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Title: The INA quarterly
Alternate Title: Institute of Nautical Archaeology quarterly
Abbreviated Title: INA q.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Publisher: Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Place of Publication: College Station TX
College Station TX
Publication Date: Winter 2000
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Underwater archaeology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Archéologie sous-marine -- Périodiques   ( rvm )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 19, no. 1 (spring 1992)-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 23, no. 2 (summer 1996).
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Volume ID: VID00057
Source Institution: University of Florida
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lccn - sf 94090290
issn - 1090-2635
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The INA Quarterly

Volume 27 No. 4 Winter 2000

3 The Last Field Season on the Pepper Wreck:
A Preliminary Analysis of the Hull
Filipe Castro MEMBERSHIP
Institute of Nautical Archaeology
P.O. Drawer HG
10 The Artifacts from Sao Juliao da Barra College Station, TX 77841-5137
Sara R. Brigadier
Learn firsthand of the latest discov-
13 Underwater Archaeological Evidence from Pantelleria series in nautical archaeology. Mem-
Marco E. Chioffi and Sebastiano Tusa bers receive the INA Quarterly and
other benefits (see INA Quarterly
16 Diving into Knowledge:Two Schools for Scientific Divers 25.1, 27).
William H. Charlton ]r.
William H. Carton Jr. Researcher (students only)..... $25
Seafarer ................. 540-99
20 Notes from the Cenotes Surveyor ... ........ $100-249
William H. Charlton Jr. Diver ......... ......$250-499
Restorer ................$500-999
24 Notes From The Cenotes-Dos Curator ........... $1,000-52,499
William H. Charlton Jr. Excavator ........... $2,500-4,999
Archaeologist ...... $5,000-9,999
Navigator .........$10,000-24,999
25 Profile: M. Gail Vermillion Anchor ..........$25,000 and over

26 The USS Philadelphia... Recaptured? Checks in U.S. currency should be made
Brett Phaneuf payable to INA. The portionof any do-
nation in excess of $10.00 is a tax-de-
ductible, charitable contribution.
28 Historic Shipwrecks:
Discovered, Protected, and Investigated
By Valerie Fenwick and Alison Gale
Reviewed by Christine Powell

29 News and Notes On the cover: Divers lift a frame from
the Pepper Wreck near Lisbon, Portu-
30 In Memoriam gal. Photo: Guilherme Garcia.
Willard Newell Bascom

31 Index Volume 27

O November 2000 by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology All rights reserved,
INA welcomes requests to reprint TNA Quarterly articles and illustrations. Articles for publication should be submitted in hard copy and on a 3.25
diskette (Macintosh, DOS, or Windows format acceptable) along with all artwork. Please address all requests and submissions to the Editor, INA
Quarterly, PO. Drawer HG, College Station, TX 77841-5137; tel (979) 845-6694, fax (979) 847-9260, e-mail,
The Home Page for INA is at http:/ /
The Institute of Nauhcal Archaeology is a non-profit scientific and educational organization, incorporated in 1972. Since 1976, INA has
been affiliated with Texas A&M University, where INA faculty teach in the Nautical Archaeology Program of the Department of Anthro-
pology. The opinions expressed in Quarterly articles are those of the authors, and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Institute.

The INA Quarterly was formerly the INA Newsletter (vols. 1-18).

Editor Christine A. Pow~ell

The Last Field Season on the Pepper Wreck:

A Preliminary Analysis of the Hull

Filipe Castro

It is almost as satisfying to reach a milestone in a
significant project as to look back on a completed job well
done. The fourth and final season on the Pepper Wreck (Site
SJB2) finished in August 2000, at least n terms of the field
work. lhe ship, believed to be NoSo Senhora dos Marlires,
sank at the mouth of the Tagus River at Sio Juliao da Barra
just outside Lisbon on September 15, 1606. INA joined the
Institute Portugues de Arqueologia (IPA), which sponsored
the excavation through its underwater archaeology depart-
ment, the Centro Nacional de Arqueologia Nautica e Sub-
aquatica (CNANS). In this last season, we were also
sponsored by MARCASCAIS, the company that manages
the new marina of Cascais, where our boats were stationed
The Pepper Wreck, thought to be the remains of an
early sevententh-century Portuguese East Indiaman, was
disc vered in 1994. Excava-
tion, begun in 1996, yielded a 10
collection of thousands of ar-
tifacts, as well as part of the 26
hull structure (see INA Quar-
terlh 26.4, 12-15). Our objec- 25
tives in 2000 were to complete 4
the recording of the remain- 9 2.
ing hull timbers to permit
study, analysis, and parhal re-
construction of the hull.
Some of the timbers 16
were raised and some left in 27
situ, protected from the strong 6
dynamics of the sea under a
layer of sandbags. We inspect- ',...
ed a new area scarcely one hun-
dred meters from the SJB2 site,
where timber remains had
been spotted last winterby our Fig. 1. The Sfl
longtune collaborator and close
friend Carlos Martins. This experienced diver has found most
of the sites around Sao Juliao da Barra, and has been our
best guide to archaeological sites on that rough bottom. Un-
fortu.nately, a layer of sand no less than two meters thick, as
well as a strong current, prevented us from reaching the re-
mains in the three trial trenches we opened.
As always happens in underwater archaeology, the
conservation and analysis of the artifacts will go on for a
long time, as will reconstruction of the hull. Indeed, the
hull has shown to be the most important artifact on this
site. Although the remains consist only of a very small
portion of the bottom of the ship, these timbers, with con-
struction marks engraved on their faces, speak volumes.


The wreck is located within an area that might be
termed an archaeological complex, a relatively small stretch
of sea bottom containing several shipwrecks (fig. 1). The
strong dynamics of the sea and the annual shift of sedi-
ments have combined to mix the artifacts from several
wrecks. This site is an interesting and rich ship graveyard,
but it is also a true nightmare for archaeologists. The materi-
al culture represented in the collection of artifacts encom-
passes a period of over 350 years. According to a CNANS
database, many wrecks were lost at the "mouth" of the Ta-
gus, a general designation that encompasses a very exten-
sive area. Fortunately, the area of the fortress of Sao Juliao
da Barra is small and well defined. The official documents
refer to most vessels wrecked here specifically as being lost
off the fort, rather than at some less precise designation. These
known sites date from the
late sixteenth century to the
T middle twentieth century (ta-
Sble 1). The records often cor-
respond with and explain the
provenience of artifacts re-
,^ trieved or located near Sao
JuliAo da Barra.
The first challenge of
-- this study has been the iden-
tification of the Pepper
1 2 Wreck, designated asSJB2 in
11 3 the map of the complex. One
13 important clue was a thin
,, layer of peppercorns, cover-
ing the hull timbers. These
extended over a very large
Map: F. Castro area that contained a very ho-
mogeneous collection of ar-
2 shipwreck site. tifacts from the late sixteenth
century and early seven-
teenth century. The Chinese, Japanese, and Burmese pottery
found in the pepper layer can be dated to this same period.
It bears a great resemblance to the ceramics collection of the
Manila galleon San Diego, wrecked in the Phihppmes in 1600.
The porcelain, from the Wan-Li period, is from the 1590s
and 1600s. An astrolabe found within the site bears the date
of 1605, establishing the earliest possible year for the wreck.
The evidence we have uncovered points to one par-
ticular vessel, presumably built in Lisbon: Nossa Senhora
dos Marttres. It was employed in the Carreira da India, the
lengthy voyage between Goa and Lisbon. M/arires wrecked
off Sao Juliao da Barra in 1606 on a return voyage from
Cochin on the Malabarcoast of India. The proposed idenhtiy

INA Quarterly 27.4

Table I. List of Wrecks in Sio IJulido da Barra
Year Ship
1387 San Juan Baptisth
1606 Nossa Senhora dos Mirtircs
1625 Sdo Francisco Xavicr
1704 English vessel (70 cannons)
1733 Union
1753 Dutch vessel
1802 English vessel
WW I Maria EduarLda
t966 Santa Malfldah

Cochin, India
Cochin, India

St Malo, France

Viana, Portugal

Near the to-trec.
Under the walls of the fortress
Presumably near, south of the fortress
Near the fortress
Near the fortress
Presumably near, east of the fortress
Near the fortress
Presumably near, west of the fortress
Near the fortress
(Source- CNANS Database)

of the wreck is reinforced by the presence of a large quantity
of peppercorns, indicating a bulk cargo ot pepper, and there-
fore an Asian origin for the trip of the wrecked vessel. Study
of the woods utilized-cork oak (Quercus suber) and umbrella
pine (Pinus pinen)-and the scantling dimensions leave no
doubt that this is a Portuguese-built hull.
During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, a
small fleet would leave Lisbon for India almost every year,
making this voyage the longest regular route of its time. The
Portuguese designed and built the ships specifically to sus-
tain a six-month-long trip. They had to offer enough space
for their crew and passengers, together with their victuals,
and leave enough free space for the large amounts of mer-
chandise brought back on the return trip. Their main cargo-
peppercorns-was a very light commodity to store in the
holds, especially it these vessels were to carry heavy artil-
lerv on the upper decks. To maintain stability, they had to
carry a large amount of ballast, creating an even greater de-
mand for space in the holds. In light of these lictors, it seems
incredible that the average late sixteenth-century India route
nau had a keel length of less than thirty meters!
Illustrations of early seventeenth ships are scarce and
generally inaccurate, so we are lucky to have a few late six-
teenth and early seventeenth-century texts that discuss the
conception of the nau. Four texts have been especially im-
portant in the reconstruction of the hull remains. The first is
the Livro da Fabrica das Naus, written in Portuguese by a priest
and adventurer named Fernando Oliveira around 1580. It
translates a previous Latin work of his, \' r Nautica, whose
manuscript (dated to around 1570) is in the University of
Leiden. The second is an anonymous list of the timbers nec-
essary to build a three-decked, 600-ton nito for the India route.
This is part of a codex in Lisbon's National Library, dating
from the 1590s, known as tie Livro Nihetico The third is a
manuscript titled Livro Prineiro de Anrqlectulra Naval, pro-
viding an incomplete "recipe" fo,- building a four-decked
Iwu. Tlus was written around 1610 by Joao Baptista Lavan-
ha, engineer of the kingdom, mathematician, and author of

many other books. The fourth is perhaps the most interesting
and elusive of them all, since the author is virtually unknown in
spite of the magnificent self-portrait and signature with which
he opens his book. It is called Livro de Tra(as d Carpintaria, dated
1616, and signed by a Manoel Femandez, shipwright.
From these texts, we have a fair idea of how these
vessels were designed and built. However, when it comes to
details, we have few certainties, many doubts, and a great
deal of ignorance about the shipwrights' methods, tech-
niques, and practices. The ability to answer such questions
is why nautical archaeology is such an important contribu-
tor to maritime history.
The remains of the SJB2 hull consisted solely of a por,
tion of the keel, eleven frames, an apron, and an area of plank-
ing covering around twelve by seven meters (fig. 2). In
addition, the marks of the iron spikes with which the planks
were nailed to the frames showed a clear pattern. This helped
us to determine the position of another fourteen frames.
Before starting the reconstruction of the hull, I per-
formed a series of checks on the accuracy of the 1997 1:10 site
plan, drawn by reducing a large number of 1:1 drawings
made over Plexiglns slates on the bottom. I compared the
measurements of the timbers raised in 1999 and 2000 with
their representations in the plan. I found a discrepancy of
five cenrtermeters over a distance of twelve meters in the lon-
gitudinal direction, representing an error of les. than 0.5 per-
cent. There was a difference of three cm in the transverse
direction, representing again less than 0.5 percent error in
the overall measures. An independent team checked the po-
sition of each spike hole in the planking on the north half of
the wreck. This was only partially done on the southern half,
leaving a few-not very important-doubts here and there.
The presumed positions of the fourteen vanished
frames marked on the planking were strongly reinforced by
the existence of a number of interesting remarks on the floors
and futtocks. Once analyzed, the positions and meanings of
these marks give us a very clear picture of the principles that
guided the conception and construction of this vessel.

INA Quarterly 27.4

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INA Qua rtcrk- 27 4

As mentioned above, eleven contiguous floor timbers
were preserved over the keel, growing in their molded di-
mensions from the north to the south, in the direction of the
bow. They show four types of marks: a sequential numbering
in Roman numerals; a series of marks that seem to have no pre-
cise meaning, presumably resulting from scratching during the
construction process; a series of vertical lines, marking the edg-
es-in Portuguese astiivzs-and the axis of the keel; and a series
of lines marking other construction features. Of this last group.
four vertical lines are clearly placed on what I believe to be the
turn of the bilge points, and another three deserve a closer look,
since their meaning is not clear at this point (fig. 3) Two are also
vertical marks on the aft face of floor timbers C2 and C3, and the
third is a line on the base of floor C3.
All four texts mentioned above describe a shipbuild-
ing process generally known as skeleton-first, or frame-based,
as it is perhaps more accurate to say. In this method-typi-
cal from the Mediterranean tradition and already many cen-
turies old in the sixteenth century-the central section of the
hull was defined through a certain number of pre-designed
and pre-assembled frames that were mounted over the keel.
The widest frame (or frames) of this group was generally
placed m the center of the central portion and called mid-
ship frame(s), or master frame(s). The last of these pre-de-
signed assemblies, fore and aft, were called tail frames. The
fore and aft ends of the hull, called delgados in Portuguese,

were defined by a series of ribbands that ran from post to
post over these central, pre-designed frames. This ensured
that the planking would have smooth runs and would not
endure unnecessary stresses during its lifetime. At the same
time, this system guaranteed that the bow and stem would
have beautiful and fair shapes, cutting the water easily, and
avoiding any turbulence around the rudder. The remaining
frames may have been formed and fitted only after all the
ribbands were set in place. In this system of construction,
shipwrights did not depend on drawings to define the shape
of the pre-designed frames. These were obtained from a rect-
angular mould and set of gauges, called graminho. These de-
termined the rising of the bottom and its narrowing, from a
maximum width at the flat midship frame to the 'V' shaped
minimum width and maximum rise at the tail frames.
Following a very simple procedure, the total rising or
narrowing was divided by the number of floor timbers over
which it was to be distributed by a simple algorithm called
best (cross-bow) in Portuguese, the equivalent of the Itahan
mezzaluha. This algorithm was used to build a graminho, with
the full scale measures to be added or subtracted from the
main mold of the midship floor (fig. 4).
I measured the molded dimensions of the floors over
the keel, and plotted their heights together with their re-
spective sequential numbers. The spike marks on the north-
ern planking clearly show a set of three floors placed together,

Drawing: B Jordan and E Laanela
Fig. 3. Floor timber C2. Nole all four types of marks mentioned in the text: 1-the Roman numeral "X," 2-a round groove,
probably /ust a scratch, 3---he axis and edges of the keel, and 4-a vertical ihne to port side.

INA Quarterly 27.4




0 Points

Tdal rising 12 Points

S Ponts Rises 5 points

Rises 4 points

Rises 3 pointsT

Rises 2pciriis

Rises I pa it ;


Narr s 3pc

Narrs 2 points

Narroas poinl

NarroYS 6 points

Narrov s 5 points

Ws 4poinss


Total narrowing

H7 Gran ar

0 Points
7 Points
it Poinis
16 Points

Fig. 4. Risig and narrowing pre-designed floor timbers. Computer generated representations have become a great aid to the
archaeologist to depict theories in a speedy-but somelimnes a less than perfect-drawing Drawing: F. Castro

to which should be assigned the number zero, considering
the numbering order observed in the preserved examples.
My reconstruction produced a series of values that followed
very closely the rising of the bottom recommended in 01-
iveira's Liro da Fabrica das Naus for a inau of eighteen rumos
of keel (one rumo is 1.54 meters, so eighteen rumos equals

27-72 meters). According to Father Oliveira, an India route
nau must have eighteen runios of kee, three midship frames,
and eighteen pre-designed frames before and abaft these
three master frames (fig. 5). The total rising of the bottom
should be the equivalent to one room-and-space (the dis-
tance from an edge of one frame to the same point on the

transom Igio)
112 of the max beam

tailframe W4dship frame(s)
(alfrgama) 3 (of 18 rumos keel length or more


of the

13 to 1/2 of
the total height

6 '7 '8 '9 '10 '1 '12 13 '4 '15 '16 '17 '8

rakes 114 to 114.5

Fig. 5. A computer generated representation of the rrsing of the bottom, after Father Fernando 01hveira. Drawing: F. Castro

Keel length = 18 rumos (27.72 m)

Stem post
1/3 of the keel length (9.24 m)

INA Quarterly 27.4

Graminhos Synthesis

140 0


Fig. 6. R;isin of/ h1c l)loni oyi the prl'e1'Ttrm'd litber,, and tht'
threoretical ni1odel of Olnezra, Lvayiuhei, mId11 F-E'rrJJJnJj'Z

---- O'vue'a Ja' 4r 2cm
-U- J a *)ah~ S lrdmeS. led, Bc
J B Laanfa 15 frames do 3 p 7o m
M Frnacrez dedo = 1 I3 i3
-MN S Maoures

next frame) to the bow, and one and a half room-and-space
to the stern
1 tried varvnrn the number of pre-designed frames in
my reconstruction, as well as the value of the rising, since
the other sources suggested different designs. Livro Naitlico
determined that an India ,nau should have one single master
frame, and seventeen pre-de signed frames before and abaft
the master Fram e, and rising of tree pailmos degoai-one rinmo
equaled six paii:.' s :.'.goa-.-to the stern (the rising in the di-
rection of the bow is not mentioned). Lavanha's Livro Prnmeiro
indicates only one master frame and five pre-designed frames
fore at'nd aft, but mentions an old method with fifteen pre-
designed frames to each side of a single master frame. Fernan-
dez's Ll'ro de Traas ind icates also fifteen pre-designed frames
to each side of three master frames.
After considering all possible sets of values, it still
looked very much like Oliveira's pattern was the formula
used in constructing the bottom of what we presume to be
the nau Martires (fig. 6). Following this line of reasoning, I
then tried to relate some of the vertical marks observed on
the floors with a few theoretical curves drawn from 01-
iveira's book for the narrowing of the bottom. Again, if
considering three master frames, as seems to have been
the case, four consecutive marks match within 1 cm the
expected x\lues for the turn of the bilge Both these values
of the flat of the midship frames, or pluo, and the total nar-

rowing, are perfectly within the values indicated by Fa-
ther Fernando Oliveira.
At the present time I have no explanation for the re-
maining three marks. Two of these consist of vertical marks,
either less well present ed or less deeply engraved on the aft
sides of floor timbers C2 and C3. The third is visible on the
base of floor C3, and has no clear meaning at this stage.
Recording and reconstructing the shape and si7e of
the thirty-nine central frames is only the first step in the re-
construction of the entire hull. The next step will be to ana-
lyze the curvature of the preserved buttocks, and determine
how the midship section was designed, at least to the water
line. To achieve this I am being helped immensely by Dr.
Thomas Vogel of theTAM U Mathematics Department. From
there, it will be easy to extrapolate a plausible shape of the
ship, at least the submerged portion, and an acceptable full
volume of the hull. The positions of the hatches, pumps, cap-
stans, and mast steps are wel] defined in the texts mentioned
above. They also describe the size and shape of the fore and
aft castles, the size and rake of the main mast, and the length
of the remaining masts, as well as some of the yards. Many
questions remain, however, and many more will certainly
appear as the reconstruction work evol es. This is why the
wreck has been such a thrilling object to study, and why,
when it is finished, it will provide a basis for analyzing and
understanding similar vessels.

1NA Quarterly 274

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Graminhos Synthesis

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Acknowledgements: There are more people than I can name whose support was critical for the conclusion of the 1999 and
2000 field seasons of the Pepper Wreck project. 1 will start with Carlos Martins and A ugusto Salgado, the skilled divers who
covered the surveying, digging, measuring, drawing, and photographing in whatever weather conditions... and who
always covered my back when I was short of personnel. I am also grateful to M6nica Belo and Concalo Caldeira, two hard
workers whose enthusiasm never faded. I must also recognize the CNANS team, of which Miguel Aleluia, the resident
Rock of Gibraltar, deserves the largest share of the merits for his competence, indefatigable strength, and infinite wisdom.
As to the institutions involved, I start with CNANS and particularly Dr. Francisco Alves for all his support and patience,
always backed by his IPA directors, Dr. Joao Zilhao and Eng. Monge Soares The Portuguese Navy was a great help,
specially the Direcyao de Far6is and the cabinet of the Almirante Chefe de Estado Major da Armada. I want to express my
gratitude to the management of MARCASCAIS and all their personnel for extreme patience towards our schedule. Many
students from the Texas A&M University Nautical Archaeology Program gave freely and enthusiastically of their time and
should be acknowledged for the outstanding work they accomplished. Finally, [ thank INA, its members, and Texas A&M
University for supporting this project. o

Suggested Readings
Afonso, Simonetta L
1998 Nossa Senhora dos Mdrttres: The last Voyage. Lisbon: Ed. Verbo/Expo'98.

Castro, Filipe
In Press "The remains of a Portuguese Indiaman at the Tagus Mouth, Lisbon, Portugal (Nossa Senhora dos Martires,
1606," Proceedings of the Iternational Symposium 'Archaeology of Mcdieval and Modern Ships of Iberian-Atlantic
Tradition.' Lisbon: Ed. IPA/CNANS.

Shangraw, Clarence and Edward .an der Porten
1997 Knank Plate Design Sequeni'' .1350-71655. California.

INA Quarterly 27 4

The Artifacts from Sao Juliao da Barra

Sara R. Brigadier

The Portuguese East Indiaman known as the Pep-
per Wreck is likely Nossa Senhora dos Mirtires, which sank
at the mouth of the Tagus River outside Lisbon on Sep-
tember 15, 1606. The ship had just completed its arduous
journey from Cochin and failed in an attempt to enter the
river after losing steering capabilities. It was heavily lad-
en with a cargo of pepper and other exotic goods from the
Far East when the wreck occurred.
From 1996-1998 excavations by the Portuguese Cen-
tro Nacional de Arqueologia Nautica e SubaquAtica (CN-
ANS) at SAo Juliao da Barra uncovered many of these
artifacts from their burial place at the bottom of the Ta-
gus. When Filipe Castro approached me with the idea of
studying the artifacts found during this excavation for my
Masters Thesis, I had no idea what was involved. I agreed
to the project, and Filipe began organizing a small group
of Nautical Archaeology Program students-Brian Jordan,
Erika Laanela, Mason Miller, Anthony Randolph, and
myself-to accomplish several tasks during the summer
of 2000. Work would progress on timber recording and
site management, and the artifacts from the excavation
would at last be organized.
Upon my arrival in Lisbon in late May, I realized what
a mountain of work was ahead in order to collect all the in-
formation needed. Six weeks is not a long time to examine
and create a paper record for over two thousand objects. A
fortnight of this time was allotted for artifact photography at
the Museo de Marmha, where the more spectacular items
from the excavation are housed. Without the generous assis-
tance of Anthony Randolph on this project, I would not have
been able to gather all the necessary data. He contributed

Photo. S. Brigadier
Fig. 2. Charting compasses SJB 96/98 001 and 002.

1Photo: 5. brigadier
Fig. 1. Anthony Randolph and Frika Loanela catalogue arlifacis

countless hours to the cause, first teaching me how to cata-
logue artifacts and take artifact photographs, then helping
finish both aspects of the project (fig. 1). We ended up spend-
ing three weeks at CNANS cataloguing, and two weeks in
the attic of the Museo de Marinha photographing the collec-
tion. The entire process was facilitated by Filipe, tirelessly
sorting through the paperwork to provide us space and sup-
plies to work both at CNANS and the Museum.
This summer's work has provided the direction 1 need-
ed to structure the entire project into two aspects of research.
I am currently finishing the artifact catalogue, which I will
then use to create a geodatabase using ESRIs GIS software
to spatially organize the artifacts in relation to their location
at the site as well as their type. The research portion of the
project will focus on the artifacts from the excavation that
are likely to have been aboard a Portuguese East Indiaman
returning from Cochin during the early seventeenth centu-
ry. The rocky point of Sao Juliao da Barra, located inconve-
niently near a sandbar, has been a treacherous point for ships
and sailors for centuries. The heavy surge has thoroughly
mixed the remains of shipwrecks to produce a site that yields
fragments from sixteenth century majolica to modern cola
bottles. While everything from the excavation will be includ-
ed in the catalogue, 1 am only focusing my thesis upon arti-
facts that could have been aboard Nossa Senhora dos Martires.
These primarily consist of the items photographed at the Mu-
seum, and fall into the following categories: navigational
instruments (fig. 2), porcelain dishes, pewter plates, Asian
stoneware ceramics, and miscellaneous pieces (including cor-
al fragments and gaming pieces).

INA Quarterly 27.4


Fig. 3. TIh three astrolabes~from the Pepper Wreck. left to right, SJB 1(0172), SJB II (0173), and SJB 111 (0174).

Navigational Instruments

The navigational instruments include three astro-
labes (fig. 3) and three pairs of charting compasses. Of the
three astrolabes associated with the Pepper Wreck, the one
identified as Sno Jliao da Barra III (SB1 III) is in the best
state of preservation. SIB HII was protected from current
and sand abrasion by a large rock, and from molecular de-
terioration by an iron cannon resting on top of it. As the
iron decomposed, releasing its electrons into the surround-
ing water, it fed a constant flow of electrons to the brass
astrolabe, forming a protective galvanic cell. The astrolabe
is dated 1605 and bears a Portuguese mark of four six-point-
ed stars surrounding the date engraved on the lower por-
tion of the ring. It is also marked with the letter "C,"
identified in the exposition book as the mark of Francisco
de Goes. The Goes family was active in instrument mak-
ing from 1587 until 1676. The other two astrolabes, SIB I
and S]B If, are badly degraded and have Iberian shapes
but few identifiable characteristics.
During the late sixteenth centhLry, charting compass-
es were often cast as sets, and they were used until lost or
broken beyond repair. Therefore, although the S]B com-
passes are more characteristic of the late sixteenth centu-
ry, it is not surprising that they were still in use during the
early seventeenth century. Two pairs are complete and al-
most identical, although one set is missing a leg and has a
slightly less elaborate head. All three pairs are made en-
tirely of a copper alloy, probably brass. These dividers are
simple, consisting of two identical pieces riveted together
at the top, forming two straight legs. Each leg has an arc at
the head that makes a ninety-degree turn after completing
half a circle to form the leg. The two complete pairs hax e
an additional decorative ear on either side of the head riv-

et, along with decorative cross-hatching. The third pair
lacks the ears, but does appear to have engravings. On all
three pairs there are two horizontal lines present on the
leg at the base of the head, and two more horizontal lines
about one third of the distance down the leg. None of the
compasses appear to have perfectly straight legs, and the
tip of the leg on set three is bent. This damage could have
occurred before the wreck or in the 394 years spent deteri-
orating at the bottom of the Tagus River.

The collection of porcelain from the excavation
corresponds with the year of the Martires wreck, 1606,
within the Chinese Wan-Li Period (1573-1619). This era
is marked by the intense popularity of a style known as
kraak porcelain, so called because the Dutch referred
to this style as the "krankporselein" or carrackk porce-
lain" carried by the Portuguese East Indiamen. This
underglaze blue and white style tends to mimic early
Ming themes. The motifs, designed to capture a fleet-
ing mood or motion, typically incorporate deer, horses,
plants, or birds into landscape patterns. The background
and foreground give the impression of looking into the
natural habitat of the creatures (fig. 4). Kraak porcelain
characteristically has decorations radiating from pan-
els to a bracketed rim; on bowls and vases the entire
piece may be organized in panels, but on plates and
dishes the panels are usually confined to the border of
the piece. The patterns were not made to order during
the Wan-Li period as they were later, but they were
made specifically for the European market, where these
patterns were greatly admired.

]NA Quarterb 27 4

In a recently conducted study of the border patterns of kraak porce-
lains from securely dated shipwreck sites, a reliable typology was assem-
bled by Clarence Shangraw and Edward Von der Porten. The evolutionary
sequence that they ham.e established traces the development of decoration
patterns used in border styles and layouts on blue and white dishes. Three
out of five border styles used in the years between 1590 and 1600 are repre-
sented in our collection. These porcelains helped identify the wreck as the
Martires, which wrecked in 1606 Painstaking sorting and reconstructive
work by the Portuguese team have thus far vieided a collection that in-
cludes two platters, seven plates, one bowl or vase base, and the neck of
one vase. All of them appear to be kraak porcelains from the iMmg Dynas-
ty's Wan-Li Period, dated around the year 1600.
Other Items
I have only recently begun my research into the pewter plates, stone-
ware ceramics, and miscellaneous artifacts. The collection of pewter plates,
includes seventeen artifact numbers (fig. 5). Some of the items are encrust-
ed with pepper from the wreck, and are in varying sizes and degrees of
preservation. This range includes everything from well-preserved intact Photos: S. Brigadier
plates to plate rims fused together. Almost all of the plates have markings, Fig. 4. A typical, aid oe of the better pre-
which I will be researching this fall in order to discover their origin. There served, porcelain plateIs, SJB 96/98.0097.
are a large number of stoneware sherds that correspond to the known fea-
tures of Chinese Dragon Jars and Martaban Jars, as well as some intact jars.
Chinese Dragon Jars are characteristically stoneware with a buff-colored body and a green exterior glaze. Patterns such
as dragons, flowers, or suns decorate the jar as cut-away appliques in a buff paste. Martaban Jars are usually a highly
fired stoneware partially or entirely covered by an exterior dark brown glaze. Decorative elements of black or buff
colored glazes are optional features, and the jars come in a wide range of sizes.
The miscellaniLeou, artifacts include gaming pieces, fragments of trade coral, and cupreous buttons and decora-
tive elements. These items provide a more personal perspective on the lives of the men and women involved in the
shipwreck. From the styles of clothing and jewelry worn, to the games played to while away long hours aboard ship,
the artifacts classified as "miscellaneous" are united by what they have to
say about the people who owned them.
I have already completed some research on the artifacts and much
of the work for the publication of the catalogue, but tie entire collection
includes over two thousand individual items. Incorporating them into a
geodatabase will be a lengthy process. The final product will be globally
referenced and able to be integrated into larger scale projects, or examined
on a minute level This type of database allows for the spatial examination
of different classes of artifacts with relation to the location of the hull re-
mains or the topography of the site, among other possibilities. The entire
project should be completely ready to be Included in the broader analysis
of the Pepper Wreck by the summer of 2001.

Acknowledgmse't,.': would like to thank Dr. Kevin Crisman, Nautical Ar-
chaeogy Faculty Fellow at Texas A&M Uni\verity, and of INA, for securing
funds to fly me to Portugal to work, and also for his sound advice on every
aspect of this project. I would also like to thank Francisco Alvarez of CN-
ANS for providing room, board, and all n-,nner of supplies while I was in
For all their assistance this summer, I would like to thank Texas
Photos. S. Brigadier A&M University Nautical Archaeology Program graduate students Erika
Laanela, Mason Miller, Brian Jordan, and most especially Filipe Castro and
Fi(g 5. SJB 96/98.0078, olew of the well plr- Anthony Randolph. The staffs at CNANS and the NMuseo da Marinha were
servld pi'wter plates cirreiitly bemin studCd, also instrumental in the successful completion of my work this summer "

[NA Quarterly 27.4

New Underwater Archaeological Evidence from Pantelleria

Marco E. Chioffi and Sebastiano Tusa

The Quarterly welcomes submissions by INA members concierning their work in the field of nautical archaeology. Dr.
Chioffi is well known for his discovery of dozens of wreck sites off the coast of Tuscary. Since 1980, he has been working on the
island of Pantelleria, in the crossroads of the Mediterraneain West of Sicily and northeast of Tunyisui Dr. Tisa has been the director
of GIASS (Gruppo d'lndagine Archeologica Subacquea Sicilia) and of Sezione per 1 Bern Archeologici della Soprinten-
denza per i Beni Culturali ed Ambientali di Trapani since 1999 Both men are renowned among Italian archaeologists as the
authors of numerous books and articles on Mediterranive archaeology. In the summer of 2000, Dr. Chioffi, Dr. Tusa, and their co-
workers will continue their work on Pantellcrimn sites.

Neolithic voyagers reached Pantelleria, a small is-
land halfway between Sicily and the coast of North Africa,
by the fifth millennium BCE (fig. 1). Pantellerian obsidian
has been found at ancient sites in Sicily and Malta. This
volcanic glass was the main attraction in that period be-
cause it was superior to flint for producing tools and weap-
ons. Although it is clear the island was visited in that period,
no Neolithic sites have vet been found on Pantelleria-
The most ancient traces of human occupation are
dated to the Early Bronze Age (beginning of the second
millennium BCE). One ot the largest and most interesting
sites of this period in the entire Mediterranean has been
excavated at Mursia on the northwestern coast. The settle-
ment of round or oval huts was fortified by a high and
massive defence wall, still well preserved and clearly vis-
ible. Outside the settlement was a large graveyard includ-
ing several megalithic tumuli or stone cairns where bodies
were buried in small tholos-hke chambers. These-locally


named sesi-are unique monuments in the panorama of
Mediterranean pre- and protohistory.
Beside its prehistoric occupation, Pantelleria has had
a long historical settlement. An early historical source
(Pseudo-Skylax) describes the time Punic ships needed to
reach the island during the fourth century BCE During
the Phoenician, Pumc and Roman periods, the political
center of the island was an acropolis, a high place not far
from the modern town in the area of San Marco and Santa
Teresa. Although no real archaeological exca\ ation has yet
been done, it is possible to see many traces of buildings,
mosaic pavements, well-defined stucco walls, and water
tanks amidst the fields. Another important place during
the same period was the Lake of Venus where we are ex-
cavating a Punic sanctuary dedicated to Astarie
It is known from both literature and a recent field
survey of the island that Pantelleria (then called Cossura)
was very rich in the Roman period. The island was one of

I hMap' C A. Powell

Fig. 1. Pantelleria occupies the cLrsrosroad between Italy and Africa, and the Eastern and We'tern Mediterranean,

INA Quartervl 27 4

'Phot- IM LhlOth

Fig. 2. The waters of Gadir Baty hide a remarkable ancient shipwreck site.

Fig. 3. The amphora mound in Gadir Bay has yielded a wide variety of

the main Mediterranean strategic trading ports after it be-
came a Roman possession in 217 BCE (although Carthage
tried to reconquer the lost territory for some years without
any real result). By the first century BCE, Pantelleria had
become one of the richest ports in the Mediterranean. It
remained such until the Vandal conquest in the fifth cen-
tury CE ended the island's most prosperous period.
These centuries of ancient commerce must have left
evidence behind. Cadir Bay ranks high among the most
likely ancient landing places for cargo ships from the south
and east (fig. 2). It contains all the fundamental require-
ments of an ancient landing place, including an excellent
natural shelter (from all except east winds) and a nearby
spring of drinkable water. In the past, the sea penetrated
inland for an additional 200 m, which would have made
the landing place safer.
We have been exploring a mound of amphoras in
Gadir for eighteen years in an attempt to pinpoint where the
ship or ships that transported them are buried. The ampho-
ras, covered by sand or mud, Lie in the cove within a radius
of about 300 m at depths varying from 27 to 42 m. Clan-
destine divers pillaged the site, but fortunately they dis-
turbed only the visible part of the cargo. The amphoras so
far recovered include Punic jars of twelve different types
("holemouth" included), Graeco-ftalic types, and Roman
examples of the Dressel IA, IB. IC, 2-6 types (fig. 3). These

are unmistakable testimony to the presence of multiple
shipwrecks here from the fourth century BCE onward.
Using the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Pluto,
we have started a systematic survey of the deeper areas
near Gadir in collaboration with the Carabn oert (national
police). A wide area of about 40,000 square meters at a
depth between 50 and 120 m was surveyed (fig. 4). The
gently sloping sea bottom shows many amphoras scattered
down from the wreck site. We found both Punic and Italic
amphoras, including Mana C 1, Mana C 2, Greco-ltalic, and
Dressel 1A 1, 1A 2, 1B, 1C, 2,4, and 18. These data from the
deep survey reinforce the idea that the Gadir site includes
more than one wreck. Despite the severe damage from loot-
ers, the mound is well worth further study.
Two hundred of the Gadir amphoras are included
in an exhibition at the Castle of Pantelleria arranged by
the authors each summer since 1998. We will be very
pleased to tell the story of each of these amphoras to every
INA member who visits. A catalogue with four hundred
photos and explicating text is available.
We have also explored natural landing place on the
opposite coast of Pantelleria near Scaun. There we found
the traces of wreck in front of the shoreline where we lo-
cated traces of an industrial area. In the Late Roman peri-
od, the kilns in this region produced one of the most
common wares exported to North Africa, Italy, Spain, and

INA QUiirttrlIv 27.4

France. Pantellerian ware was used nlamly fr cooking pur
poses (fig 5 ). The \esset n'ar Scauri we are excavating
was full of this pottery packed in straw A fire destroyed
the ship, which then sank offshore.
The excavation has shown the presence of a variety
of Pantellerian ware from the cargo, as \%ell as some Late
Roman amphoras. Items used by the crew included dishes
of sigillata africana D type with impressed palmettes, Afri-
can lamps, glass bottles, and a game made of animal bone. We
also discovered a silver ring with a carnelian gem decorated by
an arrow-like incision and some glass beads. Wild pig and sheep
bones were associated with the food storage of the \'esel.
The vessel sank at the end of the fifth century CE. It
is still too early to have any real idea of her route. Howev-
er, due to the presence of late African elements among the
crew items, we suspect they were coming from North Af-
rica and sailing towards Sicily after loading a rich cargo ot
Pantellerian ware. Our future campaigns should certainly
help us to solve this problem (fig 6). "

Photo- M. Chioffi

Fig. 4 (above). An underwater archaeologist explormig the Ga-
dir site.

Fig 5 (below left). Pantellarian wire was; a comMnon firm 0of O
utihtyi ceramics during Roman I 1tnes

Fig 6 (below right. The keel ol the Ronan vessel the author.
art excavating ii'ar Scaiurn,

Photo: M. Chioffi

INA Quartertv 274

Diving into Knowledge:

Two Schools for Scientific Divers

William H. Charlton Jr.

As a Ph.D. candidate in the Nautical Archaeology
Program at Texas A&M University (TAMU) and [NA's
Diving Safety Officer (DSO), I have access to some truly
exciting educational opportunities. For example, I served
on the staffs of two different scientific div ing training pro-
grams between May 3 and June 18, 2000. Both of these,
conveniently enough, were in Panama City, Florida, where
I arrived by a complicated route.
Scientists of any discipline who want to work on
projects sponsored by insttutiors other than their own need
to be trained to an accepted standard, and then need some
way of proving their training and experience. That training
standard in the underwater sciences of modern-day Ameri-
ca has been established by the American Academy of Un-
derwater Sciences (AAUS), and
the method of proving one's
training and experience is by at- I
taiuing an AAUS Scientific Div-
er rating. However, the main
TAMU campus in College Sta-
tion does not have a scientific
diving training program. There
is a need for such a program, not
only for our own Nautical Archae-
ology Program students, but also
for students of other disciplines,
(such as Wildlife and Fisheries, Bi-
ology, and Oceanography) who
want to do their science under-
Dr. Tom Iliffe, a profes-
sor of Marine Biology at Texas
A&M University at Galveston, Fig. 1. "The Scienht-i-
teaches an AAUS scientific div-
ing training course to students of the marine sciences at
the Gal' eston campus. This course consists of an academ-
ic course on preforming scientific research in the sea dur-
ing each spring semester. This includes a lot of in-water
training in the black-water bayous of Calveston Island. The
Galveston course is followed by a two-week trip to Florida
at the beginning of each summer, which provides students
with a broader experience. Iliffe's students are exposed to
open-water and shore diving along the coast around Pana-
ma City and to diving in the freshwater springs of north-
central Florida. As an A&M Diving Safety Officer, I joined
the trip this summer to evaluate the Galveston program and
to determine whether I would recommend that students of
all disciplines from the main campus participate in the
Galveston training course.

Shortly after I had arranged with Dr. Iliffe to partici-
pate in his trip to Florida, I was contacted by Gregg Stanton,
whom I have known for a number of years. Cregg conducts
the "Scientist-In-The-Sea" (SITS-fig 1) program at Flonida
State University's Panama City Campus The SITS program
is a six-week-long course designed to teach graduate stu-
dents from any science discipline who want to conduct their
science in the water. It teaches safe management practices
for underwater research and state-of-the-art underwater re-
search and life-support technology. An additional aim of this
program is to enhance the students' diving skills. As we
should all realize, if you are not a good diver you will not be
able to do good research underwater.
Gregg asked me to work on his staff for the SITS pro-
gram. I said "I'd love to work on
SITS-with you, Gregg, but I've al-
ready agreed to go on the
TAMU-Galveston trip, which is
during Weeks Two and Three of
SITS." He responded with "Four
weeks is better than none; I'd still
like to have you." So, that's how
I got to work with both these pro-
grams. I arrived in Panama City
on May 3 to help set up for SITS
and participate in Week One
While in Panama City, we lived
at the Bachelor Quarters on the
U.S. Navy's Coastal Systems Sta-
tion (CSS) and ate in the Base's
Mess Hall.


SITS: Week One
e-Sea" Program emblem Sk.
-Sea Program ebe Week One consisted of
introductions to the Navy Base and key personnel on the
SITS Staff. We also had a tour of the Navy Experimental
Diving Unit (NEDU). John Clarke, Ph.D., a SITS graduate,
is the Scientific Director of NEDU, as well as the current
SITS Academic Ad visor. We would work closely with Dr.
Clarke and a number of other people from NEDU. We were
next introduced to the Naval Diving and Salvage Training
Center (THE Navy Dive School). We would spend a lot of
time in and around the Dive School, using their classrooms
and training pool, and receiving training lectures from their
senior staff. The Navy Base itself is deeply involved in
undersea rec.arch. John Camperman, Ph.D., another SITS
graduate, is an Ocean Engineering researcher and SITS

INA Quarterly 27.4

The remainder of Week One included diving equip-
ment issue at the SITS Dive Locker, located in the National
Marine Fisheries Service bayside facility This is the same
location where TAMU-Calveston's sea turtle research is car-
ried out. Following di\ ing check-outs in the D.: c School's
Training Pool, we had a full hvo-day scuba equipment re-
pair clinic given by Tom Allen of Scubapro, a former Navy
SEAL. We had a full day of how-to lectures on underwater
photography (fig 2) and practical application in the Train-
ing Pool. This week's lectures, though, were highlighted by
the History of Diving lectures, including not a few sea sto-
ries, by now-retired hyperbarc physician and U.S. Navy
Captain Claude Harvey. Claude Harvey was the successor
to U.S. Navy Captain George Bond, the founder of Navy
saturation diving, and he has lots of tales to tell.

TAMU Galveston Training Program
At the end of SITS Week One I met up with Tom Iliffe
and his Galveston students on theirarrival at the Navy Base-
This group also stayed in the Base's Bachelor Quarters while
they were in Panama City. We spent the first two days of
this trip doing open water di\ es from a boat from the local
Hydrospace Dive Shop. This was a great experience for the
Galveston divers, and turned out to be the first deep-water
(70-100 feet) open ocean dives for some of them. My first
task with this group, though, was to train and certify them
all as Nitrox divers. Nitrox (see INA Quarterly 25.4 14-15) is
an oxygen-enhanced breathing mixture that allows increased
dive duration.
The next two days were spent diving from the beach
in the vicinity of Panama City. Since they didn't need my
help, I went back to SITS. During these two days, SITS re-
ceived training in Aqua Lung's "Oxy-Lung" full oxygen re-

Photo: SITS
Fig 3. Domniique Sumian, one of Jacques Cousleau's long-lime
Dint';'In atrrs, teachers Aqua Lung's full-oxygen rebreathelr to th
SITS students.

Photo: SITS
Fig. 2. Bill Charltoni and SITS student lason Raupp check a
Nikonts Ill during an underwater photography training class

breather from Bill Brumiller and Dominique Sumian (Fig.
3). Brumiller is a former Navy SEAL, and Sumian is a long-
time associate of Jacques Cousteau and dive supervisor on
many of Cousteau's expeditions. The Oxy-Lung is similar to
the LAR-5 full oxygen rebreather used by U.S. military spe-
cial warfare troops.
The next week with Tom Iliffe's group would teach
even an old diver like me a few new tricks. He trains all his
students as Cavern Divers. For the uninitiated, a cavern is
that entrance area of a submerged cave where natural day-
light can still be seen. For the Caver Diver certification, in-
cursions are limited to shallower than seventy feet of depth
and less than one hundred thirty feet of-penetration, with at
least forty feet of visibility. Tom lliffe is a world-recognized
submerged cave biologist. Some might think that he trains
his students in cavern diving to entice them into cave div-
ing, but this is not the case. His intent is simply to make them
better divers. Cavern diver training stresses buoyancy con-
trol, attitude and trim in the water, and a better equipment
configuration than is usually found on open water divers.
Just by chance, the day before the Galveston students
were to drive home to Texas, the National Speleological So-
ciety's Cave Diving Section had their national conference in
Lake City, Florida, not far from where we were staying. This
is one of America's preeminent cave diving research organi-
zations. There could not be a better way to introduce the
students to the world of cave diving, even for those who
would not be interested in taking part. One student even
won a $1000 cave light system in the conference raffle! While
there, I met Jim Bowden and Ann Kristovich, leaders of the
team exploring the Zacaton Cenote in northern Mexico.
Their presentations made quite an impression on me and
made me decide to undertake cave diver training.

INA Quarterly 27-4

SITS Continues
Once the Galveston students had departed, 1 re-
turned to SITS full-time. Tom [liffe also stayed for the next
week to give the SITS students the benefit of cavern diver
training. At the same time, Gregg Stanton took two other
cavern divers and me for the next step into ca, e di\ er train-
ing. When that week was over, it was back to Panama City
where we undertook training on theCis-Lunar fully-closed
rebreather (fig. 4), the "Cadillac of rebreathers," from Jill
and Paul Heinerth. The Heinerths were members of the
U.S. Deep Cave Team that mapped Florida's Wakulla
Springs submerged cave system.
After a long drive down to Key Largo (700 miles),
the next week was spent at the Marine Resources De-
velopment Foundation. The SITS students and 1 (be-
cause I had not done it before), in teams of three, made
forty-eight-hour-long saturation dives in the underwa-
ter habitat there. This included living in the habitat, and
a lot of time in the water on hookah hoses (surface-sup-
plied air) doing various scientific projects, but without
surfacing for 48 hours. This qualified us as saturation
diver "Aquanauts." After their "sat dives," each team
was able to make a dive on the famous Aquarius habi-
tat, located three miles off the shore of Islamorada Key,
which is operated by the National Oceanographic and
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Nation-
al Undersea Research Center (NURC) of the University
of North Carolina at Wilmington (LUCW). This was quite

Fig. 5. SITS students at a Surfaice-Suppied Divin ,cla,,
which included helmet and hose diving train rg.

Photo: SITS

Fig. 4. Bill Charlton prqyares for a training dive on the Cis-Lunar
fidly-closed rebreather inder 1he instruction of Palm Heinerhl.

a 'icat because the area around Aquiariu5 is restricted and
rcw people get to dive there. While at Key Largo, some of
the SITS students also received training on the Drager Dol-
phin semi-closed rebreather system.
After leaving Key Largo, we drove up to Florida
Atlantic University's fantastic new "Sea Tech" ocean engi-
neering facility at Dania, near Fort Lauderdale. While there,
we toured the facility and received briefings on the state-
of-the-art technology going into the newest Autonomous
Underwater Vehicles (AUV's). Here 1 also met Dr. Ray
McAllister, FAU Emeritus Professor of Ocean Engineer-
ing, who did some of the sub-bottom profiling for Jim Par-
rent on the Columbus Caravels Project in Jamaica a few
years back. Next, we visited Harbor Branch Oceanograph-
ic Institute in Fort Pierce, where we toured their extensive
ocean engineering facilities and received briefings on some
of their most current technology.
Then it was back to Panama City for the final week
of SITS. The students spent much time on their final course
papers, but we also received some interesting briefings.
We saw some of the newest "hard suits" being used for
deep ocean work, as well a; the Mark 8, Mod. 1 Swimmer
Delivery Vehicle (SDV) used by Navy SEALS for clandes-
tine incursions.
The six-week SITS program also incorporated many
other topics not previously mentioned. These included Sci-
entific Diving Procedures and Risk Management; Diving
Physics, Physiology, and Tables; Recompression Chamber

INA Quarterlv 27.4

Operations; Underwater Exposure Suits; and Surface-Sup-
plied Hard Hat Diving lectures (fig. 5) and practical applica-
tions, such as using Remotely-Operated-Vehicle (ROV, fig.
6). We went through presentations and practical applications
on Oxygen Cleaning of diving equipment, and received ex-
tensive in formation on Fire Hazards in Oxygen Systems. We
covered Mixed-Gas Diving, including Nitrox, Heliox, and
Trimix. The students received Gas Blending training and cer-
tification, and training in underwater crime scene manage-
ment. We also learned of some of the newest underwater
technology being investigated by the Navy Experimental
Diving Unit, such as Cryogenic Scuba and Liquid Breathing.
Finally, one very important aspect of rLsearch received exten-
sive coverage: grantsmanship, or "How tosell yourself and your
project to sponsors and
get funded." .
In my opinion,
Florida State Universi-
ty's "Scientist-In-The-
Sea" prtograi: has to be
the best such program
bi the world. To have
such a program,
many parts must
come together to
make the whole, and
Panama City is the
only place where this
can happen First,
Florida State Univer-
sity at Panama City's
administration wants
the SITS program,
and provides great
support to ensure that
it succeeds. Second, Fig. 6. Astudentprtparesasna llRemnot
this is the location of
the Navy Base, the Coastal Systems Station, and its one-of-
a-kind tenant commands, the Navy Experimental Diving
Unit and the Naval Diving and Salvage Training Center.
The senior officers of these three Navy commands also
want the SITS program to happen. Without these key ele-
ments, and the partnership that all of them are willing to
establish and maintain, the SITS program could not exist.
Credit is also due to the SITS staff led by Gregg Stan-
ton, former head of the Academic Diving Program at FSU-
Tallahassee and now head of the Advanced Scientific Diving
Program at FSU-Panama City. Gregg is a SFTS graduate and
former Chief Instructor of SITS. Terry Johnson is a former
U.S. Naval officer, a SITS graduate, and recently retired as
Diving Officer at Florida Atlantic Uruversity. Steve Matthews
recently retired as a Navy Chief Warrant Officer-4 (Master
Diver) and was the Diving Officer at the Navy Experimental
Diving Unit. I was the fourth wheel of this unit.

Would I recommend that aspiring underwater sci-
entists--even our underwater archaeology students-at-
tend the SITS program? Without hesitation, I most certainly
would. I have met the products of past SITS programs, and
many of them have gone on to long, satisfying, and mean-
ingful careers in the underwater sciences. Attending SITS
takes a serious decision. It is a graduate-level program,
which during the summer of 2001 will be a ten- or twelve-
week course, and requires normal tuition, books, and fees. How-
ever, Texas residents can apply to the Southeastern Educational
Consortitun and get in-state tuition in Florida. Students are also
responsible for food, kxlging, and transportation. It is not cheap
to take part in the SITS program, but I believe, in the end, the
benefits will far out-
S S weigh the expense and
time spent.
Finally, back to
the initial reason I de-
i cided to go to Florida,
Dr. Tom 1iffe's TAMU
SGalveston scientific div-
ing training course.
Would I recommend
that students who are
aspiring underwater
scientists of any disci-
pline from Texas A&M
at College Station take
the Calveston course.
Again, 1 would not hes-
itate. This answer, how-
ever, requires some
Discussion To complete
Photo: SITS the course, students
y-Oeraned-Vehicle (ROV)for operation, must take both the
spring semester aca-
demic course and make the field trip to Florida. Taking both
parts gets them well on their way to an AAUS Scientific Diver
certification. The academic portion of this course is offered to
College Station students via video network from Galveston.
However, it is very important that all students in the course also
take part in the water work to ensure that their skills are all on a
parbefore the trip to Florida. This would entail trips to Galveston
on a few weekends during the spring semester. I realize this
may be difficult for some students, but again, I believe the result
far outweighs the time and expense.
Acknowledgments: I want to thank Dr. Tom Iliffe and his
Galveston students, and Gregg Stanton and the Scientist-Ln-
The-Sea program staff and students, for making this a very
memorable six weeks for me. My best wishes to all of you in
your future endeavors. Additionally, I would like to thank
Dr. Jerome Hall for allowing me to spend six weeks in Flor-
ida, while still functioning as INA's DSO via cell phone. ,

INA Quarterly 27 4

I __


Notes from the Cenotes

William H. Charlton Jr.

The Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico is largely com-
posed of a low, flat shelf of limestone between the Carib-
bean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. This limestone karst, filled
with cracks due to an asteroid impact, has been eaten away
by slightly acidic ru n.iff to form numerous caves and sink-
holes. Most of these features are filled with water because
of the heavy rainfall and high water table. The sinkholes
are known as cenotes-the Spanish pronunciation of the
Mayan word dzonot, meaning a well, or water source. The
peninsula has thousands of cenotes, over half of which may
still be formally unidentified.
Dr. Thomas Iliffe, Professor of Marine Biology at
Texas A&M University at Galveston, has been conducting
research in the submerged cave systems of the Yucatan
Peninsula for the past ten years. He has often seen archae-
ological remains in
these subnmrged can es,
and has spoken to
many othcr divers who
have shared his con-
cern for these sites.
However, he did not
know of any cave div-
ing .ndenvater archae-
ologists, so could not
pass the information
along to someone
trained in this disci-
I met Tom Iliffe
during a project in Flor-
ida in May 2000 (see
preceding article).
When he learned that I
was interested in be-
coming a cave diver, he Fig. Tom, Bill, and Scott cool oj
shared his concerns "Temple of Doom" cave system (an
about the Yucatin. thecenote).
Therefore, when 1 had
completed my training, I joined Tom on a July trip to the
peninsula. While there, I could dive and become familiar
with the cave systems, and investigate the potential for
doing underwater archaeology. Accompanying us on this
expedition were Beverly Flood, Tom's undergraduate as-
sistant and Scott Webb, his graduate student in Marine
Biology. My sincere thanks to Dr. Donny Hamilton, Head
of the Nautical Archaeology Program, Department of An-
thropology, Texas A&M University in College Station for
providing the funding so I could make this trip.
We flew into the Cancun airport, and spent the night
m Akumal ("Place of the Turtles" in the Mayan language)


in the Mexican State of Quintana Roo. Here we met with
Tom's friends at the Centro Ecologico Akumal (CEA). The
next morning, we drove up to Puerto A\enturas, where
we met with Mike Madden, a well-known American dive
guide. He loaned us three sets of double aluminum 80 cu-
bic foot scuba tanks for the length of our stay (Beverly Flood
is not a diver, yet). This would save us quite a bit of money
on tank rentals.
Then it was off to our first cenote dive. As will be
seen, many of the cenotes and their associated cave sys-
tems have been given colorful names by the cave divers.
We dived Cenote "Temple of Doom," a small but beauti-
ful cave system. There are no known archaeological re-
mains in this cave, but Tom and Scott were able to begin
their collections of cave creatures. They found mainly a
small shrimp that is
about a half inch long,
from the genus
Typhialya, and another
species about t a quarter
inch long from the or-
der Thermosbaenacea.
This was my first cave
dive after my cave div-
ing course-a fantastic
new experience for
me. I found that one
certainly cannot be
claustrophobic and
dive in caves.
,. The next day,
we went to meet with
Nancy DeRosa, the
American owner of
Photo: B. Flood Aquatech Villas DeRo-
before suiting 1upfor a dive imfo the sa, one of the best-
er a long hike lhrouQh the jungle to known technical and

cave diving operations
in Quintana Roo, and
a long-time friend of Tom Iliffe. Nancy told us about her
efforts at ecological conservation in her area; there is a lot
of destruction of the habitat in the name of tourism along
this area of the coast, known as the Riviera Mayia. Nancy
also offered us tank and air fill support for our stay.
Then it was off to cenote Aktun Ha. known to Amer-
ican divers as "Car Wash."This system has some spectac-
ular stalactites, stalagmites, and complete columns, but no
archaeological remains (fig. 2).
Nancy DeRosa and Steve Gerrard, the famous Amer-
ican cave photographer who also lives in Mexico, told us
about a cenote that only a very few people know about

INA Quarterly 27 4

Fig 2. Surficing after a dine into the "Car Wash" cave system

(fig. 3). There i- a small stone shrine ur land just outldL
the cenote. AbouL four hundred feet inside the submerged
cave there is another stone shrine with a complete human
skeleton laying on top of it. It seems to those who have
seen it obviously to be an ancient burial that was conduct-
ed when the cave was dry. The question is, how long has
the ca\ e been submerged? Tom Iliffe tells me that the gen-
eral belief on this question, as a result of sea level change
studies, is that the cave systems in this area of Quintana
Roo have been wet for approximately the last eight thou-
sand years. This brings up some very interesting questions
about this burial. Since the Mayans have been in this area
for only about the past four thousand years, did
this burial actually occur some four thousand
years before the Maya arrived" Only proper sci-
entific investigation can answer this question.
After four days di\ ing in Quintana Roo,
we crossed the peninsula to Merida, capitol of the
Mexican State of Yucaitan. This is one of the old-
est cities in the New World, founded in 1542. We
went to the Secretaria de Ecologin (SECOL), where
Tom [liffe met with his main ponbt of contact when
working in this area, Carlos Varguez. Carlos is a
member of the Cenote Project. a separate section
within SECOL whose sole job it is to document
all of the cenotes in the State ot Yuca tan At Tom's
request, the Head of the Cenote Project, Jose An-
tonio Ruiz Silva, arranged a meeting for us with
the Director of the Instiltuto Nacional dLi Antropo-
logia e Historin (INAH) for the State of Yucatan,
Alfredo Barrera Rubio. While at SECOL Andreas
(Matt) Matthes, a well-known German deep cave
explorer now living in Quintana Roo, came into
the office, We were all saddened to learn that one Fig. 3.

of Matt's dive buddies had died on a deep dive
they were conducting just a few days earlier.
Tom, Scott, Matt Matthes, Carlos Vargu-
ez, Jose Ruiz, and I went to the meeting at INAH.
We discussed the possibility of doing collabora-
tive work with some of the Mexican archaeolo-
S gists to help them document cenotes that have
evidence of ancient human usage. The Director
then called in the Coordinator of his archaeolog-
ical team, Dr. Fernando Robles (a student of Gor-
don Willey at Harvard), to join the discussions.
We determined that I must submit any proposed
work that I wish to initiate on my own in a pro-
posal to the Federal Government in Mexico City
for appro\ al.
After our meetings, we packed up our dive
I. Flood gear. Tom wanted to return to Cenote Kambul at
the village of Noc Ac just north of Merida, so Scott
could try to find more specimens of the cave
shrimp he is studying. They were successful. We
returned to town for further meetings with Roger Medina,
Professor of Biology at the Univ'ersidad Autdnomna de Yucatan
(UADY), and Dr. Jose Alberto Perez Romero, Professor of
Anthropology. Alberto is working on Mayan-period stud-
ies and is very interested in what may be found in the cen-
otes. He has a student who is a certified diver who may be
interested in working in the cenotes with me.
The next morning, we met Carlos Varguez and Matt
Matthes at SECOL for a trip to the area of the village of
Homun about sixty-five kilometers south of Merida. Ho-
mun is well known for the large number of cenotes in its
surrounding area, some of which are frequented by cave

Explorinig a ptr) ioii Sly- U kimwwii LL'ceOtc "it'.

!NA Quarterly 27 -1

INA Quarterly 27 4

divers. These cenotes are all part of the famous Ring of Cenotes
around Mtrida. This resulted from the asteroid impact that oc-
curred at the end of the Mesozoic at what is now known as the
Chicxulub Crater (the "x" is pronounced "sh"),
In Homun, we picked up our Mayan guide who took us to
some cenotes that may well never have been seen by outsiders
before. Some of these are easy to enter, some are not. For one cave,
we had to crawl into a two foot wide hole and down a winding
shaft about twenty feet until we saw a twenty foot drop into a pool
of water. A portion may have seen human use in the past, other
than solely as a water source. The only way to identify these would
be by making a diving excursion into each one Many ca, div,. r,
report the presence of broken pottery in cenotes and caves all across
the Yucatan Peninsula, but the age of such remains cannot be de-
termined without proper scientific testing.
The next morning, we picked up Carlos at SECOL for an-
other trip into the Ring of Cenotes south of Merida. We drove
through the Yucatecan jungle over some very rough tracks to a
remote cenote Tom had never seen or heard of before. After re-
cording the site with photography and GPS (Global Positioning
System)-as we did at all the cLnotes we visited-wc drove to
Cenote Xbatun. Matt Matthes reported having seen bones in the
cave and burials in the cliff above. We dived the cenote and sure
enough, the cave floor is littered with bonei, as well as a lot of
Photo: B. Flood broken pottery. While I am not an osteologist, it was obvious that
Fig. 4. Lowering a set of double tanks into cenote many of the
Kaklel. The water is forty feet below bones were
either too
large or too small to be human. However, some certainly could fit
the category and those were only the ones appearing on the sur-
face. There could be, and probably are, many more below. Exca-
vating in a cave, however, would be extremely difficult. Silt
accumulation is a constant problem, and when silt is stirred tip,
visibility can go to zero. We would have to devise a new set of
dredging tools and techniques for such a project. It is not impossi-
ble, just challenging!
After a day for Tom to catch up on his lab work, we were off
to the jungle again. We picked up a Mayan guide who has worked
for divers before--Dionicio--who took us far into the jungle to
Cenote Kakuel (fig. 4). Thts was a cenote with a five-foot-wide
opening into a large, dark cavern below ground. We had to climb
down a rickety iron ladder, which was tied to some tree roots, to a
small patch of muddy earth about forty feet below. Our dive gear
was lowered by rope, since we could not carry or wear the gear .
while climbing down the ladder. Tom and Scott caught some more
cave creatures.
The next day, we dived Cenote Chi-H{uan, which contains a -'; '
human skeleton. The skeleton is completely disarticulated, but the
skull and lower jawbone are side by side. Although I did not touch ,
it, the skull appears not to have had any damage, i.e., cracks or
breaks. The jawbone exhibits teeth that appear to be in good con-
dition, i.e., no visible decay, and no dental work had been done to Photo: B. Flood
them. I have no way of guessing at an age for these bones. Fig. 5. Torn Ind Bill prepare to descend i into cenit
Anyi n-Aak's cave system.

After our dive, Carlos took us to see two large cen-
otes, one just before and one in the town of Libre Union
Both are huge open pits with the water level at least sixty
feet below ground level and no way to get down to the
water. To Carlos' knowledge, neither has ever been dived.
These types of cenotes, I feel, offer the greatest chance of
finding in situ archaeological remains, but would be diffi-
cult to do because of the logistics of getting divers into the
water. Again, not impossible, just challenging.
While diving Cenote Aayin-Aak (named after its
most noticeable inhabitants: crocodiles and turtles-fig. 5)),
[ got to experience my first complete silt-out This occurs
when one is completely immersed in talcum powder-like
silt and cannot see anything. A diver simply must follow
the line he or she laid into the area back out, completely
blindly. Cave divers try their utmost not to stir up silt while
passing through a cave, but sometimes there is nothing
one can do about it In this case, we three divers were go-
ing through a long, narrow passage no more than about
three feet in diameter. The surfaces all around us were cov-
ered in very fine, powdery silt that was released into the

water column as soon as we passed by it. We were very
quickly rendered completely blind. In such a case, one must
get all team members turned around and headed out, all
by touch. Like 1 said, you cannot be claustrophobic and
dive n caves (fig. 6).
Matt Matthes invited me to attend their Third An-
nual Cave Diving Symposium to be held in Merida in No-
vember 2000, for which he is one of the senior coordinators.
He also feels a strong need to have a cave-trained under-
water archaeologist, who is interested in Yucatecan stud-
ies, involved in all of their official activities. Matt has also
asked me to contribute to an underwater checklist that he
is putting together. He will give this to cave divers so they
can report archaeological remains from the caves they dive,
as well as other areas of scientific research, including biol-
ogy and geology. There are a number of additional oppor-
tunities opening in the Yucatan for archaeological
exploration of cenotes where other divers have already
found artifacts or remains. This is potentially a huge field
for our discipline. er

Acknowledgments: I would like to take this opportunity to thank all those people who were involved in this
reconnaissance trip. I especially thank Dr Donny Hamilton for his support and continued interest.

j-noiuo: uerrara
Fig. 6. Nancy DeRosa exploring one of the many cenote and cave systems of the state of
Quintana Roo, Mexico.

INA Quarterly 27.4

Notes From The Cenotes-Dos

III Encuentro Internacional de Espeleobuceo

William H. Charlton Jr.

The first two International Cave Diving En-
counters (Encuentros Internacional Lie Esp'!ie'oiuceo)
sponsored by the Secretaria de Ecololia (SECOL) of
the Government of the State of Yucitan in 1998
and 1999, were concerned only with of
cave diving. This was the main thrust of the Ill
Enci'inro lntCrnacionil de Espeleobuceo, held in
Merida during November, 2000, it also focused at-
tention to a variety of underwater sciences. I thank
Dr. Donny Hamilton for enabling me to attend the
conference and pursue a new direction in underwa-
ter research.
Andreas (Matt) Matthes, the German deep
ca e explorer I met in July, had conceived a project
designed to conduct underwater scientific research.
A consummate cave diver and explorer, Matt is also
very concerned with the safety of the environment
he loves: the cenotes and cave systems of the Yucatan.
He was able to convince a number of Yucatecan busi-
ness enterprises to sponsor some very important re-
search into the peninsula's primary source of water.
With the help of trained scientists-all volunteers-
he put together a "dive report sheet" that covered
biology, geology, hydrology... and yes, even under-
water archaeology. I contributed the archaeology
A team of volunteer divers, including some
diving scientists, spent two weeks, spanning both
ends of the three-day Encounter, gathering data from
a number of cenotes and caves in the Merida area.
They made deep penetrations into the caves and re-
ported on the types of cave creatures and geological
features they saw, and took water samples testing.
They also reported any evidence of human usage,
such as ceramic pottery and bones, in these cenotes
and cave systems. Matt intends this as just the be-
ginning of creating a data bank on all scientific as-
pects of the water systems of the Yucatan. Many more

such projects will gather data to be used in conjunc-
tion with the inventory being conducted by the Cen-
ote Project of SECOL.
At the Encounter, I saw Nancy DeRosa, who
had submitted my name to the United Nations as
the underwater archaeologist to document the sub-
merged shrine and burial mentioned on page 21. She
told me I should be ready to come down as soon as
she got word to proceed. I also met Octavio del Rio,
assistant to the Director of Underwater Archaeology
for the Institutio Nacional de Antropologia e Historn
(INAH) in Mexico City, and Carios Sosa, a member
of the Encounter Statf and a life-long avocational ar-
chaeologist throughout the Yucatan, who knows
most of the practicing archaeologists in the area.
Finally, I would like to mention two ac-
quaintances from my early summer work in Flor-
ida who became my friends during this Encounter,
Jim Bowden and Ann Kristovich, D.D.S. Jim is the
founder and leader, and Ann is the co-leader, of
the Proyecto de Buceo Mexico y
Anmirica Central, the Cave Diving Exploration
Project of Mexico and Central America. They have
explored wet and dry caves in Mexico, Belize, and
Guatemala, but are best known for their accom-
plishments in the Zacat6n cenote system in the
state of Tamaulipas in northern Mexico. Zacaton
is the deepest known water-filled pit in the world,
measured at a depth of 1,080 feet. Jim holds the
men's depth record for a dive on open-circuit scu-
ba (trimix) for his dive to 925 feet in Zacat6n in
April of 1994. Ann formerly held the women's
depth record, 554 feet in Zacat6n in September of
1993. As with everyone I spoke to at the confer-
ence, these world famous cave explorers and deep
divers are interested in the work we do in INA and
all hope that the future will generate a greater un-
derstanding of cave archaeology. -

INA Quarterly 27.4


6- 1


M. Gail Vermillion h.

The Institute of Nautical Archaeology has welcomed a new
member to the family. Many INA patrons may already have met Ml.
Gail Vermillion, who became the Director of Development in July 2000. ,
She has brought great enthusiasm to the position, along with her expe-
rience and talents. Gail has been associated with Texas A&M Univer-
sit,' for twenty years. She received her Bachelor of Science degree in
1984 and hert Mlaster's degree in May 2000. Gail has taught for the past
three Seears as a lecturer in the A&M Marketing Department, leading
classes in Advertising, Promotion Strategy, Personal Selling, and Sales
management. While teaching, she has also worked as a sales and man-
agement consultant. She helped companies to improve communica-
tion, increase management effectiveness, build cohesive teams, improve
sales, develop accu rate job descriptions and specifications, reduce tu m-
over, and improve profits through better hiring decisions. Before re-
joining the A&M community, Gail held important sales and marketing
positions with Procter and Gamble, Helene Curtis, Black and Decker Power Tools, and Pnmera Vision, Inc.
Shortly after she joined IN[A, Gail attended the quarterly Executive Com.rnttee meeting in Turkey. The nix of modern and
traditional cultures in Istanbul captivated her. "Istanbul is a diverse city," she writes, "where mosques sit right next dcaCr to high-
rise office buildings." As a marketing expert, it is high praise when Gaul describes the carpet merchants of the city as "by far te most
persuasive and courteous salesmen I have ever met She felt a special connection to -lagia Sophia, Justinian's church that Mehmed
the Conqueror converted to a mosque after the Islamic conquest un 1l453. The discovery of America, Gail points out, was a conse-
ueLnce oi Colurmbus' search for a new route to the Indies after the Turks cut off direct access. The faint traces of the original
Ch-rstian decoration in Hagia Sophia are therefore linked to Gat's own birth in Dallas. "Archaeologists always say that things e
together by different threads and tell a story about more than just whatever building or artifact you see"
Gail next attended the operung of the Bronze Age Exhibit Hall in the Bodirum Museum of Under. water Archaeology.
"It was very strange and unexpected to attend a ribbon cutting where I could only understand two words. I would smile
and nod as though I understood everything, and thankfully they said the two words I knew over and over. 'George
Bass'"" She was very impressed with the exhibits showcasing the work of INA in excavating the Uluburun ship. "One room
contained a cross-section of the ship that illustrated where everything was placed. This short, ed how cramped the ships
were when traveling. The same room also replicated the ocean floor with artifacts placed where they had been sitting since
1300 BCE. The Bodrum museum exhibits got me so excited about nautical archeology that I was reach' to say, 'Forget
marketing, I need to become a nautical archeologist!' There were just so many new and interesting things to learn."
The INA group then traveled to Tekta Bu mu to watch the INA crew directed by George Bass excavating a Classical
Greek shipwreck. "During our days on the site, the directors took rides in the new [NA submersible so they could see the
shipwreck and watch the divers at work uncovering and raising artifacts. There was nonstop action, but little in the way ot
entertainment. _apart from the four new flushing toilets. The only way to communicate with the outside w.ord was a few
temperamental cell phones that might work if you were hanging off the cliff upside down. However, that cliff overlooks a
sea that is a color of blue I had never seen before, with the Greek islands on the horizon. The spectacular scenery made up
for many of the discomforts. Still, I found my earlier thoughts of becoming a nautical archaeologist fading away. I suppose
I am more addicted to some of the comforts of home than [ had realized.
"We sailed away from the site late in the afternoon, waving at the archaeologists as we left. I am not sure who was
more relieved, those of us on the boat who knew we would be home soon, or those we left behind who knew they could get
back to work without interniptions. Everyone agreed that we had just spent a wonderful three days on the site seeing and
learning things that cannot be learned from a book or in class. Many of us were operating on brain overload and only
wanted time to process all the new information.'"
Gadl lives in College Station. She describes her family as "Me and my dog Topher, two wonderful sisters, and my Dad. My
favonte thing in the world is to spend time with my nieces and nephew: Karen, Michael, and Abigail, all of whom are perfect!" In
whatever spare time her duties with INA allow her, she reads, dives, sews, and windsurfs. Gail is excited to be taking part in
discussions about the future of INA. "We share the vision of a worldwide [NA that people everywhere respect as the top authority
in nautical archaeology." In her new position as Director of Development. Gail Vermillion will help make that vision a reality. ,-

INA Quarterly 27,4

The USS Philadelphia... Recaptured?

Brett Phaneuf

In 1997, while searching through countless charts
and maps of the North African coast in the Library of Con-
gress for information about shipwrecks in the Mahgreb, I
came upon a naval chart entitled "A View of Tripoli in
Barbary." Having long been interested in traveling to Lib-
ya to search for shipwrecks, [ was quite excited. Most im-
portantly, the chart (dated 1804) marked the location of
the USS Philadelphia in two places, aground on shoals out-
side Tripoli, and at an-
chor in Tripoli Harbor
(in modem Libya).
In the late eigh-
teenth and early nine-
teenth century,
immediately following
the Revolutionary War,
American merchant
shipping in the Medi-
terranean Sea and the
Atlantic Ocean was un-
der increased pressure
from Corsairs. These
pirates were stationed
along the Barbary Coast
in fortified citadels in
what is now the Mah-
greb-Tunisia, Algeria,
and Morocco-and Lib-
ya. In response to the
harassment of Ameri-
can commerce, financed
in part by Great Britain
and other European
states, a fleet was dis-
patched to confront the
Corsairs, blockade the
shores of Tripoli, and
ultimately to engage in
the Barbary Wars
(1801-1805, 1815).
The Mediterra- Fig. 1. The USS Constitution at dc
nean Fleet consisted of sachuse ts.
several frigates and es-
corts including the USS Constitution (Old Ironsides, fig. 1)
and her sister ship the USS Philadelphia. Built in its name-
sake city between 1798 and 1799, the 1,240 ton Frigate Phil-
adelphia was 130' long, 39' abeam and 13.5' in draught.
Similar in design to Constitution, albeit smaller, the USS
Philadelphia was every bit as successful at defending the
maritime interests of the fledgling republic. She served in
the West Indies with distinction, capturing five French ves-
sels and recapturing six American merchant ships. Phila-

delphi sailed twice to the Mediterranean, first in 1800 and
again in 1802
While cruising off Tripoli on October 31, 1803, Phil-
adelphia ran aground on uncharted shoals. Under heavy
fire from enemy fortifications and gunboats the ship was
captured and her crew imprisoned in the "Castle and
House of the Bey" in Tripoli harbor, as noted on the chart
- structure "B" (fig. 2). Philadelphia herself was towed into
Tripoli Harbor and an-
chored guns out, facing
the sea and the Ameri-
can force beyond,
marked'M'on the chart.
Three and a half months
later, 16 February, 1804,
a volunteer group of
sailors under the com-
mand of the famed Lt.
Stephen Decatur, Jr. en-
tered the harbor in a
captured Corsair ketch
dubbed Intrepid. They
boarded Philadelphia
and burned her to the
waterline to prevent
her being used against
the American Fleet.This
feat of courage is immor-
talized in the Marine
Corps Hymn-"from the
halls of Montezuma to the
shores of Tnpoli."
Mycuriosity was
piqued... where was the
USS Philadelphia now?
Checking modem nau-
tical charts and what
aerial photographs
were available of Tripo-
Photo. Brett Phaneuf li, against the location
k im Charlestown Navy Yard, Mas- given in the 1804 chart,

I determined that the
ship was most probably
in the modem inner harbor. Though there had been con-
siderable construction, the wreck was most probably in an
area not dredged, at least until 1980. I called the US De-
partment of State's Office of Egyptian and North African
Affairs. I inquired about both more recent aerial photo-
graphs and the possibility of traveling to Libya in search
of the wreck. At that time, there were no available aerial
photographs, nor was there much hope in acquiring a visa
for entry into Libya. However, my request stirred the mem-

[NA Quarterly 27 4


ory of the Libya/Tunisia Desk Officer who had just re-
ceived a transcription of a seven-page speech delivered by
President Qadhafi on June 11, 1997 that mentioned the USS
Philadelphia by name:

"...In 1803 we captured its [America's) ship, Phila-
delphia. She was one of the biggest American ships
destroyed. The remains of her mast can still be seen
in Saraya al-Hamra in Tripoli Harbor. Tourists can
go there and visit the Philadelphia's mast..."

The only question remaining was "where is Saraya
al-Hamra?" No one in the State Department could tell me.
Further in-depth research at a local bookstore answered
my questions. A modem Arabic dictionary listed Saraya as
meaning "neighborhood" in English. The Lonely Planet Mid-

die East travel guide provided modem street maps of Tri-
poli, as well as a list of museums and the areas of the city
in which they were located. Ironically, the "Castle and
House of the Bey" noted on the 1804 chart (fig. 2), where
the crew of the USS Philadelphia were held hostage and fi-
nally liberated, now was home to a museum of archaeolo-
gy. This is the probable location of remains of Philadelphia
discovered during the course of harbor works and dredg-
As relations between the Libyan and US government
improve, it may be possible in the near future to travel to
Tripoli. We can then check the veracity of this hypothesis,
and embark on cooperative ventures of shipwreck explo-
ration in the ancient province of Tripolitania. av

Suggested Readings

1945 Naval Documents Related to the United States Wars with the Barbary Powers: Naval Operations Including Diplomatic
Background. U. S. Office Of Naval Records & Library.

Stein, Richard Conrad
1982 The Story of the Barbary Pirates. Children's Press

Kitzen, Michael L. S.
1993 Tripoli and the United States at War: A History of American Relations with the Barbary States, 1785-1805. McFarland
and Company, Incorporated.

Fig. 2. Excerpt from "A View of Trpoli in Barbary," 1804 showing the "Castle and House of
the Bey" and the position of the USS Philadelphia (Courtesy Library of Congress).

INA Quarterly 27.4


' ) .-
~ ,,

.,'' -



- \ ' .

t ..


by Christine Powell

Historic Shipwrecks: Di covered, Protected, and aNbestigated
By Valerie Fenwick and Alison Gale

Tempus Publishing Co., 1998. ISBN-07524-1 416-X
pp. 160,16 color plates, 96 B&W illustrations, Tables. Gionsarv, Index,
hard cover.

Great Britain has thousands of historic shipwreck sites, but was ,
comparatively late to adopt legislation to protect them. For decades af-
ter most other European countries had defined older sites as part of
their national heritage, the British salvage lobby kept the law at bay
Anyone who found a wreck was free to recoverjits marketable artifacts
and materials, and to destroy the site's scientific value in the process
Proper archaeological excavation techniques are slow, and require ex-
tended study of the items retwY, ered. Commercial salvage, on the other
hand, generally demands that artifacts be quickly extracted and sold.
Salvors and thoughtless sport divers destroyed an increasing number
of sites as fast as advancing technology made it possible to reach them Finally, Parliament adopted the Protection of
Wrecks Act (1973) as a private member's bill without government support As one might expect from a compromise,
the act protects only a limnttd number of sites. In the first quarter-century of the law, only forty-seven shipwrecks
qualified for registration.
Historic Shipwrecks describes these sites, gi r ing each one a two-page spread. A box at the head of each entry gives
the location and a brief description of the type and date of the site. A narrative summary of the known information
about the ship and site follows. Each entry ends with guidance on where the public can view the site and any artifacts
on display, and with suggestions for further reading. Thte wrecks are dit ided into twelve groups, such as prehistoric
wrecks, Indiamen, ships-of-the-line, and steam-driven vessels. The chapter devoted to each group includes a one-page
introduction and, in most cases, additional maps and sidebars.
The introductory chapter provides a quick overview of how shipwrecks are located and excavated, and of their
importance for historical and prehistoric archaeology. It has a clear description of why commercial salvage operations
are generally incompatible with professional archaeology. This leads to a description of the Protection of Wrecks Act,
including both its strong points and its shortcomings. Although the account is fair, it clearly advocates changes in the
Act to provide better protection for the maritime heritage. A major theme of the book is the disparity between the
treatment of underwater sites and of terrestrial sites. Britain is among the most zealous countries in the world when it
comes to preset ing historically significant buildings and archaeological sites, yet the protection provided shipwrecks
is very different indeed The same could be said for the United States.
The final chapter or "Stern View" continues the analysis of the Act as it has functioned in practice. Although
some 90% of the documented shipping casualties and wrecks in British waters occurred after 1750, only 28% of the
wrecks registered under the Act are so recent. Indeed, no ship built after 1805 was listed until 1990. This chronological
bias also affects the ship types that are preserved. Only two of the forty-seven were engine-driven, and most of the
others were armed vessels of one description or another. Thirty-one come from the English Channel, with other parts of
the British Isles that have many documented ship losses entirely unrepresented among the listed Historic Wrecks.
Obviously, two pages with rich illustrations do not allow much depth in the coverage of any single wreck,
although the descriptions are remarkable in their succinctness. The suggestions for further reading allow the interested
reader to tap into the scientific literature for additional facts, since this book is not intended as a detailed reference
work. Its strength is in its breadth. Historic Slupwr'rcks shows the enormous di\ ersitv of maritime archaeological sites,
ranging from a cargo of Bronze Age weapons (ca. 1150 BCE) near Dover to an 1879 CE steam-driven submarine oft
North Wales. For that reason, it would be an excellent choice for a textbook in an introductory survey course on nauti-
cal archaeology. .,

[NA Quarterly 27 4

News & Notes

The Sea of Galilee Boat now available in paperback
In 1986, in the mist of a severe drought, two Israeli brothers discovered
the remains of a biblical-era fishing boat in the exposed mudflats of the Sea of
Galilee. Over the next few days, archaeologists, in partnership with local Israe-
lis, worked frantically to excavate and preserve the vessel as rising waters and
crowds of curious onlookers threatened its survival. In a gripping narrative, INA's
Dr. Shelley Wachsmann, who led the excavation, recounts the fantastic obsta-
cles the excavation team faced and the equally fantastic solutions they created as
they worked to save and conserve the Galilee Boat.
The publication was the winner of the Biblical Archaeology Society's 1997
biennial award for best popular book in archaeology. A few copies signed by the
author are still available at the discounted price of $10.20 each Orders should
be sent to the Institute of Nautical Archaeology, P. O. Drawer HG, College Sta-
tion, TX 77841-5137a nd include 8.25% sales tax for books shipped within Texas.
Shipping and handling is $3.00 per book for domestic orders and 1i.0(10 for in-
ternational orders. ,-r

Ready to Go Deep... With a Little Help from our Neighbors
The Gulf Coast area of Texas and Louisiana is home to
hundreds of underwater engineering and survey companies, as
well as all the major oil companies. Interaction and dialogue
with the giants of this marine family-and infusing them with
our love of seafaring history-w ll ,urely be to INA's benefit
when we embark on our first "robotic" excavation in the deep
sea. To that end, INA students A-yfle Atauz, Bill Charlton, Mark
Fuelner, and Kathrvn Willis traveled to Bayou Vista and Mor-
gan City, Louisiana in No-
vember, 2000. There, they
toured the ROV production
center and dive training facili-
ty of Oceaneenng Intemation-
a], Inc., at the invitation of CEO
John Huff and Diving Manag-
er Jack Couch (to whom we
are most grateful).
Oceaneiing is recog-
nized as a world leader in the
development and deploy-
ment of oceanographic survey
equipment ranging from re-
motely operated vehicles
(ROVs) and "deep-towing"
acoustic imaging equipment
to one-atmosphere diving
suits and submersibles. They
are also experts in commercial
saturation diving. The compa-
ny is no stranger to employ- Fig. 1. Resarch AssociatoAiyg
ingits technical expertisetothe pilot, anm ROV on Oiceaneri'r~

field of nautical archaeology, either. This past summer they raised
the CSS Himlci/, the famed Confederate Civil War submarine,
from Charleston Bay, South Carolina.
White visiting the Bayou Vista facility, the largest ROV
design and manufacturing center in the world, the gained valu-
able hands-on, hi-tech experience by piloting a "virtual" ROV
on Oceaneering's state-of-the-art simulator (fig. 1). As the train-
ee is learning to pilot the ROV, the system operator sits behind,
adjusting variables such as
current direction and velocity,
visibility, entanglement haz-
ards and obstructions to pro-

rnoto: It. A. I'llaneur

At~la lL7ooks on as Kathryn7 Willii
:'~ s lat- of-~ike-artl 1~/Ini ilal

% idea challenge A shipwreck
excavation will be considered
for infusion into the simula-
tor's repertoire in the wake of
our visit
The watched the one-
atmosphere diving suit/sub-
mersible WASP conduct
underwater construction
training in the giant test-tank
at the Oceaneering facility.
Capable of diving to several
thousand feet deep, and at
the same time being rugged
and portable, the WASP is
an ideal tool for work in the
"Oil-Patch" off Texas and
Louisiana... and maybe on
shipwreck sites as well. .,

INA Quarterly 27 4


Willard Newell Bascom

The INA Quarterly regrets to announce the death
of pioneci oceanographer and nautical archaeologist Wil-
lard Newell Bascom on September 20, 2000. Mr. Bascom
was born in New York City in 1916 and trained in Colo-
rado as a professional mining engineer. After World War
I, he went into oceanographic research with the Uni ver-
sih of California at Berkeley at the princely salary of $250
a month. In 1950, he joined the Scripps Institution of
Oceanography, where he worked on several projects, in-
cluding the first large-scale geophysical exploration of the
tropical Pacific and wave measurements at early hydro-
gen bomb tests.
During the 1960s, Willard Bascom directed the
Mohole Project, an effort to drill a test
shaft through the seabed and the
earth's crust to the top of the mantle.
He drilled test holes completely
through the oceanic sediments from a
floating platform four thousand meters
above the bottom. To do so, he devel-
oped the first dynamic positioning sys-
tem for holding a ship stationary over a
fixed point on the bottom. When Bas-
corn's involvement with Mohole ended,
he formed a private company-Ocean
Science and Engineering, Inc.-to facil-
itate undersea mining, salvage, and en-
gineering operations.
As early as 1961, Willard Bas-
corn realized that the same techniques
he had developed to explore the ocean
depths could be used to locate ancient
shipwrecks. In fact, a rcheaological sur-
veys in deep water might in some ways
be easier than in shallow water because
deep bottoms are smoother and have
lower sedimentation rates, fewer extra-
neous objects, and clearer water. He
was among the first to suggest that the low-oxygen wa-
ters of the Black Sea and Sea of Marmara might provide
an ideal environment for preserving ancient shipwrecks.
In the late 1960s, Willard Bascom directed the con-
struction and operation of Alcoa Seaprobe. This seventy-
five-meter ship was capable of detailed survey and
excavation work on bottoms up to four thousand meters
deep. It could be "hovered" over a site in very adverse
surface conditions to conduct detailed examinations with
sonar, television, and other remote sensing equipment.

Unlike today's deep sea research vessels, which usually
send their instruments down on cables or remotely oper-
ated vehicles, Alcoa Seaprobe carried its instruments at the
end of a long pipe suspended below the vessel. The ship
could lift objects as heavy as 100 tons from the ocean floor
with manipulators also mounted at the end of the pipe.
The same methods were used by the much larger Hughes
Gloamar Explorer, funded by the CIA to locate and recover
part of a sLuken Soviet submarine.
In 1971, Mr. Bascom teamed up with Robert Marx
to explore the possibility of using Alcoa Seaprobe or a sim-
ilar vessel to locate and recover the 1708 treasure galleon
San Josi off Cartagena, Columbia. When local conditions
made that expedition impossible, Marx
and Bascom shifted their attention to
the 1658 wreck of Nuestra SetLora de la
Miravillas in much shallower water on
Little Bahama Bank. After a month-
long search, they found the ship. Very
little remained of it apart from ballast
stones... and not quite enough silver
for the expedition to break even.
From 1973 until he retired in
1985, Willard Bascom was director of
r the Southern Cahfornia Coastal Water
Research Project. This studied the ef-
fects of the billion gallons a day of mu-
nicipal wastewater discharged into the
Southern California Bight from the San
Diego and Los Angeles metropolitan
areas. The controversial conclusions of
the study were that these discharges
have no significant adverse effects on
the environment.
After his "retirement," Willard
Bascom wrote the last three of his six
books. During the late 1980s, he dis-
cripps covered a Roman-era wreck off Cape
Artimision, Greece. The site is noted for the three fine
bronze statues that were recovered for the Greek Nation-
al Museum. In 1996 (at age 80), he became involved in the
search for and recovery of cargo from Brother Jonathan.
This paddle-wheel steamer sank off the Northern Califor-
nia coast in 1866.
Willard Bascom's death from complications of an
auto accident marks the end of a truly remarkable career.
He will be missed, but his accomplishments and the tech-
nologies he developed will be with us fora very long time. .-

INA Quarterly 27.4

Author Index Vol. 27 Index

Arcak, E., "Kadirga: The Sultan's Galley," 27.2/3, 15-19
Atauz, A., "Survey of the Velletta Harbors in Malta 1999,"
27.1, 6-10
Brigadier, S. R-, "The Artifacts from Sao Juliao da Barra,"
27.4, 10-12
Castro, F., "The Last Field Season on the Pepper Wreck: A
Preliminary Analysis of the Hull," 27.4, 3-9
Charlton, W. H., Jr. "Diving into Knowledge: Two Schools
for Scientific Divers," 27.4, 16-19
Charlton, W. H., Jr., "Notes from the Cenotes," 27.4, 20-23
Charlton, W. H., Jr., "Notes from the Cenotes-Dos," 27.4,
Chioffi, M. E., and S. Tusa, "Underwater Archaeological
Evidence from Pantelleria," 27.4, 13-15
Feulner, M. A., "The Trade Axes of La Salle's La Blle,"27.2/
3, 24-25
Gorham, L. D., Grapes, "Wine, and Olives: Commodities
and Other Cargo of the Bozburun Byzantine Ship
wreck," 27.1, 11-17
Martin, G., "INA Responds to Turkish Earthquake Disas
ter," 27.2/3, 14
Pedersen, R. K., "The Aksumite Kingdom and Eritrea: The
Historical Background," 27.2/3, 13
Pedersen, R. K, "Under the Erythraean Sea: An Ancient
Shipwreck in Eritrea," 27.2/3, 3-12
Phaneuf, B., "The USS Philadelphia... Recaptured?" 27.4,
Sabick, C. R., "His Majesty's Hired Transport Schooner
Nancy," 27.2/3, 20-23
Smith, C. W., "Developmental Research and the Need for
Science in Archaeology," 27.1, 3-5
Tusa, S., and M. E. Chioffi, "Underwater Archaeological
Evidence from Pantelleria," 27.4, 13-15

Subject Index
AAUS Scientific Diver Training, 27.4, 16-19
Aksumite Kingdom, 27.2/3, 13
Albania survey, 27.2, 27
amphora contents, 27.1, 12-15
archaeobotany, 27.1, 11-17
Assarca Island Excavation, 27.2/3, 3-13
Azores survey, 27.2, 26
Barbary Wars, 27.4, 26-27
Bascom, Willard Newell, 27.4, 30
Black Sea survey, 27.2, 26
Bozburun Byzantine Shipwreck cargo, 27.1, 11-17
Bozburun Byzantine Shipwreck date, 27.2/3, 31
Buford, Valerie, 27.2/3, 30
Bulgaria, 27.2, 27
Qa Ira, French warship, 27.2, 29
cave archaeology, 27.4, 20-24
cenotes, 27.4, 20-24

care of collections, 27.1, 19
polyethylene glycol (PEG), 27.1, -4
Serqe Limani pottery, 27.2/3, 30
silicone research, 27.1, 4-5
Deadman Bay Project, 27.2, 28
Denbigh, blockade runner, 27.2, 28
earthquake relief, 27.2/3, 14
Encuentro Interracwinal de Espeleobuceo, 27.4, 24
English wreck preservation, 27.4, 28
Eritrea, 27.2/3, 3-13
Gadir Bay, 27.4, 13-15
Guiintanamo Bay survey, 27.2, 28
International Cave Diving Encounter, 27.4, 24
Kadirga, Ottoman galley, 27.2/3, 15-19
La Belle trade axes, 27.2/3, 24-25
La Salle expedition, 27.1, 18
Malta survey, 1999 season, 27.1, 6-10
Malta survey, 2000 season, 27.2/3, 26
Memoriam, in: Bascom, Willard Newell, 27.4, 30
Nancy, British transport schooner, 27.2, 20-23
National Preservation Act, 27.2/3, 31
Normandy survey, 27.2, 27-28
Nossa Senhora dos Martires, 27.4, 3-12
Oceaneering International, Inc., 27.4, 29
Ottoman galleys, 27.2/3, 15-19
Pantelleria (Italy), 27.4, 13-15
Pepper Wreck (Nossa Senhora dos Martires)
artifacts, 27.4, 10-12
hull, 27.4, 3-9
Philadelphia (American frigate), 27.4, 26-27
profile: Vermillion, M. Gail 27.4, 25
Scientist-in-the-Sea (SITS) Program, 27.4, 16-19
Sea of Galilee Boat, 27.4, 29
Serce Limani pottery, 27.2/3, 30
submission guidelines, 27.1, 10
Tektafl Buru Excavation, 27.2, 26
Tripoli, Libya, 27.4, 26-27
Valletta harbors survey, 27.1, 6-10
Vermillion, M. Gail, 27.4, 25
Wachsmann, Shelley, 27.4, 29
War of 1812, 27.2, 20-23
Yucatan, 27.4, 20-24

Reviews and "Just Released"
Fenwick, Valerie and Alison Gale, Historic Shipwrecks: Dis
covered, Protected, and Investigated, 27.4, 26-27
Foster, William. C, ed. and Johanna S. Warren, translator,
The La Salle Expedition to Texas: The Journal of Henri
loutel, 1684-1687, 27.1, 18
Gilroy, David. and lan Godfrey, eds., Conservation and Care
of Collections, 27.1, 19
Villi6, Pierre. and Martine Acerra, Ca Ira, Vatsseaii Francns
de 80 Canons 1782-1796, 27.2/3, 29

INA Quarterly 27.4



George F. Bass, Co-Founder
Jack W. Kelley, Co-Founder
Jerome L. Hall, President

William L. Allen
Oguz Aydemir
John H. Baird
Joe Ballew
George F Bass
Edward O. Boshell. Jr-.
Co-Chairman and Treasurer
Ray M Bowen
John A Brock
Elizabeth L. Bruni
Cregory M. Cook, Co-Chairman
Hartan Crow
William C. Culp M D.

Allan Campbell, M.D

Donald A. Frey, Vice President
Cemal N Pulak, Vice President
M. Gail Vermillion, Director of
Development. INA Foundation
Frank Darden
Thomas F Darden
John De Lapa
Claude Duthuit
Daniel Fallon
Danielle I Feenev
Donald C Ceddes II (Emeritus)
Woodrow Jones, Jr
Harry C. Kahn II (Emertus)
Michael L. Kaizev
Mutafa Ko
Sa!!' R Lancaster
Robert E. Lorton
William A. McKenzie

Bill Klein, M D

Dana F McCinnis

Molly Reilv

James A Goold, Secretary & General Counsel
Claudia LeDnux, Assistant Secretary
& Assistant Treasurer

Alex C Nason
George E Robb. Jr.
L. Francis Rooney
Lynn Baird Shaw
Avhan Sicimoglu
T Hastings Siegfried
William T. Sturgts
Frederick H. van Dooriinck, Jr
Robert L, Walker
Lew O. aard
Peter M, Way
Carry A Wieber
George O. Yammi

Murad Sunalp, M D

George F. Bas-.
George T & Gladys H. Abell Proe'ssor of Nautical Archaeology!George O Yamini Family Professor of Liberal Arts
Kevin J. Crisman, Nautcal Archaeology Faculty Fellow
Donny L Hamilton, Frederick R layer Faculty Fellow
Crnial M. Pulak, Frederick R Mayer Faculty Fellow of Nautical Archaeology
C Wayne Smith, Assistant Professor/Director of the Archaeological Preservation Research Laboratory
J Richard Steffy, Sara W. & George O Yamini Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
Frederick H van Doorninck, Jr, Frederick R Mayer Professor of Nautcal Archaeology, Emeritus
Shelley Wachsmann, Meadows Associate Professor of Biblical Archaeology

J Barto Arnold, M A., Texas Operations

Selma Agar
Esra Alttnanit-Gbksu
Munevver Babacik
Mustafa Babactk
Chasity Burns
William H. Charlton, Jr., M A
Michelle Chmelar
Mehmet Ciftliklh
Marion Feildel
Tuba Ekmekci
Adel Farouk
Jana Gober
Zafer Gul
Jane Haldane
Kathy Hall
Emad Khalil
Shetil D. Matthews, M A
Misti Moore
Muammer Ordemir
Robin C M. Pierce
ema Pulak, M A
$ikran Senyvz
Patricia M. Sibella, Ph D.
Gi Iser Sinaci

Douglas Haldane, M A, INA Egypt

STAFF (continued)
Murat Tilev
Suleyman TOrel
Gune$ Yasar

Dan Davis
Jeremy Green
Margaret E. Leshikar-Denion. Ph.D.
John McManamon, Ph D.
Robert S Neyland, Ph D
Ralph K Pedersen, M A
Brett A Phaneuf
Donald Rosencrantz
Arthur Cohn, J D
Da\id CGbbins, Ph D
Faith D. Hentschel, Ph D.
Fredrik I. Hicbert, PhD.
Carolyn G Koehler, Ph.D.
William M Mhurray, Ph D.
David I Owen, Ph D
Cheryl Ward
Gordon P. Watts, Jr., Ph D.
Christine A. Powell

Tufan U. Turank, Turkish Headquarters

Australian Institute ot Maritime Archaeology
Boston University
Brown L niMrsity
Bryn Mawr College
University of California, Berkeley
University ot Cincinnati
Cornell UnLi ;sity
Corning Museu;ii of Glass
Department de Arqueologia Subacuatica de
la I.N A H, Mexico
University ot Maryland, Baltimore County
'ew York University, Institute of Fine Arts crsity of North Carolina, Chapel I-ill
I'artners for Livable Places
L.niverlitV Museum, University of Pennsl\ ania
Texa< A&M Research Foundation
Texas A&M University
University of Texas at Austin

Mr and Mrs Ray H Siegfried II
Graduate Fellow Filipe Castro
Marian M Cook Graduate Fellow
Matthew Harpster

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