Group Title: INA quarterly
Title: The INA quarterly
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: The INA quarterly
Alternate Title: Institute of Nautical Archaeology quarterly
Abbreviated Title: INA q.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Publisher: Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Place of Publication: College Station TX
College Station TX
Publication Date: Fall 2009
Copyright Date: 1997
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Underwater archaeology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Archéologie sous-marine -- Périodiques   ( rvm )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 19, no. 1 (spring 1992)-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 23, no. 2 (summer 1996).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098800
Volume ID: VID00056
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 26536606
lccn - sf 94090290
issn - 1090-2635
 Related Items
Preceded by: INA newsletter (Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.))


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George F. Bas. Ph.D., Chairman Emerirust, Michael Katzev ideceasedi. Jack WV Kelle)t

Jame PR Delgado. Ph.D., Presidern*
Cemal hM. Pulak, Ph.D.. Vice President
KevinJ. Crisman. Ph.D.. Vice President
Ella E Kegler, Chief Financial and Administrarise Oflicer
Chasity NM. Hedlund. Accountu:g Manager
Tuba Ekmekci, Director. Budrum Research Center
Ozlem Dogan. Finance Manager, Bodrun. Research Center '

Board of Directors & Officers
Dr. Oguz A\demir Robert D. Ballard, Ph.D. Edward O. Boshell,Ji. -John Cassils, M.D. Gregon M. Cook
LucN Darden* Thomas F Darden "John De Lapa Carl Douglas Claude Duthuit* DanielleJ. Feene *
Charles P. Garrison, M.D., Chairman" Donald Geddes III, Past Chairmanll James Goold. Secretary & General Counsel*
Dr. Robert Hohlfelder. Ph.D. CharlesJohnson, Ph.D. Gregory M. Kez Mustafa Ko; Captain Alfred Scott
McLaren, L'SN iRet.l Ph.D. Alex G. Nason George E. Robb,Jr. Andrew Sansom. Ph.D.** A han Sicimoglu
Clyde P Smith, Treasurer* *Jason Sturgis Peter van Alfen, Ph.D. Frederick van Doorninck.Jr., Ph.D.*
Robert L. Walker. Ph.D. Lew Ward Peter MI. VWay* Rohyn Woodward, Ph.D. Sally M. Yamini
Associate Directors
Ercan Acikel Gordon \W. Bass George R. Belcher Ravnette Boshell Allan Campbell, M.D. Stephen Chandler
William C. Culp, M.D Glenn Darden Nicholas GrifTis *JefT Hakko Robin P Hartinann Faith Hentschel. Ph.D.
Susan Kaizev \Villiam C. Klein. M.D. Selcuk Kolay Anthony Marshall Thomas McCasland,Jr. Dana E McGinnis
Michael Plank A.nne Darden Self Lsnn Baird Shaw Betse% Boshell Todd Mary Tooze Garry A.Weber
Roger A. Williamson, Ph.D.

Nautical Archaeology Program Faculty, Texas A&M University
Deborah N. Carlson, Ph.D., As;itant Pr ,fes'ir, Sara W. and George 0 Yannni Fellow
Luis Filipe Vieira de Castro, Ph.D., Profe'sor. Frederick R. Mawyr Faculty Fellow of Nautical Ar(chaeilogiv
KevinJ. Crisman. Ph.D.t Associate Pnfesor, Nautical Vrchaeology Faciltr Fellow
Donn IL. Hamilton, Ph.D.. George T & Gladys H. Abell Chair in Nautical Archaeology. Yamnini Family Chair in Iiberal Artn
Cemal Pulak, Ph.D., Frederick R NMayer Faculty Profetsor of Naurical .-rchaeology
C. \VaI ne Smith, Ph.D., .. ociate Profe.sur, IN.X Fac ihlt Fellow
Shelley Wachsmann, Ph.D.. Meadows Proftesor of Biblical Archaeology

Nautical Archaeology Program Emeritus Faculty, Texas A&M University
George E Bass. Ph.D.
GC-rgc T. & Glad' H. Abcil Ch ir in N tui'i l .\Arthiat-clgs. Yiniini Faniils Clu.hii in Libc-al .XrA.. Di tinguiihed Pwle,'I, r. EmneritLi
Frederick H. van Doorninck.Jr., Ph.D.
FiredriLk R Ma\ i Fitull\ Pllt'r'eV'r cfl N.mut.lil .Arkhi.le:l .iui; Enlcritu,

Maritime Archaeology Program Faculty, Flinders University "E
Mark Staniforth. Ph.D.. As,,ciate Profess;,r
Jennifer McKinnon, Lecturer
Emil) Jateff, A,,ixiate Iect.urer
John Naumann, Teaching Support Officer
INA Research Associates and Affiliated Faculty Z
J. Barto Artnold, M.A. Kroun Batchvaro\; M.A. Piotr Bojakowski, M.A. Lilia Carnpana Arthur Cohn.J.D.
Claire Aliki Collins Katie Custer, M.A. Maria del Pilar Luna Erreguerena. M.A. Ben Ford, M.A. Donald A. Frev. Ph.D.
Jeremy Green, M.A. Elizabeth Greene, Ph.D. Donovan Griffin *Jelonie L. Hall, Ph.D. Frederick Hansemnann. M.A.
Heather Hatch Kenzo Havashida. M.A. Faith D. Hentschel. Ph.D. Nicolle Hirschfeld, Ph.D. Frederick Hocker. Ph.D.
Jun Kimura, M.A. Carolyn G. Koehler, Ph.D. Bradle) A. Krueger Justin Leidw anger. M.A. Margaret E. Leshikar-
Denton, Ph.D. Berta Lledo Colin Martin, Ph.D. Asaf Oron. M.A. Ralph K. Pedersen. Ph.D. Robin C.M. Piercy
John Pollack Mark Polzer .Juan Pinedo Reyes Donald Rosencrantz -Jeff Royal. Ph.D. Randall Sasaki. M.A.
George Schwarz, M.A. Tufan Turanh Peter \an .lfen, Ph.D. Cheryl Ward. Ph.D. Gordon P. Watts,Jr., Ph.D.
Robvn Woodvcard, Ph.D.

A Letter from the President

As summer 2009 ended, INA's teams of archae-
ologists returned from various projects around
the world with the results of their work. New
discoveries, both in the water and in the laborato-
ries made this summer a productive one. Exciting
finds in Spain are unlocking the secrets of the
only Phoenician shipwreck yet excavated; a
long-lost Gold Rush "time-capsule" shipwreck
was found perfectly preserved in the tif- ez:.i.
waters of a subarctic lake; the remains of a tragic
Cold War encounter that took dozens of lives
were discovered along with more ancient wrecks
off the formerly closed coastal waters of Albania.
These arejust a few of the discoveries made by
INA and its partners this year.

INA exists to locate, excavate, preserve and share
the kni\ledul- g,linled from the world's most
significant shipwrecks and nautical sites. We have
been doing so for decades, and today are not only
the world's oldest non-governmental organization
doing this important work, but also the only
'ii .nii'Ilion of our type that spans the globe
and all of the world's seas and waters.

The need has never been greater for the work
that INA does. Not only are we adding to the
history books, and inspiring life-long learners
with exciting discoveries that provide a physical
link to the past, we are also literally saving history
from destruction. The world's greatest "museum"
rests at the bottom of the sea, and it is under an
unparalleled assault that makes the looting of the
National Museum in B..i.1, 1ul. or the Taliban's
demolition of Buddhas of Bamyan in Afghani-
stan, pale in comparison.

Every day, deep sea trawlers smash through
shipwrecks, scraping them away and destroying
fragile remnants of the past that have lain
undisturbed for millennia. In late September, at
the INA annual meeting, Dr. Robert Ballard
spoke passionately about the effects of trawling
off the Turkish coast, and showed us all images
of seabed scraped as flat as a parking lot, with

wide swathes cut through amphora piles that
marked shipwrecks. Every shipwreck destroyed
in this fashion is lost forever. In coastal waters,
dredging has the same effect-history again
loses, and with each loss connections to, and
lessons from, the past disappear. Imagine if the
Uluburun shipwreck or some of the other great
sites excavated by INA and our colleagues
around the world, had simply been dredged or
bulldozed away? What if they had been looted,
or salvaged by treasure hunters?

IN \ has always stood in opposition to treasure
hunting, and to looting. We now must take a
stand ii'in'. indiscriminate trawling that not
only destroys ;i hlie-'.. 'ic:t'l sites but also wreaks
terrible environmental damage on vital under-
water ecosystems. We must do more than simply
oppose these destructive forces-we must take
positive action. That's where you come in as
members and friends of INA. We II increas-
ingly focus on surveys with our partners (in places
like \li~ii i., as you kilI read in this issue of the
Quarterly) to find all that remains, and to
determine the sites that are the most important
and at greatest risk, and to then excavate. We
cannot afford to simply stand by, nor can we
Il in il hope that .ipp:. iniii trawling or trFeiiin.,
it will solve the problem. Dr. R,,iIiil found
wrecks destroyed by recent trawls in areas closed
by government regulation to fishing.

Your support and your contributions are needed
more than ever. Join us in saving the past before
it is lost forever.



Director Clyde Smith
and Jim Delgado
hand out INA flags
at the annual meeting
of the Institute of
Nautical Archaeology
in Washington, DC.
PHOTO Eric Kemp

www.inadiscover cor

FALL 2009 VCOLI 1F 1E 36 No.3

INA Keeping INA Afloat
Where the lfulrding for INA comes from
and what we can accomplish with it.

Secret, off the Albanian Coast
Working with F.F1I Nautical Foundation,
a remnant of Cold War history is discovered.

Bajo de la Campana
This showcase project uncovers a
7th-century BC Phoenician shipwreck
off the coast of Cartegena, Spain.

Focus on Partnerships
The Ed Rachal Foundation & Texas A&M University
Press are some of our treasured supporters.


Project archaeologist Jose F".'r riny_- Iborra
prepares to raise an elephant tusk and other
artifacts from the shipwreck in a lifting crate.

PHOTO Coral Egintln (200A)

INA Bookmrarks

SINA Quarterly FALL 2009

It's What e Do


The past twelve months mark another year of
achievement and iu;iir, .i11 results for the
Institute of Nautical Ai. ,wI l...,, Fifty years ago
this month, Peter Throckmorton and George Bass
were seeking funds (a few thousand dollars worth)
and planning for what would be the first scientific
excavation of a shipwreck at Cape Gelidonya,
Turkey. The completion of that excavation and
the publication of their findings resulted in several
n l i-.;. A new approach to archaeology was
begun. Humanity's understanding of the Bronze
Age was changed. A world-class museum of
underwater .,i h,w .lh i-'u was founded in Bodrum,
Turkey, and ultimately this organization was

The legacy of Gelidonya is apparent as INA fulfils
the mission its founders began... seeking out
traces of humanity's past that lie buried and
forgotten on the floors of the v. .l tl' oceans, seas,
lakes and rivers. Bringing to light those remnants
of our collective past that speak most powerfully
to us, about who we are, what we have done, and
what we are capable of. When INA undertakes a
project it is done to the highest of standards, and
when we focus on a shipwreck, we excavate that
wreck not merely because it is "old," but because
it is significant, and has the potential to rewrite
history. We excavate it completely, and we
preserve all that we find. We place the finds in
museums. We share what we have learned with
wide and diverse audiences, for the benefit of all.

In 2009, IN'.Xi core programs focused on archaeo-
logical survey, excavation, conservation, analysis,
and education. We did so by working with others,
notably our longstanding principal partners at
Texas A&M University, with the RPM Nautical
Foundation, the Waitt Institute for Discovery, the
National Geographic Society, and Flinders
University. The Institute of Nautical Archaeology
conducted or participated in 19 archaeological
projects around the globe from the Yukon and
Lebanon to Turkey, Japan and Vietnam.

A major excavation in Spain on the Phoenician
7th-century B.C. wreck and in Turkey with the
Roman period stone carrier at Kizilburun,
exemplify our work on and in the water to recover
the past, while surveys of Yukon Gold Rush
shipwrecks, the Anthony Wayne shipwreck in the
Great Lakes, the Battle of Bach Dang/Khubilai
Khan Wrecks in Vietnam, a survey in eastern
Cyprus survey, and RPM's Albania and Sicilian
coastal surveys, are examples of consistent,

high-quality work done to find the most signifi-
cant sites for future excavation.

In Bodrum, conservation and analysis of artifacts
from previous excavations continues. In our labs,
conservators, technicians, and archaeologists have
unlocked the secrets of concretions, identified
species of wood, plants and ancient food, and
conducted chemical analyses. They have made
breakthrough discoveries on the manufacturing
of "standardized" amphorae in the ancient world
and have stopped the effects of corrosion and
decay so that these finds will be available for
future generations. Working with the generous
support of the Bermuda Maritime Museum, INA
researchers continued the analysis and documen-
tation of the hull remains of a significant early
17th-century wreck. Ongoing work in 2009
included a two-month study to document and
transcribe the markings of amphorae from a
medieval wreck, undergoing treatment and
analysis in the conservation laboratory of the
Center for Underwater Archaeology of the
National Taras Schevchenko University in Kiev,
Ukraine. And research in Venice "unearthed"
rare renaissance shipbuilding treatises and
documented the art of shipbuilding in that center
of maritime and naval activity.

IN.\ scholars released another landmark book
when Texas A&M University Press published the
much-awaited and highly praised second volume
on the Serge Limani wreck. The Waitt Institute
and INA completed the final report on the Rio
Chagres Maritime Cultural Landscape survey in
Panama, the final publication on the Sub Marine
Explorer project in Panama was completed and
submitted to Texas A&M Press, and other INA
scholars continued work on publications on the
Lake Ontario Maritime Cultural Landscape
survey and the blockade runner Denbigh. INA
added significant new content to its website. and published the second
volume of the LX Annual documenting research
projects from 21i(i.'. We mentored students,
supported their research, sought and obtained
grants, made public presentations, and answered
inquiries from around the world.

This is what we do together... projects that make
a difference to our understanding of the world
and our place in it. Along the way, we forge new
and lasting relationships between organizations,
institutions, governments and individuals.

SAlbania Survey, Albania
SArade 1, Portugal
Azores, Portugal
Bajo de la Campana, Spain
Bozburun, Turkey
Cape Gelldonya, Turkey
Danaos Project
9. i I,.1_,-, 1;, Italy
Eastern Cyprus Maritime Survey
Georgian Black Sea Coast, Georgia
Kekova, Turkey
Kizilburun, Turkey
Kyrenia Wreck, Cyprus
Mazarron Timber Study, Spain
Pabug Burnu, Turkey
Pepper Wreck, Portugal
Persian War Shipwreck Survey
Porticello Wreck, Italy
Project Neptune,
Normandy Invasion Fleet Survey
Renaissance Venetian Naval
Manuscript Study, Italy
Secca De Capistello, Italy
Serce Limani, Turkey
Seytan Deresi, Turkey
Tektas Burnu, Turkey
Uluburun, Turkey
Volage, Albania
S. ;,a .3 i -I ,I- :,nri.jr, Turkey
Yassiada 7th-century, Turkey
Yenikapi Harbor Wrecks, Turkey
Columbus Caravels
Highborn Cay Wreck
Molasses Reef Wreck
Monte Cristi Pipe Wreck
The Port Royal Project
Puerto Rico Project
SReader's Point Wreck
SRio Belen Survey
Rio Chagres Maritime
Landscape Study
Sub Marine Explorer
SWarwick Project, Bermuda
SWestern Ledge Reef Wreck, Bermuda
S-',r r : i'. -r..- Survey, USA
Clydesdale Plantation Wreck, USA
Denbigh Project, USA
SLake Champlain Projects. USA
Lake Ontario Maritime Cultural
Landscape Survey, Canada
Red River Project/
SSteamboat Heroine, USA
Revolutionary War
Privateer Defence, USA
The Ronson Ship, USA
Yorktown Shipwreck Project, USA
Yukon Gold Rush Survey, Canada
Bahrain Survey, Bahrain
Dead Sea Coastal Survey, Israel
Tantura Lagoon Wrecks, Israel
SBattle of Bach Dang Survey, Vietnam
The Frigate Ertugrul, Japan
SNorth Vietnam Anchor
SDocumentation and Assessment
The Kadakkarapally Boat, Kerali, India
Khubilai Khan 1281 Fleet
Shipwreck Timber Study, Japan
The Aksumite-Period Shipwreck
at Black Assarca Island
Dashur Boats Survey, Egypt
Sadana Island, Egypt
Santo Antonio da Tanna
(Mombasa Wreck)
Ghost Ship Survey
Pisa Wreck Amphora
Graffiti Project, Ukraine r

Keeping INA Afloat

Fifty years ago when PI i: r Throckmorton and George Bass embarked on theirjourney to the Cape
Cc lidon\c excavation in Turkey, they began an ongoing search for not only shipwrecks, but also for
the financial means to make it all possible. That search continues today, as each year I.NA undertakes
the raising of substantial funds to support projects done around the globe.
In order to finance the considerable achievements of the past year, INA raised and utilized millionn
in 2009. That includes nearly $ 401-I.(0l(l of "ii-Lini I" support that also contributed to our core
1 pro.rrim and mission. Texas A&M University estimates that tilht also contribute another S :il.I),0i1I a
year hr ri, gh laboratory and academic support, and assistance from INA and University-created and
endowed academic chairs.
The search for adequate fiindling never ends. This year, as in years pa.t, we look for your continued
support of the Institute to keep us afloat.
Where does this money come from? (See Figure 1)

FIGURE 1 Revenue
* Texas A&M Contribution
* Endowment Income
Unrestricted Gifts
* Restricted Gifts


FIGURE 2 Exprenditures
* Archaeology
* Development/Outreach

The largest amount, r-pre-wenti.nii .ii :.. of our revenue, comes from grants, sponsorships, gifts and
in-kind support designated for ..[pe ifi prijer t- Securing these funds involves many hours on the part
of prI j,- I directors, INA Directors and staff to write detailed grant applications and meet with
potential p.[,n. r' and donors. These "re-rri, u-d funds" are targeted by the donors and grantors for
'iperi fi excavations, surveys, and other core program needs such as education.
In-kind sliupul i I to INA-paid ship time, ulppo.rtcd trl;i\ d. and donated time, services and
equipment-accounts for 20% of our "Restricted Gifts" revenue.
Another 18% ot' our revenue is generated from the interest income of INA's endowment fund, which
is held and managed by the INA Foundation, a separate body that exists to support INA's operations.
A tive percent distribution is made annually from this.
A further 18% is secured through donations made by INA directors, members and other friends for
the general "unre-tri. ied" use of INA to support its operation, programs and mission.
As well, our partners and friends at Texas A&M Unil\ irsit\ make an annual financial commitment to
INA and that cash slIppljrt represents 7% of our annual income. We earn an additional 2% through
miscellaneous sources such as merchandise sales, membership due', and non-endowment investment
What are we able to accomplish with these funds and the significant in-kind support
from our partners? Se F i-,ire 2)
INA spent 82% of its budget on .i .haejlo'.>g in the firld, in the laboratory and in education with a
"glKnii;.lcnt portion of this being dedicated to work done in Turkey at our Bodrum headquarters.
We spent 18% of our budget running the organization, and in generating the further financial and
in-kind support necessary to meet our goals. Within this amount, 8% was dedicated to creating
opportunities that form part of our outreach program and to help spread the word about INA for
educational purposes and to garner additional support and funding.
Generating this support irir,.iril involved pulic [ire.ei- nations throughout the U.S. and abroad by
INA Pre-id-nijim Delgado, as well as Texas A&M professors and grad students including a mnjior
presentation at the Bowers Museum in Los Angeles, another at the Houston Museum of Natural
Science as u ell as participating in conferences and speaking engagements in places as diverse as
Washington and Istanbul. Meetings with foundations and organizations such as the National
Geographic Society, along with one-on-one appointments with potential partners also forms a large
part of the efforts to raise both funds and INA's public profile. Monies for this work are also specifi-
cally targeted to build oii lingi support for the organization, especially as we seek to build our endow-
ment to lessen the uncertainties of our i eliirare on annual fundraising appeals.

6 INA Quarterly FALL 2009


Of note...
While restricting our administrative costs to 10% of the annual budget, INA manages to maintain its
,i`lices at the Colllreg Station headquarters as a hub of communication with researchers, scholars,
students, faculty and supporters it r uiNgh iiu the world. From this location the day-to-day business of
INA and the imianaliiing of its finances, in compliance with both IRS and international regulations, is
accomplished by a hardit\rkiiing Texas AMI staff who work assiduously on behalf of the organization.
The support raised in the last year was more than just immediate cash it represents over a million
dollars in deferred 2ifts. and that B400iiC.ii0 of in-kind ,"ippurt. which means that while INA benefited
'iiinifit. iiil\ from these gifts to further its mission and priugiani accomplishments, it did so without
ha, inl to write a check... meaning that our investment in development was repaid by a factor of ten
in ready cash and in-kind ',ppjurd!

Where do we go from here?
Our (untini.in4g mission is "to fill in the gapJ of history and provide answers to chllenglini historical
questions through the study and examination of the vessels that have traveled the world's waterways
for millennia, can ing people and cargo, and making [poJ''ibl the widespread exchange of ideas,
innovation and invention."
locdi there is a greater need than ever before to support the work done by INA. An unipialalcled
assault on the world's submerged history is under way from more than simply the ravages of time or
the continued theft of our heritage by treasure hunters and looters who trade in history for financial
gain. Improved technology has allowed us better access to peek beneath the waves and it has become
clear to all who care to look, that human activity is having a devastating impact on even the most
remote and isolated o-" environments. Deep sea EraI linlg and dredging has been destroying entire
ecosystems and along winh them the very shipwrecks that IN.A is dedicated to preserve. The damage
done on all fronts is considerable and growing in scale. We are in danger of losing again what was
already lost, only this time it will be permanent. There will be no knowledge gained from these
endangered sites once the ocean's floor has been scraped clean.
We are spending the majority of our revenue on our current archaeological field work, on conserva-
tion and analysis in Bodrum, and to a lesser extent on educational )proji-i ,. We are the ONT.Y interna-
tional organial 'in of our kind that can work globally, to locate, document, excavate and preserve
,ig il Iant underwater and nautical archaeological sites. 1t is a BIG ocean, and the level of destruction
and looting is increasing around the world. TN.A needs more muscle more funds in order to meet
the need to address the critical issue of the loss of the world's submerged human heritage. We also
need to increase the work we do to bring that history to light.
Donations made to INA will help us make a 4greater difference as we partner with others and work to
maintain our focus to not simply save ereri trhin. but to seek out the most historically and socially
significant of these submerged sites, and to excavate them to the highest standard.., preserving and
analyzing them, and then ha riiin both the artifacts themselves and the knowledge gained from their
study, with the world.
Your financial support is directed to core programs that help the Institute of Nil.uricnl Archaeology
continue its mission and achieve its goals. \\V value and appreciate that support... already it has made
a difference to the work being done by I1NA and has contributed to a greater understanding of the
world. Pla -e support INA in this mission, and join in the excitement of exploration and discovery as
we venture forth to reach out and save history Ijrti-r it is lost forever.
To learn more about IN.N- work over the last half century and to find out how you can help, go to
inad plan. Or please feel free to contact us directly thrnou'ih the TNA ifli< r- in Texas ,'.;'); 845 6694.

for 2009

in the field,
in the lab,
& in educational

comes from
like you!

restricted to
support 7

I1'A o T ill




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A Reportfrom Bajo de la Campana

Juan Pinedo Reyes
examines a nearly complete
Phoenician tripod bowl.
Ana Mi ano Dominguez (2007)
Detail of a bronze furniture
ornament found at the end of
the season this summer.
PHOTO Mark Polzer (2009)
The Spanish flag and INA's
burgee, generously provided
by INA director and project
sponsor Lucy Darden,
fly proudly.
PHOTO Mark Polzer (2009)

The excavation of a ',. ,r'-, ,*. B.C. Phoenician shipwreck off
Cartagena, Spain, an INA project supported by the National
Geographic Society, IVA directors and donors, and our partners in
'p. concluded its second season of excavation with a series of
discoveries that throw more light on the ship's cargo and possible
purpose and add to its i"- ... Project directors Mark Polter
and Juan PFnedo I'-, led a team back to the site this summer.
Here is an update from Mark, written in the field as the
excavation concluded, to give our readers an "over the ',. '.' "
view of archaeology as it happens. Editor
This past week was our last of the season. We
lost much of the previous week and the begin-
niing of this one due to stormy weather (which,
until then, had been exceptionally kind to us), so
we dived straight illlruicli the weekend to make
up some of the lost days. The work this summer
has been rather difficulty, especially with so
many large boulders to move, but the wreck has
rewarded us with some important archaeological
finds. The tusks and wood assemblage by the
cave was interesting. The wood is not structural,
but appears to be cargo. Of course, once its
species is identified, I will have a much better
idea of its true nature onboard the ship. I found
several interesting pieces of worked wood under
the tusks, as well as several wooden combs, a
metal ingot, lots of dunnage [packing to protect
the wooden hull from heavy cargo -ed.], a
stash of pine and pistachio nuts almost certainly
stored oliigillall in a sack of some sort, many
pieces of galena, and several ballast stones. It all
ai'prcI to be cargo and other items that were
stowed in the hold of the ship. I only just cleared
out the last remaining pieces of ,luinn.ige today,
so I haven't gone too deep yet.
One of the main 'themes' of this season (other
than heavy rocks) was ceramics. We have found a
large assortment of Phoenician pottery
(amphoras, bowls, plates, tripod mortars, small
jars, and an oil lamp and jug of Tyrian produc-
tion that are both firsts from the wreck), some-
thing that was lacking from our previous
c,ji pai i. While these objects are all still
broken, we have recovered several vessels in their
entirety, and have the complete form/profile for
many others preserved in their fragments. This is
important fi -r our dating of the wreck, which
now we are iin e li el to move back slightly into
the last decade or so of the 7th century B.C.
The second 'theme' of the summer was metals.
We continue to recover thousands of ,leina;

nuggets from all over the site, as well as a lrge
number of tin ingots of several different shapes,
two more copper ingots, and several ingots of
unknown metal. I think the ship was also
carrying a large load of clay for pottery making
or for construction purposes, and possibly red
ochre for use in pigments. This is still in
question, pending analyses to identify the
material, but it would help solve the riddle of a
lack of tonnage when one sums up the weights
of all the other recovered cargo items.
As important as all this is air han.,h gin ,11l\.
until this week we still had not found the
heart of the wreck. In the meantime, work was
continuing in sector G5, which was an area we
knew potentially could be important and which
we targeted for a test pit of sorts to see how
deep the wreck stratum extends. On Friday,
at a depth of over 1.3 m (4.5 ft), we found our
first complete and intact Phoenician ceramic
vessel, an unguentarium or small flask typically
used for perfumes, oils, or ointments. Then, on
Saturday, at about the 1.5-m (5-ft) mark, we
found ajumble of odd metallic objects and some
wood, all of which appeared at first glance to be
more 'modern', and the metal iron. The metal
pieces were raised yesterday afternoon. Today,
we uncovered more of the wooden structure,
and in direct contact with it found dunnage,
nuts, pine tar, and a Phoenician amphora
(broken, but complete and with remains of its
i.' iilanl contents still preserved, which we think
may be some type of fish product) in other
words, the wood very definitely belongs to the
Phoenician context, and could well be part of
the ship itself. It seems to be a thick plank of
sorts and is joggled and scarfed at one end,
but I couldn't make out any indication of edge
fastenings. To cap things off, this afternoon, as
we were inspecting and cataloging the artifacts
from yesterday, we discovered that one of the
metal pieces is a rna Ill, cast bronze arm with
clenched fist lil hlilln a lotus flower or palmette.
The arm reminded me initially of the carved
ivory cosmetic applicators from Uluburun, only
much larger. I am taking a fresh look at the
associated objects, which are all made of bronze
as well, and am heading to the library in Carta-
gena tomorrow to see if I can learn what they
might be. It is all terribly exciting!
-Mark Polzer, 16 August 2009

P INA Quarterly FALL 2009

PARTNERProfi le ..........

Since the beginnings of ,rch,,lrr-u ., under water, the National Geographic Society has been at the
forefront of support for many important .,< i-ni lif explorations and excavations, including a number of
major IN.\ projects that have expanded humanity's knowledge of our expansion across the world by
water, and our complex connections and interrelationships throughout the millennia that have utilized
the sea.

A quick look at the sponsors listed in Dr. George E Bass's book "R-nrith the Seven Seas" finds the
National Geographic Society li-t, I as a major sponsor for landmark excavations such as Ulu Buriin,
Yassiada, Kyrenia, Serge Limani,,n Birnui, Tektas Burnu, Kizilburun, the Mombasa Wreck,
Sadana Island, the privateer Defence, and many others since the 1960s. National Geographic has also
been there, both as a magazine and as a television broadcaster, making it possible for INA to share
what we find, and what it means, with the world.
This year, the National Geographic Society supported four projects, helping INA and nautical archae-
ology make a difference. We gratefully acknowledge the support, the ongoing relationship, and the
friendship of the National Geographic Society, and particularly note the support of the Expeditions
Council for their support of the Phoenician : h-Century B.C. Ship\ r-, k Excavation at Bajo de la
Campana, Spain and the National Geographic Society-Waitt Grants Prog ram for their support of
these projects:
The Mongol Invasion of Vietnam: Revealing the Secret of the Battle of Bach Dang,
Quang Yen, Vietnam;
Search for the Lost Ships of a Phi a ih: A Geophysical Survey at the P) ran lil Complex
of Senwosret III, Dashur, EvI pj,
Reconstructing the Steamboat Pi.,:. it, Lake Champlain, Vermont;
Ex.iplorii y the Ghost Ship of the Yukon: A.J Goddard, Lake Laberge, Canada.

The support of the National Geographic Society, joined by the support of others, makes magic
happen in the field amazing iiri,.s are ldi-i ~\eir-l, carefully recovered, preserved for the benefit of
society, and shared with a wide and diverse audience to help educate and inspire.

The National Geographic
Society is one of the world's
Largest norprotir scientific and
educational organizations.
SFounded in 1888 to "increase
and diffuse geogiaph;,
knowledge," the Society's
mission is to inspire people to
care about the planet.
Throughout its 120-year
history, the Society has
encouraged conservation of
natural resources and raised
public awareness of the
importance of natural places,
the plants and wildlife that
inhabit them, and the
Environmental problems that
threaten them. National
SGeographic's explorers,
writers and photographers
have traveled the Earth,
sharing its amazing stories
with each new generation. The
SSociety has funded more than
S9,000 scientific research,
conservation and exploration
projects around "he globe, and
grantees make e'cilrig new
discoveries every day in both
Traditional and emerging fields.

Learn more at...

Juan Pinedo Reyes (left)
and Murat Tilev i.right
rig a lift bag to a large
boulder in order to
remove it from the site.
PHOTO Mark Polzer (2009) 0

"We are very proud of our
collaborative pi ,ir.h,rig
arrangement with Irl., and
we are leni.Ihel to be
working closely with the
ir'! ,r ,jlng scholars in
this field based at
Texas A&M and
around the world."
TAMU Press

f.MshS teffy

The legacy of
Ed Rachal (1878-1964)
has meant that significant
works in the field of nautical
archaeology will continue
to be published and shared.
PHOTO Courtesy of the
Ed Rachal Foundation

The cover of one such
classic publication written
by J. Richard Steffy
COVER Courtesy of Texas A&M
University Press

In the spring of 2004, 1
Press announced that thr

SINA Quarterly FALL 2009


A key part of INAs mission since its beginnings
has been to publish the results of the meticulous
work and dedicated scholarship that is the
hallmark of an INA project. It is through
publication of articles and books, both scholarly
and for the interested public, that archaeologists
make a difference. George Bass has said that
museum displays are one way archaeology
benefits humankind, but the ultimate product is
"shelves filled with large volumes written on
these vessels and their contents." Those volumes
will "provide for the world not only the ultimate
histories of watercraft, but the ultimate histories
of virtually everything made by humans."
For over thirty years, Texas A&M University
Press-the preeminent publishers of scholarly
nautical a11 h.,,-,1., uP titles in the United States
and world leaders in the field of nautical
archaeology publications has collaborated with
INA to publish an ongoing series of books on
nautical archaeology, material culture and
maritime history.
The production of new nautical archaeology
titles by Texas A&M University Press was
greatly augmented in '2iii-, thanks to the Ed
Rachal Foundation of Corpus Christi and their
gift of a half million dollar fund to support
nautical archaeological publication.
The Ed Rachal Foundation was founded at the
bequest of rancher and cattleman Ed Rachal
(1878-1"' 1I of Rockport, Texas. Mr. Rachal
and his wife Louise (1'.-;7-1938) believed deeply
in education, and this combination of commit-
ments to education and youth, and to the land
and its resources, is the cornerstone of the Ed
Rachal Foundation's mission." Ed Rachal's will
stipulated that his estate "be used exclusively for
the benefit of charitable, scientific, literary or
educational purposes within the State of Texas."
As the Foundation notes, "this rather profound,
albeit simple statement provides the mission
pursued by the Foundation's management staff
and Board of Directors."

Fexas A&M University
ough the generosity of


the Ed Rachal Foundation, "l h,- Press's distin-
guished series of books on nautical archaeology
will continue to offer path-breaking research
and fascinating revelations in this innovative
and important field." The results of the
Foundation's support have been phenomenal.
Charles Backus, holder of the Edward R.
Campbell '39 Press Director's chair, remarks
that "the generous and far-sighted assistance of
the Ed Rachal Foundation completes and
activates that publishing partnership and further
rl r ii;r our ambitious publishing plans for the
digital future."
The Ed Rachal Foundation Nautical Archaeol-
ogy Series now lists 23 titles, with new books
coming out every year. According to Editor-in-
Chief Mary Lenn Dixon "The books we have
worked on with INA bring us real pride and
satisfaction. They are labor-intensive works of
love by their authors, and we respond to that
with respect and attention to detail. Our staff
shares in the pride of !n iin.ii these distin-
guished volumes to the attention of scholars and
others interested in the amazing finds INA
reports. It is important to us to add the value
scholarly publishers are best equipped to give, in
our editing, our design, and our production
These important works reflect the scholarship
of the authors, the dedication of the Press and
their staff, and the incredible support of the Ed
Rachal Foundation. The Ed Rachal Foundation
has also been instrumental in another major
INA project, the excavation, documentation and
publication of the results of the Confederate
blockade runner Denbigh. In 2008-2009, INA
received a major grant from the Ed Rachal
Foundation to continue developing digital
content for its new website (,
and to support the publication of The INA
Quarterly and the new LNA Annual. INA is grateful
for the friendship and support of the Ed Rachal
Foundation and Texas A&M University Press.


Dr*Gr-io is th ne Caira of RFa rol do yo sey f anah

*h s c a lr w i a en rpn w he I hop e to hel th ot e di et r an he

gra'uat o Idaa Unvrst Prsien brin in *e cotibtr anad
and Indiana Unfiverisity School of sponsorto further the ongoing work of

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effect on reef systems. INAhas

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as the stories that were told of the various
nautical archaeologyprojectswhichwere

^^^'T~iT~lt~nS'?TTS ITj^


Dr. Charles P. Garrison
with Lisa Guzzetti, at the
Institute of Nautical
Archaeology's Annual
Meeting in Washington,
this fall. 0


The Society for Historical
Archaeology has their Annual
Mooting on Aelia Island
January 6-10, 2010,
There will be a session on the
Yukon Gold Rush Wrecks
project and a paper presented
on the final season of the
Sub Manne Explorer project,

ii, 1 ,i l Institute of
America holds its 1111th Annual
Meeting in Anaheirn, California
January 6-9, 2010

The 2009 INA Annual Meeting

Friends and partners of INA s,rlrhrild in Washington, DC at the end of September to attend INA's
annual meeting. In addition to the meeting of the B iiiiI of Directors, several committees met to
discuss the previous year and plan for the future. Held at the law offices of Covington Burling in
Washington, the meetings also featured a reception within view of White House at the historic
Hay-Adams Hotel and another reception at the Spanish Embassy to highlight IN's new partnership
with Spain's National Museum of Underwater Archaeology on the excavation of the 7th-century
B.C. Phoenician wreck at Bajo de la Campana off Cartagena's coast.
The evening banquet honored c'iiuIinI, C(:hii ni.ii of the Board Donald Geddes and Marilyn
Geddes, and welcomed newly elected Chairman Dr. Ch;li Ie- Garrison and Lisa Guzzetti. Also
honored were recently retired Deputy Secretary of Defense and former Secretary of the Navy, the
Honorable Gordon England, for his support of nautical archaeology.
Directors in attendance were presented with their official INA '-bul.ger-" or ship's flag as a symbol
of their role as ambassadors of INA, fl\ iin the Institute's flag wherever they travel. Among the guests
who received a fla.i was archaeologist John D. Br~i.uilbult-i. who designed the INA logo from designs
on the Institute's letterhead decades ago when a blank oval on a dive recompression chamber needed
to be filled in.

(Top) Oduz Aydemir,
'ulak and Robert Ballard

(Mid) Lucy Darden,
Karen Wachsmann
and Avery Russell
.BcrJ, ori.;e 6ai and
John Broadwater

Afternoon presentations by INA scholars and partners gave attendees an "over the shoulder" look at
projects around the world and a "first glance" at breaking news in the nautical archaeological world.
The INA Annual Meeting is open by invitation to directors and ..ill supporters who make significant
contributions each year to support the mission, programs and projects of the Institute of Nautical

INA Quarterly FALL 2009

Cemal P

The Athlit Ram
Ed Rachal Foundation
Nautical Archaeology Series

Edited by Lionel Casson and
J. Richard Steffy
TAMU Press, 1991


The ea Aroumd Us
by Rachel L Carson
Oxford University Press

1 C

Nuclear Dawn: The Atomic
Bonmb, fm the Manhattan
Project to the Cold War
byJames P Delgado
Osprey Publishing, 2009


aOr i. r. .

SOriginally published in
* 1951, The Sea Aound
I Us is one of the most
remarkably successful
Sbooks ever written
about the natural
Sworld. Rachel Carson
captures the mystery
and allure of the ocean
with a compelling blend
Sof imagination and
* This commemorative
Sedition has over 130
Sbeautif, ful color
Sillustratins from all
Over the wold -
everything fomn
breaching whales,
" Christmas Tree worms
and phosphorescent
shrimp, to fur seals,
flashlight ish, and giant
squid. The volume
Features aforewordby
SCarl Safina, a founder
of the Blue Ocean
Institute; an introuc-
tion by explorer Robert
afterword by BrianJ
Skinne; former
President of the
Geological Society
Sof America.

H adcovera$6495
SOde yco copy at

Mary Rose Mary Rose Your Noblest
Your NoblShpp Shippe: Anatomy of a Tudor
ioaM .. ,I Ira W..aip Warship

l Edited by Peter Marsden
The Mary Rose Trust 2009


i.. I V wwwoxbo comn


Join INA President Jim Delgado and discover the exquisite treasures of Cambodia's Angkor
temples and the superb World Heritage Sites, traditional villages, and natural beauty of Vietnam.

exploration of the ancient temple legacies of the
Khmer Empire: Ta Prohm, Preah Khan, Angkor
Thom, Bayon, and Banteay Srei
* Guided visits to l th-century Cham temples, ----
including My Son; the Imperial City of Hue;
the tunnels ofVinh Moc; and Ho Chi Minh's
* Private cultural events include Hanoi's famous Water
Puppets, and martial arts and dance performances by
Vietnam's hill tribe people
* Experience Vietnamese life with walks through
colorful local markets, a bicycle ride through beautiful
rice paddies, and opportunities to savor local cuisine
* Travel in luxury aboard the intimate, 10-passenger,
Clipper Odyssey.

March 27 April 12, 2010 1 From: $8,980 per person, double occupancy

Please contact our partners for this voyage, tel: (800) 628-8747 or (206) 285-4000
Zegrahm Expeditions, to request a brochure. ZEGRAHM EPEDI e-mail: web:

Members who mention INA when booking will receive a signed copy of Jim Delgado's Khubilai Khan's
Lost Fleet, which includes a chapter on the Mongol invasions of Vietnam.

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