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Title: The INA quarterly
Alternate Title: Institute of Nautical Archaeology quarterly
Abbreviated Title: INA q.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Publisher: Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Place of Publication: College Station TX
College Station TX
Publication Date: Winter 2004
Copyright Date: 1997
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Underwater archaeology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Archéologie sous-marine -- Périodiques   ( rvm )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 19, no. 1 (spring 1992)-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 23, no. 2 (summer 1996).
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Volume ID: VID00048
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Winter 2004 Volume 31 No. 4

The INA Quarterly

Volume 31. No. 4

Winter 2004

3 Morocco Maritime Survey: 2003 Season
Athena Trakadas

10 The 2004 Ancient Shipwreck Survey in Turkey
Faith D. Hentschel

14 George Bass Dives for His Own Past
John R. Eastlund

18 Celebrating J. Richard Steffy
Cheryl Ward

19 News and Notes

20 Just Released
Serge Limani: An Eleventh-Century Shipwreck, Vol. I:
The Ship and Its Anchorage, Crew, and Passengers
by George F. Bass, Sheila D. Matthews, J. Richard Steffy,
and Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr.

Institute of Nautical Archaeology
P.O. Drawer HG
College Station, TX 77841-5137

Learn firsthand of the latest discov-
eries in nautical archaeology. Mem-
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other benefits.

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Diver.................... $40
Seafarer. ................. $75
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Restorer .................. $500
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Excavator................. $2,500
Navigator ................ $5,000

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payable to INA.

21 Profile
Faith D. Hentschel

23 Index

On the cover. A perspective view of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the multibeam survey area, facing east. The
circled area is the CSP062 site, just above the triangular-shaped flat rock in the center of the image. The DEM covers a
1.0 x 0.5 km area. Image: L. Huff.

December 2004 by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. All rights reserved.
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The Institute of Nautical Archaeology is a non-profit corporation whose mission is to foster excellence in underwater archaeology.
The opinions expressed in Quarterly articles are those of the authors, and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Institute.

The INA Quarterly was formerly the INA Newsletter (vols. 1-18).

Editor: Christine A. Powell

Morocco Maritime Survey:

2003 Season

Athena Trakadas

In 2002, the Institute of Nautical Archaeology be-
gan a two-year project, the Morocco Maritime Survey (see
INA Quarterly 30.1:12-21). The underwater reconnaissance
project focused on the coasts of Morocco's Tangier Penin-
sula and the Straits of Gibraltar, in order to identify pri-
marily ancient but also historic shipwrecks and ship-related
materials or features. The Morocco Maritime Survey was
conducted under the auspices of INA and the Kingdom of
Morocco's archaeological department, Institut National des
Sciences d'Archeologie et du Patrimoine (INSAP; Rabat, Mo-
rocco). Athena Trakadas (INA) and Dr. Elarbi Erbati (IN-
SAP) serve as co-directors of this project.
The purpose of the Morocco Maritime Survey is to
investigate further the history and significance of the re-
gion of northern Morocco, as reflected through the mari-
time archaeological record. The Tangier Peninsula lies at
the crossroads of east-west and north-south maritime trade
routes that have been utilized for millennia (fig. 1). Even
though a handful of ancient coastal sites are present, the
maritime history of Morocco during this period remains
relatively unknown. Our questions for this maritime sur-
vey ask: Who was here, and when and where were they
present? Are maritime archaeological sites (i.e. shipwrecks,
anchorages) related to terrestrial sites, and if so, which ones

and how are they linked? What was the level of maritime
trade in the region? In the broader perspective, answers to
these questions can help identify historic trends and sig-
nificant archaeological sites throughout Morocco's mari-
time history and the region's ties to other Mediterranean
cultures and economies.

2003 Season: Objectives and Logistics
Building upon the findings of the 2002 season and
the overall project goals, four research objectives were es-
tablished as priorities for the 2003 season. To this end, our
first objective of the season was to continue the documen-
tation of a large anchorage site discovered in 2002, locat-
ed in the western lee of Cap Spartel, the north-western point
of the Tangier Peninsula. Our second prioritized objec-
tive was to continue to search for shipwrecks in the re-
gion of Cap Spartel, and attempt to re-locate a
second-century CE wreck discovered in the 1960s. The third
priority was to survey offshore of the eastern coast of the
Tangier Peninsula, near the modem city of Tetouan, where
several ancient coastal settlements have been excavated.
The fourth priority objective, if time permitted, was to sur-
vey the surrounding waters of the ancient and historically
significant lies Purpuraires at Essaouria, on the Atlantic

Fig. 1. The survey area of Cap Spartel is located at the north-western corner of the Tangier Peninsula (shaded area)which forms the
northern-most part of Morocco.

INA Quarterly 31.4

Straits of Gibraltar |
Ceuta (Sp.)
Cap Spartel

Cotta Tangier Mediterranean

0 s 25 km Tetouan .

Drawing: A. Trakadas


coast of Morocco. In addition to the above work, ancient
lead anchor parts recorded in previous and present sur-
vey seasons were to be sampled. By conducting lead iso-
tope analyses on these samples, it is hoped that the artifacts'
geographical origins can be determined.
Several factors affected this original, proposed sur-
vey plan for 2003. Due to equipment readiness, the antici-
pated summer survey season was delayed until the fall.
However, we could not work during the Muslim holy fast-
ing month of Ramadan (which began this past year on
October 24), and some of the loaned project equipment was
also required for autumn work in Spain. In addition, it was
not possible to obtain permits to survey the Essaouria re-
gion. Because of these temporal and logistical constraints,
we chose to focus specifically on the Cap Spartel region
for the duration of the survey. Here, it would still be pos-
sible to achieve a number of the project's primary goals.
The 2003 field season of the Morocco Maritime Sur-
vey took place from September 23 October 19. As in the

previous year, the project was based in the port city of Tang-
ier. However, due to seawall construction throughout the
inner harbor of the port, we could not be located again at
the Tangier Yacht Club. Fortunately, it was possible to ar-
range for the survey operations to be relocated to the port's
naval zone. Here, our survey vessels could be safety docked
and the two containers that served as our project head-
quarters placed. Equipment for this project was provided
by Dr. Lloyd Huff (University of New Hampshire) and
RPM Nautical Foundation, Inc. (RPM). Logistical support
for the project was generously provided by the Tangier
American Legation Museum, the Royal Moroccan Navy,
and the Royal Moroccan Gendarme.

The project's goals for the 2003 season were realized
through remote sensing, diver survey and documentation,
digital video recording, and artifact sampling. No artifacts
were recovered this season, as all were recorded in situ.

Fig. 2 (left). Dr. Lloyd Huff monitors the data collec-
tion on-screen during the multibeam survey at Cap
Spartel while Dr. David Gregory (foreground) assists.

Fig. 3 (below). This orthorectified, Landsat-5 Thematic
Mapper image of Tangier and Cap Spartel shows the
sites of the 2002 and 2003 Morocco Maritime Survey
as white dots. The white rectangle delineates the multi-
beam area, with site CSP062 as its the center. The port
of Tangier can be seen to the right.

INA Quarterly 31.4

mItadgt:. a. %_tdcauzu

Remote-sensing Survey
The remote-sensing survey of the 2003 season fo-
cused on the large anchorage site at Cap Spartel (CSP062).
The survey was conducted by Dr. Huff, who used a Re-
son, Inc. Seabat 8125 multibeam sonar deployed from an
eight meter-long RPM research vessel (fig. 2). Before the
multibeam survey was initiated, a 1.0 x 0.5 km area was
delineated parallel to the coast at Cap Spartel, with the
anchorage site's coordinates serving as the center of the
rectangular box (fig. 3). The multibeam survey of this area
took five days at the beginning of the season, and includ-
ed some digital video footage taken at depth over CSP062.
The multibeam mapping process provided a base map of
the site, so that the surrounding underwater topography
could be understood and the possible extent of the site
Following the field survey in Morocco, the collect-
ed bathymetric data were edited and processed by Dr. Huff
using the CARIS Hydrographic Information Processing
System (HIPS). The processed data were then used to cre-
ate a fifty centimeter grid and Digital Elevation Model
(DEM), corrected to the predicted tide datum for the Tang-
ier region. The vertical accuracy of the data is approxi-
mately twenty-five to thirty-five centimeters relative to the
tide datum and the horizontal accuracy is approximately
1.5 m relative to the 1984 World Geodetic System (WGS84).

Diving Documentation
The diving survey team consisted of three INA
and three Moroccan members, the latter kindly provid-
ed by the Royal Gendarme in Rabat. From the two
project dive platforms provided by RPM, eight meter-
and 6.5 meter-long rigid inflatable boats, seventy-eight
dives were conducted over thirteen days (a total of for-
ty-four plus hours). All dives were conducted using
EAN-Nitrox (thirty-two percent oxygen) and all dive
site locations were mapped using a Global Positioning
System (GPS) receiver. As there is no feasible base sta-
tion in the region from which we could utilize Differ-
ential GPS (DGPS), a fairly accurate location fix was
obtained by taking several GPS readings over a partic-
ular site. Continuing the system established in 2002,
each new dive site was noted by a unique site identifi-
cation code (e.g., CSP059), and its latitude, longitude,
depth, and general seafloor characteristics were also
recorded. All artifacts were marked in the field with a
temporary identification code (e.g. artifact AK),
mapped, recorded in situ, and documented by scaled
digital video. Each artifact was subsequently labeled
with a dive site identification code as well as an arti-
fact number (e.g., CSP059-105). All artifact documen-
tation was entered into a Microsoft Excel database
catalogue with links to the captured digital images.

Lead Ingot Shipwreck (CSP053)
The first dive survey of the season was conducted at
the purported location of a second-century CE shipwreck
carrying a cargo of lead ingots. Discovered by recreational
divers supervised by archaeologists in the 1960s, the wreck
site is described in published reports as lying offshore of
the lighthouse at Cap Spartel, in the transitional area where
the Straits of Gibraltar and the Atlantic Ocean meet. The
truncated "X,Y" coordinates given for the wreck at the time
of its discovery were converted into latitude and longitude
for our survey.
Offshore of Cap Spartel is an extremely active hy-
drographic zone, and the purported wreck site, CSP053,
lies here in an area affected by several converging currents.
The seafloor consists of an extensive, sloping sand field
dotted with numerous rock outcrops, some of which are
exposed at low tide. The visual dive survey conducted in
this area during the 2003 season, however, yielded no evi-
dence of the ancient wreck site.

Cap Spartel Anchorage Site (CSP062)
After the initial search for CSP053, and the multi-
beam survey of the anchorage site was completed, the re-
mainder of the season's dives focused upon CSP062. This
site is a large area of numerous anchor elements that was
utilized repeatedly in antiquity and into the modem peri-
od, and it was established during the 2002 survey that the
anchorage extended considerably beyond the area docu-
mented at the time. The underwater topography at the an-
chorage site is mainly flat, eroded hardpan rock ledges with
several rock outcrops that protrude a few meters above the
seafloor. A large sand field delineates the northeastern edge
of the site, while the hardpan rock continues to the west
and south. The site varies in depth from sixteen to nine-
teen meters.
The DEM derived by the processed multibeam data
reveals that the anchorage site CSP062 lies on the north-
eastern edge of a larger zone of hardpan rock (see cover).
The bathymetry shows that the site comprises the north-
ern-most, protected area for vessels to anchor near Cap
Spartel. North of this hardpan rock is a vast sand field and
a plinth-like rock that is exposed at low tide lies further
north, at the edge of the multibeam survey area. From div-
er surveys conducted in 2002 at this rock and to the north
of it, it is known that many pinnacles are present under
water. Our experience surveying in this northerly area re-
veals that a vessel is more exposed to winds and currents
emerging from the Straits of Gibraltar than at CSP062.

Anchor Finds
Working north from the 50 m2 area recorded in 2002
(where twenty-three artifacts were located), an additional
seventy square meter area was surveyed by divers. In this

INA Quarterly 31.4

adjacent area, which is slightly deeper than the area inves-
tigated previously, twenty-five new anchor parts were
identified, recorded and mapped. The new group of arti-

facts consists of seventeen examples of Kapitiin rI-type lead
anchor stocks of varying size, six rather large iron anchors,
one lead sleeve, and one lead anchor collar (fig. 4).

Drawing: A. Trakadas

Fig. 4. Site plan ofCSP062, including all finds from 2002 and 2003.

INA Quarterly 31.4

Of the seventeen lead anchor stocks documented at
the site, four are Kapitin IId stocks (previously, only
Kapitin IIIb- and Illc-types had been identified). One of
these is the largest stock so far recorded during both sur-
vey seasons: 1.97 meters in length (artifact AR). Following
Kapit~n's typology, this stock does not have a lead cross-
bar central to the rectangular shaft box as the Kapitan IIIc-
type does (indicating that the lead was poured directly on
the wooden anchor shaft). Instead, the Kapitin Illd-type
has holes in each side of the shaft box, centrally located in
the arms' profile. These holes received a wooden cross-
bar or peg which extended through a hole in the shaft and
into both sides of the lead stock for a short distance. It was
difficult to distinguish the depth of the holes in the stocks
at Cap Spartel due to the artifacts' concreted states; it is
also unknown whether these holes still contain any wood.
However, the openings of the holes from all the four finds
are still clearly rectangular. In addition, three of the Kapitain
Ild anchor stocks from Cap Spartel have circular holes
through the tips of their arms. In anchor reconstructions,
these holes have been thought to hold lines that tie off to
the top of the anchor stock (for additional support or
strength), or that serve as crown lines (to assist in recover-
ing the anchor). The Kapitan III stocks are assigned a date
of use from the second century BCE to first century CE.
One three-holed lead anchor collar was also locat-
ed during the survey, as was a lead sleeve. Two collars
had been located during the previous season at the an-

chorage, but this is the first example of a sleeve document-
ed in Moroccan waters. Other examples have been recov-
ered offshore of Sicily and Sardinia and nearby at Ceuta
(in Spanish waters). The rectangular-shaped sleeve would
have fit around a wooden anchor shaft, resting just above
a lead stock (fig. 5). This piece could have been a repair to
hold fissured wood together and reinforce the hole in the
shaft that held the anchor line loop. Both the collar and
sleeve were found at Cap Spartel within a meter of each
other and two Kapitan Ilib anchor stocks. It is not known,
however, if some of these pieces belonged to the same an-
chor unit in antiquity.
Six iron anchors were also identified during the sur-
vey, all of which are considerably corroded. Three of the
anchors represent types used in the Mediterranean from
the Late Roman to Byzantine periods, with removable
iron stocks, and are generally dated ca. fourth tenth
centuries CE. These examples from Cap Spartel are ex-
tremely corroded, but it is clear that they are T- or cru-
ciform-shaped, with the shaft perpendicular to the arms.
Artifact AW, with its up-turned arm tips, is one of the
better-preserved examples; this form is very similar to
that of the anchors from the seventh-century Yassiada
shipwreck site (fig. 6). The identification of a large lu-
nate-shaped iron anchor (artifact AU) from Cap Spartel
is very tenuous: it might represent an Early Roman Im-
perial type of the first century CE that consisted of an
iron core fully sheathed in wood, found at Lake Nemi and

Fig. 5 (top, left). The lead anchor stock sleeve identified at CSP062.
Fig. 6 (bottom, left). A close-up of the arms of the iron cruciform-shaped anchor from CSP062.
Fig. 7 (right). A detailed section of the digital video mosaic from the center portion of the site. Artifact R is outlined at the right. The
top of the image is north.

INA Quarterly 31.4


Pompeii. However, this anchor might also indicate an eigh-
teenth-century French type or a nineteenth-century "fish-
erman's anchor" missing its flukes. Artifact AD, a large
V-shaped iron anchor with a bulbous, concreted knob be-
low the shaft end is possibly indicative of eighteenth-cen-
tury British types.
One grapnel anchor was also identified during the
2003 season (artifact AC), and is the only such type to be
located during the three years of INA surveys in Morocco.
It has four arms with triangular-shaped flukes, and the
complete length of the shaft with circular eye is preserved.
The chronology of use of the anchorage site at Cap Spartel
is aptly demonstrated by the orientation of this artifact and
artifact AB (a Kapitin c stock): the grapnel was lost on
the site because it had hooked on the ancient lead stock
(see INA Quarterly 30.1: 12, fig. 1).

Documentation and Sampling
At the end of the season, a digital video survey of a
large portion of the anchorage site was conducted. Tying a
line to a centrally-located artifact (artifact Z, an Admiralty
anchor; see Fig. 4), divers swam wider and wider counter-
clockwise spirals, holding the camera perpendicular to the
seafloor. This survey continued for an entire dive, and al-
most forty minutes of footage of the main part of the site
was obtained. In the spring of 2004, the video was pro-
cessed to create mosaics of features on the seafloor. Using
algorithms from every third frame from the video, tie points
were identified in each image, and a mosaic of the central
portion of CSP062 was created (fig. 3). The mosaic was then
geo-referenced to the site plan and the DEM data in ESRI
ArcGIS 9.0 software. Several large, detailed maps of the
site were created to reveal clearly artifact location and ori-
entation, as well as the site's seafloor characteristics. This
mapping process was experimental, however, and a con-
siderable amount of time was spent processing the data
and editing the mosaic.
Due to the poor weather conditions that arose to-
wards the end of October in the field, we were unable to
return to CSP062 to recover samples from the lead arti-
facts for isotope analyses. Instead, six lead anchor pieces
recovered by INA surveys in 1999 and 2002, now stored at
the Muse6 de la Kasbah in Tangier, were sampled. These
samples have been prepared for testing.

The 2003 season of the Morocco Maritime Survey
focused upon further identification of anchor parts, the geo-
graphical origins of lead anchor elements, and the map-
ping of the large anchorage site CSP062. The findings from
this season, combined with those from the 2002 season,
assisted in answering preliminarily the questions posed
for this maritime survey.

As a cumulative result of the past two survey sea-
sons, and including the eight lead anchor elements found
nearby during the 1999 INA survey (see INA Quarterly 28.3:
14), 66 anchors and anchor parts have been discovered thus
far along the Atlantic face of Cap Spartel (see Fig. 3). The
densest concentration of these anchors is the site designat-
ed CSP062, where 46 anchor elements have been identi-
fied in a 120 m2 area. The number and distribution of
anchors so far located at Cap Spartel indicate that this area,
and particularly the site CSP062, served as an anchorage.
Here, in the western lee of the mountainous promontory,
ships could wait for favorable winds and a change in the
unusual (and strong) north-south tidal currents, in order
to enter the Straits of Gibraltar or to voyage further south
along the Atlantic coast. The types of anchors present at
Cap Spartel can also identify the general chronology and
cultural identity of vessels that lost them while stopping
The artifact distribution of the surveyed portions of
Cap Spartel is comprised of 56 lead anchor elements, nine
iron anchors, and one stone anchor. This distribution also
reflects a broad chronology of use of the larger area as an
anchorage. The single-hole stone anchor found at CSP046
in 2002 might be the earliest example of an anchor type in
the region; its identification as such, however, is tenuous,
as fishermen in Morocco still use similar stone anchors to-
day. Therefore, the earliest definite examples of anchors
used at Cap Spartel are the Kapitan Ua lead stock cores.
These types were found at several sites in the area: CSP034
(two pairs), CSP045 (one core), CSP046 (two associated
cores), and CSP062 (five cores, four of which comprise two
sets). This type of anchor part is traditionally accepted as
being used in the Mediterranean from the fifth to mid-sec-
ond centuries BCE. Another date range for these artifacts
was provided by the wood of the anchor stock found at-
tached to one core of a pair found at CSP046 in 2002. This
wood, Quercus ilex, was radiometrically dated to 2460 BP
(+/-50 years; calibrated to 785-400 BCE) (see INA Quarter-
ly 30.1: 18). Cautiously then, this wood could assign a set
of the cores from Cap Spartel to the earlier part of the chro-
nological range established by Kapit.n.
The lead stocks found at Cap Spartel, including all
of the Kapitain III types (b, c, and d), represent the next
stage of anchors used in antiquity, and comprise a majori-
ty of the artifacts found during the 2002 and 2003 survey
seasons. These include stocks found at: CSP034 (five
stocks), CSP045 (two stocks), CSP052 (six stocks), CSP046
(one stock), and CSP062 (30 stocks). Kapitin III anchors
are usually assigned a date of use in the Mediterranean
from the second century BCE to first century CE. In addi-
tion, the lead anchor collars from CSP034 (one collar), and
CSP062 (three collars), and the one anchor sleeve (from
CSP062), can be assigned broadly to the fifth century CE

INA Quarterly 31.4

to the first century CE, as these pieces were used with vary-
ing types of stock configurations.
The transition in anchor material from lead to iron
is also demonstrated by the finds from CS0062. As the five
cruciform iron anchors date from the fourth to tenth cen-
turies CE, they also indicate the next period of use of the
anchorage. The latest example of an anchor found so far at
Cap Spartel is the eighteenth- or nineteenth-century Ad-
miralty anchor (artifact Z), located in the present center of
the plan of CSP062.
The anchorage area at Cap Spartel likely served ves-
sels transiting the Straits of Gibraltar and following routes
north to the Iberian Peninsula and south along the coast of
Morocco. It is very possible, however, that in antiquity,
the anchorage was also used by vessels visiting the con-
temporary settlements near Cap Spartel. The lead anchor
elements' location and chronology also suggest a connec-
tion to the coastal Phoenician and Punico-Mauretanian sites
south of Cap Spartel; these are the earliest "colonial" set-
tlements in Morocco, and date to the seventh to third cen-
turies BCE. This same region was also occupied during
the period of increasing Roman influence in the peninsula
(second-first centuries BCE), and finally Roman annexation
of northern Morocco as the province of Mauretania Tingi-
tani (in the early first century CE). These sites include the
large garum and fish-salting production site of Cotta (es-
tablished at the end of the first century BCE), just south of
Ras Achakar on the southern coast (see Fig. 1), and village
rusticae slightly inland. In the case of Cotta, the off- and
on-loading of fresh fish and processed fish products to ves-
sels by lighters would have occurred here, in protected
waters near sandy beaches.
After the collapse of the Roman administration in
the region in the third century CE, vessels continued to
use the Cap Spartel anchorage, as the iron anchors attest;

however, as there are no known contemporary coastal set-
tlements nearby, the area probably served as a stopping
point on the way to other ports along the Atlantic coast of
Morocco and through the Straits. The continued, strategic
importance of Cap Spartel as a sheltered area at the en-
trance to the Mediterranean and on the way to emerging
West African ports is revealed by the site's indication as
an anchorage on Dutch, French and British charts dating
from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
The sixty-six anchors and anchor elements found at
Cap Spartel are certainly only a sample of what is present
in the region. A limited area has been documented thus
far, and as diver survey and video documentation have
revealed, more anchors are present, extending the anchor-
age area to the west and south of the zone surveyed. Ad-
ditionally, the DEM produced from data collected in 2003
shows that the region where hardpan rock is exposed on
the seafloor extends considerably to the west and south
(see cover). As the rock is exposed, this area would have
served as a good location for vessels to anchor. The limit-
ed examination of the area, however, has answered some
of the posed research questions for the survey and intro-
duced further lines of inquiry, such as following established
anchor chronologies, anchor technology, and possible
changes in anchorage use over time. Isotope analyses are
currently underway for the lead anchor elements recov-
ered in 1999 and 2002; hopefully, the identification of the
geographical origins of the lead will broaden our under-
standing of trade in the region, as well as contribute to
historical information about lead mining and the exploita-
tion of the resource. By indicating the origins of these an-
chors, it might be possible to indicate where the vessels
that lost them were from; in the broader perspective this
information could reveal more details regarding the inter-
relations of the region in antiquity.

Acknowledgements: I would like to extend thanks to my co-director, Dr. Elarbi Erbati, and to all the participants of the
2003 Morocco Maritime Survey, both in and out of the field: Ellen Berkland, Dr. Julie Bryce, Stefan Claesson, Bruce
Darby, Dr. David Gregory, Layne Hedrick, Dr. Lloyd Huff, Craig Jones, Brian Jordan, Hadi Kouari, Rachid Lamghafri,
M'barek Oukhouya, Dr. Yuri Rzhanov, and John Wray. I would also like to extend my gratitude to Lt. Col. Youssef
Tber, Cdr. Khalid Loudiyi, Dr. Abdelatif Elboujaday, and Thor Kuniholm for their generous assistance with the project's
undertaking in Morocco. I am grateful to Dr. Donny Hamilton for his support during the survey and his assistance
with artifact conservation. 6,

Suggested Reading
Kapitin, G.
1984 Ancient anchors-technology and classification. IJNA, 13.1: 33-44.

Ponsich, M.
1970 Recherches archiologiques a Tanger et dans sa region. Paris: editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scienti
fique (CNRS).

Ponsich, M. & M. Taradell
1965 Garum et industries antiques de salaison dans la Miditerrane occidental. Paris: Universit6 de Bordeaux et Casa se

INA Quarterly 31.4

The 2004 Ancient Shipwreck Survey in Turkey

Faith D. Hentschel

Early in the morning of June 29, I watched the me-
chanical jaws of a homemade remotely-operated vehicle
(ROV) clamp onto a large stone that would give it added
weight to speed its descent to the sea floor (fig. 1). I held my
breath as Mehmet and Ismail manhandled the ROV over the
stem of Captain Merih's small fishing boat, Demet, and let it
slip below the surface. The suspense must have been similar
to what Sir Charles Fellows felt over a century earlier when
he described the experience of watching free-diving sponge-
fishermen prepare for their descent. Even the stone paral-
leled the large flat rocks used by these men to plane to the
sea floor in order to collect sponges. Indeed, Merih's ROV
regularly collected sponges to test them for disease, but to-
day we had hired him to check the deep-water sonar tar-
gets we had located during the previous three weeks.
This was the last day of the first segment of our sur-
vey program, as the Turkish military required that we
move to another search area the next day. Our primary
goal during this segment had been to search the area of
the Turkish coast near Arap Adasi where, in 1953, Bodrumn
sponge-dragger, Mehmet Erbil, had found a bronze bust

Fig. 1 (below). Merih's homemade ROV,

Fig. 2 (right). The bust of "Demeter."

of Demeter (fig.2). This Demeter is an icon of underwater
archaeology. In 1959, Peter Throckmorton, a New York
photojournalist, traveled to Bodrum because he had heard
about the bronze Demeter. Throckmorton interviewed
Captain Mehmet and tried, without success, to locate the
wreck that had yielded the statue. During the 1960s George
Bass also searched unsuccessfully for the Demeter wreck.
Since that time, the wreck has remained as elusive as it is
My proposal for the 2004 survey, therefore, called
for a return to the area that had yielded the Demeter stat-
ue, with search methodology that included INA's submers-
ible, Carolyn, and state-of-the-art side-scan sonar
instrumentation provided by Jeremy Green of the West-
em Australian Maritime Museum. Sonar targets within
the sixty-meter search capability of both Carolyn and INA
divers had already been investigated, but unfortunately,
turned out to be rock outcrops or underwater reefs. To-
day we had hired Merih and Demet to check the sonar tar-
gets that lay in depths that surpassed the range of our
submersible and diving operations.

INA Quarterly 31.4

Accompanied by five members of Prospero Produc-
tions, an Australian film team, Jeremy and I watched while
Merih manned the helm and the ROV controls and Meh-
met and Ismail handled the cable. Jeremy had navigated
Merih directly over his first target, and three minutes af-
ter the ROV was deployed it was filming the bottom at a
depth of seventy meters. Five minutes later, a large rock
outcrop that certainly matched Jeremy's target appeared
on the monitor. The target was not a shipwreck, but we
were delighted that the ROV had located it so quickly.
During the remainder of the day, we explored several ad-
ditional deep-water targets. Although none of the targets
proved to be a shipwreck, the success of the ROV in inves-
tigating sonar targets suggests that a future survey would
benefit from a combined sonar and ROV operation.
In 1959, Mehmet Erbil told Throckmorton the water
averaged thirty fathoms [fifty-four meters] in the place where
be found the statue, but six years after the discovery his
memory may have been flawed. Sponge-draggers tended
to operate in depths of up to eighty meters, but our survey
was restricted by the limitations of Carolyn and SCUBA div-
ing to depths of less than sixty meters. Although we did
survey with sonar in deeper water, we only had one day
with Merih's ROV to explore the deep water targets. Thus it
is possible that the find spot of the Demeter is outside our
search area. Consequently, we would like to return in 2005
with sonar and ROV. We know the statue came from some-
where near Arap Adast, and the discovery of the wreck
that yielded it would be legendary.
One of our primary goals during the second three
weeks of our survey program was to reinvestigate several
known shipwrecks, discovered on previous INA surveys
and assess their potential for future excavation. We began
with a fifth-century BCE Classical Greek shipwreck at
Asian Bumu, just south of Knidos. Asian Burnu, Turkish
for Lion Point, is named for the colossal lion, now in the
British Museum, recovered in the late nineteenth century
by Sir Charles Newton from a tomb built high on the head-
land overlooking the sea. A shipwreck beneath the point
was originally discovered by INA in 1981 and revisited
on INA's submersible survey in 2001 and on my 2003 sur-
vey. In 2003, we had been able to record all artifacts visi-
ble on the surface of the seabed; an impressive assemblage
of Classical pottery from Greece's Golden Age, including
amphoras from Chios and Mende and the spectacular in-
tact Attic red-figure krater found in 2001 (INA Quarterly
29.2, 10-11). In 2004, our goal was to determine if there
was material buried beneath the sand at the base of the
rock cliff. This we did by combining traditional probing
methods with state-of-the-art magnetometry, also provid-
ed by Jeremy Green. Although there were some small mag-
netic anomalies on the site, there was little to suggest a
large concentration of ceramic or metal. It appears unlike-
ly that there is a substantial cargo buried beneath the sand,

and therefore the Asian Bumu shipwreck is not a likely
candidate for excavation.
After completing the magnetometer survey at Asian
Bumu, we decided it would be beneficial to reinvestigate
four known shipwrecks, just north of Knidos, at iskandil
Burnu, Turkish for Sounding Lead Point. These wrecks
were discovered by INA divers in 1981 and revisited on
subsequent surveys, including INA's 2001 submersible
survey. Our goal in 2004 was to record all visible artifacts
and raise some sample artifacts for further analysis and
dating. Knidos was one of the most fabled and prosperous
cities in antiquity because of its strategic location astride
one of the main shipping lanes of the Mediterranean. The
Knidians moved their city to the tip of wind-lashed Cape
Krio, taking advantage (by collecting revenue) of ships
forced to take refuge in their harbor to escape the weather.
Given the menacing local winds, it is not surprising that
there are so many shipwrecks from all periods of antiqui-
ty in the surrounding area.
The first and perhaps most promising of the iskandil
Burnu wrecks contains a number of different types and siz-
es of ceramic kraters (mixing bowls for wine and water) and
a large assembly of ceramic roof tiles interspersed with am-
phoras. We raised two kraters, which are presently awaiting
further analysis, and one amphora, which has parallels in
the fifth-century BCE Erytharean amphoras from the Tektas
Burnu shipwreck excavated by INA from 1999 through 2001.
The raising of a large bell-shaped krater was an ad-
venture in itself. An unexpected current came up on the
surface while Prospero Production's underwater camera-
man, Malcolm Ludgate, and producer, Ed Punchard, were
filming my dive buddies, Mark Polzer and Murat Tilev,
and me putting the krater into the lifting sling on the bot-
tom. To our surprise, when we started our ascent we un-
able to make headway against the current. I popped to the
surface to call for an outboard with a tow rope. Once the
rope was hooked onto the krater sling, it also towed Mark
and Murat while Malcolm, holding on to Mark's fin, con-
tinued filming. Ed had grabbed the dinghy's bow line, but
I was falling farther and farther behind. Finally, Ed recog-
nized my difficulty and brought me a second tow line. It
was not until I was safely under tow that I remembered I
was carrying the camera and snapped the photo (fig. 3).
The second of the iskandil Burnu wrecks, visible
from the Krater wreck, is Byzantine and dates to the sixth
or seventh century CE. It comprises a visually fantastic
mound of over two hundred globular amphoras inter-
spersed with cigar shaped jars. The mound retains the
shape of the ship and almost certainly covers substantial
hull remains (fig. 4).
The third wreck at iskandil Buru is a collection of
roof tiles of the same type as those seen on the Krater wreck.
One amphora visible in the assemblage has not yet been
identified but should aid in determining whether or not

INA Quarterly 31.4

Fig. 3. Raising the krater at iskandil Burnu.

the tiles belong to a distinct wreck or are part of the cargo
spilled from the Krater wreck.
The fourth wreck comprises a wide distribution of
a variety of broken amphoras (different types possibly from
the same period) along a relatively shallow reef (fig. 5). In
the sand below this deposit are a number of "conical cups,"
three of which we raised (fig. 6). These cups are typical of
the late Roman period, and parallels for the site's most com-
mon type of amphora are seen in the Athenian Agora and
date from the second to the fourth century CE.
During the last two weeks of the survey, we moved
to Antalya Province with our research vessel Virazon, in or-
der to reinvestigate another known shipwreck discovered
by INA off the coast of Kekova Adasi in 1983. The Kekova

Fig. 4. The Byzantine wreck at iskandil Burnu,

wreck dates to the Archaic period (seventh century BCE),
and our intention was again to evaluate this wreck as a pos-
sible candidate for excavation. The wreck lies scattered over
a large area on a reef just inside the entrance of the harbor at
Kekova Oludeniz. The scatter, ranging from fifteen to thirty
meters deep, is comprised of Cypriot basket-handled am-
phoras, along with others from Samos and Corinth All the
visible artifacts are broken and most are heavily concreted
to the reef (fig. 7). We made a photo mosaic of the site, re-
corded all visible artifacts and probed for material beneath
the sand. Although there is a considerable amount of bal-
last, suggesting the original position of the ship on the sea-
bed, there is no cear evidence of hull remains. Nevertheless,
the date and provenience of the Kekova wreck give it tre-

rnoro: r. nenmscnei

INA Quarterly 31.4

Fig. 5 (left). The Roman scatter wreck at Iskandil Burnu.

Fig. 6 (above). Conical cups.
Photo: O. Koyagasioglu

mendous potential for future excavation.
Acknowledgements: I would like to thank my team members, Mark Polzer, Sheila Matthews, Feyyaz Subay, Murat Tilev,
Zafer Gul, Bayram Kosar, Ali Temel, Huseyin Vural, and Bodrum administrator Tufan Turanh, all of whom contribut-
ed to the success of the survey. Deborah Carlson, Elizabeth Greene and Mark Polzer provided invaluable editorial
assistance with the survey proposals and reports. Also supporting this project was Prospero Productions, which made
a documentary film of our work. It was a privilege to work with producer Ed Punchard, director Rhian Skirving,
cameramen Phillip Bull and Malcolm Ludgate and soundman Laurie Chalanda. It was the greatest privilege to work
with Jeremy Green, and I would like to express my gratitude to the Western Australian Maritime Museum for granting
him leave time to work on this project. I am, however, most grateful to the National Geographic Expeditions Council
and Frederick and Jan Mayer and Ron Vandehey whose generous support made this project possible. a

Yhoto: b. Matthews
Fig. 7. The Archaic wreck at Kekova Adasi

INA Quarterly 31.4

George Bass Dives for His Own Past

John R. Eastlund

What does the retired "Father of Nautical Archae-
ology" do now that he's no longer excavating ancient ship-
wrecks in Turkey? He dons his wetsuit and scuba gear,
joins his son for their first dive ever together, and goes to
look at the remains of a wreck in Long Island Sound (fig.
The Sound has been full of wrecks since pre-revo-
lutionary days, but George Bass is interested in a particu-
lar wreck-the steamer Atlantic, which sank in a terrible
November storm in 1846. The 1,112-ton ship was on its
way from its homeport of New London, Connecticut, to
New York City, where it had been built only four months
earlier (fig. 2). Minutes out of New London, the side-wheel-
er suffered a boiler casualty. The ship's crew cast-out an-
chors, but all day the anchors dragged as the worst storm
in local memory raged unabated. No other steamer could
approach through the high waves close enough to render
"I would give a thousand dollars for another an-
chor today," Captain Isaac Dustan was heard to exclaim.
About four o'clock the next morning, Atlantic was
driven onto the rocky shore of Fisher's Island. Within min-
utes the most luxurious of Long Island Sound steamships,
the first to be lit by gas lamps, was little more than kin-
dling. Forty-two of the seventy-eight souls aboard per- ~-
ished, including Captain Dustan.
The tragedy of Atlantic has faded from New York's
memory over time, but it was originally front-page news
here and overseas. Back then, maritime commerce was an Fig. 1. George Bass and his son Gordon diving in Long Island
important part of everyday New York life, not something Sound near Fisher's Island in 2004. Courtesy of G. Bass.
that New Yorkers only read about in history books as they

Fig. 2. A contemporary lithograph of the steamer Atlantic, by G. & W. Endicott, NYC. Courtesy of the Connecticut Historical
Society Museum, Hartford, CT.

INA Quarterly 31.4

do now. Freight wasn't hidden from view in truck-sized
shipping containers stacked in a Newark parking lot. Un-
til the Brooklyn Bridge opened in 1883, the only way to get
to Manhattan was to take a boat (or cross a few bridges
over the Harlem River). While you were doing that, you
would see ships disgorging immigrants at Battery Park and
pass shipyards launching the latest high-tech steamships.
Sailing ships still had their prows draped over South Street,
and the Erie Canal barges that carried the products of the
North American heartland were loading their cargoes into
freighters going to all ports of the world. Ferries scurried
from Brooklyn, Staten Island, and New Jersey. People knew
the schedules of packets and liners, so if a ship was over-
due there was widespread concern, particularly since some
of the people on board invariably were from local commu-
The smells and sounds of maritime commerce are
now disappearing from New York. Where great-battleships
once fitted out is now land coveted by condo builders. The
Fulton Fish Market is moving to the Bronx. The only ships
on Manhattan shores are museum relics and the occasion-
al cruise liner. The big vessels have been replaced by a few
harbor tour boats, commuter ferries, and privately owned
mega-yachts. Repair facilities for these boats are disappear-
ing. The great piers have been converted to impound lots,
golf driving ranges, and heliports. Office workers commut-
ing by subway to their skyscrapers rarely consider or care
that this was once a great seaport.
George Bass has devoted his life to teaching the
world not to forget the importance that seafaring had on
world history. It was not always easy. When he was a Uni-
versity of Pennsylvania graduate student, few people
thought it was possible to conduct a proper archaeological
excavation underwater. In 1960, he went to Cape Gelidon-
ya, Turkey, and showed them how to do it. This Bronze
Age shipwreck became the first ancient site ever excavat-x
ed in its entirety on the seabed. For the next dozen years,
George Bass developed many of the standard techniques
of shipwreck excavation, first as a student and later on the
faculty, before he left the University of Pennsylvania to
found the Institute of Nautical Archaeology (INA). It later
affiliated with Texas A&M University, where Dr. Bass is
now a Distinguished Professor Emeritus.
George Bass and his colleagues have shown the
wealth of information that can be gleaned from ancient
shipwrecks, in effect "time capsules" of what everyday life
was like in the years that they sank. They have tried to
show treasure hunters, looters, and antiquities collectors
that knowledge is more valuable than a few trinkets col-
lected in a haphazard manner for personal profit. His re-
search has shown how commodities trading has united
ancient civilizations all over the Mediterranean and adja-
cent seas. He has trained countless students, now diving
archaeologists who are continuing his work all over the

world. His contributions have not gone without recogni-
tion. Among other awards, he has received the Archaeo-
logical Institute of America's Gold Medal for Distinguished
Archaeological Achievement and the Lowell Thomas
Award from the Explorers Club. He is also a recipient of
the La Gorce Gold Medal, and one of the fifteen Centenni-
al Awards, from the National Geographic Society; the J.C.
Harrington Medal from The Society for Historical Archae-
ology; and the NOGI Award from The Academy of Un-
derwater Arts and Sciences. In 2002, President George W.
Bush presented him with the National Medal of Science.
All this is now ancient history to George Bass. Al-
though he stopped diving when he turned seventy a cou-
ple of years ago, in the summer of 2004 he decided to make
one last dive as part of a quest involving his own'past, a
genealogy project that's more of a hobby or a busman's
holiday than it is archaeology. His great-great-grandfather,
the Rev. Dr. William Jessup Armstrong (fig. 3), died when
the Ladies' Saloon, in which he was leading a prayer meet-
ing, collapsed as Atlantic struck Fisher's Island. When his
body was recovered, it showed a severe blow to his head.

Fig. 3. George Bass' great great grandfather, the Rev. Dr. William
Jessup Armstrong. Courtesy of the George Armstrong Wauchope
Papers, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina.

INA Quarterly 31.4

Fig, 4. The inscription on the bell from SS Atlantic reads:
"New York 1846 T.F. Secor & Co. Hanging on the wreck of
the steamboat Atlantic, on Fisher's Island, Nov. 28, 1846,
when 42 persons perished, I was made by unearthly hands
the surges of the deep, hours before, to toll their knell, and
days after, their requiem. Recovered from the sea, I am con-
secrated to the use of the Floating Church of the Holy Com-
forter, by ladies residing in New York and vicinity. New
York, Feb. 11, 1847." Photo courtesy of Seamen's Church
Institute of New York & New Jersey

None of the ten women on board survived, presumably
because they were all in the collapsing saloon.
According to the Norwich, Connecticut, Courier of
December 5, 1846, "the funeral of the late Dr. Armstrong,
was attended on Sabbath last by one of the largest assem-
blies ever witnessed in New York on any similar occasion."
He had concluded his business in Boston a day early in
order to rush home to New York to have Thanksgiving
dinner with his wife and five children.
Atlantic's bell hung from the wreckage tolling for
its victims until it was retrieved and given to the Floating
Church of the Holy Comforter in New York City (fig. 4).
The Floating Church later became the Seaman's Church
Institute, a spiritual haven for any seamen who pass
through New York. Although the Institute has moved sev-
eral times, the bell has followed and is now hanging sev-

Photo: J. Eastlund

Fig. 5. The bell from Atlantic, an enduring symbol of the mis-
sion of the Seamen's Church Institute of New York and New
Jersey, now hangs six stories above New York City.

eral stories above the street around the comer from South
Street Seaport, where I tracked it down in 2002 (fig. 5).
The ship's engine was salvaged shortly after the di-
saster and sent to California where it was mounted in a
Pacific steamer named Brother Jonathan, which, ironically,
sank in July 1865. A chest containing trade goods of axe
handles, meat grinders, pulleys, scythes, locks and keys
was recovered from the recent salvage of Brother Jonathan.
Carrie Sowden, working at the Conservation Research
Laboratory of Texas A&M University (directed by INA
President Donny Hamilton), is using the chest and its con-
tents as the basis for her Master's thesis
Dr. Bass did not really expect to see much during
his dive. Atlantic was wrecked in only fifteen to twenty
feet of water (fig. 6), so a century and a half of waves have
scattered and churned things up and exposed anything

INA Quarterly 31.4

left to the corrosive effects of seawater and the visibility
off the island is poor. Nevertheless, on August 10, 2004,
George Bass sailed from New London to Fisher's Island
on the chartered dive boat Atlantis captained by Gary Chell-
is. With him and his son Gordon was Tom Jackson, a Wood-
en Boat editor who has written extensively about INA and

had just been certified as an open-water diver in order to
make this trip. On his return to College Station, I asked
Dr. Bass, "Did you see anything?"
"Nah. But I wouldn't have missed it for the world."
For a man who has spent over forty years in the serious
study of shipwrecks, he was at last just having fun.

Acknowledgements: Thanks to Debra Wagner, Director of Communications at the Seamen's Church Institute of New
York & New Jersey, for providing the photo of the bell and allowing me to get a close look at it; Norman Brouwer,
longtime historian at the South Street Seaport Museum Library (a position since eliminated along with the archaeolo-
gist because of budget cuts at South Street), for allowing me access to his extensive collection of New York maritime
history; and Kevin Crisman for notifying Dr. Bass of the sale of the Currier print of Atlantic. Finally, of course, thanks to
Dr. George Bass, whose telling of his family genealogy research project got me interested in finding the bell during a
vacation trip home to New York, and who filled in the details of his research, provided artwork, and allowed me to
write this. w

" ... .... I -
.;, A; 1 "A6W UL wftritco.CTHiiE MAhiBrtlciW IEuIE y.B
Fig.W 6.0100.KS An... 84 u r f thshpr. Corteft i.Bass.

Fig. 6. An 1846 Currier print of the shipwreck. Courtesy of G. Bass.

INA Quarterly 31.4


Celebrating J. Richard Steffy

Cheryl Ward

A happy crowd of nearly a hundred people joined
INA archaeologists, students, faculty and staff, friends and
long-time colleagues on September 17, 2004, in congratu-
lating Emeritus Professor J. Richard Steffy on the publica-
tion of The Philosophy ofShipbuilding: Theoretical Approaches
to the Construction of Wooden Ships. For decades, Professor
Steffy has inspired his students, friends and colleagues to
consider not just the ships of the ancient world, but the
people who built those ships as the true subject of research
related to the technology of ancient shipbuilding. Dedi-
cated to Dick by the contributing authors and editors, the
book reflects the inspiration he is for all those who love
the sea and ships.
Donny L. Hamilton, president of INA, opened the
formal presentation of the book and book signing at the
Nautical Archaeology Program on Texas A&M's campus
with a recognition of Dick's impact on the field of nautical
archaeology. Book editors Fred Hocker and Cheryl Ward
made brief comments and read messages of congratula-

tions and appreciation to Mr. Steffy from other authors.
The deep respect and long friendship evident in commu-
nications from Patrice Pomey, Ole Crumlin-Pedersen, Lu-
cien Basch, and Lionel Casson were echoed in comments
from a special surprise guest at the signing.
Elisha Linder, founder of a research institute in Is-
rael based at the University of Haifa, told the group how
he came to invite Mr. Steffy to Israel more than twenty
years ago. He subsequently worked with Dick both on the
project to examine the remains of bow timbers preserved
in the Athlit ram and on the recording and recovery of the
Kinneret boat from the Sea of Galilee.
INA Founder George Bass, who wrote the book's
forward, talked for a few minutes about the moment that
Dick announced he was changing his life's direction. "We
had been out to Atlantic City, looking at a few timbers
and some nails sticking out of the beach sand, and Dick
instantly identified it as a Maine Downeaster from the nine-
teen century (he was later proven right, of course)."

Book signing (left to right) Dick Steffy, George Bass, Fred Hocker, Cheryl Ward, Yaakov Dahanov, Tom Oertling and Kevin Crisman.

INA Quarterly 31.4

"On the way back to Philadelphia, Ann and I were
following Dick and his wife Lucille, and after a few miles, I
saw him standing on the side of the road, waving me over.
He told me he had come to a decision, and that he was going
to sell his business and try to make a living as a reconstruc-
tor of ancient ships. I was astounded, and asked him if he
was out of his mind, since he had a wife and children to care
for. Little did I know that less than a month later I would be
typing my own letter of resignation to the University Muse-
um and having people ask me the same question."
After these introductory remarks, representatives of
Texas A&M Press made the book available to guests, and
the book signing began in earnest. In addition to the edi-
tors, Mr. Steffy, and George Bass, authors Kevin Crisman
of Texas A&M University, Yaakov Kahanov of the Uni-
versity of Haifa, and Tom Oertling of Texas A&M Univer-
sity at Galveston were present.
The Philosophy of Shipbuilding includes ten chapters
that provide an overview of current research in the field.
After a synthetic review of the principles of shipbuilding
as expressed in the remains of ships, the volume presents
chapters on shipbuilding in ancient Egypt and the Medi-
terranean, detailed studies of Egyptian papyri and some
very early Greek boat models, the evolution of frame-first
construction, the technology of Atlantic ships, and a grip-
ping story of shipwreck and discovery in Lake Champlain.
Philosophy was published in the Texas A&M Press Ed
Rachal Foundation Series in Nautical Archaeology and is
available through most major booksellers and through Tex-
as A&M Press. INA members receive the volume at the
discount price of $65.00 volume. a

Dick Steffy signs a personal dedication in a volume of The Phi-
losophy of Shipbuilding.

News & Notes

Nautical Archeology Program Graduates Become Editors
Three graduates of the Nautical Archaeology Pro-
gram at Texas A&M University have recently taken up
important editorial positions or received awards as ed-
itors. Michael A. Fitzgerald is the Monographs Editor
for the American School of Classical Studies at Athens.
The Association of American Publishers recently pre-
sented the American School with an award for Out-
standing Achievement in Professional and Scholarly
Publishing. The prize, for the best book published in
the fields of Classics and Archaeology in 2004, honors
the publication of The Propylaia to the Athenian Akropolis
I!: The Classical Building by William B. Dinsmoor and
William B. Dinsmoor Jr. Kristin Romey is the Manag-
ing Editor of Archeology Magazine, and Madeleine
Donachie has been named Managing Editor of The Amer-
ican Journal of Archeology. Closer to home, INA Quarter-

ly Editor Christine Powell is returning to work on her
dissertation and will be succeeded by Kirsten Jerch.
The Wine-dark Sea
Many INA projects relate in one way or another to am-
phoras or other aspects of the international wine trade from the
Bronze Age down to modem times. Some other INA members
may be interested in wine from a consumer's point of view. So,
we note with interest the release of Greek Salad: a Dionysian Trav-
elogue (Wine Appreciation Guild, 2004) by Miles Lambert, who
assisted INA with information on Greek wines in 1983. This is a
collection of twenty-six stories from all over the Greek islands
and mainland, always with an eye toward local wine. For the
benefit of our archaeologists, there are numerous amusing ref-
erences to little known passages in classical literature about wine,
the wine-god, and related topics.

INA Quarterly 31.4

Just Released

Serce Limani: An Eleventh-Century Shipwreck, Vol. I: The Ship and Its Anchorage, Crew, and Passengers
by George F. Bass, Sheila D. Matthews, J. Richard Steffy, and Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr.

College Station: Texas A&M Press, 2004.
0-89096-947-7, 592 pp, 121 b&w photos, 129 line drawings, 3 maps, 45 tables Index. $125.00 cloth.

The time was the Middle Ages; the scene was a small bay known in present-day Turkey as Serqe Limaru, "Spar-
row Harbor," on the mainland peninsula just opposite Rhodes. INA Cofounder George F. Bass describes what hap-
pened there:
In A.D. 1025 or shortly thereafter, a modest merchant ship sailed into this seemingly safe haven,
perhaps seeking shelter. Her voyage had probably taken her from the vicinity of Constantinople,
perhaps from a Byzantino-Slavic community, to the eastern shore of the Mediterranean. There
her merchants, most likely including Hellenized Bulgarians, took on as cargo 3 metric tons of
cullet [glass fragments intended for recycling] (including a ton of broken Islamic vessels), some
eighty pieces of intact glassware, nearly four dozen red-ware cooking vessels, half a dozen cop-
per cauldrons and buckets, and sumac and raisins from a port within the Fatimid caliphate.
Now, at an anchorage used for centuries, her crew cast the starboard bower anchor. Its iron
shank snapped, perhaps from a sudden gust of the wind that is still funneled unexpectedly, but
with gale force, down through the surrounding valleys. Suddenly adrift, the ship crashed onto
the nearby rocky shore and sank. Those of the crew who could swim should have had no trouble
reaching shore, especially if they made the beach not far distant inside the harbor. It seems,
however, that they had no chance to save many, if any, of their personal possessions.
The wreck was soon forgotten, and it lay virtually unnoticed thirty-three meters beneath the surface of the harbor for
almost a millennium.
Modem sponge divers were aware of the site and its burden of broken glass, but it was not until the first INA
Turkish Survey in 1973 that this was determined to be a potentially well-preserved shipwreck from the eleventh centu-
ry. Excavation began in 1977, sponsored by INA, the National Geographic Society, Texas A&M University, and the
Coming Glass Works Foundation, and continued for three seasons. Detailed study of the data and artifacts gathered
during the excavation has occupied many scholars-including the four editors, twenty-one other authors, three illus-
trators, and photographer who contributed to this volume-for much of the quarter-century since. The Bodrum Muse-
um of Underwater Archaeology opened a splendid gallery devoted to the Serge Limam "Glass Wreck" in June 1990; the
Museum's director, Oguz Alp6zen, had been the onsite representative of the Turkish Ministry of Culture during the
excavation. However, the final publication, which begins with this volume, will be the most important memorial to the
sailors whose voyage ended badly so long ago.
The book begins with a physical description of the harbor at Serce Limaru and its wrecks. This is followed by
three chapters (out of twenty-four) devoted to regional history and archaeology: Robert S. Carter on the area in Classi-
cal times, Elisabeth Malamut on Byzantine times, and Dorothy Slane on the archaeological history of the anchorage. One
of the things that makes the Serge Limani site so important, paradoxically, is that it was nowhere special. This part of the
Carian coast was quite typical of littoral settlement patterns throughout the Byzantine cultural sphere. The ship was not
transporting elite passengers or goods into an exotic port in luxurious style. This was an ordinary commercial vessel stop-
ping, and sinking, at a very ordinary anchorage. The shipwreck thus presumably provides a representative cross-section
of the grassroots economy of the Byzantine Empire, including particularly trade with its Muslim neighbors.
INA picked this site for excavation in part because the eleventh century was an important period in the evolution
of hull construction. Like most modem ships, but unlike typical ancient and early medieval vessels, much of the fram-
ing of the Serce Limam "Glass Wreck" was assembled before any planking was added. Almost half of this volume is
devoted to the ship's hull, rigging, anchors, ballast, and querns. J. Richard Steffy provides an invaluable introduction to
ship studies, while Sheila Matthews describes how the INA excavation team recorded the hull. The two then collabo-
rate on a description of the hull remains. The exhibit in the Bodrum Museum required reconstruction, reassembly, and
display of the hull, and the team that put the exhibit together (Dick Steffy, Sheila Matthews, Frederick M. Hocker, and
Robin C.M. Piercy) describes this process. Dick Steffy provides a detailed guide to the original construction of the "little
merchant vessel that was full and flat and simply built." Since the Serce Limam vessel was probably launched a decade
or two before its sinking, it required significant repairs during its working life, which are also described.

INA Quarterly 31.4

The boxy hull would have been efficient in carrying cargo, with a capacity of thirty-five tons within a fifty-foot
length, but the ship would have been rather clumsy and uncomfortable to sail. However, Ms. Matthews suggests that the
inherent stability provided great resistance to heeling, making it easier to carry fore-and-aft sails, probably a two-masted
lanteen rig that allowed closer sailing to the wind (and thus easier travel upwind) than square sails would. The Serce Limaru
wreck is the earliest with this rig that has provided enough information to allow profitable study. Frederick H. van Doom-
inck, Jr. discusses design, making, and temporary repairs of the anchors and careful ballasting of the ship; Tamara Stech and
R Maddin the anchor iron, and Curtis Runnels millstones used as ballast and anchor-pile supports. Because the remains
illustrate so many details from a key period in the evolution of watercraft, this section of the book alone would make it a
mandatory acquisition for any serious library collection on ship design and construction.
However, there is more to this shipwreck than the ship itself. The sinking and subsequent burial under sediment
created a "time capsule" of a critical point in Eastern Mediterranean history. The death of Emperor Basil II in 1025 marked
the end of the long Byzantine recovery from the Persian and Arab invasions in the seventh century, and the beginning of its
long decline towards final collapse in the fifteenth. Despite its importance, this is a period that has provided remarkably
little evidence about daily life in Islamic society and even less from the Byzantine domains. The Serqe Limaru finds consti-
tute one of the largest surviving assemblages of everyday objects of the period, illuminating both the Byzantine and Islamic
cultures, and their cross-cultural contact. Ten of the twenty-four chapters in this first volume are devoted to items that
probably constituted the personal possessions of the crew and passengers. These included jewelry, tools, gaming pieces,
metal vessels, weapons, fishing gear, padlocks, grooming equipment, and other personal effects. The most complete set of
Byzantine tools in existence, the earliest firmly dated chess set, the largest collection of Byzantine weapons from any site are
described! The book describes the most complete set of Byzantine tools in existence, the earliest firmly dated chess set, and
the largest collection of Byzantine weapons from any site. Two additional chapters discuss the faunal and plant remains
that probably represent the ship's victuals. This section of the book (which contains contributions by George Bass, Fred van
Doominck, Robert H. Brill, Fred Hocker, Kenneth Cassavoy, James W. Allan, Joseph K. Schwarzer II, G. Venetia Piercy, M.
L. Rider, Cemal Pulak, Sophie Stos-Gale, Philip L. Armitage, and Cheryl Ward) will also make it a mandatory purchase for
any scholar of the cultural history of the period or area.
Future volumes of this series will discuss the ceramic wares and commercial equipment (such as coins, weighing
equipment, and seals) found on the eleventh-century Serge Limani shipwreck, as well as the cargo of Islamic glazed
bowls, plain wares, the largest collection of medieval Islamic glass vessels from a single site, raw glass and broken
glassware cullet, and Islamic wine in Byzantine amphoras. The INA excavation recovered roughly a million pieces of
broken glassware, constituting perhaps the world's most challenging jigsaw puzzle, which has occupied a sizable team
of conservators for over two decades. When all the data has been published, the editors will present conclusions about
the crew, passengers, economics, and route that led to Serqe Limaru on that last voyage. This initial volume thus repre-
sents only the first-fruits of a truly massive undertaking.
The Texas A&M Press has generously offered a discount to INA members of 30%. Please contact them directly on
(979) 845-1436, (979) 847-8752 fax, or by e-mail at v


Faith Hentschel

Since this is to be my last issue as Editor of the INA Quarterly, I hope I can be excused a personal note. I first met INA
Associate Director Faith Hentschel as I walked out of the camp gates very early on my first day on the Bozburun excavation in
Turkey. She offered me a ride in her car up to the conservation house, which was situated up on the hill overlooking Selimiye's
picturesque bay. I have since enjoyed many rides with Faith, as she has become a good friend. I dearly needed such friend in those
early days of my career. I am not alone. Faith has befriended, mentored, and helped many of us through her years with INA.

In a sense, Dr. Faith Hentschel has been involved covered a new passion when I took my first diving course
with the Institute of Nautical Archaeology since before it in 1972, right after the birth of my second child, when
even existed. Let her tell the story: "George Bass has al- George was still at the University of Pennsylvania, and
ways said you can teach an archaeologist to dive, but you neither INA nor the Program had been conceived. I was
cannot necessarily teach a diver to become an archaeolo- interested in nautical archaeology, so I interviewed with
gist. Nevertheless, I started the wrong way around. I dis- George in Philadelphia. He said that if I wanted to work

INA Quarterly 31.4

with him, I would need a Ph.D, in Classical Archaeology.
Since I knew from my travels that I was fascinated with
the Classical World, that sounded reasonable.
"He asked me if I had ever had any Greek or Latin.
Well, I had Latin in seventh and eighth grade (with the same
teacher as Crawford Greenwalt, director of the Sardis exca-
vation) but did not continue in high school. Clearly, I had a
lot of work to do, especially since I had two small children.
Nevertheless, when I was accepted into Yale's Classical Ar-
chaeology program for the fall of 1974, George agreed to take
me as a field school student at Yassiada that summer. Al-
though we only had eighteen days of field training before
the Cyprus war ended the season, it was enough to convince
me that I had found my calling."
Faith now has three advanced degrees in Classical
Archaeology from Yale, in addition to her undergraduate
degree in Art History from
Mount Holyoke College.
"Both my undergraduate de-
gree and my doctorate have
served me well, because I have
been teaching Art History and
Archaeology at Central Con-
necticut State University in
New Britain, Connecticut,
since 1983. I begin every
course with a presentation on
my underwater exavation and
survey work in order to en-
gage my students in the excite-
ment of art and history." One
of her classes was the impetus
that brought former INA Pres-
ident Fred Hocker into the dis-
cipline, and several of her
undergraduate students have
travelled to Bodrum as muse-
um interns.
Faith has also taught at
Yale, Wellesley, and the Uni-
versity of California at San Diego, as well as serving as an
enrichment lecturer on Sea Cloud cruises in the Aegean, the
Adriatic, and along the Turkish coast. Over the past thirty
years, she has given many public lectures about the Institute
and its work. Faith enjoys time with her son Michael
Hentschel, her daughter and son-in-law Samantha and Scott
Pinckney, and her grandchildren Abby and Jake Pinckney,
all of whom live near her home in Stony Creek, Connecticut.
Despite her active life outside INA, Faith has made
an impressive contribution to the work of the Institute since
that first short season in 1974. Since she was taking classes at
Yale in the Fall semester of 1976, she missed working at Seytan
Derist. However, that is the only flaw on her almost perfect
record of participation in every INA excavation in Turkey

since the American Institute of Nautical Archaeology began
in 1973. In 1993, Faith purchased a second home in a village
near Bodrum, which she uses as her Turkish base of opera-
tions. During her career as a nautical archaeologist, she has
worked on the fourth-century CE Roman and sixteenth-cen-
tury Ottoman shipwrecks at Yassiada, Defense in Penobscot
Bay, Maine, the Comwallis ship at Yorktown, a third-centu-
ry BCE Hellenistic shipwreck at Lipari, Italy, the eleventh-
century CE "Glass Wreck" at Serge Limani, the ninth-century
CE Byzantine shipwreck at Bozburun, the fifth-century BCE
shipwreck at Tektas Bumu, and the sixth-century BCE ship-
wreck at Pabuq Burnu. She also worked on the mapping of
Early Bronze Age tombs at Mochlos, Crete. However, Faith
ranks the summers she spent from 1984 to 1994 working on
the Bronze Age shipwreck at Uluburun-one of the greatest
archaeological discoveries of the twentieth century-as her
most significant project.
In addition to her work
on excavation, Faith ihas con-
tributed to INA's Turkish sur-
veys that locate possible
excavation sites and gather
other information on the nau-
tical archaeology of the area.
"Certainly, the most challeng-
ing experiences I have had
were preparing for the two
submersible surveys I direct-
ed during the summers of 2003
and 2004 (see INA Quarterly
31.2, 10-16, and 31.4, 10-13). 1
found myself in the new posi-
tion of having to decide what
to do, how to do it and how to
raise the money for it. The
learning curve was amazing.
"Each project has been
more rewarding than the last,"
Faith adds, "not only because
of the light it has shed on the
history of ancient civilizations but also because of the joy of
working with the extraordinary group of people INA has
drawn together from all parts of the globe. I have watched
the organization grow from the foundation of the American
Institute of Nautical Archeology, through the creation of INA
and its affiliation with Texas A&M University in 1976, to its
position today. I am proud to contribute as an Associate Di-
rector. As INA President Donny Hamilton says, this is 'the
best nautical archaeology academic and research program
in the world.' I have had so many amazing experiences over
the past three decades that it is impossible to single out any
one for description. Suffice it to say that INA has allowed
me to pursue my passion, and I simply want to thank George
for admitting me as a field school student in 1974." a

INA Quarterly 31.4

Vol. 31 Index

Author ndex

Eastlund, J. R., "Nautical Archaeolo-
gy Resources on the World
Wide Web Part I: General Top-
ics," 31.2, 28-29
Eastlund, J. R., "George Bass Dives for
his Own Past," 31.4, 14-17
Greene, E. S. and M. E. PoLzer, "Evi-
dence for a 6h-Century BCE
Lifeboat and its Anchor?" 31.3,
Hall, J. L., "Across an Indigo Sea," 31.1,
Hentschel, F., "In Search of Ancient
Shipwrecks: 2003 Submersible
Survey, Turkey," 31.2, 10-16
Hentschel, F., "The 2004 Ancient Ship-
wreck Survey in Turkey," 31.4,
Leidwanger, J., "Episkopi Bay Survey,
Cyprus, 2003," 31.2, 17-27
Pedersen,R. K., "The Shipwreck in the
Cocoanut Grove: The
Kadakkarapally Boat," 31.2, 3-
Polzer, M. E., "An Archaic Laced Hull
in the Aegean: The 2003 Exca-
vation and Study of the Pubuq
Burnu Ship Remains," 31.3, 3-
Trakadas, A., "Morocco Maritime Sur-
vey: 2003 Season," 31.4, 3-9
Turner, G., "Managing a Field Labo-
ratory at an Isolated Site: Isla
Cabra," 31.1, 20-21.
Ward, C., "Celebrating J. Richard
Steffy," 31.4, 18-19

Subject Index

Anchors, 31.3, 12-18
Atlantic, 31.4, 14-17
Bartmhnner, 31.1, 12
Bartoli, Dante, 31.2, 34
Bass, G. F.,
Dives into his past, 31.4, 14-
Named PBK Scholar, 31.3, 19
Bryant, William, 31.2, 35

Catsambis, Alexis, 31.2, 34
Clay Pipes, 31.1, 10-11
Conservation, 31.1, 20-21
Crisman, Kevin, 31.2, 34
Custer, Katie, 31.2, 35
Cyprus, 31.2, 17-27
Demeter, 31.2, 10
Dive Information, 31.3, 19
Cultural Preservation, 31.3, 19
Dominican Republic, 31.1, 3-21; 31.2,
Donachie, Madeleine, 31.4, 19
Episcopi Bay, 31.2, 17-27
Field Lab, 31.1, 20-21
Fitzgerald, Michael, 31.4, 19
Glass Wreck, 31.4, 20-21
Hentschel, Faith, 31.4, 21-22
Hispaniola, 31.1, 3-21
Hoskins, Sara, 31.2, 35
Hull Construction, 31.2, 30-31
In Memorium: G. O. Yanmini, 31.1, 26-
In the Field, 31.2, 34
DNA Board Meeting, 31.1, 22-25
India, 31.2, 3-9
Internet, 31.2, 28-29
Isla Cabra, 31.1, 3-21
Japanese Submarines, 31.2, 35
Jerch, Kirsten, 31.4, 19
Kadakkarapally, 31.2, 3-9
Kerala, 31.2, 3-9
Lambert, Miles, 31.4, 19
Lifeboats, 31.3, 12-18
Maniscalco, Fabio, 31.3, 19
Marathon, Bay of, 31.2,34
Mongolian Fleet, 31.2, 34
Morocco Survey 2003, 31.4, 3-9
Mount Athos, 31.2.34
News and Notes, 31.2,35; 31.3,19; 31.4,
Pedersen, Ralph, 31.2, 2-9, 34
Persian Armada, 31.2, 34, 35
Phaneuf, Brett, 31.2, 35
Phi Beta Kappa, 31.3, 19
Pipe Wreck, 31.1, 3-21
Powell, Christine, 31.4, 19
Profile: Faith Hentschel, 31.4, 21-22
Pubug Buru, 31.3, 3-18

Red River Wreck, 31.2, 34
Research Resources, 31.2, 28-29
Riverboats, 31.2, 32-33, 34
Romey, Kristin, 31.4, 19
Sasaki, Randall, 31.2, 34
Serce Limaru, 31.4, 20-21
Shipbuilding, 31.2, 30-31
Ship Construction in India, 31.2, 4-9
Smith, Wayne, 31.2, 35
Steamboats, 31.2, 32-33, 34
Steffy, J. Richard, 31.2,30-31; 31.4,18-
Submarines, Japanese, 31.2, 35
Cyprus 2003, 31.2, 17-27
Dominican Republic, 31.2, 35
Greek, 31.2, 34
Italian, 31.2, 34
Lebanese, 31.2, 34
Morocco 2003, 31.4, 3-9
Turkish 2003, 31.2, 10-16
Turkish 2004, 31.4, 10-13
Turkish Survey 2003, 31.2, 10-16
Turkish Survey 2004, 31.4,10-13
Turtle Creek, Mansion at, 31.1, 22-25
Wachsmann, Shelley, 31.2, 34, 35
Western Rivers, 31.2, 32
Wine, 31.4, 19
World Wide Web, 31.2, 28-29
Yamini George, 31.1, 26-27

Reviews and "Just Released"

Aubet, M. E., The Phoenicians and the
West: Politics, Colonies, and
Trade, Second Edition, 31.2, 27
Bass, G. F., S. D. Matthews, J. R. Steffy,
and F. H. van Doorninck, Jr.,
Serce Limani: An Eleventh-Centu-
ry Shipwreck, Vol. I, The Ship and
Its Anchorage, Crew, and Passen-
gers. 31.4, 20-21
Hocker, F. M. and C. A. Ward, The Phi-
losophy of Shipbuilding: Concep-
tual Approches to the Study of
Wooden Ships, 31.2, 30-31
Kane, A. I., The Western River Steam-
boat, 31.2, 32-33

INA Quarterly 31.4


Christine A. Powell
Donny L Hamilton, Ph.D., President*
Donald A: Frey, Ph.D., Vice President Cemal M. Pulak, Ph.D., Vice President
Claudia F LeDoux, Chief Accounting Officer and Assistant Secretary
Michelle Chmelar, Assistant Accounting Officer
Tufan U. Turanh, Administrator, Bodrum Research Center

William L. Alien
Oguz Aydemir
John H. Baird
Joe Ballew
George F. Bass, Ph.D.,* Founder
Edward O. Boshell, Jr.,
Past Chairman'
Elizabeth L. Bruni
Allan Campbell, M.D.

Raynette Boshell
William C. Culp, M.D.
Nicholas Griffis
Robin P Hartmann

John Cassils, M.D. James A. Goold, J.D.
Gregory M. Cook Chairman, Secretary &
Lucy Darden General Counsel'
Thomas F. Darden' Charles Johnson, Ph.D.'
John De Lapa Mustafa Ko
Claude Duthuit Selquk Kolay
DanieUe I. Feeney* Francine LeFrak-Friedberg
Robert Gates, Ph.D. Alex G. Nason
Donald Geddes Il George E. Robb, Jr.
Lynn Baird Shaw
Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D. George Lodge
Susan Katzev Thomas McCasland, Jr.
William C. Klein, M.D. Dana F. McGinnis

Ayha.n Sicimoglu* *
J. Richard Steffy
William T. Sturgis
Frederick H. van Doominck, Jr., Ph.D."
Robert L. Walker, Ph.D."
Peter M. Way, Vice-Chairman*
Garry A. Weber
Sally M. Yamini
'Executive Committee

Michael Plank
Molly Reily
Betsey Boshell Todd
Robyn Woodward

Deborah Carlson, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Fellow
Filipe Castro, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Frederick R. Mayer Faculty Fellow of Nautical Archaeology
Kevin J. Crisman, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Nautical Archaeology Faculty Fellow
Donny L. Hamilton, Ph.D., George T. & Gladys H. Abell Chair in Nautical Archaeology, Yamini Family Chair in Liberal Arts
Cemal M. Pulak, Ph.D., Frederick R. Mayer Professor of Nautical Archaeology
C. Wayne Smith, Ph.D., Associate Professor, INA Faculty Fellow
Shelley Wachsmann, Ph.D., Meadows Professor of Biblical Archaeology

George F. Bass, Ph.D.,
George T & Gladys H. Abell Chair in Nautical Archaeology, Yamini Family Chair in Liberal Arts, Distinguished Professor Emeritus
Frederick H. van Doominck, Jr., Ph.D., Frederick R Mayer Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
J. Richard Steffy, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
Mr. & Mrs. Ray H. Siegfried (I Graduate Fellow: Alexis Catsambis Marian M. Cook Graduate Fellow: Josh Levin

J. Barto Arnold, M.A.
Dante Bartoli
Kroum N. Batchvarov, M.A.
Alexis Catsambis

Ayse Atauz, Ph.D.
Arthur Cohn, J.D.
Elizabeth Greene, Ph.D.

Australian Institute of Maritime Archae
Boston University
Brown University
Bryn Mawr College
University of California, Berkeley
University of Cincinnati
Cornell University

Esra Altmarut-G6ksu
Miinewer Babacik
Mustafa Babaclk
Mehmet Ciftlikli
Tuba Ekmekci
Zafer Gill

Katie Custer Margaret E. Leshikar-Denton, Ph.D
Jeremy Green, M.A. Bjorn Lov6n
Justin Leidwanger Maria del Pilar Luna Erreguerian

Nergis Giunsenin, Ph.D. Fredrik T. Hiebert, Ph.D.
Jerome L. Hall, Ph.D. Frederick Hocker, Ph.D
Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D. Carolyn G. Koehler, Ph.D.
ology Coming Museum of Glass Par
DepartamentodeArqueologia SubacuAtica de Un
la LN.AH., Mexico Tex
University of Maryland, Baltimore County RP
New York University, Institute of Fine Arts Tex
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Thq

Bilge Giinesdogdu Nurgiil Kulah
Chasity Hedlund Sheila D. Matthews, M.A.
Janna Jackson Asaf Oron, M.A.
Giilser Kazancioglu Muammer Ozdemir
Bayham Kosar Robin C. M. Piercy

John McManamon, Ph.D.
Ralph K. Pedersen, Ph.D.
Brett A. Phaneuf
Donald Rosencrantz

Jeff Royal, Ph.D.
Cheryl Ward, Ph.D.
Gordon P. Watts, Jr., Ph.D.

ttners for Livable Places
diversity Museum, University of Pennsylvania
.as A&M Research Foundation
M Nautical Foundation
as A&M University
e University of Texas at Austin

Sikran SenyLz
A. Feyyaz Subay
Murat Tilev
Slleyman Tilme
Fred Van de Walle
Ciine YaSar


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