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Title: The INA quarterly
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 Material Information
Title: The INA quarterly
Alternate Title: Institute of Nautical Archaeology quarterly
Abbreviated Title: INA q.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Publisher: Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Place of Publication: College Station TX
College Station TX
Publication Date: Summer 2004
Copyright Date: 1997
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Underwater archaeology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Archéologie sous-marine -- Périodiques   ( rvm )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 19, no. 1 (spring 1992)-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 23, no. 2 (summer 1996).
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Volume ID: VID00046
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 26536606
lccn - sf 94090290
issn - 1090-2635
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Preceded by: INA newsletter (Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.))


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The INA Quarterly

Volume 31* No. 2

Summer 2004

3 The Shipwreck in the Coconut Grove:
The Kadakkarapally Boat
Ralphl K, Pederseti

10 In Search of Ancient Shipwrecks:
2003 Submersible Survey, Turkey
Faith Hcnltschel

17 Episkopi Bay Survey, Cyprus, 2003
Justin Leidwanger

28 Nautical Archaeology Resources on the World Wide Web
Part 1: General Topics
ohin R. Eastlund

30 Just Released
The Philosophy of Shipbuildliig
Edited by Frederick M. Hocker and Cheryl A. Ward

32 Just Released:
The Western River Steamboat
Adam I. Kane

Institute of Nautical Archaeology
PO. DrawerHG
College Station, TX 77841-5137

SLearn firsthand of the latest discov-
eries in nautical archaeology. em- 1
bers recei\ e the INA Qawrterly and
other benefits.

Researcher ( Diver...... . .... .40
Seafarer .... S75
Surveyor .. .150
Restorer ... .. ......... 5500
Curator .. ... 1,000
Excavator. . ... 2,500
Navigator ... 55,000

SChecks. in L.S. currency should be made
payable to [NA

34 In the Field

35 News and Notes

On the cover: The Kadakkarapally Boat from the bow. Photo: R. Pedersen

C Jun. 2004 b- the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. All rights resern ed
1NA elcomes requests to reprin [.'A Qiuarterly articles and illustrations. Articles for publication should be submitted in hard
copy and on a 3.25 diskette (Macintosh. DOS. or Vindows format acceptable) along with all artwork. Please address all requests
and submissions to the Editor, INA Q: rtcrly, P.O. Drawer HG, College Station, TX 77.S41-5137: tel (979) 843-6604, fax (979) 547-
9260, e-nmail The Home Page for INA is at
The institute of Na.itlical Archaeolog y is a non-profit corporation whose
mission is to foster excellence in underwater archaeoloegy.The opinions expressed in Qiiurtc'rly articles are those or the authors, and
do not nieces-. ri' ref',e-t the l iews Ci the Institute.

The IN'.A Q a -i i'., 'a formerly the .\A \\':':-tter (vols. 1-18).

Editor. Christine A. Powell

The Shipwreck in the Coconut Grove:

The Kadakkarapally Boat

Ralph K. Pedersen

Shipwrecks are found in the strangest places. In the
Netherlands they are found under cabbage leaves like pro-
verbial children, in farmland reclaimed from the sea. In
Kansas, paddle-wheeled steamboats appear in farmers'
fields where rivers once ran, and in New York Dutch and
British colonial-period ships lie under skyscrapers built on
landfill. So why not a shipwreck in an Indian coconut
gro\ e? In 1990, farmers planting trees at Kadakkarapally,
Kerala, found such a vessel (fig. 1). After a brief investiga-
tion, they reburied the craft and left it to sit. In 2002 the
villagers notified the archaeologists of the Kerala State In-
stitute of Archaeology, Art History, Conservation, and
Museology (SIAACM), and thus began the unveiling of a
boat type no one had suspected existed.
In May 2003, at the invitation of Dr. M.V. Nair, then
head of SIAACM, and funded through a grant from RPM

Nautical Foundation, I flew from Texas to India across
twelve time zones, which is about as far as one can go on
this planet At that distance day became night, night be-
came day, and dazed and jet-lagged I found myself peer-
ing into a muddy pit surrounded by coconut trees. As the
sun dappled through the palm fronds o\ erhead, I sipped
milk from a freshly-picked coconut and stared at a boat
dated to almost one thousand years ago. "Well," someone
asked, "what do you think?"
Over the next several days I walked on the boat's
timbers still solid after centuries in the mud, waded
through black trench water that stained my toenails dark,
scraped from my feet mud so thick and sticky it seemed
impervious to water, and 1 pondered the nature of India's
first reported ancient hull. Curiosity brought out honey-
mooning Britons, a daily parade of nattily-dressed men

m~dpi 1%. reue17svV
Fig. 1. The Keralan coast IKndakkarapai1 lics beltv'en Chertala a nd the coast. CL'LhhII i- tihe site of I1w firI
Port ii.,ueeze .'Il(,ici'flt in India.

['\: Qu~ir!c-rl% 31.2

aL'id sari-clad women, and the press showed up too, fes-
tooned ith microphones and cameras All wanted to
know,. ~,.ho built her? What was she used for, and what
r. as the boat doing in a coconut grove?
Archaeological investigations of shipwrecks in the
Indian Ocean and its tributary seas of the Persian Gulf and
Red Sea are relatively rare I\A's own projects, have in-
volved a seventeenth-centurv wreck at Sadana Island in
the Red Sea, a fifth- or sixth- century wreck at Black Assar-
ca Island, Eritrea, and a survey in Bahrain where a ship-
wreck of undetermined date was found Other groups have
excavated a ninth-centurv wreck in Indonesia, a Dutch East
[ndiaman in Sri Lanka, and of course, a number of wrecks
in Australia. Manv of the areas around this vast ocean re-
main unexplored bx nautical archaeologists. Indian wa-
ters are themselves virtually virgin terntorv
A country with a coastline as large as India's must
haxe had a long and busy seafar:g tradition.-Little is
known about it, however, as the archaeology of India has
largely concentrated on terrestrial sites, and Indian seafar-
Ing lies outside of the main concerns of nautical archaeol-
ogy, which tends to focus on the Mediterranean and
Atlantic roots of modem global maritime endeavors. For
the scholar of Indian Ocean ships and seafaring, the best
information is found in ethnographic studies. These most-
I, concern the sewn boat, a type once ubiqu;:rous in the
Indian Ocean before the arnra of the Portuguese at the
end of the fifteenth century (fig. 2). European merchants
and colonizers supplanted traditional boat construction
method,-, and by the beginning of the last century, the in-
digenous t pes such as the sewn boat sur ived only in a
few places. One of these area s thie coast of southwestern
India, It would be expected then that a vessel predating
the European colonization would be of the traditional sewn
\ pre. That expectation is %% wrong. The vessel lyvng in the pit

at the village of Kadakkarapall\ is unique, unlike an% thing
we expected. It is built in a method lost and forgotten tor
centuries and even contains a ltature not seen oLutide the
time and land of the Pharauohs

The Hull
Investi gating the ship rcck was a race against time
The vearlv monsoon threatened to start any day-when it
came, all w ork w, would vield to the torrential rains. Pre-
monsoon heat battered India, but sea breezes cooled our
site. ust a mile from the shore. Inland, hundreds of people
died from the unrelenting temperatures. It was hard to
imagine such events in our peaceful coconut grove where
exotic birds flew ox erhead and children played among the
Archaeologist Dr V Selvakumar and geoarchaeol-
ogist Dr. Paul Shajan of the Centre for Heritage Studies
(CHSR directed the exca- :it:on of the wreck. As thev han-
d!ed the nit!t-grittv details of the hull recording, I concen-
trated on the vessel's shape and how it was put together
This gave me the time to pause ov er curious features and
think about how and vwh things were done With over
eighteen meter- of remaining hull length, there was plen-
ty to ponder.
Radiocarbon dating done in the United States yield-
ed a date of 1020 to 1270 CE. This corroborates the C-14
date derived b, a lab in India that indicated a date of 920
to 1160. The dates onl\ point to when the tree ,was -ut
down, not when the craft was built or when it was aban-
doned Typicall timber is used within a few years of its
cutting, but on occasion may lie unused for longer As there
were no associated artifacts on the wreck that might have
been useful for comparative dating, the overlap in the ra-
diocarbon dates, that is 1020 to 1160, should be regarded
as the likely date of the vessel's construction. Although

SIULUS: iX. i. futrscII
Fig. 2. (Left) St-en boats it Cochin. The method i. nfichletd for centuries and hia anciii"nt
root-. (Right) Detail! ollth slewn used toet isten the pliankin to etLicr with fibrous tuits useid to
p' 'i th'( st:hin< hole's.

1\.-\ Quarterly 31.2

the hull is complex and further detailed reports are being
prepared, specific hull features that can be addressed here
are the bottom planking, chine strikes, floors, bulkheads,
and cleats.

Bottom Planking
Thick planks compri-,c the bottom, which was origi-
nally flat forward and aft and side to side. Lying in two lay-
ers, the inner one is readily observable while only a small
-ecction of the outer layer can be seen in the port stern quar-
ter. Here, the curious villagers stripped the inner layer a way,
and broke through the outer laI er upon the wreck's discov-
e ry
The planks are car\ ed, A number of cleats are can ed -
out or cut into them in roix s reaching [rom side to scie. The
planking is smooth and exhibits only a lew tool marks ....
around some cleats. There is no edge joining- the only fas- -"
tenings holding the planking together are cut iron nails ham-
mered through the outer la% er into the inner. The nails are
randomly placed, without regard to the location of the in-
ner planking seams as some nails were hammered into them.
A gray substance fills the planking seams, which are
tght and expertly made, and it is smeared between the two Photo: R. Pedersen
la ers of planks. The substance was used as a sealant, or
perhaps an adhesik e, and mal be a mixture of oil, lime, and Fig. 3. View of the KaItakkarapally Boat from the stern. The
possibly tree sap, which is a tradition] seMalnt on Indian arrc:c Nidicatcs the drilia'e channel cut into the central bet-
boats. tom plank

The inner plankin" I: a mixture oa lengths
: and widths. Some planks are simply "stealers."
narrow, tapering boards inserted into spaces be-
-. t teen larger planks to fill a gap. There is a central
plank, but as it is no thicker than the other bottom
planks, it does not senre as a backbone. This plank
has a channel gouged down the centerline to fa-
cilitate drainage through limber holes bored
through the floors (fig. 3). There are at least t\wo
repair patches in the inner layer, both expertly fit-
ted. The repairs indicate the vessel was in use for
a while before its abandonment or wreckng
Each plank varies in width over its length
These varying widths give the strakes an "inter-
locking" appearance. Widths vary suddenly and
odd ends and corners protrude into abutting or
adjoining planks. Th : pattern continues into the
box( and stem areas %% here shorter planks are used
Photo: R. Pedersen (fig. 4). The interlocking pattern adds longitudi-
nal strength to the hull and keeps the planks from
Fig. 4. TeI inner planking !atr i th' bow. Note hu' the short and slipping against each other, which is particularly
brvad Plank mtirirlock, important in the absence of edge joining,

'-A Quaitcrl 3i 2

On the sides of the boat there is a third layer of plank-
ing. A small number of square-sectioned treenails, combined
with iron nails, fasten the outer layers to the inner. The third
layer of planking may be a "rubbing strake" protecting the
planking from the wear and tear of rubbing against wharves
and banks. As such, the third layer would have been consid-
ered somewhat temporary and easily replaceable.

Chine Strakes
Perhaps the most striking feature of the boat are the
chine strakes. These two massive timbers once both reached
over 14.5 meters long, although nowx only the starboard side
remains to that length
The strakes are carved in a slightly open "L"-shape, at
least ten centimeters at its thickest in cross-section (fig 5)
Spaced at regular intervals along the inside of the strake are
carved blocks to receive the ends of the floors, which fit tight-
ly and expertly. The blocks reach to the upper edge of the
chine strake essentially forming a carved framing member
(fig. 6).
Halfway between each frame-block are cleats and a
crossbeam-block. The lower cleat is in the chine itself, and
the second is carved several centimeters above it. Each cleat
has a hole carved through it Higher yet is a can ed block for
the support of a crossbeam. The crossbeam-block is notched
do\ etail fashion on its upper surface to accept the beam end
(fig 7) The notch does not penetrate the outer surface of the
chine strike.
Between the frame block and crossbeam-block/cleat
array are usually two (but sometimes only one) iron fasten-
ings set one above e the other. These are now mostly corroded
away leaving only holes and impressions, including that of a

Fig. 5. The stern end of the starboard chne. This massive L-
shaped timber, alooig with its counterpart to port, not only
served to connect the bottom to the side but also gave loIti-
tudinal strength to the entire vessel.

Fig. 6. (Left) A view of the vessel amidships, with forward to the left. showing the carved blocks in the starboard
chine trake for !he floor e)rds and the bena ends. Note a!so the central nminst steT ThL- I dovetailed into the floors
and sits suspe:'ded above the bottom planking While no mast was foinlind, an impression in the socket indicates the
mast foot was eightleen cm. square. The sizes of the7joors are typical, earning little throughout the hull.
(Right) Clo0cup 0'" cii:ts antd a b'eam block on the chine ;trake

1\A\ Quarterly 31 2

I __L

Photo: R. Pedersen

square rove' on the inner surtace, ind eating that these were rivets
Car\ ed into the top of each frane-block is a mortise for the
tenon of an upper f'utrck. This timber, of which onkl t'A o frag-
mentari examples ,ur\, i,.e, is pegged through the mortise-and-ten-
on joint with a square treenail. This is its solc fastening to the lower
hull member. The upper strake is nailed to the Futtock and it lies
cartel fashion with the chine strake (flush wrjh the edge, not over-
lapping as in clinker-built construction) Only one small section of
this strake survived

The floors are large, single-piece timbers that stretch from
chine to chine (see fig. 6). Originally there were ten floors, as seen
by the recesses cut into the planking in which they sat, spaced ap-
promimately 1.75 meters (or about 69 inches) apart. Of the ten, fiv-
remain intact, and three are completely missing. Another trans-
verse timber in the forward section of the craft lies between tw'z
floors and appears to exist solely for the purpose of supporting an
additional bulkhead This timber is smaller in cross-section than
the floors and it does not sit in carved blocks on the chine strake as
the floors do.
On the upper surface of each surviving floor a groove runs
from end to end for bulkhead panels. Standing vertitiily, sur'tving
panels sit in the groove with no additional fastening. It is unclear
how, the panels were secured at the top, and they do not seem to be
tatened to each other
Each floor is tastened to the bottom planking with t,\ o large
rectangular treenals, one to either side of the centerline, with one
hammered in on the forw\ ard face and the other one on the after

Fig, 7. Thc LiL'L't'tU! ioit ot thc bcai
CL clinic ;,IrakeL Fineiu c rathed. (I
Ii k. J ffCIUL'C Of tht' -;kitl ot thn.' 4ii'

Fig. 8, A 1,w ken, floor ~ipar k

Licrbi.', thatl M1 itZL'I f U%7 0?11 L M-
OlIifa-zIL'fi ~ to t 1? L hal t1. /i
L 4' i '-Zt J; itL.~ri t~ il U I 1 0 4,411 hC1.1
(71 11 Ir ii

_6- -

Photo- R. Pedersen

I.A-Quarterkl 31.2


face (figure S). Each floor is additionally fastened on ei-
ther end to the chine strike with two large iron spikes,
one forward and one aft of the bulkhead groove. These
are hammered down into the chine strakes. An exception
to this pattern is found in a floor in the forward part of the
boat that is fastened with pairs of iron spikes across its
width. This may have reinforced the transition of the plank-
ing from the bottom to the bow.
A gray substance was applied in each recess be-
tween the bottom planking and floors, either as a sealant
or an adhesive. As each floor has a centrally located lim-
ber hole, as previously mentioned, making the compart-
ments created biv the floors and bulkheads not watertight,
the latter function of the substance is more probable.

The craft is notable for the cleats found throughout
the interior ot the hull (figure 9). These are the most curi-
ous trait of its construction. Such features are usually as-
sociated with ropes and lashings, and remains of cordage
in some cleats indicate that this is the case with the
Kadakkarapally Boat. I believe the cleats are evidence of
transverse lashing, a system of hull fastening previously
known only from Egx pt in the third through mid-first mil-
lennia BCE.
In each space between floors, a series of cleats is cut
into the planks in a line from side to side Some of these
protrude about e 'he surface of the planking, \ while others
lie flush to :he surface with the holes recessed into the
planks. The cleats align with those carved on the chine
strakes With transverse lashing, ropes would run down
through the cleats on one chine strake, across the bottom
weaving in and out of the cleats, then up the cleats on the
other chine strake Then the ropes would run parallel to
and below the crossbeams, and the two ends ? would be

tied together near the midline, creating tension. This tight-
ening would pull the chine strakes and planking together
much like pulling the string of a drawstring bag, closing
tightly all the seams and strengthening a hull that has lit-
tle internal reinforcement and no edge-joining of the plank-
This lashing pattern not only occurs between each
floor, but also in the bow as seen in the rows of aligned
cleats, and in the stern as indicated b, the remains of cleats
there. Clearly, the lashing was a significant contributor to
the ntegrit\ of the hull.
The other possible explanation tor the presence ot
the multiple cleats is a lashed-lug system such a. is] foLund
on boats of the western Pacific. This svytem used flexible
ribs lashed to the cleats, or lugs, with ropework linking
the ribs to upper crossbeams thereby compressing the hull.
This system, however, relies on a convex hull shape sec-
tion. On a flat-bottomed vessel such as that at Kadakkara-
pally, the lashed-lug system would distort the bottom
planks by pulling them up out of alignment thus under-
mining its watertightness. Also, the lack of any indication
of flexible ribs, no rope wear on the cross-beams, and a
u ear pattern on the cleats consistent with the [ashed-lug
method leads me to rule this out.

The construction of the Kadakkarapally boat it clear-
lv not a European style While cleats do appear in the Eu-
ropean archaeological record, such as on Britain's
Bronze-Age Brigg Raft and Fernbv Boats, as well as on
kingig ships. these also are found on v atercraft or the wLst-
em Pacific and thus cannot be used as an indicator of cul-
tural origin The C-14 dates reinforce the non-European
origin or design of the hull as, except for an intrepid ftew like.

Photo: R. Pedersen

Fig. 9. (Left) L'z cs t ut bci ts c fPr rie,' L ':- crV's- theti bottom bcta',eii each i fl r fat arrowiZ). (Right) Clos.'-'p of a
t /:)llci! L'el/ty i'.r:'i'/ bi't. H'' W'utto"i ,'a;rA'.,;. Re' lai ;; rof e ,'ur.' st;le i 0 the'l-c' I 1 tl 'L

I\ \ Qua rterl' 31.2

Marco Polo, Europeans did not arrit e m the region until the
late fifteenth cen tuy, and onl\ then did their o n shipbuild-
ing practices begin to displace indigenous Indian ones.
The construction is not Arabian T7hev traditionally
sewed their boats in the same wav as is found today\ on
Keralan fishing canoes. This method has been used in w~est
ern Asia for at least three thousand years and is w\el doc-
iuminted as being the primary, if not sole, construction
method for Arabian ships and boats. Lkewise, the con-
struction is probably not East African. Our knoi, ledge of
the watercraft of East Africa extends back two thousand
\ ears and b. all accounts, these were also sewn.
I belies e the boat is most likely local, or of southern
Indian origin as:
The predominant wood type, Anjili, is native to
the area of Kerala. This tends to indicatee a local origin of
the vessel, as opposed to having found a wood type that
was clearlI foreign Yet coincidence cannot be discounted,
and research is needed on the range of the Anjilh tree in
Although now inland, Kadakkarapall asa once
seatront. Teredo damage to some upper timbers attest to
an exposure to seawater for a period, probably after aban-
donment. There did not appear to be any wormholes in
lower timbers, however, indicating that the boat w as not a
sea-going vessel.
The flat bottom, the absence of a keel or other back-
bone, and the hard chine argue for a local origin The box-
like shape makes for poor, even dangerous, sailing in all
but calm seas. The flat bottom offers virtually no lateral
resistance to the wind, making sailing in anything but a

wind from the stern quarters laborious, as the boat would
tend to slide sideways Rolling waves going under the flat
bottom would also put strong stresses on the hull threal-
ening its integrity. The sharp chine, the transition from
bottom to side, is similarly detrimental, as the seas would
tend to tear at such a corner. This craft was best sailed on
bays, large rivers, and perhaps on coastal runs, but on)% in
fair weather and calm seas. Thus, the vessel is ell suited
to sailing on Lake Vembanad and the large estuary sepa-
rating the \iappuzha peninsula from the mainland ;i'id
whose opening to the sea is at Cochin.

In the end, we beat the monsoon. The rains bcga"
the week after the team finished the season's recording It
would rain steadily for the next eight weeks. The pit in the
coconut grove remained open, filled w\ ith black trench
water The Kadakkarapallv Boat awaits further study, and
possible raising for conservation and display It is not a
famous craft-it did not take part in any great battle Nor
is it a grandiose vessel for important personages-it was a
simple cargo-carrying sailing craft. The boat is important
ne' ertheless. Aside from being India's first known ancient
hull, the boat represents a technology of oodvworking and
seafaring probably once commonplace to southern India,
but replaced either by the sewn method or by the Europe-
an plank-on-frame system brought by European coloniz-
ers. As such, the boat at Kadakkarapally represents a part
of Indian history submerged by the tidal wave of cultural

Ackiotledgemnits. I thank Dr. M.V. Nair and the State Institute of Archaeology, Art History, Conservation, and Muse-
ology and the personnel of the Centre for Heritage Studies for the opportunity to participate on this project. Special
thar ks to Dr. P.K Gopi, Dr. V Selvakumar, Dr Paul Shalan, and the staff of CHS for their hospitality and friendship;
Mr. Rajagopal Kamath, who was instrumental in bringing the Kadakkarapallv Boat to the attention of the archaeolog-
ical community outside India, mv field assistants Mr. V. Valsan and Mr Pro\ ane; Father V. P. Joseph of the local
History and Heritage Protection Council, and the many others who have taken an interest in the Kadakkarapally Boat.
I am particularly grateful to the RPM Nautical Foundation for funding my participation in this project. ,

Suggested Readings

Lipke, P
1984 The Royal Ship of Cheops British Archaeological Reports International Series 225. Greenwich: National Maritime

Ravenstein, E.G. Ed
1963 A loiirnal of j!/, First V'oyae of Vasio da Gama, 1497-499. New York' Burt Franklin

Swamv LN.
1999 "Traditional Boats of Karnataka and Their Building Practices." In \hrn!!i,:c Hcrint lef Ifiia. K. S. Behera, editor.
New Delhi: Aryan Books International, 116-12


iNA Quartt-[,. 31 _'_

In Search of Ancient Shipwrecks:

2003 Submersible Survey, Turkey

Faith Hentschel

In 1953 Mehmet Erbil, a Bodrum sponge-dragger, "dropped his travel three hun-
dred meters off the outside point of Arap Adasi, and headed the boat SSW along the shore,
passing three hundred meters off the first point to the south of Arap Adasi They contin-
ued for less than one mile, pulled up the trawl and found the statue in the net- One of the
seamen said. 'Who would bother with a thing like that? Let's throw it back." For a while
Erbil considered throwing it, but decided not to more to teach the sailor that had pre-
sumed to tell him, the captain, w hat to do, than because he saw any value or interest in the
sea grown lump. He sa s the water averages thirty fathoms [fiftv-four meters in that place"

Peter [Throckmorton, Bodrum Diary, July 3, 1959.

The statue found by Mehmet Erbil, a bronze bust of
the goddess Demeter, is an icon of underwater archaeolo-
gy; indeed it is the reason underwater archaeology began.
The eminent English archaeologist George Bean saw the
statue lying on a beach, recognized it as a Greek bronze
belonging to the fourth century BCE, and had it placed in
the Izmir Archaeological Museum. In 1958, Peter Throck-
morton, a New York photojournalst, was drawn to Bo-
drum because he had heard about the bronze Demeter.
Throckmorton intended to search for the presumed Deme-
ter Wreck and perhaps locate other ancient shipwrecks in
the process. He attempted to locate Mehmet Erbil to inter-
view him, but Captain Mehmet w as away at sea.
Instead, Throckmorton befriended Captain Kemal
Aras, a Bodrum sponge-diver, who agreed to show him
remains of shipwrecks he had seen during his many years
of .'',ng the sea floor in search of sponges That sum-
mer Throckmorton and Captain Kemal located more than
thirt\ wrecks. One particularly] intriguing discover) com-
prised a concreted mass of metal that suggested a ship of
great antiquity; Throckmorton revisited the wreck the fol-
lowing summer and realized it dated to the Late Bronze
Age, The wreck at Cape Gelidonva was excavated during
the summer of 1960 by George Bass, an accomplishment
that earned him the title "Founding Father of undern-ater
Throckmorton \\ as subsequently able to locate and
interview MNehmet Erb:l, but to this dav. the Demeter Wreck
has remained as elusi~ eas it is aliunng For two months in
1965. George Bass searched for it and other wrecks with
an underwater tele, ision svstem, a proton magnetometer

and a towvane (one-person observation capsule), but did
not find a single shipwreck. The sponge-boat captains
could only direct archaeologists to areas several square
miles in size, and their visual search methods permit-
ted search paths no more than thirty feet wide. In 1967,
Bass returned with side-scanning sonar providing a
search path 1200 feet wide, and we covered the Deme-
ter Wreck area in a single week. Bass and his team found
ot er a dozen targets; but could not vet know whether
these targets were shipwrecks or natural features. The
following summer they returned to in- estigate with
closed circuit tele\ ision. Ti ot the targets, both about
260 feet deep, proved to be wrecks, but neither had
yielded the bronze Demeter. To the best of my know]-
edge, no one has returned to the area of the Demeter
Wreck until our 2003 survey; certainly no one has
searched the area with a submersible, the latest tech-
nology in % isual survey of the sea floor With this addi-
tion to INA's fleet, we hoped to explore not only the
area in which the Demeter Wreck might lie, but a num-
ber of locations between Marmaris and Bodrum, where
the sponge divers' oral tradition records numerous ancient
Our application to the Turkish go\ ernment pro-
posed a survey from July 15 to September 1, but a slight
delay in the bureaucratic processes meant that we were
not granted our permit until July 22. The sure, 's start was
further complicated by a new Turkish law. that mandated
sC\ en seamen to operate our research \ esel Viraion (four
more sailors than required in previous years). To expedite
the process as we searched for our additional seamen, I

INA Qua rte r] v 31 2

hired a g:lct, a typical Turkish schooner, to provide lhing
quarters for our team. The gldet accompanied INA's cata-
maran MillarWana, support vessel for our submersible Car-
O(!/". As the Turkish military had approved a survey
program with precise week-by-week coordinates, we be-
gan with the second week of our program on July 27, at
the fortuitous point of Arap Adasi.
Feyyaz Subay, Virazon captain and one of Caro-
i/'s two pilots, took Ilknur Subasi, our Turkish gov-
ernment representative on the opening submersible dive
(fig. 1). During their three-hour ride, Fevyaz and Ilknur
tound two previously unknown shipwrecks. They end-
ed their dive at the first point south of Arap Adasi, the
very location past which, in 1953, Mehmet Erbil had
dragged his trawl when he netted the Demeter statue.
When Feyyaz and Ilknur spotted the first wreck just
minutes into their dive, Fevvaz shouted over the radio:
"If this is not a wreck, nothing is:" The\ saw at least
seven Hellenistic amphoras from Knidos, dating to the
third or second century BCE, buried side by side in the
>and. The second wreck had approimIatelv tiiteen am-
phoras co( ering a large are'- on a sand\ slope with a
large pithos (storage jar) rim sherd in the same context.
Only the amphora mouths were visible as their bodies
were buried in the sand. These amphoras also date to
the third or second ,- .urv BCE, but hail from the is-
land of Rhodes Clearly Arap Adasi is a dangerous place
for sailing ships when the louthwl est squalls of the o,-
ldo, blow. Although the wind gods also forced us to
move on to the next location of our survey, we remain
hopeful that the Demeter Wreck lies lust beyond our
forced stopping point, to be revealed by future survey.
Early in the morning of July 29, as we rounded Ala
Burnu. w e threw bread into the water for good luck which,
according to our Igu'! captain, sailors ha' e done for gen-
erations. As we rounded the point, a sw ordfish jumped
off our starboard beam. V\ e could not have asked for a
more auspicious start for \eeek three of our survey pro-
gram. Indeed, at precisely that moment. Fev\az was un-
de.rway, bringing V-;a-on to join us the following evening
at Atabol Burnu.
We met up with Vira:on on the evening of the thir-
tieth It was a jovful occasion, as we %, ere also reunited
with old friends-Don Frev (our photographer), Angie
Mitchell (our cook), Mark Polzer (nautical archaeolo-
gist) and Zafer Gul (Virazon's engineer). With our full
team and the arrival of the recompression chamber car-
ried by Virazon, we could now conduct scuba dives to
take a closer look at any of the wrecks discovered. A
ship\ reck located by \IA divers at Atabol Kayasi in
199; presented a perfect opportunity to test the diving
phase of our program- Atabol Kavass is a rower of sharp
lagged rocks that plunges dramatically from sea level
to the sand\ sea floor As the wreck was deep (fifty-

Photo: 0 Koyagasioglu
Fig 1. Feuiya Subay and Ili knr Sublty in Carolyn preparing
for the first siib die of th'I 2003 survey.

five meters), we needed to do a series of shallow dives
to allow our bodies to acclimatize to the depth, reduc-
ing the chance of decompression sickness. During the
surface inter al between acclimatization di'es, Murat
Tilev (Mllawandi captain and Carolyn's second pilot)
along with Turkish archaeology student Orkan
Koyagasioglu, used the submersible to find a previous-
Iv unknown Byzantine wreck.
For me, the di\ es at Atabol in the morning of August
1 wv ere certainly among the most dramatic and memorable
moments of the entire survey. I rode in the submersible with
Murat, and was exhilarated to see the divers coming into
view (fig. 2). As we made our ascent up a vertical rock wall
into the sunlight, it was like coming up from an abyss. Don's
breathtaking video footage gave us further energy to move
toward Selimive to search for four wrecks reported in that
area. During the next two days, we dLscovered two wrecks
that had been reported by sponge divers and found a third
that was previously unknow.n. So far. we had found six
wrecks in seven days and di\ ed on a seventh-a fantastical-
ly successful first u eek (fig. )!

IN. A Qua tLrty 31 .2

j: iiil

75 Ip4

Fig 2. t,t H,,tch,! ad A Iurat Tilv it Ca ro-
Ivo oe';r thei Rhodiain 'rc'ck at Atabl Kaniya

VnotO;: .i. Ioizeer

We had no wreck reports for the area east of
Data, so we decided to survey what appeared to be
the most obvious nautical hazards. We surveyed four
promontories in two days and found one possible
wreck, a smallish scatter of Byzantine amphora.s. One
ot the promontories, called Kalemlik Burnu, looks as
though a sculptor took his mallet and chisel to create a
sheer south face, leaving the carved remnants to drop
into the sea belo% The jagged rocks barely visible at
sea le\ el all around the point seemed to invite ship-

wrecks. After two hours of searching, however, Murat
and our second Turkish archaeology student Volkan Kaya
found nothing underwater to rival the cliff's splendor.
The next afternoon, west of Da ta, we found a B\z-
antine wreck whose reported location had repeated'. elud-
ed INA divers in the 1980s. That evening we anchored at
Knidos (fig. 4) in order to revisit a wreck at Asian Burntu
Turkish for "Lion Point" (fig. 5). The point is named for
the colossal lion, now m the British Museum, recoLvred in
the late nineteenth century from a tomb built high on the

Fig 3 Twh Fi'LL R SiClmi./eI'.

IN\' Quirterl\ 31.2



Photo: M. Polzer

Fig 4 (above, left). Virazon anchored in Knrfos harbor

Fig. 5 (below, left). Al imn Biirnu Iwith Koca Burmu (the wreck suc) ,i tlihe
fi.hregroiund. as

Fig. 6 abovev e, right). Wr'xk -ith' roni tlOw tomb at Asian Burni. I

Fig 7 (belo,%. right). A .n. Biurm u'creck istc inrwatcr

I'roto: K. viercy

[\A Quarterly 31.2

headland overlooking the sea (fig 6) We were tremen-
dously excited to return to the site of a shipwreck origi-
nally located by N\A in 1981 and revisited on George Bass'
2001 submersible sur\ ey. We planned to record aii visible.
artifacts in order to determine if the wreck is worthy of
future excavation by INA.
On the morning of August 8, I rode down with
Fevyaz in Carolyn for mi first sighting of the Asian
Burnu wreck (fig. 7). Feyyaz excitedly recalled the mo-
ment in 2001, when he had uncovered a beautiful Clas-
sical red-figure krnrer. For two hours we explored and
photographed what is clearly an important assemblage
of pottery dating to the fifth century BCE. In the after-
noon, Murat and Mark made a second submersible dive
between Asian Burnu and Knidos and found two more
pottery scatters from later shipwrecks. This area, like
Atabol, seems to be a veritable graveyard for ancient
ships, unsurprising given its past and present history
of menacing winds.
For the next three days we investigated the Asian
Burnu wreck. Strong winds limited working dives to
the mornings, but our six archaeologists accomplished
a remarkable amount of photographic recording (fig
8). On the third morning, Orkan found a kantharos (two-
handled drinking cup); its discovery led me to fanta-
size about the drinking parties of ancient sailors that
might well have inspired one Greek lyric poet's descrip-
tion of revelers at a symposium as "oarsmen of the
cups." But the same wind gods that sank the Asian
Burnu wreck forced us too to move on, hoping to re-
turn for future excavation.

Fig. 9. Knidos lght at Cape Krio

rlnuro: \. riertv

Fig. 8. Faith Hentschet raising a Mendian amphora from the
Asian Burnu shipwreck.

With the arrival of week five of our survey
program on August 12, we left Asian Bumu, round-
ed Cape Krio (the promontory of Knidos, fig- 9), and
headed for Kormen Limanm where we were joined
by INA veteran Sheiia Matthews. From there we
went to search for our next reported wreck in a pro-
tected bay called Cati Kovu, at the narrowest part
of the isthmus of the Datca peninsula After the ex-
perience of the wind at Asian, our captains wanted
to avoid searching the coastline between Kormen
and Cah, because it is too exposed to the prevailing
northwest wind, or melted, and offers little in the
way of shelter. <(ati was too shallow to search with
Carolyn effectively and our diving explorations
yielded no discoveries, so we decided to back track
and risk the wind.
The morning of August 16 was lovely and
calm for our passage back. Orkan, a third genera-
lzer tion sailor from Bodrum, said that he had always
wanted to dive at Bagla Buru, beneath the large

I\'A Quarterly 31 2

Fi. 10. A '/'ip. a .It Ba,ia Burntu. pks'!sNe i'rth
ci'tu rt/ B6CE CLtri nthia a(niphEra 0i1 a','^r ,
,N d first to h!r.i cntiur/ CE ,iJ:ii.; .u ; ;),',ra in

b f.t' 11S101" J d;i'rte

mountain of Kocadag. He said it is particularly dangerous
for sailors because of the erratic wind patterns created by
the mountain. Bagla did not disappoint. Orkan rode in Car-
olyn with Murat and almost immediately spotted a wreck
at forty meters with at least two different amphora types,
one dating to the fifth or fourth century BCE. Had we found
another Classical shipwreck worthy of excavation? In or-
der to answer our question, we conducted four carefully

planned dives from Vira:on the next morning. One of the
amphora types was from Corinth or its colony on Corfu and
dates to the beginning of the fourth century BCE The
second type, however, is local from Knido' or the Datca
peninsula and dates to the first to third century CE.
What we thought was one wreck may be two, one over-
K ing the other (fig. 10). Orkan had certainly been right
about Kocadag (fig. 11),

Fig. 11. A passingf i liciinn at Bagl Bnrn1i.

Photo O0 Ko.vagasioglu

INA Quarter], 31 2

That afternoon, we rejoined MillU'aind at Yedi
Adalar (Seven Islands) to search for our next target, a
"pitho: wreck." The firsthand account of sponge dier
.lehmet Alan, recorded in 1S82, is worth quoting in
"At Yedi Adalar, the island with a ruin
which also has a small pier where an old man
lives. Near the ruin there is a big tree. The
ruin and the tree, as well as the pier, are on
the south side of the island. This particular
island is opposite Karaagaq Limani or anchor-
age. The wreck site is near the shallows at the
east end of the island at a depth of thirty-five
to fortv meters at the edge of eel grass. The
ruin on the island is facing the channel be-
tween the next island. The wreck is at the en-
trance. It is in sand."
Of course, much has changed in tventv years Now
there is no ruin, no tree, and no pier, but a sketch bv Meh-
met places the pithos on the landu ard ,ide of thIe : .'c.LInd
inland from the east. I\A veteran Robin Piercv rode with
Fev-az and found a lone oilhos exactly where Mehmet's
sketch show, ed it would be, but no further remains _ur-
rounded the storage jar (fig 12).
During the final w-eek of the sur\ e\, xwe returned to
the Bodrum region to in\ estigate "Cleopatra' I -'.:,'," the
tr> tng -pot of the famed queen and her lover Mark Ant-
ony. The island's soft white sand, according to local leg-
end, was brought from Eg\Fpt for the couple's
honcvnmoon pleasures. Although there are ruins on the
island, we found no pleasure barges underwater Our
GPS records of the shipwrecks we located cannot match
the sketches and e\periential knowledge of the Bodrum
sponge dik ers. nor the charm of local lore, but they will
make it simpler tor future archaeologists to revisit the sites
w e have located
In fi\e short weeks we had discovered ten new
wrecks ranging in date from the fifth century BCE to the
Byzantine period and revisited two wrecks that had been
seen before bye \A di\ ers Of these t', o, the wreck at Atab-
ol Kai a'i provided us with fantastic ideo footage and the
r rcck at Asian Burnu holds promise for future excava-

r noRO. I, i-ercx

Fig 12_ Yedt Adolar pithos

tion. Further investigation of the area is warranted to de-
termine h.ow best to placate the wind gods whose forces
opposed so many days of our survey. How I wished dur-
ing the sur\xe to be Odsseus, and to hold these winds
safely contained in a bag. My seven seamen would never
have released them' Perhaps then we would have uncov-
ered the elusive Demeter Wreck. For now, in the calm of
the survey's conclusion, we study the recorded lore, the
nautical charts, and our own records, planning a return to
the area for future survey\ and possible excavation.

Ak.~,-k:r'nld:i,.~tI: i am grateful to George Bass and the INA Archaeological Committee for initiating and facilitating
m\ direction of the 2003 survey. I am equal[ grateful to the Turkish Ministry of Culture for granting a newcomer the
opportunity to conduct the project. I would also like to thank my team members, most especially Feyvvaz Subav, Vina-
:,'! captain: \Iurat Tiler. MliUai'(;a,'i. captain; Bavram Kosar, radio officer: Ilknur Subasi, commissioner: and Volkan
Kax a and Orkan Kox a LasioAlu, our archaeology students who did everything. These six Turks were with me from day
one through thick and thin. Deborah Carlson and Elizabeth Greene offered invaluable assistance in seeing the project
through from its inception to this publication I am, however, most grateful to the National Geographic Society Expe-
ditions Council tw hose generous L support made the project possible -

I.,\ QuartLek 311 2

Episkopi Bay Survey, Cyprus, 2003

Justin Leidwanger

For over ten millennia, Cyprus has depended upon
the surrounding sea for its livelihood. From the Stone Age
until modern tintme, the island's commerce and commuLni-
cation have been inextricably linked to these waters. Its
prominent position in the eastern 1editerranean has made
the island an important strategic consideration in both the
Aegean and Near Eastern worlds. During ant:quit\, the
Island gained notoriety for its copper resources, and in-
deed lent its name to that cele.brjaw-d commodity C.vpr u-%
also supplied the ancient world with such products as red
!:ip pottery, fine wine, and high quality tin'ber for ship-
building, alvwa s an important consideration for a mart-
time economy

History of Episkopi Bay
The earliest e\ idcnce for human occupation in the
area (and indeed some or the earliest on the island) comes
from an important Holocene site at Akrotiri-Aetokremnos,
on the tip of the Akrotiri Peninsula, where the bones ot
slaughtered pygmy-hippopotami have been found (see fig.
1). The area was dominated in the Late Bronze Age b\ the
nearby site of Episkopi-Bamboula, located several kilome-
ters inland along the Kouris Riler, a principal water av
in this part of the island leading down from the Troodon
Mountains. Current nations here by the University of
Cincinnati will no doubt shed light on the elusive h;storv
of the transition to the Iron Age.
What is clear, however, is that by the Archaic peri-
od, the nearby site of Kounon had grown to prominence
on a high chft overlooking Episkopi Bay. Throughout the
Greek and Roman periods, this city attracted \ visitors from
afar, principally to the nearby Sanctuary of Apollo Hylates
("Apollo of the Woodlands") Kourion seems never to have
reco) ered completely from its destruction around 365 CE
by one of the largest earthquakes ever to strike this part of
the world. The later settlements that succeeded Kourion
in the early Byzantine years were established slightly mn-
land, near where Bamboula had been located many centu-
ries earlier. The name given to the main successor of
Kourion, Episkopi, suggests that the town was the seat of
the local bishopric (episkopos)

2003 Survey
In cooperation with the University of Cincinnati ex-
caxations at Bamboula (led by UC professor Gisela Wal-
berg), the Episkopi Bay Survey commenced on June 30 of
this past summer, and operations in the water continued
until Augus't 8 An addtkional week and a half were dedi-
cated to documentation, including cataloguing, photogra-
phy, and drawing. The crew v% as based at the modem tow n

of Episkopi, fifteen kilometer_, west of Limassol. Funding
was graciously provided by RPM Nautical Foundation, and
some additional logistic support and service- were sup-
plied by the British Forces Cyprus Western So; ereign Base
Area (BFC-WSBA), which occupies most of the coastline
of the Episkopi Bay Survey region
The team included Justin Leidwanger as director,
Tobx Jones as diving officer and Troy Nowak, all from Te\-
as A&M University. In addition to handling equipment and
organizing the diving operations, Mr. Jones took the ma-
jorit; of the catalogue photos,, while Mr. Nowak drew man;
of theartifacts C priot archaeologists Emilia Vassiliou and
Elena StI\ anou assisted with the diving Chris Parks of
Indiana Lniversit% aided in the photograph.
The crew worked tix or more davs per week to ac-
corplish the nearlI two hundri'tl dives that i ere carried
out ok er thecourse ot the six w, weeks All di\ mg was done
on regular air at depths ranging up to twent -five
meters. Most, however, were ten meters or shallower,
allowing upwards ot two hours of bottom time on an
eighteen-liter tank. While some dives could be carried
out directly from shore, a small nine-meter fishing boat
was also chartered and proved to be a suitable diving
platform given the size of the crew. Finds underwater
were photographed and documented in situ, and sc-..,ct
diagnostic samples from the various areas were brought
up for further analysis. In total, some seventy-four arti-
facts were raised, tagged with three-digit identification
numbers, and catalogued In addition to measurements
and descriptions, Munsell values and general petro-
graphic observations were noted for all ceramic sam-
ples The artifacts are currently undergoing conservation
at the nearby Kounon Local Museum.
Because of the ; ast area to be covered by such a lim-
ited team, as well as various prohibiting factors ranging
from stormy seas to unpredictable fishermen, the opera-
tions themselves, as well as e% ervone invol\ ed, had to be
flexible. The crew w would be w orkmg on the mole off Kou-
rion Beach one morning, while the next day would be spent
diving from a boat anchored off the craggy tip of Akrotiri
at Cape Zevgari- All sites were recorded with a hand-heM
Global Positioning System (GPS) that, while not as pre-
cise as a Differential GPS, provided a reasonable enough
degree of accuracy for low -tech sur eying. In most instanc-
es, sites could be identified within a few meters, allowing
the team to return easily to select areas, Important addi-
tional knowledge about the bay, including sea conditions
and prev ious unreported finds, as gained from conver-
sations w ith local fishermen, amateurarchaeologists, and
sport divers. Searching through the survey records of the

INA Quairterly 31.2

of Apollo

River -

3 Bay Area I Rer
Cape Sat Lake

on Plakoton

Area II 1 IHarbor Aetokremnos

Cape Cape
km 0 1 2 3 4 5 10 Zevgan Gata
i i i I I

Fig 1 Episkopi Bai and Akrotiri Peninsula, Cyprus, showing nrat s i r'tlLd. ap J Leidwanger

Department ot Antiquities In Nicosia yielded
information about some anchors found m the
x icinitv.- .- -
The principal aim of this first limited
field season was the exploration of some of, u--.
the most promising areas of the bay in order --- -__ _ _
to gain a better general understanding of the ..
maritime history of this region in anticipation
of a larger high-tech operation during 2004 t. "
To this end. tivo general areas (Area I and Area .
[Ii, each comprising several Iites, \ ere select-
ed for investigation (see fig. 1).

Area I

KocrioLo Mole
A tce days during late june and eark
July. were spent investigating an under after
construction along the beach below the cliff
of Kourion. with the aim ot determining the
structure's use and date ifig, 2. The wall con-
,ists of rubble and irregularly sized ashlar
blocks and boulders. Small ceramic fragments Photo: LeLdwaCneT
Photo:). Lenidwange-'r
were encn.sted near its base, though none ex-
hibited an\ d iagnostic features, let alone Fig. 2 Aerinl ;ic('* of the nmlc nt Acounrio' r

I.V\ AQ t r I er I% 'I '_

provenance. Recording the construction accurately proved
difficult, as most of the blocks had been displaced over the
centuries. Furthermore, strong currents complicated mea-
surements, and the entire structure was covered in posei-
don grass.
Offsets taken from a baseline anchored on shore
proved sufficient for a preliminary map of its shape and
orientation. Though a consistent width was difficult to ob-
tain for the reasons noted above, it appears that it is on
average three to four meters wide. The wall is not perpen-
dicular to the shoreline, but extends obliquely westhv,.-d
directly into the onshore waves. It also exhibits a slight
curve over its preserved length of about one hundred
meters. Its seaward end terminates rather abruptly, with
only a few disconnected blocks scattered over the next cou-
ple of meters.
The structure's orientation, almost parallel to the
predominant wave direction, makes identification of its
purpose problematic. Though rather large, it could hardly
have provided any shelter acting alone. One would expect
another wall roughly perpendicular to this one, but no such
additional structure has yet been located. While wave ac-
tion would certainly have taken its to!l over the centuries,
divers swimming lines parallel to the existing wall could
find no evidence at all for such a breakwater's presence.
The identification of the harbor of ancient Kourion
has troubled scholars for some time. Although the ancient
harbors of h thethr major Greco-Roman settlements along
the southern Cypriot coast have been located (Paphos,
Amathus, Kition), the maritime facilities of Kourion have
remained elusi\e. The southwest exposure of Episkopi Bay,

Fig. 3 (below) Westernil KoLri)i' cliff fr oin the 'east

Fig 4 (right). NVnil''cr Three Ba6i.

combined with the prevailing west-southwesterly winds,
would certatnl\ have necessitated substantial protection
The ancient geographer Strabo (14.6.3) mentions the pres-
ence of a hornos (harbor) at Kourion, though he does not
It is not unlikely that sediment from the Kouris River
has extended the shoreline, filling in what originally would
have been a more protected anchorage. The low-lying plain
at the base of the cliff below Kourion could very likely be
the location of Strabo's horios. Supporting this suggestion
is the presence of a large basilica of the early Byzantine
period approximately two hundred meters inland at the
base of the Kourion cliff. Often basiihcas are built in very
close proximity to harbors.

The Western Kourion Cliffs
A few days were spent visually inspecting some of
the shallow er areas offt the cliffs just west of Kourion (fig.
3). A group of British engineers working here during the
1980s reported seeing a column in the water In addition,
local fishermen from Episkopi and nearby Kolossi have
mentioned recovering pieces of lead "anchors" that very
likely were anchor cores and stocks from the Classical and
Hellenistic periods. During construction in the 1950s of
the Episkopi Cantonment atop these cliffs, several such
anchors were found buried in sediment in an area known
as Number Three Bay Dredging operations in this area
resulted in se eral shallow pools currently used by the
handful or fishermen who remain here (fig. 4).
It is interesting to note that, while the current form
of Number Three Ba\ is the result of mid-tu entieth-cen-

Photos: J. Leidwxanger

- J.t -..

[.\A Quarterk 31.2

l'hoto. J Leidwanger
Fig. 5. Rc:?aiii: ofthe tcae lt'adini dozin to the water at Num-
ber Thre' Bay,

tur% engineering, use of this area as an anchorage stretch-
es back to the Classical period. Two local archaeologists,
Frank and An thea Garrod, have shown to the author a near-
by ca\ e that originally i would hav e led from atop the cilff
all the way down to the water. Today, parts of the ca\e
along the cliff face have been exposed by weathering, and
the passage can no longer be accessed easily (fig. 5) How-
ever, Mr. and Mrs. Garrod, who investigated the cave with
the local archaeological society some time ago, report Byz-
antine grariti on the walls. It is impossible to tell when
this cave may have first been in use, but it seems reason-
able that during the Byzantine period a passage existed
leading down to a small anchorage at the base of the cliff.
While the cat e, which is approximately two meters wide.
could have allowed the transport of some cargoes, it seems
unlikely that this steep path and relatively open anchor-
age at Number Three Bay would ha\e functioned as any
more than a small: aux.!iav- harbor It certainly would not
hax e been the primary harbor of a large city like Kourion.
Divers swam lines parallel to the cliff face along three
smaller ba\,s or inlets, beginning just west of the narrow
stretch of coast below Kourion, a total distance ot over two
kilometers 1..iar;e rocks from the cliffs above made for an

Fig 6. Aerial viewr of the Kouris Ri'er imorthl

uneven seafloor up to tw enty-fi\ e meters offshore Ho\ ev-
er, by adapting a loose swimli: e pattern, divers were able to
cover effectively the entire area from the cliff face to beyond
where this debris ends and the sandy seabed begins.
Despite the apparent promise of this area, no cul-
tural material was observed. This complete dearth is like-
ly the result of more recent deposition from the cliff face
Along with the sand and sediment from the Kouris River,
these rocks have probably covered any earlier material.
Note that the anchors mentioned abo\ e in Number Three
Bay were found buried in sediment.

Kouris River Mouth
As one of the major waterwavs leading down from
the Troodos Mountains, the Kouris River has long been of
vital importance to this region of Cyprus (see figs. I and
6). Episkopi-Bamboula was settled slightly\ inland along
this river To gain a better understanding of its path and
extent, team members walked the last few kilometers of
this rocky riverbed, which has been generally dry since
the Kouris was dammed fifteen kilometers upstream in
1987. Three days in early July were also spent in the shal-
low waters along the mouth of the riv er. The even shore-

lNA Quarterl\ 31.2

line and gentle slope of the seafloor facilitated the easy use
of swimlines directly from shore. Divers swam a total of
five segments two hundred meters long and parallel to
shore. Each line entailed three divers making two passes,
covering a total width of some seventy-five meters, but
also ensuring overlap so as not to overlook areas between
divers. Thus, the area visually inspected was a rectangle
seventv-five meters by one kilometer.
Little of substance was found during these investi-
gations. Though on land the coastline along the river mouth
is littered with small ceramic sherds, nothing similar was
found in the water. No doubt the sand and alluvial sedi-
ment deposited over the centuries buried anything lying this
close to the river. Indeed, walking along the Kouris mouth,
team members found quantities of picrolite, a soft bluish
stone used in the ancient world for local jewelry, that were
carried downstream from inland by the river's strong flow.

Area II

I\e5t Coast of Akrotiri
Archaeologists spent considerable time in mid and
late Jul% investigating the rock\ \ est coast of the Akrotiri

Peninsula (figs. 7 and S). Just inland lies the unexcax ated
Byzantine site of Katali mata ton Plakoton, which seems to
have had a basilica with impressive mosaic floors (see map).
The prominent westerly and southwesterly winds noted
above that characterize Episkopi Bay would have caused sub-
stantial problems for ancient sailors attempting to navigate
the island's rocky coast, driving many ashore as they attempt-
ed to round Cape Zevgari. Indeed, two large modem wrecks
still bear witness of such dangers.
In the 1970s, a small shipwreck was uncovered o\ er
one hundred meters inland from the modem coastline dur-
ing mechanical removal of sediment. Little was stated re-
garding its nature except that associated ceramics were likely
of Hellenistic or Roman date. The presence of a shipwreck
this far inland from the modem coast can be explained bV
the recent geological history of the Akrotiri Peninsula It
seems that at least until the Roman era, the hp of Ak-rotri
wasan island separated from the mainland by a narrow chan-
nel. Over the centuries, alluvia] deposits from the Kouris Riv-
er and its counterpart the Garllis, on the eastern side of the
Akrotiri Peninsula, filled in this narrow channel. Thus, until
at least the Roman period, ships small enough to navigate
this shallow channel had an alternative to the more treach-
erous route around the tip of the peninsula.

AK-N2 +


Z< S2

\lip: i Leids.nget'r

+ = Ponery Conc ntra'.on

KalaiyrTata ion
Sa., ton

1 ,n 3

Fig 7 (left) Area ii. showing potter concei'traiitwlh

Fig 8 (belo 'j. Aerial I'Lew Iofi /h' :ct Akrot,'ri y. fri/ A he JiorlhiL'lst.

Photo: J. Leidwvanger

IN -\ Quarterly 31.2

Fig q (left). Troi,' i \;oKak tcvrkuig [ith a metai! det'c tor
b i Ihlc zves! A'krol iri 'a i/,.

Three small bats (labeled from north to south AK-
\L AK-\2 and AK-N3) ere selected for systematic ex-
ploration using \ various swimlines adapted to the differing
conditions of these inlets. The strong onshore currents,
combined with the varying seafloor characteristics and
depths made north-south swimlines across the bays im-
practical. Lines perpendicular to the shore were quickly
adopted. The addition of nylon rope to mark zones, though
advantageous for organizational purposes, required exces-
sive time to set and shift, and in the end proved too ineffi-
cient. Eventually, a looser swim pattern perpendicular to
shore allowed easier adaptation to the terrain and there-
fore was utilized for the remainder of the investigations in
this area. Compass headings determined the proper an-
gles for swimlines, and a handheld GPS was used to mark
pivot points and important features. This entire stretch of
seabed was visually inspected from the shallowest depths
westward to the point at which the rocky floor changed to
a smooth and even'l graded sandy bed (approximately
150 m offshore and ten m deep). Limited metal detection
was also carried out as well in an attempt to locate encrust-
ed or buried metal anchors (fig. 9).

Fig 10 (above) LD t,' las;i.ial or early/ H 'llcenis'tic ampii ho-
ra fEB 028)from AK- N1

Ceramics covering a ide chronological perod were
discovered throughout the search areas. A number ot com-
mon roof tiles are likely from the Roman period, though
they are impos,:ble to date for certain A large potter\ con-
centration \as found just north of the long underu-ater
ridge separating AK-NI and AK-N2 Though these mass-
es of hea\ ily concreted sherds do attest to a large volume
of traffic in this area of Episkopi Bay, relatively few exam-
ples were sufficiently preserved for identification.
The earliest samples date to the late classical peri-
od, and include the neck of a late classical or early Helle-
nistic amphora (fig. 10), with possible fourth-century
Samian parallels One should note, howe\ er, that these
concreted masses could in fact contain other earlier mate-
rial The Hellenistic period is represented by a Rhodian
amnph;or toe and a handle ot the late third or second cen-
tury. Another easily recognized piece is a double-rolled
handle, probably a first-century BCE or CE Roman irmiti-
tion of the famous Koan amphora. These copies were made
at a number of sites throughout the Mediterranean basin.
and likely contained an imitation of the famous sea-\ water
wine for which the Aegean island of Kos was famous

I.\A Quarterlv 31 2

\5 10 15 20
Drawing: T, Nowak _Drawing: T No,, ak

Fig. I Probable late Roman amphora (EB 030) from AK-NI. Fig. 12. Eighth-ce~hir ByLantiru- amphoran EB :'* +orn AK-N2

-- The late Roman and Byzantine periods are well represented through-
oo out these bays as well. An interesting amphora of unknown provenance
Shas parallels only on Cyprus and the Levantine coast (fig. 11). Its double-
Srolled handles are again typical of the Roman period, and the short verti-
/cal rim suggests a late imperial date A large proportion of the finds have
been identified as the LR1 amphora variety, some of which are identical to
those cylindrical amphoras found on the seventh century Yassl Ada ship-
wreck. These finds are not surprising, as production of this vessel seems to
have been diffused throughout the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean,
Including a confirmed kiln site on the southwest of Cyprus at Paphos. Pos-
o \sible workshops have also been unearthed to the east of Akrotiri at Am-
O athus as well as at Kourion itself.
Four samples recovered in close proximity in AK-N2 are nearly iden-
tical to amphoras found in eighth century contexts at Saracane in Istanbul
cm 0a Z 3 (fig- 12). It is interesting to note that the coarse clay ranges in color from a
pale brown or yellow to bright purplish-brown. The purple color usually
represents misfired pottery, suggesting that these containers (and proba-
bly their contents) were of very poor quality. Another globular amphora
S. with a very short neck and arching handles dates to the tenth or eleventh
0 o century.
S/ Along the south edge of AK-N3, archaeologists uncovered two clay
smoking pipes, both of which are elaborately sculpted (fig. 13). Their shapes
and colors can be compared to those of similar types found during the
excavations of Ottoman levels at Saracane. Both are of the lily variety and
date to the mid-nineteenth century. Local fishermen probably dropped these
pipes, since they were found only among the shallow channels very close
to shore.
Cf The heavy concentrations of pottery along the southern edges of
Drawing' T NoL ak these bays are likely the result of shipwrecked or jettisoned material being
re-deposited by strong currents and wave action from the southwest. These
Fig. 13. T;rlo Ottoman period pipes (top EB bays open directly westward and therefore have southern zones slightly
047, bottom: EB 048) from AK-N3 more protected from these southwesterly elements. Furthermore, these

\'A Quarterl 31.2

zones ar: slightly deeper than the .,hallow flat
ledgeo Lju-t to thCeir ouLth that separate the three
ba :, allow in4 material that passed over these
ledges to settle and aggregate in these more
protected deeper area.

Cape Zevgari
Operations during late Jul and earl
ALIust focused on Cape Zevgari. at thesouth-
ea t edge of the permit area ifig. 14). \o doubt
thi, cape wouldd have been a familiar site to
ancient mariners navigating the southern coa-t
ot Cvprus Jus t to the cast, a lon the southern
tip of Akrotiri, is a large settlement with ware-
houe facilities and a harbor. The site dates to
at least the Hellenistic period, if not earlier,
and would hax e dra\ n merchants along this
treacherous stretch of coastline.
Zex gai is characterized bH particular-
lv strong winds and currents that prevented
w ork this summer on more than one occasion. Photo- I Leidwanger
Winds from the west-southwest natural i
Fg. 1-[. Aenal rtit-u'o Cawe Ze.~rgtn.
drt e vessels to" ard this coast of Akrotiri (as .
witnessed bv the large pottery concentrations
in the bays mentioned abox e), necessitating great caution for anyone sailing around Ze\ gari. Still today. vessels both
large and small round the cape at a respectable distance. Adding to the dangers around the cape are three rocks rising
from twenty meters deep to break the surface, as w ell as a .number of ver\ shallow reefs (see fig. 7) On one occasion, the
small \ essel w\e were utili7ing7 as a di\e platform nearly drifted
ox er one such reef lyvng less than two meters below the surface.
SWith this expansive area to be survey ed bi just a few divers
in such a short time, onl\ three of the more promising sectors w\ere
selected for in\ estigation labeled AK-S1, AK-S2 and AK-53) The
,r results from 2003 therefore should not be considered comprehen-
sive or definitive of the entire area around the cape. Given the ex-
_-' tent of cultural material in jui t those small sectors. hout ev er, further
research into thi area is certainly\ warranted
All diving operations in this area were conducted from the
boat The first sector selected for mi estigation (AK-51) n as around
the twi n rocks just south o the tip of Zevga ri Di rectly west of Ze\o-
gart i a single rock outcrop with a long shallow \ reef extending a
,est- southwest direction. This shallower strItch, designated AK-
S2, contained mass of ceramics, most of which were badly bro-
."a ken A third sector (AK-53) was later added xN hen Tobv Jones
",dicot Cred a homogenous concentration of amphoras while swim-
-m rming x est of AK-S2
S' The area around Cape Ze- gari, imke tHia: of the west Akrotiri
bahrs, % yielded material with a large temporal distribution The ear-
liest material thut- far is an assemblage of at least fie fragmentary\
priot an phoras from AK-S2 dating to the late Archaic or earlx
,Iassical period These bulk\ lars are easily recognized bi their bi-
conical bod es and thick looping handles (fig;.1;. \atl e to C% -
Photo' C Parks orus, tl'e< seem to haxe had a relatively short life spn before being
Fig 15 Ba-U-t-hanli!' am;pl'ora tfra\'rt iEB 069) replaced in the classical period by amphoras ba.-ed on the Chian
om AK->. st\,'le but manufactured at Kourton and other sites on the island

1 \Q u.arterl) 31 2

Considering the handle size and shoulder shape for those
found around Zevgari, a date around the sixth century
BCE can be safely asserted.
Not surprisingly, investigations in this area revealed
additional necks and handles of Hellenistic Rhodian am-
phoras (fig. 16). A concentration of these same amphoras
was also located along the north edge of Zevgari, just a
few meters from the coast (see fig. 7). Though broken, the
remains of perhaps twenty Rhodian vessels of the second
century BCE could be identified in an area of just a fe%,
square meters. Ms. Garrod, who kindly assisted in the lo-
cation of this group, attested that ten years ago the con-
centration was larger, and included intact amphoras. Thus
it seems that the majority of this lost cargo has been cart-
ed off by the local population. The site is very accessible
because of its close proximity to the coast.
Large numbers of Hellenistic orearly Roman pseu-
do-Koan handles identical to those described above were
found scattered over AK-S2, probably indicating one or
more lost cargoes (fig. 171 Also unrco\ ered here were huge
rim sherds of a first or second century CE deirum (fig. 18).
This vessel was used b% the Romans for bulk transport of
wine and other commodities The example from Ze\ gan
has a reconstructed mouth diameter of approximately. half
a meter. Se veral fragmentary cooking pots v ere found
These too ma\ date to the Roman period, though this ge-
neric shape w, as common for centuries and precise dating
bv form alone is often impossible
Perhaps the most substantial assemblage was locat-
ed at AK-S3. Scattered in the cracks of a raised ledge of
approximately thirt\ -five by fifteen meters, onl\ fi\ e to sev-
en meters below the surface, \ as the cargo of an ea rlv Byz-

s '--


o C 0 i___ 5
Drai\win.g: T 'o, ak
Fig. 16. Rhodiatu TMOphIOI'r nek (EB i)66) from i AK-S2.

antine vess-el that no doubt foundered on the dangerous
shoals near this storm% cape during the fifth or sixth cen-
tury CE Over One hundred and fifty mostly or fully intact
amphora necks were tagged and preliminarily mapped
over a brief period of only two da\s (fig. 19). One dive
was spent taking digital images of the tagged ceramics for
a photomosaic Se\ eral examples, though hea ily concret-
ed, are mostly intact, and it is likely[ that additional am-
phoras max be lying buried beneath the exposed remains.
It complete, this assemblage likely represents the cargo of
a small coa.,tal trader.

Fig, 17 *\L'Lk fromj a p~eftdo-Koawi ow'phora (ES 063) from AK- S


18, Ri IIcr frm i1101/ IIOLt'rill! Rotimii dol ii m (EB 0.5)3f'o A 1\

Photro C_ Parkrs I Lc:dx-mrier

" C 5 iC 20
a1I -

Dra.oinng T \;oAa k

[\-\ Quartcrl\ 31-2


Further tuudev of the distribution is re-
qu:red, though it is notCe0'orthy that these
amphoras represent the same types as com-
mniolv found further north in. the west Akrotiri
ba.-s discussed above. It is also interesting to
note that the dates of these ceramics, the most
rconmmron t1 p found during the 2003 season,
coincide %\ith the inhabitation of the nearby v
B1 zantine site of Katal\ Ymat ton PMakoton (see
tg 7,. A, mentioned previously, this form is
ubiqulitiouL at earl\ B/ zantine sites in the east-
emrn Mditerranean. and is i special prevalent
in the southernn part of C. prus.

General Obse'i--atioins
The results abo\ e, though preliminary,
already attest to a long period ot maritime ac-
tvrit\ in Episkopi Bay, at least 2_500 ears. High
lc els. of traffic characterized the earlk and late
Roman period, aLs well as the early Byzantine
period. A- might bhe t.\pet:ctd, the find. io\ er- Fig 1 E'
whelmningly ;,'aor large transport ceramics
such as amphoras and dolih. Unfortunately, no
Bronze Age material has been found vet
The prevalence of Roman ceramics in this area is
certainly not surprising, ~iven the importance of Kourion
and the presence of a large harbor comn-ple\ of the same
period along the south coast of Akrotiri. The early BSzan-
tine wreck off Zevgari and widespread ceramic f:nds from
the area suggest that intense commerce continued well into
Late Antiquity and beyond, and may be related to the small
nearby site of Katal\mata ton Plakoton.
What is surprising, however, is the dearth ot anchors.
'V-hle stone anchors and lead stocks ha\ e been tound in the
area, none were found during 2003 Most likely, the shallow
areas conta ning such anchors have been already> been picked
0 er by locals. The fishermen who described the lead pieces
menhoned above report that they were sal aged for scrap, a
common practice around the Mediterranean

Future Plans
During the upcoming summer, remote sensing will
be utilized to survey a greater area of Episkopi Ba\. This
type of instrumentation is being kindiv loaned along with
technical expertise b, RPM Nautical Foundation of Flori-
da. The area to be surveyed has also been extended to the
east to include the entire southern coast of Akrotin to Cape

Phote:T. Jones
Ii-,:, L~au ,MnL rnidir finn thtL' ,nrc-.J s-"he ri. AK-

Cata. The presence of a harbor alonu this stretch certainly
merits closer attention. The rock\ coastline, da-gerous
reets, and strong \ minds make thi> an ideal place tc Lur've.
Limited investigations should be continued around
Cape Zevgart to gain a more representative picture of the
material in this promising ai ca. Plans for 2003 had origi-
nall' included visual inspection of the west Akrotiri ba. s
all the prevented the exploration of more than three of these in-
lets in 2003; the rest await inv estigation.
Conser% ation and stud% of the ceramics trom 2003
Still continue. The wide distribution and arnetv ot fabrics
or the LR1 amphora makes them interesting. Comparisons
\. ith samples from the kiln at Paphos could help deter-
mine if the carso of the small wreck off Zevgari is actually
of Cypriot origin.
The problem of the ancient harbor at Kourion re-
mains It is hoped that in upcoming seasons, continued
investigation of this structure with the proper technology
will allow closer examination of the seafloor and perhaps
location of additional harbor components. Core samples
on land may also help identify the location of the coastline
in antiquity, and determine if such a harbor did exist

,Aniow/hl' L'dgnts. This project and its director owe debts of gratitude to man. people I would like to express my
appreciation first to the Department of Antiquities C. prus arong with its Director, Dr Sophocles Hadjisavvas, and
Curator of Museums. Dr Pavlos Flourent/.-, tor permis:on to carry out these survevs Thanks also to Dr Giscla
\Valberg, director of the Universit\ ot Cincinnati eccavatiuns at Bamboula, tor her trust and interest in seeing this
project come about.

lX\A Quartrerl\ 3i

RPM Nautical Foundation has been a strong supporter of this project from the start, and graciousit supplied not
onl\ funding, but some useful equipment as well. Thank \ou to George Robb, Jim Coold, J ff Rokyl, Mike Fox. and the
rest of the crew. My gratitude also goes out to Dr. Donnv Hamilton and the statf of I\A, who never failed to lend
assistance to this new director
I am indebted to several of the archaeologists in Cyprus for their help and gLuidance' Frank and Anthea Garrod,
Socrates Savvas, Costas Alexandrou, and Dr. Danielle Parks of Brock University. Thanks to Dan Davis, who % as instru-
mental in conceiving this project and getting it off the ground ( am also grateful for my British friends at the base,
including Leon Thompson and Tony Brumwell.
Finally, thanks to the sur\ ey team (Toby Jones, Troy Nov% ak, Emilia Vassitiou, and Elena Stylianou), who dived,
hauled, documented, drew, photographed, and conserved. They worked six and seven das a %,eek from sunrise to
sunset (and later). I have relied very heavily on their patience and advice, which they gave earnestly and tactfullyh.
and they did so in good spirits. Thank you. -

Suggested Readings

Bowersock. G.
2000 The International Rol' oj Late Antique Cyprus. Nicosia: The Bank of Cyprus Cultural Foundation

Karageorghis, V
1982 Ciprmus from the Stone Age to the Romans London. Thames and Hudson
1998 Cypriot' ArchaeoL'ogy Todai anchiremnint and perspcctrccs. Glasgow: Uni\ ersit\ of Glasgow.

Soren, D. and J. James
1988 Kourion: the search for a lost Roman city. New York. Anchor Press.


The Phoeniicians and the West:
Politics, Colonies., and Trade .,L -
Second Edition
by Maria Eugenia Aubet The Phoenicians and the west
Politics. Colonies, and Trade
Cambridge: University Press 2001 Second Edition
ISBN: 0-521-79543-5, 432 + x pp, 106 illustrations, 3 tables, I ...
3 appendices, bibliography, index. Price: Hardback 570.00,
Paper $25.00.

This standard work on tiic Phoenicians, their trading networks,
and their colonial enterprises tn the central and western Mediterranean
basin-and even be\ ond to the Atlantic coasts of [beria and Morocco-
has been updated for its second expanded edition. As this book shows,
the role of the Phoenicians in contributing to the economic integration
of this vast region during the first millennium BCE has often been un-
derestimated, Dr. Aubet incorporate, the most recent research findings
inho, the text and adds a new preface and an appendix on radiographic
dating. The b biography has also been expanded to reflect the current
state of the art with rtcard to Phoenician studies This is an essential
book tor \lediteranean historians and archaeologists. -"

INA Quarterly 31 2

Nautical Archaeology Resources on the World Wide Web

Part 1: General Topics

John R. Eastlund

The World Wide Web is becoming pervasive in our
society for recreation and commerce. However, it is also a
legitimate research tool--. if you are careful about checking
your sources- Even many journal articles now reference Web
pages. INA has a recommended format for people citing on-
line articles such as Donny Hamilton's conservation manual
Intemet links have a well-deserved reputation 'or becoming
outdated as the writers move on, as Web pages are re writ-
ten, or as institutions upgrade their computer s stems, but
the good ones are usually stable Internet advocates point
out that using printed material has its own drau backs. It can
be out of date by the time it is distributed, there are a limited
number of copies a ailable, and it can be hard to obtain in a
timely and affordable manner,
1 have used the Web quite extens'velv over the last
fe\w ears when researching nautical archaeology topics. Do
you need a photo foran upcoming lecture? With a fe\\ mouse
clcks, it is in your IPo\ erPointr' presentaton. It beats going
to a library and using a scanner, or searching through a stack
of old un!bbelled slides Need a hard-to-tind book or oural
article' N\ost good iJranes have online card catalogs that
are linked to many others. Consequently, you can look anv-
wv here around the country or even the world. With the help
of an interlibranr loan, VOL can have it in hand in a short
.tme. If you want 'our own copy, you can contact online book
dealers who will mail it to you tn a few days. If you \ ant to
do battle with the treasure hunters, you will find that most of
them have Web sites to suck in investors and to argue their

case for the looting of cultural resources. It y' oL want to
enter d'.-cussions with like-minded colleagues, there are
some good listservers and discussion groups such as
MARHST-L and SUB-ARCH. Ralph Pedersen has just
started a YAHOO! group for alumni and students of INA
and the Nautical Archaeology Program at Texas A&M
University\ Need to read original documents about the
history\ of steam engines or rigging? It is all out there. Lists
of ship' recks and maritime museums are ubiquitous on
the Web Need to know what projects your colleagues are
working on? You can find it. Need a good glossary of
nautical jargon' The Web has it. Want to browse through
the table of contents of ninety years' worth of The Mnri-
nir's Mirror? You can do it. The good sites have link lists
that will refer vou to other sites of similar topics; the best
sites are mentioned on evervbod% else's link lists. Amaz-
inglk, ou can get much of the information you need Jus'
by sitting at your desk at home
In forthcoming issues of The I' A Quarterly. I wil[ pro-
vide additional lists of good Web sites related to a particular
topic To gi\ e just a few examples maritime museums, tall
ships, shipwreck lists, government agencies, conservation
of artifacts, bibliography lists, achve nautcal archaeology
organizations, journals, photos and paintuigs, job hunting,
salvage law, computers and archaeology, conferences and
grant writing, the Mediterranean, glossaries, and thmeiin-es
If you have any topics ou wish covered or know of any
sites that are particularly interesting, let me know at

Nautical Archaeology at Texas A&M University http.//nautarch
The home page for the Institute of Nautical Archaeology and the Nautical Archaeology Program (NAP) in the Depart-
ment of Anthropology.

TAMU Nautical Archaeology Alumni http-//
A brand new YAHOO! discussion group for currently registered NAP students, alumni/ae, and IN A veterans.

Nautical Bibliographies http //
These lists compiled by James Coggeshall, a TAMU graduate student around eight years ago, include most of the
references related to topics covered in NAP classes.

Maritime History Research on the Internet http://ww\ shtml
Peter McCracken's guide on how to do online maritime research contains plenty of good links

History and Archaeology of the Ship http.// HistShip/
This essential web site for nautical archaeologists contains a series, of lecture notes and bibliographies compiled by John
Illsley at the University of Wales (Bangor) and now maintained by the Center for Maritime Archaeology, L'nl% ersity of
Southhampton. The no..'. oinly go up to the sixteenth century\ but the bibliographies co\ er all periods

[l\A QuarterIk 31 2

The Maritime History Virtual Archives http: / / wwv.bruzelius.into e/'Na tica a auticahtml I
I believe this is the most important site on the Web. Lars Bruze;ius includes numerous document. (such as original
books and glossaries about rigging), references to maritime history, and links to most of the other important Web sites.
(If you had previously bookmarked this site, please note that the address changed in December 2003.)

The Mother of All Maritime Links http:/.,' w
John Kohnen has one of the most comprehensive link lists on the Web related to ships. boats, and other maritime topics.

Welcome to the Naval Historical Center http*// ww.histor\
This is the premier site for historical research related to the United States NaL It provides bibliographie ship histo-
ries, online copies of historic manuscripts, excerpts from logbooks, official Na\ v photos (in the public domain as long as
vou cite the Navy as the source), grants, and fellowships. The site also includes.
Historic manuscripts in the Navy Dept. library ;.':'.T/ 'biblio/biblioi3biblioe.htmn
Navy History Bibliography Guide /bibliol.htm
Navy History Bibliography Series http: .' www histor\.na\ .mi[,nhc5.htm

Historic ships and the current maritime world http / / np.go v/maritime/shlip 'lits /link_2hsc.htm
Web link lists provided by the National Park Service lMaritime Hcritagi,' Program

PORT-Maritime Information Gateway http', /ww x.
The British National Maritime Museum Web portal organizes all the important nautical Web sites into categories and
comes with a search engine

International Bibliography of Discoveries and Overseas Encounters http //ww N.uc.ptibd.apm/bd.htn
This very comprehensive bibliography of lists of topics related to discoveries made by Europeans is heavily weighted
towards Portuguese subjects but also cok ers Asia.

Guild Nautical Links Page http // membcers.iconnnet/~-gedney/nautilinks.hin
Great links from a nautical re-enactment gr:o;p

Mark Rosenstein's Sailing Page http://wwwv
Lists Web resources on tall ships, maritime museums, and maritime history.

Maritime Terminology Online dictionaries http / /w ww.termi<:. refer.orgi nauterm/dicten htmi
Nautical dictionaries and glossaries in arnous languages.

Wreck Databases http //kw' \\ abc se/-m10354- Lua/\ reckbas.htn
An important guide to I:-':en e.t wreck lists

There are two important discussion group- worth joining:
MARHST-L Marine History Information Exchange http: '- niarmu- rmarhq html
ThiR is a very important and active discussion list. Do vou have an esoteric question about a rigging topic? John Harland
will probably an, vwer it. Want to find out about the latest exca\vaion of LSS ;o\i,1!tc' John Broadwater might tell \ ou
Need to find out about historic ships or Falkland Island wrecks? Norman Brouxer %x ill tell vou about it. Need to find
out the history of women at sea? Ask Joan Druett. This discussion list is craw ling with rnaritinw' mun-eum curator,.
authors, nautical archaeologists. historians, na al architects, retired sailors, and a hoet of other ex\pets. lust looking
through the archi es will probably alnwer most iquestionz. It is addicting

SUB-ARCH http., lits asu edu 'archi\ e L sub-arch.htmn
A discussion Z I t ) tor na utical a rchiaeologists (in!udi ng some Tof thel n!am people as at M ARHST). The quality' goes dow, :
w-hen the treasure hunters get vocal but it has calmed down now and i- getting back to cerioius archaeological discu--
-ion. The site occasional\ annou'ciic'e conterOences .

l\ -\ Quarterl' 31 2

Just Released

The Phlo.aorphy of Shipbutildine:
inceptl A g racdthes ns to the Stnid e si 1oodfenn S1is
Edited bv Frederick AM. Hocker and Chervl A V Ward

College Station Texas A&M University Press 2004
ISBN: 1-5,544-3 3- 1 183 + xii pp, 122 black and white
illustration 4 maps, 3 tables, glossarrv, bibliography,
index. Cloth. Price 575.00.

One dan in 19-71, J. Richard t Si 'Fn and George F Bass oere
returning home in separate care, from a trip to inspect somre ship
plank- that a stormm ihad ered on the beach at Sea [sle City,
\e, J-rse\. Suddenly Mr. Stetf- signaled that he was pulling off
the htghway, stepped back from his car, and told Dr. Bass, "I'\ e
decided to makec a ca reer as an ancient ship reconstructcor. [ It as
an incredi' v- bra e tl inm to do. Dick Stef\ wais not onl~ under rtak-
ing a profession ne \ to him--it was new to the ent'lirt orld
The collaboration btch\ en Mr Stefft, Dr. Bas and Freder-
ick \an Doorninck had begun in 19b3, when Bass and oan Doom-
inck w er graduate students at the Uni, ersitv of Penns\ i vania and Steffv ran ta electrical business Together, thee
rn cde for the Hirst time that it was possible to reconstruct an ancient hull from fragments found on the sea floor. Fred
\an Doornmnck's drawings and Dick SttT\ 's research models complemented each other perfectly. \o\, Michael and
Susan WVomr Katze\- were ready to take this science to the next level. With Mr. Steffv's assistance, they reassembled an
ctual ancient t ship from the tons ot \w\-d cea ated at K\ renia, Cyprus. Embcldened bV their example, Dr Bass quit
hi own [job and began a nexk career v\ ith his dream that became the Institute ot N.utical Archaeology at Texas A&\I
ULniersit As the\, sa' the rest i history. Bass, Stefft and van Doorninck are still w ork::.d together after forty-one
ears and w-ill publish vet another book (i ith Shetla Matthewls) later this year.
J. Richard Steffx 's classic Woodej' Ship Buldnt iii tit, l'fterprt'taioi ofN Shipv"rcck -" lextas A&M Press, 1994) re-
mains "the quintessential guide for those who x ant to know how to document wooden ships and boats However,
there is always more to be said on the subject of ship construction. On the occasion of Mr Steffy's retiremcrn: in 1990 as
Sara W. and George O. Yamini Professor of Nautical Archaeologi, a number of his friends and colleagues decided to
put together a collection of papers that became T:c PIl:'ioophyi of Ship'iulding. Academic commitments by the editors
and authors delax ed the volume's appearance, but it was %% north the wait. These ten chapters each represent a contribu-
tion towards our knowledge of rwoden ships that honors the field Dick Steffv helped create
After an foreword by Dr. Bass, co-editor Frederick Hocker places the field in context in an introductory chapter
on "Shipbuilding Philosophk, Practice, and Research." The other nine chapters are arranged in tvo major parts. The
fir-t part contains descriptions of several of the maior shipbuilding traditions of the West, with anal% ses of the essential
conceptual basis for those traditions. Co-editor Cheryl Ward ("Boatbuilding in Ancient Eg, pt") discusses the practices
of ancient Egypt, where the first large cc.nlple\ plank-built craft were de, eloped. Patrice Pome% ("Principles and Meth-
ods of Construction in Ancient \Naval Architecture") carries on the story bv describing the principles behind the mor-
tise-and- tenon joined bulls of the ancient .Mediterranean and the transition to frame-based hulls beginning towards the
end of antiquit% Ole Crumlin-Pedersen ("N ordic Clinker Construction") preents the very difterent techniques of cl:n-
kcr contructio in n northern Europe, while Dr Hocker cntribi tes another chapter ("Botiom-Based Shipbuilding in

\.A Quarterly 31.2

\orthwestern Europe") on the conceptual basis for identifying a distinct bottom-based tradition in ancient and medi-
e. al northwest Europe.
The second part of The Philoophiy f'Shipbuildib:g provides a number of case studies showing the various kinds of
source material available for determining construction methods and the e solution of shipbuilding techniques. Lionel
Casson ("I've Already Sold Mv Tunic") discutsses the lhtera.r evidence in ancient papvri for the problems faced by
skippers on the Nile in the mid-third century BCE. Lucien Basch ("Two Athenian Ship Models of the Third Millennium
B.C.") shows how two fragmentary model boats found on the northern slope of the Acropolis may provide information
about marine construction during the long stretch of Greek prehistory from 3200-2400 BCE. Yaacov Kahanov, Jeffrey
Royal, and Jerome Hall ("The Tantura Wrecks and Ancient Mediterranean Shipbuilding") analyze evidence from two
ships excavated in Israeli waters-one from the early sixth century CE and the other from the early ninth-to reach
conclusions about the transition from shell-first to frame-first construction Mr. Steffy himself participated in this project.
Thomas J. Oertling ("Characteristics of Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Iberian Ships") draws together data from
fifteen shipwrecks to describe a building tradition from the Atlantic coast of Spain and Portugal at the beginning of the
Age of Discovery. Finally, Kevin Crisman ("Sails on an Inland Sea") combines archival and archaeological information
to tell the story of the evolution and decline of Lake Champlain's sailing merchant fleet.
J. Richard Steffv can be proud that the science of ancient ship reconstruction that he and Drs. Bass and x an
Doominck helped dex elop has moved so far in the four decades since they met. The Phlloso ',hy '/v Shibi:tIdiJlg marks
that progress However, no matter how far the discipline may e\ ole, we will always be grateful for that remarkable
day on a New Jersey highway. -,


5;1 ..~.. .. ....
... ..... .

- -*- - -- -

F --

-- -- -1

.. ftnfa

Dra-ing- K Crisman

The ti'reck Li tlL', Lake C1ipn -chiooner Water Wi~tch, built in 78322 midj h-ndcd In 2 36

31 INA\ Quarler]\ 31 2

- "

Just Released

Th L"cLr R\ LSiLb
bv Adram I. Kane

College Station: Texas A&MN University Press 21U04
ISSB: 01-58544-343-3, 188 x\ pp, 60 illustrations, 5 S T E
tables. 2 appendices, glossary, bibliography, inde\.
Price: S39.99 (cloth), 519.95 (paper). ll


.*: the time of the fir': Lnited States cnsus in 1 90, only
about 200,000 person.- lived %west or the Appalachian Mountains.
The Louisiana Purchase of 1S03 added a huge expanse of nearly
empty territory, which President Thomas Jetferscn expected to fill
,low,, i '. Ith the ', eomain farmer, he regarded as the backbone of -
Amenricat\ democracy. The West spar.el\ populated to support commercial agriculture or indus-
tr.. Despite these expectations, there were 10,520,000 Americans
)'west of the mountains by 1850, few of whom were engaged solely A A A
in subsistence farming Adam Kane's new book, The Western River A A AN
Sttea.mboat, reveals one of the most important reasons why leffer-
son w as pro ed wrong.
Adam I. Kane is a graduate of the Department of Anthro-
pc'.'; at Texas A&M Universit) This book is an expansion of his
thesis. After receiving his master's degree, Mr- Kane took up a ca-
reer as a nautical archaeologist with the Lake Champlain Maritime Museum. He has been personally involved in the
excavation of the Red River Wreck in Oklahoma (sponsored in part by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology and the
nauticall Archaeology Program at A&M) as well as numerous other projects. The WVvstern RiL'er Sleaniboat is based on his
familiarity\ ith the Red River Wreck and the other sixteen relevant shipwrecks that have been excavated or sunreyed
The book begins '& ith an explanation of President Jefferson's assumptions and why they proved so inaccurate.
Before Robert Fulton launched his first river steamboats on the Hudson in 1807 and on the Ohio in 1811, there
was no practical v a\ to tie most of the West into the American or international market systems. The terrain and lo\,
population density made the construction of wagon roads or canals economically infeasible Although the t'wentv
thousand miles of navigable streams in the Mississippi basin seemed promising, it was an empty promise Flatboats
and keelboats could carr, Western material slowly downriver, but on]\ a tiny quantity of manufactured goods could
be moved back up against the current. E\ en if Western producers had accepted cash for their products, they would
have had nothing available to buy. There \ as therefore no way to sustain the two-way0 trade essential to a market
economy. It seemed obvious that the ".est would take centuries to fill up with farmers who could build self-sufficieni
local communities embodying Jeffersonian ideals
E en before the President left office in IMarch of 1809, however, the first steamboats were traveling on eastern
rivers. B JanLuar'. of 1812, Fulton's N're Orleanl had completed its maiden vo\ age from the beginning of the Ohio River
at Pittsburgh to the end of the Mississippi at it, namesake city Western steamboat technology had an unpromising
start. New Orleans had too much draft to operate above Natchez, Msissippi, except at high water Its low-pressure
condensing engines were easily clogged with r:\ er silt, and did not ha' e enough powx er to counter sw ift currents. The
deep hull was vulnerable to the submerged trees know n as snags, one of w-hich sank No'w Orlean: in 1814. Well before the
beginning of the Civil War, these problems had been solved or alleviated in long, extremely shallow'-draft boats with
toM ering superstructures, high-powered {although simplee and inefficient) engines, and reinforced bow compartments.
The majority of Adam Kane's book describes how this standard Western ri\ er steamboat developed by the late
IS20s and continued to be perfected between then and 1650, when this account ends The second half of the nineteenth
century has already been documented bv writers such as lark Twain and by reports from the federal ship inspectIons

I \ 1u1avrir I \I 2

that began in 1853. T/i,' IL 'tc'r Riv'r St'U rtnbal therefore focuses on the shadowy period before mid-centurv that archaeol-
ogists are beginning to illuminate through their recent studies. Because these boats were so lightly built to save on weight
and draft, they were highly accident prone. Literally hundreds of shipwrecks are buried along the former channels of
meandering rivers in the Miississippi basin. The seventeen that have been investigated to date only scratch the surface of
the possible information. What is available can be found digested here as an invaluable introduction to the subject.
Mr. Kane focuses on the hulls and machinery of the Western riverboats, but he does allude to the valuable
information that is being collected about cargoes and passengers. The steamboat revolutionized the United States
economy. By making the West accessible for two-way trade, it made it possible for each of the major American regions
to specialize. The West grew food and provided raw materials, the South grew non-food crops such as tobacco and
cotton for foreign and domestic sale, and the North (including a few locations west of the Appalachians, such as
Pittsburgh, Louisville, and Cincinnati) became industrialized and urbanized.
As the luxury goods in some of the steamboat wrecks show, this three-cornered trade made it possible for
\Westerers to become prosperous particip-nts in a free-market economy, not just subsistence farmers. That attracted
millions of migrants from the eastern states and Europe. The% could ride steamboats from New Orleans, Louisiana, to
St. Paul. Minnesota, and from t'.:. Penns h liata and Virginia Alleghenies to Fort Benton, Montana and to thousands
of places in bct', een Since it 't as onk\ a comparatively short distance between the heads of navigation on the Missouri
and Columbia systems, rierboat5 facilitated the development of the Pactfic Northwest as well as the vast Louisiana
and Northwest Terrtories. Thomas Jefferson would ha e been amazed that the American frontier closed as soon as
1S90. The visionary president must, however, hav: had some inkling of the impact of the Western ri\ er steamboat
before his death on July 4, 1826, the fiftieth anniversary of American independence. ,

CL .1. WI xi!' '; L 0 'CU!?''AI CC) r0'114.10 L f't~ Ic I> P ,m .tc QClU'c

I1.-\ Quarteril "I1.

In the Field
2004 Turkish Survey
Dr. Faith Hentschel and a siz-
able team of INA personnel aboard
Carolyn, MillaTwanda, and Virarzo will
be surveying the Mediterranean coast
between Marmaris and Knidos in a
continuing search for ancient ship-
\r:'.ks. In addition to this general
mission, she hopes to identify the spe-
cific shipwreck that will be the major
Turkish excavation for [NA in 2005,
candidates include Asian Bumu near
Knidos, Kekova in An-alva Province,
and the Demeter Wreck near Arap
Adasi. See Dr. Hentschel's article on
pages 10-16 in this issue for a descrip-
tion of last year's survey

Red River Steamboat
Professor Kevin Cris:nan is
completing preparations for the next
excavation season on the Red River
steamboat project in Oklahoma. This
wreck from the S130s or 40s is the ear-
iest example of a western river steam-
er to be archaeological investigated.
See INA Quarterly 30.2, 3-8 for details
of the last season This year, the team
will concentrate on excavating and
recording the hull and its contents,
focusing on the port side of the stern.
Steamboats ot this type were critical
in the development of the American
West (see "just Released" on page 32-
33 of this issue). The early models are
not well known, so Dr Crisman's re-
search will greatly benefit historians
and archaeologists alike

DeepZwater Surrey
Professor Shelley Wachsmann
is conducting a second deepwater sur-
S'ey searching for Kmin Darius of Per-
sia's invasion fleet. In 492 BCE, nearly
three hundred ships foundered in high
winds while tr\ ing to round the NhIt
Athos peninsula in northeastern
Greece. Around 20,000 men were lost
in the disaster, which forced a two-
year delay in the Kii of King's plai':s
for conquest. This, in turn, gave the
Greeks time to prepare for the cam-
paign that ended on the plain at Mar-

athon. This survey is a joint venture
of the Greek Ephorate of Underwater
Archaeology and the Canadian Ar-
chaeological Institute in Athens, in
addition to participation by [NA per-
sonnel. Dr. Wachsmann also hopes to
take part in several other deepwater
projects in the eastern Mediterranean
in 2005,

INA Research Asscia te Alexis
Catsambis, a student in the Nautical
Archaeology Program at Texas A&M
University, is surn eying the Bay of
Marathon northeast of Athens. Work-
ing with other NAP students and lo-
cal researchers, she will be seeking to
identify significant shipwrecks and
gather other archaeological data De-
spite its historical importance, the bay
has never been subjected to a thor-
ough scientific investigation. The sur-
vey also seeks to reinforce the
increasing contacts between INA and
the Creek authorities

INA Research Associate Justin
Leidwanger, working with a number
of other students and staff members,
wall be continuing his survey of
Episkopi Bay near the southern tp of
the Republic of Cyprus. The Late
Bronze Age site of Episkopi-Bambou-
la and its Iron Age successor. Kouri-
on, were major settlements with vast
o% erseas contacts. The first season
showed high levels of early and later
Roman traffic, but Mr. Leidwanger
expects additional finds relating to
C priot trade from the Bronze Age
through the Byzantine period.

Ita ly
Research Associate Dante Bar-
toll, a student in the NAP working
with Italian and American students,
will be conducting a survey in Cala-
bria along the east coast of the Italian
"toe." Locrl Epizephiri and Kaulonia,
two of the most important Greek col-
ori-.s in the West, were located along
this coast There is therefore much

potential for gathering information
about contacts between Greece, Ma-
gna Graecia, Sicily, and the rest of the
Mediterranean world. There has been
considerable siltation in the area, so
buried wrecks and harbors mav be
well preserved

At the invitation of Dr Helen
Sader of the American University of
Beirut (AUB), INA Research Asso-
ciate Ralph K. Pedersen will conduct
a survey of an ancient harbor on the
Lebanese coast between Tyre and
The survey seeks to find the
main harborage areas adjacent to Tell
el-Burak, the remains of an unidenti-
fied city whose strata date back to the
middle Bronze Age. The city may be
the Phoenician "Little Sidon," which
was mentioned in various Near East-
ern texts, and possibly the one known
to the Greeks as "Orinthopolis," the
City of the Birds.
Dr. Pedersen will conduct the
stud\ in August-September 2004 as
part of the )ont Tel el-Burak expedi-
tion of AUB and the University of Tu-
ebingen, Germany Results will be
published in the Bulletin d'Archul:!,ic
et d'Architecture Libanaises.

\AP student Randall Sasaki
will be continuing his research into the
Mongolian invasion fleet of more than
four thousand ships that sailed from
Korea in 1281 and wrecked off the
Kvushu coast near Takashima due to
a typhoon. This famous "divine wind"
enabled Japan to retain its indepen-
dence as the world's oldest continu-
ous state Mr Sasaki will be recording
timbers excavated since the recent dis-
covery of the site and comparing them
w\ ith other data on mediaeval ship con-
struction available in Japanese, Kore-
an, and Chinese research institutions
Since underwater archaeology, is in its
infancv in East Asia, there is much vet
to learn about the sunken junks at

]\.A Qu'u)rtrlr 31 2

Dominican Republic
Research Associate Katie
Cuter and fellow nautical archae-
ologv program student Sara Hosk-
int will continue their survey of the
southern coast east of Santo Domin-
go ([N'. QnrterL!'/ 30.4, 19-23). This
was one of the most thickly settled
areas of the Nevw \-orld during the
earl colonial period, and a critical
ne\us for commerce. Therefore. iden-
tifying its underwater cultural re-
sources is a critical first step towards
facilitating future archaeological work
and limiting the depredation of trea-
sure hunters.

Dominicini Republic
Former IN -\ president and
Texas A&M faculty member lerome

Hall, now of thte L ri\ er.,itv of 5-an
DieLgo, .[il be continuing his re-
search on the seventeenth-century
Monte Cristi "Pipe Wkreck," located
on the northern coast of the Domin-
ican Republic at Esta Cabra, photo
right (!\'A Qu ,rt'/y 31.1, 3-21). Dr.
Hal; recently returned from a fact-
gathering trip to Amsterdam and
other European cities. B' project
completion, the pipe and pipe frag-
ments from this shipwreck will form
the largest kno 'wn aggreogation of
smoking-related artifacts recovered
from rany submerged or terrestrial
site Pipes were such important
trade objects that this will provide
critical data for commerce in the co-
lonial period -

News and Notes

Conser'attot Lab involved in
mammoth research project
Dr. \\ avne Smith, IN A Fello\\,
AssoLate Professor of Anthropology,
and Director of the Archaeological
Preservation Research Laboratorx at
Te\as A&M Lrniversitv, recently ap-
peared ir _- \ idel) -reported news sto-
rx He i, testing the applicability of the
silicone oil preservation technique he
developed i'NA Quartcr'v 30.2. IS) for
the conservation of ancient faunal
material. In No ember, 2003, work-
men tound t\\o mammoths buried in
a sand pit near Clute n Brazoria Coun-
t%, Texas (south of Houston). Re-
searchers at A&M estimate the tusks
and bones are about 38,000 years old
The same methods used to preser,,e
the organic material, on the French
flagship La B..": could extend the estI-
mated life of the conserx ed mammoth
remains from seventy years to as much
as 20.

Submarines found Iny &M\ researchers
in April 19-b, the United Scates
Navy sank twenty-four Japanee uLib-
marines sixtv miles south ot Nagasa-
ki to prevent the Soviet Union trom
obtaining an useful hn tell i ence from
them The tesse ls included one rte-
spons:ble tor America's xx orst wartime
loss at sea, the sinking of LSS lii,-i
i :,;;',;: after it had delivered the Hi-
roshima bomb to Tinian Island. The
submarines lax in 675 feet of water for
fifty-eight years, their location classi-
fied and their existence nearly forgot-
ten. Texas A&M Oceanography Pro-
fcssor William Brvant and I\A Re-
search Assocate Brett Phaneuf recent-
lv located the fleet and photographed
it %ith a remotely-operated vehicle
This is one of the largest collections of
submarines in the world, a time cap-
sule on the sea floor. The Disco\ erv
Channel plans to ai- a special on the
project in the fall

Search for the lost Pe'rsilln armadil
Dr Shelley Wachsmann. \lead-
'- s Associate Professor of Biblical Ar-
chaeologvy, has been working ,x ith an
international team of ardcaeologists in a
search for the Persian fleet lost off M\t.
Ad),s in northern Grre in4C BCF. Dur-
ing its survey work in 2003, the group
found a ship \ reck containing amphoras,
but this Imar, n',t be asstciated with the
di._Lter, ArdcaeoLlogi;ts have never round
a cla-Sical ,\ arship, and there i ,not much
hope of indinng one in this prokjt., -ince
tnremes were so hght tUhat the% would not
normally sink- However, there mav be
ram, or other heawv debris that w would
sink. as, well as cargoes from auxiliary
Vessels and equipment from the 20,Ltk)
men who drowned. Local fishermen have
found Greek classical helmets on the -a-
floor in the area near a site where the team
reCo\ ereci a iitzrctl%, a bronze spear butt,
ro'nm a mnaieni jar occuipied by an octo-
pus \ luch of King Darius' an t. was com-
posed ot lonian Greeks.See "In the Field"
tor the Lxpedition's 21'4 plans. .

l\ \ Quarter\ -'r 2



Chr:stne A P',o'ell
Donny L. Hamilton. Ph.D. Pres:de'nt'
Donald A. Frer Ph D., Vice President Ceraal M. Pulak, Ph.D. \ ice Prc-,:dJen
Claudia F LeDoux, Chief Accounting Officer and A_,sistant Siucretar\
\ichelle Chmelar, Assistant Accounting Oif;cer
Tutan L. Turanh:, Adm.initrator. Bodrum RPscearch Center

tViliam L Allen
Ogtiz Avdemir
Jnhn H Baird
Joe Ballew-
George F. Bass. Ph.D.," Founder
Edward O. Boshell, Jr,
Past Chairman'
John A. Brock
Elizabeth L. Bruni
Allan Campbell. M.D

Raynette Boshell
William C. Culp. M 0
Nichola> .Grint
Robin P Hartmann

John Ca sil6. Mt D frame, A Coold. J D
Gregor, Mi Cook Chairman. Secretar) &
Luci Dard n General Counsel"
Thomas F Darden' Charle-s fIhnnon. Ph.D'
John De Lapa .Musaifa Ko
Claude Duthu:- Francine LeFrak-Ferieberg
Daniw'le ] F-eeit' Robert E Lortun
Robert Gates. Ph.D. Ale\ G Na:on
Donald Geddes Ill George E. Robb Ir

Faith D Hent-che? Ph D Thomas McCasland Jr
Susan K.1azie Dana F MIcCinn.,
\tdiljha C ki ::,, M L Mlichae! Plan..
Ceorge Lodge \ftoil Redl

Li nn Baird Shas
Ayhan SiLcimogJu'
I Richard Steffy
Wlihami T Sturgis
Frederick H 'an Doornirs, ir. !'h D
Robert L. Walker, Ph D '
Petkr \l %'ad, ice-Chairman'
Garry A -\eber
Sallv \. tartmin
'E\ecutire CoLmmit-:;f

Betse Bosh.ll TodaL Iard
Ro~b'.n \I> .L'G A rd

Deborah Car'on. Assistant Prote'sor
Filipe Ca'tro Ph.D.. A's-,jtarn Pruotesor, Frederik R. Facultv Felkow ot Nauticai Archaeolog
Ke t\ n [ Crisman, Ph.D, \oiutlt: .Archaeoiopr Facult\ Fellku
Dr n L, Ha;-itl n, Ph D GUrg-e T & C ad, s H. Ab llI Chair in Naunial Archaeolog Ya mmm Familr Chair n Liberal Arn
Cera; \! Pulak. Ph.D. Fredetrick R. laver Proftessor ot Nautical Archaeol~ogx
C \%a ane Smitn. Ph.D, Asis;tant Proiessor and INA Faculty Felioki
Shelleyv W'achsnann. Ph.D.. Meadow s A- iociate Proressor ot Biblical Archaeologi

Gore F. Bass. Ph.D.
George T & Giadd H. Abel Chair in Nautical Arcaeologi. amrnia Farrui\ Chair in Liberal Arts. DIstinnguhed Proti.esr Emenritu,
Frederick H van Doorninck, fr, Ph.D., Frederick R, MaJer Proressor of \autical Archaeology, Emeritu,
J Ri:hard Stetri. Sara W. & George 0 \arnini Prores-,or of \Nautiil Archaeolog., Emerntus
.M: & Mrs Rai H Siegtrie, 11 Graduate Feilo .i Aileis Carnambi, Marinn \i. Cook Graduate Felltow. Peter D F \

I Barto Arnold. M A
Avre Atauz. M.A.
Dante Bartoil
Kroum \ Batch .aro \ .\

Arthur Cohn. J.D
Nergis Cunsemn, Ph.D
JLrome L. Hall, Ph.D.

AujtrJhan Institute of M\arit:me Archae
Boston Lniversity
Brown Lnitersity
Brvn Ma wr College
ULni trsit' of Caltmrnta,. Serkell\
Union erso-t of Cirncinnat:
Cornell Unihersit:

Era A.l'in.nit-C. k> u
Mlunce'v-er Baback
Mu,.taa Babacik
\lehmet Ci rt.k!;
Tuba Ekmreksi
ZaiE'r Gil

Ale',\ Catsambis M\argaret E., Ph D
Katie Cuter Biorn Loven
ter'mn Green. \.-A. Maria del Pilar Luna Erriguerian:
Ju>,nn Leidwanger lohn MciManamon. Ph.D.

Fa!th D. Hertschel, Ph D. Frederick Hocker, Ph.D
Fredrk T Hieberr, Ph.D Carol n C. Kivh:er, Ph D

'-log, Corning Museum of Gias' Pa
De'aramrento de Arque.elogia Subacuarica de' L'
la l[N.A.H., Mleico Te
L ni ersnit ot Mlar land. Baltimore Counr; RI
New York Unixersit\. [n.,t:tu:e of Fine Arts rl.
lirversrv of \orth Caroinma Chapel Hil. T!

Bi!lge Gunei.:ogdu i'-e D \la'he-A \1 A
Chasi.t Hedlu-'d ,Lreree \MIOri.'
CulIer[ \-,r O'n. \1 A
Ba,! hoam k,,i r \ i.LiLm-nt r 0/i; '.'e r
\VjrLut Kjlah .'b+:n C \1 Pier,\

Ralph k Pederen., Ph D
Bret: A. Phaneui
Donald Ro.encrant/
ithena Trakadas, M.A

left Royal. Ph.D
Cheryl sard, Ph.D
Gordon P. \Wtts, Ir. Ph,

r:'ers for Li. able Places
nil t:rsit\ Mu'eurn. Uni\ ersity of Penn'. lIx nia
x.j A.&\ Ree&arch Foundation
P'M Nautcal Foundation
\as A&\I Lni .er-it',.
ie LnJ er.,-iy oi Texa-i :' Au,::r

5tikra i'. S'?*. 'I,
A. Fe\xa,"/ .ub:t
M\ur: T i.,k
siloe. mar TL:rei
Fred 'an de ai!e
C. u rl,_, 'iaar

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