Group Title: INA quarterly
Title: The INA quarterly
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: The INA quarterly
Alternate Title: Institute of Nautical Archaeology quarterly
Abbreviated Title: INA q.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Publisher: Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Place of Publication: College Station TX
College Station TX
Publication Date: Summer 2009
Copyright Date: 1997
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Underwater archaeology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Archéologie sous-marine -- Périodiques   ( rvm )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 19, no. 1 (spring 1992)-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 23, no. 2 (summer 1996).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098800
Volume ID: VID00055
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 26536606
lccn - sf 94090290
issn - 1090-2635
 Related Items
Preceded by: INA newsletter (Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.))


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*r -,41

George E Bass, Ph.D.. Chairman Emeritust, Michael Katzev (deceased), Jack W Kelleyt

James P Delgado, Ph.D., President*
Cemal Mh. Pulak, Ph.D., Vice President
KevinJ. Crisman, Ph.D., Vice President
Ella F Kegler, Chief Financial and Administrative Officer
Chasity M. Hedlund, Accounting Manager
Ann Elizabeth Moore, Membership and Reception
Tuba Ekmekqi, Director, Bodrum Research Center
Ozlem Dogan, Finance Manager, Bodrum Research Center

Board of Directors & Officers
Dr. Oguz Aydemir Robert D. Ballard, Ph.D. Ednard O. Boshell,Jr. -John Cassils, M.D. Gregory M. Cook
Lucy Darden* Thomas E Darden -John De Lapa Carl Douglas Claude Duthuit DanielleJ. Feeney*
Charles P. Garrison, M.D., Vice Chairman* Donald Geddes III, Chairman' *James Goold. Secretary & General Counsel*
Dr. Robert Hohlfelder, Ph.D. CharlesJohnson, Ph.D. Mustafa Ko *- Captain Alfred Scott McLaren, USN (Ret.) Ph.D.
Alex G. Nason George E. Robb,Jr. Andrew Sansom, Ph.D.* Ayhan Sicimoglu Clyde E Smith. Treasurer* -Jason Sturgis
Peter van Alfen, Ph.D. Frederick van Doorninck,Jr., Ph.D.* Robert L. Walker, Ph.D.* Lew Ward
Peter M. Way, Past Chairman* Robyn Woodward, Ph.D. Sally M. Yamini
Associate Directors
Ercan Acikel Gordon W. Bass George R. Belcher Raynette Boshell Allan Campbell, M.D. Stephen Chandler
William C. Culp, M.D Glenn Darden Nicholas Griffts *Jeff Hakko Robin P Hartmann Faith Hentschel, Ph.D.
Susan Katzev William C. Klein, M.D. Selkuk Kolay Anthony Marshall Thomas McCasland,Jr. Dana E McGinnis
Michael Plank Anne Darden Self Lynn Baird Shaw Betsey Boshell Todd Mary Tooze Garry A. Weber
Roger A. Williamson, Ph.D.
Nautical Archaeology Program Faculty, Texas A&M University
Deborah N. Carlson, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Sara W. and George O. Yanuni Fellow
Luis Filipe Vieira de Castro, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Frederick R. Mayer Faculty Fellow of Nautical Archaeology
KevinJ. Crisman, Ph.D.t Associate Professor, Nautical Archaeology Faculty Fellow
Donny L. Hamilton, Ph.D, George T. & Gladys H. Abell Chair in Nautical Archaeology, Yamini Family Chair in Liberal Arts
Cemal Pulak, Ph.D., Frederick R. Mayer Faculty Professor of Nautical Archaeology
C. Wayne Smith, Ph.D., Associate Professor, INA Faculty Fellow
Shelley Wachsmann, Ph.D., Meadows Professor of Biblical Archaeology
Nautical Archaeology Program Emeritus Faculty, Texas A&M University
George F. Bass, Ph.D.
George T. & Gladys H. Abell Chair in Nautical Archaeology, Yamini Family Chair in Liberal Ats, Distinguished Professor, Emeritus
Frederick H. van Doorninck,Jr., Ph.D.
Frederick R. Mayer Faculty Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus

Maritime Archaeology Program Faculty, Flinders University
Mark Staniforth, Ph.D., Associate Professor
Jennifer McKinnon, Lecturer
EmilyJateff, Associate Lecturer
John Naumann, Teaching Support Officer
INA Research Associates and Affiliated Faculty Z
J. Barto Arnold, M.A. Kroum Batchvaro\v M.A. Piotr Bojakowski, M.A. Lilia Campana Arthur Cohn,J.D. o
Claire Aliki Collins Katie Custer, M.A. MariA del Pilar Luna Erreguerena, M.A. Ben Ford, M.A. Donald A. Frey, Ph.D.
Jeremy Green, M.A4 Elizabeth Greene, Ph.D. Donovan Griffin *Jerome L. Hall, Ph.D. Frederick Hanselmann, M.A.
Heather Hatch Kenzo Hayashida, M.A. Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D. Nicolle Hirschfeld, Ph.D. Frederick Hocker, Ph.D. o
Jun Kimura, M.A. Carolyn G. Koehler, Ph.D. Bradley A, Krueger 'Justin Leidwanger, M.A. Margaret E. Leshikar-
Denton, Ph.D. Asaf Oron, M.A. Ralph K. Pedersen, Ph.D. Robin C.M. Piercy 'John Pollack Mark Polzer
Juan Pinedo Reyes Donald Rosencrantz *Jeff Royal, Ph.D. Randall Sasaki, M.A. George Schwarz, M.A. ,
Tufan Turanh Peter van Alfen, Ph.D. Cheryl Ward, Ph.D. Gordon P. Wats,Jr., Ph.D. Robyn Woodward, Ph.D. W

A Letter from the President

Welcome to the summer issue of The LNV Quarterly,
dedicated to what we do together as the Institute
of Nau tical Archa:cloi,. Feature articles include
a discussion on why nautical archaeology matters;
the history, technology and refit of INA's survey
submersible Carolyn; and the reconstruction of
an ancient Egyptian oceangoing ship. We also
say goodbye to two members of INAs family,
Duncan Boeckman and Bill Searle.

As the summer draws to a close, a number of
this year's field projects are reporting in with their
results, which we will be sharing with you in the
coming months. For a taste of what's to come,
we highlight one of these endeavors: the Klondike
Gold Rush shipwreck survey in Canada's Yukon.
As I reported in the last issue of the Quarterly,
1NA stands in a position of relative strength. It
has focus, a strategic plan, a dedicated core of
supporters, an engaged and committed board of
directors, and it continues to attract support,
including donations and grants. INA has a clear
sense of its mission, its focus, and its priorities.
There are exciting, ongoing projects that will yield
enthusiasm and interest as well as archaeological
and historical knowledge, and partners and
alliances that will continue to enable INA to
conduct its work and fulfill its mission.

Within the next 12 months, INA will mark its 50(h
anniversary with the return to Cape Gelidonya
of Dr. George Ba4s, Claude Duthuit and other
members of the original team and a new scientific
archaeological mission will begin at what is
considered the birthplace of modern,
underwater archaeology.

At the same time, we will continue our
mission, with a special emphasis on those key
elements that we need to focus on as we pass
the 50-year benchmark:
Saving the endangered past throughh
advocacy and action;
Demonstrating and supporting
"bet practice" in everything we do;
Collaborating and parnering on an
international scale with universities,
pr'granm, scholars, students, museums,
organizations, and institutes;
Shanng knowledge with a diverse and
global audience through a wide variety
of media and particularly enhancing our
ability to do so though the Internet;
Demonstrating the relevance of what
we do and why we do it;
Mentoring and supporting the next
generations of nautical archaeologists;
Being cost effective and strategic in our
work; and
Being socially and environmentally)
This season has seen many projects take place
on the water, on shore, in the laboratory and
in the archives. This work that is at the heart
of what we do as the Institute of Nautical
Thank you for your interest in INA, and for
your support. It makes a difference.

Jim hovers over a mound
of amphorae from a
4th-century AD Roman
wreck discovered by the
RPM Nautical Foundation
off the Albanian coast.
PHOTO Howard Phoenix, RPM

Jim Delgado

SUMMER 2009 VOLUME 36 No 2

Does it Matter?
The relevance of nautical archaeology
in today's world.

2009 Field Report
The Klondike Gold Rush shipwreck survey.

Sailing on the Red Sea
Reconstruction of an ancient Egyptian ship.

EvRva 1: Partners Down Under!
FInders University and NA make it official.

Windlass on the bow of A.J. Goddard
PHOTO Donnie Raid of Ocean Photography

z INA Bookmarks

O INA Qjarner, SUMMER 2009

Does it matter?
Making A Difference With Nautical Archaeology

Editor's Note: In times of uncertainty economic and otherwise, we have an increased tendency to examine the relevance
and importance of all human endeavors.., from healthcare and education to scientific exploration and the fie arts all
are under scrutiny In our human penchant for ranking, we who pursue all of the above are judged and listed according
to a perceived importance to the world at large So why does nautical archaeology matter? What difference does it make
in the scheme of things and why is supporting organizations like L important?
In the following article LNA President Jim Delgado examines the relevance and importance of the work undertaken by
this organization in particular, and of nautical archaeology in general In fact, his reasoning can easily be applied to
the study of allfacets of human history
A quick online search reveals that there are many opinions andperspectives being expressed out there, some of them
reasoned and articulate, others decidedly less so. No matter where you stand on the exploration, preservation and study
of human history there is no doubt that this topic inspires passionate discourse
We iite you to add your voice to the discussion and would welcome your letters to the editor on the subject.
Mail Institute of Nautical Archaeology, P.O. Drawer HG College Station, Texas 77841-5137 USA
Attn: INA Ouarterly Editor

As we approach 2010, the half-century anniver-
sary of nautical archaeology, this is a perfect time
to ask provocative questions. Why should society
care about nautical archaeology? Why should
people support an organization like the Institute
of Nautical Archaeology? In a world with so
many diverse needs, challenges and problems,
how does INA, and how does nautical archaeol-
ogy, make a difference?
The study of history, whether the record as
written or interpreted from the physical
remnants, can inform us of the how, what and
why of past events. It can also fill in the gaps of
history, restoring to the world knowledge, and
perhaps important lessons seemingly lost but
recovered through archaeological discovery and
science. The process of discovery, scientific
analysis and testing a hypothesis is fascinating
and commands our interest, as millions of
television viewers of science specials and fictional
dramas like CSI will attest. Sites and artifacts
from the past provide more than a collection of
facts, names and dates. They provide tangible
reminders of lives and achievements, triumphs
and tragedies past, made real because they can
be seen and touched.
INA was founded to make a difference in the
preservation, study and understanding of the
archaeological remains of humanity's seafaring
past. That past, as represented by lost and

abandoned ships, their cargoes, ancient ports,
harbors, sunken settlements and drowned cities,
is a precious resource. Because the oceans cover
78 percent of the earth, the remnants of
humanity's endeavors on the water are a
dominant and important part of the record of
our time on this planet. Seafaring is a common
thread that has united cultures, nations, faiths
and beliefs throughout most of the past
In the past four decades, INA and its partners
and associates have together excavated the
world's oldest wreck at Uluburun, Turkey and
the drowned pirate city of Port Royal,Jamaica.
We have recovered the lost art treasure trove of
medieval Islamic glass from the Serte Limani
wreck in Turkey and excavated a tiny ship from
the first decades of Spain's presence in the New
World at Molasses Reef-the oldest wreck yet
found in this hemisphere. We have studied the
shattered remains of the massive Mongol fleet
sent by fabled Emperor Kublai Khan to conquer
Japan in 1281 AD, and the oldest western river
steamboat in America on Oklahoma's Red
This work is done to the highest standard, with
every fragment documented, raised with care,
analyzed, and conserved in the laboratory to
obtain every bit of information. We draw from
the evidence not only knowledge of how ancient
ships were built, but also how technology, trade

Archaeologist Murat Tilev
working on a row of
copper 'oxhide' ingots
(one of four rows in situ)
found on the Uluburun
shipwreck... one of the
wealthiest and largest
known assemblages
of Late Bronze Age
items found in the

What it takes to
do it right...

of excavation


hours on the wreck
Conservation efforts
have been ongoing

Found by Mehmet Qaldr
Excavated from
Excavation Director
Cemal Pulak


S..... Making A Difference With Nautical Archaeology continued .....
James P. Delgado, President, Institute of Nautical Archaeology

"One man's trash
is another man's
trash. ure "
It is easy for most of us
to identify the most
obvious of treasures,
but would we recognize
the potential in, say, an
amorphous mass of rust,
the sediment from an
amphora or a decaying
wood fragem-rn?

Treasures from the
Uluburun excavation
included a gold scarab
seal, a gold-clad figurine
and this filleted cedar
planking showing the oak
tenon of a mortise
and tenon joint.
PHOTO INA Archives

and the indomitable drive of humanity linked
the world from its earliest civilizations. This is
not a slick use of technology to simply pick up
scattered coins, amphorae, or statues, make a
colorful computer map, and splash them along
with dramatic photos and tales of rugged
adventurers \ reWting the secrets or the riches of
the past from dangerous waters. It is attention to
A scientific, controlled excavation meticulously
maps every exposed fragment, even amorphous
masses of rust that do not seem like much to the
eye. Layer by layer, as the sediment is slowly
removed, maps are constantly revised and
provide the template for putting it all back
together in the lab. A random scatter of broken
ceramics shows how an ancient ship's wooden
superstructure collapsed as the ship rotted on the
ocean floor, and an archaeologist like Frederick
Van Doorninck of INA is able to reconstruct an
ancient ship's galley and offer us a sense of what
it was like inside an ancient ship. Mapping a
'jumble" of artifacts shows how the world's
oldest wreck, the Uluburun ship of 3,300 years
ago, was packed with care to deliver a cargo
representing the treasures of twelve different
cultures linked by ocean trade. This helped
reconstruct a complex trade network, a global
'olr its time) interconnection of people and
goods that shows how the sea united, not
divided, the civilizations of the past.
On the Uluburun wreck, more than a decade
of diving also recovered fragments of wood that
when pieced together, gave the world its oldest
example of a "book." Years of careful excavation
of the Kublai Khan shipwrecks in Japan uncov-
ered hundreds of fragments of ships' hulls that,
when pieced together, provided a sense of not
only how these ships-some of the i world's
largest, most advanced and mightiest-were
built, but also how the poor repair and hasty
construction of some of them doomed the
Khan's invasion of Japan in 1281, a loss previ-
ously attributed solely to a divine wind known as
the kamikaze. In the skilled hands of conservators
the contents of amphorae, rather than being

discarded as seemingly only silt and sand after
thousands of years on the seabed, can yield a
subtle form of treasure and reveal secrets from
ancient pollen, seeds, and DNA.

INA has been at the forefront of this science
since its beginnings, appropriately so since
founder George F Bass led the world's first
scientific excavation of a shipwreck to comple-
tion in 1960. INAs conservation efforts have
extended from ongoing work in the laboratory to
the "bigger picture" of conservation by advocat-
ing the preservation of the world's endangered
submerged heritage and INA has been a strong
voice against looting The damage caused and

for a flash of gold, often tearing apart the fragile
remnants of the past, is unfathomable. Many
sites, especially in the deep ocean, have never
been salvaged or disturbed, making them virtual
time capsules. They have remained untouched,
but today's technology is making it ever easier
for those looking for all that glitters to exploit even
these remote areas. INA has also argued against
indiscriminate dredging and deep trawling that
damages and destroys wrecks.

SINA 0 Dnerl SUMMER 2009

Most people decry looting of tombs on land...
cutting off the heads of Khmer statues at
Angkor to sell to collectors, digging up Civil War
battlefields, and unearthing Native American
grave sites and tii.linLo aside the bones of the
dead to sell the grave goods inside. Shipwrecks,
too, should not be despoiled and turned into
items for sale. These salvage operations often
use the same technology and some of the same
techniques as archaeologists do. The difference
is that they and their investors have little interest
in paying for DNA analysis, or reconstructing
shattered fragments of wood into an ancient
"book." The bottom line is different when you
seek economic return, at the expense of knowl-
edge. A few glib references to history, or claims
that nothing more can be learned than what is
already in the archives, do notju'tritf treasure
hunting and an approach that tries to explain
away setting aside the evidence for the gold
and other obvious treasures that will sell.
On every shipwreck I have ever worked on,
even those of more modern vintage, we have
learned things that have never been recorded
or written down before-things we did not
expect to find. In fact that is the entire purpose
of scientific inquiry and exploration: to discover
that which we do not already know. What these
salvage operations see as junk or detritus, we
know can reveal so much more than appearances
might otherwise indicate.
Objects that come to rest in the ocean, once
the ship has been torn open or sunk. settle into
the embrace of silt and sand, and even as they
ic.1 rlde. retain their ability to inform and teach
us. Rusted masses of metal, often leave perfect
impressions inside a rusted concretionn," and
when x-rayed, and used to create a mold, allow
a conservator to create perfect casts of ancient
tools and instruments-like the rare Byzantine
double-headed ax recast from a concretion from
the Bozburun wreck, excavated by I N.\ off the
Turkish coast.
IN.\ works for all people, not just a few.
Excavated materials are treated, analyzed and
placed in museums, and the results from our

projects are complied, written about and
released to diverse audiences via print, film
and the internet. Anmoin the world's most
popular museums are those that showcase the
discoveries of nautical archaeologists. The
Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeol-
ogy, like the Vasa Museum in Stockholm, or
the Mary Rose Museum in Portsmouth,
collectively host millions of visitors each year.
We are partners in education, not only for
the next generations of scientists who will
work in the depths, but also for school
children and those of us who retain our
curiosity as life-long learners. Thanks to
nautical archaeology, we know more about
the dynamics of trade in the ancient world.
We know about the spread of civilization and
ideas through that trade, and the role of sea
peoples like the Phoenicians, whose civiliza-
tion was best expressed by their ships and the
port cities they built. We now better under-
stand the links between the Mediterranean
and the Far East, the impact of each civiliza-
tion on the other thanks not only to camels
on the Silk Road but also to dhows and junks
on the maritime Silk Road. We have a new
appreciation for medieval art forms in Islamic
glass, a detailed view of the ships of Europe's
expansion into the new world, the rough and
often unhealthy world of Renaissance
warships, and the details of the world's oldest
deep diving submarines of 150 years ago.
Those discoveries, that knowledge, would
have been lost had it not been retrieved by
dedicated scientists-nautical archaeolo-
gists- and shared with global audiences.
Linking the past to the present, building
bridges between cultures, and connecting
those with an interest in our collective global
heritage, by making these discoveries avail-
able for all, is the role of nautical archaeol-
ogy and organizations such as INA. It makes
a difference in our understanding of who
we are, as a species, as members of culture or
a nation, and it connects us all to the ongoing
adventure of our shared human journey.

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r. I

Min of the Desert
by Cheryl Ward. Associate Professor at Coastal Carolina University

Captain David Vann with
team leader Cheryl Ward
and scientific liaison
Mohamed Abdel Maguid.
At Hamdi Lahma &
Brothers Shipyard in
Rashid (Rosetta) with
our priceless crew of
sailors of lateen-rigged
fishing boats on Lake
Borolos near Alexandria.
The stars of the project
were shipbuilders Reda
and Mahrous Lahma, who
brought the line drawings
produced by naval
architect Patrick Couser
to life with the help of
shipbuilder and maritime
archaeologist Tom Vosmer,

Herodotus called ancient Egypt 'the gift of the
Nile,' and that complex relationship is reflected
in archaeological finds today. Thousands of boat
and ship representations in paintings, carvings,
and sculpture complement the 24 ship and boat
remains that have been discovered, dating from
the First Dynasty to the Persian period
(c. 3030-450 BCE).
NMan people mistakenly think the ancient
Egptlans were tied to the Nile, and some
archaeologists even suggest that the Egyptians
lacked the skills to go to sea. However, recent
discoveries at the pharaonic harbor of
Mersa/W\adi Gawasis on the Red Sea provide
direct and dramatic evidence of seafaring The
range of ship components discovered at Gawasis
permitted our team to test whether the indepen-
dently invented Egyptian approach to ship
construction worked as well at sea as it did on
the Nile. Although we have learned much about
how these craft were built and see images of how
they operated, we lack the most basic informa-
tion about them. Were they seaworthy and
watertight? Could the crew maneuver, anchor
and operate the ships easily ?
Sombrero & Co.'s documentary producer
Valerie Abita invested in a team created to
discover the answer to these and other questions,
and funded a full-scale reconstruction of a
seagoing ship of the second millennium BC E.
Thus, Min of the Desert-named for the ancient
god of Coptos (modern Qifu and the Eastern
Desert of Egypt-was built using the same
construction technology as ships launched 4,000
years ago from Gawasis on voyages to Punt.
Our reconstruction was theoretical, with the
ship's rig reconstructed primarily from reliefs in
Queen Hatshepsut's mortuary temple at Deir
el-Bahri, and from ship models. As there was no

wrecked ship to replicate, Min of the Desert was
designed to be a floating hypothesis, like the
trireme Olympias. I started out by comparing the
dimensions of ship components illustrated in
Hatshepsut's Punt reliefs to the Gawasis finds,
and was astounded to discover consistency in
height, width, and diameter of, for example,
steering oar blades, beam ends, oar looms, beam
spacing, and crutch height. That consistency, and
links between the shape of Hatshepsut's ships and
Middle Kingdom boats from Dashur, along with
construction features like those in timbers from
Lisht, provided the foundation for the vessel
design. The recycled cedar hull planks at Gawasis,
spongy with shipworm and other maritime finds,
testified to characteristics of seagoing ships.
Because cedar of Lebanon is an endangered
species, we decided to use timber of nearly
identical physical strength and other features,
from 120-year-old Douglas fir of a forest near
Our present day shipbuilders practiced ancient
techniques, assisted in some cases by modern
technologies such as electrical band saws for
roughing out planks. The primary crew of four
men and two boys who built the ship relied on
hand tools made to ancient specifications, but
made out of iron rather than copper. When
completed the ship was 20 meters long and nearly
5 meters wide, displacing 30 tons, and was held
together entirely by mortise-and-tenon joints in
double lines along planks 14-22 cm (5.5-9") thick.
Min of the Desert first made short trips on the
Nile and then in the Red Sea, before attempting
the longer trial voyage south toward Sudan from
Safaga along the route used by the ancient
Egyptians. The Egyptians would have sailed much
farther south on the Red Sea than our trials
allowed and likely returned home with currents

Scriving the curve
Fitting the second strake
Min of the Desert
Courtesy of Cheryl Ward

a INA Quarterly SUMMER 2009

and a south wind (from the end of the Indian
Ocean monsoon) along the Arabian coast in a
sailing regime that recalled that of the Nile: sail
south with the wind, and take the current north.
I he 72-m2 sail sat high above the deck, and the
crew handled it easily despite a lack of pulleys,
once they became accustomed to the rigging
system during our sea trials in December and
January Our captain was David Vann, a prize-
winning author and blue-water sailor, whose
enthusiasm for the project was exceeded only by
his patience. He, and each member of the
24-person international crew, remarked on the
ship's responsiveness, as well as the efficiency and
simplicity of its maneuvering and steering.
Like the ancient Egyptians, we used oars to
maneuver the ship into position for raising and
lowering the sail, and once to save ourselves
from being blown onto a reef. Mostly, we used
the sail. Our average speed was 5-6 knots, with
speed bursts of up to 9 knots recorded. We
stopped each night in protected, coral-lined
bays like Mersa Gawasis, and noted many
distinct land forms that likely served as naviga-
tion markers. Once out in the Red Sea, the ship

corkscrewed through the waves smoothly.
taking only a single splash over the rail even
when the wind speed reached 25 knots and the
swells climbed to 2.5-3.0 m.
This remarkable adventure, documented by
director Stephane Begoin for Sombrero & Co.,
will be broadcast in Europe and Asia beginning
this fall, and on NOVA in 2010.

Heartfelt appreciation and thanks for creatively
working to find solutions are due to many
unnamed here: Valerie Abita, Director Stephan6
Begoin, Annouk Guerin and all the production
staff; superstar liaison Mohamed Abdel Maguid;
Mahrous Lahma and the brothers and employ-
ees of the shipyard; Kathryn Bard and Rodolfo
Fattovich and the archaeologists at Gawasis;
Robert Bischoff, Bill Greer and all the Master
Craftsman studio; Captain David Vann and First
Mate John Nicolini and our all-volunteer crew,
and to my fellow science team members Tom
Vosmer and Patrick Couser. Funding was
provided by Sombrero & Co., individual volun-
teers, and FSU's Master Craftsman Studio and
Department of Anthropology.

Details from the mortuary
temple of Hatshepsut
guided our design.

Crew members David
and Duncan Haldane
have been part of INA
projects and excavations
since before they were
born. including several
seasons at the Sadana
Island shipwreck, just
north of Mersa Gawasis.




A A m


Partnership with Flinders University

Masters students
Karson Winslow (left) and
Debra Shefi excavating on
the site of the Australian built
ketch Mary Elis during the
2006 Maritime Archaeology
Field School.
PHOTO Mark taniforth
courtesy of MAP
Flinders University
IFeb 2006)

Surviving wing and fuselage
section of a World War I1-era
American TBF/TBM Avenger
aircraft located within
Tanapag Lagoon, Saipan,
CNMI (Commonwealth of the
Northern Mariana Islands).
PHOTO James W. Hunter III
courtesy of MAP
Flinders University
(23 July 2009)

The Maritime Archaeology Program ,MAP) at
Flinders University has recently signed a five
year Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)
with the Institute of Nautical Archaeolog, (INA)
based in College Station, Texas. The MOU is
priniaril intended to facilitate cooperative
research and education by conducting shared
archaeological research and fieldwork. The first
project that is currently underway is the
archaeological investigation at the site of the
defeat of the Mongol (Chinese) invasion fleet in
1288 at Bach Dang, near Hanoi in Vietnam.
Staff and students from MAP have been
involved in two fieldwork seasons at Bach Dang
(in 2008 and 2009) and will be returning to
Vietnam in December 2009 to contribute to the
session titled "Maritime Archaeology, an
introduction and its application in Vietnam" at
the 19th Congress of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory
Association (IPPA) in Hanoi.
MAP developed from, and builds on, under-
graduate teaching in maritime archaeology,
which started in the Department of Archaeol-
ogy in 1996. Flinders University is now the only
university in Australia. which actively teaches
maritime auchaeulogi at both undergraduate
(within both the Bachelor of Archaeology and
Bachelor of Arts) and graduate levels. The
graduate courscwork program within MAP
started in 2002 (with the first graduate in 2003)
and by the end of 2008 had seen 50 graduates
comprising 28 Masters MMIA, 8 Diploma
(GDMA) and 14 Certificate (GCIM A) students
from eleven different countries (USA, Canada,
Australia, New Zealand, Japan, the Netherlands,
UK, Luxembourg, Sri Lanka, South Africa and
the Philippines). In 2009 there are about 20
full-time and part-time, both internal and
external (by distance learning) students enrolled
in various awards within the program. MAP
faculty are Associate Professor Mark Staniforth,
Lecturer Jennifer lcK innon and temporary
Associate Lecturer EmilyJateff.
Associate Professor Mark Staniforth, Ph.D. is
the Convenor of MAP in the Department of
Archaeology where he teaches topics in under

graduate and postgraduate maritime archaeol-
ogy. His research interests include the archaeol-
ogy of whaling and Australian shipbuilding.
Jennifer McKinnon is a Lecturer in MAP. She
joined Flinders after working as an underwater
archaeologist for the Florida Bureau of Archae-
ology and teaching topics at Florida State
University. Her research interests include
Spanish colonial archaeology and submerged
cultural heritage management.
Associate Lecturer EmilyJateff is currently
teaching within both the Maritime Archaeology
and Cultural Heritage Management Programs
in the Department of Archaeology. Her
research interests are disaster management for
archaeological collections, shore-based whaling,
maritime foodways and cultural heritage
John Naumann is the MAP technical officer.
He is the program's diving officer, coxswain and
dive instructor. His role includes field work
logistics, gear set-up, and maintenance, boats,
dive planning and paperwork. Back in the Lab,
he organises artefact photography, sorting and
cllecrinin storage.
MAP currently has four PhD candidates:
Adam Paterson,James Hunter, Debra Shefi and
Jun Kimura, conducting research and occasion-
ally teaching in MAP or for the Department of
PhD alumni include Dr. Nathan Richards who
completed his PhD in 2003 and won the Society
for Historical Archaeology (SHA) dissertation
prize in 2004. Nathan is now an Associate
Professor in the Program in Maritime Studies
and Nautical Archaeology at East Carolina
University in the US. The program's most
recent PhD completion was Claire Dappert
who conducted research on US-China trade
in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Mark Staniforth
Associate Professor, Flinders University

O INA Quarterly SUMMER 2009

After a month long ocean vxs age-this time
above the ,i\ ei INAs \ ell-lo\ ed and much
used submersible Carolyn, arrived in Galveston,
Texas. Finishing the journey over land, the
acrylic sphere and spaceship-like hull wrapped
for protection, Carolyn made the final trek to
the SEAnmai ne Hydrospace Corporation in
Claremont, California where she is undergoing
a ten-year "check-up" and overhaul.
IN 's founder, Dr. George E Bass, was a
pioneer in the use of research submersibles for
arrhaejolo,:, and he commissioned the world's
first submersible specifically designed for the
task from the Electric Boat Division of General
Dynamics. Launched in May 1964 Asherah was
eventually sold because of the high cost of
liability insurance, but George Bass remained
committed to the idea. In the early 1990s, after
visiting manufacturers in Europe, Asia, and
North America he decided to have SEAmanine
Hydrospace Corporation, design and build a new
sub for INA. With funding from the Institute for
Aegean Prehistory the two-person Carolyn (named
after the wife of Malcolm Wiener, founder of
that institute) was the result.

To tend Carolyn, INA also built the forty-five
foot catamaran Millawanda-the Hittite name for
the ancient coastal city of Miletus. Designed by
Merih Karaba, who had accompanied George
Bass on a di ing survey in 1973, Millawanda
became a perfect launching and retrieval
platform for coastal waters in the Aegean.
In May 2000, Carolyn arrived in Izmir and I was
there to meet Dr. Bass and the sub as it arrived in

Bodrum. Three weeks sped by as Milliwanda was
readied for its first deployment. Carolyn's initial
dive in the Aegean. for which I acted as pilot
with Dr. Bass, was a systems check to ensure that
everything was in perfect order. A year later, in
fall 2001, Carolyn undertook her first full scale
expedition. In one month Dr. Bass and his crew
located 14 ancient wrecks and ten probable
wrecks, while diving on a dozen wrecks known
from earlier years, to take GPS bearings. George
Bass had waited decades for a submersible
vehicle that would provide him with the access
and visibility he had dreamed of since the days
of Asherah. The ability to supervise, travel and
explore at will, extended archaeological access
and bottom time to levels that were impossible
to achieve with scuba diving alone.
After nearly a decade in service, the time has
come for Carolyn to head home for a check-up
and refit. When she arrived back in Claremont
on July 28' the sub looked in good order, and
we are now beginning to go through a long
check list as we assess Carolyn closely. INA has
talked of future uses for the sub back in Turkey,
such as accompanying Dr. Bass's planned 50th
anniversary return to the Cape Gclidonya
wreck, and has also discussed sending Carolyn to
assist in ongoing survey work in Albania.
SEAmagiine will work with INA to make sure
that Carolyn is ready for those and any other
tasks as she enters her next decade of service.

William Kohnen, President/CEO
SEAmagine Hydrospace Corporation

SEAmagine is a unique
company dedicated to the
design and construction of
manned submersibles. It was
formed in 1995 as a California
corporation and for nearly 15
years, its engineering team
has perfected a new concept
in manned submersibles that
is easily compared to an
underwater helicopter. These
submersibles have evolved
and are available for depths
ranging from 150 to 1000
meters. This includes a new
design for a 4000m deep
research submersible, catering
to national research programs
for private and national
SEAmagine has laid the
foundation for a reliable, safe
and certified submersible
vehicle technology that
provides cost effective access
to the sub-sea world. Their
submersibles are typically
customized for specific
applications and equipped
with a range of accessories.
These include a selection of
high efficiency HID and LED
underwater lights; High
cameras with optical fiber data
electronics and HD recorders
in the cabin; forward looking
sonars for obstacle avoidance;
Ultra Short BaseLine (USBL)
pos,lior iraclrlng rn GPS
positioning; Acoustic Doppler
Navigation; a variety of
Robotic manipulators; Fly-out
mini-ROVs and custom
science equipment. The
available cabin workspace for
the concurrent use of these
tools is central to its

S 0

' ^I :F. ,1 N 4V ci

Thoughts from George F Bass

Duncan Eugene Boeckman

Captain Willard F. Searle
USN Iet.)
PHOTO courtesy of the
Rubicon Foundation


I first met Duncan and Elizabeth Boecknan in 1978 in a basement classroom where I spoke to
the Dallas/Fort Worth Society of the Archaeological Institute of America. Because Duncan was
local chairman, the Boeckmans put me up that night. Next morning, as Duncan was leaving for
his law office, he turned back and asked "Do you have any literature about that institute you
formed? I know some people who might be interested." I gave him an INA brochure and within
days he began introducing me to future INA directors, including his brother-in-law Frederic
Mayer. Soon the Boeckmans were hosting INA dinners at the Dallas Ptroleum Club. Duncan
then joined the INA Board, serving as chairman from 1982 to 1984. Even after he retired from
the board, his behind-the-scenes help to INA remained extraordinary. When I expressed concern
that some Texas A&M regents might oppose a doctoral program I wanted to establish for our
better students, he held a dinner party where I sat with the chairman and vice-chairman of the
Board of Regents and the governor of Texas, explaining the value of nautical archaeology the
doctoral program was quickly approved. A generous patron of the arts himself Duncan arranged
dinners where my wife, Ann, and I met others who enthusiastically supported NA. Most
importantly, Duncan and Elizabeth became close friends Since we had been their guests in
Dallas, Santa Fe, and New York for operas, as well as for bird-watching at their ranch near Dallas,
it gave Ann and me joy to return their hospitality in Bodrum and drive them throughout south-
west Turkey. Duncan Boeckman died on April 20, 2009, at age 82.

As Supervisor of Salvage and Diving for the United States Navy Captain Bill Searle was support-
ing my underwater archaeology projects in the early 1960s, long before I formed INA, obtaining
surplus government equipment and on one occasion even sending a diver and a rigger to Turkey
to help design a launching system at Yasm Ada for our two-person submersible Aadm&. Thus,
when I resigned from the University of Pennsylvania to incorporate INA, Bill became one of the
founding directors, maldng the first substantial gift, which enabled the fledging institute to
purchase office supplies. When I asked him why he was so helpful, he laughingly responded,
"because your dad passed me in bull!" (At the Naval Academy, my father was a professor in the
Department of English, History, and Government, known by midshipmen as the "Bull Depart-
ment") When the 1974 war on Cyprus temporarily ended INA's work in the Mediterranean, it
was Bill who introduced INA to New World nautical archaeology by assembling a consortium of
INA, the Maine Maritime Academy and the Maine State Museum to excavate the colonial
privateer Defei the site had been discovered in enobscot Bay by an MIT/Maine Maritime
Academy summer course taught by Bill. I'll never forget his taking me to dive on the site in
February, 1975, with ice floating on the surface! Later, when I wanted a perspective of shipwreck
archaeology from a non-archaeological point of view Bill co-authored with me the final chapter
of "Ships and Shipwrecks of the Americas." Bill Searle, who fought Parkinson's disease for many
years, died on March 31, 2009, at the age of 86.

INA Quarterly SUMMER 2009

fn-stfi -II ea lM 1n



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