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Volume 30 No. 1
""i:"" :. 3
2. L 5. .
The INA Quarterly
Volume30* No. 1
Institute of Nautical Archaeology
P.O. Drawer HG
3 Endless Summer: College Station, TX 77841-5137
The 2002 Excavation Season at Pabuc Bumu, Turkey Lea firsthand of the latest diso-
Learn firsthand of the latest discov-
eeeeeies in nautical archaeology. Mem-
bers receive the INA Quarterly and
12 Morocco Maritime Survey: the 2002 Season other benefits.
Researcher (students only).... $25
22 Excavation and Recording of the Medieval Hulls Diver.................... $40
at San Marco in Boccalama (Venice) Seafarer .................. $75
John McManamon, Marco D'Agostino and Stefano Medas Surveyor ................. $150
Restorer ................ $500
Curator ................ $1,000
29 Highlights from the Annual Meeting 2003 Excavator ................ $2,500
Navigator ................ S5,000
Checks, in US. currency, should be made
payable to LNA.
On the cover. Archaeology student Deniz Soyarslan raises one of four shallow bowls (mortaria) from the upslope sec-
tion of the sixth-century BCE shipwreck site at Pabuc Burnu, Turkey. Photo: Don Frey.
March 2003 by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. All rights reserved.
INAwelcomes requests to reprint INA Quarterly articles and illustrations. Articles for publication should be submitted inhard copy and on a 325
diskette (Madntosh, DOS, or Windows format acceptable) along with all artwork Please address all requests and submissions to the Editor, INA
Quarterly, P.O. Drawer HG, College Station, TX 77841-5137; tel (979) 845-6694, fax (979) 847-9260, e-mail email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Home Page for INA is at http:/ /ina.ta.mu.edu
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and Jack Kelly and incorporated in 1972. Since 1976, INAhas been affiliated with Texas A&M University, where [NA faculty teach in the
Nautical Archaeology Program of the Department of Anthropology. The opinions expressed in Quarterly articles are those of the authors,
and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Institute.
The INA Quarterly was formerly the INA Newsletter (vols. 1-18).
Editor: Christine A. PoweU
The 2002 Excavation Season at Pabuq Bumu, Turkey
Among the Institute of Nautical Archaeology's
many research goals is the desire to excavate a shipwreck
from every century of the past. The discovery of the sixth-
century BCE shipwreck at Pabuc Burnu, following closely
on the excavation of the Classical wreck at Tekta Burnu
(see INA Quarterly 26.4: 3-11; 28.2:3-8; 29.2: 12-14), brings
us one step closer to accomplishing this mission.
On the final stage of INA's 2001 shipwreck survey,
archaeologists used the submersible Carolyn to visit a scat-
ter of amphoras at Pabuq Bumu (or Shoe Point) found by
Selim Dincer and reported to INA by local diving instruc-
tor ASklm Cambazoglu (fig. 1). At Pabuc Burnu, about a
forty-five minute sail southeast of Bodrum, the Carolyn
crew observed a widespread distribution of amphoras,
which were subsequently investigated by divers. Some of
the amphoras were partially buried; others lay openly
on the seabed at a depth of approximately forty meters.
Upon this initial observation, the group debated wheth-
er or not the discovery represented a coherent wreck.
When team member Mutlu Gunay raised an amphora
for dating and recording, he discovered an intact oinoch-
oe, or wine pitcher, directly beneath, suggesting that we
had found more than a scatter of jettisoned cargo. Mark
Lawall, a specialist in Greek transport amphoras at the
University of Manitoba, used photographs and draw-
ings to date the Pabuc Burnu amphora to the late sixth
century BCE, from the regions around Samos, Ephesus,
or Miletus (fig. 2a). The oinochoe resembles the common
plain wares of Ionian manufacture from the second half of
the sixth century (fig. 2b).
Fig. 1. The PabuV Burnu shipwreck area.
INA Quarterly 30.1
0 I I
Fig. 2 a, b: An amphora (left) and an oinochoe, or wine pitcher (right), raised during the 2001 survey.
For the eastern Mediterranean, the late sixth centu-
ry marks an important stage of development, as Greek city-
states increased their fleets and fortifications forprotection
against the Persians and cooperated in the Ionian League.
The historian Herodotus has documented the expansion
of Ionian military works, while scattered references from
geographers, poets, and inscriptions describe an area of
flourishing trade, focused on specialized regional produc-
tion. Miletus, for example, was famed for its wool, Chios
for its wine, Rhodes for sponges, Knidos for herbs, and
Kos for raisins. Land excavations reveal evidence for the
distribution of goods throughout the Mediterranean on a
large and small scale, from local and distant regions.
The Excavation at Pabuc Burnu
Despite the economic and cultural significance of
the late Archaic period, no sixth-century shipwreck had
been excavated in the eastern Mediterranean. For this rea-
son, INA decided to begin work at Pabuc Burnu in 2002,
hoping to answer questions about ship construction and
the mechanics of trade in this period. In early June, the
Smothers-Bruni expedition to Pabuc Burnu began a project
that continued through the end of October, marking the
longest single field season INA has conducted in Turkey.
The international excavation team was composed of local
INA staff, along with archaeologists and students from the
Nautical Archaeology Program at Texas A&M University,
as well as other Turkish, American, and British universi-
ties, many of whom worked on the site for the entire cam-
Due to the proximity of the site to INA's headquar-
ters in Bodrum, the team decided to conduct the excava-
tion from our research vessel Virazon. This housed the
project's recompression chamber, computers, and excava-
tion equipment. Team members lived in the residence
building at INA's headquarters, a facility dedicated in 1999
with support from Danielle Feeney, Marja and Ron Bural,
Cynthia and Fred Campbell, Barbara and Claude Duthuit,
and Jean and Jack Kelley. Each day we sailed out from
Bodrum to Pabuq Burnu where we established a perma-
INA Quarterly 30.1
Fig. 3. Malcolm Wiener, founder of INSTAP, prepares to visit
INA's submersible Carolyn.
nent mooring above the site that allowed Virazon
er the prevailing northwest meltem winds and
sional southerly lodos.
A large number of visitors, including m4
the Turkish Ministry of Culture, INA director.
tion sponsors, and local Bodrum residents, we
visit the site and watch the excavation in prog
INA's submersible Carolyn, carried on Millawanda,
up alongside Virazon. INA Director Claude
Duthuit came to work with the team for more
than two weeks. Among many visitors who ei-
ther dived on the site or visited it in Carolyn were
General GQsan Beri (ret.), of the Turkish Army
Tank Corps; TINA members Sedat Akdemir,
Jonathan Beard, and Sezgin G6kmen; Bodrum
Harbormaster Ayhan Ozdemir; Aykut Ozdet,
Assistant Director of the Turkish Department
of Antiquities; Jeff Hakko of Vakko Clothes;
Akin Ongor, former head of Garanti Bank; Sel-
cuk Kolay, former director of the Rahmi Koq In-
dustrial Museum; Knox Key, a director of the
Smothers-Bruni Foundation; INA Adjunct Pro-
fessor Nergis Ginsenin of Istanbul University;
former ambassador Strobe Talbot, now head of
the Brookings Institute and Brooke Shearer, Ex-
ecutive Director of the Yale World Fellows Pro-
gram; Malcolm Wiener, founder of the Institute
for Aegean Prehistory, whose generosity al-
lowed INA to acquire Carolyn (fig. 3); Scott Ful-
mer of Young Broadcasting, Inc.; INA Director
Frederick van Doominck, Jr.; and INA Associ-
ate Director Molly Reily. Visiting celebrities in-
cluded record producer Ahmet Ertegun along
with pop star "Kidd Rock" and Pamela Ander-
son of Baywatch fame.
During the team's preliminary inspec-
tion of the site and the removal of the sand
overburden, we identified a concentration of
intact and partial amphoras approximately ten
by twelve meters (fig. 4). Subsequently, these
parameters were extended to an area of about
fourteen by twenty-two meters. We prepared
the site for excavation with the erection of thir-
ty two-by-two meter grid squares and four-
teen datum towers, used as reference points
for the mapping of artifacts. Grid lines and
datum points were mapped on the sea bed
with tape measures. From these measure-
ments, coordinates were generated with Site
: G. F. Bass Surveyor, a computer program that produces
the site in three-dimensional coordinates for objects by
After the establishment of fixed datum
points, we obtained all artifact measurements
by underwater photographs taken with a calibrated digi-
tal camera. Once downloaded, the photographs were pro-
cessed with the computer program PhotoModeler Pro,
which uses photogrammetry to generate three-dimensional
coordinates for artifacts in relation to the datum towers.
Wire frames for each artifact, which can be rendered to
appear solid, were drawn with Rhinoceros, a three-dimen-
sional modeling program (fig. 5). The digitally modeled
rnoto: a. ivareews
Fig. 4. The site toward the beginning of the excavation season.
INA Quarterly 30.1
artifacts were then placed on a computerized plan ac-
cording to their three-dimensional coordinates. This
mapping system, developed by staff members Tufan
Turanli, Berta Lled6, and Sheila Matthews along with
INA Research Associate Jeremy Green for the TektaS
Burnu shipwreck excavation, was further refined at
The combination of digital photography with
PhotoModeler and Rhinoceros allowed excavation to
proceed swiftly and efficiently. A single photographer
can achieve all necessary information for accurate map-
ping of the artifacts. With this system, less than ten per-
cent of bottom time was devoted to mapping
endeavors, a significant reduction from previous un-
derwater excavations conducted by INA, where map-
ping has occupied as much as forty percent. The use of
technology to enhance productivity is critical for un-
derwater excavation; at Pabuq Burnu, the site's depth
of thirty-five to forty-five meters means that archaeol-
ogists were limited to two working dives daily, each
twenty minutes in length.
For excavation of the site, archaeologists relied
on four airlifts set up on the seabed, anchored by metal
weights that could be moved as grid squares were com-
pletely excavated. Deep sand overburden was also re-
moved from the wreck by simple "hand-fanning," in
which loose sand is pushed downslope with a sweep-
ing motion of the hand. Individual excavators sketched
and recorded the grid locations of the pottery sherds
Photo: E. Greene
Fig. 6. Nautical Archaeology Program student Mark Polzer pre-
pares a sketch of his excavation square.
Fig. 5. A Rhinoceros model of an amphora from the Pabuv Bur-
nu site shown with wire frames on the left, rendered to appear
solid on the right.
and intact artifacts they uncovered (fig. 6); diagnostic
objects were then mapped in by digital photography.
Once mapped, artifacts were raised from the seabed.
On the surface, all objects, from the smallest pottery
sherd to intact vessels, were recorded, then brought
daily to the Nixon Griffis Conservation Laboratory at
INA's headquarters in Bodrum where they were kept
in wet storage (fig. 7).
Photo: E. Greene
Fig. 7. During and after the excavation, archaeologists and con-
servators process artifacts in the Nixon Griffs Conservation Lab.
INA Quarterly 30.1
Fig. 8 (top left). INA conservator Asaf Oron raises an amphora from the
Fig. 9 (above right). Along with the twenty-eight intact amphoras, over
150 partial amphoras were raised from the site.
Fig. 10 (below left). Once raised from the seabed, amphoras were sieved on
the surface by team members.
The majority of artifacts found on the Pabuc Burnu shipwreck
after more than four months of excavation are twenty-eight intact am-
phoras of probable Samian and Milesian types or local variants and
over 150 partial amphoras of similar types, including a few of prob-
able Chian, Knidian, and Klazomenian origin (figs. 8 and 9). The
contents of the intact amphoras were sieved on the surface and
yielded occasional grape seeds, olive pits, and fragments of tree
bark stoppers (fig. 10). A number of the amphoras and body sherds
are lined with pitch, suggesting, along with the grape seeds, a pri-
mary cargo of wine. We are hopeful that the ceramic collection,
which is probably the largest coherent assemblage of East Greek
transport amphoras from the late sixth century, will help refine the
typologies of these shapes. The diversity of forms and the lack of con-
sistent marking systems on Samian and Milesian amphoras has led to
disputed typologies, which the Pabuc Burnu collection may help re-
The amphoras have yielded a number of pre-firing stamps,
including small "o" stamps on the top or base of the handles, and a
rots; L. rrey
INA Quarterly 30.1
Fig. 11 (a and b). Stamps on the
Pabu Burnu amphoras include
round "o" stamps and a rectan-
gular device that may be a mono-
gram or palmette.
Photos: D. Frey
rectangular device that may be a monogram or palmette
(fig. 1la and l1b). These marks, more of which we expect
to discover when the amphoras have been fully cleaned,
may have served as a means of testing the hardness of the
clay before firing, or may be indicative of pottery work-
shops, content, capacity, producer, or dealer.
While intact and broken amphoras, as well as a num-
ber of ballast stones, have been found in virtually all areas
of the wreck site, the smaller finds, including four large
cooking bowls or mortars (fig. 12a), three of six pitchers
(fig. 12b), two smaller bowls (fig. 12c), and a few fineware
sherds, some decorated with black slip, are concentrated
in an upslope region of the site. This area is tentatively
designated as the ship's galley. The galley wares, of local
lonian production, were likely used by members of the
ship's crew for cooking, dining, and shipboard sacrifice,
rather than destined for trade.
Around the center of the wreck, excavation revealed
a stone anchor stock, approximately 1.7 meters in length
(fig. 13). The size of the anchor suggests a relatively large
ship, perhaps as long as the twenty-two meter spread of
ceramic remains we have uncovered. A cargo of merely
175 amphoras, however, seems rather scanty for a ship of
such length. The Tekta Burnu shipwreck, for example, es-
timated at ten meters in length or about half the size of the
Pabuq Burnu vessel, carried a primary cargo of over two
hundred amphoras (see INA Quarterly 29.2:12-14). The rel-
atively small quantity of amphoras on the Pabuq Burnu
vessel has led excavators to speculate that the ship origi-
nally carried an additional cargo of organic material such
Fig. 12 a, b, c. A number of large shallow bowls or mortars, smaller bowls, and wine pitchers werefound in the upslope region of the
site designated as the ship's galley. Photos: D. Frey
INA Quarterly 30.1
rnoto: U. rrey
Fig. 13. The stone anchor stock in situ.
Photo: S. Matthews
Fig. 14. Robin Piercy excavates the hull wood in the down-
slope area of the wreck.
as dry goods, timber, cloth, or wool, or that the vessel was sail-
ing only partially laden. A concentration of organic remains in
the downslope area of the site, including large quantities of loose
grape and olive seeds, supports the notion of an additional car-
go of perishable goods. Other possible cargoes, such as the wool
or cloth for which the lonians were well known, are unlikely to
have survived underwater,
While the dearth of amphoras on the wreck can be ex-
plained by the presence of an organic cargo, an alternate hy-
pothesis may be looting; because of the site's close proximity to
Bodrum with its long tradition of sponge and recreational div-
ing, the possibility of theft cannot be ignored, although no am-
phoras of the Pabuq Burnu type have been noted in the houses,
gardens, and public buildings of the Bodrum region. Addition-
ally, older local fishermen suspect that some fishing with dy-
namite occurred around Pabuc Burnu many decades ago, which
may explain the heavy concentration of broken amphoras.
With only a few weeks remaining in the excavation sea-
son, the team was excited to find wooden hull remains in the
downslope area of the wreck (fig. 14). The four planks discov-
ered, two of which measure over two meters in length and about
twenty-five centimeters in width, represented a significant dis-
covery. The planks have scattered spots of pitch on their inner
surfaces, which represent either caulking or the spilled contents
of a nearby amphora that aided their preservation. These planks
are especially noteworthy for their construction details: on the
upper and lower surfaces of the planks, triangular holes indic-
ative of a "sewn" or laced construction technique have been
recorded (fig. 15). According to this method, planks are joined
longitudinally by ligatures laced through prefashioned holes.
Remains of both the Ligatures and the wooden pegs that locked
them in place survive in the lacing holes of the Pabuq Burnu
planks. Additionally, evidence for widely spaced treenails and
tenons that held the planks together during the construction of
the vessel can be seen on the edges of the planks.
Photo: E. Greene
Fig. 15. A detail of the wood, with lacing holes marked with white
INA Quarterly 30.1
The exact construction details of the Pabuc Burnu
wreck cannot be understood until the wooden remains
have been drawn and studied by Mark Polzer, Texas A&M
Nautical Archaeology Program student and the project's
assistant field director (fig. 16). Evidence for a laced con-
struction technique, however, stands in contrast to virtually
all other early ships excavated in the eastern Mediterranean.
The Bronze Age wrecks at Cape Gelidonya and Uluburun
(see INA Quarterly 26.4: 16-21), as well as the fourth-century
BCE Kyrenia wreck (INA Newsletter 13.3: 7), are built with
mortise-and-tenon joins. The mortise-and-tenon technique
has generally been viewed as traditional for ships in the
eastern Mediterranean, while laced vessels are thought to
have originated in the west. The Pabu< Bumu shipwreck,
with its laced construction and cargo of southeast Aegean
amphoras, seems to contradict this thesis, suggesting per-
haps that laced construction was a Greek technique, while
mortise-and-tenon construction may have been Phoenician
in origin, adopted only later by the lonians.
With the exception of these planks and a few small
fragments of heavily deteriorated wood, no other hull frag-
ments have yet been discovered. The bottom stratigraphy
progresses from loose sand on the surface, to compact sand,
to a layer of coral, shell, teredo worm casings, and posei-
donia grass roots within which the majority of artifacts lie.
This suggests that much of the hull and perhaps some of
the organic cargo was consumed by marine organisms as
it lay suspended on a rock outcrop in the upslope area of
the site. Only further excavation will reveal whether more
of the hull remains are preserved, but we are hopeful of
finding the keel and framing elements of the vessel bur-
ied in the deep sand downslope.
As the weather grew colder at the end of October,
we were forced to conclude our excavation. At the end of
the campaign, all inventoried artifacts were delivered to
the Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology for con-
servation. Partial amphoras and wood remains are cur-
rently being conserved in INA's Nixon Griffis laboratory.
Once the conservation processes are finished, the artifacts
from the Pabuq Buru shipwreck will be displayed in the
Bodrum Museum. Apart from the possible discovery of
additional hull wood, all visible artifacts were removed
from the site and we anticipate only a brief campaign in
2003. During this exploratory season, however, we may
take the opportunity to investigate a second shipwreck,
located only a few hundred meters from the Pabuc Bumu
site, that we discovered with the submersible Carolyn. A
large ceramic cooking pot raised when archaeologists in-
vestigated the site should tell us more about the origin
and date of the vessel.
Fig. 16. Elizabeth Greene examines construction features while Don Frey photographs
minute details on the hull remains as they undergo desalination in the Nixon Griffis Con-
servation Laboratory at INA's Bodrum headquarters.
INA Quarterly 30.1
Pending the completion of the excavation in 2003
and the continued cleaning and processing of the artifacts
and organic remains, the information presented here is
necessarily preliminary. Although our research has just
begun, it is our expectation that the wreck will yield in-
formation about the status of both ship construction and
local trade in the eastern Mediterranean during the late
sixth century BCE.
The naval prowess of Ionian seafarers in the sixth
century is well known. According to the historian Hero-
dotus (3.39, 44), the Samian tyrant Polycrates based his
power on his fleet of over one hundred pentekonters; by
525 BCE he had a fleet of triremes large enough to spare
forty to assist Cambyses' invasion of Egypt. Indeed, Hero-
dotus (3.122) reports that Polycrates was the first Greek
ruler since Minos to aim for total dominion of the seas.
Slightly later, Thucydides (1.13.2) explains that the Greeks
used "modern" building techniques in the construction
of their warships; this new construction method may well
be the adoption of the Phoenician system of mortise-and-
tenon joinery. To our current knowledge of the naval
prowess of the lonians in warfare, INA's excavation at
Pabuc Burnu should reveal exciting additions about mer-
chant ventures, pottery manufacture and workshops, eco-
nomic conditions, and the role of East Greek traders in
the Archaic Mediterranean.
The Archaic poet Hesiod, whose Works and Days
gives advice on farming, mentions sailing almost as an
afterthought. Although Hesiod himself claims to have
traveled by ship over the seas only once, to those men
who are tempted by merchant ventures, he advises that
they set out in late summer, after the harvest and before
the autumn rains (663-70). Hesiod cautions, however, "Do
not put all your goods in hollow ships; leave the greater
part behind and put the smaller part on board; for it is a
bad business to meet with disaster among the waves of
the sea" (689-91). With its cargo of wine, olive oil, grapes,
and organic, stored in amphoras of local types from a
variety of workshops, the wreck at Pabuc Burnu may pro-
vide evidence for just such a venture: a moderate-sized
merchant vessel carrying goods from a collective of farm-
ers, which met with disaster on the seas.
Acknowledgements: This excavation would not have been possible without the support of the Institute of Nautical
Archaeology, Texas A&M University, the National Geographic Society, the Smothers-Bruni Foundation, the Eugene
McDermott Foundation, and Turkish Airlines. Yaqar Ylldiz, of the Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology,
represented the Turkish Ministry of Culture for the entire season. Mark Polzer performed above and beyond the call
of duty as Assistant Field Director. Thanks are due to all of the team members: Enver Arcak, Claude Duthuit, Jeremy
Green, Faith Hentschel, Volkan Kaya, Orkan Koyasioglu, Angle Mitchell, Selda Ozhan, Corioli Souter, Deniz
Soyarslan, Mehmet Ylldiz, and Evren Tiirkmenoglu. Special thanks go to those stalwarts who tirelessly made it through
the entirety of our "endless summer:" Hiiseyin Aldemir, Project Director George Bass, Don Frey, Sheila Matthews,
Asaf Oron, Robin Piercy, Feyyaz Subay, Murat Tilev, Tufan Turanh, Yagar Yildiz, Zafer Gil, and Bayram Kosar. The
excavation team is grateful to the Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology and its director Oguz Alpozen for
providing conservation and storage for the artifacts raised in 2002. My own personal thanks go to George Bass, who
always knew when to offer advice and when to step back, for entrusting me with the archaeological direction of the
Pabuc Burnu excavation. w,
Cook, R. M. and P. Dupont
1998 East Greek Pottery. London.
Greene, E. and G. F. Bass (forthcoming)
"Discovery and Excavation: The 2001 Submersible Survey and the 2002 Excavation at Pabuq Burnu, Turkey,"
Tropis VIII: Proceedings of the 8' International Symposium on Ship Construction in Antiquity, August 2002.
Steffy, J. R.
1994 Wooden Ship Building and the Interpretation of Shipwrecks. College Station, TX.
1959 Ionian Trade and Colonization. New York.
INA Quarterly 30.1
Morocco Maritime Survey: the 2002 Season
Photo: A. Trakadas
Fig. 1. The anchorage at Cap Spartel, Morocco (CSP062), includes many ancient and modern
anchors. Shown here is an ancient lead anchor stock, on top of which is a more modern iron grap-
From the initial voyages of the Phoenicians through
the Straits of Gibraltar in search of murex dye sources on
the Atlantic coast, to later Roman, Islamic, and European
vessels, northern Morocco's shores have witnessed a num-
ber of foreign cultures vying for control of its natural re-
sources and geographic position. This is shown by the
many anchors from diverse times and cultures scattered
along the coast (fig. 1). Despite Morocco's prolific mari-
time-based history, however, exploration of the country's
waters has been minimal. Findings from the first system-
atic underwater survey of Morocco, conducted in 1999 by
INA, indicate a varied presence of significant maritime ar-
chaeological sites around one of the world's busiest and
historically-disputed naval passageways, the Straits of
Gibraltar (see INA Quarterly 28.3: 3-15). Since the primary
focus of the 1999 survey was Tangier Bay, a new project,
the Morocco Maritime Survey, was initiated in 2002 in order
to identify any ancient and historic shipwrecks and ship-
related materials along Morocco's Tangerian peninsular
coasts. The survey is conducted under the auspices of INA
and the Kingdom of Morocco's archaeological department,
Institute National des Sciences d'Arch6ologie et du Patri-
The specific goal for the 2002 season of the Morocco
Maritime Survey was to investigate further the history and
significance of the region of the Tangerian Peninsula, as
reflected through the maritime archaeological record. To
this end, survey was to be conducted offshore of various
ancient sites; these include the small Roman-period garum
(fish paste) and fish-salting sites of Sania y Torres on the
Mediterranean coast, Ksar-es-Seghir in the Straits of Gibral-
tar, and Cotta on the north Atlantic coast (fig. 2). Identified
as shipwreck sites in 1999, te Perekhil and adjacent Ras Le-
ona in the Straits of Gibraltar were also to be given consider-
able priority for mapping and further documentation. tie
Perekhil represents a first-century BCE assemblage, and
at Ras Leona are probably the remains of the HMS Cour-
ageux, a British ship-of-the-line that wrecked in 1796.
Unfortunately, during the first week of our survey
season in July, a serious dispute over the possession of he
Perekhil erupted between Morocco and Spain. After gain-
ing independence from both Spain and France in 1956, Mo-
rocco insists on possession of the island. Spain, however,
claims the island and considers it part of its North African
territories, like Ceuta and Melilla. Twelve Moroccan soldiers
landed on the small, uninhabited island on July 11, in what
was called an "act of hostility" by Spain. Back at our hotel in
Tangier, our survey team was amazed and frustrated by these
developments; we watched the footage on CNN showing
seventy-five elite Spanish commandos seizing the island from
INA Quarterly 30.1
the Moroccan soldiers under the protection of.several Spanish frigates, helicopters, and F-14s. After a ten-day stand-
off that involved U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell's intervention, Spain removed its troops from the island and both
countries agreed to hold bilateral talks on its ownership sometime in the near future.
As a result of this dispute, tensions were obviously high and the Royal Moroccan Navy and INSAP prohibited us
from working from Ksar-es-Seghir eastwards. A considerable portion of our proposed survey area was thus suddenly
unavailable and we were forced to revise our original survey plan. Therefore, we chose to focus our efforts instead at
Las Portuguesas, an area in the Straits not investigated in 1999, as well as at Cap Spartel near Cotta, where the Atlantic
Ocean and Straits of Gibraltar meet (see fig. 2).
Methods and Procedures
Based in Tangier, the 2002 survey took place from July 8-August 7. The project's goals for the season were realized
through diver survey, test excavations, terrestrial site reconnaissance, and museum research. Diving surveys were conduct-
ed in waters shallower than thirty meters. Most of these dives were visual survey, but on occasion, we also utilized marine
metal detectors, which helped considerably in locating slightly buried or heavily encrusted metal artifacts. Sur-
vey included a very limited recovery of diagnostic artifacts, as almost all were recorded in situ by scaled photog-
raphy, digital video, and measured drawings (fig. 3). The few artifacts that were recovered are presently housed
at a temporary lab established at the Mused
de la Kasbah in Tangier, where they remain
under conservation supervised by the staff
of the Tangier American Legation Museum.
Twenty-one days of diving were conducted
without incident, and over 135 hours were
spent underwater. All dives were conducted
on EAN-Nitrox (a breathing mixture with 32%
All dive sites were mapped using a GPS
(Global Positioning System) receiver. Al-
though there was no feasible base station in
the region from which we could utilize Dif-
ferential GPS (D-GPS), we were able to get a
fairly accurate location fix by taking several
readings over a particular site. This made it
easy for us to return to the same place repeat-
edly over the course of the survey. A unique
Photo: A. Trakadas site identification code (e.g., CSP062) noted
Fig. 3. Jeff Royal records in situ artifact CSP052-114, a Kapitdtn IIlc-type each dive site location and latitude and longi-
lead anchor stock found at Cap Spartel. tude, depth, and general seafloor characteris-
INA Quarterly 30.1
tics were recorded. Recovered artifacts as well
as artifacts recorded in situ were labeled by
their dive site identification code as well as
an artifact number (e.g., CSP062-115). Recov-
ered artifacts were photographed with a dig-
ital camera, and artifacts under water were
photographed with a Nikonos 5 (28 mm lens),
a Sony digital video camera, or both. All arti-
fact documentation was entered into a Mi-
crosoft Access database with links to digitized
Our survey operations were based at
the Tangier Yacht Club, where two contain-
ers served as our project headquarters (fig. 3).
One of the containers housed a portable Nitrox
system, storage banks for air and Nitrox, and a
twenty-five-kw generator that powered adjoin-
ing high- and low-pressure compressors. This
compact systemwas designed and built by Bob Fig. 4. Ou:
Olsen, of Nitrox Technologies, Inc., who had Club, just
built and installed the Nitrox system at Bozbu- Nitrox sys
run during the 1998 excavation season (see INA locker and
Quarterly 25.4: 14-15). The other container
served as our dive locker and project workshop. The two
dive platforms were custom Duarry rigid inflatable boats
(RIB), 8.5 meter-long Hercules and 6.0 meter-long Venus,
docked near our containers at the Tangier Yacht Club. All
equipment for this project was generously provided and
shipped by RPM Nautical Foundation, Inc. (Key West, Flor-
In order to understand better the topography of the
coastal sites that developed when northern Morocco
formed the Roman province of Mauretania Tingitana (ca.
first through fourth centuries CE), walkover surveys of
Sania y Torres, Ksar-es-Seghir, Cotta, Tahadart, and Kouass
were also undertaken. In addition, other pertinent Phoe-
nician, Punico-Mauretanian and Roman sites were visit-
ed, including Zilil, Tamuda, Lixus, Thamusida, Banasa, and
Sala Colonia. Our survey crew was able to visit the Ar-
chaeological Museum in Tetouan (currently closed for ren-
ovations), and during the next survey season, we will have
Las Portuguesas: The first week of the survey season was
spent at Las Portuguesas, located due east of Tangier Bay
in the Straits of Gibraltar (see fig. 2). As it is noted on charts,
"Banco de las Portuguesas" is a relatively shallow under-
water shelf (ca. twenty meters average depth) that extends
for several hundred meters out from the Moroccan coast-
line before the bathymetry plummets considerably in the
Straits. On the shelf in this area, there are many submerged
rock pinnacles that lie just below the ocean surface and
between these are vast stretches of sand. Present are strong,
alternating tidal currents that are also affected by the pre-
rnou;: t. Lra..4us
r survey headquarters were two containers at the Tangier Yacht
below the kasbah, or old walled city of Tangier. On the left is the
ter, filling tanks; on the right is the crew in front of our dive
access to their archives and stored collections. I was also
able to visit the Archaeological Museum in Rabat, which
houses the National Museum's collections and where the
staff kindly allowed me access to their valuable research
The 2002 survey team included Athena Trakadas,
John McManamon, Jeff Royal, Stefan Claesson, and Craig
Jones. John McManamon also served as the project's Div-
ing Safety Officer and Craig Jones and Athena Trakadas
served as the project's boat captains. Jeff Royal and Stefan
Claesson developed our recording techniques and data-
bases. Dr. Elarbi Erbati from INSAP is the project's co-
director, along with Athena Trakadas from INA. Dr.
Abdelatif Elboujaday serves as our regional archaeologist
from the D414gation de la Culture (Tangier). Mohammed
Hamidi, Rachid Chojaa, and Rashid Lamghafri, generously
loaned to the project by the Gendarme Royale (Rabat), also
constituted our dive team.
ailing westerly surface and deep up-swelling currents of
the Straits (from over nine hundred meters depth). These
tidal currents flow parallel to the coastline, creating ideal
conditions for conducting drift dives.
In this survey area, aside from many modem an-
chors, the two finds were located at Pointe Bou Maaza, a
long promontory of several weathered sandstone pillars
that Jeff Royal aptly nicknamed "the Vertebrae." In the
shallow eastern lee of the promontory, a modem swivel
gun was found situated about five meters from the shore-
line and recorded in situ (fig. 5). The small gun's muzzle
INA Quarterly 30.1
had been blown off, and it dates almost
certainly to the last century. A heavily
encrusted cannon was also found, situ-
ated approximately twenty meters from
the shoreline and about twenty meters
northwest of the modern gun. The 2.44-
meter-long cannon is so encrusted that
the trunions and cascabel were hard to
measure, and if any lifting handles are
present on the cannon they are hidden
by the encrustation and extensive ma-
Both ordnance are isolated finds,
as extensive searches in the area re-
vealed no associated artifacts. The pres-
ence of these finds in the very shallow
lee of Point Bou Maaza is interesting;
they are located just offshore of some
steep cliffs that have no evidence of permaj
structures, historic or modem. This does
possibility that the modern gun, which is
found close to the shore, could have been
rary installation on the cliffs above. The ca
is more problematic to explain. The depth o
Bou Maaza averages two to three meters,
have run aground here in a storm and ii
purposely jettisoned the cannon, helping it
a vessel did founder here, however, more
be expected in the vicinity.
Cap Spartel: The majority of our survey season
Cap Spartel, the western-most point of
Straits of Gibraltar (see fig. 2). Under wate
Fig. 6. One of our dive boats, Hercules, on i
Cap Spartel. In the background is the historic
I .E side
Fig. 5. The modern swivel gun found at Las Portuguesas, POR039-101.
nent man-made dramatic transition from the extreme depths of the Straits
not exclude the to the shallower, sandy Atlantic coastline. This transition,
fairly light and combined with prevailing westerly currents entering the
part of a tempo- Straits, create an extremely active hydrographic zone. The
nnon's location alternating tidal current along the Atlantic coast, like at
f the lee at Point Las Portuguesas, also runs parallel to the shore, and can
so a ship could reach up to five knots, making for some interesting (and
inadvertently or speedy) survey drift dives.
off the rocks. If At Cap Spartel, steep cliffs along the coast give way
artifacts would to submerged rock pinnacles that are exposed at low tide
(fig. 6). These pinnacles are part of rock ridges that extend
several hundred meters out from the coastline. South of Cap
)n focused upon Spartel, along the Atlantic coast near Ras Achakar, the pin-
Morocco in the naces gradually subside and the underwater topography
r here, there is a transforms into gently sloping sand fields, with occasional
pockets of rock outcrops. Seven sites were iden-
tified in the course of the survey at Cap Spartel,
with no fewer than two artifacts at each site.
Two shipwrecks and one possible ship-
wreck assemblage were located during the
course of the survey. The two shipwrecks,
identified as sites CSP044 and CSP057, are lo-
cated on either side of the lighthouse at Cap
Spartel, the most dangerous area in the tran-
sition between the Atlantic and the Straits.
Site CSP044 is a large metal shipwreck; the
amount of debris in the water is highly con-
centrated, but also covers an area of approx-
imately two hundred square meters,
extending from the shoreline to 5.7 meters
depth. Portions of the wreck are exposed on
Photo: A. Trakadas the rocks at Cap Spartel at low tide. Vari-
ts way to a survey location at ous parts of the hull, as well as large boil-
lighthouse at the point. ers, chains, and anchors are also visible
INA Quarterly 30.1
under water. These indicate that this wreck is likely the
remains of a large cargo ship from the last century.
Site CSP057 is a historic shipwreck site, located to
the northeast of the lighthouse at Cap Spartel. Originally,
we chose to survey this area in the hopes of finding a sec-
ond-century CE shipwreck with a cargo of lead ingots that
was located in the 1960s. We did not find any traces of this
wreck, but at the base of some rock cliffs at 9.9 meters depth,
considerable amounts of metal and wood remains were
found. One diagnostic artifact, a copper-alloy throughbolt,
with some wood attached, was recovered. This artifact, and
the type and distribution of remains found underwater,
suggest that the site represents a vessel dating to the late
nineteenth or early twentieth century.
The fragmentary remains of a possible shipwreck
were found further south of Cap Spartel on the Atlantic
coast, near Ras Achakar. A smaller assemblage than the
first two identified wrecks, site CSP051 is a cluster of his-
toric artifacts at 6.9 meters depth that rests in the saddle of
a narrow east-west rock ridge surrounded by sand (fig.
7). A few fragments of wood planking and what are pos-
sibly two swivel guns were found. The tentative identi-
fication of the ordnance suggests a date from the
fifteenth to seventeenth centuries for the assemblage.
A cursory, circular search around the site (out to ap-
proximately one hundred meters) yielded finds includ-
ing a historic anchor, a possible cannon, and lead
sheathing; it is difficult, however, to conclude whether
these finds are associated with the swivel gun assemblage.
The underwater topography and shallowness of the site
suggest that any other artifacts from this possible ship-
wreck site, including more hull remains, have not been
preserved, were possibly salvaged, or are buried in the sand
to the north and/or south of the ridge.
A total of thirty-one anchors or anchor parts were
recorded during the course of the survey at Cap Spartel,
distributed amongst four sites. The major concentration of
anchors is at site CSP062, where mainly ancient, but also
modem anchors and anchor parts were found in a com-
pact area. An overwhelming majority of the anchors found
are ancient lead stocks, identified as Kapitan IIb- and Itc-
types (utilized from the second century BCE to first centu-
-ry CE). These varied in length from 0.72 meters to 1.35
meters. Also found were some ancient lead anchor stock
cores, similar to Kapitin la-types (in use in the Mediterra-
nean from the fifth to mid-second centuries BCE) (fig. 8).
These varied in length from 0.41 meters to 0.74 meters.
At site CSP045, two ancient lead anchor stocks and
one ancient lead anchor core with stone inclusions were
found in close proximity to each other. At site CSP052, six
ancient lead anchor stocks were found scattered among
small rock outcrops.
Fig. 7. CSPO51, the site at Cap Spartel that includes two tenta-
tively-identified swivel guns and possible hull remains.
A B A. Trakadas
Fig. 8. Reconstructions of some of the lead anchor parts located
during the 2002 survey season: A) A wooden anchor with a
Kapitin Illb-/IIIc-type stock, shown here with a lead anchor "col-
lar" bracing its arms (the difference between the two stocks is
the presence of a cross-bar in the central shaft box in the IIIc-
type). B) A wooden anchor with a pair of Kapitian la-type lead
cores filling the wooden stock.
INA Quarterly 30.1
Fig. 9 (left). The fragment of a Beltrdn fiB-type amphora found at Cap Spartel (CSP046-113). hoto: A.Trakadas
Fig. 10 (right). One of a pair of Kapitain IIa-type anchor stock cores found at Cap Spartel (CSP046-109), shown here with the soft
wood from the anchor stock still attached to it.
Fig. 11 (below). CSP062, the fifty-square-meter anchorage site located just south of Cap Spartel The site had twenty-three arti-
facts, almost all of which were ancient lead anchor parts. The artifacts were recorded individually, and the site itself was document-
ed by triangulation, digital video, and photo mosaics.
INA Quarterly 30.1
At site CSP046, two ancient lead anchor cores, one
ancient lead anchor stock, and one stone anchor were
found in close proximity to each other. An amphora frag-
ment was also located several meters away from one stock
and recovered; it has been identified as part of a Beltr6n
IIB-type amphora (dating to the first to mid-second centu-
ries CE; fig. 9). The pair of lead anchor stock cores was
slightly buried in sand, and a soft piece of wood was
found attached to the long side of one core (fig. 10). A
small sample of the wood was recovered and has been
identified as Quercus ilex, holly oak, a wood type well
suited for ancient anchors (species identification by
Claus Malmros, National Museum of Denmark, Depart-
ment of Environmental Archaeology and Archaeome-
try). Quercus ilex is a very heavy wood (specific weight
0.90-1.18), with low elasticity and flexibility. It is resis-
tant to insects and is highly durable, even in a wet en-
vironment. A radiocarbon age of 2460 BP (+/- 50 years;
calibrated to 785-400 BCE) has also been determined for
this piece of wood (radiometric tests performed by Beta
Laboratories, Inc., Miami, Florida).
Site CSP062 lies south of Cap Spartel just offshore
of Ras Achakar and is spread over an area of approximately
fifty square meters. The underwater topography here is a
combination of rocks and sand; the flat, eroded hardpan
rock ledges give the site a varying depth from sixteen to
twenty meters. A large sand field delineates the eastern
and southern edges of the site, while flat hardpan rock
continues to the north and west.
At CSP062, twenty-three artifacts or artifact groups
were located and recorded. The high density of anchors
found at the site suggests that it is an ancient as well as
historic anchorage (fig. 11). Documented finds from this
site include two pairs of lead anchor stock cores, one of
which was associated with an anchor collar (revealing a
complete anchor assemblage, fig. 12), a single, separate
anchor stock core, and another lead anchor collar. The four-
teen remaining artifacts are lead anchor stocks of the
Kapitkin IIIb- and IIc-types. Three encrusted iron anchors
were also found; two possibly date to the Late Roman to
Byzantine periods. There is one historic iron anchor (Ad-
miralty type) with what appears to be its wooden stock
lying near the flukes (see fig. 11, 'Z'). Only one amphora
fragment, identified as part of a Pascual 1-type amphora,
dating to the mid-first century BCE to the mid-first centu-
ry CE, was found and recovered from the site (fig. 13).
In the course of our documentation of site CSP062 at
the end of the survey season (made a bit difficult by the strong
tidal currents), our team located at least ten other ancient
lead anchors outside the perimeter of our immediate map-
ping area. Because of time constraints, however, we chose to
focus on the fifty-square-meter area and thoroughly document
all artifacts within it The site CSP062 is also located near a small
group of ancient lead anchor parts cursorily examined in 1999,
but this new site is shallower in depth and is located closer to
the coastline. It is likely that both these sites from the 2002
and 1999 survey seasons are related, and comprise only a
part of a much larger anchorage site.
4- "A. TrakadasJ
Photo: A. Trakadas
Fig. 12. Two lead anchor stock cores found with an anchor "collar" (CSP062-121). This assemblage represents a complete anchor,
and is a combination of the two examples shown in Fig. 8.
Fig. 13. The fragment of a Pascual 1-type amphora recovered from the anchorage at CSP062 (CSP062-119).
INA Quarterly 30.1
Las Portuguesas and Cap Spartel were the two re-
gions examined during the 2002 season of the Morocco
Maritime Survey. Because of the strong currents and un-
derwater topography, the possibility for finding ship-
wrecks or ship-related materials in the Las Portuguesas
area seemed very likely. However, only several pieces of
modem debris and a few modem anchors were found to-
gether with a large encrusted cannon and a modern swiv-
el gun. Located close together just east of Pointe Bou Maaza,
the ordnance lies in shallow water, close to the shoreline,
but was found with no associated artifacts.
The Cap Spartel region was subject to a lengthier
period of investigation during the 2002 survey campaign.
Although remote sensing was conducted further offshore
and just south of Cap Spartel in 1999, the transitional wa-
ters at the lighthouse and immediately along the shoreline
were not investigated. These areas became our survey pri-
ority in 2002, and several different sites were identified.
Two modem shipwrecks were located and one possible
shipwreck, dating to the fifteenth to seventeenth centuries,
was also identified.
Perhaps more significant to the aims of our sur-
vey season was the discovery of four clusters of ancient
lead anchor stocks and stock cores. Sites CSP045, CSP046,
CSP052, and CSP062 were all identified as compact areas
with more than one anchor stock; site CSP062 has the most
numerous and densest concentration of anchor parts (twen-
ty-three artifacts total). The ancient anchor parts from these
four sites suggest that the area just south of Cap Spartel
was possibly an anchorage for ships associated with the
nearby garum and fish-salting production site of Cotta, just
south of Ras Achakar. Although the anchorage sites sur-
veyed are located slightly north of Cotta, offshore of this
site is a gently sloping, sandy seafloor, and the anchorage
areas (particularly site CSP062) may be the closest places
where rock outcrops exist and anchors are able to "grip"
the seafloor. Cotta was established at the end of the first
century BCE, so many of the Kapit;n IITb- and IIc-type
anchor stocks, dating from the second century BCE to first
century CE, could have belonged to vessels visiting this
site. The other lead anchor pieces, Kapitan UIa-type an-
chor stock cores, dating from the fifth to second centuries
BCE, could be associated with vessels that visited the ear-
lier Punico-Mau.retanian period settlements documented
in the vicinity of Ras Achakar. This area must also have
served as an anchorage for ships waiting for favorable
winds and north-south tidal currents to enter into the
Straits of Gibraltar or to voyage further south along the
Atlantic coast to other contemporary settlements. The pres-
ence of Late Roman, Byzantine and historic anchors also
attests to the area's continued strategic importance; its
position is also indicated as an anchorage on Dutch,
French, and British charts dating from the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries (fig. 14).
The amphora types found during the survey cor-
respond well to the established dates of the Kapit in tlb-
and IIc-type anchor stocks, and probably represent detri-
tus from anchored or passing vessels visiting the Roman-
period terrestrial sites in the region, such as Cotta, or
contemporary sites further south along the Atlantic coast.
The fragment of a Beltran IlB-type amphora was likely
manufactured in Baetica (southern Spain) at kilns either at
Cadiz or Huelva. Mainly found in the western Roman prov-
inces, this type is not unusual to find in Morocco. Fish prod-
ucts were the likely contents of this vessel, so the date of
the artifact and its presence near a garum and fish-salting
site like Cotta is not atypical. The Pascual 1-type amphora
was likely manufactured along the Catalan coast, at kilns
in the Barcelona region. This type is also common in the
western Roman provinces, but was probably used to trans-
The species identification and radiometric age of the
wood found on the Kapitan Ia-type lead anchor stock core
found at Cap Spartel is also significant (see fig. 10). Al-
though no exact provenience can be determined from the
collected sample, Quercus ilex is distributed in countries
bordering the Mediterranean except the eastern part (that
is, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, and Egypt). The radiometric
date, calibrated to 785-400 BCE, provides a chronological
range, but does not necessarily indicate the exact date of
the anchor to which the wood belongs. This range, how-
Fig. 14. Dutch map from 1694 showing the anchorage at Cap
Spartel. From Van Keulen, I., "Nieuwe Paskaart Vande Kust
vane Hispania," De Groote Nieuwe Vermeerderde Zee Atlas often
INA Quarterly 30.1
ever, is significant in that it can broadly indicate when such
lead anchor stock cores were utilized in the western Med-
iterranean. This type of anchor stock core was utilized as
early as the third quarter of the fifth century BCE in the
Aegean. We know this thanks to the recent discoveries at
the Tekta$ Bumu excavation (see INA Quarterly 26.4: 9).
However, this artifact's radiocarbon-derived date gives a
cearer picture as to when vessels from the Mediterranean
were present outside the Straits of Gibraltar. Its presence
also indicates the possible geographic range of this anchor
type. Pre-dating the Roman presence in Morocco, these
anchor pieces correspond chronologically from the earli-
est Phoenician presence at Cap Spartel (an eighth-century
BCE Phoenician grave at Ras Achakar) to the Punico-Mau-
retanian development of terrestrial sites on the Atlantic
coast as far south as Essaouria (Mogador), seven hundred
km from Cap Spartel.
The Tangerian Peninsula lies at the crossroads of
east-west and north-south maritime trade and communi-
cation routes that have been utilized for millennia. Even
though a handful of sites are located on the coasts of the
peninsula, the ancient maritime history of northern Mo-
rocco remains relatively undefined. In the broader perspec-
tive, the Morocco Maritime Survey seeks to identify
significant underwater and coastal archaeological sites in
order to define trends in Morocco's maritime history. We
hope also to determine more nearly the maritime connec-
tion between ancient indigenous cultures and those from
the Mediterranean. Therefore, our survey plans for the next
1) Further survey and documentation of the large and con-
centrated anchorage at Cap Spartel (CSP062). By continu-
ing to document the large number of ancient anchors
present at Cap Spartel, statistical analyses can be conduct-
ed in order to clarify ancient anchor typology, use, manu-
facture, and possibly chronology.
2) Conduct isotope tests on the lead anchor stocks and cores.
This would allow us, by comparison, to determine if lead
mines in the Rif Mountains of northern Morocco were being
exploited in antiquity, or if the lead comes instead from the
ancient mines in southern Spain, or from elsewhere. This re-
search could reveal a clearer picture of ancient regional re-
source exploitation and its effects on local and perhaps re-
3) Survey offshore zones near other ancient coastal sites.
Mainly concentrated around the Tangerian Peninsula at Sa-
nia y Torres on the Mediterranean coast, at Ksar-es-Seghir in
the Straits, and at Tahadart and Kouass on the Atlantic coast,
these sites are Roman-period garum and fish-salting produc-
tion centers. Evidence of port facilities and other land-sea
interactions in the area will be sought to clarify the details of
the fishing industry that comprised a substantial part of the
economic viability of the Roman province of Mauretania Tin-
4) Survey at the islands of Essaouria (Mogador), along the
Atlantic coast of Morocco. Essaouria lies far to the south of
other Phoenician or Punico-Mauretanian settlements and
well beyond the boundaries of the Roman province, but it
was a Punico-Mauretanian murex dye installation and a Ro-
man garum and fish-salting site. No underwater survey has
been conducted in the waters surrounding the islands, and
there is potential for locating port facilities, anchorages, and
shipwrecks. Discovery of these types of sites could detail the
relationship of Mediterranean cultures and their distant out-
posts, reveal formative aspects of resource exploitation and
commerce in the region, and help to examine the nature of
contact between colonizing and native cultures.
5) If possible, a return to te Perekhil is warranted for further,
thorough investigation and documentation. This site, if the
preliminary identification as a shipwreck dating to the first
century BCE is correct, could also illuminate pre-Roman con-
tacts, trade routes and cargoes of the region.
The 2002 season of the Morocco Maritime Survey was
thoroughly productive, and the hard-working members of
the 2002 survey team helped make the project successful in
the short period of time allotted to us (fig. 15). In addition,
we had the opportunity to use outstanding equipment, and
as a result, were able to survey throughly a portion of the
northern Moroccan coastline. Despite the initial disappoint-
ment over the Ile Perekhil situation, we were able to focus
more intensively on other survey regions, which proved re-
warding: a total of forty-one artifacts or artifact groups were
located and documented as well as three shipwreck sites. In
2003, a longer survey season is planned that will hopefully
allow us to delve further into the vital and interesting infor-
mation that Morocco's waters are beginning to reveal.
Acknowledgements: The 2002 campaign of the Morocco Maritime Survey, or "the summer of the anchors," was made
possible by the hard work and dedication of many people on both sides of the Atlantic. I would like to thank first for
their permission and assistance the archaeological department of the Kingdom of Morocco, INSAP, and its representa-
tive and project co-director, Dr. Elarbi Erbati. Special thanks is extended to Dr. Abdelatif Elboujaday for his help in
negotiating the mind-numbing world of Tangier's port customs and taking the time to show all those out-of the-way
archaeological sites to the team. The Gendarme Royale divers, Mohammed Hamidi, Rachid Chojaa, and Rashid Lamghafri,
were all a pleasure to work with during the course of the season. Their hard work surveying, recording, and hauling
equipment is much appreciated. Many thanks also to Thor Kunihom of the Tangier American Legation Museum whose
WNA Quarterly 30.1
help was only just a phone call away, and to Ahmed Mesbahi for his customs savvy on both sides of the Straits. Claus
Malmros' helpful discussion on wood identification is also much appreciated, as are Jeff Royal's ceramic analyses.
Before we even reached Morocco, Mary Johnsen, Dan Davis, Paul Major, Cristian Swanson, and Craig Jones of
RPM Nautical Foundation, Inc., had put in many hours negotiating the purchases and shipping of all the necessary
equipment, making sure it got from Key West and Barcelona to Tangier in time. It was a pure luxury to rely on equip-
ment that was tailored to the project's needs and always worked flawlessly! I am eternally grateful to all the hard work
and long hours of the team members in the field who, despite reoccurring bouts of Tangier tummy, kept their ironic
humor: Craig Jones, John McManamon, Jeff Royal, and Stefan Claesson. I am above all eternally indebted to George
Robb, Jr., for not only his financial but personal support and unwavering dedication to this project. Shukran bizef. o
2000 "Mauretania Tingitana," Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Oxford: Princeton University Press, 457-
Gozalbes Cravioto, E.
1997 Economfa de la Mauritania Tingitana (Siglos IA. de C. II D. de C.). Ceuta: Instituto de Estudios Ceuties.
1970 Recherches archeologiques a Tanger et dans sa region. Paris: Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
Trakadas, A., and S. Claesson
2001 "On the Shores of the Maghreb-el-Asqa: The 1999 Survey of Tangier Bay, Morocco." INA Quarterly 28.3: 3-15.
'noto: J. Jones
Fig. 15. Most of the members of the 2002 Morocco Maritime Survey (from
left to right): John McManamon, Mohammed Hamidi, Craig Jones, Rachid
Chojaa, Pile (our dock helper), Stefan Claesson, Rashid Lamghafri and Athe-
na Trakadas. (Missing are Jeff Royal, Dr. Elarbi Erbati, and Dr. Abdelatif
INA Quarterly 30.1
Excavation and Recording of the Medieval Hulls at
San Marco in Boccalama (Venice)
Marco D'Agostino and Stefano Medas
translated by John McManamon
On a late winter's day in Venice, I assembled my dive gear at the door of my residence and loaded
it onto a luggage cart. Then, I set off across the canals that lace that city toward my appointed destination,
the train station. I had carefully scouted the route to reduce the number of bridges to a minimum and avoid
the crowds of Venetians shopping for fresh produce in the city's bustling local markets. A brisk twenty
minute walk left me along the Grand Canal just beyond the church of Santa Lucia, where I met Dr. Marco
D'Agostino and the boat crew from the contract firm IDRA. We loaded the gear into the boat as quickly as
possible, since one is only allowed to tie up for ten minutes at that busy dock. Preparations made, we cast
off for the day's work and moved along Venice's principal waterway into a thickening fog. Upon reaching
the lagoon, the captain at one point judiciously throttled back in order to allow a container ship to pass
across our bow. The huge vessel suggestively materialized from the fog, slowly steamed in front of us, and
disappeared just as suggestively back into the mist. Only after the fog began to lift were we able to sight the
posts that marked our goal: two abandoned medieval hulls covered by the waters of the Venetian lagoon, It
was my first-and most memorable-visit to Boccalama.
Fig. 1. The Venetian lagoon showing the location of the island of San Marco in Boccalama.
INA Quarterly 30.1
San Marco in Boccalama is an island located in the
south-central portion of Venice's lagoon (fig. 1). The island
itself is now under water, but, for a prolonged period in
the Middle Ages, it housed an Augustinian monastery. The
rising level of water in the lagoon and the settling of the
terrain below forced the abandonment of the island toward
the end of the fourteenth century. Maps drawn in the six-
teenth century described Boccalama as "destroyed or lost."
It is therefore likely that the island had already been sub-
merged by that time. Nonetheless, as recently as twenty
years ago, its highest points were occasionally visible at
For many years, the Venetian Magistrato alle Acque,
a local office of the national Ministry for Infrastructures
and Transport, and the Consorzio Venezia Nuova, a con-
cessionaire of the government, have conducted archaeo-
logical surveys as part of more ambitious projects designed
to protect the Venetian lagoon (fig. 2). From 1996 to 1997,
as part of those broader efforts, the Consorzio Venezia
Nuova surveyed the sunken island and discovered two
"shipwrecks" on the site. Thanks to radiocarbon testing
and dendrochronological analysis of wood samples, the
wrecks were dated to the early fourteenth century. Archae-
ologists immediately conjectured that one of the two hulls
was a galley (see "Hull B" below).
In 2001, therefore, the Magistrato alle Acque
launched an undertaking to record the remains as part of
a broader effort to understand the peculiarities of the sub-
merged site. The mapping project was awarded to the Con-
sorzio Venezia Nuova. A preliminary excavation of the two
hulls using stratigraphy was conducted in coordination with
a project of the Consorzio Venezia Ricerche called MURST,
meaning "A Plan for Evaluating the Environmental Risk to
Archaeological Sites in the Lagoon." The work at Boccala-
ma was designated "Phase A" of the overall project.
Under the general direction of the Office for Under-
water Research (NAUSICAA) of the Archaeological Super-
intendency of the Veneto Region, principal investigator Dr.
Marco D'Agostino managed the field operations with the
assistance of Stefano Medas. During the recording, the na-
val historians Mauro Bondioli and Ugo Pizzarello partici-
pated in the field work. The contract firm IDRA of Venice
also collaborated in the archaeology, while the mapping firm
Geosigra of Pordenone executed the photogrammetry.
The archaeological activity at San Marco in Bocca-
lama progressed without interruption from June to Octo-
ber of 2001. The site presents unique characteristics, given
that it consists of an architectonic complex (the structures
of the monastery that once stood on the island) and the
two wrecks directly associated with the monastery. More-
over, the wrecks present their own unique characteristics,
based upon their state of conservation and scope of utili-
zation. The hull remains are actually neither shipwrecks
nor abandoned vessels, but they comprise derelicts reuti-
Fig. 2. Technical map of the Veneto region depicting the water
level in the lagoon.
lized as the cribbing for an embankment or a land recla-
mation project or foundational supports of an imposing
wood edifice erected between them. On the basis of con-
struction features and the few documents that remain, the
structure is thought to have been an extensive covered shed
The excavation was programmed in two distinct
phases, the first under water and the second on land. Those
phases were envisioned as the best way to use the resources
available and assure the protection of the derelict hulls.
The result was a campaign that was original from a meth-
odological and technical point of view and one that was
best suited to the specific environmental conditions of the
Phase A (June-August 2001): underwater excavation of the two
wrecks according to stratigraphy
The decision to conduct an underwater excavation
allowed the work on the hulls to proceed as quickly as
possible and in the least invasive fashion, eliminating or
reducing to a minimum the pressures exerted by the weight
and movement of the excavators and their tools. The work-
ing depth varied from 1.30 to 2.50 meters, depending upon
the intensity of tidal action and the location of one's activ-
ity, whether on the exposed upper portions or buried low-
er portions of the hulls.
The removal of mud from the two hulls confirmed
earlier findings from surveys in 1996 and 1997. The mud
comprises a fairly homogeneous layer, especially the lay-
er that reaches virtually to the top of the hulls. Those find-
ings support the hypothesis that the two hulls were most
likely utilized as cribbing. Further confirmation comes from
the fact that the hulls are held in place by a series of large
posts sunk into the mud along their perimeter. Likewise,
INA Quarterly 30.1
Fig. 3. Overhead view of the rascona during her cleaning in preparation for
Fig. 4. Photogrammetric recording of the galley using a small crane with a lift
the hypothesis is supported by the fact the hulls were for
the most part empty, their superstructures having been
removed beforehand. Only the live works survive because
only they served a precise purpose. In the interior of Hull
B, a tiny proportion of internal structures were found still
in place: a few stanchions and partial bulkheads.
Upon conclusion of the underwater excavation, the
hulls were covered section by section with pieces of geo-
textile secured within by sandbags and without by iron
stakes. Geotextile is a synthetic woven fabric produced in
long sheets and used to control erosion by trapping mud
in its weave. The excavators chose to use geotextile in or-
der to protect the hulls from the inevitable re-entry of mud
residue carried along by the lagoon's currents.
Phase B (August-October 2001): erecting a cofferdam of sheet
piling around the archaeological area of San Marco in Boccala-
ma, pumping out the water, photogrammetric recording of the
two derelict hulls and the island, and adopting measures to pro-
tect the hulls
In an effort to use the limited time most efficiently,
the erection of a cofferdam around the entire site had al-
ready begun during the final phases of the stratigraphic
excavation. Preliminary underwater surveys had careful-
ly fixed the maximal extent of the island and the hulls, and
the cofferdam was then driven into place at secure points
beyond the extent of the physical remains.
The water was removed from the interior of Hull A
by five motorized pumps set up on a barge anchored on
the western side of the cofferdam at a point roughly
corresponding to the general collection point of the
waters. The same pumps were also employed to regu-
late the level of water remaining inside the cofferdam.
At any given moment throughout the course of the work
on the site, some pumps were constantly working. In
addition, a system for spraying the wood with water was
put in place along the perimeter of the two hulls, so that
they remained constantly soaked with water during the
Once the sheets of geotextile which were protect-
ing Hull A had been removed, manual cleaning of the
hull timbers began in earnest (fig. 3). Contemporane-
ously, technical observations and accurate measure-
ments were made. After the timbers were exposed,
photogrammetric images of the derelict hulls were tak-
en (fig. 4). The shooting progressed along the sides of
the hull, working from strakes at ground level to those
higher up. A small crane with a lift bucket was used,
allowing the photographer to maintain a constant height
as he moved along the hull's side. The photogrammet-
ric images were made in two scales: 1:20 from the lift
bucket in order to capture the details of each hull and
1:50 from a helicopter in order to obtain a complete pho-
tographic plan of the island.
INA Quarterly 30.1
After the photogrammetry had been completed, the hull
was once again covered with sheets of geotextile and completely
submerged. The spraying system continued to function in order
to assure that the perimeter and the surrounding terrain remained
soaked. Work then began on the cleaning of Hull B, following
the same methods adopted for Hull A.
Unlike Hull A, Hull B conserves a few vertical and athwart-
ship elements still fixed in their original location (fig.5). There
are stanchions notched into the keelson, two transverse planks
resting upon the ceiling at the bow (behind one of which is found
a bulkhead of vertical boards leaning against the frame), and a
bulkhead now broken and lying amidships, just abaft the mast-
step. As cleaning proceeded, the archaeologists made the excep-
tional discovery of a ship graffiti on ceiling at the bow along the
starboard side of the hull (figs. 6 and 7). The graffito schematically
reproduces a trireme with a sten-mounted rudder. Nearby, other
graffiti and an incision made with a gouge were also found (see the
The area between the two hulls was difficult to study, giv-
en the presence of such thick mud. Nonetheless, comparable
alignments of large posts in parallel rows were identified under
the mud. On the eastern side towards the island, the two rows of
posts are closed by a third row of transverse posts, which tie
together the parallel rows. Within this rectangular area, closed
at the island end and open toward the lagoon, a large collection Fig. 5. The galley (detail of its stern structures).
of roof tiles was found, presumably the detritus from a roof's
collapse on the spot. As a preliminary hypothesis, the team has
posited that those construction elements indicate the presence
of a boat hut, called a cavana in Venetian dialect. There is a reference to such a structure on the island in a historical
document dated 1328.
On the western extreme of the island, another wooden structure was identified that runs in a north-south
direction. It is composed of two parallel rows of boards sunk vertically into the ground and of posts fixed along
the western (seaward) and eastern (landward) sides. The structure may have served as an embankment or a wall
foundation. Its inner segment is filled with pieces of brick and stone as well as mud. Significantly, the structure
seems to have been built by utilizing wooden elements scavenged from derelict ship-hulls. Various wooden
elements have been identified that seem to have come from a flat-bottomed vessel. However, they do not appear
Fig, 6. The graffito of a galley found inside the hull of the galley
Fig, 7. A schematic reproduction of the graffito of a galley
found inside the hull.
INA Quarterly 30.1
to have a direct relationship to Hull A. An-
other element, in contrast, could possibly be
the loom (ribolla) of a quarter-rudder and,
in this case, one cannot exclude a direct re-
lationship to Hull A. The investigators there-
fore believe that elements from the
superstructures of the two vessels buried at
Boccalama could have been reused in struc-
tures for the monastery.
Hull A (fig. 3)
The hull measures 23.60 meters in length
and approximately 6 m in beam. The two sides
are conserved to a height of approximately 80
cm. The seventy-five surviving frames, fas-
tened to the planking by means of treenails,
are composed of floors (piane) and futtocks
(sanconi) (fig. 8). The mast-step is found well
afore of midships and is held in place by but-
tressing pieces (castagnole) fastened to the floors
The vessel is identifiable as a rascona, a
boat typically used for transport of goods on
rivers and the lagoon. She had a flat bottom
and was widely diffused in the Po River val-
ley, as is amply documented in medieval and
modern iconography. The vessel type sur-
vived in the Po region, especially on the riv-
er itself, into the first decades of the
twentieth century. It is characterized by a
low freeboard, recurving posts that rise to a
significant height above the rail, two quarter-
rudders fastened at the sides of the stem, and
two vertical beams (montanti) used to sup-
port a frame for mounting the rudders. One
of the reasons for identifying the hull as a
rascona derives from finding a large, shaped
wooden beam, measuring 5.15 m in length,
lying loose inside the hull. The timber almost
certainly comprises one of the two support
beams for the rudder frame.
Hull B (figs. 10 and 11)
Hull B is without doubt a galley, and she
is the first example of a galley ever found by
archaeologists. In fact, the so-called "galley of
Lazise" sunk in Lake Garda has properly been
recategorized as afusta, a type of smaller rowed
vessel. The Catalan wreck known as Culip VI,
initially identified as a fourteenth-century gal-
ley, actually belongs to the category of coast-
ing round ship.
The Boccalama galley has a maximum
length of approximately thirty-eight m, a beam
Fig. 8. The rascona (detail of the central portion of her hull).
Fig. 9. The rascona (detail of the buttressing for the mast-step).
. -'", ...... .' 4 4 ," .,- - .. .-I"
Fig. 10. View of the galley during the cleaning and recording.
INA Quarterly 30.1
Fig. 11. Three-dimensional computer model of the galley derived from the photogrammetric recording.
of approximately five m, and still conserves virtually the
entire live works of the hull. The posts fixed along the pe-
rimeter held the vessel in a stable position and prevented
the structural elements from collapsing into the surround-
ing terrain. It is obvious that such a discovery figures
among the most important archaeological finds in recent
years and may well be the definitive clue to unlocking the
so-called "secret building method" of the foremen ship-
wrights employed at the Venetian Arsenal.
As already noted, a series of graffiti were found
incised into the first and second ceiling planks in the bow,
if one numbers the strakes from the top down. The most
interesting subject would appear to be the design of a ves-
sel unquestionably a galley, on which the hull and a portion
of the rigging are visible (figs. 6 and 7). The graffito was ren-
dered with a light stroke using a pointed instrument; it is
approximately thirty cm long and has the bow of the vessel
pointing slightly down when compared to the axis of the
plank on which it is cut. The hull is portrayed as having five
strakes, while the keel is clearly visible from the point where
it meets the apron. The galley's ram was sketched using a
series of well-delineated cuts, and it emerges in clear re-
lief. One can infer the presence of the mast, and it may
actually be traced through a pair of vertical strokes rising
from the hull. Several oblique strokes, representing the
lines, rise toward a logical conjunction at the masthead.
Among the rigging elements, one can seemingly identify a
triple block carrying shrouds. The galley is clearly a trireme
with seven of her rowing stations portrayed. Finally, a
stem-mounted rudder is visible. The author of the graffi-
to, as is often the case, was trying to synthesize a personal
impression rather than depict a real object.
Historically, the third oar seems to have been in-
troduced on galley benches at the end of the thirteenth cen-
tury, as already suggested by the Venetian historian Marin
Sanuto (1466-1536). If the radiocarbon and dendrochrono-
logical analyses yield a more exact date for the derelict
hulls, the Boccalama graffito would have a date in close
proximity to their introduction and would confirm con-
clusions accepted till now by historians with a certain res-
There are two possible explanations for the likely
origins of the graffiti found in the galley of Boccalama:
1) The graffiti were incised by a crew member (the carpen-
INA Quarterly 30.1
ter on board?) curled up inside a cramped compartment
below the galley's deck. Acting in a moment of leisure, he
perforce would have worked by candlelight in far less than
2) The graffiti derive from the activity of one of the ship-
wrights (squerarioli) in the yard and were executed during
the construction of the vessel. Acting in much more favor-
able conditions, the carpenter would have left his mark on
the ceiling before they were fastened in place.
In terms of the motivation that led an unknown hand
to trace those designs, similar suppositions can be advanced.
It is possible that the design represents the galley of Boccala-
ma herself. Or the graffiti's author may have noticed-ei-
ther at sea or in port-a galley of innovative design, with her
rudder mounted directly on the stempost and with three oars
per bank. The sight of such an unusual vessel would have
made a profound impression. Only further study of all the
assembled evidence will clarify these questions.
Acknowledgments: Marco D'Agostino and Stefano Medas would like to thank the contract firm IDRA snc located in
Venice for assisting the archaeologists throughout the period of excavation and mapping. The firm of Geosigma srl
executed the photogrammetry of the two hulls and the island itself. During the recording phase, the naval historians
Mauro Bondioli and Ugo Pizzarello participated in the field work. John McMa.namon would like to thank the Gladys
Krieble Delmas Foundation, which financed his participation in the preliminary work on the hulls, the Institute of
Nautical Archaeology, which awarded him research associate status during that work, and Fred Hocker, who sup-
plied expert guidance on the translation. *
Arici, Graziano, Mauro Bondioli, Ernesto Canal, Giovanni Caniato, Marco D'Agostino, Luigi Fozzati, Stefano Medas,
Reinhold C. Mueller, Ugo Pizzarello, and Camillo Tonini
2002 La galea ritrovata: Origine delle cose di Venezia. Venice: Consorzio Venezia Nuova.
Bondioli, Mauro, R. Burlet, and A. Zysberg
1995 "Oar Mechanics and Oar Power in Medieval and Later Galleys." In The Age of the Galley: Mediterranean Oared
Vessels Since Pre-Classical Times, 172-205. London: Conway Maritime Press.
Bondioli, Mauro, Marco D'Agostino, and Luigi Fozzati
1997 "Lago di Garda, Lazise (VR). Relitto di nave lunga veneziana: II relazione preliminary." Archeologia Medievale
1978 "Localizzazione nella laguna Veneta dell'isola di San Marco in Boccalama e rilevamento di fondazioni di antichi
edifici." Archeologia Veneta 1: 167-74.
1998 "Relitti di eta post-classica nell'Alto Adriatico italiano: Relazione preliminary." Archeologia Medievale 25: 91-
Lane, Frederic C.
1963 "From Biremes to Triremes." The Mariner's Mirror 49: 48-50.
Mott, Lawrence V.
1997 The Development of the Rudder. College Station: Texas A & M University Press.
LNA Quarterly 30.1
Highlights from the Annual Meeting 2003
Fig. 1 (above). The Executive Committee of the INA Board of Directors. From
left to right: Edward 0. Boshell, Jr., George F. Bass, Donald A. Frey, Peter M.
Way, Robert L. Walker, Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr., and Danielle J. Feeney.
Fig. 2 (right). Robert L. Walker talking to Emeritus Faculty member and
Director Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr. at the INA Board cocktail party.
Fig. 3 (left). INA President Donny L. Hamilton and Director George E. Robb,
Jr., in the Nautical Archeology Program Conservation Laboratory.
Fig. 4 (below). JamesA. Goold, Carol Allen, George F. Bass, and William L.
Allen sharing a light moment during the tour of the A&M campus.
INA Quarterly 30.1
Fig. 5 (left). Nautical Archeology Program stu-
dent Sam Lin with William L. Allen, Danielle J.
Feeney, Warren Jacques, George E. Robb, Jr., Ce-
mal Pulak, Faith D. Hentschel, Ayhan Sicimoglu,
and Ann Bass studying an experiment that will
help to determine how the Uluburun vessel was
Fig. 6 (right). Danielle J. Feeney with Faculty
member Kevin Crisman reviewing the sonar im-
age of the Red River Wreck.
Fig. 7 (left). Director Joe Ballew, Chairman Ed-
ward O. Boshell, Jr., Kevin Crisman, Director
Lynn Baird Shaw with her husband Russell Shaw,
Director Allen Campbell, and student Sarah Hosk-
INA Quarterly 30.1
Fig. 8 (above, left). William and Carol Allen, Associate Director Faith D.
Hentschel, and Faculty member Felipe Castro in the Ship Construction Lab-
Fig. 9 (above, right). Nautical Archeology student Glenn Grieco showing a
model he is constructing to William C. Culp.
Fig. 10 (below, left). George F. Bass, Faith D. Hentschel, Donald A. Frey,
conservator Jim Jobling, and Edward 0. Boshell, Jr., examining the unopened
chest from La Belle.
Fig. 11 (below, right). Vice President Donald A. Frey, Nina Cassils, George
F. Bass, student Peter Fix (in silhouette) and I. Richard Steffy, studying the
La Belle timbers.
INA Quarterly 30.1
INSTITUTE OF NAUTICAL ARCHAEOLOGY
Christine A. Powell
Donny L. Hamilton, Ph.D., President"
Donald A. Frey, Ph.D., Vice President* Cemal M. Pulak, Ph.D., Vice President
James A. Goold, J.D., Secretary & General Counsel' Claudia F LeDoux, Chief Accounting Officer and Assistant Secretary
Michelle Chmelar, Assistant Accounting Officer
William L. Alien
John H. Baird
George F Bass, Ph.D.
Edward O. Boshell, Jr., Chairman'
Elizabeth L. Bruni
Allan Campbell, M.D.
William C. Culp, M.D.
Robin P. Hartmann
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Gregory M. Cook Harry C. Kahn II
Lucy Darden Mustafa Kog
Thomas F. Darden' Francine LeFrak-Friedberg
John De Lapa Robert E. Lorton
Claude Duthuit* Alex G. Nason
Darelle J. Feeney* George E. Robb, Jr.
Robert Gates, Ph.D. Lynn Baird Shaw
James A. Goold, J.D. Ayhan Sicimoglu
Charles Johnson, Ph.D." J. Richard Steffy
Susan Katzev Thomas McCasland, Jr.
William C. Klein, M.D. Dana F. McGinnis
George Lodge Michael Plank
William T. Sturgis
Frederick H. van Doorinck, Jr., Ph.D.*
Robert L. Walker, Ph.D.*
Peter M. Way, Treasurer'
Garry A. Weber
George O. Yamini
Sally M. Yamini
Betsey Boshell Todd
SD. Hentschel, PhD. NAUTICAL ARCHAEOLOGY PROGRAM FACULTY
Filipe Castro, Ph.D., Assistant Professor
Kevin J. Crisman, Ph.D., Nautical Archaeology Faculty Fellow
Donny L. Hamilton, Ph.D., George T & Gladys L Abell Professor of Nautical Archaeology, George 0. Yamini Family Professor of LiberalArts
Cemal M. Pulak, Ph.D., Frederick RI Mayer Faculty Fellow of Nautical Archaeology
C. Wayne Smith, Ph.D., Assistant Professor/Director of the Archaeological Preservation Research Laboratory
Shelley Wachsmarm, Ph.D., Meadows Associate Professor of Biblical Archaeology
NAUTICAL ARCHAEOLOGY PROGRAM FACULTY EMERITUS
George F Bass, PhD.,
George T. & Gladys H. Abell Professor of Nautical Archaeology, George 0. Yamini Family Professor of Liberal Arts, Distinguished Professor Emeritus
Frederick H. van Doorinck, Jr., Ph.D., Frederick R. Mayer Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
J. Richard Steffy, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
Mr. & Mrs. Ray H. Siegfried nI Graduate Fellow: Matthew Harpster Marian M. Cook Graduate Fellows: Peter D. Fix and Taras P. Pevny
J. Barto Arnold, M.A., Texas Operations
Kroum N. Batchvarov, M.A.
Dan Davis, M.A.
Arthur Cohn, J.D.
David Gibbins, Ph.D.
Nergis Ginsenin, Ph.D.
Australian Institute of Maritime Archae
Bryn Mawr College
University of California, Berkeley
University of Cincinnati
Douglas Haldane, M.A., INA-Egypt
Donald G. Geddes Ill justin Leidwanger
Jeremy Green, M.A. Margaret E. Leshikar-Denton, Ph.D
Andrew Hall, M.A. Maria del Pilar Luna Erreguerian
Jerome L. Hall, Ph.D. John McManamon, Ph.D.
Jerome L. Hall, Ph.D. Frederick Hocker, Ph.D
Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D. Carolyn G. Koehler, Ph.D.
Fredsrik T. Hiebert, Ph.D. William M. Murray, Ph.D.
ology Comell University University o
Coming Museum of Glass Partners for
Departamento de Arqueologia Subacubtica de University M
la LN-A-H., Mexico Texas A&M
University of Maryland, Baltimore County Texas A&M
New York University, Institute of Fine Arts University o
INSTITUTE OF NAUTICAL ARCHAEOLOGY STAFF
Adel Farouk Mistie Moore
Zafer Gill Asaf Oron
Bilge Ginesdogdu Muammer Ozdemir
Jane Haldane Ralph K. Pedersen, M.A.
Thomas Kahlau Robin C. M. Piercy
Gilser Kazancaoglu Sema Pulak, M.A.
Sheila D. Matthews, M.A. $iikran Senylz
STuranh, Turkish Headquarters
Thomas J Oertling, M.A.
Ralph K. Pedersen, M.A.
Brett A. Phaneuf
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David I. Owen, Ph.D.
Cheryl Ward, Ph.D.
Gordon R Watts, Jr, Ph.D.
f North Carolina, Chapel Hill
museum, University of Pennsylvania
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A. Feyyaz Subay