I lr III A
George F Bass, Ph.D., Chairman Emeriwust
Michael Katzev deceasedi
Jack W. Kelleyt
James P. Delgado, Ph.D., Interim Presidenr*
Claudia F LeDoux, Vicc-Prcsident, Adrrunstraton
Cemal M. Pulak, Ph.D., Vice President
Michelle D. Chmelar, Accountng Officer
Tufan U. Turanh, Administrator, Bodrum Research Center
William L. Allen
Robert D. Ballard, Ph.D.
Ed'ard O. BoshellJr.
Elizabeth L. Bruni
John Cassils, M.D.
Gregory NI. Cook
William C. Culp, M.D.*
Thomas F Darden
John De Lapa
George R. Belcher
Allan Campbell, M.D.
Robin P Hartmann
Faith Hentschel, Ph.D.
Board of Directors & Officers
C. Curds Dunnavan
Charles P. Garrison, M.D., Vice Chairman*
Donald Geddes III, Chairman*
James Goold, Secretary & General Counsel*
Charles Johnson, Ph.D.*
Gregory M. Kiez
Alex G. Nason
William C. Klein, M.D.
Selc uk Kolay
Dana E McGinnis
George E. Robb.Jr.
Andre' Sansom, Ph.D.
Clyde P Smith, Treasurer*
Peter \an Alfen, Ph.D.
Frederick van Doorninck,Jr., Ph.D.*
Robert L. Walked, Ph.D.*
Peter M. Way, Past Chairman*
Robyn Woodward, Ph.D.
Sally M. Yamini
Margare Jane Zemia Saglamn
Lynn Baird Shaw
Betsey Boshell Todd
Garry A. Weber
Roger A. Williamson, Ph.D.
Nautical Archaeology Program Faculty
Deborah N. Carlson, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Sara W and George 0 Yamini Fellow
Luis Filipe Vieira de Castro, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Frederic R Mayer Faculty Fellow of Nautical Archaeology
KevinJ. Crisman,t Associate Professor, Nautical Archaeology Faculty Fellow
Donny L. Hamilton, Ph.D., George I. & Gladys H. Abell Chair in Nautical Archaeology, Yamini Family Chair in Liberal Arts
Cemal Pulak, Ph.D., Frederick R. Mayer Faculty Professor of Nautical Archaeology
C. Wayne Smith, Ph.D., Associate Professor. INA Faculty Fellow
Shelley Wachsmann, Ph D., Meadows Professor of Bibhcal Archaeology
Nautical Archaeology Program Emeritus Faculty
George F Bass, Ph.D.
George T. & Gladys H. Abell Chair in Nautical Archaeology. Yamini Family Chair in Liberal Arts. Distinguished Professor, Emeritus
Frederick H. van Doorninck,Jr, Ph.D.
Frederick R. Maer Faculry Professor of Nautical Archaeology~ Emeritus
J. Baro Arnold, M.A.
Pearce Paul Creasman
Katie Custer, M.A.
Donald A. Frey, Ph.D.
Jeremy Green, M.A.
Elizabeth Greene, Ph.D.
Jerome L. Hall, Ph.D.
Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D.
Frederick Hocker, Ph.D.
Carolyn G. Koehler, Ph.D.
Margaret E. Leshikar-Denton, Ph.D.
MariA del Pilar Luna Erreguerena
Ralph K. Pedersen, Ph.D.
Robin C.M. Piercy
Jeff Royal, Ph.D.
Peter van Alfen. Ph.D.
Cheryl Ward, Ph.D.
Gordon P Watts,Jr.. Ph.D.
Robyn Woodward, Ph.D.
A Letter from the Interim President
The year 2008 starts off with change and
new opportunities for the Institute of Nautical
Archaeology. Last year was one of the best ever
for IN., with dozens of projects around the
world, exciting discoveries, and a strong level of
support from the INA family and friends. As you
will read in this issue of the Quarterly, we have
a number of intriguing 2008 projects, some
ongoing, some new.
On December 31, 200)7, Donny L. Hamilton
stepped down after five years as INA's President.
New responsibilities, a result of his promotion in
2'0(.7 to the Chair of the Department of Anthro-
-:hlog. at Texas A&M University, and a family
tragedy shaped Donny's decision. While no longer
INA President, Donny %ill remain a close
member of the INA family. We will be honoring
him for his many contributions at the 2008 annual
meeting, and the next issue of the Quarterly will
more full) recognize Donny's achievements.
We lost some key friends in 2007, among then
Mr. Frederick Mayer, Mr.John Baird, Dr. Chip
Vincent, and Mr. Richard Sieljy. We will miss
them, and gratefullb acknowledge their generous
contributions, support, and fellowship for INA.
We also gained some new friends, including
new directors. Please join me in welcoming
all of them.
A key aspect of 2008 is a new strategic plan for
INA, which is being developed in consultation
with the board, staff, and the faculty of the
Nanuical A. cha colog Program at Texas A&M
University. Sponsored by past chairman Peter
Way, the new strategic plan is taking shape with
the generous assistance of Andrew Sansom. We
look forward to sharing the strategic plan with
you all in the next Quarterly
New opportunities, new friends, and a plan for
the future 2008 promises to be another key
year for the Institute of Nautical Archaeolong.
Thanks for being on board with us!
James (Jim) Delgado
A counterweight depicting
the goddess Athena wearing
her helmet & Medusa's head,
from the 1961-64
tnp '.In3 13mu edu
MAGAZINE OF THE INSTITUTE OF NAUTICAL ARCHAEOLOGY
Projects in 2008
From Bermuda to Oklahoma, Cyprus,
Libya, and North Vietnem, INA projects
span the globe.
From the original excavation in the 1960s
-hrough to the present, this discovery
continues to add to our understanding
of human history.
A conversation with noted Italian
nautical archaeologist Luigi Fozzati.
Sadly, we say goodbye to members
of our INA family.
ON THE COVER
Our cover photo, from the INA Archives,
was taken during the 1960s excavations
of a Byzantine ship at Yassiada.
INA NEWS & EVENTS
INA General Meeting
The Institute of Nautical Archaeology
is a non-profit organization whose mission
is to continue the search for the history of
civilization by fostering excellence in
The INA Quarterly (ISSN 1090-2635)
is published four times per year by the
Institute of Nautical Archaeology.
James R Delgado, Ph. D.
Art Direction & Design
Institute of Nautical Archaeology
P.O. Drawer HG,
Texas 77841-5137 USA
phone (979) 845-6694
fax (979) 847-9260
The opinions expressed in INA Quarterly articles
are those of the authors and do not necessarily
reflect the views of the Institute.
If you are interested in submitting an article for
publication please contact the Editor at
0 February 2008 by the Institute of
Nautical Archaeology. All nights reserved.
O INA Quarterly WINTER 2007/08
Events Announcements Celebrations clp.:'.[r r-ln "
This past October, INAs directors, staff, Texas
A&M faculty, and good friends gathered at
The Rosewood Mansion on Turtle Creek in Dallas,
Texas to discuss the year just passed, and antici-
pate the year to come. Plans and budgets were
discussed and approved for 2008, and we were
treated to a behind-the-scenes, beautifully
illustrated talk by Dr. Cemal Pulak on his work on
the exquisitely well-preserved Byzantine wrecks
emerging from the mud of Yenikapi.
Dr. George E Bass made a wonderful and heartfelt
presentation on the many accomplishments of
Donald A. Frey, the Institute's beloved "Don Bey,"
as he retires from INA. In his honor, the institute
announced the establishment of the Donald
A. Frey Endowment Fund, for the support of
archaeological field projects. Retirement is a
relative term, because Don was also named INA's
'Ambassador for Life," and stands by ready to
make friends' visits to Bodrum as special as he and
his wife Sanne always have.
The meetings also featured presentations on the
results of INAs major field projects in 2007 from
their directors, and opportunities to interact
directly with archaeologists working around the
globe. It was a wonderful time to share a passion
for unlocking the secrets of the seafaring past
through nautical archaeology, while also enjoying
the usual elegance and grace of The Mansion's
Dr George F Bass (top)
made a heartfelt presentation
honouring INA Ambassador
for Life, Don Frey (above).
inTp Ina lm3ri edu O
ne w s Events Announcements Celebrations Opportunities
IN THE BLACK
According to the report
on financial results for 2007
received by the
INA Board of Directors,
the institute closed the year
again in good fiscal order,
with a small surplus that
has been applied
to 2008 operations.
At the 2007 annual meeting in Dallas, the Board of
Directors, INA staff, Texas A&M faculty and other
friends of INA gathered to express their apprecia-
don to outgoing chairman Peter and Mary Faye
Way for their exceptional senice as INA's "first
couple" to the institute. During Peter's tenure, INA
experienced two solid years of financial health, the
growth of assets and endowments, and the
beginning of a new strategic plan. The institute's
strategic plan process was a key aspect of Peter's
chairmanship, and he not only oversaw its
inauguration but also provided the support for it.
Peter's ongoing commitment as immediate past
chair, and as a member of INA's executive and
communication committees, is no surprise to those
who have served with him for years as an INA
In thanking Peter, newly elected chair Donald
Geddes noted, pun intended-but also in all
seriousness-that the strategic plan be known as
"The Way Forward."
Please join all of us in welcoming chairman
Donald Geddes Ill and Marilyn Geddes as INAs
new "first couple."
INA Quarterly WINTER 2007/08
Robert D. Ballard is President of the Institute for Exploration in Mystic, CT., Director of the Institute for
Archaeological Oceanography at the University of Rhode Island's Graduate School of Oceanography, and
an Explorer-in-Residence for the National Geographic Society During his three-decade tenure at Woods
Hole Oceanographic Institution, Dr. Ballard pioneered the development of both manned and unmanned
deep submergence vehicles including the ARGO/JASON astern. He participated in over 100 deep sea
expeditions including- the first manned exploration on the Mid-Ocean Ridge (Project FAMOUSi, the
discovery of the RMS Tilanit, German battleship Bismark, the aircraft carrier lorinto, President Kennedy's
PT-109, as well as numerous other contemporary and ancient shipwrecks dating back to the time of Homer.
Dr. Ballard has been imolved in a large number of educational programs including the creation of the
JASON Project. He is the author of numerous popular books, a recipient of several Emmys, co-creator of
the television series "SeaQuest DSV," and host of National Geographic "Explorer."
C. Curtis Dunnavan served in the U.S. NavN during World War Two and subsequently received Ilis
undergraduate and MBA degrees from Dartmouth. An investment analyst and portfolio manager since
1962, he is now Chairman of the Board of C.C. Dumnnaan and Company, Inc.. an investment management
firm he founded in 1979. A trustee of the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, he has been particularly active in
the Asian Art department, which now hosts a world-class collection. He is a member of the Confrerie des
Chavaliers du Tastevin, a Burgundian wine organization, and has been a member of the Amateur Chefs
Society for 35 years. Mr. Dunnavan is an avid world traveler and photographer with a long-time interest in
archaeology and underwater archaeology in particular.
Jason T. Sturgis is a Nevada-based underwater cinematographer and producer: He was one of the first
cameramen to capture the humpback whale on hi-definition video, an achievement that will significantly
improve research on the elusive mammal. An avid diver for over 20 years, it is his love of the ocean that
drove him to pursue camera work and documentary ilmmaking.Jason has just directed, shot, and produced
the documentary "River of Whales: The Secret Realm of Breathholders." and has been the cinematogra-
pher for the Whale Trust Research Organization since 2003.Jason's other hobbies include snowboarding,
motorcycle riding, and boating. FROM TOP
A graduate of the Nautical Archaeology program, Peter van Alfen is curator of ancient Greek coins at curt Dunnavan
the American Numismatic Society in New York City, where he is also an adjunct professor at New York Jason T Sturgis
University. Dr. van Alfen sees on the managing committee of the American School of Classical Studies Peter van Alfen
at Athens and on the advisor) council of the American Academy in Rome. He is the editor of the Armman
Journal of .Vrmismanti and managing editor of the A.V5 .Mlagamte both online and print versions), and is the
author of numerous books and articles on ancient economies and numismatics, Linear B. and nautical
archaeology. Along with Frederick van Doorninck,Jr, Dr. van Alfen is currency involved in a long-term
restudy of the globular amphoras from the Yassiada 7th-century shipwreck.
Recognizing the need for a new look and reinvigorated content for INA's website, Peter Way has issued a
challenge grant to redevelop the site. Thanks to Peter's commitment, INA is seeking matches for a $25,000
fund. Please contact Interim President James Delgado if you'd like to support this important step in
enabling INA to better sere scholars and enthusiasts in the global community of the World Wide Web.
p rojects...................... ...........
This year, the
Institute of Nautical
in conjunction with
Texas A&M Urnvers.,T's
Program, will conduct
projects around the
globe at sites ranging
from Oklahoma and
Tobago to Lebanon
Fourteen of the
by an asterisk)
are new initiatives.
BER IMLDA Warwick Project
The potential site of an early shipwreck is the subject
of a survey of Bermuda's wreck-filled waters. Directed
by P'mrr Bojakowski and Katie Custer.
BERMUDA Western Ledge Reef Wreck Timber
Analysis The timbers from this early wreck, previously
excavated in Bermuda, will be documented and
reconstructed on paper by two talented Nautical
Archaeology Program students. Directed by Piotr
Bojakowski and Katie Custer.
CANADA/US Lake Ontario Maritime Cultural
Landscape Study Another season of survey will assess
the submerged features, shipwrecks, docks, and setting
of a section of this historic lake, including the scene of
naval action in the War of 1812. Directed by Ben Ford.
CANADA Yukon Gold Rush Steamer Survey
Canada's Yukon and the well-preserved remains of
Klondike Gold Rush era steamers are the focus of a
second season of field survey and documentation in this
remote wilderness. Directed byJohn Pollack and Robyn
CRETE to LGYPT Danaos Project The second
season of a deepwater survey between Crete and Egypt
fll.l .s the route of ancient mariners in the hope of
finding a Minoan shipwreck. Directed by Shelley
C.1PRUS Eastern Cyprus Maritime Survey
C\prui' ancient shores are again the setting for a survey
of ,iall'.\ er \ r;ilt sites, seeking shipwrecks, lost stone
anchors, discarded amphoras and other remains from
maritime activity. Dirrctld byJustin Lcidwanger.
EGYPT Dashur Boat Ships Survey The remains
of Pharaoh's boats may lie buried in pits beneath the
shifftiri sands between the pyramids of Dashur. A
remote sensing survey will seek to identify these boats.
Directed by Pearce Paul Creasman.
ISRAEL Dead Sea Coastal Survey The retreating
shores of the Dead Sea will once again be the setting
for a comprehensive survey of emerging cultural
remains. Directed by Asaf Oron.
ITALI Renaissance Venetian Naval Manuscript
Study A rare look at Venetian manuscripts will add to
our knowledge of Renaissance shipbuilding in this
center of l-ledilrrraieaan trade and culture.
Directed by Lilia Campana.
JAPAN The Frigate Erturul Underwater
Excavation This second season of survey and excava-
tion of the site of a tragic 1890 shipwreck of an
Ottoman naval frigate on a mission to Japan will again
involve a joint Turkish-Japanese team. Directed by
LEBANON Lebanese Coastal Survey The coast of
Lebanon has accumulated shipwrecks and other
submerged remains for millennia. This survey will
assess an area near a Bronze Age settlement for what
may lie offshore. Directed by Ralph Pedersen.
LIBYA USS Philadelphia, USS Intrepid Phase
One Shipwreck Survey A survey of sites associated
with the 1804 grounding, capture, and subsequent
destruction of the warship Philadelphia off of, and inside
Tripoli Harbor will involve a collaborative effort
between the Libyan and U.S. governments.
Directed by James Delgado.
NORT-I VIE T N.AI Anchor Documentation and
Assessment Two well-preserved wooden anchors
pulled from the mud outside of Hanoi come from an
area where Mongol invaders sent by Kublai Khan met
with defeat in 1288. The team will document the
anchors and work to determine their age, as well as
assess the site of their recovery for future survey.
Directed by Randall Sasaki.
SP.L N Bajo de la Campaia Phoenician Shipwreck
Excavation on a 7th century B.C. Phoenician shipwreck
commences this summer. Initial dives on the site yielded
wi ll-prewrvcd elephant tusks with Plhon,'lilcan inscrip-
tions, amber and ceramics. Directed by Mark Polzer
and Juan Pinedo.
SPAIN Mazarron I Shipwreck Timber Study
The fragmentary timbers of a Phoenician vessel,
recovered by archaeologists years ago, will be
documented and analyzed for the first time.
Directed by Carlos Cabrera.
TOBAGO Tobago Shipwreck Excavation
A fierce naval battle between French and Dutch forces
in the 17th century left a number of wrecks, one of
which appears to be a well-preserved Dutch warship.
This will be the first season of survey and excavation
at the site. Directed by Kroum Batcharov.
TURKEY Bozburun Iron Concretion Study
Artifacts recovered from the Bozburun excavation
continue to be analyzed in the ongoing study at the
Griffis Conservation Laboratory at the Bodrum Center.
Directed by Frederick Van Doorninck,
0 INA Quarterly WINTER 2007/08
TURKEY Excavation of the Iron Age Shipwreck
at Kekova Adasi Located in an INA survey years ago,
this ancient wreck's excavation will commence in a
collaborative project with Brock University in Canada.
Directed by Elizabeth Greene.
TURKEY Roman Column Wreck at Kizlburun
This year's field season will determine how much of an
ancient ship's hull has survived by probing beneath the
sand where the massive stone drums of a monumental
column sat for two millennia.
Directed by Deborah Carlson.
I LURKLY Tektag Burnu Shipwreck Survey
The site of I N.Vi previous excavations at Tekta Burnu
will be assessed for additional remains in deeper water.
Directed by Deborah Carlson.
I 1 RKL Y Yenikapi Byzantine Shipwrecks
Excavation and Study This year, Dr. Pulak and his
crew continue the excavation and recovery of ancient
hulls buried under landfill of the Theodosian harbor of
Istanbul, including a wreck that appears to date from
the 7th century A.D. Directed by Cemal Pulak.
USA I Oldahoma i Red River Shipwreck Excavation
The final field work on this 1830s steamboat wreck will
recover the last pieces of machinery that could not be
wrested from the mud of the river last year. Directed by
S'S.\ I Texa, I Blockage Runner Denbigh Write Up
The test excavation and documentation of this Civil
War blockade runner's wreck is done; Barto Arnold
continues the process of writing up the results of the
work for publication. Directed byJ. Barto Arnold.
Keeping up with the Doctor
(Dr. George Bass)
October... The Historical
Da trng Society awards
Dr. Bass the Pioneer
Award in Florida.
January... he chairs the
session on "100 Years at
Mochlos," an important
terrestrial site on Crete,
at the Annual meeting
of the Archaeological
Institute of America, in
Then... he hops the pond
and gives the opening
address at the University
of Oxford for a term
devoted to "Underwater
and Classical Trade" as
partial celebration of the
expansion of the Oxford
Centre for Maritime
Funding for the
generously supplied by
the Samuel H. Kress
the Texas A&M College
of Liberal Arts;
the Melbern G. Glasscock
Center for Humanities
Research; the Center for
Maritime Archaeology and
Conservation, Texas A&M
University; the Marine
of Houston; the University
and the Thetis
Foundation of Cyprus.
Archival image of
Drs. George Bass and
Frederick van Doorninck
from the original excavation
the Yasslada site
Sassank King Khosrau II
submitting to Byzantine
- RoxanI Margadti
One of the important methodological features in the study of Yassiada is the incorporation of
information from early medieval texts, according to Roxani Margariti, Assistant Professor of
Middle Eastern Studies at Emory University's. But when the material record is not as complete
as at Yassiada-or even nonexistent-how useful are such texts? Looking at a medieval document
that discusses a twelfth-century shipwreck in the Indian Ocean, she concludes that questions can
be raised and answered from textual evidence, but to a limited extent.
The pioneering Scandinavian maritime archaeologist
Ole Crumlin-Pedersen explored the transfer of
S Byzantine nautical technology and naval
warfare tactics during the empire's contact
with the \Viking world, and how 'southern'
shipbuilding techniques may have
influenced maritime development
in northern Europe.
SPainting depicting Viking
ships by French painter
Albert Sebille (1874-1953)
Bottom Left & Below
SArcival Images from the
1960s Yasslada excavaton.
Many thanks to
Dr. Deborah Carlson
and Justin Leidwanger
S(University of Pennsylva-
nia) for organizing the
Meanwhile, looking at 13th-century Genoese construction contracts,
Furio Cicilot, of Societh Savonese di Storia Patria, noted the similarities
between the dimensions of a ship of the period called pamphilus, and that
of the reconstructed Yassiada ship. This raises the question: Was the
Genoese pamphilus a descendant of a Byzantine origin vessel?
Even more: Was the Yassiada ship a pamphilus?
In September and
October of 2007,
I NA's two-person
continued its superb
record of enabling the
Institute of Nautical
Archaeology to locate
ancient shipwrecks in
the Aegean Sea.
When weather and
INA was finding a new
wreck about every
other day in the
vicinity of Qesme,
Of greatest interest
were a Hellenistic
wreck of the third
century B.C. and a
Byzantine wreck of
the fourth to sixth
century A.D., both
worthy of future
The survey was
directed by George
Bass, assisted by INA
Director and long-
Turkish Ministry of
arc y. He is th A ogil D
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INA re m em bers ............. ......-..........
John H. Baird
Last October 4th, only weeks short of his 98th birthday INAs beloved
co-founder and lifetime benefactor, John Baird of Shaker Heights, Ohio
died. His obituary was unusually brief, but his life was amazingly full.
An engineering graduate form Case Institute of Technology,John
joined Alex Nason and his Lubrizol Company in the 1930s at the start
of the Great Depression. Enduring hard times, occasionally living out
of his automobile and bartering product for a paycheck, John became
a highly successful marketer for his employer.
During World War II, while his two brothers served overseas, John was
responsible for making certain that Lubrizol products reached the
battlefield where in the North African Desert Campaign, their armored
car and tank lubricants and additives turned the tide of battle in favor of
the Allies. At age 62 John retired from Lubrizol, where he also belonged
to professional organizations such as The American Petroleum Institute,
Society of Automotive Engineers, and The National Lubricating Grease
Institute. Continuing as a trustee of the Nason Foundation and through
wise investing, which included helping other business get started, he
became independently vcalrh). Ever active in community affairsJohn
served on boards and committees of the Natural History Museum, Huron Road Hospital, Case
Western Reserve, the Crawford Auto Museum, and the Western Reserve Historical Society.
About 35 years ago John Baird became acquainted with INA' other founders, Jack Kelley and Dr.
George F Bass, and poured his energy into helping the newly formed Institute in its move from the
University of Pennsylvania to Texas A & M Uni\ersity. He not only served a stint as INAs Chair-
man of the Board, but he turned up at nearly all IN.As underwater excavations from Maine to
Virginia and from Turkey to Kenya. His enthusiasm for INAs schlolarlh \ork was infectious and he
generously supported every aspect of the Institute's work. It was atJohn's urging that The INA
Foundation was established and, fitiingl, he was its first Chairman.
Recently, at an annual meeting in New York,John understood that INA had equipment and
machinery problems in Turkey. Without hesitation a big grin washed over his face and he boldly
offered to match a $100,000 challenge to all his fellow directors. This fascinating family man, a
collector of antique music boxes and classic automobiles, graciously shared his life with INA, urging
his daughter Lynn Shaw to serve as an INA director and his son-in-law, Russell Shaw to act as the
INA Foundation's legal counsel. And happily there is a grandson who one day hopes to carry on his
It has been my great privilege and joy to know and share a common cause over the years with
John Baird, who will forever be deeply appreciated by all of us who comprise the Institute of
Donald G. Geddes III
INA Quarterly. WINTER 2007/08 0
It was the invitation by Michael Katzev for Dick to come to Cyprus in the summer of 1971 that gave
Dick the opportunity to work with actual remains, those of a classical Greek hull raised from the sea
off the north-coast town of Kyrenia by Michael and his wife Susan.
Later that year, when Dick was back in the United States, a telephone call from the New Jersey shore
changed our lives, and to some extent the history of nautical archaeology. The caller, Susan Langston,
said a storm had uncovered part of a wooden hull on the beach, and neighbors speculated it might be
Viking. Dick and I made a quick inspection of the scanty remains, and he concluded the hull seemed
to be from a down-easter built between 1880 and 1910. Shortly thereafter, Mrs. Langston learned that
the hull was from the George R. .s,/bfiid, built in Maine in 1885 and stranded on the beach in 1920! It
was not the last time I was awed by Dick's magic.
On the drive home from the shore, Dick pulled his car off the highway and motioned me to stop. He
walked to my car and told me that he had decided to give up his business to become a professional
ancient ship reconstructor. I said he was crazy. He had a wife and two sons to support. He responded
that he could always return to electrical contracting, but he had to give this a try, for he would only live
Fred van Doorninck and I had been musing about establishing a private institute devoted to shipwreck
archaeology, but neither of us had taken any steps toward its formation. Surely Dick's words, and his
courage to follow his pa .iion, served as the catalyst that encouraged me to resign a tenured position at
the University of Pennsylvania to follow my dream. Just as Lucille Steffy stood behind Dick's decision,
Ann stood behind mine. And so, in 1972, the Institute of Nautical A chaeology (INA) was incorpo-
The new institute was based on Cyprus, and Dick spent the 1972-1973 academic year in Kyrenia with
Lucille and their sions. David and Loren, reassembling the hull from thousands of PEG-treated pieces
of wood. After he returned to the island in early 1974 to continue the reassembly, he asked me if he
could work for INA. I replied that we did not have enoui .h rnoney to add to our two-person staff. He
persevered. I said I could not insult him with my only possible offer. He said: "Try me." I hesitated:
"'18.00(( ." No fringe benefits, no insurance, no retirement plan. "I'll take it," he said.
Within months, Cyprus, divided by war, was no longer suitable for INA headquarters. I moved with
my family to Denver, Pennsylvania, to be near the StellW i. Lucille went back to work at the middle
school so her faiiih \,juldd have health insurance. Dick and I talked daily about the future of the
institute. When a university offered INA a base, we drove together to North Carolina to look for
homes. Then Texas A&M University made a counter offer that included establishment of a graduate
program in nautical archaeology, with generous funding, so we moved to College Station instead. It is
to the everlasting credit of Texas A&M that it hired Dick, without so much as a B.A. or B.S., as a
faculty member in the program where we soon were joined by Fred.
The University never regretted its decision. Dick was an excellent lecturer, receiving top ratings from
the chapters of the Archaeological Institute of America to which he was invited to speak. He wrote
more beautifully than most scholars with doctorates. And he was a first-rate teacher, his students taking
back to their homes around the world the unique knowledge he so %elfles lr iniparted, a generation of
nautical archaeologists with so much more knowledge than the pioneers in our field. He retired as a
Dick's genius was further recognized when he became a recipient of a MacArthur Fellowship-the
so-called "genius award." He was a perfect candidate, one who had reached the pinnacle of success
via an unconventional route. With his additional income he joined the Board of Directors of INA,
generously giving back annually to the Institute far more than his first salary from it!
Both INA and the Nautical Archaeology Program at Texas A&M succeeded beyond our expectations,
but Dick's pivotal role in the formation of each is little known. How different our field might have been
without that drive to the Ne' Jersey coast.
George E Bass
Cemal Pulak and I visited
Dick in hospital so Cemal
could describe the latest
news from his excava-
tions in the Byzantine
harbor at Yenikapi,
Istanbul. Dick could
barely speak, breathing
with difficulty, but a
glimmer of a smile
crossed his face from
time to time. His younger
son, Loren, in the room
with us, said that on our
departure Dick whispered:
"That was nice."
They were his final
words. Loren was so
pleased that his father's
last thoughts were of the
ancient ships he loved
Institute of Nautical Archaeology
is pleased to announce the sale of
3 Tom Freeman's
naval and maritime historical limited edition art prints.
Proceeds from the sale of the prints will benefit the workings of the
Institute of Nautical Archaeology.
Print Size: 22" x 18"
Retail Cost: $115.oo
Edition Size: 500 S/N
"Divide and Conquer"
Print Size: 25 5/8" x 34"
Retail Price: $150.00
Edition Size: 750 S/N
Print Size: 34" x 25"
Retail Price: $175.oo00
Edition Size: 750 S/N
To view the entire collection go to
www.tomfreemanart.com. Please contact
the Institute of Nautical Archaeology for any
prints you may wish to order
at (979) 845-6694.
INA Quarterty WINTER 2007/08