and Dive Safety Officer, Frederick "Fritz"
Hanselmann, and a new Lead Office Assistant,
Tamara Hebert. You may also notice from our
masthead that longtime INA staff member
Chasity Hedlund has been promoted to
Office Manager and is in charge of INA's
offices on the campus of Texas A&M University.
I'm extremely pleased with the team we have in
place here in Texas, just as I am of the excep-
tional team we have in Bodrum headed by
Tuba Ekmekci, Ozlem Dog an and Asaf Oron.
The strength of any organization like INA, is
measured by its people from the directors,
staff, and volunteers, to members like you.
On a final note, INA's outreach to the world
continues to grow. The INA Facebook Page,
the INA YouTube Channel, and most signifi-
cantly the INA website, www.inadiscover.com
receive considerable visits from around the world.
The website in particular offers in-depth cover-
age, content and breaking news about INA, and
includes new blogging capabilities giving you
an "over the shoulder" view into the world of
nautical archaeology. I'd particularly like to
thank the communications team of Po Wan and
Sandy Robson, who make the website, the INA
Quarterly, and the INA Annual successful.
Once again, it's all about people - from those
who make a difference today, those who are
inspired by the work we do and are part of our
family, and those whose forgotten or lost stories
we resurrect from the deep in the work that we
do as archaeologists.
Thank you for being part of the Institute
of Nautical Archaeology!
Examining artifacts aboard
RPM's Hercules, off the
coast of Albania.
SPRING 2010 VOLUME 37 * No. 1
A new partnership with East Carolina University
PHOTO Calvin Mires - ECU Martime Studies Program, Bermuda (2008)
2010 INA Projects
Twenty-seven projects given the go-ahead
ILLUSTRATION (detail) Pearce Paul Creasman
From the Bottom Up!
Furthering the discussion on the effects of trawling
by Michael L Brennan
A return to the birthplace of nautical archaeology
PHOTO INA ARCHIVES
ON THE COVER
Director Fred Hocker leads his team in the
(1995-1998) excavation of a 9th-century Byzantine
shipwreck at Bozburun.
PHOTO DONALD A. FREY (INA ARCHIVES)
O INA Quarterly . SPRING 2010
Events * Announcements * Celebrations * Opportunities
Frederick H. Hanselmann (Fritz for short) is an underwater archaeologist who holds two Master's
degrees and is a PhD candidate in anthropology at Indiana University. Learning to swim at age
three, Fritz was fascinated with all things aquatic. He grew up watching re-runs of Jacques
Cousteau's television series and reading biographies and non-fiction accounts of world history,
particularly the conquest and colonization of the Americas. As a freshman at Brigham Young
University, he wrote a term paper on Bronze Age Shipwrecks in the Mediterranean for an
Introduction to Archaeology course. Following two years of volunteer work in Nicaragua and
undergraduate thesis research in Guatemala, Fritz continued his graduate studies at Indiana
University, where he was employed initially as Adjunct Faculty, Lecturer, and later as the Field
Research Director with the Office of Underwater Science. There he also taught courses in
scientific diving and underwater archaeology techniques. Fritz has conducted research in the
Dominican Republic, California, and Florida on shipwrecks spanning the time periods from the
age of exploration to the Gold Rush, as well as prehistoric sites in submerged caverns. His
dissertation topic focuses on the archaeological analysis of Cara Merchant (or Quedagh Merchant),
which was abandoned by Captain William Kidd off the coast of southeastern Dominican Republic
in 1699. The site was the subject of the documentary entitled "Shipwreck! Captain Kidd," which
aired on the National Geographic Channel in 2008. In addition, Fritz was an integral part of a
multi-disciplinary team at Indiana University that initiated a project, funded by the US Agency for
International Development, entitled Living Museums of the Sea, which developed a system of
marine protected areas that focused on protecting shipwrecks, underwater cultural heritage, and
associated biodiversity. As an INA Research Associate, he is also Co-Principal Investigator of the
Rio Chagres Project in Panama and is very excited about this project and its future potential. Fritz
is also very excited about his new role as a continuing member of the INA family and looks
forward to working more closely with all members of INA in any capacity.
The second addition to our INA team is Tamara Hebert. Tamara is a hard working professional
and a dedicated mother to five children. She has several years experience in graphic design,
customer care and has owned a small business in the Bryan/College Station area. She loves
being part of a team, has a knack for numbers and knows how to research. She is friendly,
always willing to offer a helping hand and is committed to giving her best. Tamara will be
working as our Lead Office Associate, and brings an array of skills that will support the
office's daily activities, membership, fundraising, and development.
"I am fascinated with nautical archaeology and I recognize that INA is a great place to learn more about it and
actually be involved, even if it's in a small way I look fonvard to being a support to all of the other INA team
members and I'm truly honored to be a part of this outstanding organization."
Have you explored the new VIDEO page on ? See the early days
of underwater archaeology with "Nautical Archaeology: Beginnings" produced and narrated by
Claude Duthuit and written by George Bass. View the excavations at Pabug Burnu, watch the INA
team in Panama or glide through the first-ever in situ digital survey of a major vessel using LIDAR
with wife Lyndee at
the 2009 INA annual
general meeting in
Lead Office Associate,
Events * Announcements * Celebrations * Opportunities
Institute of America (AIA)
is North America's oldest
and largest organization
devoted to the world of
archaeology. The AIA is a
nonprofit group with
some 200,000 members
belonging to 107
"Our congratulations to Pilar
(above) for this well deserved
honor recognizing her many
achievements and dedication
to the field of underwater
The Archaeological Institute of America is pleased to announce the establishment of the Bass
Lecture Series, named for INA founder Dr George E Bass who also received the AIA's Gold Medal
for Distinguished Archaeological Achievement in 1986.
The inaugural lecture will be delivered by Cemal Pulak, Ph.D., a nautical archaeology professor at
Texas A&M University, and Vice President of the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. Dr. Pulak's
lecture, The Uluburun Ship and Late Bronze Age Maritime Trade in the Eastern Mediterranean, will take place
in Houston (location TBA) on April 12th, 2011.
Another lecture of note for INA members will be the latest in the Steffi Lecture Series in honor of J.
Richard (Dick) Steffy and made possible by the generous contributions of members and friends of
INA, and by members of the AIA's Underwater Interest Group/Subcommittee. The lecture, on
October 24, 2010 at the Lincoln/Omaha Society in Nebraska, is entitled Heroine of the Western
Frontier: The Archaeology of an Early American River Steamboat and will be given by Dr. Kevin Crisman,
Associate Professor Nautical Archaeology Graduate Program, Texas A&M University.
The AIA Lecture Program is now in its 114th year and presents top scholars from North America
and abroad presenting a wide range of current archaeological topics at Societies throughout the
United States and Canada.These lectures are free and open to the public.
For more information on the AIA Lecture Program visit... www.archaeological.org
The J.C. Harrington Medal
The Society for Historical Archaeology of the United States of America has announced that
underwater archaeologist Pilar Luna Erreguerena, will be presented with theJ.C. Harrington
Medal, at the 44th SHA conference in Austin, Texas, nextJanuary.
The award acknowledges her lifelong achievement and dedication to the preservation of the
underwater archaeological heritage of Mexico. A pioneer in this area, Pilar has been the head of
the underwater archaeology area at the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH)
since 1980, the official agency in charge of the protection, research, conservation, and dissemina-
tion of the national cultural patrimony.
An emeritus member of the Advisory Council on Underwater Archaeology, Luna is also a member
of the Society for Historical Archaeology's UNESCO Committee, the International Commission
on Monuments and Sites International Committee on the Underwater Cultural Heritage.
TheJ.C. Harrington Medal is named in honor of Jean Carl Harrington (1901-1998), one of the
pioneer founders of historical archaeology in North America and honors a lifetime of contribu-
tions to the discipline centered on scholarship.
INA Quarterly * SPRING 2010
The Institute of Nautical Archaeology and East Carolina
University's Program in Maritime Studies have signed an
agreement to collaborate on projects both in the United
States and abroad. The ECU Program, based in the
Department of History, is comprised of faculty and staff
who specialize in maritime history and underwater and
nautical archaeology. Founded in 1981 by Dr. William N.
Still, Jr. as the Program in Maritime History and Underwa-
ter Research, along with Gordon P. Watts, Jr., this
interdisciplinary program offers a Master of Arts degree.
In addition to faculty from the Department of History,
faculty from the Department of Anthropology, Planning,
Geology, and the Institute for Coastal and Marine
Resources also offer courses and mentor students in the
Maritime Studies Program. Since its inception, the
Program has graduated over 175 students, most of whom
who now hold prominent positions with the Nauonal
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Marine
Sanctuaries Program, the National Park Service, Parks
Canada, the U.S. Navy, the U.S. Coast Guard, various
state underwater and nautical archaeology programs,
museums, universities, colleges and cultural resource
INA PresidentJames Delgado was an early graduate of
the program, receiving his M.A. there. A number of
ECU graduates, like Dr. Delgado, have received a Ph.D.
from other universities, or are Ph.D. students- including
some at Texas A&M University. East Carolina University
also offers a Ph.D. in Coastal Resources Management,
and students from the Program in Maritime Studies
have continued their graduate degrees in Coastal
In addition to classroom study and work in the
Program's conservation laboratory, ECU students
participate in yearly archaeological field schools and on
individual research projects aimed at their thesis topics.
ECU projects through the decades have focused on a
variety of sites in the United States, Bermuda and
Canada from prehistoric sites and watercraft, to historic
period resources that date from the Colonial period up
to more modern times, including Revolutionary War
shipwrecks, Civil War wrecks-like the famous ironclad
USS Monitor-blockade runners, transport ships and
gunboats, early steamboats and steamships, and World
War II wrecks.
The Program in Maritime Studies has its own offices in
the historic Admiral Ernest M. Eller House, with a
seminar room, offices, computer laboratory and library,
and is currently planning an expanded facility. Headed
by Dr. Lawrence E. Babits, the Program is an active
participant and a leader in North American nautical
archaeology, maritime history, and material culture
studies. INA is currently providing some support for an
ECU project headed by Dr. David Stewart and Dr. Fred
Hocker of the Vasa Museum in Stockholm to archaeo-
logically document the 1628 shipwreck Vasa, and this new
agreement paves the way for continued collaboration.
In conjunction with
Texas A&M University's
and East Carolina
University, this year INA
will be conducting 27
around the globe in the
United States, Canada,
Bermuda, the Bahamas,
Turkey, Spain, Lebanon,
Cyprus, Sweden, Italy,
Ukraine, Japan, Vietnam
and at sea between
Crete and Egypt.
Fourteen of the
projects are new
thirteen are ongoing.
New projects are marked
with an asterisk*
Bach Dang Documentation and Assessment
Randall Sasaki andJun Kimura.
A National Geographic Society-sponsored survey and
assessment at the site of a famous battle outside Hanoi
where Mongol invaders sent by Kublai Khan met with
defeat in 1288. This year, excavation of a portion of the
battlefield, and a coring survey of other areas of the site
should pinpoint the location of the ships lost in the battle.
Bajo de la Campana Phoenician Shipwreck
Mark Polzer and Juan Pinedo
The third season of a National Geographic Society-
sponsored excavation on a 7th-century BC Phoenician
shipwreck will commence again this summer off
Cape Gelidonya Re-Excavation*
George E Bass and Nicolle Hirschfeld
A 50th anniversary return to the site of the excavation
of a 13th-century BC Bronze Age shipwreck, the first
wreck completely excavated by an archaeologist
working underwater. The team will resurvey the site,
seeking new finds and insights after five decades.
Gold Rush Steamer Survey, Yukon
John Pollack and Robyn Woodward
The well-preserved remains of Klondike Gold Rush era
steamers will be the focus of a second season of field
survey and documentation in this remote wilderness.
A.J. Goddard, discovered in Lake Laberge, will be the
focus of National Geographic Society-sponsored dives.
Anthony Wayne Shipwreck Survey
Bradley Krueger and Carrie Sowden
In partnership with the Great Lakes Historical Society,
this project will investigate the remains of Anthony
Wayne, a mid-nineteenth century side-wheel steamer
that met a tragic end off the shores of Vermilion, Ohio.
Baltic Ghost Wreck Project
The 2010 field season will continue the documentation
and filming of this perfectly preserved, nearly intact
merchant vessel from the early to mid 17th century
found off the coast of Sweden in the Baltic.
USA - Texas
Blockade Runner Denbigh Write Up
J. Barto Arnold
The process of writing up the results of the work for
publication for the test excavation and documentation
of this Civil War blockade runner's wreck continues.
Health and Disease on the Dutch High Seas*
Working in collaboration with the Western Australia
Maritime Museum, this student project will assess
surgeon's instruments and medical chest contents from
three Australian wrecks of Dutch East India Company
Eastern Cyprus Maritime Survey, Cyprus
Cyprus' ancient shores once more are the setting for a
survey of shallower water sites, seeking shipwrecks, lost
stone anchors, discarded amphoras and other remains
from maritime activity in the vicinity of Cape Greco.
Continued excavation of an ancient wreck from the
2nd-3rd century AD, discovered on a previous survey
will assess this site for future study.
Erathosthenes Seamount Project*
In collaboration with the University of Rhode Island
and the Institute for Exploration, an INA/Texas A&M
team will participate as archaeological observers on a
geological survey of this submerged seamount between
Cyprus and Egypt to identify evidence of ancient seafaring.
Frigate Ertugrul Underwater Excavation
The survey and excavation of the site of a tragic 1890
shipwreck of an Ottoman naval frigate on a mission to
Japan again involves a joint Turkish-Japanese team.
Excavation of an Ancient Ship at Godavaya*
In collaboration with scholars from the National Center
for Scientific Research (CNRS) in Paris and the
Department of Near Eastern Studies at UC-Berkeley, a
small INA team will explore the remains of a recently
discovered ancient shipwreck off the coast of Sri Lanka.
Harbors of the Delta: Ancient Thmuis*
This project, in collaboration with the University of
Hawaii and Mansurah University, will seek to locate the
buried harbor at Tell Timai, on the Nile Delta, using
coring to drill into the sediments.
Harbour Island Archaeological Survey
This project will investigate sites on land associated with
British maritime and mercantile activity from the late
17th and early 18th centuries at Harbour Island, a
British settlement in the Bahamas.
O INA Quarterly . 2010 SPRING
USA - Missouri
Missouri Shipwreck Legislation*
As part of a graduate student review of historic
shipwreck legislation in the United States, this project
focuses on the salvage of historic steamboat wrecks, the
history of the State's legislation to protect historic
wrecks, and its effectiveness.
TURKEY - Bodrum Research Center
Nautical and Naval Foodways Assessment *
The project's aim is to work on artifacts from INA
excavations that specifically address questions of
nautical and naval foodways over a large time span and
Puerto Rico Survey*
This project will survey a four square mile section of the
coast of Puerto Rico to locate and assess a number of
potential shipwrecks in the area.
Renaissance Venetian Naval Manuscript Study
An ongoing assessment and study of rare Venetian
manuscripts dating from 1500 to 1620 will continue to
add to our knowledge of Renaissance shipbuilding in
this center of Mediterranean trade and culture.
St. Helena Submerged Maritime
Wendy van Duivenvoorde
This project, in collaboration with the Western Australia
Maritime Museum, will survey and assess James and St.
Rupert's bays on the South Atlantic island of St. Helena,
an important port for Portuguese, Dutch and English
mariners from the 16th century AD as well as an
important link in later maritime trade and naval activity
linking Europe to South Africa, Asia and Australia.
USA - Vermont
This early American steamboat caught fire and sank in
Vermont's Lake Champlain in October 1819. Rediscov-
ered and the subject of a preliminary documentation
project in 1981, Phoenix will now be extensively
documented and virtually reconstructed on computer
and on paper.
Vasa Upper Gundeck Recording Project*
DavidJ. Stewart and Frederick Hocker
This project, a collaboration with East Carolina
University and the Vasamuseet in Stockholm,
continues the detail archaeological documentation
of the upper gundeck of the intact 1628 Swedish
warship Vasa. A group of students will survey and
document the gundeck using electronic instruments
and hand measurement.
Documentation and Analysis of Ship
Remains at Wadi Gawasis *
This project will assess the conservation needs,
develop a conservation plan, and continue the
documentation, analysis and publication of ship
remains from a later Old Kingdom (c. 2450 BCE) to
New Kingdom (c. 1400 BCE) pharaonic port on the
coast of the Red Sea.
Piotr Bojakowski and Katie Custer Bojakowski
In collaboration with the Bermuda Maritime
Museum, this project will excavate the race-built
galleon Warwick, which wrecked while at anchorage
in Castle Harbour, during a hurricane in 1619.
War of 1812 Shipwrecks Project*
This survey of portions of Lake Ontario will seek to
locate the remains of three American warships from
the War of 1812.
Western Ledge Reef Wreck Timber Analysis
Piotr Bojakowski and Katie Custer Bojakowski
The timbers from this early 17th-century wreck,
previously excavated in Bermuda, are being
documented and reconstructed on paper and
TURKEY - Bodrumn Research Center
Yassiada Amphora Study
Frederick van Doorninck and Peter van Alfen
Amphoras recovered from the Yassiada excavation
will be analyzed in the Griffis Conservation
Laboratory to determine capacity.
TURKEY - Bodrurn Research Center
Yenikapi Vessel Conservation and Analysis*
Rebecca Ingram and MichaelJones
Texas A&M Nautical Archaeology Program
graduate students continue the conservation and
analysis of Byzantine shipwreck hulls recovered from
the Yenikapi excavations in Istanbul.
Our 2010 INA projects
would not be possible
without the generous
support of donors,
benefactors and friends
who have supported the
fieldwork, excavation and
analysis represented here.
This illustration by
INA Research Associate,
Pearce Paul Creasman,
highlights the international
cooperation of the many
projects undertaken by
the Institute of Nautical
FROM THE BOTT
In the winter issue of the INA Quarterly, the commercial fishing method known as
"bottom trawling" was discussed as it related to our underwater cultural heritage (UCH).
Professional archaeologists, sport divers, and maritime heritage officers have been aware
of the damage caused to shipwrecks by trawling for many years. However, it has
remained hidden in site reports, online discussions, and small excerpts in books relating
to UCH. Through contacting various field archaeologists around the world, I began to
understand that there was consensus regarding the need for more publication on this
subject. Armed with curiosity, I delved into the topic from the bottom up.
A steel trawl door on the
NOAA ship Oscar Dyson.
PHOTO courtesy of NOAA
Detail from Landsat
satellite image, Gulf of
Mexico, Area 1, taken on
trawling vessels can be
seen as bright spots at
end of sediment trails.
Other bright spots are
fixed oil and gas
One sediment trail can
be traced for 27 km.
Assuming a standard
trawling speed of 2.5
knots, sediment from
this trawl is visibly
nearly 6 hours.
Scope of the Work
In the spring of 2008, I began research to gain a
better understanding of how commercial bottom
trawling impacts shipwreck sites. It was impor-
tant to start with the history of the practice to
learn how long and in what areas of the world
the gear was being used. The earliest reference
to comparable equipment in use today was in
the form of a complaint to the English parlia-
ment in 1376 regarding the use of the "wondyr-
choun." The "wondrous machine" derives its
name from the amount of fish it would d catch,
but the small mesh size did not allow forjuvenile
fish to escape the net. Complaints arose based
on the depletion of fish stocks and the destruc-
tion of the seabed. The description and dimen-
sions of the wondyrchoun are comparable to a
small modern beamtrawl.
The next evolution in bottom trawling was the
application of steam power in 1865. This
marked the beginning of the gradual increase in
the size of trawl gear and the application of new
types of fishing rigs. Most importantly was the
introduction of "otter boards" in 1894, which
are more commonly known today as trawl doors
iFig. I . These doors made it possible to tow
significantly larger nets as they used the hydro-
dynamic force of the water to hold the net open,
rather than a fixed beam such as is the case with
a beamtrawl. Once an understanding of the
gear, its applications, and the scope of its use
was understood, it was possible to begin search-
ing the literature for its environmental impacts to
Large amounts of data have been gathered by
marine scientists, that which has provided insight
into how deep trawls penetrate, as well as the
size of objects on the seabed that can be
displaced, removed, or crushed by the gear.
This literature has also allowed for a better
understanding of the changes to the chemical
and sediment composition of the seafloor after
trawling. These changes can affect the preserva-
tion of a shipwreck in the immediate region.
Oxygen levels can be altered as the trawl causes
sediment re-suspension. A site may also experi-
ence the removal of protective sediments
depending on the nature of the wreck. The
literature also revealed the ability of a bottom
trawl to move boulders and large epifauna on the
seafloor. A picture began to unfold of the
damage a trawl could do to a fragile wreck. This
was later confirmed after a number of w recks
were found in the archaeological literature in
which heavy guns and ship timbers had been
removed or displaced by trawl gear.
Scouring the archaeological publications proved
most difficult. No publications were found that
dealt with the threat of bottom trawling directly.
More beneficial was personal communication
with various archaeologists around the world
with first-hand knowledge of the topic. It quickly
became apparent that trawling is affecting
shipwreck sites around the globe. The only
limiting factors were areas of the sea closed to
fishing, regions where the seabed is too rocky
or steep for bottom gear, or regions and depths
lacking enough oxygen to sustain a fish popula-
Managing the Threat
To further the discussion of bottom trawling we
need to turn our attention away from the actual
damage that is caused to shipwrecks and under-
stand how it can be managed. According to
Article 5 of the 2001 UNESCO Convention on
the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage,
it is the responsibility of the Member State to
manage all indirect threats to UCH within their
EEZ. There is no governing body currently
regulating the high seas. Within the fishing
industry, Regional Fisheries Management
Organizations iRFMOj are voluntarily joined by
States for the purpose of managing fifth stocks
and other pertinent issues. These organizations
are sanctioned by the U.N. and usually consist of
a number of Nations which have interests in
specific Fishing grounds. RFMO's are an impor-
tant resource for managing bottom trawling and
UCH. Cooperation between fisheries organiza-
tions and State offices of cultural heritage is
crucial to managing this threat. Fishermen are a
great resource for archaeologists and often locate
wrecks when they encounter artifacts in their
gear. By having easy reporting and management
procedures in place, damage may be mitigated
and current wrecks protected. As Deborah Marks
120091 stated in the last issue of the LA-1 Quatrlery,
fisherman do not wish to encounter wrecks as
they are likely to damage expensive gear. Work-
ing together to identity the locations of wrecks
and create a buffer around them would be
beneficial to all parties.
What is not beneficial is to allow commercial
salvage companies to raise artifacts from wrecks
threatened by bottom traw ling. It is the role of
the UN member State to protect known wrecks
within their EEZ, and thus protections should be
put in place, either in the form of areas closed to
navigation such as sites under the Protection of
Wrecks Act (1973), or physical undersea protec-
tions which are commonly used in many areas of
the world. Replacing one threat with another
simply does not solve a problem.
If the issue of bottom trawling is to be addressed,
it would be most beneficially done on a regional
level where State governments can assess the
impacts of this practice and how it pertains to
their UCH. An example of this would be the
Furthering the discussion of
. BOTTOM TRAWLING
work of NOAA within their marine sanctuaries
and updated management plans. With different
gear types and intensity) levels, fishing impacts
will be varied by location. A comprehensive
understanding of bottom trawling and its effects
is necessary in order to create better manage-
ment strategies. This will also be beneficial to
those seeking to locate wrecks that have not been
previously damaged, as efforts can be focused on
areas that are not as extensively trawled.
Michael Brennan 12009) presented an excellent
example of this in the last issue of the quarterly.
It is likely that a significant number of unknown
wrecks have been impacted by trawling around
the world. Hopefully with more cooperation and
understanding, we can net some better ideas for
managing bottom trawling.
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Assessing the potential of ancient mid-Atlantic crossings: a Mesoamerican perspective
By Romeo H. Hristov, INA Research Associate
and Richard T. Callaghan, Associate Professor of Archaeology, University of Calgary, Canada
After more than five centuries of polemics, the archaeological excavations in El Bebedero (1985-90) and Buena Vista
(2006-2009) in Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, have uncovered the first incontestable evidence of Roman, Punic, and
Phoenician contacts with the archipelago between X century BC and IV-V century AD. The finds, although not particu-
larly spectacular (in both sites they are restricted mostly to sherds of imported amphorae and a few metal artifacts) have
provided relevant new information about the chronology and extension of the ancient navigation in the Atlantic ocean and,
as a by-product, a few noteworthy insights on the possibilities of ancient transatlantic voyages. It requires no more than a
glance at the Pilot Charts of the Atlantic to see that the currents and the winds around the archipelago make some drifts
inside the ocean inevitable; in fact, several drifts across the Mid-Atlantic from the area around the Canaries have been
documented between XVIII century and 2006. Although the scale of the ancient navigation toward and around the
archipelago is still uncertain, considering its chronological span of nearly a millennium and a half, one may safely note that
some trans-Atlantic drifts are highly likely to have happened during the above-mentioned period.
A grant from the Kon Tiki Museum made possible the undertaking in 2009 of a pilot project whose objective is a critical
re-appraisal of the possibilities of some, most likely unintentional, trans-Atlantic voyages of ancient Mediterranean ships to
Mesoamerica. Within this context, the archaeological data from the Canary Islands have raised two points worthy of close
consideration. First, besides the objects imported from the mainland, a complex of local cultural traits such as imitations of
amphorae, scaraboids, and three clearly identifiable symbols related to the cult of Tanit, among others, has been pointed
out as evidence of both contacts and cultural interactions. Most of these traits can also be identified in the Olmec heartland
(the present-day States of Veracruz and Tabasco, in Mexico), and their chronology is consistent with that of the ancient
voyages to the Canaries. Among these parallels the scaraboids deserve special attention, due to their presence not only in
the Canaries, but also in almost every Phoenician and Punic settlement along the Atlantic coasts of Spain and Morocco.
The second point is the pattern of cross-cultural interaction. Based on the existing evidence, the cultural exchanges in the
Canaries seem to have been limited mainly to the borrowing of two forms of ceramic vessels and a few cultivated plants and
religious beliefs (including related symbols and objects). Until now, no indication of a significant technological transfer, such
as the pottery wheel or the metallurgy, has been attested. If a contact between the ancient Mediterranean and the Meso-
american civilizations is decisively proven, their fundamental differences in technology, cultivated plants, languages and
writing systems, among others, make an analogous pattern of cross-cultural interaction the only applicable one.
Another task of the project, completed by Richard T. Callaghan, is the computer simulation of one hundred trans-Atlantic
drifts during each month of the year, starting off at the Canaries. These simulations demonstrate that the possibility of a
successful crossing of the Atlantic is approximately 90% and, although most of the landfalls occur in the Antilles or Brazil,
in certain months up to 21% of the voyages have reached the Central American and the Mexican coast.
The next phase of the project is aimed at locating areas along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico with the potential of providing
traces of pre-Columbian trans-Atlantic voyages, and to conduct systematical survey and a series of test excavations. As the
discovery of the Viking settlement in L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland has demonstrated, only such an approach can
legitimately verify or falsify any hypotheses of pre-Columbian transoceanic contacts and, in either case, advance our
understanding of the topic further than most other research has accomplished so far.
Photo 1. Sherds of Roman amphorae discovered in El Bebedero, Lanzarote. Photo Pablo Atoche Pefia.
Photo 2. Metal artifacts from El Bebedero, Lanzarote. Photo Pablo Atoche Pefia
Photo 3. Scaraboids found in various archaeological sites in Lanzarote. Photo Romeo H. Hristov
Photo 4. Olmec artifact of green stone closely resembling scaraboid. Photo Romeo H. Hristov
Ai Copper Oxhide Trade Ingots
a by Jeffrey A. Bennett
(Left) Cooled ingot being
pulled from mold
(Mid) Prof. Wayne Potratz,
Jeff Bennett, Jessica Tank,
Joseph Kelly, Gita Ghei from
University of Minnesota
(Twin Cities) Foundry
Molten copper oxhide
ingot in clay mold showing
ALL PHOTOS Jeff Bennett
Three foundry honors students from the University
of Minnesota and a regional metals artist, have just
finished an eight-month research project into the
molding materials and casting techniques used in
antiquity to make copper oxhide trade ingots. The
funded research was performed under the auspices
of the Undergraduate Research Opportunities
Program and mentored by Professor Wayne Potratz
(University of Minnesota-Twin Cities) and INA
member Jeff Bennett.
The group worked sequentially through a variety
of molding materials and casting procedures with
resulting surface characteristics nearly duplicating
published materials regarding various individual
ingots from the Ulu Burun shipwreck, Kas, Turkey.
Substantial background information for the group's
molding efforts were taken from academically
published materials by TA.M.U. professor and
scholars Dr. Cemal Pollack, doctoral candidate
Mike Jones and Thomas Larson, M.A.
Students participating in the project were Joseph
Kelly,Jen Haehnel, andJessica Tank. Gita Ghei, a
specialist in metallic patinas was also a major
participant in the research efforts. Ms. Tank and
Ms. Ghei both have backgrounds in ancient art and
archaeology, as well as sculptural foundry work.
Plans exist this summer to use the ingots in marine
side scan sonar runs to form an electronic digital
database. The database will assist ongoing world-
wide efforts to identify other wreck sites which may
also have contained cargoes of the oxhide ingots.
The scanning work is to be done by Wolfshead
Research of Duluth, MN.
The recast ingots were intentionally sized slightly
different from the originals to avoid potential
confusion. They will be cut up and recycled for
further casting research after a public display in
2011 hosted by the James Ford Bell Library, which
specializes in the history of trade, Dr. Marguerite
Ragnow-Curator. Presentation is also being
considered for upper midwest United States
archaeological and school groups.
At least two technical papers are planned from the
results of the research work. The papers will be
stored in the University of Minnesota library
system's Digital Conservancy and made available
for public use through Google Scholar.
INAs long-term support of both student involve-
ment and ongoing " tip of the spear" efforts to
encourage research is pivotal to endeavors like this.
Informational inquiries may be made to:
Professor and Scholar
College-University of Minnesota (Twin Cities)
Jeff Bennett (INA)
O INA Quarterly SPRING 2010
Archaeology and the Sea in Scandinavia and Britain
By Ole Crumlin-Pedersen
Published 2010 by the Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde
In this book. Ole Crumlin-Pedersen, the Danish pioneer of maritime archaeology, gives a fascinating
overview of more than forty of years of work. Beginning with the natural conditions for seafaring, the
author explains the evolution of basic water crall into those plank-built, sail-carrying ships which
enabled the seaborne activities of the Viking Age and the following medieval period, concluding with
case studies of the maritime cultural landscape of Roskilde Fjord and the ship as symbol.
Order your copy through the Viking Museum's on-line shop: www.vikingeshibsmuseet.dk
Hardcover DKK 349/C 47 + postage
The Way of Herodotus: Travels With the Man Who Invented History
Da Capo Press, 2008
Our thanks to [NA Director. Ned Boshell for his recommendation of this book. He notes "the book
describes many of the activities of INA in Bodrum. especially the Museum, Tufan and George." The
author retraces the footsteps of Herodotus through Greece, Turkey, Egypt and war-torn Iraq, exploring
the cultures and places Herodotus described 2,500 years ago. The lirst two chapters involve his visit to
Bodrum, once known as Halicarnassus, the home of Herodotus.
'"A digressive, witty blend of travel writing and popular history...Marozzi does not shy away from bold
statements or prurient details...clever."
Hardcoer $27.50 Order your copy at: www.amazon.com
" Archaeology and the Sea
in Scandinavia and Britain
J. Barto Arnold, M..A
Kroum Batchvarov, M.A.
Piotr Bojakowski, M.A.
Katie Custer, M.A.
Mari;i del Pilar l.una
Ben Ford, M.A.
Donald A. Fre\. Ph.D.
Jeremy Green, M.A.
Elizabeth Greene, Ph.D.
Jerome L. Hall, Ph.D.
Frederick Hanselmann, MN.A.
Kenzo Hayashida, M.A..
Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D.
Nicolle Hirschfeld, Ph.D.
Frederick Hocker, Ph.D.
Jun Kimura, M..\.
Carolyn G. Koehler, Ph.D.
Bradley A. Krueger
Justin Leidwanger, M.A.
Margaret E. Leshikar-
Colin Martin, Ph.D.
Asal' Oron, M.A.
Ralph K. Pedersen, Ph.D.
Charlotte Minh Ha Pham
Robin C.M. Piercy
Juan Pinedo Reves
Mark Polzer, M.A
JelT Royal, Ph.D.
Randall Sasaki, M.A.
George Schwarz, MI..\.
lnrica Soderlind, Ph.D.
David Stewart, Ph.D.
Peter van .\Alfen, Ph.D.
\Vend\ van Dui\entoorde,
Cheryl Ward, Ph.D.
Gordon P. Vatts,Jr., Ph.D.
Robvn Woodward. Ph.D.