Volume 31 No. 1
The INA Quarterly
Volume 31* No. 1
3 Across an Indigo Sea
Jerome L. Hall
20 Managing a Field Laboratory at an Isolated Site:
22 INA 2004 Board Meeting
at The Mansion on Turtle Creek in Dallas, Texas
26 In Memoriam: George O. Yamini
On the cover Archaeologists enter Monte Cristi Bay from the R.V. Rummy Chum IV, the diving platform positioned
directly over the "Pipe Wreck." Photo: MCSP Archives
March 2004 by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. All rights reserved.
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Across an Indigo Sea
Jerome L. Hall
Don Francisco Nestares de Marin stared intently at the silver coin balanced precariously on the first two fingers
of his right hand. As his callused thumb pushed deeply into the small, finely pressed circular stamp, he pondered in
disbelief that nine winters had passed. Had it really been that long since he left his native Spain only to arrive here in
Potosi (fig. 1), the frontier town that boasted one of the richest and most productive silver mines in the world?
It had. As painful as it was to remember, the success of his tenure was predicated on a scandal: Silver merchants
had added excessive amounts of copper to the bullion used to make coins. As a result, business owners from his
homeland no longer accepted currency from Potosi. Attempts by the Crown to cull this rampant corruption were
embarrassingly unsuccessful. That was, of course, until Don Francisco arrived. His mission was made easier by many
years of experience as a priest, lawyer, and former Inquisitor, not to mention the title given to him as President of the
Court of La Plata. Yes, there had been issues of forced Native American labor and administrative indignities that had to
be resolved, but restoration of the quality of coins struck at the mint was his foremost responsibility.
That, however, was years ago. His reforms-brutal but effective-were his legacy. Don Francisco dropped the
coin into his vest pocket and sighed deeply as the sun disappeared behind the mountains. Soon he would leave this
God-forsaken town forever. He closed his eyes and summoned an image that had delighted him since his arrival. He
was ascending the plank, looking over his shoulder at the blight that had stolen his dreams, stepping onto a ship that
would carry him back to Spain, back to the home of his youth, back... back... far across the Indigo Sea.
Fig. 1. The Atlantic and surrounding continents. The story of the "Pipe Wreck" begins in
Europe and ends in the Caribbean, but the story implicates trade and intended trade in North
and South America, as well.
INA Quarterly 31.1
Francois Le Juste smeared thick grease on his arms and face and lay, exhausted, on his bundled grass pallet. The
evening was cool yet offered no respite against mosquitoes that plagued the northern coast of Hispaniola in late winter.
At least the salve of cattle fat would keep them at bay until he fell asleep. Tomorrow he would rise before the sun and
tend the fire of his green-stick smokehouse, where the last twenty hides were curing. In a few days another merchant
ship laden with European goods would sail into the sheltered cove. If not, he could hold out for several more weeks,
though his supplies of powder and shot were perilously low. There were luxury items that he needed: Most of his clay
pipes were broken; his cooking pot was pitted with rust and wearing thin; rats had carried off his bone comb and he
had carelessly dropped his rosary somewhere in the savanna. Most of these, however, were easily replaceable when the
ship arrived. Besides, Le Juste had plenty of hides with which to bargain, for he found many wild cattle and feral pigs
during his last hunting trip. The smokehouse was full.
As Le Juste pushed his head deeply into the filthy, rolled tarpaulin that served as a pillow, his weary mind
fumbled through a maze of illusory images: A grain-colored beach... a gray, reef-strewn shoreline... white reefed
sails... a brilliant, vermilion sunset... la mer indigo.
The buccaneer slept.
As night covered the New World-in Peru and on the island of Hispaniola-six thousand miles away in the city
of Amsterdam the sun peeked shyly over the horizon. A West India Company ship was setting sail the day after tomorrow,
and if Edward Bird wanted his 190 crates of clay tobacco pipes onboard, he could ill afford to waste more time.
He had spent the last two evenings at the pottery of his friend, Willem Hendricks. Like Edward, Willem made
cay smoking pipes, although not nearly in the same quantities. His specialty was ceramic wares. The updraft kiln he
built for his lucrative industry was one of the finest in Amsterdam and was always at Bird's disposal-if there was
room, of course. Edward bid farewell to his tired friend and scurried silently along the canal, pondering what progress
(if any) his wife Aeltje and their young apprentice had made through the night. There was so much left to do if they
were to get their wares aboard the Company ship!
When he opened the door to his workshop, Edward could smell candle wax from the recently extinguished
flame. The faintly dawning light that squeezed itself through his leaded pane glass window illuminated forty... eighty...
one hundred and twenty-seven crates, each packed neatly with rows of closely spaced, white kaolin pipes! All that was
left now was to cover them with a thick layer of buckwheat leaves and secure the lids. Sometime later today (after Aeltje
took her well-deserved rest), the three of them would deliver this first batch to the quay; the remaining seventy-three
crates could be finished by sundown tomorrow. Edward smiled.
If Bird's pipes-quite the fashion in the Dutch entrepdis of the Upper Hudson River Valley-were to arrive by
early spring, they would have to survive the fitful voyage that lay ahead. New Netherland sounded so exotic when he
heard the sailor's stories: Thick, impenetrable forests, wild animals, dark-skinned Native Americans, things that, for
Bird, ran far beyond his continental imagination. These were the things of dreams, of his dreams, dreams of a new and
distant world; one that lay far beyond the Indigo Sea.
It is the end of summer, 2003. 1 am sitting in the For-
taleza Ozama Conservation Laboratory in the Colonial Zone
of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Our multi-national
team of archaeologists, volunteers, and university students
has gone home, most of them exhausted from long hours
and harsh conditions that complement life on a remote ar-
chaeological project. Before me on the paper-covered lab ta-
ble are two white clay pipes, four hundred irregularly shaped
black glass beads, a dozen animal bones, a charcoal-colored
comb fragment, and a silver coin. All were excavated from a
seventeenth-century merchant shipwreck-a once-proud
technological wonder-that now lies in the shallow water
off the island's northern coast. Some items whisper of spe-
cific individuals: One pipe-with small leaves of Fagopy-
rum esculentum, or buckwheat, still pressed in its bowl-
has the initials "EB" inscribed carefully into its heel, prob-
able testimony to the craftsmanship of Edward Bird. The
other, more delicately shaped, bears the cleanly stamped
letters "WH," the likely mark of Willem Hendricks, Bird's
friend and colleague. A silver ochos reales coin from the
Potosi mint bears the unmistakable devaluation mark of a
crowned "C," a silent witness to the harsh but necessary
reforms of Don Francisco Nestares de Marin.
Other artifacts say nothing of specific individuals, but
offer general dues about the vessel in which they were carried
and of life in Europe and the Americas during the middle sev-
enteenth century. Perhaps the comb was part of a mariner's
grooming kit, or a trade item that eventually would have found
INA Quarterly 31.1
Francisco Nestares de Marin never boarded that ship home to Spain, for he died in Potosi in
April 1660. His investigation of the mint scandal yielded horrific results: Silver merchant Captain
Francisco G6mez de la Rocha was garroted in 1650 and his body hung in the plaza of Potosi. Felipe
Ramirez de Arrellano, a mint assayer who, according to Nestares de Marin, was the greatest offend-
er, was also executed. Don Luis de Vila, another silver merchant, was arrested and imprisoned.
Francois Le Juste, though fictional, represents the many boucaniers (buccaneers) who roamed
the savannas of Hispaniola during the seventeenth century. These small groups of hunters became
fierce opponents to the Spanish Empire when all the wild pigs and cattle of the northern plains were
slaughtered by the Spaniards in an attempt to deprive the boucaniers of their livelihoods. Little did
the Spanish know that these rural renegades would organize into the revengeful "brethren of the
coast," united in their zeal to interrupt Spanish shipping and, in so doing, take their place in history
as the forerunners of the pirates of the Caribbean.
Edward Bird's pipe factory was the biggest and best known in Amsterdam, yet prosperity
was no shield from the rigors of seventeenth-century life, even in one of Europe's most prosperous
cities: Ten of Bird's eleven children died in infancy. Because of the extensive archaeological distribu-
tion of his pipes and the frequency with which they are recovered, it is thought that he probably
worked for one or more large international exporters. Though his pipes are considered of low quality
by Amsterdam standards, they have been excavated in both Holland and England, as well as on
Dutch- and Anglo-American sites. Pipes stamped "EB" were also popular with Native Americans,
for they appear on Mohawk, Oneida, Seneca, Cayuga, Mohegan, Onondaga, and Wampanoag sites
in what is now the northeastern United States.
-- a, --
Willem Hendricks lived in Amsterdam and owned one of the largest workshops in the city.
Little is known of his pottery or wares, except that he had a kiln that was apparently used by Bird,
manufactured industrial earthenware, and, like Bird, produced lower quality products. Regardless,
Hendricks was one of the top three names in the Amsterdam pipe industry. His association with Bird
lasted at least from 1640-1650 and is documented in a seventeenth-century legal case. Although the
events remain ambiguous, it appears that the two gentlemen were duped when attempting to pur-
chase a consignment of "Hessian" clay.
its way to a buccaneer encampment in Hispaniola or a Dutch-
American outpost on the Hudson River. Cattle, sheep (or
goat), and pig bones tell of the ship's stores and hint at the
nationality of the crew, while three rat femurs-as well as
several cattle bones bearing rodent incisor marks-suggest
that sailors and vermin competed for the same precious re-
sources. What may well be indications of the ship's demise
are also present: Many glass beads that were originally round
in shape and strung together are now slumped and fused en
mass, the aftermath of extreme heat and pressure that likely
resulted from a shipboard fire or explosion.
All of these items came from the "Pipe Wreck," a site
on the northwest coast of Hispaniola (fig. 2) that earned its
moniker from the inordinately large number of clay tobacco
pipes that it has yielded over the past four decades. Known
to all-local fishermen, townsfolk, tourists, sport divers, trea-
sure hunters, and even archaeologists-whence the ship
came, where it was headed, and why it foundered in the rel-
ative seclusion of Monte Cristi Bay remain mysteries. To date,
there are no data indicating a specific vessel, but in careful
consideration of the archaeological, geographical, and his-
torical data, an interesting story begins to unfold.
[NA Quarterly 31.1
Fig. 2. The Monte Cristi "Pipe Wreck," on the northern coast of Hispaniola.
The 2003 Summer Excavation
As in previous years, our 2003 research season (from
June through August) was designed around the hypothe-
sis that the "Pipe Wreck" represents a merchant vessel that
sailed under the Dutch Tricolor. This notion characterized
our first excavation season in 1991, but almost immediate-
ly demanded reconsideration in light of the ship's archi-
tectural features and subsequent timber analyses carried
out at the Dutch Dendrochronological Center in Amster-
dam. For years, our ideas concerning the vessel's origin
and ownership shifted-seemingly endlessly-from The
Netherlands to England. However, recent studies of indi-
vidual cohorts of the cargo-specifically clay tobacco pipes,
German stoneware bottle sherds, and faunal remains (fig.
3)-have led us back to a variant of our original hypothesis:
The ship, though of English construction, was sailing under
the Dutch flag. If this is true, it will be one of the few Dutch
wreck sites discovered in the New World.
Two objectives defined our research in 200: first, we had
to determine a southern perimeter for materials distribution in
Monte Cristi Bay. Since our first summer of work, the quantity
of artifacts, ecofacts, and features that we have documented has
steadily risen, even though the excavation has moved away from
the extant hull that now supports a small but thriving reef eco-
system (fig. 4). This increase is easily explained by prevailing
winds and currents that must have swept thecargo-much of it
packed in floatable containers-to the southwest away from
the sinking vessel Itis imaginable that all early and subsequent
salvage took place on the main portion of the wrecked hull,
where many of the heavier and more utilitarian artifacts were
concentrated. The salvors would not have discovered the
Fig. 3. The cargo is composed of thousands of small fragments-
including clay tobacco pipes, German stoneware bottle sherds,
and faunal remains-all of which must be cleaned, catalogued,
photographed, and studied.
INA Quarterly 31.1
Fig. 4. A small reef in a sea of turtle grass, the
extant hull of the "Pipe Wreck" has become
home to numerous vertebrate and invertebrate
species. When seen through afish-eye lens, the
keel-pictured at the bottom of the photo-
lighter cargo and other remains that settled away from the
broken ship. Thus, finding the southern boundary for the
distribution of these items would narrow our search, assist
us in focusing future efforts on the western portion of the
wreck, and help us to formulate a strategic plan for the re-
mainder of the project excavation.
Our second objective was to investigate further a cast
iron cooking cauldron discovered in 2001 on the shallow reef
immediately northwest of the site (fig. 5). This artifact-found
by team members during an orientation session-matched
well the many pieces recovered from the wreck in past years.
Three-legged cooking pots, a major European export com-
modity in the seventeenth century, were popular trade items
Fig. 5. The three-legged cast iron cooking cauldron dis-
covered on the coral reef northwest of the site in 2001.
with Native Americans. They are commonly excavated from
northeastern tribal sites and are occasionally associated with
burials, where, at times, they are found to cover the head of
the deceased. Even salvors who visited the "Pipe Wreck" in
the early 1980s chronicled cauldrons and cauldron fragments
scattered about the western portion of the site. Our chance
discovery held possible dues to the demise of the vessel, given
the position of the ship within Monte Cristi Bay. If these large
and heavy pieces were from our wreck, they would have
been deposited as the ship scratched its way across the reef
and into the bay, steadily spilling cargo from its starboard
side. Therefore, they would suggest that the vessel was en-
tering, not leaving, the bay when it sank.
INA Quarterly 31.1
*i --* '-.,, '
Fig. 6. Nicholas Towle, a student from the University of
San Diego, stands in front of El Arawaco (The
Arawak), a Dominican yola of twenty feet LOA.
Arawaco was one of two vessels used to transport per-
sonnel and goods to and from our small island home of
Two wooden Dominican yolas-El Arawaco (Arawak)
of twenty feet length over all and La Madrugada (Wee Morn-
ing Hours), twenty-two feet LOA-transported personnel
to the nearby town of Monte Cristi for provisions (fig. 6),
These trustworthy veteran vessels also carried divers and
equipment to the R.V. Rummy Chum IV, the wooden dive
platform we positioned over the site and from which we
were supplied air from a low pressure (five horsepower)
compressor with triple filtration (fig. 7). Our routine sched-
ule deployed three divers thrice daily, each of whom
worked between one and two-and-a-half hours per dive.
The site was demarcated by seventeen interconnect-
ed grid squares measuring two by two meters, positioned,
on average, twelve to fourteen meters southwest of the
southern extremity of the extant hull. Approximately sev-
enty-five cubic meters of loosely packed sediments were
moved using a Venturi dredge comprising a water pump
powered by an eight horsepower motor. These squares
were excavated to a depth of 1.46 m, beyond which there
was hardpan sediment and below which no archaeologi-
cal artifacts, ecofacts, or features were found. In previous
seasons, cargoes were distributed from thirty to eighty-five
centimeters throughout the substrate. This deeper profile
(greater by sixty-one cm) suggests the topography of the
seafloor was more variable three and a half centuries ago.
Conversely, it is conceivable that the bottom of the bay
was originally characterized by a fairly uniform horizon
that was significantly altered when the vessel wrecked.
S Fig. 7. The R.V. Rummy Chum IV, the diving plat-
form located directly above the Monte Cristi "Pipe
INA Quarterly 31.1
roroT; IVlI-r /-rcruvt
Fig. 8. A partial bulbous-bowled pipe, in three pieces,from the "Pipe Wreck." Note the barrel-shaped bowl and
well pronounced heel, a style popular in Europe and her colonies during the seventeenth century.
Pipes: One thousand two hundred and twenty-seven pipes
were excavated during the 2003 campaign, the majority of
which had bulbous, barrel-shaped bowls with well-pro-
nounced, flat heels, a style popular in Europe and her colo-
nies during the seventeenth century (Table 1 and fig. 8).
Most bear one of seven distinct heel stamps, rang-
ing from a variety of initials to floral designs (see INA Quar-
terly 21.1-2, 33 [fig. 81).
Though lacking the distinct heel of bulbous pipes, a
second cohort, descriptively termed "funnel pipes," is char-
acterized by a cone-shaped bowl that joins the stem at an
obtuse angle (fig. 9). In every instance, these pipes from the
Monte Cristi shipwreck are decorated with a floral design
that we have identified as Fort Orange Type 49 (FOT 49), a
seventeenth-century Dutch-American settlement in present
day Albany, New York. Variously described as "Dutch,"
"trade," and "export" pipes, these areclear imitations of
Native American forms and are relatively scarce within the
archaeological record. Only one such pipe has been report-
ed from The Netherlands and none are known from else-
where in Europe. However, they have been recovered from
at least twenty-five Native American sites in the Upper Hud-
son River Valley, as well as numerous Dutch-American sites
in what is presently New York. They are also known from
Anglo-American sites in Maryland, Massachusetts, and Vir-
ginia, thus making this Dutch-manufactured pipe form a
veritable American phenomenon. Interestingly, Edward Bird
is occasionally credited as the inventor of this style and is
certainly thought to have exported them to the New World,
where they first appear at Fort Orange.
INA Quarterly 31.1
Table 1. A comparison of clay tobacco smoking pipe fragment quantities from the 2001 and 2003 Monte
Cristi "Pipe Wreck" excavation seasons.
2001 2003 6%
Total Pipes 2,361 1,227 <48
Bulbous-bowls 2,219 1,147 <48
Percent 94 93
Funnel Bowls 142 80 <44
Percent 6 7
Bowl Fragments 1,998 954 <53
Stem Fragments 15,050 8,269 <45
Totals 19,409 9,591
Fig. 9. Afunnel pipe, characterized by a cone-shaped bowl that joins the stem at an obtuse angle. Described in
the literature as "Dutch," "trade," and "export" pipes, these are clear imitations of Native American designs
and were intended as trade items with the tribes.
Anatomy and Manufacture of a Seventeenth-Century Clay Pipe
Pipes reshaped the way that Europeans-and Eu-
ropean-Americans-regarded their recreation and
health. Soon after its introduction to European society,
smoking became the social pastime of men, women, and
children and was considered-albeit erroneously--both
a prophylactic and curative for virtually every known
disease, including bubonic plague.
Clay pipes, entire or partial, have long been re-
garded as valuable tools for dating archaeological sites.
Why? Because, according to Ivor No6l-Hume, noted ar-
chaeologist from the colonial Jamestown, Virginia exca-
vations, they were "manufactured, imported, smoked,
and thrown away, all within a matter of a year or two."
Fragility was, no doubt, the reason for their relatively
short life span.
From wet lumps of clay in a river bed to fire-hard-
ened ceramic tobacco receptacles in the hands of a colo-
nial merchant, seventeenth-century day tobacco pipes
influenced and, to a large de-
gree, defined European culture.
The Factory: A variety of
carefully selected clays were
brought to the factory in large
pieces where they were placed
in storage barrels. After a spe-
cific mixture was selected, the
clay was broken into small piec-
es and soaked in water to make
it pliable and to separate impu-
rities. The softened lump was
then shoveled into a grinding
mill tub and mixed again. When
removed from the tub, it was cut
into right-angled blocks that -
were ground two or three times
and rubbed with fine, sharp
sand. These blocks were then
stored in a cellar for approxi-
mately two months before be-
ing moved to the workshop.
The Workshop: Here
processed clay was formed and
molded. A "roller"-usually a
young boy or an old man-
spun a small piece of clay
lengthwise with the palms of his
hands until a noticeable stem An assortment of clay
and bowl were fashioned. An Cristi Shipwreck Expe
iron molding wire with a button at the end was then care-
fully inserted until the stem hole joined the bowl interi-
or, thus producing the bore through which tobacco smoke
When this was completed, the day was placed into
a well-lubricated two-piece mold, which was dosed and
pressed in a parallel vise. An acorn-shaped hand stop-
per was then pushed into it to form the bowl reservoir.
When the molded pipe was removed, excess caywas
trimmed with a knife. A finishing wire was inserted to en-
sure that the bore ran continuously to the bowL After hard-
ening to a specified consistency, the pipe exterior was
trimmed a second time and the bowl aligned with the stem
before the pipe was replaced in the mold for straightening.
When dry, it was polished and often stamped with a mak-
er's mark A hash-marked edge, or roulette (see below), was
sometimes added as decoration to the circumference of the
bowl lip or, occasionally, to the stem. Pipes were then packed
into cylindrical up-draught kilns
fueled with charcoal or wood.
After the fire-hardened
clay had cooled, pipes were re-
moved from the kiln and dipped
in a liquid slip of fine clay. When
dried, they were polished with a
rough cloth and varnished.
Packing and Shipment
For transport across town or to
overseas markets, pipes were
placed in wooden boxes or casks
S filled with a protective packing
agent such as grain husks or oth-
er organic materials.
Bowls: Early bowls
were relatively plain, character-
ized by a broad center that nar-
rowed sharply as it approached
both top and bottom. In the ear-
ly part of the century, the lip of
the bowl was set at an angle rel-
ative to the stem, but this de-
creased gradually until it
became parallel in later years.
Over time, the somewhat angu-
lar appearance was replaced
by a smoother silhouette fea-
ipesfound by the Monte during a longer bowl. By
ition, mid-century, however, larg-
INA Quarterly 31.1
er bowls exhibited a barrel-shaped profile. Hence-
forth to the close of the century, pipe bowls be-
came more slender and beautiful in form as they
increased in size.
Rouletting A plain line or ring of small hash marks
around the bowl rim, called rouletting or milling, appeared
in the middle of the seventeenth century. Such marks may
have indicated a higher quality pipe, since application was
time-consuming and tedious.
Marks: Makers used a variety of marks or
stamps placed either at the back of the bowl or on the
heel of the pipe, the latter being most common. These
symbols or initials-applied in many ways-became
the maker's own unique advertisement.
The Stem: Although exceptions have been re-
ported, pipe stems at the onset of the seventeenth cen-
tury were characteristically straight and generally
between 14.0 and 26.0 cm in length. This increased to
between 28.0 and 30.5 cm-and often up to 40.0 cm-
by the close of the century. Stem bore diameters for sev-
enteenth-century pipes ranged between 5/64 inch and
Funnel pipes from the Monte Cristi shipwreck
comprise the largest known assemblage from any ar-
chaeological site and are the only examples from a ship-
wreck. Their presence suggests the vessel was headed
for the northeastern region of what is now the United
States, with a portion of its cargo specifically destined
for Native American settlements, probably via Dutch-
Three bulbous-bowled pipes were clearly anoma-
lous to the cargo, bringing to nine the number of atypical
pipes we have excavated over the years (fig. 10). One-a
somewhat more crudely fashioned red clay pipe-is pres-
ently being examined to determine if it might have been
produced in the New World, such as contemporary na-
tive-made pipes excavated from Port Royal, Jamaica.
Although 954 bowl and 8,269 stem fragments were
recovered in 2003, the total number of pipe fragments di-
minished by half from our previous excavation season, a
decrease that we, surprisingly, found encouraging (see
Ceramics: Tin-enameled earthenware and Rhenish stone-
ware formed the principal ceramic cargoes (See Tables 2
and 3, figs. 11 and 12, and Sidebar). The former, of uncer-
tain national origin, is the most commonly found ceramic
on the "Pipe Wreck" and is represented by white-, as well
as blue-and-white-, glazed wares produced in England and
the Netherlands to fill a great demand for affordable imi-
tations of Chinese porcelain. Sherds of green-glazed and
orange-glazed earthenwares have been excavated, but in
such small quantities that they, like the Westerwald pot-
tery (described below), are likely ship's utility wares as
opposed to merchandise.
Stoneware jugs-the second most common ceramic
type excavated from the wreck site-were popular contain-
ers not only for their highly stylized appearance, but because
of their seemingly indestructible composition, hence the
Fig. 10. Anomalous pipes from the site. Preliminary neutron
activation analyses and bowl morphology studies confirm that
they are, indeed, very different from the majority of pipes.
name. Manufactured in the Rhine Valley, these German bot-
tles are characterized by grotesque, bearded faces (Bartmann-
kriige) that adorn the vessel neck and a heraldic emblem or
crest on the swollen, bulbous body. Such jugs are commonly
depicted in convivial tavern scenes of seventeenth-century
Dutch and Flemish paintings, where tobacco consumption
accompanied drinking as a favorite pastime.
Like earthenware, stoneware ceramics--and partic-
ularly Bartmannkriige-were exported worldwide and are
commonly found on seventeenth-century archaeological
sites, including those of shipwrecks. The uniqueness of the
Monte Cristi collection, however, is that for the first time
we have found these artifacts on a shipwreck with a New
INA Quarterly 31.1
The Monte Cristi Bartmiinner
Former Texas A&M University nautical archae-
ology program graduate student Anne Wood Lessman
spent years studying the Rhenish stoneware from the
Monte Cristi "Pipe Wreck." Her work resulted in a mas-
ter's thesis that detailed the manner in which these styl-
ized containers were produced.
Although no entire vessels have yet been recovered
from the site, Monte Cristi Rhenish stoneware sherds com-
prise one of the most unique collections in the annals of nau-
tical archaeological research, rivaled only, perhaps,by those
from the seventeenth-century Dutch East Indiaman Vergul-
de Draeck. Here then is how these stylized jerry-cans of the
seventeenth century were pro-
Silicate-rich clays ex-
tracted from deposits near
the Rhine River were
brought to a pottery and
fashioned into large globu-
lar jugs. While these dried to
leather hardness, small bits
of the same type of clay
were pressed into decora-
tive molds. One was sculpt-
ed with the highly stylized
Bartmanner, or bearded man
face, which would adorn the
vessel's neck; another was
carved with a medallion or
heraldic device that would
characterize the body, or
"belly" of the container. When suitably dried, these
emblems were peeled from their molds and applied to
the surface of the jug.
The container was placed in a kiln and fired at
around thirteen hundred degrees Celsius, a tempera-
ture at which the clay vitrified, or literally turned to
glass. Likewise, the molded neck and body decorations
formed a hard, impermeable, layer as they fused to the
walls of the jug.
Damp sea salt was added during the firing pro-
cess to produce a pitted texture and dark speckled pat-
tern. Often, cobalt was used to produce bright blue
splashes, a colorful addition
to a rather drab exterior
characterized by grays and
Eight varieties of Bar-
tmiinner-six types of neck
and two shoulder designs--
as well as at least nine me-
dallion types have been
found on stoneware sherds
from the Monte Cristi ship-
wreck. The latter include
floral designs, heraldic de-
vices, a shield, and a figure
referred to affectionately by
Photo: MCSP Archives team members year after
"Shakespeare," as he is referred to by the Monte Cristi year as "Shakespeare," but
Shipwreck Project team, is a common Rhenish stoneware which is thought to repre-
emblem that may, in fact, represent William of Orange. sent a soldier or sportsman.
INA Quarterly 31.1
Table 2. Ceramic sherds (N=757) from the Monte Cristi "Pipe Wreck," 2003.
Rim Base Body Handle N
Sherds Sherds Sherds Fragments
White-Glazed 89 65 402 16 572
Blue & White-Glazed 5 1 32 1 39
Green-Glazed 4 0 10 0 14
Orange-Glazed 1 0 0 0 1
Unglazed 0 0 51 0 51
Rhenish Stoneware 1 0 73 4 78
Westerwald 0 1 1 0 2
Subtotals 100 67 569 21 N = 757
Table 3. A comparison of the numbers of ceramic sherd type from the 2001 and 2003 Monte Cristi "Pipe Wreck" Excavation
92 73 5
1 1 0
919 518 34
Several sherds of Westerwald pottery, a second variety of German stoneware, were found on the shipwreck in
both 2001 and 2003. These blue-on-gray or blue-on-cream pieces, typical of the Westerwald region, probably represent
personal possessions or the ship's tableware.
As with the pipes, the number of ceramic sherds excavated in 2003 decreased considerably from the 2001 season
Fig. 11 (above). Blue-and-white earthenware sherds from the "Pipe
Wreck." Note that all bear an insect pattern, one of the many recogniz-
able motifs popular during the seventeenth century.
Fig. 12 (right). Rhenish stoneware bottle sherds from the "Pipe Wreck."
A grotesque mask (upper left) adorns the neck ofa stoneware Bartmann-
kriige (bearded man jug). Less common is a small face (upper right) on
the shoulder of one bottle. Below, afloral motif applique from the body of
the jug is cleaned of encrustation.
Photos: MCSP Archives
[NA Quarterly 31.1
SIlUIvu. J iCUIi L IIUIL.u; J. uoLntw i
Fig. 13 (left). A silver ochos reales (piece of eight)from the Potosi mint, in Peru. This coin bears a devaluation counter stamp in
the form of an inverted crown.
Fig. 14 (right). A coin from the Santa FE de Bogota mint in Colombia establishes a terminus post quem of 1651. The Roman
numerals (VIII) on the obverse (left) signal its value as ochos reales. Though the reverse (right) is highly degraded, it is possible to
distinguish the outlines of two columns representing the Pillars of Hercules,
Metal: Iron, lead, pewter, silver, and copper-alloy artifacts,
either because they contain metal, metallic corrosion prod-
ucts, or a thick carbonate layer (the result of chemical in-
teraction with sea water), are generally found deeper within
the sea floor sediment than ceramics. So it was with the
majority of the one hundred and eighty-eight metal frag-
ments excavated in 2003.
These concretions routinely comprise ship's fittings
and cargo elements, but this summer our collection boasted
a large, nearly complete, cooking cauldron, a well preserved
claw hammer, and what appears to be a lantern door.
What may well be a silver coin was also found,
bringing to twenty-eight the total of Spanish silver ochos
reales recovered in the past seven seasons. Of those found
previously, six are from the Potosi mint and were manu-
factured after 1649. Several bear devaluation counter
stamps (fig. 13). The single coin from the Santa F6 de Bogota
mint in Colombia (fig. 14) cannot predate 1651 and there-
fore establishes a terminus post quem, or "date after which"
our vessel sank. Though highly degraded, it is possible to
distinguish the outlines of two columns representing the
Pillars of Hercules, a symbol for the gateway to the Medi-
terranean Sea, known today as the Strait of Gibraltar. Em-
blazoned across the top of these pillars would have been
the Latin inscription, PLUS VLTRA ("And Even Beyond),"
a testimony to the hubris of Spanish Empire.
Organic remains: Seeds, bones, and shells are often the
most interesting artifacts/ecofacts that we find, for they
speak of shipboard diet and culinary practices. Although
botanical specimens were few (two unidentified seeds, one
of which appears to be a legume, or bean), our faunal cof-
fers faired better. To date, three hundred and forty-six
bones have been excavated, of which two hundred and
nine have been catalogued to specific skeletal part by Dr.
Philip Armitage of Exeter, England. The remaining lot is
presently being analyzed by Ms. Julie Gay of the San Di-
ego Museum of Man, including twenty-one bones raised
in 2003. Seven of these specimens are deeply charred, as
have been others excavated in previous seasons, and like-
ly indicate that they had been cooked.
The bone assemblage from the "Pipe Wreck" offers tan-
talizing hints as to the composition of the crew. Most of the sam-
ples collected to date are the remains of domestic livestock carried
as foodstuffs; manybear the characteristic knife and chop marks
of butchery. Early on, our limited samples suggested to Armit-
age that the crew was English, based on the high percentage of
sheep or goat rib fragments (which are virtually indistinguish-
able in the archaeological record). However, he posed a caveat
in a personal communication; Perhaps the ship was once "oper-
ated by English sailors and later taken over by the Dutch," an
intriguing hypothesis that well supports other data gathered by
our team. Since the vessel represented by the "Pipe Wreck" cer-
tainly sank no earlier than 1651 and probably went down dur-
ing or shortly after the first Anglo-Dutch War in 1652, it is possible
that the vessel was captured and put into service for Dutch op-
erators in the Caribbean, perhaps even the Dutch West India
INA Quarterly 31.1
Somewhat more difficult to interpret are the fish
bones, as they may belong to former reef inhabitants. In-
cluded among these scant remains-wrasse, sea bream,
squid and an unidentified species-is a single cod bone
(Gadus sp. ) and the cartilagenous mouth plate from an eagle
ray (Aetobatus narinaf). Although northern Atlantic Ocean
codfish was likely carried as stores, eagle rays, an endemic
species in the Caribbean Basin, are known to have been con-
sumed by humans in the West Indies, thereby suggesting
our crew indulged in a regional delicacy.
Numerous conch shells (Strombus sp.) have been re-
covered from the site during previous excavations. How-
ever, because these animals are indigenous to the area, they
generally have been deemed intrusive materials-that is,
they likely entered the ship after it sank-and, as such,
have been relegated to the spoil piles. It wasn't until sev-
eral shells were discovered to bear extraction marks in the
form of a hole cut in the third columnar whirl that these
were regarded as artifacts and important clues as to the
shipboard diet (fig. 15). Clearly, these holes were caused
by a sharp, narrow object used to cut the adductor muscle
and thus free the animal from its shell, a method still em-
ployed today by conchers across the Caribbean.
Conch was shipped in barrels from the island of St.
Cristoffel (St. Kitts in the Leeward Islands, Lesser Anti-
lles) destined "to Amsterdam in Nieu Nederlant," as re-
corded in the manifest of the galiot Nieuwer Amstel,
Resolution Book of Curacao, MM 48b, 16 June 1659, where
"one barrel of conch" ("I vat horns") was sent from Lou-
rens van Ruyven to C. van Ruyven. Identical entries ap-
pear for Franck Bruijn to Mr. Hans Kiersteede, Monsieur
Vaendr. to Daniel Litsco, and as an "item" to Johannes
Verbrugge. Franck Bruyn (note spelling variation) is men-
tioned again in the Resolution Book (MM 62, 8 May 1660)
when he consigned "to the Honorable Lord Director-Gen-
eral Petrus Stuyvesant "one half aem [a liquid measure,
equivalent to 19 gallons of oil or 20.25 gallons of wine] of
conch" ("I halff aem hoorens"), which is again recorded in
the manifest of goods loaded into the galiot Nieuwer Am-
sterl (note spelling variation). This time, however, it was
shipped from Curacao. Within this same document is list-
ed "1 vatt hoorens" as an "item" consigned to Mr. Johannes
Verbruggen and Mr. Hans Kierstede (note spelling varia-
tion). The Resolution Book (MM 108, no day or month not-
ed, 1665) lists identical entries of "one barrel of conch" ("2
vat met kinckhoorens") loaded at Curacao for both Jacobus
Backer and Commissary Van Ruyven. In light of these his-
torical and archaeological data, altered conch shells from
the "Pipe Wreck" are now considered part of the vessel's
foodstuffs, and four such artifacts await further study in a
fresh water tank at the University of San Diego.
Although the excavation has moved away from the
extant hull, large timber fragments and small wood bits
are still recovered. At the close of the 2003 season, our reg-
istry contained entries for 1,128 wood fragments, of which
514 (45.6%) were of roughly uniform size and charred. Until
now, such burnt fragments were thought to be evidence of
a fire onboard ship (a still-viable hypothesis); however, in
light of seventeenth-century Dutch West India Company
correspondence noting that charcoal was regularly trans-
ported from Curacao northward to New Netherland, con-
sideration is being given to the notion that this collection
represents cargo. A representative sample of this carbon-
ized wood is being prepared for analysis in 2004. Addi-
tional organic finds from 2003 include a piece of charred
rope (probably rigging), and five swatches of cattle hair,
likely used in conjunction with the vessel's bottom sheath-
ing to protect against wood-boring marine organisms.
Fig. 15. Jonatan Escoto, son of the Director of the Ofi-
cina Nacional de Patrimonio Cultural Subacuati-
co (National Office of Underwater Archaeology),
displays two conch shells that were part of the food-
stuffs aboard the seventeenth-century vessel.
INA Quarterly 31.1
Discussion: Our primary research objective was accom-
plished with encouraging results. Strong evidence indicates
that the southern perimeter of artifact/ecofact/feature dis-
persal has been defined for the "Pipe Wreck." Distribu-
tional counts across the site decreased-and eventually
reached zero-along the north-south (x) axis in 2003, and
were, overall, lower than in previous seasons. This is sup-
ported by reductions in the quantities of pipes (refer to
Table 1) as well as morphologies (rim, base, body) of most
categories of ceramic sherds from the 2001 to the 2003 sea-
sons (refer to Table 3). Exceptions to the latter include West-
erwald and orange-glazed sherds (types), white-glazed
base and handle fragments, and blue-and-white handle
Discernible changes in substrate color and texture
occurs at the southern edge of these distributions (where
N=0). This may indicate where the disarticulated hull
formed a barrier to artifact migration, before the ship's tim-
bers decomposed completely. If so, it offers one explana-
tion for the abrupt reduction in artifact numbers within
the outer grid squares excavated in 2003. It may also clar-
ify why the wreck's western frames, as well as the bottom
and ceiling planks, are missing.
Our second research objective, to investigate further
the seemingly anomalous cooking cauldron on the shal-
low reef northwest of the site, also yielded positive results,
but not in the manner anticipated. Although we suspected
that a detailed visual survey of the reef would indicate
whether additional non-perishable cargoes spilled from the
vessel, it was anecdotal-not artifactual-data that pro-
vided our answer. In an interview with Dionysius Jesus
Vargas (a.k.a "Johnny Bigleaguer"), the Dominican fisher-
man who, along with Elpidio Arturo Francisco, is credited
with finding the site, it was revealed that he placed the
cauldron on the reef for safekeeping shortly after it was
discovered in 1966. Therefore, we have revised and all but
abandoned the idea that the vessel collided with the shal-
low reef while entering the bay, based on the archaeologi-
cal evidence recovered to date. Future investigations may
rekindle this notion, but presently, we must examine oth-
er possible explanations of the vessel's demise.
A preponderance of evidence supports our hypoth-
esis that the "Pipe Wreck" represents a Dutch-operated
vessel which sank shortly after the middle of the seven-
teenth century. Timber analyses conducted at the afore-
mentioned Dutch Dendrochronology Center in
Amsterdam indicate that the ship was constructed from
oak (Quercus sp.) forested in eastern England between 1642
and 1643. The mint scandal at the Potosi silver mine, in
which Nestares de Marin played a crucial role, produced
counter-stamped ochos reales between 1649 and 1651, and
the single coin from the Santa F4 de Bogota mint clearly
establishes a post 1650 production date. Stoneware rim,
body, and base sherds from the "Pipe Wreck," along with
Bartmiinner faces and stylistic elements of body medallions,
suggest bottle styles consistent with those made in Frech-
en, Germany between 1645 and 1655. Though not manu-
factured in the Netherlands, Rhenish stoneware ceramics
produced in the middle of the seventeenth century were
shipped in bulk almost exclusively by the Dutch. Two va-
rieties of pipes and their seven signature stamps clearly
date to the middle seventeenth century and-in most cas-
es-boast Amsterdam as their locus of production. Edward
Bird produced "EB"-stamped funnel pipes that appear on
Dutch and Native American sites in present day New York
between 1650 and 1658, with a distributional peak in 1658.
We have found no such artifacts, but funnel pipes are abun-
dant on the site, as are Bird's bulbous forms, and the com-
parative temporal distribution is supportive and
encouraging. Therefore, dendrochronological analyses of
the extant hull, ceramic typological studies, and compara-
tive collections of pipe maker's stamps and coinage mint
marks conjoin to produce an optimum temporal frame-
work of 1651-1665 for the "Pipe Wreck."
Though no conclusive archaeological data establish
a connection between the wreck and the WIC, it is abun-
dantly clear that the remains are those of an inbound north-
ern European merchant trader that carried an assortment
of utilitarian wares for European colonists and Native
Americans. Should our research one day implicate a ves-
sel that operated under the aegis of the WIC, it will be the
first such wreck to be excavated.
So what was a vessel that was apparently destined
for the Upper Hudson River Valley doing on the north coast
of Hispaniola? The answer may lie in the careful examina-
tion of two natural commodities that were popular export
items throughout the seventeenth century. The first is leath-
er; the second, salt.
During the early years of the seventeenth century,
the northern environs of Hispaniola were virtually unin-
habited. Feral pigs and cattle-decended from the remnant
stock left on Spanish ranches abandoned when the silver
boom hit South America-roamed the savannas, outnum-
bering even the island's human population. This overabun-
dance set the stage for easy exploitation by the boucaniers
(buccaneers), highly skilled hunters who roamed in loose
confederations, their livelihoods fueled by Europe's seem-
ingly uncontrollable demand for leather. Because it is both
flexible and durable, leather was used in the production of
saddles, carriages, and even ships, and thus became a prin-
cipal constituent of the transportation industry. Hispanio-
la grew to be the center for this trade, and the island's
northern coast became the staging ground for illicit flea
markets feriass) where hides were exchanged for finished
goods offloaded from European ships. Although our pos-
ited time frame places the Monte Cristi vessel in the tem-
poral twilight of this illegal industry, geographically it is
positioned in the epicenter.
INA Quarterly 31.1
Fig. 16. The interior of Isla Cabra, summer base camp
for the Monte Cristi Shipwreck Project, is filled with
active salt pans.
Middle Range Theory is an archaeological tenet that,
succinctly explained, posits that if one wishes to under-
stand past behaviors (i.e. how people utilized resources),
they should observe how inhabitants of the same geograph-
ical region comport themselves now. Today, Isla Cabra,
the small, uninhabited island where we make our sum-
mer base camp, is home to active salt pans (fig. 16). In fact,
Monte Cristi and its outlands are premier salt sources in
the Caribbean Basin, as noted by Columbus on his first
voyage to the New World. Again this past summer, we
witnessed workers loading salt bags into their boats from
the eastern shore of our little island, approximately 100 m
from the wreck site (fig. 17). As seventeenth-century WIC
documents are replete with references to salt freighted from
the Caribbean northward, it is conceivable that our ship
entered the bay in search of this much-prized commodity,
and sank while anchored windward of Isla Cabra.
If our wreck is the remains of a Dutch-operated
merchantman, studies of the extant hull and cargoes are
significant contributions to the relatively scant corpus of
archaeological data for Dutch seafaring in the New World.
Likewise, the proposed temporal framework (1651-1665)
and the propounded origins of the vessel and cargo place
this wreck in the middle of a volatile competition between
the English and Dutch for maritime, mercantile, and mili-
tary supremacy in both Europe and the Americas. The
Fig, 17. Workers retrieve salt from the pans of Isla Ca-
bra. Note the R.V. Rummy Chum IV in the back-
ground, marking the location of the "Pipe Wreck."
INA Quarterly 31.1
"Pipe Wreck" may be one of the few maritime cultural re-
sources that help to shed light on this fascinating era of
history. Lastly, Hispaniola's northern coast-especially
during the middle of the seventeenth century-was a geo-
graphical region about which little is known from the his-
torical and archaeological records. Any information
garnered from our study will provide a welcome addition
to the regional history of both the island and the Caribbe-
Pipes and pipe fragments from the Monte Cristi
shipwreck form the largest aggregation of smoking-relat-
ed artifacts recovered from a submerged site. By project
completion, this quantity will likely surpass that of any
terrestrial excavation, making it the largest known collec-
tion of clay tobacco smoking pipes.
Proposed Work in 2004
In addition to Gay's faunal studies that will com-
mence in early 2004, Dennis James, Manager of the Ele-
mental Analysis Laboratory at Texas A&M University will
conduct neutron activation analyses on 38 clay pipe frag-
ments to determine their elemental composition. This re-
search is the first step in addressing fundamental questions
posed since the onset of the project. Are there archaeolog-
ical data to support historical documentation that Edward
Bird and Willem Hendricks shared the same days and pos-
sibly even the same kiln? Are our funnel pipes-stamped
with the FOT 49 heel mark-products of Bird? And what
of the P*C and D*C pipes? Are their stylistic and icono-
graphic details coincidental? Will they remain anonymous,
or will further study allow us to reveal their identities and
establish their relationship?
Since other questions-larger and more general in
scope-await answers, the author will visit Amsterdam,
Cologne, and Frechen in June 2004 to investigate further com-
parative pipe and ceramic collections. In so doing, we hope
to understand better the processes, peoples, and cargoes that
were essential components of the ship and its voyage.
Perhaps the essential question at this juncture in the
Monte Cristi Shipwreck Project is "Why, then, is the con-
tinued excavation of this well known site important?"
Though interesting and worthy of study, Dutch clay pipes,
German ceramics, Spanish silver coins, and even an En-
glish-built ship are certainly not unique. Each is mentioned
in historical documents; those rendered in artistic works
and displayed in comparative archaeological collections
are of considerably higher quality than these crude coun-
terparts from our wreck. Stylistically, most of our artifacts
may be deemed "plain" and their utilitarian roles "ordi-
nary." All, including the ship, are partial. After three-and-
a-half centuries on the sea floor their conditions are less
than desirable, if not pitiful. And herein, somehow, lies
the answer to our question: Because the strength of archaeol-
ogy is Story. Not artifacts or sites; not innovative methods
or technological advancements; not multiple hypotheses
or sophisticated analyses. Story. For years, archaeologists
and volunteers have methodically attempted to coax mean-
ing from material culture. They have done so in hopes of
one day producing a narrative that begins with the lading
of a ship. The continuation of this project is important be-
cause a story awaits telling: It is a tale of craftsmen and
captains, inquisitors and Indian tribes, of an English-built
ship flying the Dutch Tricolor, and of its last fateful trip
across an Indigo Sea.
Acknowledgements:You cannot excavate a ship, year after year, without a lot of help. I gratefully acknowledge
the continued cooperation of Sr. Francisco Escoto, Director of the Oficina Nacional de Patrimonio Cultural Subacu-
atico (National Office of Underwater Cultural Patrimony) for the Dominican Republic. Sr. Francis Soto Tejeda,
Director of the Fortaleza Ozama Conservation Laboratory, has been a good friend and a wonderful colleague.
His capable staff has risen to every occasion, and many thanks are due Isabel Brito, Francisco Coriel Garcia, and
Fatima Mejia Zorrilla. Naval personnel Teniente Adriano Lima, Teniente Wellington Perez Pefia, and Teniente
Felix Antonio Reyes Gomez have, without hesitation or reservation, assured our security while on the island. I
would be remiss in my duties as a scholar and friend if I failed to mention Don Pedro Borrell Bentz, who gra-
ciously assisted us in the early years of this project.
Without the means to reach the field, provision the camp, and hire local help, there would be no excava-
tion. I sincerely thank RPM Nautical for their continued financial support. The University of San Diego awarded
our project a Faculty Research Grant, which kept us in groceries. Dr. Ronald Halbert-whose very name is syn-
onymous with the "Pipe Wreck"-has always been a munificent benefactor and even more generous friend. So
has Neil Blaine Fisher. When Mo Hall couldn't come down, he and his beautiful wife, Linda, helped to fund our
work. Thanks, Mom and Dad. I am grateful, too, for the support of Mr. Ned Boshell and Mr. Harry Kahn.
I am deeply indebted to my staff for keeping things running smoothly: Laboratory Director and Texas
A&M University graduate student Grace Sandrena Turner; and Dive Master Nick "Sharky" Doose.
I must also acknowledge Patrick Geyer's participation for part of the summer.
INA Quarterly 31.1
Volunteers are an indispensable part of any archaeological endeavor: Yvonne Broeder, Shanan Campana-
ro, Katie Custer, John Eckhart, Karl Eckhart, Hanibal Luje, Bob Petrucelli, Kate Phillips, and Sean Williams saw
to it that groceries were bought, water was hauled, latrines were dug, stories were told, and morale was boosted.
Thanks, team. So much of archaeology has so little to do with archaeology.
The able assistance, year after year, of our Dominican staff-Rosa Niurka Morel Belliard, Luis (Nene)
Helena, and Luisito Reyes-has made this project possible. Johnny Bigleaguer always manages, season upon
season, to join the team. We are glad he does. iSomosfamilia para siempre!
Many thanks are due Peter Throckmorton, with whose vision and encouragement this project left the
drawing board. If there's an angel on my shoulder, I know his name. George Fletcher Bass taught me the most
valuable lesson of all: Unless you are prepared to undertake a project with "nothing more than a rowboat and a tea-
spoon," then you aren't readyfor the task at hand. Thanks George. You're right (again)!
Last, I extend my sincerest thanks to the University of San Diego field school students Mary Casey, Emily
Chandler, Lesley Culver, Linda Honey, Maria Kelly, Keila Marrero, Emelie Yonally-Phillips, Kelley Sibley, Nick
Towle, and William Welsh, each of whom made 2003 a truly remarkable season. Odysseus heard a distant call,
traveled to a far land, weathered seemingly insurmountable odds, and returned home-a changed person-to
tell the story. So did you. You are my heroes, s
-- s, --
For more about Francisco Nestares de Marin and the scandal at the Potosi mint:
Silver and Entrepreneurship in Seventeen-Century Potosi: The Life and Times of Antonio Lopez de Quiroga, by Peter
Bakewell, Southern Methodist University Press, Dallas, Texas, 1995; "The Potosf Mint and Great Transition of 1652," by
SewaU H. Menzel, EN RADA Publications, West Palm Beach, Florida, 1995; Spanish Colonial Silver Coins in the Florida
Collection, by Alan K. Craig, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 2000; and The Spanish Treasure Fleets, by
Timothy R. Walton, Pineapple Press, Sarasota, Florida 1994.
For more about the boucaniers of Hispaniola:
Sodomy and the Pirate Tradition: English Sea Rovers in the Seventeenth-Century Caribbean, by B. R. Burg, New York
University Press, New York, 1995; The Buccaneers of America, a True Account of the Most Remarkable Assaults Committed of
Late Years Upon the Coasts of the West Indies by the Buccaneers of Jamaica and Tortuga (both English and French) wherein are
Contained More Especially the Unparalleled Exploits of Sir Henry Morgan, our English Jamaican Hero, who Sacked Porto Bello,
Burnt Panama, etc. by John Esquemeling, one of the Buccaneers who was Present at those Tragedies, by Alexandre O. Exqueme-
lin, 1684 (various publication houses).
For more about Edward Bird and Willem Hendricks:
"The Fort Orange 'EB' Pipe Bowls: An Investigation of the Origin of American Objects in Dutch Seventeenth-
Century Documents," by Margriet De Roever, in New World Dutch Studies: Dutch Arts and Culture in Colonial America
1609-1776, Albany Institute of History and Art, 1987. See also "De Kleipijp in de Zeentiende Eeuwse Nederlanden (The
Clay Pipe in Seventeenth-Century Netherlands)" by D.H. Duco, in The Archaeology of the Clay Tobacco Pipe V: Europe, P.
Davey, ed. (BAR International Series 1981).
For more about artifacts from the Monte Cristi "Pipe Wreck:"
A Seventeenth-Century Northern European Merchant Shipwreck in Monte Cristi Bay, Dominican Republic, an unpub-
lished doctoral dissertation by J. L. Hall, Texas A&M University, 1996; The Rhenish Stoneware From the Monte Cristi
Shipwreck, Dominican Republic, an unpublished master's thesis by Anne Wood Lessman, Texas A&M University, 1997;
and A Conservation Assessment of 17th-century Dutch Glass Trade Beads From The Monte Cristi Shipwreck Project, Dominican
Republic, an unpublished Master's Thesis by N. Carroll, New York Fashion Institute, 1998.
INA Quarterly 31.1
Managing a Field Laboratory at an Isolated Site:
Managing the field laboratory for the Monte Cristi
Pipewreck Project presented serious challenges due to the
site's physical layout and its location some distance from
any major city. The nearest community was Monte Cris-
ti, a small town on the northwest coast of the Domini-
can Republic. During each two-month field season the
crew lives on a tiny island, Isla Cabra (Goat Island)
which lies about one half mile west of the mainland.
Although there is a salina (salt-producing lake) in the
center of the island, fresh water is not available on Isla
Cabra, so it must be brought in by boat. The prevailing
northeast trade winds sometimes gust over this tiny is-
land at over thirty miles per hour. Our location within
a national land and sea park meant that we would oc-
casionally be joined by boatloads of tourists-mostly
locals-eager to share in our island adventure. This sea-
son involved the largest number of participants since
the beginning of the project, twenty-four people at one
point, including four Dominican staff members. For the
first time, this season incorporated a college-level field
school. Ten crewmembers were students enrolled in one
of two six-week field school sessions.
As laboratory manager, my job was to ensure that
all project participants understood what needed to be done
to adequately record and document all excavated materi-
al. It certainly was a plus that this was about the tenth field
season for this project, which meant that there were already
well-established guidelines in place that had only to be
updated. Also, most of the volunteers had participated in
two or more field seasons and so were quite
familiar with the usual processes. For the stu-
dents, however, this was a totally new chal-
lenge, since none of them had any prior
archaeological field experience. While they
eagerly anticipated the underwater excava-
tion, they had no idea how big a role the field
laboratory would have, not only for the
project, but also in their daily lives for the six
weeks they were on the island. It should per-
haps have been a clue that the common name
for the laboratory manager on this project was
The easy part was getting set up on the
island. First, the area designated for the labo-
ratory had to be cleared of the ever-present
nettles and thorny acacia branches. I had
packed a cutlass expressly for this purpose.
A space at the western edge of the camp
served best as the laboratory area since it was
not only fairly close to the water but also, more Fig. 3. Mi
importantly, because it was in a grove of trees that acted
as a windbreak. New furniture was built for this season's
laboratory since two of the three tables we had used previ-
ously on the island had deteriorated beyond repair. A tarp
was erected to provide shade for crewmembers working
in the lab. This cover had to be replaced after four or five
weeks when it was partly ripped through. One corer was
slamming people in the head! Tarps were not put up over
the artifact storage area until about this time. These tarps
were salvaged from old tents that were kept on hand espe-
cially for such purposes. The colors of the various pieces
provided a beautiful backdrop of color, much like a wall
of stained glass, but by the end of the season, some six
weeks later, they were all in tatters and only could be dis-
carded. It was impossible, even with the tarps, to maintain
shade over the entire artifact storage area. The sunlight
shifted constantly throughout the day and the small leaves
of thorny acacia trees and nettle vines provided only scant
Once the students arrived, they went through sev-
eral days of orientation, including a full day session in the
lab. Nevertheless, they only realized the full impact of their
time commitment to the laboratory after the first few days
of excavation. The critical stipulation for students was that
diving would not resume as long as there was a backlog of
artifacts to be documented and recorded. The items were
assigned catalogue numbers along with descriptions,
tagged, bagged and, if necessary, measured and drawn.
To ensure that everyone did a fair share of the work, stu-
onie Cristi Project field laboratory early in the 2003field season.
INA Quarterly 31.1
dents were required to put in at least four hours of labora-
tory time each day. With four divers (two of whom dug
with a dredge while two student divers excavated by hand
fanning) doing three dives for six days of each week there
was usually one, sometimes two, no-dive days in order to
catch up on laboratory work. Although this could be te-
dious, we sometimes got to see the work from a different
perspective when we gave tours of the laboratory and ex-
plained the project to some tourist or visiting government
The bulk of my work entailed checking to be sure
everything was properly categorized, labeled, and record-
ed. This was especially important because most of the arti-
facts would remain in a government laboratory facility in
Santo Domingo. In analyzing the finds, Project Director
Jerome Hall would have to rely heavily on supporting pa-
perwork such as the artifact register and artifact sheets.
Permission could be requested for only a small number of
artifacts to be taken to the U.S. for analysis and conserva-
tion. These had to be stored separately, so I was on a con-
stant search for appropriate "travel containers," such as
plastic buckets with a secure lid. Some of these were re-
trieved from the kitchen trash heap while others were re-
covered from among the "stuff" that routinely washes up
on the rocky portions of Isla Cabra's coast. A relaxing trek
around the island was always more than just aimless wan-
A part of the job of checking artifacts was to exam-
ine the condition of material in water storage. Only some
of the storage containers had lids that fit, so the almost con-
stant high winds limited our options. Until we were pre-
paring to break camp, the buckets without lids remained
uncovered. The water was to be changed at least twice a
week, although there was a far more casual
schedule for changing the water until the fi-
nal three weeks when the salt water was
gradually replaced by fresh water. In prep-
aration for the transfer to the mainland and
loading onto the truck for the five-hour
drive to Santo Domingo, all the artifact
buckets were covered. One student realized
we could cover the lidless containers with
aluminum foil. The volume of water in the
buckets was also lowered by about half to
help minimize the amount of spillage dur-
ing travel. Once in Santo Domingo, these ar-
tifact buckets are held in fresh water
holding tanks to await treatment. We will
again search for an adequate number of cov-
ered plastic containers before the next field
season. When these are all filled and there
is no time to search further, then the criteri-
on will again simply become "sturdy plastic
container with handles!" Fig. 2. Tea
As with the buckets, monitoring the supply of oth-
er laboratory materials is another important factor in main-
taining a smoothly operated field laboratory. Not all items
are readily available in a small town within a developing
country. Take, for example, something as seemingly mun-
dane as tie-top sandwich bags. We used all the larger bags
we brought and even tried to make our own by sealing
plastic pouches with the heat from a candle. Not only was
this time-consuming but the seals on these bags also had
an extremely high failure rate. I was finally able to pur-
chase more bags on a trip to Santiago, the country's sec-
ond-largest city. Just about anything we needed could be
found in either Santiago or Santo Domingo, but Santiago
was about two hours away by bus and Santo Domingo
was even farther. Therefore, when we were out of Mylar
for making artifact labels, we did not consider sending
someone to spend at least a full day searching for supplies
at an engineering or architectural supply store. We opted
instead to wait another week until we could borrow some
Mylar stored at the laboratory in Santo Domingo from the
Dominican Republic Survey Project. In the meantime, we
cut up plastic cups to use as adequate, if not particularly
flexible, labels. Our supply crises were strong reminders
of one of Jerome's favorite maxims for the students this
season, "Use it up, wear it out, make it do, or do without!"
Preparation for each field season is based on the ac-
cumulated knowledge and experience of previous seasons.
We will certainly not run out of various-sized bags to store
artifacts next summer and there will definitely be a large
supply of Mylar. Yet, just as certainly, challenges will arise
over different issues that are impossible to predict. The
solution remains the same, however: to be flexible enough
to deal with the full range of possibilities. a
im members at work in the laboratory during the 2003field season.
INA Quarterly 31.1
INA 2004 Board Meeting
at The Mansion on Turtle Creek in Dallas, Texas
The INA Annual Board Meeting ran smoothly, beginning with the Directors' business meeting on Friday, Febru-
ary 6, 2004, which was professional, short, and to the point. George Bass gave a Founder's report and Donny Hamilton
presented the President's report, both stating in different ways that the future of INA is secure. At the end of the
meeting, Ned Boshell, outgoing Chairman of the TNA Board, turned the office over to newly elected Chairman Jim
Goold. That night at the formal banquet everyone reconnected with old friends and enjoyed making new ones from the
list of distinguished guests in attendance. The evening program consisted of George Bass showing a short film of his
fascinating trip on a Russian deepwater submarine down to R.M.S. Titanic. We also took the opportunity to honor Ned
Boshell for his remarkable tenure as Chairman of the Board and presented him with a crystal ship's decanter to hold the
private scotch that he is known to favor.
Saturday morning was devoted to illustrated project presentations. The talks began with an overview of the 2003
survey in Turkey and the survey planned for this summer by INA Associate Director Faith Hentschel, Principal Inves-
tigator of the project. Next, Jeff Royal, RPM Nautical Foundation Archaeological Director, spoke of the unique and
mutually beneficial relationship between RPM Nautical Foundation and the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. Follow-
ing was a presentation given by Justin Leidwanger, a Nautical Archaeology Program student at Texas A&M Universi-
ty, who is directing an INA/RPM Nautical Foundation survey project in Episkopi Bay, Cyprus. Justin's project was just
one of several student-directed projects supported by both INA and RPM Nautical Foundation. Kevin Crisman then
provided an exciting review of his first excavation season on the Red River steamboat in Oklahoma. Filipe Castro
concluded the program by discussing his project in Panama concerning an early sixteenth-century Spanish shipwreck
that INA hopes to get permission to excavate in the summer of 2005. To prepare for an active afternoon of museum
tours and upcoming evening events, everyone then enjoyed a leisurely luncheon together at The Mansion's Prome-
The INA group next traveled to Fort Worth for entertaining and educational museum tours arranged by INA
Directors Lucy and Toby Darden. After viewing the Amon Carter Museum, the Kimbell Art Museum, and the Modem
Art Museum, our group joined Fort Worth friends of the Darden family at a cocktail social. A dinner reception followed
with George Bass giving a brief overview on INA's history and international interests. We owe our sincerest thanks to
Lucy and Toby Darden for their graciousness in hosting this memorable day of activities for INA.
Everyone at INA looks forward to corresponding with you throughout the coming months and we hope to see
you at the 2005 annual meeting! Meanwhile, below are some of the pictures from the various Board Meeting events.
The INA Staff and President in College Station, Texas.
Fig 1. INA Director Joe Ballew and his guest Ray
Morrison enjoy the company of George and Ann
INA Quarterly 31.1
Fig. 2. Nancy Cook, Raynette Boshell, and Danielle
Feeney share a conversation at the cocktail recep-
Fig. 3, Donny Hamilton honoring Ned Boshell
with a thank-you gift for serving as Chairman of
Fig. 4. Enjoying Donny Hamilton's generous dis-
closure with equal parts of delight and amusement
are Raynette Boshell and Lynn Shaw.
NA Quarterly 31.1
Fig. 5. Guests Minnie and Bill Caruth at the INA
Fig, 6. Director Donald Geddes and his wife Mari-
lyn enjoying a break between project presentations.
Fig. 7. Newly elected Chairman of the Board Jim
Goold confers with Nautical Archaeology Program
students Randall Sasaki and Alexis Catsambis.
INA Quarterly 31.1
Fig. 8. The INA Group listens to the docent at the
Modern Art Museum in Fort Worth.
Fig. 9 (below). Lucy Darden, along with John and
Nina Cassils, views collections at the museum.
Fig. 10 (above). Directors Toby Darden and Alex
Fig. 11. Lynn and Russ Shaw with Sema and
Cemal Pulak at the Modern Art Museum re-
[NA Quarterly 31.1
George O. Yamini
George Oliver Yamini, age 88, passed away on February 12,2004, in a Corpus Christi, Texas, hospi-
tal after a brief illness. He had served as a member of the Board of Directors of the Institute of Nautical
Archeology since 1983 (see Profile in INA Quarterly 19.4, 27). Dr. George F. Bass once observed, "George
Yamini defines the word, 'gentleman;' he is the kind of person any board would be proud as a member."
Mr. Yamini's efforts for INA included three years as a member of the Executive Committee and time on
the Long-Range Planning Committee. He was vice chairman of the Board of Directors for two years. His
wife Sara is also an active INA supporter and his daughter, Sally Yamini, currently serves as a Director.
[n addition to his contributions to nautical archaeology through INA, Mr. Yamini served as a direc-
tor of the Texas Maritime Museum. Only two days before his death, a 1:12 model of LaSalle's flagship La
Belle (see INA Quarterly 30.4, 3-18), donated to the Museum by Mr. Yamini and his wife, was opened to
the public. A reception honored the couple for their generosity.
A look at the faculty titles on the back cover of this issue will show how much INA and the Nautical
Education Program at Texas A&M University owe the Yamini family. At A&M, Mr. Yamini was a found-
ing contributor to the President's Endowed Scholars program, endowing two chairs in the Nautical Ar-
cheology Program and one in the College of Liberal Arts. "He was so big on education, and every year he
was always putting some in-need student through A&M," Sally Yamini said. He was appointed by the
Governor of Texas to a six year term on the original Board of Trustees of Texas Real Estate Research
Center (presently The Texas Real Estate Center) with headquarters at A&M.
George Yamini was born in San Antonio, Texas, on October 18, 1915. As a boy, he achieved the rank
of Eagle Scout (and, years later, enjoyed serving on the board of Circle Ten Council of the Boy Scouts of
INA Quarterly 31.1
America). He graduated from Woodrow Wilson High School in Dallas in January 1933, attended North
Texas Agricultural College (predecessor of the University of Texas at Arlington), and Texas A&M Uni-
versity in College Station. While at NTAC he was the Major of the band, played in the Dance Orchestra,
taught music lessons, and was President of the Senior Class. At A&M, he played in the Aggieland Dance
Mr. Yamini served four and a half years in the Army during World War II, retiring as a Major after
serving in the Arctic on Hudson Bay and as the transportation officer of the Binghamton, New York,
medical depot, for which he was awarded the Army Commendation Medal. He also received a letter of
personal appreciation signed by the Surgeon General of the United States Army.
After the war he opened George O. Yamini Company, a real estate brokerage office, and expanded
it into property and casualty insurance and the building of FHA and VA project homes. He also entered
the land development business, the construction and retention of apartments and shopping centers along
with property management. Mr. Yamini was President and Chairman of a number of privately owned
building, development, and property management corporations. He served on the boards of directors of
several publicly owned companies including Lakewood Bank & Trust. He developed and owned over
7500 apartment units and developed over fifteen thousand residential lots and major shopping centers
principally in the Dallas area.
Mr. Yamini was a life member of the Dallas Board of Realtors and was helpful when they started
the local multiple listing service. As a member of the Dallas Home and Apartment Builders Association,
he served on its Board of Directors from 1958 to 1976 and was chairman of virtually every major commit-
tee. He served as President in 1969-70. He was also State Director and Life Director of the National
Association of Home Builders and was a member of the Convention Center Committee, the Apartment
Center Budget Committee, and the Finance Committee. He played a major role in bringing the N.A.H.B.
convention to Dallas in 1960.
George Yamini had a long record of civic activities throughout the Dallas area. In 1968 he was
awarded the coveted Hugh Prather Trophy, awarded to the builder who did the most for his city. In 1969,
General Electric presented him the Community Progress Award.
His civic service included time with the Board of the North Dallas Chamber of Commerce, South
Dallas Chamber of Commerce, and other civic organizations in which he had an interest. He captained
United Fund and YMCA drives and for ten years was a sponsor of a Junior League Boys Baseball team.
He was a member of the Convention Committee and the Aviation Committee of the Dallas Chamber
during the initial development of DFW Airport. He was appointed by Mayor Robert L. Thornton to the
Dallas West Revitalization Commission, which instigated the "Clean Up" of West Dallas. It included
health, sanitation, street and drainage improvements as well as the removal of hundreds of tons of trash
and garbage. He was a member of the Dallas Planning Commission and Chairman of the City of Dallas
Board of Tax Equalization.
George Yamini was a member of Masonic Lodge 323 in Rockport, a Thirty-Second Degree Mason,
and a member of the Dallas and Corpus Christi Shriners. He was also a member of Jester Court 176 in
Corpus Christi. He loved and enjoyed gourmet food, fine wine, photography, hunting, fishing, sailing,
and yachting. He was a member of the Chaine des Rotisseurs, Northwood Club, Dallas Club, Chaparral
Club, Dallas Gun Club, Texas Game Fishing Club, The Sons o' Beaches Fishing Group, Key Allegro Yacht
Club, Rockport Yacht Club, and Rockport Country Club, and was one of the founding members of Coast
Watchers Club. He joined the First United Methodist Church of Dallas in 1934, where he served on the
Church Board and numerous committees.
After selling his business to his employees, Mr. Yamini retired in June 1978, subsequently making his
permanent home in Rockport, Texas. He served as Vice President of the Key Allegro Canal and Property
Owners Association. He anonymously supported a number of Rockport charitable organizations and
was a member of the First United Methodist Church in Rockport, where his memorial service was held.
In addition to his daughter, George Yamini is survived by his loving wife of sixty-two years, Sara
Williams Yamini, and several nephews and nieces. He was preceded in death by his parents and his
brother, Woodrow M. Yamini. -w
INA Quarterly 31.1
INSTITUTE OF NAUTICAL ARCHAEOLOGY
Christine A. Powell
Donny L. Hamilton, Ph.D., President'
Donald A. Frey, Ph.D., Vice President Cemal M. Pulak, Ph.D., Vice President
Claudia F. LeDoux, Chief Accounting Officer and Assistant Secretary
Michelle Chmelar, Assistant Accounting Officer
Tufan U. Turanh, Administrator, Bodrum Research Center
William L. Allen
John H. Baird
George F Bass, Ph.D.,* Founder
Edward O. Boshell, Jr.,
John A. Brock
Elizabeth L. Bruni
Allan Campbell, M.D.
William C. Culp, M.D.
Robin P. Hartmann
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
John Cassils, M.D. James A. Goold, J.D.
Gregory M. Cook Chairman, Secretary &
Lucy Darden General Counsel'
Thomas F. Darden* Charles Johnson, Ph.D.*
John De Lapa Mustafa Koc
Claude Duthuit Francine LeFrak-Friedberg
Danielle J. Feeney* Robert E. Lorton
Robert Gates, Ph.D. Alex G. Nason
Donald Geddes III George E. Robb, Jr.
Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D. Thomas McCasland, Jr.
Susan Katzev Dana F. McGinnis
William C. Klein, M.D. Michael Plank
George Lodge Molly Reily
Lynn Baird Shaw
J. Richard Steffy
William T. Sturgis
Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr., PhD.*
Robert L. Walker, Ph.D.'
Peter M. Way, Vice-Chairman*
Garry A. Weber
Sally M. Yamini
Betsey Boshell Todd
NAUTICAL ARCHAEOLOGY PROGRAM FACULTY
Deborah Carlson, Assistant Professor
Filipe Castro, PKD., Assistant Professor, Frederick R. Mayer Faculty Fellow of Nautical Archaeology
Kevin J. Crisman, PhD., Nautical Archaeology Faculty Fellow
Donny L. Hamilton, Ph.D., George T & Gladys H. Abell Chair in Nautical Archaeology Yamini Family Chair in LberalArts
Cemal M. Pulak, Ph.D., Frederick R Mayer Professor of Nautical Archaeology
C. Wayne Smith, Ph.D., Assistant Professor and INA Faculty Fellow
Shelley Wachsmann, Ph.D., Meadows Associate Professor of Biblical Archaeology
NAUTICAL ARCHAEOLOGY PROGRAM FACULTY EMERITUS
George F. Bass, Ph.D.,
George T. & Gladys H. Abell Chair in Nautical Archaeology, Yamini Family Chair in Liberal Arts, Distinguished Professor Emeritus
Frederick H. van Doorinck, Jr., Ph.D., Frederick R Mayer Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
J. Richard Steffy, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
Mr. & Mrs. Ray H. Siegfried TI Graduate Fellow: Alexis Catsambis Marian M. Cook Graduate Fellows: Peter D. Fix
J. Barto Arnold, M.A.
Ayse Atauz, M.A.
Kroum N. Batchvarov, M.A.
Arthur Cohn, J.D.
Nergis Cinsenin, Ph.D.
Jerome L. Hall, Ph.D.
Australian Institute of Maritime Archae
Bryn Mawr College
University of California, Berkeley
University of Cincinnati
Alexis Catsambis Margaret E. Leshikar-Denton, Ph.D
Katie Custer Bjorn Lov6n
Jeremy Green, M.A. Maria del Pilar Luna Erreguerian
Justin Leidwanger John McManamon, Ph.D.
Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D. Frederick Hocker, Ph.D
Fredrik T. Hiebert, Ph.D. Carolyn G. Koehler, Ph.D.
eology Corning Museum of Glass Pa
Departamento de Arqueologia Subacutica de Ur
la LN.AJ.H, Mexico Te
University of Maryland, Baltimore County RI
New York University, Institute of Fine Arts Te
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Th
INSTITUTE OF NAUTICAL ARCHAEOLOGY STAFF
Bilge Ginesdogdu Sheila D. Matthews, M.A.
Chasity Hedlund Sheree Moore
Giilser Kazancioglu Asaf Oron, M.A.
Bayham Kosar Muammer Ozdemir
Nurgiil Kulah Robin C. M. Piercy
Ralph K. Pedersen, Ph.D.
Brett A. Phaneu
Athena Trakadas, M.A.
Jeff Royal, Ph.D.
Cheryl Ward, Ph.D.
Gordon P Watts, Jr., Ph.D.
rtners for Livable Places
diversity Museum, University of Pennsylvani
xas A&M Research Foundation
PM Nautical Foundation
xas A&M University
ie University of Texas at Austin
A. Feyyaz Subay
Fred Van de Walle