Group Title: INA quarterly
Title: The INA quarterly
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: The INA quarterly
Alternate Title: Institute of Nautical Archaeology quarterly
Abbreviated Title: INA q.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Publisher: Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Place of Publication: College Station TX
College Station, TX
Publication Date: Summer-Fall 2010
Frequency: quarterly
Subjects / Keywords: Underwater archaeology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Archéologie sous-marine -- Périodiques   ( rvm )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 19, no. 1 (spring 1992)-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 23, no. 2 (summer 1996).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098800
Volume ID: VID00059
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 26536606
lccn - sf 94090290
issn - 1090-2635
 Related Items
Preceded by: INA newsletter (Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.))

Full Text

.7 'I


George F Bass, Ph.D., Chairm-in Enm riuist. Michael Katze' ddi ea.ed Jack W\. Kellehy, John Baird ,dt-i a,-d,

James P. Delgado. Ph.D., Prc-ident
Ccmal M. Pulak, Ph.D.. \'ie Prescient
KevinJ. Cri-,nan. Ph.D., \ice Presid'nt
Frederick Hanselmann, iitwlId Ar. haeologi Ditr Saflrt Ollicer
Chasit\ I Hedlund. Oflicre MNlnagrr
Tainaira Hebeit. Lead Ullit A.I.otuatc
uliba Ekmeki. Dircirtr. B.,druni RC- arcih Centcr
0lerm DogEan. Fiantc M.anager. Bodrum Researth Centmr

Board of Directors & Officers
Dr. O(uz Avdemir Robert D. Ballard, Ph.D. Edvward 0. Bushell,Jr. *John Cassil., M.D. Gregor MNI. C(.ok
Lucy Darden lhoimaas FE Darden John De Lapa Carl Douglas Claude Duthuit' DanielleJ. F(ene\ *
Charles P. Garrison, M.D., Chairman' Donald Geddes III. Pat Chairman Ja ames Goold, S.ccretar\ & General Corunsel"
Dr. Robert Hohllelder, Ph.D. (Charle-Johnsorn, Ph.D. Gregor! MNl. Kiwz MNu.tala Koc; C(aptain Allred
McLaren. L'SN iRet.i Ph.D. Alex G. Nason George E. Robb,Jr. .ndrei% Sansomr Ai han Siciimnuilu
Cl\de P. Smith. Treasurer* *Jason Sturgis Peter \an All'en. Ph.D. Frederick \an Doorninck.Jr.. Ph.D.'
Robert L. walkerr Ph.D.' Lew Ward Peter NI. \a\'v Rob)n W\nodard, Ph.D. .ally 1I. \amini

Associate Directors
EL.La Acikel Goldon \\ Bass George R. Belcher Ra\nete Boshell Allan Campbell. M.D Stephen Chandler
William C. Culp. NI.D Glenn Darden Nicholas GriTli' JeTff Hakku Robin P. Hartmann Faith Hcntschel, Ph.D.
Suan Katze\ \\illi;am C. Klein, MN.D. Selcuk Kol.i G;eorge I.otdge I lonimas lMRNlCa'landJr. Michael Plank
.A\ei-r Battle Russell Anne Darden Self Lynn Baird Shaw Betse\ Bushell Todd Marn Touze GCi-ar A. Weber
Roger A. \Williamison, Ph.D.

Nautical Archaeology Program Faculty, Texas A&M University
Deborah N. Carlson, Ph.D., A.-,ljan Pr,,ei.-,r, Sara \V. and (Georg 0 Yarimmi -, tli,,
Luis Filipe Vieira de Castro, Ph.D.. Ass.itanr Prutlesir. I-redernck R jMal,er Ia.uli., I-ello," ofl Nauncal Arthaeology
Ke'inJ. Crisman, Ph.D.f A.-n-aren Profl w-.r. Nauica] Artha'olong F Farlr FRill-\
Donn\ L. Hantilton. Ph.D., George I & (Glad,, H. Abhll Chair in NatJicai l Art.hatenlogp Yammri IFj nil Chair in Liberal A.t'r
Cemal Pulak, Ph.D.. IrIedrnck R. Iac ulI\ ProleCrsr 0o Natiical Archaeolog',
C. \\a\ ne Smith, Ph.D.. Asnciar- Prr.-feIor, INA Fatilrx Fillo,,
Shelle\ \\achsiann. Ph.D.. MNladot\- Profi s-or no Bil)lical .Archajolog',

Nautical Archaeology Program Emeritus Faculty, Texas A&M University
George E Bass. Ph.D.
i.i.or.. I & iladrl', H \bell C.hart in Nauti...ii Ar.haenol. i,. a3mml I'anmil Chair [n LbLral .L-r [l) nirtng i.hthd Prol, ..or, I.nintu,
Frederick H. %an DojUrninik.Jr., Ph.D.
Frru'-n,.k R Nai\tr I-' ul'. Pro'lcf ur of Nauunta.l A hac..-.JoL, Lnim ntu'

Supporting University Partners
East Carolina University Flinders University
Lawrence E. Babits, Ph.D. Mark Stanifurth. Ph.D.
Wade Dudle\, Ph.D. Jennifer McKinnon
Susanne Grieve, .MA Enul. JatelT 7
LI nn Harris, Ph.D. John Naumann
Cahlin Mires, LMA
Michael Palmer, Ph.D.
Gerald Prokopowicz, Ph.D. E
Nathan Richards. PhD. ,
Bradle- Rodiers. Ph)D.
David Stewart, Ph.D.
Carl S\\anson. Ph.D Lj

A Letter from the President

The Summer of 2010 was a busy time as INA's
partners, affiliated faculty, graduate students,
staff, volunteers and research associates took to
the field to survey, excavate, conserve, analyze
and research. From the archives of Venice to the
dark depths of the North Atlantic, from the
subarctic wilderness of the Yukon to the sands
of Egypt, from the Mediterranean coasts of
Albania, Spain and Turkey to the rice paddies of
Vietnam, at INAs Bodrum Research Center and
in the vaults of the Bodrum Museum of Under-
water Archaeology.. discovery, science and
learning took place on a global scale that also
spanned a millennial view of human history.
In College Station, the staff worked behind the
scenes to help make all of that happen, while at
the offices of Texas A&M University Press,
scholarship of projects past was edited, laid out
and prepared for publication as part of the Ed
Rachal Series in Nautical Archaeology, while new
manuscripts arrived for scholarly peer review.
We ended our 2010 fiscal year on August 31
with a balanced budget and dramatic growth in
fundraising, with support from INA's directors
doubling that of 2009 with over a half-million
dollars in contributions. Our endowment,
battered by the economy of 2009, has been
steadily recovering thanks to the astute manage-
ment of G. Donald Geddes III. We cut adminis-
trative overhead and added more resources to
the practice of archaeology and to project
support in this past fiscal year, and so, to
paraphrase Frank Sinatra, "it was a very good
This is my last letter to you as President of INA.
When I was hired by the board to be an agent of
change in 2006, I was handed a series of tasks
that have now been completed. Despite the
financial difficulties of 2009 that hit INA and
many other non-profits as well as businesses and
households, we are in sound financial shape. We

have a strategic plan, a diverse and strong group
of friends and partners, new alliances that build
on strengths and augment our ability to achieve
our mission, and outreach and the ability to share
what we do with a larger audience than ever
before. I am proud of what we as the INA family
have been able to achieve, both administratively,
but particularly in the field. INAs core mission is
archaeology, and as the pages of this issue of
The INA Quarterly and the just-released INA Annual
demonstrate, a great deal of good archaeology is
underway and has been accomplished.
At the INA Annual Meeting, which was held in
Newport, Rhode Island this year, the Board
elected Dr. Deborah Carlson INAs next President.
Until Dr. Carlson can begin her new duties
sometime in the Spring of 2011 as she transitions
from a fulltime faculty member at Texas A&M to
INA, Dr. Robert Walker of Texas A&M Univer-
sity will serve as Interim President. I want to
thank Dr. Walker for agreeing to step in during
the transition, and I offer my sincere congratula-
tions to Dr. Carlson. Both Bob and Debbie believe
in nautical archaeology, on doing it right, and in
the need for a strong academic program in
nautical archaeology and the need for an organi-
zation like INA. I joined INA because I also
believe in those things, and I remain firmly
committed to them and to seeing both A&M and
INA remain strong and having a proud future. A
call to public service has dictated a change in my
employment after five years with INA, but I
remain a firm friend and am ready to assist
whenever and wherever if asked.
Thank you for being part of INA.


Jim Delgado
President & CEO


Ann and Jim, seen here
at the 2009 INA Annual
Meeting will now call
Washington, DC 'home.'

SUMMER-FALL 2010 VOLUME 37 No.2 &3


Report from the Chair
INA Chairman Dr. Charles P Garrison

Where in the World?
INA 2010 Project Directors report back

Celebrating 50 Years
A return to the birthplace of nautical archaeology

The Joy of Nautical Archaeology
Nicolle Hirshfeld reflects on this summer's expedition

Monitoring the screens in the control room
aboard the Research Vessel Icebeam over the
"Ghost Ship" site in the Baltic (2010).
The wooden sailing vessel Lutfi Gelil at anchor
over the Cape Gelidonya wreck site (1960).

O INA Quarterly SUMMER FALL 2010

Events Announcements Celebrations Opportunities

Markyour calendars as an AIA Lecture event may be coming to a venue nearyou...

The Uluburun Ship and Late Bronze Age Maritime Trade in the
Eastern Mediterranean
in Houston, TX (venue TBA)
Lecturer: Cemal Pulak
Dr. Pulak is the the latest presenter in the Bass Lecture Series, honoring one of INAs founders, Dr.
George Bass. Pulak is an Associate Professor with the Nautical Archaeology Program at Texas
A&M University, and since 1994 has been the Vice President and Director of Research in Turkey
of the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. He is Director of excavations of the Yenikapi Byzantine
Shipwrecks at Istanbul, the Sultan's Galley (Kadirga) Project at the Istanbul Naval Museum, and
the Uluburun Bronze Age Shipwreck Research and Conservation, Turkey.

Building the Pharaoh's Ship: Sail Like an Egyptian
in Providence, RI at Brown University
in Houston TX
in Bozeman
Lecturer: Cheryl Ward
Based on the study of ancient Egyptian ship timbers found in pharonic harbors on the Red Sea
coast, a 20-m long, 30-ton ship was built in 2008, and then sailed on the Red Sea the following
year. Cheryl Ward will discuss the design, building, and rigging of the reconstruction Min of the
Desert featured in a recent NOVA program. Though long questioned, ancient Egyptian seagoing
technology proved to be superior, as the ship was a stable, swift and seaworthy vessel.
Ward is Director of the Center for Archaeology and Anthropology, and Associate Professor and
Marine Archaeologist with Coastal Carolina University's Department of History

The Tekta Burnu Shipwreck: Shedding New Light on Classical lonia
in Los Angeles
in San Diego
in Denver
in Boulder
in Charleston
Lecturer: Deborah Carlson
As the Assistant Director of the Tekta Burnu excavation, Carlson will explore what was revealed
by the remains of a small Greek merchant ship-the only Classical shipwreck ever to be fully
excavated in Aegean waters-that sank between 440 and 425 B.C. Finds include a pair of marble
ophthalmoi (the only eyes ever found in association with an ancient vessel), and the earliest securely
dated examples of lead-filled anchor stocks. Dr. Carlson is the first female appointed to Texas A& M's
nautical archaeology faculty. She has served as the Archaeological Director of Institute of Nautical
Archaeology's excavation of an early first century B.C. Roman shipwreck at Kizilburun, Turkey
and was the 2003/2004 recipient of the AA's OliviaJames Traveling Fellowship. Professor Carlson
is AIAJoukowsky Lecturer for 2010/2011.

Cheryl Ward

Deborah Carlson


As many of you are awareJim Delgado will be leaving
INA to pursue a new opportunity as director of the
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's
(NOAA) Maritime Heritage Program, and I would like to
thank him for his guidance and contributions to our
organization, and wish him all the very best in this new
As President of INA,Jim was charged by the Board with
being an "agent of change" for the organization, and
there have indeed been new directions and opportunities
laid out before us. His contract responsibilities identified
establishing strategic and operating goals, the develop-
ment of projects, fundraising (including the task of raising
$500,000 of additional funding resources), as well as
marketing & communications, as the key aspects of his
Actions taken and goals achieved (2006 2010)
INA completed its first-ever strategic plan, thanks to the
leadership of then Chairman Peter Way, the professional
guidance of Andrew Sansom, and the participation of
then President Donny Hamilton, as well as faculty, board,
staff and our Founder, Dr. Bass. Through this process a
"new direction" for INA was developed, and is in the
process of implementation. It was adopted by the Board
and reaffirmed by the full board at the 2009 annual
meeting. This strategic plan, which will be monitored and
adjusted with the board's approval in accord with market
developments and emergent critical needs, ensures a
viable future for INA.
INA has been "re-branded" with an outlook and
partnerships that are now truly global in scope and which
reach beyond Texas A&M University. INA has a formal
memorandum of affiliation with Flinders University in
Australia, and East Carolina University in the U.S., and
has pending agreements under review by Dokuz Eylul
University (Turkey), Coastal Carolina University (U.S.),
Sodert6rns University (Sweden), and the Tokyo Univer-
sity of Marine Science and Technology Japan). INA has
a pending convefiio or agreement with the Republic of
Panama for cooperation and authority to survey and
excavate in that country awaiting final approval and
signature with the Instituto Nacional de la Cultura, and
a similar agreement is being completed for signature in
December with the Republic of Vietnam's Institute of
Archaeology for work on the Kublai Khan site in
Quang Yen.
INA has a renewed and strengthened relationship with
the National Geographic Society. Between 2007 and 2010

more than $200,000 has been granted to INA by the
society. In the first feature to appear in its magazine in
several years, NGS will be covering the Phoenician wreck
found at Bajo de la Campana in an article to be published
in 2011. The AJ Goddard wreck project has also enjoyed
NGS support with an article also planned. National
Geographic News has covered this particular INA project
in the Yukon with a strong online presence, receiving
more than a million web "hits." The society also spent the
summer capturing images for a feature on the Gelidonya
50th Anniversary Re-Excavation project that was written
about by Fabio Esteban Amador last month.
Thanks to director Claude Duthuit's support, and with
the Board's approval, INA completed an audit and legal
review of its Turkish operations in 2008. Following that
review, Bodrum Research Center operations were
adjusted to adhere to Turkey's current legal and political
structure. The new structure allows the BRC to operate
more efficiently and at a reduced annual cost. At the same
time, an action plan for resolving a multi-year backlog of
conservation and publication at the BRC was prepared
and implemented. This lengthy and essential process
provided more than a clean bill of health for the BRC; it
identified a number of deficiencies that were corrected,
and focused the BRC on a core mission of conservation,
analysis and publication until such time as those backlogs
are eradicated. Work on this is going well and is ahead of
Our president has played an active role in raising more
than $2.1 million for INA and for nautical archaeology at
Texas A&M University through direct cash contributions,
sponsorships, grants, and in-kind support. There are two
pending planned giving pledges of $1,000,000 each to the
Texas A&M University Foundation that will manage the
funds for INA.
Several new directors have been recruited and play
significant roles on the Board with governance, project
support, and financial support.
The INA budget was reduced in response to the global
economic downturn of 2009. Working with the executive
committee, includingJim, and Treasurer Clyde Smith, a
new system for tracking and following up on director
pledges of support has been implemented resulting in
Director contributions for this fiscal year totaling more
than $600,000-double that of contributions in 2006.
The office in College Station was reorganized and
refocused with staff and organizational independence from
Texas A&M University's Department of Anthropology.

INA Quarterly SUMMER FALL 2010

As I write this, INA's 2010
Annual General Meeting will
soon be underway, making
it an opportune time to
reflect on the organization's
many accomplishments.

INAs long-serving and loyal Chasity Hedlund runs the
office, and recent hire Tamara Hebert is the lead office
associate. There is also a student worker who assists in
clerical functions and as the receptionist.
Again working withJim and Clyde, and with the approval
of the executive committee, in 2010 INA has outsourced
its accounting to our former auditors, Thompson, Derrig
& Craig, a firm that has worked with INA for many years.
With the funds freed up by this change, we are now able
to focus more resources on archaeology, project support,
development and fundraising, membership, and market-
ing. Frederick Hanselmann has been hired as INA's field
archaeologist and dive safety officer, by just such a budget
re-allocation of dollars.
A prioritized publication plan for INA research was
prepared and adopted in cooperation with the Nautical
Archaeology Program and Texas A&M University Press.
All top priorities are in support of Texas A&M faculty
projects and include Tekta Burnu, Pabuc Burnu,
Kizilburun, and Mombasa. Additional publications in the
plan include past projects by INA members and research
associates such as the Yorktown Shipwreck project and the
Kyrenia wreck.
The WLA Quarterly was successfully relaunched in a new
format. It focuses on INA news and initiatives and is
primarily used as a marketing, membership, and develop-
ment tool. The new IWA Annual was launched in 2008,
with a second and improved volume published in 2009.
The third volume is in production and will be available at
the upcoming annual meeting. It is focused on scholar-
ship, featuring academic content and expanded articles by
INA scholars, both faculty and students.
Outreach and communication continue to be enhanced
through: our new and substantial website, features in
Archaeology Magazine (which in 2009 noted a number of
INA projects as the year's top archaeological discoveries)
and other publications, a new INA YouTube channel, and
a Facebook page. These tools have allowed us to share our
collective work, and our approach to nautical archaeology
with both existing and new audiences and all have
expanded INAs presence and reputation worldwide.
Our website has an extensive archive of past and present
scholarship and academic content, and continues to be
expanded and updated. The site received more than
50,000 visits in its first year and over the past month there
were a record 5750 visits.
INA's public profile has increased through both new
media, and ongoing initiatives and opportunities such as

the Bajo de la Campana, Yukon, and other projects.
Most recentlyJim's participation in the 2010 Titanic
mapping expedition has increased our profile interna-
tionally. INA's leading role in this multi-million dollar
expedition comes at no cost to our organization beyond
Jim's time and efforts on the project.
Our annual giving and endowment campaigns have been
successfully refocused in response to economic conditions
and lead to the afore mentioned planned giving pledges.
INAs relationships with the RPM Nautical Foundation
and ProMare, two affiliated partners founded by INA
directors, have been strengthened. INA is an active
participant in RPM's work in Albania,Jim sits on the
RPM Board of Directors, and both RPM and ProMare
have provided financial and logistical support for selected
INA projects.
Throughout his tenure,Jim has also taken an active role
in the support and mentoring of students at Texas A&M.
From reviewing grant applications and articles for
publication, to editing M.A. theses and manuscripts,
advising on employment possibilities, writing letters of
recommendation and creating opportunities for students
to be published in The INA Quarterly.
Ongoing communications with Texas A&M University
officials have also been a priority including meetings with
Presidents Gates and Murano, Vice President and INA
director Dr. Robert Walker, Dean CharlesJohnson, and
acting Dean Ben Crouch. While in the field in the
summer of 2010,Jim corresponded and sent a welcome
letter and package of INA materials to the newly arrived
Dean of Liberal Arts with a request for a meeting when
school reconvenes next month. He also attended a
number of meetings with Texas A&M University Press,
a key and significant relationship for publishing INA
Most recentlyJim developed a succession plan for his
own departure from the organization, suggesting four
potential successors for the position of president to
ensure a smooth transition to new leadership for this
As INA continues to focus on the vision and mission to
which we are all committed, it is the Board's engagement
in the process and the work we undertake together that
will ensure the ongoing success and development of this

- Dr. Charles P. Garrison

...m --

Where in the World...
2010 was a busy year for INA project directors and their teams out in
the field, in conservation and research labs, libraries and museums
ti'ihou.'hout 16 countries around the globe including the United States,
Canada, Egypt, Bermuda, Turkey, Spain, Sweden, Italy, and Vietnam.
Tl'.-.-rt, -Ir.i.- projects were underway in ci., j.i f i'riill with Texas A&M
University's Nautical Archaeology Program, Flinders University's
l.l1an:iiiin Archaeolgy Program, and East Carolina Unii.el-sit,
These projects would not be possible '.- hour the generous support
of donors, .r:n.;:"ii -. partners, benefactors and friends who have
supported the fieldwork, -. i-r,.iJrtli and analysis represented here.
For more information check out our project pages at...

Glass ingots
discovered during
a survey of the
Godavaya site,
in Sri Lanka

INA Quarterly SUMMER FALL 2010

Veronica and Khufti discuss
mudbrick wall at the site.

Ongoing construction work
on the Tell Tumai.


Blockade Runner Denbigh Project
INA Research Associate: J. Barto Arnold

The DeInbigh Project made progress in the research and write-up please during 2009-2010. 'wvo
research trips to the SE Region of the Naiional Archives yielded the exciting records regarding
a salvage case the ship was involved in and hundreds of customs invoices concerning the
merchandise private citizens shipped into Mobile from Havana 1, ',,l (the ivil \War. iThe
government blockade runner cargoes are I known lbut I lhe private cargoes are an untapped
field. 'Ihey have great interest lor what they reveal about daily life. ''h admiralty suit includes
the lirst and only document concerning doings aboard ship described in th(e fi . own
words. Both of these sources are shipwreck treasure more precious than emeralds and gold.
Texas A&MI Press is reviewing the book on prize lax and 1. that includes the salvage
case ust mentiollned.

The British Paddle
Steamer Denbigh

.... ,


World's oldest seagoing ships: New Details from Ancient Timbers
INA Research Associate: Cheryl Ward, PhD (Director, Center fr Archacolot and AnthroipoIlgl : Coastal (arolina Unitersity

The search for new infbrnmation about ancient
' i' seagoing ships and the administrative and
logistical support lor expeditions to Punt continued
this year with I Ys .1 ... at the pharaonic
harbour at Mecrsa/Wa\\.di Gawasis on Egypt's Red
Sea coast. I excavation, directed by Kathryn
Bard (Boston Univcrsi ty and Rodolfo Fattovich
'University Naples), includes a I II team
devoted to maritime material. This ear, I toward
,, IIn . i ....... INA-Egypt conlseC vator at the
Alexandria laboratory joiiicd ilohamred Abd
1-' 1 ....' I of the Supreme (Council of Antiquities,
Chiara Zazzaro of the Institute of Arab and
Islamic Studies at EIxeter Univrsity. and Cher yl
Ward (Coastal Caroliina Universityi In addition to
identiiing lnew ship components, we documented
a massive reworked section of a 111 plank and
investigated a deposit of ship timbers outside the
entrance to ( i i, gaithcring data that substan-
tially expand our understanding of ancient.
F I' seafaring capabilities and ship size.
State-sponsored expeditions brought thousands of
men Iromi Koptos i modern Quift to Gawasis to
stage agess that sought out exotic materials aind
animals froi Punt. or Godc's I.and, lor about 500
years, beginniii in thie late (ld Kingdorm 'Bard
and Fattovich ' i and continuing into the I16th
century B(E. Planning for such expeditions must
hav e begun years in advance, as cedar of Lebanon
is tlie primary timber used in thle hulls and had to
be imported from tlihe northeastern Mediterranean.

Steering oar blades
4m in length

Cheryl Ward examining ship
plank in gallery entrance.

Shipwrights built the ships at yards on tihe Nile,
then disassembled them and transported eachl
plank 90 miles across tihe Eastern Desert to
(awasis, where crews re-atssembled tlhe ships ir a
round-trip voyaNge of at least I I miles to the
southern Red Sea. At the end of the voyage,
workers disassembled the ships once again,
discard ng thousands ofi scraps of cedar spongy
with shipworml, along with ship timbers recycled
into architectural elements and other maritime
arelfacts (Ward and Zazzaro 2010'.
The seagoing ships relied on techniques docu-
miented for both cerctmonial and working cira-l on
the Nile \'Ward I ', and planks fiom I
vessels provide the oldest example of construction
techniques more frequently associated with the
Indian Ocean and Persian G I WVard and
Zazzaro 2010 I'he ship planlks at Gawasis share
features that indicate treimenidous stanidardization
in dimension and proportion, with a. lew notable
exceptions that we were able to explore this iear in
our intensive study of plank segment T64 and a
deposit of steering equipmenlt outside Gallery 6
(\ard et al 20)10,.
Plank segment T64 is a classic exaiplel of a
recycled ship timber. Etmbcdded in mudplaster
along ohe side of the i11 i T(4 represents less
than a third of the plank it camIe lfroim, but by
plotting out slains, shipwixorin damage, and tasleen-
ing patterns, we reconstructcd its original position
at the waterlinc at one end of tihe hull. Flvein milore


.. .

exciting to those of us who keep track of such
things, lithe tenons that held planks together proved
to he about 45 cm '.... roughly an ancient cubit,
and nearly twice as long as other trenoins recorded at
the site. The plank had to he at least 55 cm wid
and it is , a cubit 22.5 cmr thick, making it the
largest hull timber recorded to date.
As intriguing to us was discovering that a deposit of
timbers aligned with tihe still-blocked entry to
(, 6 consisted almost cntircly of steering gear.
' li\ o steering oar blades carved firom r'aidhcrbia
.11 I a local Red Sea and Eastern Desert species,
are about twxicc the size .1 the ii-st pair discovered
at the site in -' ." The new examples are 3.6 and
4 m long. I Il. steering oar I designed for Mio of ithe
Desero. a rcconstrluctioi based on evidence from
Gawasis (INAQ Fall _- 'I ,, replicates the first set of
blades exactly and reproduces tihe proportions of
steering o)rs iromi the Punt ship scene at
Hatshepsul's itinerary temple, and it is only 5 m
Ion g The unavoidable conclusion is that the ne\v
pair ol blades represents an oar at least 8.5 m 1 i
a size appropriate to a ship 30 meters '* .... rather
tlan the 20 mt calculated for the relics and
reflected in I I- 's construction.



Artifacts of interest from 2010
field season. From left to right,
top to bottom: fragments of a
bone handle, iron fork, bone
object, pewter broach, bone or
wood screw top.

The 2010 season team
Left: Heather Hatch
(Project Director)
Right: Catherine Sincich
(Crew member)

INA support for this project made it possible PHOTOS Heather Hatch
identify super-sized Egyptian ship remains in soIme
of the youngest deposits at (awaxsis. lihe strati-
graphic context indicates a very late Middle
Kingdom date, but further work will refin e the dae.
Where e work next will depend on the stability
and coherence of the Ifssil coral reef, but mlealn-
while, research in the modet l shop and labtorat ory is .
providing new ideas about ancient ships, to date, te to rad .der- l u xi
the world's oldest remains of seafaring i' ici ii l;>i -l'd *, Ihe


Mohamed Abd
el-Maguid, Cheryl Ward
and Chiara Zazzaro ,( o i
provide the scale for a I m i r a \ i
41-inch-long segment
of an ancient ship's
plank, 10" thick and
about 22" wide.




Research group and crew of
the 2010 expedition circle
the 'Hoekman' onboard
research vessel Icebeam.
More team members pose
on the dive vessel Mamma

PHOTO Soren Andersson

A knighthead with blocks for
: h .' iii -ii nn

,, l ) l Il i K

Research group and crew of

haliards used to
raise the sails.

The expedition managed to
recreate the transom, the
upper part of the stern,
which has fallen out
over the centuries.

The Ghost Ship expedition
managed to salvage a
wooden sculpture. The
sculpture was lifted with
a claw and guarded by it
divers during the ascent
to the surface.

All images copyright
Deep Sea Productions
Deep Sea Productions

INA Quarterly SUMMER FALL 2010


Research Vessel Icebeam surrounded by the fog. Missouri Shipwreck Legislation
INA Research Associate: Laura Gongaware

SShipwreck protect ion laws are essential in the fight
against treasury 1 ,, I but lfor these laxws to be
... ....i......r ....l ~..... ]'.tco:", ([I(,-tivte ica m ust be 'nlieccd. This o nlorces entn
...requires ma powtr, funding and a continued
public inter st in shipwrec k protection.

Missoiur i passed its iirst shipowr ec.k protection
st.llate ibn l91c, with a recent revision inl 2008.
The state's inte rest in I1 ,. protection was
slprkcid when treasure hunters destroyed the( 1820.s
steamboat Amli .ouri l'acket. As olln of the ll
9 westernrl river steamblloals. Packel would have made
a priceless addition to a state mullsemnlll. 1n'loriltl-
Snatell, the tir1'asureT hunters were only int' r('std in
m tionctarily >vahlucd cargo ind used a backhoe to rip

lpri1ate museum fell through, the treasure hunters
n)oved 7T to a, corrinfiId \xhxrL it, remains
i aii ii in liupl- (.*:'ii[ci:ir\ ilr i i ii Iiii i'> '|)hr today utnconservcd and exposed to the elements.

I i' I i's itoric Preservation Office is over-

Fred Hocker points out paint remnants on the carved "Hoekman." xtended and poorly funded. Its .11 are
unhaVaten of, tlel damage being caused b\hI these
treasure hunters, anid as a, reCslt, erifohtcrnellnt of
th- satc-'s shtipwr ck protection statute is a lo

monitored and tre asure hunting groups operate
-4-- publicly I xilhout o talining p r its.

I ,. .- m co-lV ('"' tul d resealrchl into l
shiipxrc ik legislation, I hope to further expose
treasury e hunting in h st ate and to0 p'(e that the
lenLacitm.lent ancid Irrcemient o tf ipit)rinek I)roteIt-
tion laws should be a greater prior 'rtllroughout
ihe UIhlnitcd Slates.

Laura Gongaware was
thrilled to also be diving
at the Cape Gelidonya
site this summer.
PHOTO Ryan C. Lee



(top) Depiction of
the running battle
11 September 1813.

INA Research Associate,
Ben Ford preparing to dive
in Lake Ontario.

Amphora at Bodrum
Castle in Turkey.

War of 1812 Shipwrecks
INA Research Associate: Ben Ford, PhD
Assistant Professo(r' Indiana Uynivrsity of Pc jnsyhmania
During Junc 2011, anl interdisciplinary team of
archaeologists, .,I.. ; I and students 1 1omi
Indiana Univcrsity of Pennsylvania IUP,. ilic
Great Lakes Historical Society. and the ( .I .,. of
(Charleston will surve-y portions of the Ilack River
and Lake Ontario to locate andl identity two War
of 1812 shipwrecks: the frigate A ohawk and an
unnamed 75-- ..r gunboat. In addition to provid-
ing information ()on this important ,,] in U.S.
maritime history, the w recks are expected to yield
valuable site-specific data. The hull of UIohawk will
likely provide significant details regarding the
adaptation of *. ..... ; ships to the I I
watlC'ers, ie( Great Lakes, while the gunboat has
the potential to shed light .on the adoption of
industrial shipbuilding techniques into the U.S.
The survey I utilize side-scan sonar. magnetom-
eter, and sub-bottom profilr data to identify
targets, and archaeological divers will then explore
potential site's to date (11erm and p- I ,11 relate
them to the War of I I _' shipN recks. Additionally,
sedineni' cores will be taken iomin around lie sites
andt the seliments I be I" ., .. I dated to
determine how and when the sites became buried.
These data will not only elucidate the processes
that formed these sites, but also the larger human-
generated changes to the environmeni brought on
v decllresltation and agriculture that led to
ilncreased erosion. TIl nllanv w\ ays. these processes
are a's much a l gacy of the Wa\r of 1812 as the
lrmalization ol the U.S. Navy\, as the end o tlle
war brought many new settlers to the shore's of
Lake Ontario.
Whlile the goal of this survey is to identitfyl oh/uwk
and the gunboat, it is possible that the remains of
General Wilkinson's fleet lost near the mouth of
the I;! River in an October 1813 storm) -II
also be encountered. This research is funded by
the National C . ,'1 Society/Waitt Grants
Program and IUP, with additional support frorm
llie ( .II o (hI I 1, i 1 and INA, and consti-
tutes the first phase of an ongoing project. Based
on the rsu lts of this survey, more focused excava-
tions II 1be planned.

INA Quarterly SUMMER FALL 2010

Evidence of Resistance Against the Mongolian Empire
INA Research Associates: Randall Sasaki, MA, and Jun Kimura, MA

I)iscovexring remains of the Mongolian I:Empire fleet is our goal. In 2009, INX made inroads into a new
expedition in Soui east Asia. This new internal ional coopelra ive project wi lthe Ma riime Ar, I . .1
Program (MAPN at Flinders University in Australia and lte Vietnamrn Institute , Archaeology 1.\,
colmmencted at the naval battle site related to the 13th-century Mlongolian invasion. In 1288. the Yuan
Dynasty, which was a direct descendent front ihe Mongolian IEmpire that had occupied China and
reigned over by Kublai Khan, who \as a grandson of lGenghis Khan, delegated a f'leet to attack \ietlnam.
The miassivc fleet and army overran the capital Da Yue :nox I Hanoi). The Vietnalnese had already
abandoned the capital for their strategy was intended to light a decisive naval battle with the invaders.
'Ihe V\ietnamesc made a decision never to II.. them back into the country bv thoroughly defeating the
S1.... .. 1, flee. Vietnamlese ifrces lay iin wait for llhe fleet that woutldi tory i get back to China through an
estuary ofthe Bach )Dang River. according g to historical records, the tactic iwas to prevent the fleet from
reaching the mouth of the river and trap them using hidden stakes that were driven into the riverbed.
After about I I years, the battle site has been relocated in thil reclaimed lands along IBach Danig River inl
which a large number wooden stakes have been I.... .1 since the 1950s.

INA Rescarch Associates. Randall Sasaki and Jun Kimura l ho both have experience in rcscarching the
Mongolian lEmpire invasion site in Japan, are currently involved in the newly commenced exploration. In
20 11 ]un Kimnura and )r. I ik .. .. i. I wlio is a representative of MAP, joined fieldwork organized
by the IA at the site that had been discovered during the previous year's fieldwork. Over fifty wooden
stakes measuring 1- i in length with a diameter of(l-20l m were revealed during the excavation. Patterns
ofthese stakes show that they have been i .. ,i driven to face or cross each other. How large area that
the naval battle has extended is debatable, and has been prev iously interpreted in different ways. The
discovery of tlie new slake site brought a new insight about the area ol ithe batl e lhat ranged at least over 2
square kilometres. A number of stakes must still be buried in tihe area \where small channels of Bach Dang
River used to flow. The area, however, lihas been reclaimed and we can hardly see those ancient river
channels on the current map. Our approach for locating unidentified ship remains is to identify the
concentration of the wooden stakes and their distribution patterns and clarify the location ofi higher
ground (ancient river banks and islands'. \We believe that these areas trapped tlhe XtMongolian ships. At the
end of the 2010 work, local people reported to us about an area of higher ground called ... I
place". We will conduct, reote sensing survey in the next season and hopefully achieve a new discovery.
In thle end, oirl project is expected to conlrilbte io a better understanding of li naval battle between llthe
Yutan/ -. -. _. .1, invaders and the Dai Viet.

(left) Identified stake yards
along Back Dang River.
Their distribution indicates
the area of the naval battle
between the Yuan Dynasty
and Dai Viet in 1288.

(right) Excavation at the
Dong Ma Ngua where
over fifty wooden stakes
were found.

PHOTO Nguyen Mai Huong
(Vietnam Institute of

"The way they were..."
George and Ann Bass (top),
Claude Duthuit (mid)
and Waldemar Illing
(bottom standing)
at Cape Gelidonya in the
summer of 1960.

When Peter Throckmorton and I arrived in Turkey
in the spring of 1960, hoping to excavate the
Bronze Age shipwreck Bodrum sponge-diver Kemal
Aras had told Peter about two years earlier, I had
never dived in the sea. In fact, my only prior
experience with a scuba tank was for a few minutes
in a Philadelphia YMCA swimming pool. Peter's
French colleague Claude Duthuit soon took me for
my first open-water dive, in the Bosporus, the first
of his many kindnesses that have made us life-long
friends. Indeed, it was through Claude's personal
contacts that we obtained permission to import
equipment and excavate the shipwreck, which lay a
hundred feet deep off Cape Gelidonya on Turkey's
southern coast. Although French and Italian divers
had partly excavated ancient wrecks, in no case had
an excavation been carried to completion, and in no
case was there an archaeologist among the divers.
What Peter, Claude, and I, with a small interna-
tional team of divers, would accomplish over three
summer months that year changed everything. The
3,200-year-old wreck was the first ancient wreck
excavated in its entirety on the seabed, and its
excavation was the first directed by a diving archae-
ologist even though I was only a University of
Pennsylvania doctoral candidate.

I sailed from Bodrum to Finike, near the Cape, on
Captain Kemal's 30-foot sponge-diving boat
Mandalinfi, others followed on Nazif Goymen's
slightly larger sponge-dragger Lutfi Celil, Peter drove
an old U.S. militaryJeep station wagon we had
scrounged from the surplus yard of an American
base near Istanbul, and Claude arrived in the truck
that carried our equipment.

The wreck lay near one of five islands that extend
from the cape, but camping there was impossible
because of our need for fresh water; an hour's sail
away on a narrow strip of beach we found two tiny
springs we dammed up. Funds were so limited that
our camp was simply sheltered by canvas and old
parachutes from the military surplus yard, and our
furniture consisted of the crates in which our
equipment had been shipped. The beach,
completely surrounded by cliffs, faced south.
It was an oven, usually 1100 F by 10:00 a.m.

INA Quarterly SUMMER FALL 2010

Although we had also scrounged a portable electric
generator, for our "darkroom," we had no refrig-
eration, so lived on a diet of beans, rice, and
tomatoes, with occasional fruit.

Ann Singletary and I had married in March, just
before Peter and I crossed the Atlantic on the S.S.
America. After our few days together, she returned to
the Eastman School of Music to complete her
master's degree. Never having been outside the
United States before, she now joined me by sailing
to Greece, flying to Izmir, taking a bus to Antalya
over then unpaved roads, and reaching the beach
by sleeping overnight on the deck of Lutfi Celil. She
assumed that wherever her husband took her, she
would at least find a spinet, if not a baby grand, so
she had two suitcases: one of clothes and one of
piano music. Claude gallantly insisted we take his
pup tent, the only tent in camp, for our three-
month honeymoon.

I have described the excavation in Cape Gelidonya: A
Bronze Age Shipwreck, published by the American
Philosophical Society in 1967; the more popular
Archaeology Beneath the Sea (1975); and briefly in
Beneath the Seven Seas (2005). It dramatically changed
our picture of the Bronze Age in the eastern
Mediterranean by being the catalyst for research
that showed Semites were active in the Aegean
centuries before the famed Phoenician seafarers of

During the summer, however, every time our little
high-pressure compressor for filling air tanks sprang
a leak, we had to send it to Antalya, an overnight
trip away, and wait a day or two for repairs. By
chance a young German diver, Waldemar (Wlady)
Killing, passed our beach with two friends as they
dived along the coast with a small high-pressure
compressor! We invited them to join us, which they

Claude and Wlady later became members of the
team that throughout the 1960s standardized
shipwreck excavation. Indeed, it was they who
convinced me to stay in underwater archaeology
rather than return to terrestrial work.


^^ AS

In 2010 it seemed fitting that we celebrate our
milestone excavation of half a century earlier by
returning to Cape Gelidonya. Sadly, of the original
dive team, only Claude, Wlady, and I survived. Ann
had dived in 1960, but mostly baked on the beach,
cleaning and cataloging artifacts, and keeping
financial accounts.

I had seen Claude and his wife Barbara regularly
over the years, since he is an INA Director, but I
had not seen Wlady since 1969 when he arrived
this past summer with his Anne at Adrasan, a town
near the dive site. Then, by exquisite timing,
another INA Director, Danielle Feeney, arrived at
Adrasan on her splendid motor yacht Andrea,
making the reunion so much nicer. Instead of
bouncing around on a rubber Zodiac for hours at a
time between Adrasan, the Cape, and the beach,
we six traveled in style and of course toasted the
occasion with French champagne!

Claude (now 78 years old), Wlady (the kid, at only
73), and I (77) joined the 2010 excavation and
dived together to the wreck site. Then Danielle
took us to the beach where we had once camped.
Although none of the charter-boat captains who
brought swimmers while we were there knew why,
the place is now advertised as the American beach!

Wlady said, on looking up at boulders seemingly
ready to topple down, that if anyone told him he
had to live on that narrow strip of sand and gravel
for three months, he would tell them they were
crazy, that no amount of money would tempt him!
Claude soon after wrote that it was the worst
experience of his life, more so even than combat in
Algeria, for at least soldiers were relieved from time
to time from the front, and occasionally a helicop-
ter brought cold beer, but for three months at Cape
Gelidonya he never tasted anything even remotely
cool on the beach...

CENTER IMAGES (from top)
George and Ann Bass, Claude
Duthuit, and \a',/l .- IIr iln
aboard Danielle Feeney's
yacht, Andrea.
PHOTO Dr. Roger Williamson
George, Wlady, and Claude
dive the wreck site.
PHOTO Harun Ozdas
Enjoying a moment together.
PHOTO Susannah H. Snowden
(top) Ann Bass puts the dive
gear to good use in 1960.
PHOTO George Bass
(mid) Peter Throckmorton
(bottom) Lufti Celil at anchor over
the wreck site.



Steaming Through Great Lakes History: Anthony Wayne Shipwreck Survey
INA Research Associate: Bradley A. Krueger

(Top) 'S'-shaped crank
on the steam engine.

lubrication reservoir.

The only known
contemporary image of
Anthony Wayne, from
an 1838 thoograpr.
Courtesy of the Clarence S.
Metcalf Great Lakes Maritime
Research Library of the
Great Lakes Historical Society,
Vermilion, OH

Over the past two years, tlle Great Lakes TIistori-
cal Society, the ( I , I Underwater Explorers,
Texas A&M University, and thle Inisliute of
Nautical A I I. ] partnered together to
closely examine the remains otfI nation lii ,a
mid-19th century side-wheel passenger and cargo
steamer. Discovered in 2006 by diver Tom
Kowalczk. the w reck ofAnthori' Wayne rests
approximately six miles north of Vermilion, 011,
and is thought to bCe the oldest surviving example
of a steamboat shipwrectk in Lake Lrie. As a
result, lthe ntlihony li10iyne Shipwreck Survey was
initialtd to thoroughly investigate and document
tl(e present-day conditions of tli s significa nt
archaeological site.

Anliiin lI ayne was built in 1837 by Samuel
Hubbell for the Perrysburg & Miami Steamboat
Company in I'. 1 .. .. OH. \ ith its cargo of
passengers and packet Ireight, Antow faI!'yne plied
the waters of the upper lakes, making frequent
slops at prominent port towns until 1847. Battered
by time. (hie vessel was deemed too decrepit to
continue on as a steamer and plans \vere enacted
to convert it to a sailing barge. I'he .11 ..l -out
hulk was then sold to ( I, 1. B. Howard &
Company of Detroit, who extensively rebuilt the
hull and added new machinery. The refurbished
steamboat was put back to \\ ork a year later and
spent the rest of its career on Lake Erie servicing
tlie shipping route F'iom Toledo, OH to Bulfalo, NY.

(1On the 1-1 oe'April 27, 1830, Anirlly i lne was
making its usual westerly run carrying passengers
and a cargo of'whiskey, wine, and livestock. As the
side-wheeler was passing Vermilion, O() shortly
after midnight, the starboard-side boilers
suddenly exploded. The I i i. .' steamer was
immcdiacly i,, .1 inl flames and quickly sank
to the bottom of Lake Erie. Crew and passengers
.I ..I .- for survival, but oti otf the nearly 100
people on-board, .. people were reported as
killed or missing. The vessel was deemed a tolal

loss, and despite a thorough investigation in the
days H'.i. I. 1the cause of the accident could not
be delerminled. The dead were buried, the
survivors moved on, and Antholny W4'anri slowly
fildcd from memory, a forgotten testament to the
strong maritime heritage of the Great Lakes.

Our _', ,, 1 season consisted of recording I
structural and miecanical cmipolnents proltrildiing
up I'rorni tle lake bottom. This include d (the p)or(-
and starboard-side paddlew'hecls, connecting
drive shaft, pitman arm. engine linkacgs, eccld-
water heater, remnantst ol the wooden hogging-
truss. and the steamer's bow\. Sub-surface ... ..; 1.
between the bow and midship sections determined
that there is substantial architecture present (1on
site, )but buried beneath ten to flifeen feet of i l

In an effort to answer questions pertaining to the
s/ctali(r's construction and propKLtsio(n SyStemlj
underwater excavations were carried out during
the 2009 field season, the first of their kind in
()hio's waters. \While 1 ,Il remains proved to be
elusive, the crew was successful inT locating lAnthoy
Iff)!ine's horizontal direct-acting steam engine,
possibly the earliest extant example of a marine
engine on the Great Lakes. The engine and
associated machinery were carefully draw n.
measured, and photographed before being
re-buried to ('ensure preserClvationl of this runi(e
maritime artifact.

INA Quarterly SUMMER FALL 2010

Lilia Campana


S 0


Puert Rico Survey *
INA5 Reeac Asscite s C sto Ph (Asstn Prfssr Frdeic R. Maye Faut Felo of Nauica
Arhaolgy Tea A. Un-iversity)S

Filipe Castro


ABOVE (from top)
Site plan section for
the Western Ledge
Reef Wreck displaying
the central section
of the wreck.
Modified by P. Bojakowski

Forward cut of
the starboard garboard
displaying the tree-rings.
PHOTO Katie Custer-

Portside first futtock of
the third frame forward
of the midship frame.
PHOTO Piotr Bojakowski


Bajo de la Campana Phoenician Shipwreck Excavation
INA Research Associate: Mark Polzer and Juan Pinedo-Reyes

' li' tittid seasont of' this excaN \t tlotni oii a 7itt-cniutl B(C Ploe niciatL shLipwXrict k t)ook place this sttiill( in oil

if)(-, Catgeacos. The ( fir st( Aiil l Field> seIsoitli of excaratitn \Ithisin shpvec hate bltg)Ailii ist'iX 2008
thank~is to l gC11Crr~oils gl'Iot ficorrl 1111' Nmionan~l Geogoiraphic Soc~ictN'.s Expedit lollo~s Councril and I nar~tchinil

N:IAC', at Texau~s A&A1 Unkii\crsity): As with ku i~lt, %car's~ precliainary) survey. IlI(c pro!jcct could ]lot have\(
Nw e jllc IL ol wit hu thme strong i support o illhe (a lrc i regioim goii l-1ii 11 ol uit a iind ix coClab olilt w ilt the

Initial (lives on thi site in yX ie tlded N\-clipl-(>cscrcd ckphant tusks with iL I. inscriphions. amber
aniti ciranics. Watcht h.i dtalljlSabt tlih Ihe projecI .t11(1 ii tis 1ield casotlls LtdsocvtX it i through National
Gecogr-aphic, onine and in prini in the I II I

INA Quarterly SUMMER FALL 2010

Unlocking the Secrets of Constantinople's Medieval Shipwrecks
INA Research Associates: Rebecca Ingram, Michael Jones

The Theodosian Harbor excavation at Yenikapi in Istanbul, Turkey is currently the largest ancient harbor
excavation in the IMediterranean., ; 1.1' countless artifarcts and more than i Byzantine-period shipwrecks
(see LA Quartriiy 34.3 ,' 7 pp. 8-1(). In cooperation with the Istanbul Archaeology Museums. INA Vice
President and Texas A&M ;University Prolessor Cerial Puilak directed the recovery and study of eight
shipwrecks ifron Yenikapi since 200), four of' which are being documented and conserved a1 IN:As Bodrumr
Research (Center After conservation, the vessels will be reconstructed and displayed il Istanbul.

This year Texas A&Mi Nautical Archaeology Program doctoral candidates Rebecca Ingram and Michael
Jonles. membIers INss of INfs Yenikap teal since _1 .. contend tliir studies ol shipwrecks YK 11, dating to
the seventh century Al), miand YK 11, dating to the late-ninth century AD. lHaving exchanged the muddv
excavatlioln ilts at iYenikap l the m ore agreeable freshwater storage tanks of INA Bodruim, Ingran andt
Jones are documenting each ship limber in order to produce accurate reconstruct1ionls olf the vessels.
In doing so, they are i I. I.* the methodologies developed bv INA pioneers Richard Stelix, Fred van
Doorninck, Sheila Matthews and Robin Piercy, over decades ol research on Mediterranean shipwrecks,
most notably the Yassiada and Serce Limarm vessels.

Because the Yei kpia ships were buried quickly in oxygen-poor harbor sedimeins, ithi were sp armed destruc-
tion from rmarilln organiisrns and arc thelireore exceptionally Vwell preserved, iI .... 1he sludy of design
details which only rarely survive o* n Meditclrri- anea shipwrecks of any period. These shiTwrecks offer a
unique opportunity to expand our knowledge of how Byzantine slips were built and used in a period of
major technological change as II as illuminate the Byzantine capital's links to the sea during the so-called
D)ark Ages.

Michael Jones (L) and
Rebecca Ingram examining
the keel of a ninth-century
Byzantine shipwreck
housed at INA's Bodrum
Research Center.
PHOTO Kim Rash

Michael and Rebecca in a
muddy excavation pit at
Yenikapi in Istanbul,
recording construction
details of YK 11, a
seventh-century Byzantine
PHOTO Sheila Matthews

Coral Eginton in the
Western Australia Maritime
Museum Shipwrecks


The Remains of the Frigate Ertugrul Exhibited in Mersin, Turkey
INA Research Associate: Berta Lledo

\\ork continued this tear on he I .'.pro)ject.
Only a small portion of the artifacts recovered
from the "wreck have been iilly conserved, and
those are 1now on display. Tie rest of the conserlva-
lion and research work 11 be carried out for some
time to come at tlie Bodruim Research Center inl
Turkey, as 1. as in Kushinioto, Japan.
'I Imperial frigate IEriurlzd was constructed in
Istanbul and sank during a diplomatic visit to the
Japanese Emlnperor in southeastern J ,, in 1. "I
1I but (i9 of her (609-person crew and their
conlIii tander were lost during a tiyplhoon thai
destroyed lithe rigate. 'I(The hull.maln and social 1part of'
its story has captivated the Turkish public as much
as the archaeological remains that have been
recovered. The highly tLouching human stories have
been the center of attention of the first exhibit
showing th till project accomplishments in Mersin,

An exhibit was opened this fall, as the centerpiecee
to a series of international events organized by the
Turkish-Japanese cultural association, Mersin
1Municipality and Kushimroto Municipality to mark
the 120th anniversary of the shipwreck. litrkish
and Japanese dignitaries attended the ceremonies
as II as three Japanese naval training ships that

arrived for the occasion, and whose higher rank
officers, '.. X with their T'irkish counterparts
formed part of the honorable guests for the events
and the exhibit. We were lucky to have the support
of INA founder, Dr. George E Bass, \who addressed
the gathered delegations.

Preparations for this exhibit wcre undertaken at
INAYs Bodrumt headquarters, whcre research on the
Eriuzrul artifacts continues year round, and the
success of the opening is the result tlhe hard
work and dedication of nianiv. Dilek Ata( a student
Irom Yildiz ITeknik l.t'niversit (lstanb)ul put in
endless hours in cleaning and preparing the 829
artifacts that are on display in the IMrsin Mitici-
. Congress and IExhibition Centelr, i. I Kasap
Resa, an essential member of the team since 2007,
was crucial in lthe graphic design and content
preparation of the exhibition panels, as II as
coordinating a seemingly .I. list of jobs to tbe
done in Mersin. Seleuk Kolav. helped us to identify
some of the objects in tihe collection, and his advice
and expertise in ttomtian navy items iand steam
i.. has been invaluable. The i...... .' of
Mersin sponsored thle printing of thle 109-page
catalogue lor tlhe exhibit in T ,' ', Japanese and


INA Quarterly SUMMER FALL 2010

(from top)
Berta Lledo
Dilek Atac
Idil Kasap Resa

The Mersin exhibit is the first of a number of
events that will see the exhibit travel t( o 1, 1 .
locations in Turkey and Japan over Ihe course of
tlhe next few years. I, '.... the artifIcts return to
thcir final and legitimate home in the to\ wn of
Kushimoto. On the night of the 16th of September
in 1890, the survivors of the I wreck found
their w ay up to the lighthouse on ()sliina Island
where ithC were cared for Iy the I . i of the
island in the lighthouse keeper's house. That same
building one of tihe oldest stone constructions in
Japan, and the subject of a detailed architectural
study by the lWakavama University will be
restored officially by the local government. At thle
end of ldle traveling exhibit, 120 years alter the
accident. (hose sm: e .'I host hlle .r
collection, tlie relics of the ship and the sailors, as
well as their memories. The historical house is a
protected building and iI bie not o nly a museum
but also an important part of the story itself.

These Ertgirul exhibits do not mean our work on
the project is finished; in la t, thi is isjust hie
beginning. ( lonse.xrvlation xw ork and research
continues. IT here arc new objects emerging as we
make our way 1 .. ..' concretions found at the
wreck site. A college grinder for example has beien
identified by INA Bodrunm conservator Kirn Rash,
and through the cleaning of the brass mill hopper
ibowl and study ofI the decorations in the cast iron
box, )Don /olotorofe, a ' i' mill expert and
president of A.(.M.E.. was able to classilf it as a
T. &. (. C.lark No. I mill, manufactured in Wolvcr-
hampton, F ,1 We are veryc hopeful that
S'. 11 i,. conservation and restoration ofl this and
tilerr pieces ill yield excellent results.

Other surprises await us as work in Bodrum and
Kushimoto continues. We I11 keep you up to date
in upcoming 1NA publications and through the
X websitLC.

Artifacts filled seventeen
exhibit cases.

Attending group at the
opening ceremony.

Food storage jar from
exhibition at the Bodrum
Museum of Underwater
PHOTO Ulrica Soderlind


(top) Local news team
filming divers
at the site.
PHOTO Tim Dowd

(bottom) Tim Vincent
measuring the rail
of A.J. Goddard.
PHOTO Geoff Bell

(From left to right)
Deploying the
Blue View (BV5000)
sonar scanner.
PHOTO Tim Dowd

Geoff Bell with
the BV5000.
PHOTO Sean Adams

Team members viewing
the date collected.
PHOTO Mark Thomas

INA Quarterly SUMMER FALL 2010

Reconstructing the Steamboat Phoenix Preliminary partial
INA Research Associate: George Schwarz reconstruction of the
steamer's port side frames.
'The second stasonl of this )proji.ct took place this ILLUSTRATION Tiago M. Fraga
August and Scptimber on Lake ( I ,, .1 i ., and
met with fai weather and success. Phoenix ( 181 1-
1819), the second sicamboat to bc launched in
Lake (hamplain and possibly the iearliest surviving
archaeological example of a slcamer in North
America, rests in 60-110 feet of water off of
(olchester o in t a good state of , I
I i,, I,,11 is exposed and intact, and has been) thel
subject of a munli-ei ar investigation aimed at
reconstructing the ship lines and construction
features for analysis and comparison with other
carly i19h-ccntur, steamboats. In addition to INA,
project *i ... i, include Lake I' 1 l i
Maritime Museum ;'I I finders and parl of tie
..' 1... ". 1 team, National Geographic
Foundation, and WVaitt Foundation.
The archaeological team staged out of Stave
Island, a private island owned by tlh Hazelett's,
benlfactors of the Lake ( I 1 i.I ,1 Maritime
iMuscum and supporters olf this Iprojcct. The
duration olI the project was iei davs, of which 11ine
were suitable for diving and held operations.
Building on last year's accomplishments, tihe
priunary goals of this field season were to docu-
ment construction features ol the surviving hull
Co(tinued on paJi 26




ABOVE (top)
2010 Phoenix Project
team members
aboard research
vessel Neptune.
PHOTO Chris White

Recording the steam
machinery support
timbers on Phoenix
PHOTO Tiago M. Fraga

View of
Warwick wreck site.
PHOTO D. Inglis

Shelve clamp
and framing.
PHOTO P. Bojakowski

Steamboat Phoenix continued

Building on last year's .1.. I['. I. .. i the
primary goals of lihis field season were to doclu-
mernt construction features of the surviving hull
timbers, record several of the existing frame
ciuratures. collect data on fastening patterns and
steal machinery support timbers, and record
high-d:einition digital video of tihe shipwreck. Due
to the *. i; ,- weather and a dedicated iid
knowledgeable team, ithe planned olbjectives were

InI addition to a rcoCnstruction on ** i a thrce-
dimensional digital reconstruction of the remains
of P/ioenix is oin its way to completion. U i
software programs AUT OCAD and Rhino,
two-dimlensioal and threec-dimncsional plans are
being created in order to visually compare '
hull data wilh surviving archaeological evidence ior
early steamers. In addition, these digital recon-
structions facilitate public interaction with
IIuseuml exhibits and serve as excellent educational
tools for understanding ship construction during
the age ofA stean.

It is hoped Itha with the Idala gathered from this
lield season it will be possible to drafl t (enat\v li nes
of' Piuoenix's hull, which will aid in tie understand-
ing of hier steaming and sailing capabilities. As a
passenger steamer and olne of the earliest steanm-
boats on Lake ( 1 .. ..I I her design was experi-
mental and combined steam propulsion, I: I
'I I. ,, and opulent passengers' quarters
complete with a barber's shop for customer
conmlfoit and con enience. The story of iherl Iry
demise, thouigl to he caused bV a wxayward c:andle
left burning in tie palltr is, shrouded I( Ill mystery
and tells an inlrc11sliillg tale of' human comnipassion,
greed, hercroism, and death. The archaeological
analysis of the Cremains of i' is a component
of a larger study of early American steamboat
design and use. and the development of the
resulting maritime culture.

INA Quarterly SUMMER FALL 2010

Titanic Archaeological Mapping and ABOVE
Imaging Project Sonar scan of Titanic's bow.
Image Courtesy of RMS Titanic/
INA Research Associate: James Delgado, PhD Premier Exhibitions

In response to a rare opportunity to conduct a
deep oceanic archaeological mapping of the wreck
site of I'.1 7*- I ninc, I was asked to serve as
II I .II investigator 1and lead archaeologist on a
summer 2010 expedition. The I "' involved a
unique partnership with INA and two I..S.
government101 agencies, the Natioinal Occantic &
... ir \l' Administration's Maritime Heritage
Program in the ('1 of National Miarine Sanctu-
aries. and the National Park Service's '<,l .. _I, 1
Resources Cenicr. The other partners were \\Woods
Hole Oceanographic Institution, the Waitt Institute
for Discovery, and RMS Tialuic. Inc./Premier
Exhibitions, the coimpan(1 y which hias held salvage
rights to 'llanic since the 1980s.

The mission and the partnership resulted front a
decision by RMS 'litamni to shift from previous
missions to recover artilfcts from the site for their
.I ,11 exhibitions and instead to work witl the
government to complete a comprehensive archaeo-
', ;- site plan of tie wreck site and tien to
prepare an archaeological report on '11Iantir that
encorlmpasses the data gathered all missions to
Continued oi piag, 28

Editor's Note
~7 11n i I (10)1/u I /1, ;clh i/ann
("I 1H A "ll (4111 T(01/ l i

dato ba-i nici d to hilinte ei,
/olvei h, 1 *1 1 I ".S

ititin~no lniteot i iiiit e.P
J 0(1 l/o/I ill

,i ci i hi, portiloliio ilerirlg
hi 1/0 1)1r lemo on the i
Into i o' Co1 I iii ( oil l e
I ,11 Cle111 1 (1 11/ Ibrilo01 il
/Iti / ]COA10's, (1, "",efi ar/Il i
Itln l t i SL 1t; i i f1/ i i" 11 o(1 II
(1 1)111 ii(olionil i~i lh li/
11)0lion e (, ( tt it /

SIn 2000 ]i kr
10, uil tol). JIlt .1 11) I/ll/

1if,(k111 H01 1!0S aInd


Titanic continued

Jim with Dave Gallo
of Woods Hole Oceano-
graphic Institute on board
R/V Jean Charcot on the
first day of ROV
operations on the site.
PHOTO Chris Davino

(Left to right)
Bow of Titanic from Jim's
visit to the site in 2000.
Sonar scan of Titanic's
stern wreck assemblage.

Images courtesy of
RMS Titanic/ Premier

tle( site since its discover il 1986. The govern-
rnment agencies were particularly interested in this
approach j. II since the salvage of artifacts
from 7iaire, e\ven though tie have not been sold.
has been controversial. Legislation to declare the
wrecck ia maritime memorial, historical and
archaeological site, and to treat it as a marineC
protected area, has been pending before Congress
for some time, and an international treaty with the
same goals awaits ratification by the United States,
C11anada and France, with only the ,United King-
do(m as a signatory. NOAA mounted its own
expedition to the wreck in 2004, and Ir. George F.
Bass participated in that venture, diving to 7itanir'
ill a Mir submersible, as did the Larry Murphy of
the National Park Scrvice's Sublmerged Resources

Ama/ngly, even though several mission 1111 s to 'ilic
have studied portions of the wreck, the entire site
has not been 1) i .. .' or asscss(ed. During the 2010
expedition, the entire site, encompassing 2.5 square
niles of seabed 2 '/, mriles down, was mapped vwithl
high resolution sonar and digital imagery to include
artifacts as large as portions of machinery and as
Sas a 'cup.

This le1vl of archaeological mapping has never
be(iore been accomplished( to thlis scale this deep in
the ocean. In the 50tlh anniversary year of scientific
nau tical archaeology, INA\ was able to participate,
at no cost to INA, in a mission that demonstra1, I t
thlat this degree of scientific accuracy is possible at
an depth. As well, the digital 'i team from
Woods Hole, led by Dr. William Lange, mapped
7itani's i)ow and stern sections, as as key
assemblages on thie site with lhree-dimiensional
imagery that will overlay 31) sonar scans to create a
measured record of Iilanic'ls major hull components
as they exist il 2010. This is an inlportant step for
future assessment of the site and mnanagemrnen of

writing of the report, and a IreIncred push for the
trcatv s ratification and the passing of legislation in
the United States and Canada to project and
manage Titanic. WVhiile the 1 .1 ;.. 1 of archaeol-
ogy on the 'ltanric silte has I, II... i goals from the
work done on older sites. such as the Bronze Age
wreck at L I, I .,1 a key factor in Ilie 2010 mission
w~s lhe application of archaeology and hard
science to a wreck site Cwhich has posed i il. 1 .
i the archaeological community since its discov-
ery. and in doing so, I; a nap not only of tile
site, but perhaps a blueprint , its future.

In closing, I want to thank ( In, Davino of I I

Basta, )Ol Vannrmr, I)av Gallo, Bill Lange, Dave
,-Ii Larry Murphy and 1DaNe Conlin, wIho
worked on the agreement to procccd with RMST's
Brian Watinger, as well as the teamn onl R/VJean
especially the scientists, technicians and
crew who made science happen at 12, I .1. feet.

Jimr Delgado

INA Quarterly SUMMER FALL 2010

Events Announcements Celebrations Opportunities

$1 Million Legacy Gift

Director Robyn Woodward Makes $1 Million Legacy Gift to INA

Nautical archaeologist Dr. Robyn P. Woodward of Vancouver, British Columbia is a graduate of the
Nautical Archaeology Program at Texas A&M who worked on INA projects in Turkey and at Port Royal
Jamaica before completing her Ph.D. studies at Simon Fraser University in Canada. Dr. Woodward's
ongoing projects include her soon to be published dissertation on Sevilla La Nueva, a Spanish colonial town Dr. Robyn Woodward
founded at the site of one of Columbus' landfalls in Jamaica, where Dr. Woodward continues her National
Geographic Society-funded excavations. One of the major discoveries made by Dr. Woodward and her
team was a sculptor's workshop with surviving examples of his work. For several years, Dr. Woodward has
also co-directed the Yukon Gold Rush Steamboats project with INA research associateJohn Pollack. A past
president of the Underwater Archaeological Society of British Columbia, as well as past chair of the
Vancouver Maritime Museum's board of Governors and Board of Trustees, Dr. Woodward is also a trustee
of the Archaeological Institute of America, and a director of INA, where she serves on the archaeology

Robyn Woodward is an undisputed leader in the field of nautical archaeology, and this is demonstrated by
her recent gift of a $1 million annuity to Texas A&M University. This annuity, payable when she passes
away, will create a $1 million fund which will create a $50,000 a year grant program, to be administered by
the President of INA, to support emerging scholars in nautical archaeology in their fieldwork, analysis and
publication as well as professional development, and field projects.

INA thanks and commends Dr. Woodward for her leadership, and her dedication to archaeology, especially
to archaeologists of future generations. For more information on gifts like Dr. Woodward's, contact INA's
interim President, Dr. Robert Walker, at

ABOVE (left to right)
George Bass, Peter
Throckmorton, and
Honor Frost work on
the site plan in the
camp "drafting room"
at Cape Gelidonya.

with Nioolle t-firsch-feLd

Our thanks to both
Aicolle Iirschfeld and
Ryan lee fjr
these thoughts about
their ,iharid adventure
at (Cape CGeidonya this
summer '. with
(eorge Bass they


and filu

our peop
contmue tw

Nicolle Hi
a Bronze A
Trinity Univ
is co-dire



Sthe best on
ast" present .
re. It is the
passion 0,
le that will
'o move this
on jor ard.

rschfeld is
ge scholar
ssor in the
artment of
Studies at
ersity. She
ctor of the
project at

yan C. Lee
where noted)

OF COURSE I said yes when George Bass asked
if I would be willing to direct a "return to Gelid-
onya" excavation! Late Bronze Age seafaring is
the stuff of my dreams. And Gelidonya and G.F.
Bass are the names that started it all. The scien-
tific report will come later, but here, are a few
discoveries I was not expecting:
"If you don't grab the bull by the horns when you
have the chance, you'll never get anywhere!"
George recalls being told by his mentor, in
Archaeology Beneath the Sea. I assign this reading to
my undergraduate class every year, but only this
summer did I finally comprehend the big horns
George agreed to grab fifty years ago. Returning
to Gelidonya half a century later it was difficult to
figure out the logistics of establishing a base camp
for this new project even though we had the
benefit of George's remembered experiences, two
other scouting expeditions earlier this spring,
Harun Ozda' familiarity with the area due to his
survey work there, and even Google Earth. In the
end, as you will know from reading Ryan Lee's
blog on the INA website, we gave up altogether on
the idea of building a camp and chartered a
wooden sailing ship instead. That is a whole other
story. My point here is that half a century later
Gelidonya is still formidable. For me, it took
coming here to truly appreciate George's guts and
The joy of collaboration Twenty-five years ago
at Uluburun, Harun and I, both students, learned
how to excavate underwater. Now we were
co-directors at the site where underwater archae-
ology was born. But our team is able to excavate at
Gelidonya only because of the efforts and energy
of Harun, who spent much of the summer on long
bus rides crisscrossing Turkey and sitting for hours
in the offices of officials waiting for the papers and
permissions we needed. In the end we were able to
work together again to re-excavate, survey, and
better understand what happened at Gelidonya

more than three thousand years ago.
The joy of collaboration, part 2
I first met Tuba Ekmekgi in the basement of the
museum at Bodrum, where she was sorting
through the kazillion amphora sherds that had
shattered on the seabed at Uluburun. She is now
director of INA-Bodrum and simply put, Gelid-
onya 2010 would not have happened without her
industry, creativity, and determination.
The joy of mentoring Our excavation team
rapidly grew to include almost thirty people and at
first I was frustrated with George, for each
addition meant that I had to figure out how to
house and feed that individual. But George was
right... the next generation of scholars should be at
the top of the priority list for any project. And, of
course, when it came down to it, each of them
contributed beyond expectation and we were
fortunate to have these talented and dedicated
members of the next generation on board. Ryan
kept our computers humming and wrote the blog
for the INA website; he is now working on his
M.A. with Cemal Pulak. Kim Rash cared our
finds at sea and continues to oversee their conser-
vation in Bodrum.John Littlefield is now studying
the Kizilburun hull fragments, Laura Gongaware
is at Tulane studying maritime law, Ania Kotarba
has just enrolled in the School of Archaeology at
Oxford, and Marilyn Cassedy and Haley Streud-
ing continue their degree work in College Station.
I look forward eventually to seeing each of these
names listed as authors in The INA Quarterly and
elsewhere as they pursue their own careers.
So I got far more than I bargained for when I said
yes to George. It was much, much harder than I
expected, but the rewards were also greater. I
come away from Cape Gelidonya with the happy
challenge of continuing the research and publica-
tion, deepened respect for my colleagues, a joy in
our students, and the memory of days of sparkling
waves and nights of glittering stars.

'' 1

with Ry Van Lee

Like Nicolle, I wanted to be an astronaut growing up, a goal that I focused on until I started university as an
Engineering major. Within a few months, buried by a mountain of calculus homework, I decided that an
engineering career was not for me, though I didn't have an alternate option. I thought next that I wanted to
be a pilot, but by the time I finished my flight training, I realized I missed academia. Inspired by a co-
worker, who was studying to be an archaeologist I sat in on a few classes at the University of Alberta and
quickly realized that I had finally found my path.
I had grown up watching Bob Ballard on National Geographic's 'Secrets of the Titanic' repeatedly (one of
the few tapes we owned, courtesy of a burned-down rental store), and reading my father's books about
ocean liners, tall ships, and submarines. Throughout junior high and high school, I read every C.S. Forester
and Patrick O'Brian novel I could get my hands on, and spent many weekends hunched over a table
building scale models of Titanic, Queen Mary, Cutty Sark and USS Constitution. Looking back over how much
time I spent learning about boats for fun, or even playing nautical-themed video games, I can't believe I
hadn't thought of nautical archaeology sooner.
With no nautical archaeologists at the University of Alberta to take classes from, I borrowed every book
from the library I could find on the subject and I naturally learned about the pioneering work of George
Bass, and the subsequent projects by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. Given the choice of which
archaeological site to report about for a history of archaeology class, I jumped at the chance to talk about
Cape Gelidonya, never for a second imagining that I would one day be able to work there.
While I knew I wanted to be an underwater archaeologist, I put off learning to scuba dive year after year,
and continued participating in terrestrial digs, first in Ecuador, then Nicaragua and Greece. I was not a
strong swimmer, and was worried that I would be a terrible diver, and that I would be forced to change
career paths again! I finally learned to dive when I came to A&M, but then I avoided the diving issue by
working at Yenikapi in Istanbul under Cemal, which provided me with an excellent experience recording
shipwrecks without the need to get my face wet.
When I prepared to jump off Millawanda for the first time this summer, I was a trained archaeologist, but
one of the least experienced divers on the project, but I had George's oft-repeated manta to reassure me: It
is easier to train an archaeologist to be a diver, than to train a diver to be an archaeologist. I also kept telling myself that
while I was 'behind' many of my colleagues, at the age of 27 I was exactly the same age as George was
when he dove here in 1960, fresh from his YMCA course. After a couple weeks, I felt much more confident
in my abilities as a diver, and could focus on the real reason I had come to Gelidonya: to become a better
The 2010 season was not a field school, but I couldn't imagine a better group to study under. It was a real
treasure to be able to work with the four surviving members of the original Gelidonya team: George Bass,
Ann Bass, Claude Duthuit, and Waldemar Illing. We were also blessed to have the opportunity to work with
numerous veterans in the field, including co-directors Nicolle and Harun, but also Cemal, Faith Hentschel,
Sheila Matthews, and Orkan Koyagasioglu. These individuals all provided a wealth of instruction to me
and the other students on the project, on everything from excavation and mapping techniques, to boat
handling and mooring procedures. I kept a journal and took photographs to be able to publish INA's first
blog from the field, and share the experience with the world.

Ryan Lee
PHOTO John Littlefield

From the bow of the
STS Bodrum.
Dr. Harun Ozda leaps
into the water ahead of
George, Claude, and



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