Group Title: INA quarterly
Title: The INA quarterly
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: The INA quarterly
Alternate Title: Institute of Nautical Archaeology quarterly
Abbreviated Title: INA q.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Publisher: Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Place of Publication: College Station TX
College Station TX
Publication Date: Spring 2009
Copyright Date: 1997
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Underwater archaeology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Archéologie sous-marine -- Périodiques   ( rvm )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 19, no. 1 (spring 1992)-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 23, no. 2 (summer 1996).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098800
Volume ID: VID00054
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 26536606
lccn - sf 94090290
issn - 1090-2635
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Preceded by: INA newsletter (Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.))


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George E Bass, Ph.D.. Chairman Emeriiust
Michael Katzev dlece.isedi
Jack W. Kellet

James P Delgado, Ph.D., President*
Cemal NI. Pulak, Ph.D., \ice President
Ke\inJ. Crisman, Ph.D. Vice President
Ella F. Kegler, Chief Financial aad Adminisrative Otficer
Chasit NM. Hedlund. Accounting Manager
Roxann E Fowler, Membership and Reception
Tuba Ekmekci, Director. Bodrun Research Center
Ozlem Dogan, Finance Manager, Bodruni Research Center

Board of Directors & Officers
Dr. Oguz Aydemir Robert D. Ballard. Ph.D. Edward 0. Boshell.Jr. -John Cassils, M.D. Gregory NI. Cook
Lucy Darden* Thomas F Darden *John De Lapa Curtis Dunnavan Claude Duthuit DanielleJ. Feener*
Charles P Garrison, M.D., Vice Chairman' Donald Geddes III, Chairmlan' -James Goold. Sirecrary & General Counsel'
Dr. Robert Hohlfelder, Ph.D. Charles Johnson. Ph.D. Mustafa Koc Captain Alfred Scott McLaren, USN !Ret.j Ph.D.
Dr. Elia A. Murano, Ph.D.* Alex G. Nason George E. Robb.Jr. Andrew Sansom, Ph.D.* Ayhan Sicimoglu
Clyde P Smith. Trcasur.r* -Jason Sturgis Peter van Alfen, Ph.D. Frederick \an Doorninck,Jr., Ph.D.'
Robert L. Walker, Ph.D.' Lew Ward Peter M. Way, Past Chairman* Robyn Woodward. Ph.D. Sally M. Yamnini

Associate Directors
Gordon W. Bass George R. Belcher Raynette Boshell Allan Campbell, M.D. Stephen Chandler \William C. Culp, M.D.
Glenn Darden Ercan Acikel Nicholas Griffis "Jeff Hakko Robin P Hartmann Faith Hentschel, Ph.D. Susan Katize
William C. Klein, M.D. Selhuk Kola\ Anthony Marshall Thomas McCasland,Jr. Dana F McGinnis Michael Plank
MargaretJane Zemla Saglam Anne Darden Self Lynn Baird Shaw Betsey Boshell Todd MaIr Too2e Garry A. Weber
Roger A. Williamson, Ph.D.

Nautical Archaeology Program Faculty
Deborah N. Carlson, Ph.D., Assistant Profissor. Sara W and George O ammniii Fellow
Luis Filipe \ieira de Castro, Ph.D., .ksistant Professor, Frederick R. Mayrr Faculvt Fellow of Nauucal .Xrchaeolog.
KevinJ. Crisman, Ph.D.t Associate Professor, Nautical Archaeology Faculty Fellow
Donny L. Hamilton, Ph.D., George T & Glad.s H. Abell Chair in Nauucal Archaeology. Yarlnmi Family Chair in Liberal .Art
Cemal Pulak. Ph.D., Frederick R. Maver Faculrt Professor of Nautical Archaeology
C. Wayne Smith, Ph.D., Associate Professor; IN. Faculty Fellowv
Shelley Wachsmann, Ph.D., Meadows Professor of Biblical Archaeology
Nautical Archaeology Program Emeritus Faculty
George F Bass, Ph.D.
George T. & Glad-, H Abell Chair in Nadacl .ArchaeoloeI. \anLri FamJds Chair in Liberal .rts, DiUnnguished Professor. Ementusr
Frederick H. \an Doorninck,Jr., Ph.D.
Fredenck R NtMaer Facralv Proles'or of Nautical Archaeologa, Enienrs
Research Associates
J. Barto Anold, M.A. Dante Bartoli Kroum Batchvaro%, M.A. Piotr Bojakow ski, M.A. Lilia Campana Arthur Cohn.J.D
Claire Aliki Collins Kaie Custer, NI A. MariA del Piar Luna Erreguerena, M.A Ben Ford, M.A. Donald A. Frey Ph.D.
Jeremy Green, M.A. Elizabeth Greene. Ph.D. Dono\an Griflin Jerome L. Hall, Ph.D. Fredenck Hanselmann. M.A. E
Heather Hatch Kenzo Hayashida. M.A. Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D. Nicolle Hirschfeld, Ph.D. Frederick Hocker, Ph.D.
Jun Kimura. N A. Carolyn G. Koehler, Ph.D. Bradley A. Krueger "Justin Leidw\anger, M.A. Margaret E. Leshikar-
Denton, Ph.D. Asaf Oron, M.A. Ralph K. Pedersen, Ph.D. Robin C.M. Pierc -John Pollack Mark Polzer
Juan Pinedo Reyes Donald Rosencrantz *Jefl Royal. Ph.D. Randall Sasaki, M.A. George Schwarz, M.A.
Tufan Turanh Peter van Alren. Ph.D. Chersl Ward, Ph.D. Gordon R Watts,Jr. Ph.D. Robvn Woodward, Ph.D

A Letter from the President
In the past year, INA has made some major
changes and achieved .'ignilicran goals. Among
them are:
INA's first strategic plan was approved and
INA has successfully "rebranded" itself with a
new approach to the Quarterly, a new website
( has successfully launched
and is both attractive and rich with content that
describes INAs past, present and future goals),
the first issue of The INA Annual has been
published and distributed, and INA has new
membership and fundraising materials;
The relationship with Texas A&M University
has been reaffirmed as INAs primary partner-
ship, and dialogue and cooperation between the
University and INA is open, transparent, and
mutually beneficial and supportive. President
Elsa A. Murano of Texas A&M Urni erisr) sits as
a Director both on the INA board and as a
member of the executive committee;
INA's relationship with the National
Geographic Society and the Waitt Institute for
Discovery continues to grow-the Society has
now provided grants for two years for the Bajo
de la Campana excavation in Spain, and the
Bach Dang Battle and Mongol Wreck survey in
Vietnam, as well as the Yukon Gold Rush
Steamship Wrecks survey and documentation
project; and the Waitt Institute funded a major
survey of the mouth of the Rio Chagres and
Sub Marine Explorer in Panama;
A publications plan with Texas A&M Univer-
sity Press has been completed and adopted and is
being managed in cooperation with the Depart-
ment of Anthropology and the Nautical Archae-
ology Program;
INAs children's mascot was launched and
featured in the first children's book produced
within INAs own ranks by Amy Way Anton and
Mary Faye Way;
The Uluburun shipwreck materials were
displayed in New York by the Metropolitan
Museum of Art as part of the "Breond Babylon"
exhibition that ran from November 18, 2008 to
March 15, 2009. All of the artifacts were
scanned and documented by the MMA as part
of the loan agreement with the Bodrurn
Museum and this will assist ongoing study and
conservation. The exhibition will continue
through an educational component, available
online through the MMIA followw rhe link in the
News & Events Archive on our website).

InJune 2009, INA stands in a position of relative
strength. It has focus, a strategic plan, a dedicated
core of supporters, an engaged and committed
board of directors, and it continues to attract
support, including donations and grants. INA has
a clear sense of its mission, its focus, and its priorities.
There are exciting, ongoing projects that will yield
enthusiasm and interest as well as archaeological
and historical knowledge, and INA has partners
and alliances that will continue to enable the
organization to conduct its work and fulfill its

INA' challenges at this time are the same as all
other not-for-profits in the United States, and many
similar organizations internationally INA has lost
part of its endowment, but is addressing this by
retaining its focus and relevance through projects
and partnerships that make a difference and
through internal financial monitoring and cost
cutting. INA is also utilizing some of its t'rengths-
our strategicc plan, a commitment to partnerships
and cost-sharing, and exploring cost effective
options and alternatives. INA will soon launch a
new initiative to demonstrate how we are taking
action not only to remain sustainable, but also how
we can weather this current economic storm and
emerge stronger and healthier.

Next year is the 50th anniversary of the landmark
excavation of the Cape Gelidonya wreck by
George E Bass and colleagues. That excavation
marked the creation of scientific nautical archaeol-
ogy, and it ultimately brought about not only INA
but an entirely new field of archaeological study.
Dr. Bass intends to return to Gelidonya to resurvey
the site in preparation for a new study and publica-
tion. The 50th anniversary of the birth of nautical
archaeology offers a unique opportunity to attract
new public interest and support, as well as special
media attention and we intend to build on that

To all of you who support INA, thank you again
for all that you do.

At the helm of the
17th-century sailing vessel
Vasa in the Vasmuseet
in Stockholm.

Jim Delgado

SPRING 2009 VOL UME ''F6 No. 1

Ghost Ships of the Baltic
Incredibly preserved ships emerge from
the icy depths of the Baltic Sea.
Painting ftrm a display at the Vasamuseet in Stockholm
PHOTO Alk E:san Lindtman

Where in the World is INA?
INA's 2009 summer field season mapped out.

Flying Submarines?
Join us in a test drive of the latest
in submersible technology.
Jim Delgado in the Super Aviator
PHOTO Jason Sturges

Connecting the Dots for
the Drums of Kizilburun
PHOTO D. Calson

Images from the Vasamuseet
Detail of Vasa's stern, port side
PHOTO Karmllna Krlstensson /fMM
Grotesque console head from the stern of the Vasa
PHOTO Stefan EvansenfThe National Maritime Musaemjn

INA Bookmarks

* INA Quarterly SPRING 2009

Images (left to right) from the
excavation and recovery that
began in 1961.
Vasa's discoverer Anders
Vasa First resting-place after
he salvaging was a dry lOck
. Diver with a reminder of the
* lives lost.

. VasamusetArchives/SMM

"iii !L


O" .


Surrounded by the countries of S\weden, Finland, Russia, Estonia, Latvia,
Lithuania, Poland, Germany, Denmark and Norway, the Baltic Sea is an age
old highway of settlement, trade, and war. From ancient treks in skin boats to
the epic voyages of the Vikings, the Baltic %\as an early and important center
of maritime activity, and the source of commodities that flowed south to other
cultures in the Mediterranean and the Near East. Valuable trade goods such
as amber have been discovered far from home, including those pieces recov-
ered from the cargo of the Ulubnrun shipwreck excavated by INA. As the
Baltic opened to greater trade in textiles, lumber and iron, medieval
merchants formed the Hanseatic League as emerging global powers including
Denmark, Sweden, Great Britain, Russia. Finland, and Germany fought
tremendous naval battles for control of the Baltic Sea. As a result of millennia
of maritime activity the Baltic is a graveyard of sunken ships, drowned
settlements, lost cargoes, and countless individuals.

A dusting of snow covers the
roonine of the Vasamuseet.
POTO Ake Ean UnLdnw

Unless otherwise noted all
SImages used within this
article are provided courtesy
of the Swedish National
Maritime Mueum and the

SOur thanks to Fred Hocker,
Marika Hedm. Vasamuseets
new Museum Director, and
State Maritime Museum's
Director, General Robert
Olsson for allowing us
Access to this remarkable
Ship and lor their continued
work in preserving this
unique cultural and historical
asset lor all of us to study,
learn from and marvel at.


What makes the Baltic unique is its cold,
brackish water, which preserves wooden ships
to an extraordinary level. Only cold, freshwater
lakes offer similar conditions for this enhanced
form of natural preservation. In the Baltic,
divers have found ships that lie on the bottom
with their decks intact, masts rising toward the
surface, with open hatches leading into dark-
ness, cargo packed in their holds, and the
scattered bones of their crew visible as an eerie
reminder that these are indeed ghost ships,
looking much as they did when they departed
from the world of air and light into a dark and
frigid resting place many centuries ago.
Among the more famous of these ghost ships is
the Swedish warship Vasa, built as part of
Sweden's naval expansion during the Thirty
Years' War. IrLsa was never to experience the
glories of war for which she was built, but
rather capsized and sank in Stockholm harbor
on her maiden voyage on August 10, 1628 with
a loss of thirty lives. Left to the depths after an
initial failed attempt to raise it, the ship was

ultimately forgotten, although later in the 17th
century salvage operations successfully used
diving bells to raise most of its bronze cannon.
Vasa remained untouched until August 1956,
when Anders Franzen, a Swedish engineer
obsessed with the history of the ship, rediscov-
ered it in 32 meters of water, and began an
effort that culminated in the successful raising
of Vasa on April 24, 1961. The re-emergence
of the huge wooden warship was the beginning
of a now decades-long effort to excavate,
document, conserve, restore, display and
interpret Vasa. Placed in a new, specialized
facility in 1990, today Vasamuseet (Vasa
Museum) is Sweden's most popular museum,
attracting 1.2 million visitors each year. In fact,
between 25 to 30 percent of all foreign tourists
to the area come to see Vasa and marvel at this
huge and magnificently ornamented survivor
of the 17th century.
While in Sweden I also met with Dr. Johan
Ronnby of the Department of Archaeology at
S6dertorn University College, outside Stockholm,

to discuss a wider ranging partnership beyond the Ghost Wreck. And thanks to Fred Hocker,
I was not only able to tour Vasa and learn more about the ship, its collections, and ongoing needs
for preservation and research, but also to meet with Vasamuseet's new Museum Director, Marika
Hedin, and State Maritime Museum's Director, General Robert Ollsson, to talk about a formal
partnership with the museum.

This alliance would provide an opportunity for INA to support students conducting projects to
assess, document and study the ship itself, which has been externally documented for reconstruc-
tion, but has not yet been fully drawn or measured internally to the detail that other shipwrecks
have. Similarly, while the vast collection of items from inside Vasa is catalogued, some 80% of it
remains available for detailed study, analN sis, and publication. A truIl\ unique and significant
opportunity% exists here, with the Vasmuseet providing access, and free housing, for emerging
scholars to make a substantial difference in better u ndersta ndi ng a collection that documents life,
service and loss aboard this 17th-century vessel. For example, with every $3,000 that INA can raise,
a nautical archaeology student could fly to Stockholm and receive two full months of study with a
modest per diem and their lodging costs covered.

INA's mission focuses on working with partners and friends to ensure that the 'world's most significant
shipwrecks and nautical sites are protected, excavated and studied to the highest professional
standard, and then to share that knowledge with a larger audience of scholars, shipwreck enthusi-
asts and the general public. Both Vasa, and the contirn uing explorations of the Baltic for unique
wrecks and sites, provide an opportunity for INA to continue to make a difference. Stay tuned for
more on this project in future issues of The INA Quarterly and at

by Jim Delgado

More Discoveries Await

Vasa is not alone in significant discoveries and
ongoing work in nautical archaeology in the
Baltic. In Denmark there has been exceptional
work done with V\1,i,._ ships at Roskilde. Archac-
.i1.,-.i in Finland have started work on the
completely intact Dutch merchant ship Vrouw
Maria, which carried a cargo bound for the
Russian Imperial Court in St. Petersburg when it
sank in 1' A r.. i.2i the t I i V IL.. _Ii list of goods
[ kL. .1 inside the ship were 32 i:.ili'..i;i !. 1, l i -
ii,, to Catherine the Great and intended for the
Hermitage. Another 17th-century ..- .' l. li
warship, KIonan, split open by a massive explosion
in battle, is the subject of an ongoing excavation
off Kalmar, Sweden. In Estonia, Poland,
C', i I ir,, N..i.. and Sweden, a wide i.iii of
discoveries, surveys and excavations have added
much to our understanding of the Baltic's
maritime history and its unique ability to offer
insights into wooden ship construction and trade
lin.k on a more ,I1 .1 .,, scale.

An invitation to learn more and to discuss possible
partnerships brought IN\ PresidentJim Delgado to
Sweden at the invitation of .; 11 .,.ii .. Malcolm
DL. II L and Fred Hocker: Dixelius is a producer
with Deep Sea Pi '..1, ,I. i..i which in partnership
with Marin MAtteknik Ab (IMMT), a S .... -1. -I.,-I -,. d1
global leader in undersea survey and documenta-
tion, has located a wide number of historic and
archaeologically .I21.1 i.., 1 shipwrecks.

One of these is the "Ghost S iip." a mid-17th
century Dutch ti .,cl, I ship that lies *il1 the Swedish
coast in deep water. The wreck is not only the
subject of a Deep Sea Productions film, but thanks
to M1' I and other supporters, is also an .ii. .;r-.
archaeological project uniting Swedish and Dutch
archaeologists, historians, and scientists. \\ 11,
support from INA, Texas A&M nautical archaeol-
ogy program student Donovan Griflin has joined
the project for two seasons of work. Watch for
updates on this and other 2009 INA projects
on our website

Lifesize wooden figures in a
cutaway display of the
gundeck. PHOTO: J. Delado
Donovan Griffin (eft) with
Ola Oskarsson,
Bathymetric imaging of the
ghost ship site.
Images courtesy of MMT


In conjunction with
Texas A&M University's
Nautical Archaeology
Program and Flinders
University's Maritime
Archaeology Program
this year INA will
conduct eighteen
archaeological projects
around the globe
in the United States,
Canada, Bermuda, the
Bahamas, Turkey,
Spain, Cyprus,
Sweden, Italy, Ukraine,
Japan, Vietnam and
at sea between
Crete and Egypt.

Eleven of the projects
are ongoing, and seven
are new initiatives.
New projects are marked
with an asterisk*

USA- Ohio
Anthony Wayne Shipwreck Survey*
Directed by Bradley Krueger and Carrie Sowden
In partnership with the Great Lakes Historical
Society, this project -ill investigate the remains of
Anthony Wayne, a mid 19th-century side-wheel steamer
that met a trangi end off the shores of Vermilion, Ohio
in 1850.

Bajo de la Campana
Phoenician Shipwreck Excavation
Directed by Mark Polzer and Juan Pinedo-Reyes
The second season of excavation on a 7th-century BC
Phoenician shipwreck will commence again this
summer off Can ragena. The initial dives on the site
yielded well-preserved elephant tusks with Phoenician
inscriptions, amber and ceramics.

Bach Dang Documentation and Assessment *
Directed by Randall Sasaki andJun Kimura
A National Geographic Society funded survey and
assessment will take place at the site of a famous battle
outside Hanoi where Mongol invaders sent by Kublai
Khan met with defeat in 1288. A preliminary survey of
the battle site and previous investigation of the site by
Vietnamese archaeologists has documented the survival
of large wooden stakes planted in the river bed to trap
the invading fleet.

Baltic Ghost Wreck Project *
Directed by Donovan Griffin
A perfectly preserved, nearly intact merchant vessel
from the early to mid 17th century lies in 125 meters of
water off the coast of Sweden in the Baltic. The 2009
field season will continue the documentation of the
wreck and film it for a television documentary.

USA Texas
Blockade Runner Denbigh Write Up
Directed byJ. Barto Arnold
The test excavation and documentation of this Civil
War blockade runner's wreck has been completed.
Barto Arnold continues the process of writing up the
results of the work for publication.

Danaos Project
Directed by Shelley Wachsmann
The third season of a deepwater survey between Crete
and Enpr. follo\ the route of ancient mariners in the
hope of finding a Minoan shipwreck.

Eastern Cyprus Maritime Survey
Directed byJustin Leidwanger
The ancient shores of Cyprus are once more the setting
for a survey of shallow \ after rites, seeking shipwrecks
and other remains from maritime activity. The site of a
Roman wreck of ca. AD 100, discovered in 2007, will
again be the focus of mapping and intensive survey.

Frigate Ertuul Underwater Excavation, apan
Directed by Tufan Turanl
The survey and excavation of the site of a tragic 1890
shipwreck of an Ottoman naval frigate on a mission to
Japan again involves ajoint Turkish-Japanese team.

Harbour Island Archaeological Survey*
Directed by Heather Hatch
This proij c will investigate sites on land associated with
British maritime and merncanule activity from the late
17th and early 18th centuries at Harbour Island,
a British settlement in the Bahamas.

Kekova Adasi, Exploration of the Iron Age Shipwreck
Directed by Elizabeth Greene
Located by an INA survey years ago, this ancient wreck
was visited again in 2008; permission has been
requested to begin excavation in 2009 as part of a
collaborative project with Brock University in Canada,

Krzilburun Roman Period Shipwreck Excavation
Directed by Deborah Carlson and Donny Hamilton
The final season of excavation of this Ist-century BCE
Roman Period wreck focuses on the buried remnants of
the hull formerly covered by the ship's cargo of massive
marble column drums.

Lake Ontario Maritime Cultural Landscape Study
Directed by Ben Ford
The final season of survey in 2008 cleared the way for
this year's completion of a detailed report on the
submerged features, shipwrecks, docks and setting of a
section of this historic lake, including the scene of naval
action in the War of 1812.

Pisa Wreck Amphora Graffiti *
Directed by Claire Aliki Collins
A collection of five types of amphoras from an
13th-century AD wreck, excavated in the Bay of Sudak,
off Novy Svet, Ukraine, is the focus of a two-month

O INA Quarterly 2009 SPRING

study to document and transcribe the m.trking, on these
medieval storage and transport jars. The jars are in the
conservation laboratory of the Center for Underwater
Archaeology of the National Taras Schevchenko
UniiJert-ic in Kite

Renaissance Venetian Naval Manuscript Study
Directed by Lilia Campana
An ongoing assessment and study of rare Venetian
manuscripts dating from 1500 to 1620 will continue to
add to our knro "kdge of Renaissance shipbuilding in
this center of Mediterranean trade and culture. In 2009,
the emphasis is on the photo reproduction and transcrip-
tion of a folder of documents, "Patroni e Provveditori
all'.Arnale'" iPatron, aid Superintendents to the

USA Vermont
Steamboat Phoenix *
Directed by George Schwarz
This early American steambual
caught fire and sank in Vermont'
Lake Champlain in October
1819. Rediscovered and the
subject of a preliminary
documentation project
in 1981, Phoenix will
now be extensively
documented and
virtually reconstructed
on computer and
on paper.

Western Ledge
Reef Wreck
Timber Analysis
Directed by
Piotr Bojakowski & .
Katie Custer
The timbers from this
early 17th-century wreck,
previously excavated in Bermiid.2.
are being documented and reron-ri .e r(d
on paper by two talented Namuical
Archaeology Program student,

Yukon Gold Rush Steamer Survey
Directed byJohn Pollack
Canada's Yukon and the well-pre'e- ved remains of
Klondike Gold Rush era steamers will be the focus
of a third season of field survey and documentation
in this remote wilderness. A well preserved wreck,
A.] Goddard, discovered in Lake Laberge last year,
will be the focus of dives and documentation.





These INA projects
would not be cosslie
without the generous
support of donors,
sponsors, partners,
benefactors and friends
who have supported the
fieldwork, excavation
and analysis represented
in the 2009 projects.

Yassiada Amphora Study, Turkey *
Directed by Frederick van Door ninck
Amphoras recovered from the Yasqiada exca action will
be analyzed in the Nixon Griffi Consernalion Labora-
tory at Bodrum Center to determine capacity,.


^ r


i, , ............. .
*: ::******:;- :. *::"",.. I,.., : :

;, p ,._ j9 i-- I ,
o. ,. '. 1.

I I I I* ,I

- A

I have never seen any craft that allows you to work in the water column, or
at depth, like you can with the Super Aviator. As a diver I am ever aware
of how awkward and limited we are when trying to work in the ocean.
There is simply no easy way to stay at depth without irncurrin the penalty
of decompression. And as an underwater cinematographer who has been
very keen on observing and filming marine mammals I really think that the
Super Aviator might be the bridge that lets us spend more time in their
world.., a tool that gives us a better understanding of what is happening
beneath the waves. '

-Jason Sturgis -

-. :

S S a ae- e
Jao in frmtop
INA Directors
Captaui Alfred Scott McLaren
Clyde P Smith

joinring the SAS 5ield tect

INA directors Jason
SturA, an .... M "an
undratior plotograpler
and cinrmatographu.
Clyd' P. Smith. vwho
brought his earsn of
cxpcritnce as special
pro]ccts director for Clite
Cussler's NUMiLX and

"The Sea Iluntrrs,"
and IN'A President and
nautical archaeologist
Jirn L ..:.



.... .. ..

Above rom top)
The marble column drums being
lifted from the sea floor.
Mike McGlin, Kim Rash, and
John Littlefield pose atop a massive
marble drum from the marble
quarries of Proconnesus Island
in the Sea of Marmara, the point of
:jrign lor lre marble caluirn drumij
at Kizilburun.
PHOTO: D. Cadson
2008 research team frm left to right
William Aylward, Deborah Carlson,
Jean-Charles Moretti, Didier Laroche,
PHOTO K Vandenhole

Since 2005, INA has been cxcaaiting the remains
of a stone carrier shipwrecked off the Aegean coast
of Turkey at Kizilburun some time in the first
century B.C. The ship was transporting a cargo of
marble architectural elements including eight
enormous column drums, each between 5 and 6
feet in diameter and over 3 feet tall, as well as a
single Doric capital. Isotopic analysis of the marble,
conducted by Dr. Scott Pike of Willamette Univer-
sity, has shown that the Kizilburun cargo originated
on Proconnesus Island in the Sea of Marmara. In
2006 and 2007, in order to study the construction
details of any surviving hull timbers, we carefully
lifted each of the eight drums off of the seabed and
relocated them next to the wreck site. Once off site,
we were able to 'flip' each drum, exposing the
bottom face, free of the marine growth that has
accumulated over 20 centuries. Measurements of
these clean surfaces provide the most reliable data
available for reconstructing the original dimensions
of the Kizilburun column.
From the beginning it was clear that the consider-
able size of the Kizilburun drums meant that the
column had likely been quarried for nothing
smaller than a temple. I FItherrnore, all of the
drums are unfluted, meaning that they were
definitely newly-quarried and not salvaged from an
existing building. Masons at the quarry ofreii cut
such stones slightly larger than necessary, creating
what modern scholars refer to as a quarry coat-an
additional layer of stone designed to protect an
object during transport. The quarry coat was then
removed at the construction site, gi ing each of the
finished elements slightly smaller overall dimen-
In 2(017, with the help of Dr. William Aylward, a
classical archaeologist at the University of
Wisconsin-Madison, I set out to try to find the
specific site for which the Kizilburun column was
destined. William and I knew we were looking for a
site south or west of Kizilburun where a Doric
temple in white marble was under construction in
the first century B.C. We also knew that the
finished, fluted column drums at the site would
likely be comparable in size but consistently
.nrlaller than the unfinished, unfluted drums in the
Kizilburun cargo. Working deductively from these
criteria, we were delighted when our search was

narrowed almost immediately to one monument...
The Temple of Apollo at Claros, Turkey.
In early August 2008, William and I traveled to
Claros to meet Turkish archaeologist Nuran Sahin
of Ege University in Izmir, French architect Didier
Laroche French Cultural Institute in Izmir) and
an ha-rjlogist Jean-Charles Moretti (Universite de
Lyon) and compare notes about our respective
projects. Because the sanctuary is situated over a
natural spring and cose to the sea, large portions of
the site are often submerged under several feet of
muddy ground water. Still, Clams ranks among the
most scenic, dramatic, and accessible ancient temple
sites I have ever visited; proceeding along rhe Sacred
Way just as the ancients did, the modern visitor has
the opportunity to inspect numerous commemora-
tive monuments erected by prominent Romans like
Porpe) hde Great and Quintus Cicero. Opposite
the temple are the remains of an enormous altar,
where rows of iron rings were used to tether
sacrificial animals for the hekatomb, a sacrifice of
100 cattle. At the other, western end of the temple
are the partial, re-erected remains of three
enormous cult statues discovered in the cella and
depicting Apollo flanked by his sister Artemis and
his mother Leto.

-- 4-
.- b t- -
: c-Sa

A view of the remains of the Temple of Apollo at Claros from the southeast
PHOTO: D. Cadson

INA Quarterly SPRING 2009

PtiOlOS l nrghl aolfrta ol
cuis stnh

Our meeting with Laroche and Moretti confirmed
what William and I had suspected: that the finished
drums and capitals from Claros are consistently
smaller than the unfinished drums and capital in the
Kizilburun cargo by about 4 inches on each surface;
a reasonable thickness for a quarry coat. W\ also
learned the results of their most recent research,
which suggests that each of the 14 surviving
columns was composed of either 11 or 12 drums.
But the Kzilburun cargo has only eight drums,
which must mean that additional drums were
transported in a second hipnment, which may have
interesting implications for modern theories about
the average size of ancient merchant vessels.
A major goal of the Kizilburun shipwreck excava-
tion, which will resume in 2009 following the study
season hiatus of 2008, is to examine what this
unique cargo can teach us about the quarrying,
transport, and construction of architectural marbles
in the ancient Mediterranean. But the wreck also
serves as a poignant reminder that monumental
building projects like the Temple of Apollo at
Claros often dragged on for centuries. At present,
it appears the Kizilburun column wreck is poised
to provide the kind of historical information that
few ancient shipwrecks ever can: the starting point,
final voyage, and intended destination of a cargo
lost at sea.

by Deborah Carlson

Construction of the
Apollo temple at Claros
began in the third century B.C. and was still
ongoing four centuries later. The Roman
emperor Hadrian (A.D. I 17-138) is named as
dedicator in an inscription on the architrave
that cannot date before A.D. 135. The temple
featured 30 Doric columns arranged around
an area 85 x 130 ft, surrounding the cella,
where the cult statues were housed. Beneath
the cella was a vaulted, subterranean cham-
ber into which a male prophet would
descend, drink from a sacred spring, and
deliver oracular responses to inquisiti e
visitors. According to ancient sources, Clams
appears to have been highly regarded as an
oracular site, with an especially large clientele
in Roman times. In A.D. 18, then consul
Germanicus, father of the Roman emperor
Caligula (A.D. 37-41), visited Claros, and the
seer prophesized his early demise; the next
year, Germanicus died in Antioch at the age
of 34.

The excavation and publication of the finds
from Clars were carried out primarily by
French archaeologists intermittently through-
out the 20th century. Since 2001, excavations
have continued under the direction of Nuran
ahin, while Didier Laroche andJean-
Charles Moretti study the architectural
remains of the Apollo temple. This research
is less straightforward than one might
imagine, since none of the columns is
standing, some of the components were
presumably robbed or burned following the
temple's destruction, and many of the
components were previously moved off site,
making their original provenience uncertain.



Events Announcements Celebrations Opportunities

The AIA Gala took place at Cap tale,
a former bank building in Manhattan's
Lower ---- o.- by
Stanford White.
(Left to right)
AIA President C. Brian Rose,
Humberto Dominguez and
INA President Jim Delgado
AIA PHC-TS Mike Shane

In April, INAs partners and
friends in the Archaeological
Institute of America (AIA)
celebrated their 130th
anniversary, and the 60th
anniversary of Archaeology
Magazine with a well-
attended l.i- -i, gala
dinner in New York. A number
of INA members and
supporters were present
that evening, iii' iii, ::
Dr. George F Bass.
Awards were presented to
actor and AIA trustee
Harrison Ford who received
the award for his on-screen
and off-screen work on behalf
of archaeology and for
increasing :, : interest
in t- I*r I i e, I The
Samuel H. Kress Foundation
was also honored for its
many contributions.
INA President, Dr. James
-',. ,.iJ was the Master of

and steered the audience
'in: ,irl an amazing evening
with touches of humor and
an ,,ir1,r- passion
for archaeology.


Ed Rachal Foundation supports INA's outreach and publications!
INA has received a $50,000 grant from the Ed Rachal Foundation to continue work on the new
INA website, and to support INAs publications through the Ed Rachal
Foundation Nautical Archaeology Series at Texas A&M University Press and the INA Quarterly
and the INA Annual, which highlight the activities, research and scholarship of our Texas-based
not-for-profit educational and scientific research organization.

National Geographic Society extends their support for more INA projects...
A longstanding supporter of INA since its earliest days, and previously a sponsor and partner
with Dr. George E Bass' pioneering work in nautical archaeology, the National Geographic
Society recently awarded three grants to current INA projects.
In May, the Expeditions Council of the National Geographic Society awarded the Bajo de la
Campana Project a major grant for the ongoing excavation of the 7th-century BC Phoenician
shipwreck site. This exciting project is being undertaken in collaboration with the Spanish
National Museum of Underwater Archaeology.
Through the National Geographic Society-Waitt grants program, two other projects
also received finding: The Battle of Bach Dang Survey Project in Vietnam, where a
Mongol/Yuan fleet of Kubilai Khan was destroy ed in 1288, and the Klondike Gold Rush
Shipwrecks Project in Canada's Yukon. The work there this year will focus on the nearly
intact, sunken 1898 wreck of the steamboatAj. Goddad.
The Klondike Project also received a grant from ProMare, which was established by INA
director Gregg Cook in 2001 to promote marine research and exploration throughout the world.

The Samuel H. Kress Foundation of New York also provided a generous grant to support
student travel to and participation in the ongoing excavation of the Roman period stone carrier
wreck at Kizilburun, Turkey.

Edward Von der Porten, noted scholar and expert on early modern ships, particularly European voyages
to the Pacific in the 16th century, recently visited Texas A&M University and INA in College Station to
share his exciting work on an early Spanish shipwreck in Mexico and his ongoing lifetime work on the
round the world voyage of Sir Francis Drake. Von der Porten's landmark work established the California
location of Drake's Pacific Coast landfall and fort where he careened and repaired his ship Goldm Hide in
1579 as he prepared to cross the Pacific and return to England.

INA Quarterly SPRING 2009

b o o k m a rk .................... ............


Voyages, The Age of Sail
Documented in American
Mfrtdmne Hisatry
Volume I 1492-1865

Voyages, The Age of Engines
Documents in American
Mareime Hitory
Volume 1865-sremt
byJoshua M. Smith and the
National Maritime Hisorical Society
Univerity Pe of Flodda
Orlera yr mpy a www.upr.fCo

SUnknwn Waters:
A First-Hand Account of the
Historic Under-ice Survey of
Sthe Siberian Continental Shelf
by USS OQueent (SSN-651)
by Alfred S. McLaran,
Captain, USN (Ret.), Ph.D.
Published by the
Univemity of Alabama Press
SMarch 2008
$29.95 Hardcover 296 pp.

This book tells the spell-
binding story of the officers
Sand men of the nuclear attack
submarine USS Queentish
(SSN-651) who at the height
of the Cold War explored the
dangerous, uncharted,
Shallow, loe-covered waters
Sof the vast Slberian
Continental shelf for the first
and only time in history. The
expedition's success earned
Qusenlsh and her crew the
Navy Unit Citation and her
captain a Legion of Merit.

. MS. &. i
HNS. .... 1

Lost and Found
Being the Diser Excavation
and Identification of a British
Man-of-War Lost off the Cape of
Florida in 1748
by Russell K. Skowronek and
George R. Ficher
Univrit Pis of Fladda

Underwater and Maritime
Archaeology in Latin
America and the Caribbean
Edited by Margaret Lshikar-
Denton and Pilar Luna Erreguerena
I Coast Pe.

OrwSyder eopy f,,,


the Age01 Sai

. 1 11 A

I,, 1- ,I. fl .. . I I
- i 1 1- ml I .

for INA
this summer...




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