Group Title: INA quarterly
Title: The INA quarterly
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 Material Information
Title: The INA quarterly
Alternate Title: Institute of Nautical Archaeology quarterly
Abbreviated Title: INA q.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Publisher: Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Place of Publication: College Station TX
College Station TX
Publication Date: Summer 2008
Copyright Date: 1997
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Underwater archaeology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Archéologie sous-marine -- Périodiques   ( rvm )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 19, no. 1 (spring 1992)-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 23, no. 2 (summer 1996).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098800
Volume ID: VID00052
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 26536606
lccn - sf 94090290
issn - 1090-2635
 Related Items
Preceded by: INA newsletter (Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.))


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V35 No2 ( PDF )

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4 Bodrum
Research Center
Our Base of Operations in the Mediterranean

IH^R^\A\. ..* nf !

George F. Bass, Ph.D.. Chairriman Eineriniit
Michael Katzev ;deceased,
Jack W. Kelleyt

James P. Delgado, Ph.D., Presidenrt
Claudia E LeDoux, Vice President, Adlmnistration
Cemral M. Pulak, Ph.D., Vice President l
Kevin J. Crisman. Ph.D.. \ice Prerildent
Michellc D. Chmclar. Accounting Oiticer '
Tuba Ekmekci. Director. Bodrini Research Center -
Ozlem Dogan, Finance Manager, BodrLmn Research Center

Board of Directors & Officers
William L. .len Rubert D. Ballard, Ph.D. Edward 0. Boshell.Jr. -John Cassils, M.D. Gregory NI. Cook
William C. Culp, M.D. Lucy Darden' Thomas F. Darden *John De Lapa C. Curtis Dunnavan Claude Duthuit
Danielle J. Feeney' Charles P. Garrison, M.D.. Vice Chairman'* Donald Geddes III, Chairman'* .James Goold, Secretary &
Geiiral Counsel'* CharlesJohnson, Ph.D.' Gregory MI. Kiez Elsa A. NMurano. Ph.D. Alex G. Nason George E. Robb,Jr.
Andrew Sansom, Ph.D.* Clyde P Smith, Trnasuirr* Jason Sturgis Peter van .Atfen, Ph.D. Frederick van Doorninck,Jr., Ph.D.*
Robert L. Walker, Ph.D.* Peter NI. Way. Palt Chairman' Robyn VWoodward, Ph.D. Sally M. Yamini

Associate Directors
Gordon \V. Bass George R. Belcher Raynette Boshell Allan Campbell. M.D. Glenn Darden Nicholas Griffis
Jeff Hakko Robin P Hartmann Faith Hentschel, Ph.D. Susan Katzer William C. Klein, M.D. Selhuk Kulav
George Lodge Anthony Marshall Thomas McCasland,Jr. Dana F McGinnis Michael Plank Mlargaret Jane Zemla
Saglam Anne Darden Self Lynn Baird Shaw Betsey Boshell Todd Mary Tuoze Lew Ward Garry A. Weber
Roger A. Williamson, Ph.D.

Nautical Archaeology Program Faculty
Deborah N. Carlson, Ph.D., ..sistant Professor, Sara W. and Georoe O. Yainu-i FelloQ
Luis Filipe \'ieira de Castro, Ph.D., .Vsistant Proleisor, Frederick R. Mawser Faculty Fellov ot' Nautcal Archaeolog\
Ke\inJ. Crisman, Ph.D.t Associate Pn)fesotr, Nautical .rchaeologi Faculty Fellow
Donny L. Harmiltn, Ph.D., Gcorge T. & Glad\s H. Abell Chair in Nautical Archaeoloex, Taniini Faniil\ Chair in Liberal .Ats
Cemal Pulak, Ph.D., Frederick R. Maser Faculty Professor of Nautical ArchaeoloP
C. Wayne Smith, Ph.D., Associate Pilrfessor, IN.\ Faculrt Fello\
Shelley Vachsmann, Ph.D., Meadows Professor of Biblical Archaeolog

Nautical Archaeology Program Emeritus Faculty
George E Bass, Ph.D.
GC-l.rgc I' & GlIds, H .Abll Chair in Anlh.ic,.olop,, Ydmrnini Fami Chair in Libc r.l .rn Disungiishcd Pr.jlcv.Jr. Ementus
Frederick H. van Doorninck,Jr., Ph.D.
Firdcn,.k R. NMlcr FaiulIV Pruilt ur ,4 NIaunal .\rTharJIugi. EmcriiIu
Research Associates
J. Bat to Arnold. N.A. Dante Bartoh Kroum Batcharov Piotr Bojakonski Carlos Cabrera Illia Campana
Alexis Catsanmbis Arthur Cohn.J.D. Katie Custer, M.A. Ben Ford Donald A. Frc\, Ph.D. -Jeiem; Green, M.A.
Elizabeth Greene, Ph.D. *Jerome I. Hall. Ph.D. Frederick Hanselmann, M.A. Kenzo Hay ashida Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D. Z
Nicolle Hischfeld. Ph.D. Frederick Hocker, Ph.D. "Jun Kimura Carolyn G. Koehler, Ph.D. Justin Leidwvanger
Margaret E. Leshikar-Denton, Ph.D. Maria del Pilar Luna Erreguerena Asaf Oron Ralph K. Pedersen. Ph.D. t
Robin C.M. Pierc *Juan Pinedo *John Pollack Mlark Polzer Donald Rosencrantz -Jeff Royal. Ph.D.* Randall Sasaki
George Schvarz Tufan Tutanl Peter van Alfen. Ph.D. Cherp I Ward, Ph.D. Gordon P Watts.Jr.. Ph.D.
Robyn Woodwhard, Ph.D

A Letter from the President

The summer of 2008 was a busy one as IN \
researchers around the world continued to survey
and excavate, as well as study the results of
previous field seasons. While we look forward to
sharing our summer highlights with you in coming
issues of The IVA Quarterly, in this issue we would
like to take the opportunity to look at the impor-
tant work of INA's Bodrum Research Center
IBRC' in Turkey.

In addition to providing support to INAs Turkish
surveys and excavations, the laboratories at the
BRC continue the excavation long after the field
work is done. Concreted masses of marine
sediment are X-rayed to reveal perfect casts of
ancient metal tools and weapons. Broken ceramics
are reassembled from f'iilmenli and studied.
Changes brought on by centuries of immersion in
the sea are reversed so that artifacts do not
crumble into dust once dry, and so that they can
be safely handled for study and ili pla. at the
Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology.

We will soon be introducing volunteer opportuni-
ties for interested members of IN \ to come to
Bodrum for a two week "Introduction to Conser-
vation" at the Bodrum Research Center. You can
work side by side with the conservation team, and
help reassemble history from remains excavated
from INA projects. More information on this
program will be available in the next issue of the

Also available this Fall is a new INA publication,
The LNA Annual. Approximately 100 pages in
length, this paperbound volume will provide
in-depth coverage of INA's field projects and the
results of our excavations and research. \ll
members of INA will receive the Annual.

Finally, INAs new website is beginning to take
shape, and the initial preview of the first of many
pages is now available at
It is starting small and will soon grow to incorpo-
rate a large amount of .nflirrnlitilii, readily
accessible, about INA and its projects and the
results of our work, past and present.

As always, thank you for your support and for
being a member of the Institute of N.iui, .il


Jim Delgado

Enjqovig a momrnt
in 1the siun 'wllt ':'
at the Bodrum Risearch

www inadiscovercom

6r w

SUMMER 2008 VOLUME 35 No.2

Evidence of a
Sicilian Naval Battle?

A New Discovery
in Vietnam

INAs Center of Activity
in Bodrum, Turkey

Bodrum Team Members
Who's Who in the Mediterranean


View of the front of the Bodrum
Research Center PHOTO: Jim Delgado
Inset Left
INA Conservator Devrim Bekret working
on ceramics from the Uluburun wreck
PHOTO: Jim Delgado
Inset Right
Ken Trethewey airlifts sand around the marble
blocks and concreted iron anchor from the
early Roman column wreck at Kizilburun,

0 INA Quarterly SUMMER 2008

Events Announcements Celebrations 'ri'. .

ThisJuly, a group of INA directors and friends traveled to Cartagena, Spain to visit the first full season of
excavation of .a seventh-century B.C. shipwreck at.Bajo de a Campana. The project, a collaborative
partnership with the National Museum of Underwater Archaeology, is co-directed by Juan Pinedo and
Mark Pozer of Texas A&M University. The pmjct is also graciously support by the National
Geographic Society, Texas A&M University, and a number of private contributors.

While some members of the group dived to vista .the wreck and see the archaeological work in progress,
everyone toured the museum's labs to see the fnds from the first season of survey and the new
museumn-currently under constructir-wliere the excavation artifacts wil eventually be displayed.

Other sights included a 19th-century Spanish seacoast :fortifcation,:the Museo Naval with its collection of
naval artifacts and models, and. the 1885 Spanish.submarine Pai, a pioneering underwater craft built by
visionary Spanish naval.officer Isaac Peral.

The group included. INA Chairman Donald Geddes, Marilyn Geddes, Vice Chairman Dr. Charles
Garrison, Lisa Guzzetti, Treasurer Clyde P. Smith and Pula Michaels, INA directors Lucy Darden and
Curt Dunnavan, PresidentJames Delgado, and INA friends Dave and Cheryl Hadley Beth Hart, and
Steve and Phyllis Brady.

: : Project co-directors Mark
a a Polzer (left) and Juan Pinedo
(right) pose in front of the
elephant tusks recovered
--,,., from the Phoenician
A shipwreck during the
2007 survey.
PHOTO: Juan Gonzalez

Tusk being recovered from
the Bajo de la Campana site.
PHOTO: Mark Polzer

Clockwise from upper left
Jim Delgado, Curt Dunnavan,
Clyde Smith and Dave Hadley
gather around a deep diving
friend at Cartagena's
Museo Naval,
PHOTO: Jim Delgado

Isaac Peral's 1885 submarine
on the Cartagena waterfront.
PHOTO: Jim Delgado

oCo-director Juan Pinedo
searches a grid sector in the
..Phoenician area after two tusks
are removed from it.
"PHOTO: Mark Polzer

www inadiscovercorn 0

During the investigation of
an anomaly in 80 m of
water, an object with
sharp angles and a
smooth curve was noted
in the sand nearby. Upon
investigation with the ROV
Hercules The imr3iae ':f a
bronze ram filled the
Hercules' video screens.
Soon the difficult task of
attaching ropes and inir,-
ge3r ,,vith the ROV began
Wiln great cre. the
*Aa raiea vi"e ,i; jrfiac.
rn(li pla,.'e or (.le: k for
hild le,,-okrdingq Irs
ir ,lnter r,;. rith
Super inliender t' i.3:ilil ie


Warship ram discovered... an ancient naval battle revealed?
With virtually no material evidence for ancient warships available
to archaeologists, the discovery of an ancient ram has generated great
excitement among the members of Sicily's Office of the Superintendent of
Maritime Archaeology and those of INA partner RPM Nautical Founda-
tion. \hourgh other exciting Roman-period finds have been located during
four seasons of survey around the island of Levanzo, off the northwest
Sicilian coast that date to the Roman period, it was the discovery of a
bronze ram during the 2008 expedition that provided the first potential
corroboration that this area is the site of the final battle of the First Punic
war. On the 21st of March, 241 BC, Roman warships lay in wait for a
Carthaginian relief fleet making its way to the aide of General Hamilcar
IBairi. father of Hannibal, who was under siege on Sicily. Laden with
supplies, caught in an ambush, and undermanned, the Carthaginian
warships stood little chance against the larger Roman fleet. Ancient sources
vary, but agree that many Caiih.lini.ini ships were sunk that day. As only
one of six known bronze warship rams, its study should contribute to the
riinMlizinii. yet meager, kn'i.vl.rl-r we have of ancient Mediterranean
warships of the Roman era.
-Jeff Royal, ArchacologicIa Dircctor, RPM Nautical I'bundation


6 INA Qtuarerlyn SUMMR 2008

The recovery of two wooden anchors by sand
dredgers from the muddy waters of Vietnam's
Red River inspired a three week project this
spring to study the anchors and determine the
potential for nautical archaeology in Vietnam.

At the invitation of Vietnam's Institute, for
History, Texas A&M University graduate student
Randall Sasaki and Flinders University (Adelaide,
Australia) graduate student Jun Kimura traveled
to HA N6i in May. They were joined by INA
President James Delgado, Flinders Maritime
Archaeology director Dr. Mark Stani-
forth, INA directors Claude Duthuit and George
Belcher, and Barbara Duthuit and Lan Huang
Belcher. The trip was sponsored by the RPMI
Nautical Foundation.

Analysis by Kimura and Sasaki of the anchors,
which appear to date to the Ming Dynasty and
are between 700 to 500 years old, continues. The
team also visited the site of a battle between
invading Mongol and Chinese ships and the
Vietnamese in 1288 at the river port of Bach
Dang. There, the navy of Khubilai Khan,
Mongol emperor of China, was defeated in an
epic battle still celebrated in Vietnam. Vietnam-
ese archaeologists have discovered the location of
the battle and large ironwood stakes used to block
the river and trap the Khan's ships.

IN.\ and Flinders University are discussing a
potential collaborative partnership with the
Institute for History and the Vietnamese govern-
ment to locate and excavate some of the loiin. I
fleet from the silted-in rice paddies that once were
a battlefield at the edge of the river. Both Sasaki
and Kimura previously worked on the excavation
and study of Khubilai Khan's tie, I lost during the
Mongol invasion of Japan in 1281, a battle ended
by the arrival of a storm or a divine wind known
as the kamikaze.

Randall Sasaki and Jun Kimura record ironwood stakes
recovered from the site of the Battle of Bach Dang.
Vietnamese defenders used the stakes to
trap the invading Mongol fleet and destroy It.
PHOTO: Jim Delgado

The team at Bach Dang with
their Vietnamese hosts.

The "official" INA
Reconnaissance junk on
Along Bay was greeted in
the morning by small woven
bamboo boats that rowed
out to sell supplies and

Jim Delgado


INA drum

The modern Turkish city of Bodrum overlooks the shores of the Aegean and the fabled Turquoise Coast.
These waters, now favored by tourists who visit from all over the world, were a crossroads of cultures even
Thousands of years ago, when seafarers navigated the coast carrying goods from throughout the ancient
BT1Sil I occupies the site of ancient Halicarnassus, the birthplace of Herodotus, the "father of history"
SAnother of the ancient city's claims to fame was the tomb of Maussollos, the satrap (ruler) of the Kingdom
of Caria in the fourth century BC. This multi-storied, statue-decorated marble tomb was so impressive that
Sit was listed as one of the fabled Seven Wonders of the ancient world. The Roman name for the tomb,
mausoleum, is still used today to r1,-.< I ,Pr more substantial and ornate tombs.
The Mausoleum fell into disrepair in medieval times, damaged by earthquakes, war and pilfering. The ruins
of the once mii.inifiR: r tomb then became a quarry in 1406 when the Knights of St.John of Jerusalem
began construction of a large castle at the entrance to Bodrum Harbor. Construction continued, using
stones from the Mausoleum and other ancient ruins, until 1482. Besieged by the growing power of the
SOttoman Empire, the castle fell in January 1523, not long after the Ottomans also captured the headquar-
ters of the Knights of St.John on the neighboring island of Rhodes.

SOccupied and used by Ottoman troops as a fort until 1895. when it became a prison, Bodrum Castle was
damaged by French and British battleships during World War I and abandoned, only to be occupied by
invading troops between 1915 and 1921. Abandoned once again, the castle was a damaged ruin overrun
with grazing donkeys when Peter Throckmorton, a visiting adventurer and journalist, stopped on the coast
in 1'118I and learned from lTurkish sponge divers about a very old shipwreck laden with copper ingots that
lay on the southern coast off Cape Gelidonya.
SThe excavation of the Gelidonya wreck, led by George F. B ..... took place in 1960. The Gelidonya dig was
the first scientific excavation underwater. It also inspired the birth of the Institute of Nautical Archaeology,
Sthe transformation of the castle into the Museum of Underwater Archaeology, and the creation of INN,
SBodrum Research Center. Today, nearly fifty years after the birth of modern underwater archaeology,
Bodrum is again a crossroads, as students and scholars from throughout the world visit and work out of the
Center and use INA's vessels to continue the survey and excavation of shipwrecks on the coast.

Decades of surveys have discovered shipwrecks from the Bronze Age, 3,300 years ago, to Greek, Roman,
Byzantine, and Ottoman vessels, and their cargoes. Collectively, these wrecks document the long and
significant use of the coast as a highway for maritime trade, commerce and war. Individually, the most
significant of these shipwrecks, now excavated and displayed in the castle at the museum, have rewritten the
history books and added an incredible amount of data to the archaeological record of ancient and medieval
seafaring. Over a quarter of a million paying visitors annually tour the Museum of Underwater Archaeol-
ogy, where they learn about the discoveries that INA. has made with its Turkish partners.

1 *

Heimdoms, Work brhin on the Cruni.dr krni trs pullir The morkl's firsi .;enllic Budrum Museum Four-w arexcaaiadon of
"FaLher of Hislon.'" MNauwkunl, .iieo l' dit hea remains rl" he 4hip-" L ciLjun un is e'ablished ;n1 S.. FPters s IM Ada 7th-nurv
boIr in HaIliti'arnss Se\wn Wofndels of the Mausoleum rt bulld Lhe cornductd in Turke) by C'asde hipmir- crumplcred
iancieia Badrmni Ancien World Casde o.f SI. IPcr GCorge Bass al Cape


Qa -



--~- ~ Fi~a- ~tT:-~/


LExca arion of assLi da
4th-cennrr, ihipTcrck

E.sit hlishmnnt of the,
Insuijue of Naudrcal
An:haaeolog ilNAi

IN.2s fir.t :ummrnr holul
.iPin,:idec \%ili ex\ca aon
of lassi Ada 4Lh-ccntur

E..cailion of cango
rmatrjrl fr m amnurid
Inim) BC at N.)in Dcreii

Thrce-wrr ,r< a.n'l n
l' I Ihd-cenrunl
"Glas % iac k" at
ierne Lian, begins

The Bodrum Museum
onitdhl) btome, the
Bodrunm Liusum of
Linderwaer Archaeolog

I V'


Above (cSockwise from left)
BRC Director Tuba Ekmrekgl
with BRC staff
Gulser Kazancioglu,
Ozgun Alpdogan, Asaf Oron,
Fatma Senol, Devrim Bekret,
and Gines Yasar.
(see pages 14-15)

The Center is also the workplace for a talented
staff, most of them from Turkey, who maintain and
operate INAs ships and equipment, work in the
Nixon Griffis Conservation Laboratory to reverse
the ravages of long-term burial in the sea, and
prepare artifacts for study and display. The BRC is
also the location of INA. Tooze Library, a unique
archaeological research library.

AIt li'ha, :.'l: iral projects that the Bodrum Research
Center supports include surveys to discover wrecks,
as well as excavations. I liher projects are
conducted by scholars who first travel to Bodrum
to utilize the resources of the BRC.

Current projects in 2008 include the ongoing study
of materials from the excavation of the first-
century Roman period wreck at Kizilburun, under
the supervision of Dr. Deborah Carlson of Texas
A&M University, and the investigation of an Iron
Age wreck at Kekova by Dr. Elizabeth Greene of
Brock University.

Another important project is the final stage of
excavation of an seventh-century AD wreck at the
Yenikapi site, which is the landfilled ancient harbor
of Theodosius in Istanbul, under the supervision
of Dr. Cemal Pulak of Texas A&M University.


Back in Bodrum, the center features major facilities
for the conservation, documentation, analysis and
publication of the results of 1\.\A many field
projects. This work, conducted in the laboratory
and the library, is the major stage of any project,
often eclipsing the time and the resources expended
in excavation. In many ways, the excavation does
not end in the field. It continues in the lab, where
mud-filled amphoras are carefully unpacked, the
silt yielding traces of ancient cargoes from olive pits
to pollen, and more :er:imh. DNA.

Masses of ancient iron, rusted together with silt and
sand to form huge lumps of concretionn" are
carefully x-rayed to reveal cavities that provide a
.. LWi. mold of long-vanished artifacts. Carefully
opened and cleaned, these cavities are used to make
exact copies of the rusted-away artifact.

Wood, reduced to the consistency of cheese, is
treated to remove salt, then water, .urii.2rhelhniii: the
wood with years of treatment in polyethylene glycol
* PL( i. a water-soluble wax, and then reassembled
to recreate an ancient hull. The conservation
laboratories are a combined facility that treats
wood and other organic materials, metal, glass and
ceramics. INAs Nixon Griffis Conservation
Laboratory also includes the Hethea Nye Wood
Conservation Facility, with huge stainless steel vats
in which ancient wood from shipwrecks gradually
soaks up PEG.

Work in the laboratory is matched by analysis and
comparative research as the artifacts are studied
and the results are written up as articles and in final
form as a volume or volumes on each wreck.
This work is facilitated by the magnificent Tooze
Library at the BRC.

The Tooze Library occupies the corner tower of
the Bodrum Research Center, and its uniquely
designed interior is divided into three levels.
Students attending seminars can sit at the upper
level and participate in lectures and discussions
around the larger table one level below The library
is the largest collection of nautical archaeology

INA acquires the Iboran,
a 65-rboo Korean War
..-I. a:id b-,s it aUt
Bxtirun a a reSe-u. h ship

D. t.dc-lrong .L; c.a eon
rl' Biriirze Age Iipt-rcck
begins at Lljburun

INA punhases ,a .malJ
ole gnne ;n B4riduni
a Iure Ol te or the BRC

Ccn.nrl aion oal td
Stcrc Linmai i GL;uf In
auni3Ls pul on dippla\ at
Bodrum Museum

Ea.',Manrn cimmrcnu at Bcdrum Resarh
the .reo' it~ 9ih-ctnmurv Cntwruffnallkh opens
A D ihiptreck near

books and journals in the eastern ilerli-ai i iL ;, iL.
and one of the largest in the world. The collection,
owned by INA and cataloged into the library
system at Texas A&M University, has its catalog

Adjacent to the Tooze Library is the Nason
Computer Center. Funded by the Nason Founda-
tion, the computer center is an air-conditioned
work station for a series of computers that visiting
students and scholars use for their research and
writing. Thanks to the N.i-on Computer Center,
visitors with laptops can also access the BRC's
wireless service and do their work in the shade of
the olive tree in the garden, a reminder of the
groves that once covered this and other i 111I I les
before the rapid urban growth of Bodrum and the
center's construction.

Ultimately, the impressive facilities, the important
work, and the significant discoveries made at the
Bodrum Research Center all come as the result of
one important factor. people. It was people like
INA's founders and directors who had the dream to
create the center, and it was the passion and
commitment of those people and other friends of
INA who provided the funding to build and
operate it. It is also people, like those who work at
the BRC, who have united as a team to carry out
that work, oftentimes behind the scenes in the
laboratory or in the stacks of the library. There are
also the many students, visiting scholars and
volunteers whose countless hours of work and
insights have transformed the finds from
shipwrecks into knowledge that enhances our
understanding of the past and has rewritten the
history books.
-Jim Delgado

From Upper Left
The main entrance hall features a sponge diver's
"hard hat" gear on loan from INA Director Jeff Hakko
T.jbj El m l .:I i.dJ u'.r .jK r.:r':.lij .11 P.:.1,. -IhI, VI nr-
Glycol (PEG), a water soluble wax, to a tank containing
ancient shipwreck timbers.
Sherds of broken amphoras raised from INA excavations
await cleaning, cataloging and reassembly.

ALL PHOTOS: Jim Delgado

: of the I

* The Institute of
* Archaeology w
* recognize those
* critical in the e
* of the Bodrum
SCenter, its outl
oulldinos, and

Oguz Aydemir

John H. Baird

Marja & Ron B
* Family

Cynthia & Fret
and Familn

* Charles W. Co

Gregory M. Cc

* Dona & Bob D

Barbara & Cla

* Danielle J, Fee

Nixon .nthis

Grints Foundat

* Harry C. Kahn

Institute for Ae
* Prehistory

Jean R. & Jact

John David M(

Nason Founda

National Endo'
the Humanitie

* Mary & Richar

* Mr. & Mrs. Ray
and Family

* Mary Ausplunt

* Martin H. Wilc


rould like to
e who were
its fleet.

rural and





ude Duthuit





k W. Kelley



wment for

d Rosenberg

H. Siegfried II

d Tooze


L\casaaon of rhe
rlassicJd-penod shipuTre k
;a Trktkr Burrnu bwins

The tui-pecron submersible, ( mrsn,
aid 4.i-loot cian.aran Itndcr .tjijuLaJau
added in [INA reeairrh fleei in Bodraiin

Ribbon cuiring for neii T-o-uuar eianLtion of
library. rcadmnp roomnt; the ii h-ceniui- BC
cnnncr\nadin labor-mry,; 7hc k da Pabui Burnu
& computercentci ai BRC' begins

Eucmaalion of the
Rum.n column wTtck at
K-izdburun begins

;r II

~4~,~L~a~ I ,u P


Tuba Ekmekgi
is director of the
Bodrum Research
Center, INA's base of
operations in the

These interviews
were conducted
by Kristin Romey,
Texas A&M nautical
archaeology graduate and
editor of The INA Quarterly






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good~~~ wokn knweg of ceis" exaato IftennhcnuyBzu
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into~~~~ scec grwn upIrfryumr btls nin ie mhrewr fe

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hands~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ wa a. relygaSgpoes oIws muh fapoa.Btee huhw on
looin t fid omthng ha cmbiedboh he topes i agratstae.ofpreeraton

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seemedto be he perect co binatin. beynd recgnitio. So igtnw e',ex ri

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cally~~~~ ~ ineetn an/o imotn cosr1htcnalwu otra hs tpesadte
vatio meho tha 's bee *eeo o dryS the ouS ob tdedaddslyd

befild,ih a ynh ti p l me, u h s p xy Bmr m M u em of U d r ae rh elg. I,

*orink *Irnc~lie an aihe a a
m* *he 1960s.-


Asaf Oron

is the Head Conservator

of the Bodrum Research

Center iPRCi in Turkey.

The Institute's sign
on Sualti Sokak
(Underwater Street).

Murat Tilev opens the outer
hatch of the BRC's diver
decompression chamber

Facing page, from top
Collections Manager Esra
Altinanit cleans a delicate
artifact in the lab.

Captain Feyyaz Subay
on board Virazon,

The rear courtyard of the
BRC, showing the Tooze
Library and the Nason
Computer Center.

ALL PHOTOS: Jim Delgado

more of our

Joining Tuba in the management of the BRC is
Financial Manager Ozlem Dogan. Ozlem has
worked at BRC since 2004, and was formerly the
assistant to the administrator. She assumed her
new duties and position in April. Ozlem, like
Tuba, is hard working and dedicated, and the
two make a 'i elr team.

Feyyaz Subay is a mariner, dive master, and a
veteran of INA who rejoined BRC in 2000 as the
head of the fleet, captain of Virazon, and chief
pilot of Carolyn. Dedicated and intensely focused,
Feyyaz keeps a watchful eye on the fleet while also
participating in projects, including diving to assist
in the work at Kizilburun.

Joining Feyyaz in the fleet is Bayram Kosar, the
captain of Millawanda. A member of the BRC
team since -11ili ,i n iIIm maintains both Virazon
and Millawanda 'h iin*v.- the winter when they are
moored at the Yalhkavak Marina awaiting a new
season of work.

Also working with the fleet is chief engineer
Murat Tilev. A member of the INA and Bodrum
family for decades, Murat has worked on ill major
projects. A photograph of Murat working under-
water is one of the iconic images of the Uluburun
shipwreck excavation.

As chief engineer, Murat isjoined by mechanic
and deckhand Zafer Gil. Together, their passion
for the ships and their hard work keep the 55-year
old Virazon and the much younger fIll/i.. n, !.

BRC archaeologists assist and participate in many
projects. Much of the work at Yenikapi is being
done by Sheila Matthews. 'hl-il., a graduate of
Texas A&M University's Nautical Archaeology
Pi., ,vi in. has been a mainstay of INA projects for
over two decades, in, ludliii, a major role in the
excavation and ongoing study of the P:,riiiwi: -c
frigate Santo Antonio da Tanna, which sank off
Mombasa, Kenya in 1697.

Sheila is assisted at Yenikapi by graduate students
from the Nautical .\ii h .::.l.: :.. Pi, li,' n and by
Orkan Koyagasioglu, who splits his duties at
BRC as both a field archaeologist and as electri-
cian for the INA fleet in Bodrum.


The Lluburun artifacts, which are being
conserved under the direction of Dr. Cemal Pulak
who led the excavation, are treated by Edith
Trnka and Giilser Kazancioglu. Dr. Trnka
earned her Ph.D. in Austria and joined the BRC
in )6' I1. Giilser is a conservation technician who
has worked with INA since 1982. Known as the
"wizard of glass mending," reassembling
thousands of glass fragments from the Serce
Limani wreck, GCrll-r has applied her magic for
the last 16 years to mending the Ulbii ,iin
ceramics while also assisting other projects.

Also working on the Uluburun ceramics, Devrim
Bekret is a conservator who started with INA at
the beginning of 2008.

Esra Altinanit is the collections manager,
overseeing the physical custody of all of the
artifacts, which are the property of Turkey and
treated by INA's conservators under permit before
being returned to the museum. A graduate of
Izmir University and an archaeologist as well as a
conservator, Esrajoined INA and the BRC in

Also working in the conservation lab is Giines
Yasar, a conservation technician who joined INA
in 1986. She has worked on the artifacts from
every IN \ excavation since then, particularly
working on amphoras and other ceramics,

Every artifact is photographed, and is also drawn
for publication. That task falls to illustrator
Ozgun Alpodogan, who joined the team in
'iI, .. Ozgun is a graduate student working
toward a Master's Dr-leer at Mulga University.
Her current task is drawing artifacts from the
Ki1711 i1111 ti excavation.

In the summer of 2008, the permanent Bodrum
Research Center Laboratory staff were joined by
a number of contract conservators, students and
volunteers. Fatma Senol, an Istanbul University
conservation student, has worked on and off for
four years with I \. She is currently working on
artifacts from the sixth-century BC Pabug Burnu
shipwreck. Fatma is joined in the lab by Miray
Olcay, who is also working on the Pabuc Burnu
materials. Assisting them were students NikkiJago

Q INA Quarterly SUMMER 2008

and Catrina Caira from Canada's Brock Univer-
sity, and volunteer interns Masha Smith, Ward
Hegeler, and Aylin Woodw ard Three graduate
students from Texas A&M University, Kimberly
Rash, Mike McGlin and John Littlefield
worked with the excavated materials from the
Kizilburun project.

Nurgil Kiilah, with a ldei- er in library science
from Istanbul University is the librarian. A
member of the BRC team since 1',lI.;, she assists
visiting scholars and students who research using
the Tooze Library

Mehmet Qiftlikli is the BRC carpenter and has
been with INA since 1994. With a healthy sense of
humor, Mehmet lends a helping hand to everyone,
from repairs to construction, from his shop in the
"tin l-por" the behind the scenes working area
of the center.

Siileyman Tiirel, a member of the BRC team
since 1995, is the gardener and caretaker, and is
always available to assist in the care of the center.
He is also a :nis:nlfi eii- painter, and keeps the
center looking neat and trim inside as well as

The person with the most diverse list of duties at
the Bodrum Research Center is Mustafa Babacik,
who also works as a iilrneii. mechanic, techni-
cian, and as the person who handles deliveries and
shipments for the center. "He does everything the
BRC needs," according to Tuba. Mustafajoined
the BRC in 1994.

He isjoined on the staff by his wife, Munevver
Babacik, who is the part-time housekeeper for the
BRC dormitories, ajob she has held for eight
years. Hers is an unenviable task, especially in
the summer with a dorm filled with
university students.

Aysel Tok is the part-time housekeeper for the
headquarters building and the conservation
laboratory. She joined the team in 2iii"", and her
work not only ensures the offices are clean and
professional looking, but that the laboratories are
clean and efficient and she does all of this with
an appropriately gentle and trained touch.

In the evenings, most of the Bodrum Research
Center staff head home, leaving the buildings and
grounds to visiting students and scholars and to
the careful eye of night guards Muammer
Ozdmir and Adem Sirin. Muammer has been
with the team for ten years; while Adem joined in
May 2008 to alternate with Muammer. They keep
the people, l..ilidii,. grounds and the artifacts
being treated safe.


. .?
B^r .

f 11




Unlike today, with INAs fully staffed conservation
laboratory, fleet, and library active year round, the
University of Pennsylvania excavations in the
1960s were limited to a few months a year with no
need for permanent facilities. The archaeologists
were unsalaried volunteers working during their
summer holidays. Staff simply rented available
housing during summers, put equipment into
storage the rest of the year, and left artifacts to
soak in fresh water in the new museum until their
return to resume conservation.

When INA was incorporated in 1972 in Philadel-
phia, however, it was to provide full-time employ-
ment to its staff. Its new vice president, Michael
Katzev, was already living on Cyprus with Susan,
to oversee the preservation and reconstruction of
the ancient Greek ship they had excavated there.
They suggested having an overseas headquarters
on Cyprus, centrally located for surveys in Turkey,
Cyprus, and Lebanon. INA president George Bass
moved there with his wife Ann and their sons, as
did new staff member John Gifford, whojoined
Katzev's team that already included Robin Piercy,
Dick Steffy, and future INA president Robert
(Chip) Vincent, Executive director Cynthia
Eiseman remained in Philadelphia, using a spare
bedroom as INA's official office.

Outbreak of war in Cyprus in 1974 and in
Lebanon in 1975 ended the promise of that
Mediterranean base. Burhan Tezcan of the
Department of Antiquities in Turkey suggested
that INA move its headquarters to Ankara, but the
offer of a home in the United States, at Texas
A&M University, seemed preferable for an institute
that was expanding into other areas.

Still, B- l'i urii remained INA's Mediterranean
center, with a growing number of Turks involved.
For 14 years from the summer of 1975, INA rented
part of a large house that served as a summer
dormitory and year-round depot, but it was so

cramped that 18 people shared one bathroom and
some of the staff lived in tents in the garden. A
decision was made under the presidency of Don
Frey to purchase land on which to build a perma-
nent base. INA Founder Jack Kelley led a search
for suitable land until 1987 when Tufan Turanli
identified a 10-donem (about 2 1 12-., I-) olive
grove for sale on a hill overlooking Bodrum. INA
purchased four donems, while the remainder of
the land was purchased by George Bass, Tufan
Turnal. Cemal Pulak, and Fred van Doorninck
who divided it into lots on which they built their
individual houses on a dirt side road which they
had cobbled and then named, with the city's
permission, Sualti Sokak (1inderwater Street).

Turgut Cansever, winner of two Aga Khan
Architectural Awards, was chosen to design and
build the center. He made an overall plan of
buildings to be constructed in stages as INA
raised necessary funds. The first was a large
neo-Ottoman building with vaulted offices and
drafting room: students lived in temporary
quarters in the basement, where there were
showers, kitchen, laundry, and a photographic
darkroom. INAs Robin Piercy. professionally
trained to estimate costs of construction from
architects' plans, acted as sub-contractor during
construction, trekking daily from quarries to
forests to blacksmith shops.

On 7 July 1995, at a ceremony attended by
representatives of the Turkish government, the
American Embassy, and INNs Board of Directors,
Danielle Feeney cut the ribbon to formally
dedicate the new headquarters. Within a few
years, the two-storey dormitory, four-storey Mary
and Lamar Tooze Library, the Nason Computer
Center, and the large Nixon Griffis Conservation
Laboratory followed.














This Page
Above Left
Drs. George Bass and
Frederick van Doorninck
during the Yassi Ada

Above Center
Travelling under sail to the
Yassl Ada site-a two hour
return trip each day from

Above Right
INA headquarters in Bodrum
designed by Turgut Cansever.

Opposite Page
This photo collage combines
an image of the Knights of
Saint John castle, now the
Bodrum Museum of
Underwater Archaeology with
divers preparing to enter the
water from a barge in the

Photo fnset
Peter Throckmorton (right) and
George Bass examine the few
surviving bits of wooden hull
from the site at Cape




INA's Robin 'i r.:1,.
an invaluable member
of the INA family who
recently retired, led four
field seasons of work on
the Mombasa wreck
between 1976 and 1980.
Robin was instrumental in
the creation of the BRC
and was a genius at
constructing many
of the cliff-side field
camps from which
INA's excavations
were based.

Tr. :r.rn i-n -i

m''q, 1077 <;j;'o Jr~t ;; ,. (



Isi ut'i ealis dIaI i Tv l k H y t

My fis vii to Bormwsin17wihteeupetadcrsltatmie

did R^we know then of the roulethtwa^^s brewing it^Kslad fKo'sfor lfighti bulb-nd almo^st wry-^^^
lives forver Un.i 33e .3an wa *iidd Cyrs alwdaslcino ml uni 3 ofIseta

for more han a deade. Eve b k .n te i we b t te 3o -
a I Turey' mueu fo maitm .rheooy to mat e asl Pnc hprc-W a

I II 33 I I II
the wrck we wer ineese .n. 3otinr 3*eatigofteftr te.Hwvr

enough got through that allowed us to repair the
3t. 3 4 wh3 n INA 3. re ut usin mtra aib l y. 4
fredlns of its pol. Ver 4ew torit viste thre I3 thn hta.h wesad ooso h
and there were probably wa3 4ess than a4 dozen b k tt a
foreigners ^ who lived in the area. Itseemedthat seethconditionsinwhicht ured3booksare

everyonewouldknow within minutes if there 3oud te ce w
were 9stra3ngers in town. And the. 3elephone and the scholarshipderivedfromtheiruse.

kne whr 3h 34so 3as lat Of couse it wa h ipelfteqiteso itenieplu

els in Tuke or heve fobd outsi3e th con 3run th tonsnro tet, pepl gongth
try 3tcudtk or 3 o3 eve day or eve exr mil 3o you everthi3 on 3ey ua
n*t a l. sm3ll3.3wn sc33ale .3 33 3 33 3 33
I INA SUM 3ER 2008. 3 33331 I 3 3333
4 4 - -SB^~uf~fi^^^^^B3 . - ^^^^53.^

3 .N urel. SU ME 3 2330038


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www.i n

The mission of the Institute of Nautical Archaeology has always been
to ensure that the world's most significant nautical archaeological sites
are excavated, studied, and preserved to the highest standards, and
shared with the widest audience possible for the maximum benefit of

In honor of this mission, we're pleased to announce the development
of INAs new website www.inadiscov While the full website is
scheduled to he online by the end of 2008, a preview site has been
created to give you a taste of -tl;l,.i to come and is now ready for
1i1-\. inIl .

Over the next few years, working with our partners at Texas A&M
University as well as other nautical archaeologists around the world,
we plan to create a new "Virtual Museum" of nautical archaeology
frli uriill INA projects past and present with image ..ll lr;... site
plans, field notes, and bibliographies that will be accessible to
academic researchers, students, and history and shipwreck
enthusiasts worldwide.

Please explore

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