George F Bass, Ph.D., Chairman Emeritust, Michael Karzev deceased, Jack \. Kelleyt, John Baird ideceasedi
James P. Delgado. Ph.D.. President*
Cemal NI. Pulak, Ph.D., Vice President
KevinJ. Crisman, Ph.D.. Vice President
Ella E Kegler, Chief Financial and Administrarive Officer
Chasit I. Hedlund, Accounting Manager
Tuba Ekmekci, Director, Bodrurn Research Center
Ozlem Dogan. Finance Manager. Bodrum Research Center
Board of Directors & Officers
Dr. Oguz Aydemir Robert D. Ballard, Ph.D. Edward 0. Boshell,Jr. *John Cassils, M.D. Gregory NI. Cook
Lucy Darden* Thomas F Darden -John De Lapa Carl Douglas Claude Duthuit* DanielleJ. Feeney*
Charles P. Garrison, M.D., Chairman* Donald Geddes Ill. Past Chairman -James Goold. Secretary & General Counsel*
Dr. Robert Hohlfelder, Ph.D. CharlesJohnson, Ph.D. Gregory NI. Kiez Mustafa Koc Captain Alfred Scott
McLaren, USN IRet.i Ph.D. Alex G. Nason George E. Robb,Jr. Andrew Sansom* Ayhan Sicimoglu
Clyde P Smith, Treasurer' -Jason Sturgis Peter van Alfen, Ph.D. Frederick van Doorninck,Jr., Ph.D."
Robert L. Walker, Ph.D.* Lew Ward Peter MN. \ay Robyn Woodward, Ph.D. Sally NM. Yamini
Ercan Acikel Gordon W. Bass George R. Belcher Raynette Boshell Allan Campbell, M.D. Stephen Chandler
\illiam C. Culp, M.D Glenn Darden Nicholas Griffis -JelT Hakko Robin P. Hartmann Faith Hentschel, Ph.D.
Susan Katzev William C. Klein, M.D. Selcuk Kolay Thomas NMcCasland,Jr. Michael Plank Avery Battle Russell
Anne Darden Self Lynn Baird Shaw Betsey Boshell Todd Mary Tooze Garr. A. Weber Roger A. \illiamson, Ph.D.
Nautical Archaeology Program Faculty, Texas A&M University
Deborah N. Carlson, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Sara W. and George O. Yamini Fellow
Luis Filipe Vieira de Castro, Ph.D., Assistant Professor. Frederick R. Mayer Faculty Fellow of Nautical Archaeology
KevinJ. Crisman. Ph.D.f Associate Professor, Nautical Archaeology Faculty Fellow
Donny L. Hamilton, Ph.D., George T & Gladys H. Abell Chair in Nautical Archaeology, Yamini Family Chair in Liberal Ars
Cenmal Pulak, Ph.D., Frederick R. Mayer Faculty Professor of Nautical Archaeology
C. Wayne Smith. Ph.D., Associate Professor, INA Faculty Fellow
Shelley Wachsmann, Ph.D., Meadows Professor of Biblical Archaeology
Nautical Archaeology Program Emeritus Faculty, Texas A&M University
George E Bass, Ph.D.
George T. & Gladys H. Abel] Chair in Nautical Achaeology. Yarmni FamilJ Chair in Liberal Ars, Distinguished Professor, Emenrus
Frederick H. van Doorninck.Jr., Ph.D.
Frederick R. Mayer Faculty Professor of Nautical Archaeoloe\, Emeritus
Maritime Archaeology Program Faculty, Flinders University
Mark Staniforth, Ph.D., Associate Professor
Jennifer McKinnon. Lecturer
Emilyjateff, Associate Lecturer
John Naumann, Teaching Suppon Officer
INA Research Associates and Affiliated Faculty
J. Barto Arnold, M.A. Kroum Batchvarov, MI.A. Piotr Bojakowski, M.A. Lilia Campana .Anhur Cohn,J.D.
Claire Aliki Collins Katie Custer, M.A. Maria del Pilar Luna Erreguerena, M.A. Ben Ford, M.A. Donald A. Frey, Ph.D.
Jeremy Green, M.A. Elizabeth Greene, Ph.D. Donovan Griffin .Jerome L. Hall, Ph.D. Frederick Hanselmann, M.A.
Heather Hatch Kenzo Hayashida, NI.A. Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D. Nicolle Hirschfeld. Ph.D. Frederick Hocker, Ph.D.
Jun Kimura, M.A. Carolyn G. Koehler, Ph.D. Bradley A. Krueger *Justin Leidwanger, M.A. Margaret E. Leshikar-
Denton, Ph.D. Berta Lledo Colin Martin, Ph.D. Asaf Oron, NI.A. Ralph K. Pedersen, Ph.D. Robin C.M. Piercy
John Pollack Mark Polzer *Juan Pinedo Reyes Donald Rosencrantz -Jeft Royal, Ph.D. Randall Sasaki, M.A.
George Schwarz, M.A. Tufan Turanh Peter van Alfen, Ph.D. Cheryl Ward, Ph.D. Gordon P. Watts,Jr., Ph.D.
Robyn Woodward, Ph.D.
A Letter from the President
In times of natural disaster with increasingly
urgent requests for aid, why would we still
consider making a donation to INA? Why choose
to support archaeology in a world with so many
pressing social needs? Why should we save
history? Given the recent events in Haiti and
elsewhere around the world, those are good and
pertinent questions. Myself, I have chosen to
give... plain and simple. I give where I can and
when I can. I give to social and humanitarian
causes, and I also choose to lend support to my
life's passion, and I do so with a sense that by
giving to archaeology I am also supporting the
needs of society.
I'm reminded of that every time I visit an
archaeological site or participate in a dig and
confront the reality beyond a sunken hull,
scattered artifacts, and scientific data. Archaeol-
ogy is also about people and provides us with a
link to past lives, especially the lives of those
souls lost or forgotten by the history books.
Last summer, I joined the team diving on the
1901 wreck of the sternwheeler A.J. Goddard in a
near-frozen sub-Arctic lake in Canada. Five men
crewed that tiny steamer on the wilderness
frontier during the Klondike Gold Rush, and
three of them died in the wreck. The frigid, clear
water has made the wreck a time-capsule, their
last moments frozen in time... an axe dropped
on the deck after the supply barge was cut free,
an open furnace door on the boiler containing
the last load of firewood tossed in during a
desperate bid for more steam, and the shrugged
off coat and shoes of a man struggling to claw
out of the freezing lake still lie on the deck. Who
were these men? We know very little about these
five souls who left the comforts of home for a
rugged life on the frontier, trying to eke out a
living. Their personal effects, and perhaps their
identifying papers, may lie within the wreck. If
we manage to recover these things, to preserve
and study them, then we help give life again to
the forgotten crew of five whose stories were
swallowed not only by the lake, but also by
All of us stand to gain by the illumination of the
past, not only through the accumulation of
knowledge, but also in more tangible ways as
artifacts make their way into museums encour-
aging tourism, inspiring learning and sparking
In this issue of The INA Quarterly we announce
the opportunity of a lifetime, as we celebrate the
50th anniversary of the excavation at Cape
Gelidonya and the emergence of nautical
archaeology as a legitimate scientific discipline
with a return journey to Turkey led by Dr.
George F. Bass.
We also feature articles written by three students
enrolled in the Texas A&M University Nautical
Archaeology Program who have found their
inspiration. What do they think of their studies
and the opportunities they have to make a
difference in reconstructing the past and
uncovering history's untold stories for them-
selves? You will also read about the damage
caused to shipwrecks by trawling, and why
treasure hunting makes "no cents."
The passion for nautical archaeology shared by
all our contributors serves to remind me of this
discipline's ability to make a difference for
people... past, present, and future. It's really all
about people, and that's why I belong to and
In the Yukon with the
2009 A.J. Goddard team:
(Left to right)
PHOTO Donnie Reid
WINTER 2009-10 VOLUME 36 No. 4
50th Anniversary Celebration!
Back to where it all began with Dr. George F. Bass.
PHOTO INA ACHIVES Peter Throckmorton (1960)
Several times during the summer, the expedition was almost
washed from its beach camp.
Maritime History Under Attack
Historic underwater sites are under increasing threat
from treasure hunting and trawling activities.
'i_ 'i'd O A case study from the southeast Aegean Sea
by Michael L. Brennan.
A case study from NOAA's Stellwagen Bank
National Marine Sanctuary by Deborah Marx.
A case study from the coast of Sicily by
Jeffrey G. Royal of the RPM Nautical Foundation.
The Next Generation
Life in the field with some of our
nautical archaeology students from
Texas A&M University.
PHOTO Sarah Herkes
ON THE COVER
Vintage archival image from the 1960 excavation at
Cape Gelidonya, Turkey. Excavators dived twice a day,
for forty minutes in the morning and twenty-eight in the
afternoon, decompressing, as seen here, at the end of
PHOTO INA ACHIEVES (1960)
O INA Quarterly WINTER 2009-10
Fifty years ago, George Bass led an extraordi-
nary expedition to Cape Gelidonya, Turkey,
where a Late Bronze age wreck had been
discovered by Kemal Aras, a sponge diver
from Bodrum. He in turn described it to
photojournalist, diver and amateur archaeolo-
gist, Peter Throckmorton, who was able to
locate the site himself. Recognizing its great
age and potential, he asked the University
Museum of the University of Pennsylvania if
it would organize an excavation.
The 1960 excavation of this ship from "a time
when Agamemnon quarreled with Achilles on
the beach at Troy. A ship from the time when
Odysseus set sail for home across a wine-dark
sea. A ship more than three thousand years old"
(Bass) was to be the first of manyfirsts. It was
the first shipwreck excavation carried out in situ,
and held to the same scientific standards as
terrestrial excavations, and it was the first to
be directed by a diving archaeologist, George
Bass- and it was his first time diving on a
wreck as well!
Living in a camp, that would euphemistically
have been called rustic, an hour's sail from the
wreck site, the expedition party including
George's new bride Ann lived in makeshift
structures and made due with a diet of beans,
rice, tomatoes and watermelon for three
months. It was indeed a grand adventure and
together he, Peter Throckmorton, and Claude
Duthuit, along with the other team members,
were inventing the discipline of underwater
archaeology as they went along.., relying on
the energy and enthusiasm of youth and their
own ingenuity. This expedition not only made
history, it changed the history books as the
discoveries at Gelidonya changed our view of
ancient Bronze Age trade.
This year we celebrate the achievements and
adventure of this expedition with a very special
50th anniversary trip along the western coast
of Turkey, accompanied by Dr. Bass. Visit with
a team of archaeologists, including veterans of
the original project, as INA re-excavates and
studies the site to learn more with tools and
techniques not available a half century ago.
Hear firsthand from the man known as the
father of nautical archaeology about INA's first fifty
years of work and the amazing discoveries that
have been made at the bottom of the sea.
We have included many special features in the
trip. You will be welcomed in the gardens of
the Institute's Bodrum headquarters, where you
will meet INA's team from past and present,
and where you can visit the laboratories where
ancient finds are preserved and analyzed. A
special banquet will be held in the Castle of St.
John which houses the Bodrum Museum of
Underwater Archaeology, founded with
assistance from INA and where the finds from
fifty years of underwater excavations are
displayed. Your guides will be the archaeolo-
gists who excavated these wrecks... a rare and
unique opportunity. Journey to Gelidonya
itself, where INA's ship Virazon will be
anchored over the site and the team will share
their work and finds. This is a once in a
lifetime opportunity for an "over the shoulder"
look into the fascinating world of nautical
Editor's Note: For a real sense of the early days of
nautical archaeology, I would highly recommend
reading (or re-reading) Archaeology Beneath the Sea: a
personal account by George Bass.
George F. Bass, Archaeology Beneath the Sea (New
York, Harper & Row, 1975), p. 12.
All images from INA Archives
ABOVE (from top)
CARIS sonar image
from side-scan survey
near Yalikavak, Turkey.
Side-scan sonar image of
Yalikavak I wreck site
Figure 4 Yalikavak II wreck
Figure 5 Knidos B wreck
The Disarticulation of Ancient Shipwreck Sites by Mobile
Fishing Gear: A case study from the southeast Aegean Sea
Michael L. Brennan
The past century has seen a continually increasing amount of fishing activity, in terms of both the
area covered and the depths reached by bottom trawls. This is especially true for the relatively shallow
waters of the Aegean Sea. An unfortunate result of the growing fisheries industry is the inevitable
damage to the seabed by mobile fishing gear. The Eastern Aegean Expedition 2008 and 2009 by the
Institute for Exploration and the University of Rhode Island's Center for Ocean Exploration and
Archaeological Oceanography sought to re-locate and document two Roman shipwrecks found in
1967 and 1990 by INA off the coast of Yalikavak, Turkey (Parker 1992). An additional side-scan sonar
survey was conducted in the coastal waters below diving depth (> 50 m) to conduct systematic acoustic
and visual imaging of the seafloor (Brennan 2009). These two years of work have resulted in the
documentation of the heavily altered modern submarine landscape, which has overprinted the ancient
one through the scraping away of bedforms by trawls.
Shipwrecks in the Aegean Sea have commonly been discovered by fishermen, as they often drag up
artifacts in their nets (e.g. Sakellariou et al. 2007). The physical effects of mobile fishing gear, specifi-
cally bottom trawls, include the smoothing of bedforms, compression and resuspension of sediments,
and the displacement of buried objects (NRC 2002). Bottom trawling was officially regulated by the
Turkish government as part of the Fisheries Law of 1971 and its subsequent amendments. Trawling is
prohibited within 2.5 km of shore, which are also areas often avoided by fishermen due to proximity
to rocky coastlines. Bottom trawling is also prohibited within 100 m to either side of submarine
communication cables and in a number of shallow coastal zones (KKGM 2006). An additional
restriction is printed on navigational charts, which prohibits vessels over 300 tons from operating
around the islands off the Bodrum peninsula (Figure 1). The Eastern Aegean surveys were designed to
explore and document the areas both within these restricted areas, as well as territory outside them,
while field testing new technologies for archaeological landscape recording. The result is the visual and
acoustic documentation of the condition of a seabed that has been heavily scraped over by bottom
trawls, but with a lessened effect in areas where the industry has been regulated in recent decades.
Including the two previously known Roman wrecks, eleven ancient shipwrecks were located around
the Bodrum and Datcha peninsulas between 2008 and 2009. All of these sites were either within 2.5 km
of shore or in the proximity of a submarine cable (Figure 1). In areas we surveyed away from restricted
zones, no shipwrecks were found; the seabed there had a brushed metal appearance on sonar from the
continuous scraping by bottom trawls.
The cessation of bottom trawling within these restricted navigational boundaries can also be
illustrated with the side-scan sonar data. The 2008 project was focused on the areas in and around the
Yalikavak harbor and the nearby Kiremit and Cavus Adasi islands, all of which
2r5 are within the navigational boundary noted above (Brennan 2009). A few sonar
lines were run north and west of where this boundary ends. Every time this
boundary was crossed, it was apparent as a change in the sonar data: the area
outside the boundary was visibly swept clean, while inside, small features were
still visible on the seabed. Figure 2 shows the change in seabed conditions and
the onset of trawl scars as the sonar crossed the boundary. This evidence
S suggests that fishing vessels generally adhere to the restriction there and veer
S- away from this coastal area. The broken artifacts that encompass the wrecks are
indicative of past trawl damage, but the effect is less than in areas that are
heavily trawled, which raises the question of whether any remnants of these
wrecks would be detectable had they been in unrestricted zones further away
36 45' LEFT
Figure 1 Map of 2008 and 2009 side-scan sonar survey coverage (red lines). Green line
indicates a video transect with camera sled, Argus. Blue line indicates the submarine cable.
Black line denotes navigational boundary around the Bodrum peninsula. "A" indicates where
individual amphoras were located. IFE/COEAO
In addition to the significance of their location near restricted trawling zones, the eleven wrecks in
deep water off southwestern Turkey also demonstrate the stages of disarticulation of ancient wreck
sites by bottom trawling operations through their various states of preservation. Yalikavak II is located
inside the Yalikavak harbor and has been protected from both currents and fishing activity. The wreck
consists of a high mound of intact amphoras (Figure 4). Knidos B, an Archaic Greek ship located near
a submarine cable in open water away from the coast, also exhibits little damage. This wreck appears
to be a much lower topographical feature partly because it is centuries older than the Roman wrecks
and has been partially buried by sedimentation. Corals growing on this wreck suggest that it has not
been run over by fishing gear recently (Figure 5). This is an example of what a wreck like Yalikavak II
would look like if left undamaged over time.
Other amphora wrecks found just outside the Yalikavak harbor, Yalikavak I and Buyukkiremit I, still
have amphora piles in the general shape of a ship (Figure 3), but these artifacts are broken from trawl
damage, although not scattered to a great extent. Knidos C, one of the Byzantine wrecks found in
2009 in the deep waters south of Knidos exhibits more extensive damage from trawl doors, including
drag marks that run directly through the amphora pile (Figure 6). Finally, the Knidos D wreck site is
an example of an amphora wreck in the lowest detectable state (Figure 7). This wreck consists of a
half dozen amphoras and a small pile of ballast stones; the remainder of the ship's cargo appears to
have been dragged away and was found only because of the reflective nature of the ballast pile.
Wrecks scattered or damaged beyond this state would not be detected with sonar. All of these sites are
at least nominally protected by Turkish regulations. Ships that sank outside of these areas are likely to
have been damaged to a greater extent than Knidos D.
The investigation of archaeological sites, both terrestrial and submerged, requires the exploration of
the modern landscape, which is then interpreted in order to understand the remnants of the ancient
landscape. In the case of the shallow Aegean Sea, there is little seabed that has escaped the reach of
trawlers. Exceptions include coastal zones where bottom trawling is either impractical for fishing
operations or has been prohibited in recent decades. The eleven shipwrecks located off the coast of
southwestern Turkey are good physical indicators of these zones. However, as with any ancient
landscape overprinted by modern processes, a lack of evidence does not necessarily equate to its
absence. The observations over the past two years of the extent of trawling in the region suggest that
there may be a greater loss of cultural sites to modern fishing activities in the Aegean than we can
physically document, and caution us to both apply our interpretations and plan future imaging surveys
Acknowledgements Christopher Atkinson, Robert Ballard, Bridget Buxton, Dwight Coleman, Katherine Croff,
Gabrielle Inglis, Orkan Koyagasioglu,Jason Krumholz, Eric Martin, Catalina Martinez,Jim Newman, Webb Pinner,
Christopher Roman, Jeffrey Royal, Tufan Turanli, Sandra Witten, Captain and crew of the E/V Nautilus and
Atlantis Ege. Funding for this research was provided by NOA's office of Ocean Exploration.
Brennan, M.L., 2009. Ancient
shipwreck survey and the modern
submarine landscape off
Yalikavak, Turkey. Marine
Technology Society Journal 43,
Koruma ve Kontrol Genel
Mudurlugu (KKGM), 2006. Circular
No. 37/1 of 2006-2008 Fishing
',.r t- :.,,ii i,-, Commercial
Fishing in Seas and Inland Waters.
Koruma ve Kontrol Genel
Mudurlugu, Ankara, Turkey.
National Research Council (NRC),
2002. Effects of Trawling &
Dredging on Seafloor Habitat.
National Academy Press,
Parker, A.J., 1992. Ancient
shipwrecks of the Mediterranean
and the Roman provinces. British
International Series 580.
Sakellariou, D., Georgiou, P.,
Mallios, A., Kapsimalis, V.,
Kourkoumelis, D., Micha, P.,
Theodoulou, T, Dellaporta, K.,
2007. Searching for ancient
shipwrecks in the Aegean Sea:
The discovery of Chios and
Kythnos Hellenistic wrecks with
the use of marine geological-
International Journal of Nautical
Archaeology 36, 365-381
All images courtesy of
The Institute for Exploration
Fihn Thetn Hitoi Shipreck
NOAA's Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary
By Deborah Marx
ABOVE (from top)
Several generations of
trawl nets have ensnared
this unidentified wreck.
Divers removed this large
trawl net wrapped around
the coal schooner
Paul Palmer's windlass.
Cost, difficulty, and risk
preclude this sort of action
on most sanctuary
PHOTO Tane Casserley
NOAA's Maritime Heritage Program
Stern trawlers, like the
drag their nets across
the sanctuary's seafloor
destroying shipwrecks if
they are snagged.
Fishing gear has impacted nearly all of the
historic shipwrecks investigated in the Stellwa-
gen Bank National Marine Sanctuary. Desig-
nated by Congress in 1992 to protect biological
and cultural resources while facilitating uses
compatible with the primary goal of resource
protection, the Stellwagen Bank National
Marine Sanctuary (SBNMS) is an 842 square-
mile marine protected area at the mouth of
Massachusetts Bay managed by the National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's
(NOAA) Office of National Marine Sanctuaries.
Over 400 years of years of waterborne activity
have made the sanctuary a repository for this
nation's maritime heritage. Since 2000, SBNMS
has been systematically locating and document-
ing the shipwrecks that lie within its boundaries.
And our investigations have revealed the severe
impact that fishing has had. On an annual basis,
virtually every square kilometer of the sanctuary
is physically disturbed by fishing activities,
including bottom trawling and dredging. Some
shipwrecks have been shrouded in nets while
others have been denuded of all upper structure
and durable metal hardware, leaving only a pile
of cargo atop lower hull remains.
A single impact from bottom trawl fishing gear
can cause extensive damage, compromising the
information contained within the archaeological
site. Similarly, gillnets and lobster pots can
impact a site momentarily or the fishing gear
can become entangled with the shipwreck and
subsequently abandoned. These interactions
degrade the shipwrecks' archaeological integrity,
diminish its aesthetic qualities, and result in a
perpetual cycle of "ghost fishing" that harms
Stellwagen Bank sanctuary regulations afford
shipwrecks much greater protection than
shipwrecks located in surrounding Federal
waters. These regulations prohibit altering the
seabed or possessing, moving, removing, or
injuring a sanctuary historical resource. How-
ever, Sanctuary regulations also provide an
exemption for fishing activities, allowing them
to alter the seabed and injure a sanctuary
historical resource without violating the regula-
tions. And Stellwagen Bank sanctuary is not the
only sanctuary in the system with an exemption
given to fishing.
NOAA is revising the Stellwagen Bank sanctu-
ary management plan to address this problem.
Proposed strategies include providing fishermen
with precise locations and buffer information to
avoid shipwrecks. Certain shipwrecks of
significance and fragility would be protected
from disturbance by a "Heritage Preserve" in
which all disruptive activities would be prohib-
ited or mitigated. While fishermen may find the
restriction of their fishing activities to be
objectionable, they also recognize that serious
financial loss can occur when their gear is
snagged on a shipwreck. Developing conscien-
tious protective measures for shipwrecks that do
not unnecessarily restrict fishing activities is the
goal of future sanctuary regulations.
Congress designated SBNMS and all other
National Marine Sanctuaries to protect areas of
the marine environment with special national
significance due to their conservation, recre-
ational, ecological, historical, scientific,
cultural, archeological, educational, or aesthetic
qualities. A higher level of protection for
shipwrecks inside SBNMS than in surrounding
federal waters should be provided and a solution
must be found to prevent further impacts to
historic shipwrecks from fishing activities.
Deborah Marx is a Maritime Archaeologist with the
NOAA/Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary
0 INA Quarterly WINTER 2009-10
Resuig RmanMechnten170 Yar Lte
Byjefrey G Roya
A Ghost of Our Past: A.J. Goddard
Four thousand miles north of the headquarters
of the Institute of Nautical Archaeology on the
campus of Texas A&M University is the Yukon
wilderness. In the summer of 2009, an expedi-
tion led by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology
and funded by National Geographic returned to
the Yukon River. This year, the goal was big: to
record the newly found sternwheel steamer A.J.
Goddard. Twenty years of searching by dedicated
local scientist Doug Davidge had finally paid
off, as this virtually intact time capsule from the
Klondike Gold Rush era was about to be
revealed to the world.
As a graduate student in the Nautical Archaeol-
ogy Program at Texas A&M, I was fortunate
enough to be allowed to join the expedition
team. I knew little about the history and impor-
tance of the steamers before Ijoined the six-
person team that summer, though I would
quickly learn. I knew only that there would still
be ice on the water when I made my first dive,
and that we would be sleeping on rocks with the
ever-present threat of grizzly bears and bad
weather-a fear relieved only by good Scotch
and good company around the camp fire.
My desire to work in the Yukon is certainly not
because of the fine living conditions, but rather
because of the story of our past that is tied to the
land there. Though the shipwrecks along the
Yukon River are thousands of miles away from
what most us consider home, the history of the
Klondike Gold Rush belongs to all of us. The
men and women who traveled north at the end
of the 19th century to find their fortune in the
wilderness came from all over the world, and
their perseverance and ingenuity is timeless.
ABOVE (from top)
Lindsey H. Thomas
Lindsey hovering along
side A. J. Goddard
PHOTO Donnie Reid
The INA team in the Yukon
(from left) John Pollack,
and Doug Davidge
PHOTO Donnie Reid
These were the qualities that carried them over
the Chilkoot pass, away from their family and
friends, and into history. The bones of the
steamships that carried these people along the
rivers tell their stories, if someone is willing to
look. Fortunately, Doug Davidge andJohn
Pollack, two dedicated and skilled avocational
archaeologists, have led the charge to rediscover
these lost wrecks.
Though the focus of the Yukon River Survey is
a period that is barely 100 years past, it was not
until I was floating above the completely intact
A.J. Goddard that I realized the power of
relatively modern but intact shipwrecks such as
these. Though I am fascinated by the mystery of
the broken and scattered shipwrecks that have
been the focus of much of my previous work, the
power of an unbroken shipwreck is undeniable.
An intact shipwreck with artifacts still aboard,
lying in the same place they were abandoned,
can make a person instantly feel the history that
we often only hear about after slowly piecing it
together from bits of wood and pottery. One can
almost see the men and women on deck, leaving
behind a coat, or an open boiler door, as they
fled the sinking ship. A story that often takes
months, if not years, to assemble, is visible in
Ships like these are vivid reminders of our past
and the importance of preserving what we can.
They are some of our most important assets in
a time when one of the greatest battles facing
archaeologists is engaging the public. The
physical remnants of our past can only be
preserved with the help of an engaged and
participatory public, and images of ships like
A.J. Goddard tell a story that is hard to resist.
Lindsey H. Thomas
Lindsey earned her B.A. in Anthropology with a focus in Underwater Archaeology from the Honor's
Program at the University of Georgia. Her interests include New World, medieval, and post-medieval
seafaring and maritime communities, an interest which stemmed from her work at the Papahanau-
mokuakea Marine National Monument, Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary, and Monitor
National Marine Sanctuary.
Lindsey's thesis explores A.J Goddard, a Klondike Gold Rush era sternwheeler in the Yukon Territory.
Her previous work includes research into the site formation processes that affect shipwrecks in dynamic
tropical and near-arctic environments, along with a survey of the Great Lakes schooner Portland.
INA Quarterly WINTER 2009-10
Harbors of the Nile Delta: Ancient Thmuis
In 2009 I joined the University of Hawaii in
excavating an endangered harbor site in the
middle of the Nile Delta. A 15-hour plane ride
transported me from the INA headquarters in
College Station, Texas into the teeming streets of
Cairo. From there it was an uncomfortable train
ride to Mansurah followed by the adventure of
an Egyptian taxi ride, something which, even
after four years of living in Egypt, I have not yet
grown quite accustomed to. And I was thrilled to
be back to excavate the site that the 1st- century
AD historian Josephus described as the final
mooring place for Titus's fleet during his trek to
Jerusalem (Jewish Wars 4.656).
One of the consequences of constructing the
Aswan High Dam in 1970 was the loss of the
annual Nile flood which, two thousand years
ago, was Egypt's most notable and vital phenom-
enon. Water inundated the land, and the cities of
the Nile Delta appeared to be islands amidst a
glittering sea. Watercraft freely sailed amongst
these islands. Merchant ships laden with cargo
from the far reaches of the Mediterranean
cautiously plied the coastal waters looking for a
favorable river entrance into the Delta and
access to the emporia situated throughout Lower
Egypt. As the waters receded, they left a thick
deposit of silt, replenishing the soil. After three
thousand years of continuous occupation, the
city of Mendes was cut off from this lifeline by
the Nile's slow but steady shifting course. The
inhabitants settled southward founding Thmuis.
The city flourished during the Ptolemaic Period,
owing its fame to the Mendesian perfume it
produced, prized throughout the Mediterranean.
Today, the Greco-Roman city survives amidst a
sea of precariously constructed buildings and
mosquito-ridden rice paddies. The inhabitants
of Tell Timai Amdid, modern Thmuis, are
slowly encroaching upon the scattered ruins of
the ancient city where the construction of a
sports stadium now threatens to destroy its long
forgotten, yet tremendously important, harbor
Our team had exactly one month to explore the
harbor. We focused excavation on what I
suspected to be a stone quay, but it turned out to
be a Ptolemaic temple. Undergraduate students
and Egyptian workers slaved tirelessly to expose
the foundation. We took deep cores of the
suspected harbor to support our theory that
water had been in the basin during antiquity.
Excavations on the opposite bank revealed a
series of large workshops, warehouses, pithoi
(storage containers), brick kilns, bread making
equipment and a well, connected to the harbor-
basin by a terracotta pipe. In the dirt we uncov-
ered possibly the most important find of the
season, a sea barnacle, perhaps having made it
to the Thmuis by clinging to an ancient seagoing
Delta harbor sites are extremely rare, though
once the lifeline of trade and commerce in
Lower Egypt. Scholars have had few chances to
explore this vitally important maritime
landscape. As the water table rises and popula-
tion expands, many of the archaeological sites in
the Delta are vanishing. If we cannot protect
them, we will have to make do with the accounts
of the historians who once frequented the
After a long and busy month we closed excava-
tion. I could not help but wonder, as I departed
Thmuis in the fading hours of the day, listening
to a distant call to prayer echoing through the
village, what would become of our ancient
harbor once we left? How many times did I ride
though the village on a donkey cart and notice
the countless relics carelessly used as doorstops
and stools. The uncertainty of Egypt has always
fascinated me; so next year I return to plunge
deeper into the mysteries of this ancient harbor.
Veronica Morriss received her BA in Classics and Mediterranean Studies from the Pennsylvania State
University in 2003. She spent four years in Cairo studying Egyptology and the Arabic language and
has worked on a number of archaeological projects in Egypt and Greece. Her work with the Hellenis-
tic Institute of Ancient and Medieval Alexandrian Studies (HIAMAS) in the harbor of Alexandria
captured her interest and she is now leading the ongoing investigation of a Greco-Roman harbor in
the Nile Delta. Veronica is currently working on her MA in nautical archaeology at Texas A&M and
hopes to pursue a doctorate in Egyptology in the near future.
Excavating the Ptolemaic
shrine in Thmuis.
PHOTO Veronica Morriss
A rice field near Tell
PHOTO Sarah Herkes
ABOVE (from top)
PHOTO Veronica Morriss
: . Does Treasure Hunting Make Cents?
THE FINANCIAL DOWNSIDE TO SHIPWRECK SALVAGE
"Using the financial
downside of treasure
hunting has great potential
in helping archaeologists
hunting as making
Throughout history the lore of sunken treasure
has driven many in search of lost ships. In the
past, archaeologists have tried to protect
shipwrecks from treasure hunters by appealing
to the public's love of the past or the law.
Unfortunately, both appeals have proved
ineffective-treasure almost always wins out
over nostalgia and the legal process is long,
expensive and rarely results in a favorable
Where do we go from here? One option is to
show that protecting a shipwreck is more
financially beneficial than selling the artifacts;
this requires proving that treasure hunting
operations rarely provide the expected financial
returns. The salvage of the 1554 Wrecks,
Whydah, Arabia, and S.S. Central America are four
examples of the financial downside of treasure
In 1976, the Znika brothers, discovered the
wreck of Espiritu Santo, one of three Spanish
treasure galleons that sank off the coast of Texas
in 1554. For the next eight years, the Znikas'
company Platoro Limited and the state of Texas
fought for control of the ship. Eventually a plea
bargain was reached: Texas was awarded
ownership of the artifacts and
a salvage award of
the salvage award
appears sizable, the
Znikas had eight years
of legal expenses to
pay in addition to
over eight years
SINA Quarterly WINTER 2009-10
In 1984, Barry Clifford discovered Whydah, a
slave ship turned pirate galley that sank off the
coast of Cape Cod in 1717 with 20 to 30
thousand pounds of gold and silver. Clifford
spent the next ten years in and out of court
fighting the state, his Wall Street investors and
the NAACP over plans for the artifacts and a
Whydah-themed amusement park. Although
Clifford found the ship, he never did find the
treasure. In order to realize a profit from the
discovery, he opened the Whydah Museum in
The Hawley family discovered and salvaged the
Steamboat Arabia during the winter of 1988-89.
When it sank in 1856, Arabia was reportedly
carrying a substantial amount of Kentucky's
finest bourbon whiskey none of which was
found. Thus far, the family has spent $750,000
salvaging Arabia, another $750,000 on the
museum and $20,000 on a freeze dryer for
artifact conservation. With operating costs and
ongoing conservation efforts, according to the
Hawleys, they are just breaking even.
Tommy Thompson discovered the U.S. mail ship
S.S. CentralAmerica in 1988 40 miles off the
Carolina coastline in 2,500 meters of water.
Using newly developed technology, Thompson
recovered the ship's cargo including thousands
of gold coins reportedly worth $400 million.
The companies who had insured the ship when
it sank in 1857 took Thompson to court over
ownership rights. After a 15 year legal battle,
Thompson was awarded 90% of the recovered
gold and the insurance companies 10%. Thomp-
son planned to sell his portion but found himself
in more legal trouble after backing out of a deal
with Christie's. It was about this time that
Thompson disappeared-his last known address
a motorhome in Florida. The location of the
Central America gold is also unknown. His
investors remain unpaid.
In each of these notable cases, the financial
return from treasure hunting was not as great as
expected and it was the investors who lost the
most on their investment. Using the financial
downside of treasure hunting has great potential
in helping archaeologists discourage treasure
hunting as making no cents.
-Laura Gongaware & Kristen Vogel
by Coral Eginton
whateverr it %was that I imagined archaeology to
he as a child, it has turned out to he something
completely different for me. In fact. I think that
the reality of the field is actuallN much more
alluring than the imagined settings and scenarios
I dreamed up when I %was younger. As archaeolo-
gists, we were all influenced in one \way or
another by the Holl wood representations of
characters like IndianaJones, and for young
\women like myself, Lara Croft. Though, for all
their high-budget glitz and appeal, these heroes
nc\ er got to exca\ ate a mysterious sunken
shipwreck or long-tfrgotten submerged settle-
Working in the field on a nautical archaeology
project definitely tests \our stamina and sour
personal drive. You \will always get out of the
experience exactly\ what you're willing to put into
it. During the 2009 summer season of'the Bajo de
la Campana Shipwreck Excavation, I invested
innumerable hours of hard \work. What I received
in return was not only a deeper appreciation for
\what we do as nautical archaeologists, but also
one of the best and most memorable experiences
of in. life.
A typical day at our "Bajo house," as it came to
be called, started at about 6:30am with the
creaking of floorboards, the ,an\ ning of team-
mates, and the aroma of Spanish coffee wafting
in from the kitchen. During a daily briefing bh
American project director Mark Polzer, we would
be split into three smaller dive groups with
staggered descent times so that there %was always
ample working room at the site and topside
support. By 7:30iam we had already met Spanish
project directorjuan Pinedo Reyes at the harbor
and were preparing for another day out on the
Team members of the later dive groups took their
tanks and gear on the larger, slower boat, and left
the harbor first in order to anchor at the site.
After helping to load the larger dive boat,
members of the first dive group turned to
prepare the faster Zodiac for the same trip. As
part of this team. I immediately assembled my
geai. slipped into my wet suit, and prepared for
the ride out to the site. The \waves on the way to
our destination were relatively small, but at the
high ,peeds attained b\ the Zodiac we Ifew off
crests and plunged into oncoming swells. I wouldd
often find himself struggling to keep my small
frame inside of the boat, fearful that 1 might
bounce off the pontoons and end up in the water
a little earlier than planned. Though it might
sound frightful, this \as my favorite part of the
morning. This was the kind ofad\enture I had
hoped archaeology. would include w hen I was
dreaming up my future as a child.
The first descent of the day was always the most
magical to me. Not that someone could forget
about a place like Bajo overnight, but after
\waking in the morning, the days before always
seemed like a dream. It wasn't until I was on my
\a\ back down to our beautiful underw\,ater
\workplace that I once again accepted the surreal
nature of my profession. After these initial few
moments of realization %rore off, it was back to
\work as quickly as possible. Though I'm sure I
could hate spent hours on end enjo) ing a
recreational dive at this very site, I was not on
holiday and our maximum dive time was less
than an hour. On top of the limited time, the
work was not easy by any means. With the quick
sedimentation rates, the constant tangling and
readjusting of airlifts, and the removing of huge
boulders, it took real focus and efficiency in
order to make substantial progress.
The first round of diving finished by I I:00am
and a pre-packed, picnic st.le "brunch" of
bocadillos or sand iches, was made available
during the surface interval between dives in
order to keep up our strength. After another
round of excavation, \we cleaned up the site,
pulled up the airlift hoses, detached Irom the
buoy and headed back to the harbor. At this
point we had been on a boat in the sun for oer
six hours, struggled in and out of wetsuits
multiple times, lifted numerous tanks, and had
made two hour-long dives. By the time we had
stowed all of the gear at the harbor and made it
back to the house by 3:00prm. we were more than
deserving of a big family-style Spanish lunch
w ith the entire team.
Coral "on the job" during
the 2009 field season at
Bajo de la Campana.
PHOTO Undsey Thomas
By 4:00pm %we started processing the finds that
had been recovered that day. Artifacts were
given inventory numbers, their descriptions were
recorded, and multiple photos were taken before
we stored them for future conservation at the
National Museum of Maritime Archaeology.
Being the computer nerd that I am. I spent my
evening hours working on a digital database for
the excavation and compiling a spatial distribu-
tion of artifacts in GIS. Though I may have
loved the adventure of the excavation and the
beaut) of the environment, w hat twas most
important to me %was seeing the site come to life
through the analysis that %we did in the evenings.
This w as the kind of research and understanding
I never could ha\e imagined would be so
rewarding %when I was a young girl, plaN ing out
my future life as an archaeologist.
Events Announcements Celebrations Opportunities
S Avcry Russell was senior executive in charge of public affairs at the Carnegie Corporation of
New York, a major grant-making fiondaton, for 30 years, retiring in 2000 to pursue long-
delayed avocatons of fiction-writing and painting. She is a graduate of the University of North
Avery Battle Russell Carolina, where her father was on the journalism Facult); and before this attended the Purney
School in Vermnont. An inveterate traveler in her youth, she grew up a competitive swimmer
(back stroke and general "water bab;," taking on the icy challenges of the Arctic and Antarctic,
among other bod) -surfing stunts before turning in her bathing cap.
Friday March 26, 2010, 7:00 pm
As this issue goes to press, Dr. George E Bass will be awarded the Lucy Wharton Drexel
Medal. Established by the Penn Museum i'Lrniversity of Pennsylvania' in 1889 to honor
exceptional achievement in excavation or publication of archaeological work, the medal is
given by the Museum Director in consultaton with past medal recipients and archaeological
curators of the Museum.
Dr. Bass will be traveling to Pennsylvania, to accept the award and to make a presentation on
the Serge Limamn shipwreck entitled "The Nillion-PieceJigsaw Puzzle: Excavating a Cargo
of Medieval Glass." INA President Jim Delgado will also be in attendance to honor Bass.
a founder of the Institute of Nautical Archaeology.
atur$ap, Aprif24t1, 2010o
Each ;II the Nautical Archaeology Program (NAP) at
Texas A&M University, along with its affiliated institutions,
hosts ",, ,I'. k Weekend." This annual event is designed to
promote the various projects of the program, as well as to
inform the general public of aspects of nautical archaeology. Visitors are invited to explore
nautical archaeology and learn about the ongoing research into ships and shipboard life at
Texas A&M University! The keynote speaker will be INA PresidentJim Delgado. For more info
check out the website at... http://nautarch.tamu.edu/shipwreck_weekend/index.html
O INA Quarterly WINTER 2009-10
INA BOO Km ark ........ ..... ...............
TITLES ON NAUTICAL ARCHAEOLOGY & HISTORY
Out of the Blue: Public Interpretation of Maritime Cultural Resources
Edited by John H.Jr.Jameson and Della A. Scott-Ireton
The editors have brought together state of the art ideas, research and scholarship associated
with maritime public education and interpretation. With few publications currently available
that feature the public interpretation of maritime and submerged cultural resources, this
edited volume will add to a limited body of knowledge in a field that is steadily growing
Hardcover $109.00 Order your copy at www.springer.com
Maritime Archaeology: Australian Approaches
Edited by Mark Staniforth and Michael Nash
Over the past twenty years period Australian researchers and underwater cultural heritage
managers have conducted a significant number of important maritime archaeological
investigations and have developed innovative approaches to the discipline. This book includes
a comprehensive bibliography of work conducted both in Australia and by Australian
maritime archaeologists in the Asia-Pacific region. This book will be of interest to students
and practitioners of maritime and historical archaeology and cultural heritage managers
throughout the world as example of good practice and innovative approaches to maritime
Hardcover $95.00 Order your copy at www.springer.com
Swedish-Georgian visit to Bodrum
Following discussions between INA PresidentJim Delgado and colleagues at the Vasa Museum in
Sweden last year (see the article in The INA Quarterly Spring 2009), a group consisting mostly of
Swedish and Georgian students came to visit the Institute of Nautical Archaeology in Bodrum, Turkey,
during three weeks in January and February 2010.
The trip was funded by the Swedish Institute (SI) in Stockholm and marks the beginning of cooperation
between Sweden and Georgia in the field of maritime archaeology. In May 2009 the Georgian students
came to Sweden and completed a PADI diving certificate program. The Swedish participants then went
to Georgia in September to take part in an excavation at the Black Sea shoreline, in Grigoleti, arranged
through Ilia State University, Tbilisi. The main goal of the excavation was for the students to learn and
practice underwater excavation techniques.
The visit to Bodrum was a great experience for the group members. Under the supervision of head
conservator, Kim Rash, the group learned about the basic methods for conserving different kinds of
water soaked materials such as wood, marble, iron and ceramics. The group was given opportunities to
work on artifacts from Bronze Age, Greek, Roman and Byzantine periods. The group was impressed
with the large collection of books and periodicals in the Institute's Tooze library, but what caught the
particular interest among the group members was the conservation of iron going on in the lab. The
group also toured the extensive collections at the Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology.
Both working with materials from different time periods and the exhibits at the museum gave the
students good insight into what nautical archaeology is all about and how it does not have any borders
in time or geography. With the ultimate goal being the creation of a nautical archaeology program at
Ilia State University, with assistance from Sweden, this visit to INA in Bodrum took us all one huge step
closer to making it a reality.
- Ulrica S6derlind
HL I i L(.'.\h
i,i a 1.
The group outside INA
headquarters in Bodrum, Turkey.
Top row, left to right
Paata Donadze (Georgia)
Ulrica S6derlind (Sweden)
loseb Beritashvili (Georgia)
Bottom row, left to right
Rubi Jaramillo (Sweden)
Madona Mshvildadze (Georgia)
To excavate a 7th-century BC Phoenician wreck for a season?
... to bring in students and volunteers to do the work in the field (no one receives a salary, but we
cover transportation, food & housing costs), boat hire and fuel costs, equipment, and insurance.
Half of the budget last year came from sponsorships and grants, and the other half came from
private donations and support from INA directors, members and other friends.
To work on a nautical arch.-ricilogicIl1 time capsule?
...to give a student the opportunity to travel to theVasa Museum in
Stockholm and spend the entire summer r. J,' and documenting
the hull and collections of the Swedish warship Vasa-a perfectly
preserved time capsule of sailing i.-,I-ii:.:. and :--.- :,- _l,;:
To support a student research project?
... projects typically involve travel costs and equipment use
and support field work that mentors the next generation
of scientists. Costing on average $1,000 to $3,000 per
student, a research project or survey that we can
support today may lead to the stunning discovery
we excavate tomorrow.
....... .... ............... ..............
...... .. .... ........... ...............
..... ...... ......... .................
. .............. ....... ...............
...................... ... ...............
........................ ...... ...............
............................. ............ ...............
To update www.inadiscover.com?
... adding the results of a project's field season to the
growing body of work on new INA website making it
accessible to a worldwide audience online costs $500 -
$1500 to organize and enter data, create photo & video
galleries and add internal and external content links.
Yes, I'd like to do what it takes to support INA! Here is my tax deductible donation of...
I am very interested in supporting...
A Student Archaeological Excavations Archaeological Surveys
Outreach & Educational Programs Technology websitee & online)
Conservation & Research
I would like to receive a complimentary INA membership with my donation* yes no
My check is enclosed
Credit Card: VISA AMERICAN EXPRESS MA\ 1- RCARI)
To make your donation online go to: www.inadiscover.com
Monthly giving options available through our secure PayPal system. INA is a Section 50 i (c) (3) organization
Please make checks payable to: Institute of Nautical Archaeology 2010 Annual Appeal
All donations will receive a charitable tax deductible receipt.
* Complimentary memberships included with all donations over $100
INSTIT I O