Group Title: INA quarterly
Title: The INA quarterly
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: The INA quarterly
Alternate Title: Institute of Nautical Archaeology quarterly
Abbreviated Title: INA q.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Publisher: Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Place of Publication: College Station TX
College Station TX
Publication Date: Fall-Winter 2008
Copyright Date: 1997
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Underwater archaeology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Archéologie sous-marine -- Périodiques   ( rvm )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 19, no. 1 (spring 1992)-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 23, no. 2 (summer 1996).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098800
Volume ID: VID00053
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 26536606
lccn - sf 94090290
issn - 1090-2635
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Preceded by: INA newsletter (Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.))


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WINTR 208 Voume 5 No

George E Bass, Ph.D., Charrnan Emerilust
Michael Karzev ldece.sedl
Jack W. Kelley

James P Delgado, Ph.D., President*
Claudia E LeDoux, Vice-President, Adniistration
Cernal NM. Pulak, Ph.D., Vice President
Kevin J. Crisman, Ph.D., \ice President
Michelle D. Chmelar. Ac'ouinnng Officer
Tuba Ekmnekci, Director, Bodrum Research Center
Ozlenl Dogan, Finance Manager, Bodrum Research Center

Board of Directors & Officers
Dr. Oguz Aydemir Robert D. Ballard, Ph.D. Edward O. Boshell,Jr. *John Cassils, M.D. Gregory NI. Cook
Lucy Darden' Thomas E Darden *John De Lapa C. Curtis Dunnavan Claude Duthuit DanielleJ. Feeney*
Charles P Garrison, M.D., Vice Chairman* Donald Geddes III, Chairman* *James Goold, Secretary & General Counsel*
Dr. Robert Hohlfelder, Ph.D. CharlesJohnson, Ph.D. Gregory M. Kiez Mustafa Koc Captain Alfred Scott
McLaren, USN iRet.p Ph.D. Dr. Elsa A. Murano, Ph.D.* .Alex G. Nason George E. Robb,Jr. Andrew Sansom, Ph.D.*
Avhan Sicimoglu Clyde P. Smith, Treasurer' *Jason Sturgis Peter van Alfen, Ph.D. Frederick van Doorninck,Jr., Ph.D.*
Robert L. Walker; Ph.D. Lew Ward Peter MN. Way, Past Chairman* Robyn Woodward, Ph.D. Sally M. Yamini

Associate Directors
Gordon W. Bass George R. Belcher Raynerre Boshell Allan Campbell, M.D. Stephen Chandler Williamn C. Culp, M.D.
Glenn Darden Nicholas GrifTis *Jeff Hakko Robin P. Hartmann Faith Hentschel, Ph.D. Susan Katzev
William C. Klein, M.D. Selcuk Kolav Anthony Marshall Thomas McCasland,Jr. Dana F. McGinnis Michael Plank
MargaretJane Zemla Saklam Anne Darden Self Lynn Baird Sha;, Betsey Boshell Todd Mary Tooze Garry A. eber
Roger A. Wiliamson, Ph.D.

Nautical Archaeology Program Faculty
Deborah N. Carlson, Ph.D., Assistant Professotr Sara W. and George 0. Yamini Fellow
Luis Filipe Vieira de Castro, Ph.D., Assiitant Professor. Frederick R. Mayer Faculta Fello\ of Nauncal .Arhaeoloug
KevinJ. Crisman, Ph.D.t Associate Professor, Nautical Archaeology Faculty Fellow
Donny L. Hamilton, Ph.D., George T. & Gladss H. Abell Chair 1i Nautical Archaeology. Yanidm Familh Chair in Liberal Arts
Cernal Pulak, Ph.D., Frederick R. Mayer Faculrh Pmfessor of Nautical ArchaeologN
C. Wayne Smith, Ph.D., -As'ociate Professor; INA Faculty Fellon
Shelley \Vachsmann, Ph.D., Meados Prolessor of Bibhcal Archaeology

Nautical Archaeology Program Emeritus Faculty _
George F. Bass, Ph.D.
George T. & Gladyd H. Abell Chair in Nauicld Archaeolog, \aniLun Faunmil Chair mn Liberdl .Art, Disunguished Pmrleisor, Ementuij
Frederick H. lan Doorninck,Jr., Ph.D.
Frederck R. Ma)er Fairil. Professor ol Nauucal Archaenolog). Ementiu
Research Associates
J. Barto Arnold, M.A. Dante Bartuli Kroum Batchvarov, M.A. Piutr Bojakowski, M.A. Lilia Campana Arthur Cohn.J.D.
Claire Aliki Collin. Katie Custer, M.A. MIaria del Pilar Luna Erreguerena, NI.A. Ben Ford, M.A. Donald A. Frey, Ph.D.
Jeremy Green, M.A Elizabeth Greene, Ph.D. Donovan Griflin *Jerome L. Hall, Ph.D. Frederick Hanselmann, M.A.-
Heather Hatch Kenzo Hayashida. M.A. Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D. Nicolle Hirschfeld. Ph.D. Frederick Hocker, Ph.D. f
Jun Kimura, I.A. Carolyn G. Koehler, Ph.D. Bradley A. Krueger -Justin Leidwanger, M.A. Margaret E. Leshikar-
Denton, Ph.D. Asaf Oron. M.A. Ralph K. Pedersen. Ph.D. Robin C.M. Piercy -John Pollack Mark Polzer
Juan Pinedo Reyes Donald Rosencrantz *Jeff Royal, Ph.D. Randall Sasaki, M.A. George Schwarz, M.A. '
Tulan Turanh Peter van Alfen, Ph.D. Cheryl Ward, Ph.D. Gordon R Watts,Jr., Ph.D. Robyn Woodward, Ph.D.

A Letter from the President

The past twelve months have been a time of
transition for the Institute of Nautical Archaeology,
as it has been for the United States and much of
the world. One year ago, Donny L. Hamilton
retired as INA President, and in April 2008 I was
elected to fill that role. My first several months were
focused on seeing that INAs projects in the field, in
the laboratory, as well as those in the final stages of
analysis and publication were on target, both in
terms of accomplishments and budget.

\\Working \~ith INN.\ Board of Directors we forged
new partnerships, reaffirmed old friendships, and
sought new opportunities. We were particularly
successful in reaffirming our longstanding relation-
ship with our Turkish partners, the Turkish
Institute of Nautical Archaeology (TINA) and in
establishing a new working partnership with
Australia's Flinders University and their Maritime
Archaeology Program. We also strongly reaffirmed
our principal and most significant relationship with
Texas A&M University and with the Nautical
Archaeology Program and the Center for Maritime
Archaeologv (CM\C' .

I am particularly. pleased that in this past year
newly appointed Texas A&M University President,
Dr. Elsa Murano,joined INAs board and executive
committee. INA also retained the strong leadership
and counsel of A&M's Dr. Robert Walker and
Dean Dr. CharlesJohnson, while Nautical Archae-
ilog- Program professors Dr. Cemal Pulak and Dr.
Kevin Crisman will serve as INA Vice Presidents.

As you will read in this special, double edition of
The LNA Quarterly, we have accomplished a great
deal togerier and have taken important steps to
weather the current economic crisis that grips this
country and much of the world. INA, like many
not-for-profits, holds its endowment in investments
and we have recently lost a third of our investments
in the market. Most of those losses were "paper
losses" which will recover in time and The INA
Foundation, which manages the endowment
separately for INA, took strong steps with our
investment advisors, and we have begun the job of
rebuilding what was lost.

We are watching our finances carefully, and
continue to spend wisely, adjusting our budget.
making cuts and refibcusing our efforts in some key
areas. For example, we will not undertake any new
excavations over the next few years in Turkey,

which will reduce the expense to the organization
of constant survey and will allow us to focus our
energy and resources on a backlog of conservation,
analysis and publication. Fewer projects have been
approved this year and we will be relying more on
collaborative relationships, which allow us to share
costs, especially with important initiatives such as
the excavation of the Phoenician wreck at the Bajo
de la Campana site. Our partnership with Spain's
National Museum of Underwater Archaeology, is
another example of a collaboration that will
remove the expense of conservation and curation
from INA.

We continue to look forward to and plan for the
future with exciting initiatives supported by your
generous donations and support. The new INA
website at has just been
launched and the first edition of the L/A Annual
was published in the fall of 2008. Both are works in
progress, and I look forward to your input and
comments as we continue to refine and improve
these projects. Through leadership and the crucial
step of taking action- locating the world's most
significant shipwrecks, excavating them to the
highest standarn, and then sharing the results with
the rest of the world with expanded outreach and
educational progi ams-I NA remains an important
voice in nautical archaeology and in the preserva-
tion of human history and our collective seafaring

In cluoing, I would like to acknowledge the retire-
ment of some key figures in INA: Tufan Turanli
and Claudia LeDoux. Tufan retired from Texas
A&M University and INA in 2008, although he
continues as an INA research associate. Claudia is
retiring this spring, after many years of dedicated
work. She has been the "glue" of this organization
...the person who held together INAs offices at
Texas A&M through many presidents and direc-
tors. We shall miss her, but we wish her well as she
starts a new life in retirement with her family.

As always, thank you for your support, and for
being a member of the INA family.

In Panama, mapping the
Civil War era (1865) submarine,
Sub Marine Explorer.

Jim Delgado

4- contents

Beyond Babylon
An exhibit is unveiled at The Met.

What INA Did This Summer
INA's 2008 Field Season from around the globe.

The Steff Lecture Series
The first lecture in this distinguished series
is hosted by the AIA Spokane Society.

INA Indepth
An interview with Cemal Pulak.



Archaeologist Murat Tilev working on a row of copper
'oxhide' ingots found on the Uluburun shipwreck.
Bronze -eTrale fl gnne s' ,%ng a close -jp of ine
head area clad in gold.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, front entrance.
PHOTO: Courtesy of The Met

INA Bookmarks


Bn.* le h.

Announcing the launch of our new website


Published in Fall 2008
The INA Annswd examines
projects and research
.conducted by INA Research
Associates and the Nautical
S ---- -'Archaeolog Program faculty
th: years to come Ovat Texas A&Mf University, in
U rsity s e a--' o: ; the previous calendar year of

new Virtua "" .2007. Approximately 60
with. pages and perfect-bound,

The INA Annul oa scholarly

of annual field seasons, as well
as ongoing analysis and study
S with an editorial advisory
i- t-aT es Ce board of Teas A&M
. ...s University faculty, INA sta-,
k.. Thand scholars from other
universities and institutes.

-. reAs well as being offered in
of printed form, it will be
.-.- -. available online as a
downloadable PDE
The INA Annual is one of
the many benefits of
membership. Join today at


In this digital age it is easy to take for granted how quickly ideas, images and influences can
make their way around the world. Combine that with the modern, efficient transport of goods
and materials, and our global village seems increasingly small. In contrast the world explored
through the Metropolitan Museum ofArt's critically acclaimed exhibition "Beyond Babylon:
Art, Trade, and Diplomacy in the Second Millennium B.C." seemed vast indeed, and bridging
the distances between peoples and cultures was an arduous and often dangerous journey. But
journey our ancestors did, allowing the movement of raw materials, goods, and ideas to flow
through Mesopotamia and the Caucasus, to the Levantine Coast and Africa over 4000years
ago... the very beginnings of a global economy.

Images used here are provided
counesy of the Metropolitan Museum
of Art, Dr. Allan Campbell.
Ipek Martinez and the
Inslitule of Naulical Arcr aeolog
The exhiblTorn sell is mace possDoie
by Dororhy and Lewis B Cullmar and
mhe Hagop Ketornian Funa. Corporate
sponsors are the DEIK Turkish-
Anseican Busirness Courcl. Doan
Holding. Douo Holding. KGq Holding
and Sabancy Holding Addniconal
supporT r. provided by nhe Ocearnc
Heritage Foundation and the National
Endowment for te Arts. The exhiition
is supposed by an irndernit from the
Federal Council on the Arts
and the Humanities.

The opening of this fabulous exhibit on
November 18th coincided with the Institute of
Nautical Archaeology's 2008 Annual Meeting
in New York City adding an air of excitement
to the gathering. INA archaeologists, board
members, and supporters were on hand to
experience the vision and tireless efforts of the
show's curator, Joan Aruz and her staff. Armed
with the formidable political and economic
resources of the Met, they achieved the singu-
lar feat of assembling, for the first time under
one roof, some 350 prized Middle and Late
Bronze Age artifacts gathered from museums
and collections around the world.

On loan from the Bodrnm Museum of Under-::,:.;:::ii :
water Archeology, and central to the exhibit, is
a collection of 98 artifacts discovered while
excavating a Late Bronze Age shipwreck'at
Uluburun. The exhibit recreates a section of "
the vessel's hull and visitors enter as if through
a gash torn in the ship's side as it slid to its final
resting place on the sea floor. The interior of
the display space also offers video footage and
photographs taken during the excavation.
Freight discovered from the wreck consisted
primarily of tin and copper, the combination
of which lends its very name to the age being
celebrated by this exhibit... bronze.

Cemal Pulak, Vice President of INA and
Nautical Archaeology professor at Texas A&M,
together with INA founder George Bass,
directed the excavation of what is considered
the oldest known seagoing vessel. The excava-
tion which began in 1984, continued for a

decade with over 22,000 dives made during
that time. Conservation and preservation
efforts continue to this day.

Attending the opening, Pulak observed the
critical role that INAs shipwreck plays in
"Beyond Babylon," noting that the material.
recovered from the wreck is the only direct
archaeological evidence we have. owilgeif*:
conveyance of vast quantities of i i
and exotic rawmaterials found in t:rad:sit -

"Many of the artifacts in the exhibition from"
various places were made of the mater
were carried on the Uluburun ship." 'k


(Upper) Bronze female fgurdne,
dlscovered at the Uluburun se,
prior to cleaning and conservation.
(Lowr) Same bronze flgurine after
rstoraton with head, lower anns,
and feet clad In gold.
The Mtropolitan Museum of Art
_.S :1,

the emb

a of Dendur.

I <

p ro je c ts.. .......... .....................

In the summer
of 2008 the
Institute of Nautical
in conjunction with
Texas A&M JUni. lsrt,'
Nautical Archaeology
Program and other
partners, undertook 21
archaeological projects
around the globe at
sites ranging from
Oklahoma and the
Yukon to Panama,
Spain and Bermuda.


Thirteen of the
projects are
ongoing, and
eight (marked
by an asterisk)
were new
in 2008.

Read more ,bout
NA projects,
it, prese it & future

Albanian Coastal Survey
Directed by Jeff Royal
Bajo de la Campana Phoenician
Shipwreck Excavation
Directed by Mark Polzer and Juan Pinedo Reyes

Danaos Project
Directed by .sl. ii.:. Wachsmann
Dead Sea Coastal Survey
Directed by Asaf Oron

Denbigh, Blockade Runner Write Up
Directed byJ, K., in Arnold
Eastern Cyprus Maritime Survey
Directed byJustin Leidwanger

Frigare Errugrul Underwater Excavation
Directed by Tufan Turanh
Excavation of the Iron Age Shipwreck *
at Kekova Adasi
Directed by Elizabeth Greene

Kizilburun Conservation
Directed by Donny Hamilhon and
Deborah Carlson

Mazarr6n I Shipwreck Timber Study*
Directed by Carlos Cabrera
Northern Vietnam Anchor
Documentation & Assessment *
Directed byJun Kimura and Randall Sasaki
Lake Ontario Maritime Cultural
Landscape Study
Directed by Ben Ford

Puerto Rico Project *
Directed by ili1., Castro
Red River Shipwreck Excavation
Directed by Kevin Crisman



Renaissance Venetian Naval Manuscript Study *
Directed by Lilia Campana

Rio Chagres Sub Marine Explorer Surveys*
Directed by James Delgado, Frederick IIanselmann and
Dominique Rissolo

;.i. .

' ... ....

INA Did Last Summer!
"' "^...i :! ::..

"V *

Warwick Project*
Directed by Piotr Bojakowski and Katie Custer

Western Ledge Reef Wreck
Timber Analysis
Directed by I'lIT Bojakowski and Katie Custer

Yeniknpi Byzantine Shipwrecks
Excavation and Study
Directed by Cemal Pulak

Yukon Gold Rush Steamer Survey
Directed by John Pollack and Robyn Woodward




Yukon Gold Rush Steamer SL
This year has been a significant one in terms of
accomplishments, outreach, and refining our
strategy for the North.
The annual field trip was conducted inJune 2008
under permit from the Yukon Territorial Govern-
ment. The team includedJohn Pollack, Robyn
\Woodward, Chris Atkinson -TAMU graduate
student) and Doug Davidge. This year the Territo-
rial government provided substantial assistance by
lending us one of their capable staff (Tim Dowd)
and a riverboat. The group traversed 253 km
through remote wilderness with no road access,
progressively moving a tent camp north between
Deep Creek and Carmacks.
On our first day, less than a week after the ice
went out on Lake Laberge, we unexpectedly
pinpointed the small (15.2 m) steel-hulled stern-
wheeler, A.J Goddard, lying upright in 12 m of
water at the northern end of Lake Laberge. The
find was simply a large target noted while calibrat-
ing electronics. Its identity was confirmed later that
summer when Doug Davidge returned to the
location with an ROV and drop camera.
AJ. Goddard is significant given it is the
only intact Gold-Rush-era sternwheeler
wreck known to exist in the Territory. This
small vessel was prefabricated in San Francisco in
1897, taken over the Chilkoot Trail in pieces, and
assembled on the shore of Lake Bennett in 1898.
She was the third sternwheeler to run downstream
through Miles Canyon into Whitehorse, and was
lost in 1901 during a storm on Lake Laberge. Her
superstructure has fallen apart, but the hull, boiler,
paddlewheel, hog post and chain system, engi-ne
are intact. We know nothing about the condition of
her cargo-if she had any.
North of Lake Laberge we entered the Thirty
Mile Section of the Yukon River and capitalized on
the low, Spring water levels. Over the course of
several days three additional wreck sites were
located: a) the engines and paddleshaft of a small
(20 m) unidentified sternwheelcr near km 135,
b) the lower hull, frames and engine mounts of the
37.1 m, 1898 wooden-hulled sternwheeler James
Domville at km 145, and finally c) scattered iron hull
remnants of the 30.4 m 1902 wooden-hulled
stcrnwheeler La France at km 165. The latter two
sites lie in fast (7 knot) water and detailed work at
these locations will be difficult.

Moving steadily north, we left the favorable water
conditions on the Thirty Mile to find flood condi-
tions north of the junction of the Teslin and Yukon
Rivers. We planned to conduct a total station
survey of the giant (64.1 m) wooden-hulled
sternwheeler Klondike, lying just north of the
junction, but found the site overwhelmed by swift
brown, and any work was impossible. High water
extended another 130 km downstream to our next
search area-the 44.7 m wooden-hulled stern-
wheeler Columbian near km 311. Here we located
scattered debris on shore associated with the 1906
explosion and fire on this vessel. Determining a
precise location was not possible but we did narrow
the search area, and there is a good chance this
vessel can be located on the next low-water visit.
In addition to these four newly confirmed sites, a
good deal of publication, outreach and ancillary
mapping took place over the winter in British
Columbia. Carlos Velazquez (EPICSCAN) and
John Pollack continue to process the 2007 LIDAR
data from the sternwheeler Evelyn into line draw-
ings and cross-sections of the hull, with publication
planned in the SHA Technical On-Line series in
2009. Also a hull mapping project has been
initiated on .1 foie, at Kaslo, BC. Moyie is a compos-
ite (steel-and-wood) hulled sternwheeler and a sister
ship of Tyrell (now lying at West Dawson). Moyie is
being used as a test-bed for hull documentation
methods to be applied at the West Dawson site, and
to better understand the construction methods and
nomenclature used on the three composite-hulled
sternwheelers built in Western Canada. Robert
Turner, Curator Emeritus of the Royal BC
Museum in Victoria, has provided substantial
assistance with archival research.
At the request of the Territorial Government, 22
known sternwheeler sites have been summarized in
a report entitled "A CATALOGUE OF
HULKS IN THE YUKON." A detailed report on
our 2008 work was posted on the Royal Canadian
Geo.igraphical Society website at
2008 yukon.asp in addition to print coverage in
their October 2008 issue of Canadian Geographic.
The survey's findings to date were also summarized
in a Society of Historical Archaeolu g conference
paper given at theJanuary 2009 meeting in
Toronto, iPollack, Woodward, Easton and

a INA Quarterly 2008 PROJECTS ISSUE

ROV image of the
sternwheeler A.J. Goddard
lying in 12m of water in
Lake Laberge.
Engines and paddlewheel
machinery from small
stemwheeler, Thirty Mile
Section of the Yukon River,
north of Lower Laberge.
UDAR scan image
from the sternwheeler Evelyn

Given the wealth of possible projects, a strategic plan for the next five years was presented to, and approved
by, the INA Archanolog Committee in December 2008. If sufficient funding can be found, our immediate
plans for 2009 are to make the first dives on A.J Goddard and conduct a photoinventory of this important
site. Then we will relocate to West Dawson and continue to document the seven hulls King dihre with our
main focus being one of two wooden-hulled king-post vessels. Finally, hull documentation is continuing on
the composite-hulled sternwheeler Moyie at Kaslo, BC. As always there are opportunities for participation
by TAMU Na u ical Archaeohloc, Program students.

We wish to thank our INA donors, the staff of the Yukon Government, the Yukon Historic
Resources Fund, the Royal Canadian Geographical Society, and the Kootenay Lake Historical
Society,for their support and assistance.
-John Pollack

In late May and earlyJune 2008, an international team from the Institute of NauticalArchaeology the
Maritime Archaeology Program at Flinders Universit and the Historical Association in Vietnam
conducted an intensive survey in northern Vietnam with the generous support of the RPM Nautical
Foundation. The purpose of the survey was to record two wooden anchors that had been recovered by a
local fisherman from the Red River and to identify the significance and archaeological potential of a
historic battle site on the Bach Dang River, near Halong Bay, where an invading Chinese and Mongol naval
force sent by Kublai Khan was trapped and destroyed by the Vietnamese in 1288.
The two large wooden anchors are currently stored in a private house in Hanoi. The owner purchased
them from fishermen who had snagged them in the Song Hong or Red River. The National History
Museum of Hanoi and History Associates, prior to the anchors becoming part of the museum's collections,
wanted to know if these anchors were associated with the ISth-century Mongol invasion of Vietnam. The
Vietnamese regard the battle of 1288 as a particularly historic and culturally significant victory in which
warrior prince and general, Tran Hung Dao, snared the Mongol fleet in a narrow part of the river, trapping
them with huge wooden stakes that his troops and local villagers had set into the riverbed at low tide. When
the Mongols entered the trap at high tide, the Vietnamese attacked, and held the Mongol fleet at bay until
the tide fell. Unable to retreat, the Mongol fleet was then destroyed by fire rafts while the invaders who
waded ashore were killed.
Some of the stakes were exposed by river bank construction of a fish pond in the 1950s. In the 1980s, the
Vietnam Institute of Archaeology excavated and recorded hundreds of the wooden stakes that remain in
situ on the Bach Dang's now silted-in foreshore. Thousands more, as well as the remains of the fleet, should
lie close by. The INA/Flinders/History Associates team visited the site, pinpointed where additional
remains should lie with the help of local villagers, and also documented a series of temples dedicated to
Tran Hung Dao and his victory. The Bach Dang area is a unique maritime cultural landscape that reflects
seven hundred years of tradition associated with a major naval battle largely unknown in the west, unlike
Kublai Khan's earlier, and more famous naval defeat in Japan in 1282. The team plans to return to
Vietnam in 2009 to work with the Vietnamese to record the battle site, conduct a survey and begin test
excavations to find the Khan's lost ships.
In Hanoi, the team documented stakes from Bach Dang that are now in museum collections and then
turned their attention to the anchors. A detailed program of photographic documentation, offset measure-
ments, and taking wood and fiber lashing samples was followed by laboratory analysis and drafting plans of
these intact and rare wooden anchors It is now clear that they do not date to the 13th century but instead
may be from the 16th to 18th centuries. Research continues to determine their exact date.

-Jun Kimura
Maritime Archaology Program, Flinder Univerity


In ancient times the quiqueremis, or quinquereme, was a technological improvement on the earlier trireme,
with five men at each oar to increase the speed and power of the war galley, With the fall of the Roman
Empire, however, the knowledge of how to build the quinquereme disappeared-that is, apparently, until
a professor of Greek in Venice named Vettor Fauto (ca. 1480-1541) managed to resurrect the
quinquereme from a deep knowledge of Greek and Latin mathematicians' texts, despite the fact that he
was not even a skilled shipwright. The Arsenal of Venice built several galleys "a la Fausto," the last of
which was meant to be the flagship of Marc'Antonio Colonna in the battle of Lepanto (1571). However,
no archaeological remains of the quinquereme-from the ancient or Renaissance period-have survived
to this day.
In order to better understand Fausto's achievement and how the quinquereme was built, I am focusing
my research on one of the most intriguing aspects in the history of Renaissance naval architecture: the
development of the Marina Architectura, a geometrical shipbuilding method that has its origins from a
deep knowledge of Greek and Latin mathematicians' texts. My primary field of investigation is archival
research, which in the summer of 2008 was carried out in Venice, primarily in the State Archive, but also
in the Marciana Library and in the Library of the Correr Museum.
From May 28 to August 11, I found and transcribed more than 300 unpublished documents, as well as
the 16th century naval treatise Misure dei r i,i dih...prfmt del'Arsenale di Venetia, which highlights important
questions about Venetian shipbuilding practice. All of these manuscripts and the above mentioned naval
manuscript will be included in my Texas A&M Nautical Archaeolog Program master's thesis titled
"Vettor Fausto: a Professor of Greek in Venice. A New Light on the Manuscript Misure di vascelli
di...proto dell'Arsenale di Venetia." ,May 2009) The technical aspects of the quinquereme are currently
being studied under the supervision of Mauro Bondioli, whose research has been critical for the study of
the Italian shipbuLilhng and seafaring.
In addition, many other documents not specifically related to my research topic-but of much interest
to historians of naval architecture-came to light, including several folios regarding four Venetian
shipwrights in the early 17th century who were accused by the Inquisitors of Venice of having sold some
galley drawings (disegni) to the King of Spain. These are the earliest mentions of line drawings yet

-Lilia Campana, INA research associate

As part of the publication phase of the Denbigh Project, investigatorJ. Barto Arnold announces the
publication of Book No. 4 in the Denbigh series,"ColinJ. McRae: Confederate Financial Agenm; Blockade
Running in the Trans-Mississippi South as Affected by the Confederate Government's Direct European
Procurement of Goods." This biography of Confederate financial agent Colin McRae is now offered in
an expanded 2008 edition which includes archival documents, correspondence and accounting records
that illustrate how this man was instrumental in the financial management of the Southern States during
the Civil War. Arnold has easily doubled Davis' original 1960 text. Drawing on his experience from
excavating the Denbigh, one of the most successful blockade runners of the American Civil War, Arnold
adds more insight into how McRae used blockade running particularly in the Trans-Mississippi to shore
up financial strength in order to fight the war. Written for Civil War history buffs and students, this book
contains plenty of photographs of the original documents and correspondence.
Supporting Institutions The Texas Historical Foundation, the Ed Rachal Foundation,
the Hillcrest Foundation, and the Strake Foundation

-J. Barto Arnold, M.A., INA research associate

O INA .l-,r-,l 2008 PROJECTS ISSUE

g,.l. ad

Site: Oshima Island
Date: late 19th century
Investigators: Tufan Turanli, INA research associate and Cemal Pulak, Vice President INA and professor,
Niitical Archaeology Program, Texas A&M
Fieldwork description
The Imperial frigate Erturul was constructed in Istanbul in 1889 and sank during a diplomatic visit to the
Japanese Emperor in southeasternJapan in 1890. All but 69 of her 609 crew and their commander were
lost during die typhoon that destroyed the frigate. 2008 marked the first season of excavation at the wreck
site, and after the six week season, 144 individual dives were made in two excavation areas, and more than
1000 artifacts were raised, registered, and cataloged. The most compelling discovery of the season was also
a poignant reminder of the human tragedy these recovered materials represent. This was a fragment of a
human skull along with a finger or toe bone. These finds were not treated as archaeological objects, and it
was decided by die project directors in consultation with Turkish andJapanese authorities to bury the
remains with the rest of Erturul's dead that rest in peace in a Turkish monument on Oshima Island.The
event was accompanied by an Islamic burial ceremony held on location by the Turkish Iman from Tokyo.
The Turkish Military attache inJapan,Japanese dignitaries, and the project participants attended the
Supporting Institutions
Yapikredi Emeklilik, Mr. David Koch, Turkish Airlines, Kushimoto Municipalib. TOYO sonar survey and
OYO magnetometer survey services r

IlH *4L


Juan Pinedo Reyes searches a
grid sector in the Phoenician
wreck area.

A decorated elephant tusk
found at the site.

INA research associate
Piotr Bojakowski in Bermuda.

The first full field season of excavation at the Bajo de la Campana Phoenician shipwreck site began in
July thanks to a generous grant from the National Geographic Society's Expeditions Council and
matching support from INA directors and friends and the Center for Maritime Archaeology and
Conservation (CMAC) at Texas A&M University As with the preliminary survey of 2007, the project
could not have happened without the strong support of the Murcia regional government and collabo-
ration with the National Museum of Maritime Archaeolog in Cartagena, an agency of the Ministry
of Culture of Spain.
Under the co-directorship of IN. Research Associates Mark Polzer andJuan Pinedo, the 2008 field
season got off to an auspicious beginning '\ith the discovery of a unique fluted stone pedestal with a
scroll capital top on the very first day of site work. Excavation yielded many objects from the three
ships that wrecked at the site-Phoenician (7th-6h century B.C.), Pu niA: (2nd century B.C.), and
Roman (1st century A.D.)- though Phoenician material predominated. The expedition recovered
broken pieces of amphoras, bowls, plates, and other ceramic vessels, 10 elephant tusks, 28 small tin
ingots and two more of copper, hundreds of galena (lead ore) nuggets, pine cones, and numerous
large, round ballast stones.
Of the ships themselves the team found over 100 metal fastenings, fragments of lead hull sheathing,
and several small wooden structural elements believed to have been used in stowing the cargo.
Recovered personal items belonging to one or more of the unfortunate crewmembers include a tiny
stone cube that may be a gaming piece, and a stone rod that appears to be a whetstone. The latter
bears what looks like Phoenician gi allin scratched onto its surface quite possibly the owner's name.
The team also found several double-sided wooden combs; these however seem to be part of the cargo
rather than grooming items used b\ the crew. In addition, several nuts and seeds, including an acorn,
a hazelnut, and an olive pit, give some idea of the provisions carried on board for the crew's
Being completely exposed to wind and waves, the site is proving to be a challenging one. Unseason-
ably erratic weather this summer hampered the team's work and cost it a good many days of diving
The many rocks and boulders littering the site also made excavation slow and demanding. In spite of
these difficulties, the team made good progress and was able to excavate more than a meter deep in
some areas. The deep sediment and good preservation of buried objects is encouraging and suggests
that there could x el nUll be significant hull remains from the shipwrecks. These, along with the vast
majority of cargo and shipboard items, must be buried still deeper and await discovery. The excava-
tion at Bajo de la Campana has figuratively-and literally-only just scratched the surface.
-Mark Polzer, INA research associate

Site: Western Ledge Reef \\'re. k
Date: late 16th-century Iberian-Atlantic vessel
Investigators: Piotr Bojakowski and Katie Custer, INA research associates
Fieldwork description: Materials and artifacts in the Bermuda Maritime Museum collection related
to original excavations in the 1990s were researched and documented, and research was also
conducted in the Archive General de Indias. During the project's archaeological phase, the team
studied the wreck's hull timbers, preserved frames and futtocks, and elements of a distinctively Iberian
stern assembly. At this stage, it is safe to say that all the data related to the Western Ledge Reef Wreck
is secured. Analysis and interpretation will integrate the research and writing of principal investigator
Bojakowski's dissertation.

Highlights: This project has been showcased at the October 2008 international conference of
the Association of Preservation Technology in a presentation entitled "Conservation Aspects of
the 16th-century We. tern Ledge Reef Wreck,"


Site: Cape Greco area A; "-
Date: circa A.D. 100
Investigator:Justin Leidwanger, INA research associate

Fieldwork description: Four weeks were dedicated to in\ et igating a shallow shipwreck discovered during
2007. The vessel appears to have been carrying a mixed (. arit. in at least three amphora types: jars from ". --
southeast Asia Minor, which predominate; a small number of a poorly documented type of unknown
origin, perhaps from Cyprus itself or the neighboring mainland; and, of most interest, a form manufac- ABOVE
tured along the Mediterranean coast of Frant e, alongside what we believe are local knock-offs of these .Documenting the remains of a
more cosmopolitan Gaulish wine jars. Thick remains of a resinous lining probably. confirm a wine content, Roman merchant vessel (ca. AD
at least for this latter type, and although additional non-cargo ceramics were recorded, no anchor or other 100) near Proras, Cyprus.
ship fittings have yet been found. BELOW
Highlight: Though scattered, the remains may provide significant insights into the long-distance and Mike McGlin, Kim Rash, and
'. John Lttlefield pose atop a
regional commercial connections of this quiet Roman province. massive marble drum from the
Supporting Institutions: University of Pennsylvania, RPM Nautical Foundation and the Thetis Founda- marble quarries of Proconnesus
S Island in the Sea of Marmara, the
tion of Cyprus point of origin for the marble
column drums on the Kizilburun

De*: c 5. 5^ B.C.
I*nvesigato s: Don HaborahCarson,.professors,

Apollo^.,-^,.,- Comparison of the unfinished dru from Kf and the
finsheUpece a Clro sugess ston prbaility that thel wwwBi com
Kizilbur j~^^^^^^^^^^^un column was destined for Claros.L^I^^^H|^ ^'"

Survey cre*o rthe beach at the mouth ofthe Aver.
S tINsEIlMAGE ^ a -
"<.- .----.'-
.tt." ..^ -. c t

Cannon found in the
shallows of the
Rio Chagres.

In February, a team from the W\aii Iniititure for Discovery, INA and Indiana University, with funding from
the Waitt Institute, conducted two field projects on Panama's Atlantic and Pacific coasts. The first was a
final phase of documentation and survey of the 1865, New York-built submersible Sub Marine Explorer,
on Isla San Telmo in the Pearl Islands of the Bay of Panama. Scientists from Woods Hole Oceanographic
Institute (WHOI; joined the WID/INA/IU team to assess the pearl beds off the island, the scene of the
submarine's final dives in 1869, and conducted an Autonomous Underwater vehicle (AUV) survey of the
waters offshore. A WHOI marine biologist also studied and documented the marine organisms growing
inside and outside of the submarine. Final drawings of the submarine were completed, and a final report
summarizing management options for the submarine is being sent to the Government of Panama.

On the Atlantic side, a survey/reconnaissance of the mouth of the Rio Chagres revealed a
half-millennia's worth of substantial archaeological remains at this once-busy global trading crossroads.
Remote sensing revealed at least one 17th-century shipwreck site, and other anomalies may represent
additional wrecks. The areas surveyed were the site of at least fifteen known shipwrecks, including the fleet
of pirate Henry Nlorgan, wrecked in 1671 during Morgan's fabled "Sack of Panama." Other wrecks
included Spanish trading vessels, and ships carrying fortune seekers on their way to California during the
Gold Rush years of 1848-1851. The team documented remains of the settlement of Chagres, a 17th-
century Spanish town occupied until 1914, as well as ruined fortifications, cannon, and ordnance deposited
in the shallows beneath the 18th-century World Heritage site, El Castillo de San Lorenzo. The mouth of
the Chagres also contains early U.S. Army fortifications built to guard the river and the Gatun Dam, several
miles above the river's mouth, from attack. Now submerged, some of the fortifications documented by the
team include emplacements established during World War II to prevent Nazi saboteurs from using U-boat
launched seaplanes to blow up the dam and thereby drain the Panama Canal.

Donald Geddes III
Chairman of the IN/
Board of Director
being Interviewed
at San Lorenzo

The results of the study have been se
Sthe important sites on the Chagre, are

S-Dr. Jim Delgado, INA President and CEC


nt to the Government of Panama, and plans for ongoing work on


Location: New York and Canada
Site: northeastern Lake Ontario
Date: Contact Period to early 20th century
Investigator: Ben Ford, INA research associate

Fieldwork description: The Lake Ontario Maritime Cultural Landscape Project completed the
survey of three one-kilometer-square blocks along the lake's shore. Each block was divided into a
terrestrial component covered by pedestrian survey and a submerged component surveyed using
a side-scan sonar and a magnetomenter hboh provided by INA). An attempt was made to speak
with every property owner within each survey block, as well as local archaeologists and histori-
ans, both professional and avocational. The 2008 survey team identified approximately 13
historic and pre-Contact sites, including two pre-Contact camps, two farmsteads, a lime kiln, an
early 19th-century artifact scatter, four turn-of-the-century docks, a ferry landing, and a schoo-
ner that ended its days as a coal barge. We also re-identified Haldimand, a circa 1765, ] 6-gun
British naval snow. Haldimand was scuttled at Carleton Island, the British naval station on the
lake during the Revolution. This wreck and surrounding features and structures, including Fort
Haldimand and the shipyard that produced the recently-Cound Ontario, has strong potential for
an integrated terrestrial and underwater archaeological project. Additional information about
the 2008 field season is available through the Museum of Underwater Archaeology:

Highlight: A mrobing suL ev conducted in the possible location of a War of 1812 gunboat
identified during the 2007 season was not definitive, but greatly reduced the search area for the

Late-18th to mid-19th
century pipe bowl, identified
on the shore of Wolfe
Island. Note the fully rigged

Jessi Halligan setting up
remote sensing equipment
on the INA inflatable.

INA research associate
Ben Ford prepares for
a dive.

Site: Warwick Project, Castle Harbour
Date: early 17th century
Investigators: Piotr Bojakow -ski and Katie Custer, INA Research Associates

Fieldwork description
InJuly 2008, INA collaborated with the Bermuda Maritime Museum (BMM), to conduct a reconnaissance
survey of the early 17th-century English galleon Warwick. Preliminary results of the survey suggest that the
remains of I hnri'k represent an entire starboard section of the ship from near the keel to the upper works,
a never-salvaged midship section, and-potentially-a bow fragment.

The hull structure of Warwick bears quite a strong resemblance to that of the early 17th-century Sa Venture;
excavation of Il irmidr together \ith what is already known from Sea Venture could fill an important gap in
our underrinding of English shipbuilding from this period. What is even more significant is the fact that
the structure of this galleon might pioxide comparative data not only for Mary Rose, Warwick's only English
predecessor, but also for the early 17th-century Swedish warship Vasa. The historical significance of Warwick
is undeniable and its role in early colonial Bermudian history has elicited support from many different
interest groups on the island.
S- -.- Supporting Institution: Bermuda Maritime Museum
Katie Custer and
Sara Hoskins recording
the Warwick,

Warwick site in
Castle Harbour, Bermuda.
Site: coasts of the municipios of Loiza, Carolina, and SanJuan
Dates: Precolumbian to Modern Periods
Investigator: Filipe Castro, Professor, Nautical Archaeology Program, Texas A&M

BELOW Fieldwork description
Virtual image of a nao The main objectives of this survey were to evaluate the number, chronologic span and condition of the
created by Audrey Wells. known shipwreck sites and document the destruction of treasure hunters and looters. In the course of a
three-week field season, 20 sites were located and inspected, and about 80 sites with potential interest were
identified through conversations and interviews with local divers and informants. Next year, efforts will be
made to classify areas or shipwreck sites in terms of their stability and dureatr, and in relation to their rarity
and archaeological relevance. Project plans involve the eventual establishment of a small conservation
laboratory in Puerto Rico, perhaps in cooperation with the local Council of Underwater Archaeology.

A shipwreck of unknown date, with timber under the ballast, was visited during the
survey There is a historical account of a nao being lost at the site in 1621, and the
wreck was oligin-all surveyed by project member Richard Fontanez in the 1990s and
S-/ 4, the timbers partially recorded. According to the historical account a company of
soldiers was sent to the site to salvage as much as they could from the stranded ship.
In the 1970s a treasure hunter is said to have turned each and every ballast stone and
r raised all the artifacts he could find, which were sold and have since disappeared. The
timbers are in a good state of preservation, and a sample taken for carbon dating
yielded a range of possible dates situated between 1650 and 1950. Very few archaeo-
logical remains of Iberian naos exist today; if this is indeed the ship that wrecked in the
17th century, it would be a very important find.

a INA Quarterly 2008 PROJECTS ISSUE


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Sift; Kekova -. a editerrleari Coast)a
Ivartgti Elzbt S. Gree asitn -rfssr Brc Un a av.3 m53

Coint I n Samo wer found 3n *the sufc of the site Eel wela w o" ol
lietos fon at. SI bu Bun) an a o1:1:nle Ioia cup.- In Co m the plnwst

edg I o .h habo (ac.dn to Gerg. as' 1 973' suve I*t In "aote wrec"a

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I I 1 .31 St I.ll~~lr *lrl l l l i~l lII I 31111
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H I -.3 -~ I-m 6rc hod ptnia t1o Ieea I 515 r. anwr S boI t SI tie
intrntinais in the arhi wol-wa di.h rmnb cnm oklkwywr


Troy Nowak shoots pictures
for a photomosaic of the
7th-century BCE shipwreck
at Kekova Adasi.

Brock University's Katie
Ongaro maps diagnostic
artifacts on the seabed at
Kekova Adasi.

Site: Dead Sea (north basin, western shore)
Date: Hellenistic to Modem
Investigators: Asaf Oron, head conservator, INA Bodrum Reseach Center, and
Dr. Gideon Hadas, director. Ein Gedi Oasis Excavation

Fieldwork description: The continual drop in the level of the Dead Sea-recently at an average rate of
one meter per year-has led to the exposure of vast areas of former seabed. The Dead Sea Coastal Survey
project, initiated in 2004, aims to conduct a systematic search, primarily on foot, of these newly exposed
areas. During the 2008 season, some of the more remote areas of the coastline were surveyed, as well as
several coastal areas, previously surveyed, where significant portions of seabed are newly exposed.
Although 2008 field work was somewhat slowed by an unusually high level of rainfall, several new sites and
artifacts were located, including an intact Byzantine (or later) cross made of a copper alloy, and a beauti-
fully preserved cast bronze keg in a shape of a hoof that was probably attached to a large metal container.

Highlight: The cast-bronze leg and hoof was found in association with several bronze coins of a Hellenistic
date. Altogether it. appears that this assembly is part of a larger cargo that was most likely lost in the area.

Asaf Oron at the shore of the
Dead Sea where an ongoing
drop in the water level has
helped shed exciting new light
on the maritime history
<7I rrir rEqgcn


Texas A&M Nautical
Archaeology graduate
students Ben Ford (L) and
William '.1.. _, Ain prepare to
recover a paddle shaft
bearing block on the wreck
of the steamboat Heroine.
PHOTO Kevin GCrsman

Heroine excavation
director Kevin Crisman.
The earphones are for an
underwater metal detector
used to search for missing
elements of the
boiler assembly.
Photo Carrie Sowden

Several days of intensive
digging and ,n, -,i
operations resulted in the
lifting of Heroine's
starboard paddle wheel
shaft and flange.
PHOTO Kevin Crisman

Since 2002 INA, the Oklahoma Historical Society,
and Texas A&M University have been engaged in a
joint study of the western steamboat Heroine
(1832-18.38,, sunk in the Red River between Texas
and Oklahoma. Excavation of the wreck's interior
between 2003 and 2006 yielded details of the hull's
construction and a collection of tools, cargo,
machinery and personal items. The 2006 work
concluded with the disassembly of the drive
mechanism (the port paddle wheel, and the fly
wheels and main shafts) and its recovery by
One last item of business remained to be finished.
In 2006 we located the shaft and outboard flange
of Heroine's starboard paddle wheel and rigged it for
removal. Unfortunately, the assembly was reburied
by a rise in the river a few days before the helicop-
ter operation and not recovered at that time. A
short field project to re-excavate and lift this last
piece of machinery was scheduled for '1 1 Ii, but a
rainy summer and very high river levels intervened,
forcing postponement of the work until 2008.
After all of the delays, it is with -eri. relief that
we report the return of an INA-T \N I. -OTIS team
to the Red River in September, 2008 and the
successful retrieval of the second paddle wheel.
Nature cooperated with low water and :... 11
weather, .,lil i..iil Hurricane Ike sideswiped
Oklahoma during the project, bl ii -r. two days
of clouds, rain, and concern. Over the course of
two weeks we were able to relocate and then
uncover the elusive machinery using excavation
dredges. We didn't have a helicopter on this trip,
so lifting the wheel's 1600 pounds (725.75 kg) of
cast iron was done the old-fashioned way by
i, ...fi11- l .l our dive rafts into lift barges and
.I ili away with chain hoists, cable pulls, ,lii,,,
and a moderate amount of crude l i', .u ,--
The 2008 effort also included the recovery of two
port side shaft bearings, blocks of iron cast in a
half-circle shape to support the weight of the
paddle shafts. The two bearings still on the wreck
were beneath the shafts we lifted in 2006, and thus
inaccessible at that time. After the ordeal of z i-i ii:
the starboard paddle wheel assembly hauled out of
the river, we found the 2008 bearing recovery to be
a minor operation. It involved a small amount of
digging and work with sledge hammers and wedges
to lift the pieces above their support timbers, and
after cutting four steel bolts with hacksaws they
were ready to come out of the water.

Over our six years of work on the Red River Wreck
we learned to always ilud-l i extra time for any
operation. Because the machinery recovery in 2008
went so smoothly, we had a iew, extra days for
i fii," which in this case meant .ieiii;i- a test
excavation on the port side of the wreck, outside
the hull and outboard of the area where the boilers
were once mounted. Duriii; our earlier excavations
inside the hull we found no boilers and only
tirgni iils of their cast iron mounts and sheet-
metal .-' -iii.:, but thought it would be worthwhile
to check outside the wreck in case any boiler
elements fetched up in this location.
We had to dig through six feet (1.82 m) of river
bottom sand to reach hull structure, which in this
case consisted of the guard timber (that outboard
extension of the deck that was a distinctive feature
of western steamboats). Despite repeated sweeps
with a hand-held metal detector, we found no
pieces of the boiler assembly, but the new structure
we uncovered more than made up for our disap-
pointment. The beams, stanchions, and cap plank
on the guard revealed a myriad of clues to the
steamboat's appearance, clues that will be very
useful as the graphic reconstruction of the hull
moves forward.
The clean up of the wreck site on the final two
days of the 2008 project was an occasion for relief,
but also for sadness. The field work has always been
exciting and a challenge, and the discoveries
interesting. Heroine has proved far more complete
and significant than we dared hope in 2002, and
the experience of laboring on and under the river
with students, volunteers, and especially with the
people of the Oklahoma Historical Society has
been terrific. The diving is done, but the discoveries
will continue as the conservation, analysis, and
writing move forward.




For an archaeologist, the conclusion of fieldwork marks the beginning of the most demanding and vigorous
phase of a project one that will Ilpil.:ill continue for years. However, it's also the most exciting and
gratifying phase, as analysis and historical context brings field discoveries to life. This is particularly true
given the splendid discoveries from our second field season of the Albanian Coastal Survey PI'i.l t,
undertaken by RPM Nautical Foundation (RP.\ IN 1) in conjunction with Drs. Adrian Anastasi and Neritan
Ceka of the Albanian Institute of A..l.crli.,1'.: (AIA) and Auron Tare, Director of the Albanian National
The completed multibcam survey of 2007 was extended into the southern portions of Kakomea Bay for
a total of approximately 37 kilometers of coastline. In addition, diver investigation was conducted in
selected areas closer to shore in order to survey shallow-water cultural material. These operations resulted
in the discovery of nine sites, several of which were associated with the great conflicts of the twentieth
century. A VWWI-cra gunship and WWII mine sweeper were found, as well as a deposit consisting of two
likely WWII-cra armored vehicles. Two spiked sea mines and a metal wreck carrying 50-gallon drums and
tires from this period were also located, as was a small modern ship carrying a stone cargo.
Two ancient wrecks were discovered in the deep waters off Cape Qefalit. The Rodon wreck, is a mound
formed by amphoras at a depth of 70 meters. An amphora recovered for analysis is from the Greek city of
Corinth and dates to the late 6th to early 5th-century B.C. Also apparently from Corinth is the Qefalit Tile
wreck, which was carrying a large cargo of roofing tiles. Two amphoras raised from 76 meters by ROV
(remotely-operated vehicle) for analysis indicate a date for this wreck in the 4th century B.C. Another late
6th to early-5th century B.C. wreck from Corinth was discovered during diver investigation of the coastline
south of the Butrint River This wreck site, Butrint III, is strewn over rocks in 5 to 12 meters of water very
close to shore. The fragmentary nature of the amphoras is undoubtedly due to the site's vulnerability to
storm waves. Also on this stretch of coast, Butrint II, a 1st to 2nd-century A.D. Roman wreck with ampho-
ras from North Africa, was discovered on a slope at between 20 to 25 meters of depth. Additionally, a high
frequency of Greek-to-Late-Roman-era domestic and transport ceramics and metal objects were encoun-
tered in this area, with those of Corinthian origin particularly well represented. Several noted concentra-
tions of amphoras suggest a high probability for additional wreck site discoveries in the 2009 season.
- Dr.Jeff Royal, RI M Nautical Foundation

The Sarande harbor at

Adrian Anastasi and
Nicolle Hirschfeld record
one of the ca. 35 Corinthian
B amphoras found
on the wreck site.

Shelley Wachsmann
returning from a dive
aboard the HCMR's
submersible Thetis

Photographing the hull of
a 7th- century wreck
after excavation.

The exposed hull of the
8th-century wreck at Yenikapi
PHOTOS Jim Deklado

The '\enikpi site, located in the Istanbul neighborhood of the same name, was first revealed in 2004 during
the construction of a subterranean rail line and station for a new rail link between Europe and Asia.
Archaeologists from the Istanbul Arnhaeologica] Museum quickly realized they were looking at the ancient
harbor of Theodosius, one of Constantinople's trade harbors, built during the reign of Theodosius (AD
379-395). A major trade center from the 4th century until river silt filled it in around 1500, the harbor, its
stone walls, and amazingly well-preserved remnants of the port's activities lay forgotten for centuries.
Between 2004 and 2008 the site was one of the world's largest archaeological digs. Each day, hundreds of
laborers dug under the direction of the Istanbul Arclher loicial Museum. Yenikapi's wet soils have revealed
eerrthiring from the foundations of wattle-and-daub mud huts from the Chalcolithic period (4500 to 3500
BC) to elegant Ottoman structures, and myriad artifacts ranging from wooden combs and Byzantine leather
shoes to the bones of hard-worked dockside horses and camels, and human skulls that may have come from
criminals whose severed heads were tossed in the harbor.
As of 2008, the remains of 32 separate vessels dating from the 5th to the 11th centuries had emerged from
the mud. The fist archaeological examples of Byzantine rowed ships-perhaps warships-as well as
merchant vessels, some with cargoes, lay preserved thanks to their burial in a thick layer of wet mud.
Eight of the hulls dating from the 7th to the 1 Ith centuries were turned over to INA Vice President and
Texas A&M University professor Cemal Pulak. With his characteristic attention to detail and meticulous
scholarship, Cemal, archaeologist Sheila Matthews and a hard working team of INA staff and Texas A&M
graduate students worked for over two years in the heat and mud of the active construction site in tent-
covered pits to document and carefully recover the ship remains. While many of the timbers are well
preserved, with original tool marks and intricate detail, they can also be very fragile, with the consistency of
wet cardboard. It makes the job even more challenging, and yet the patience and persistence of Cemal's
team made a difference.
The Yenikapi dig was a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to work with a diverse collection of hulls from this
period. In time, after analysis, the work at Yenikapi will rewrite the history books on Byzantine shipbuilding,
as well as the role of maritime trade in the history of Constantinople and the later Roman Empire.

Recendl,; we spoke to
author Amy Way Anion,
and illustrator Mary Faye
Way (daughter and wife
respectively of Peter M.
Wi\ay who was chairman of
INA from 2005-07) about
their new book "Ina the
Octopus and Her
Shipwreck Adventure".


Am, didyou draw from any of your experiences with LNA
for inspiration?
ANTON: I have been peripherally involved with
INA id rough my parents since I was a teenager, I
fell in love with Turkey and the people and from
the minute I left, couldn't wait to get back.
What's your artitiic ha /kroiund. Mary Faye?
WAY: I studied art at SMU and I taught art for
three years, and after retiring to have a family I
took classes at the Glassell School of Art. This is
\l hen I discovered how much I loved watercolor.
%\lhen we decided to do the book, Amy and my old
,arercolor teacher evenanilly persuaded me to
a: try my hand at it.
Ilt al sort of fredij ark rtyou gt'ing?
.- \ ANTON: We have had amazing
S feedback about Ina, it has been so
encouraging to see such enthusiasm
from people from all over. We sold out
of books before Christmas!

For kids growing up the idea of treasure and treasure
hunting is often popularized in books and cartoons. Do you
think the nautical archaeological community needs to focus
more outreach on children in order to ensure that shipwrecks
are protected in the future?
ANTON: It is so important for adults to cultivate
the younger generations to appreciate culture and
history. I learned to love history though my parents,
and I hope my children will also inherit that love.
Do you have any future projects lined up?
ANTON: I have another book in the works about
turtles. Children, especially my three boys, love
stories about animals and adventures.
WAY Amy now has me researching turtles!
Do you have any upcoming adventuresfor Ina?
ANTON: We have discussed the idea of Ina
exploring other shipwrecks and learning more
about ancient cultures. I think that definitely calls
for a research trip Turkey!

O INA ,j-i ,rly 2008 PROJECTS ISSUE


Computers Shipwrecks

INA is proud to announce the first lecture in the J. Richard (Dick) Steffy Lecture Series,
established through generous contributions made by the members and friends of INA and
by members of the Archaeulonical ITnstture of America's (AIA) Underwater Interest
Group/Subcommittee. Dr. Filipe Castro, associate professor in the Nauical Archaeology
Program at Texas A&M University, spoke at the AIA Spokane Society sponsored event on
Wednesday, March 4, 2009 at the Nonrlhwe'r MXuseumn of Arts & Culture.
His presentation, "Computers and Shipwreck' The Pepper Wreck Reconstruction as a
Virtual Hpojthe'sis," explored how a group of researchers from Texas A&M University
and the Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal, are reconstructing a Pomrguree India
nau from around 1600. Using computer modeling. the team is Iteting the nau's sailing
abilities and developing a virtual model that may provide a glimp-se into these lung-gone
floating cities and their inhabitants.

This series honors a key figure in INAX' history, one of
the world's foremost ship reconstructors, J, Richard
"Dick" Steffy (1924-2007). Watch for future lectures in
this distinguished series in the News & Events
section of the new INA website at...

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Dr. Filipe Castro is an
Associate Professor in the
Nautical Archaeology Program
of the Department of
Anthropology of Texas A&M
University. He is the Director of
ei Ship Reconsiruclng
Laboratory of the University's
Centre for Maritime History and
Conservation, and investigator
at its affiliated Institute of
Nautical Archaeology. Filipe is
the author of A Nau de
Portuga (2003) and the Pepper
Wreck: A Portuguese Indiaman
at the Mouth of the Tagus River
12005p ano is currently working
on a book about Ibenan
I V shipbunilding n the 16th and
1 rti cerluries


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IJs ,ng IlJtiir, iI[i u h),,, u peer
I r' 3 dr,1 ,nr pvur
Audre, LI-ll a sIudan' in
the D-.'patriten.t or
'vSu31iZI1101lI ScI'Ice at
Texas A&M University, works
on a computer model of the
Pepper Wreck.


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Events Announcements Celebrations Opportunities .... . ... ........


Robert Hohlfelder
Alfred Scott McLaren

Archacologist/hisconan Dr. Robert Hohlfelder is a professor and former chair of the Department of
History at the University of Colorado in Boulder and a member of the common room of Wolfson
College, University of Oxford. He has participated in or directed 43 maritime archaeological expeditions
throughout the Mediterranean. Currently, he is preparing the archaeological data from the submerged
harbor area of ancient Apedae (Turkey) for publication and is also co-directing a pan-Mediterranean
study of the development, properties, and use of Roman hydraulic concrete in maritime environments.
He currently serves as a senior maritime archaeologist for an international, interdisciplinary team (headed
by Dr. Shelley Wachsmann) engaged in a deep-water search for shipwrecks in the sea lanes off southeast-
ern Crete. The recipient of 66 post-doctoral grants, Professor Hohlfelder has been a visiting scholar at the
American Academy in Rome 'four times), Wolfson College-University of Oxford (three times), and Edith
Cowan University, Perth Australia (twice), as well as a research fellow at Harvard University's Center for
Byzantine Studies at Dumbarton Oaks in Washington, D.C (twice). His most recent book is The Maritime
World of Ancient Rome, (Ann Arbor, 2008). Dr. Hohlfelder resides in Boulder Colorado with his wife,
Kathryn Barth, a restoration architect in private practice. "Our passion is enjoying the wonderful state in
which we live to the fullest," he tells INA. "We are avid skiers and hikers. All too infrequently, I get to do
some fly-fishing as well."

Captain Alfred Scott McLaren U.S. Navy (Ret.', Ph.D is a pioneer nuclear submarine officer and
commander whose expeditions include the first submerged transit of the Northwest Passage, and a 1970
North Pole voyage that included the first survey of the entire Siberian continental shelf Dr. McLaren
graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1955 with a degree in electrical engineering During his
military service he participated in over 20 Cold War missions in both diesel-electric and nuclear attack
submarines that included a four-year command of USS Qpynfish. A graduate of and instructor at the U.S.
Naval War College, he retired from command of the US. Naval Underwater Systems Center, Newport,
R.I. After his retirement in 1981, McLaren earned a M.Phil. from Cambridge University and his Ph.D. in
Physical Geography of the Polar Regions from the University of Colorado at Boulder. Today McLaren, a
president emeritus of The Explorers Club, is a deep-sea researcher and scientist, and has completed
several submersible dives to RMS Tahanc, the German battleship Bisinack, and Mid-Atlantic Ridge
hydrothermal vents. He is currently a director of Sub Aviator Systems LLC and senior pilot of its
revolutionary new deep-diving Super Aviator submersible.
McLaren has been honored with the Societe de Geographic Paris' Silver Medal for Polar Exploration and
La Medaille de La Vile De Paris; the Distinguished Service Medal, the nation's highest peacetime award;
two Legions of Merit; and four Navy Unit Citations. He received The Explorers Club's Lowell Thomas
Medal for Ocean Exploration in 2000, and his first book, Unknown Waters, was published in early 2008.
McLaren resides in the Rocky Mountains above Boulder, Colorado with his wife, Avery Battle Russell, a
former senior executive at the Carnegie Corporation of New York. He enjoys reading, skiing, travel, and
is an instrument-rated private pilot.

INA .n,-' rl rI PROJECTS ISSUE 2008


The 23rd President of Texas A&M University, Dr. Elsa A. Marano is the first woman and first
Hispanic-American to lead the oldest public institution of higher learning in Texas. She joined the Texas
A&M faculty in 1995 and eventually became a full professor in the Department of Animal Science and
Director of the university's Center for Food Safety In 2001, Murano was named undersecretary for food
safety at the Department of Agriculture. In leading the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Senice, she
was responsible for an agency of 10,000 employees, a budget of approximately $1 billion, and the mission
of working to improve public health through the application of science in policy decisions. While at the
USDA, Murano presided over the first case of mad cow disease in the United States. In 2002, Hispanic
Business Magazine recognized her as one of the nation's "100 Most Influential Hispanics." Murano
returned to Texas A&M in 2005 as Vice Chancellor and Dean of Agriculture and Life Sciences, joint
positions in which she served until being appointed President of the university.

With the rise of Fidel Castro, Murano's family left Cuba and lived in several Latin American countries
before settling in Miami when she was 14 years old. She later received a bachelor's degree in biological
sciences from Florida International University, and earned both a master's degree in anaerobic microbiol-
ogy and a doctorate in food science and technology from Virginia Tech. Murano began her professorial
career in 1990 as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Miroebiology; Immunology and Preventa-
tive Medicine at Iowa State, the position she held prior to joining the Texas A&M faculty.

She is married to Dr. Peter S. Murano, Associate Professor of Nutrition and Food Science and Director
of Texas A&M's Institute for Obesity Research and Program Development.

Elsa Murano
Stephen Chandler

California-based real estate investor Stephen Chandler has more than 36 )ears of experience buying,
selling, and managing inmestnent properties in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, as well as in Tucson,
Arizona. The Woodbury University graduate is a Trustee of his alma mater, as well as a board member
of the Pasadena Pops. Chandler has served on the Bowers Museum Board of Governors fromJune 1992
to the present, and was Chairman of the Board of Governors fromJune 1995 throughJune 1997, and
June 2003 throughJune 2005.

Chandler and his wife, Susan live in San Marino. They have three adult children: Stephanie who works in
investment banking, Michael who works for the Department of Defense, andJen nifer A ho works in
advertising in Manhattan Beach.



INAs Cemal Pulak

was the project director

at Uluburun.

This interview

was conducted

by Kristin Romey.









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Ira /t C'vfop.uI :-'YJd
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written by Amy Way Anton and illustrated by Mary Faye Way
PuNbida: AthorHoum
Sadftor $11.95
Order yur copy online at:
The idea of a children's mascot for NA as a way to bring the world
of nautical archaeology to children, was first discussed in 2007.
There are plenty of INA excavators who can tell a good fish tale, but
it was the team of Mary Faye Way and Amy Way Anton (wife and
daughter of INA Past Chairman Peter Way) who worked together to
create and publish 'na the Octopus and Her Shipwreck Adventum."

Written by Amy and illusated by Mary Fay, "Ina the Octopus" was
published in time for the opening of the 'Beyond Babylon"
exhibition in New York in November 2008 and is the story of a
resolute and curious octopod comfortably ensconced in a pithos
called home in the middle of a fascinating shipwreck. That is until a
nautical archaeologist turns up to excavate her neighborhood. How
does it turn out?. Order your copy today!

byJames P Delgado
Publisher. University of
California Press, 2009
Hardcovcr/256 pages,
6 x 9 inches, 22 b/w photographs,
9 line llusaions, 18 tables
Orar your copy ats

Described as a "forest of masts," San racisco's
Gold Rush waerfront was a floating economy of
ships and wharves, where a dazling array of global
goods was traded and tranapoed. Drawing on
ecavations in buried ships and collapsed buildings
rom this periodJamis E Delgado re-creates San
Frandsco's unique maritime landscape, shedding
new light on the city's remarkable rise from a small
village to a boomtown o thousands in the three
short years fom 1848 to 1851.

\hibi'lai "NfiL
1.., 1.W1 r, I, .,-. -,,

by James P Delgado
Publisher. University of California Press
Hardcaver/256 pp.
Order your copy

In 1279, Khubilai Khan muted the Song navy
and completed the grand dream of his
grandfather Genghis Khan-the conquest of
China. With the world's largest navy the
Mongols then began attacks on Japan, Vietnam
andJava. Using original sources as diverse as
sunken ships, hand-painted scrolls and
historical and literary records, James
Delgado tells the fascinating tale of Khubilai's
maritime forays and solves one of history's
greatest mysteries: what sank the Khan's great




Goldi slh P.


.20. eo A

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1 USEUM InternationaL, published by UNESCO
since 1948, is a major forum for intellectually rigorous
discussion of the ethics and practices of museums
and heritage organizations. The journal aims to foster dialogue
between research in the social sciences and political decision-making in
a changing cultural environment. It also highlights the role of museums as
places for reflection and production of knowledge of the heritage and culture.

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