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Title: The INA quarterly
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 Material Information
Title: The INA quarterly
Alternate Title: Institute of Nautical Archaeology quarterly
Abbreviated Title: INA q.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Publisher: Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Place of Publication: College Station TX
College Station TX
Publication Date: Summer 2002
Copyright Date: 1997
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Underwater archaeology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Archéologie sous-marine -- Périodiques   ( rvm )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 19, no. 1 (spring 1992)-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 23, no. 2 (summer 1996).
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098800
Volume ID: VID00038
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 26536606
lccn - sf 94090290
issn - 1090-2635
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Preceded by: INA newsletter (Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.))


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Summer 2002 Volume. 29 No. 2

The INA Quarterl

Volume 29 No. 2 Summer 2002

3 Log of the Submersible Survey 2001
George F. Bass

10 A Red Figure Bell Krater from Turkish Waters MEMBERSHIP
Deborah N. Carlson Institute of Nautical Archaeology
P.O. Drawer HG
12 The 2001 Excavation Season at Tekta$ Bumu, Turkey College Station, TX 77841-5137
Deborah N. Carlson Learn firsthand of the latest discov-
eries in nautical archaeology. Mem-
15 Archaeological Survey of the Maltese Archipelago-2001 bers receive the INA Quarterly and
Aye Devrim Atauz other benefits.

20 RPM Nautical Foundation: Thanks for Your Support! Researcher (students only).... $25
William H, Charlton Jr. Seafarer ...................$75
Surveyor .................... $150
Restorer ................. $500
22 The "Mica" Shipwreck Excavation: Curator ................. $1,000
Deep-water Archaeology in the Gulf of Mexico Excavator ................ $2,500
Brett Phaneuf Navigator .............. $5,000

24 The Cais do Sodr6 Ship Checks in U.S. currency should be made
payable to NA. The portion of any do-
Paulo Rodrigues nation in excess of $10.00 is a tax-de-
ductible, charitable contribution.
27 A Recompression Chamber for INA-Egypt
William H. Charlton Jr.

28 Just Released: On the cover Carolyn, with the Min-
ister of Culture, visited the eleventh-
The Art and Archaeology of Venetian Ships and Boats century CE Millstone Wreck. Photo:
Lillian Ray Martin Tufan Turanh

29 Spanish Colonial Gold Coins in the Florida Collection
Alan K. Craig
Reviewed by Donny L. Hamilton

30 George Bass Honored with National Medal of Science

31 From the President

@August 2002 by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. All rights reserved.
INA welcomes requests to reprint INA Quarterly articles and illustrations. Articles for publication should be submitted in hard copy and on a 325
diskette (Macintosh, DOS, or Windows format acceptable) along with all artwork. Please address all requests and submissions to the Editor INA
Quarterly, PO. Drawer HG, College Station, TX 77841-5137; tel (979)845-6694, fax (979) 847-9260, e-nail or
The Home Page for INA is at
The Institute of Nautical Archaeology is a non-profit scientific and educational organization, founded by George F Bass, Michael Katzev,
and Jack Kelly and incorporated in 1972. Since 1976, INA has been affiliated with Texas A&M University, where INA faculty teach in the
Nautical Archaeology Program of the Department of Anthropology. The opinions expressed in Quarterly articles are those of the authors,
and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Institute.

The INA Quarterly was formerly the INA Newsletter (vols. 1-18).

Editor: Christine A. Powell

Log of the Submersible Survey 2001

George F. Bass

INA has conducted probably the most successful survey for ancient shipwrecks ever undertaken in the Mediter-
ranean. Between September 29 and November 1, 2001, using the two-person submersible Carolyn, the team located
fourteen wrecks and ten additional possible wrecks. The submarine also allowed the survey to return to twelve sites
found during earlier reconnoiters and record them thoroughly with video and Global Positioning System (GPS). In all,
then, we recorded for posterity twenty-six ancient shipwrecks dating from the sixth, fifth, and fourth centuries BCE, the
Hellenistic Period, the first century BCE, and later Roman and Byzantine times.
Living aboard INA's twenty-meter Virazon, and carrying Carolyn on the fourteen-meter catamaran Millawanda,
we began the survey not far from Tekta$ Burnu. Hiiseyin Aldemir accompanied us on his fishing boat Kasirga, which
ran daily errands. Once we had developed a routine, we found a wreck almost every other day. The following are
excerpts from my daily log. To protect the wrecks located during surveys, we never publish their exact locations, so I
have not given the GPS coordinates we have for each wreck, nor do I give the actual names of bays and capes.

29 September 2001

Today was THE DAY! I dived with Feyyaz Subay.
We started at 9:50 A.M. and followed the north shore of [a
bay south of Tekta$ Burnu] at thirty-seven to forty meters.
There was nothing living inside the bay: no fish, no Posei-
donia, nothing, not even many shells. Then, as we ap-
proached the mouth of the bay, we began to see life, and
fishermen's lines, and then many, many, many anchors.
According to Feyyaz, who wrote his B.A. thesis at Konya
University on anchors in Turkish museums, these were
mostly Ottoman (they looked like huge grapnels). We saw

Below. The INA submersible Carolyn heads to sea aboard the

various sherds of amphoras, but at 11:15 came upon half a
dozen of the same type lying on the sand about thirty-sev-
en meters deep. Feyyaz and I let out some whoops over
the intercom to the surface, and called on the backup divers,
Mutlu Gunay and Charles Cousin, to come down and do a
little hand-fanning. We watched as Charles immediately
uncovered an amphora, and then, joined by Mutlu, they
uncovered another lying right next to it, and then one deep-
er down. Feyyaz thought we had a wreck when we spot-
ted the amphoras lying on the seabed, but now we knew

Right. Hand-fanning by archaeologists uncovered a few diagnostic vessels
that dated the PabuF Burnu shipwreck.

Photo: U. A. Frey

INA Quarterly 29.2

for certain that this was a real wreck, perhaps
worthy of excavation. We don't know the date
yet, but suspect it is Byzantine. We saw clas-
sical and later Rhodian amphoras, and many,
many more anchors as we continued out of
the bay and turned the corner toward [the
north]. After two hours and forty-five minutes
we surfaced and joined Virazon for lunch (too
much: mushroom soup followed by pizza and
salad and rice with tuna, capped by delicious
pears and grapes). We then decided that we
had to head back [north], to be in better com-
munications with Ayhan Sicimoglu about the
pending visit of the Minister of Culture tomor-

30 September 2001
I was in communication with Ayhan in
Alacati during the morning. When we heard
that he was leaving with Minister of Culture Istemihan
Istemihan Talay-and a group of about forty, vey with a
including probably two dozen journalists--we
sailed back to [the cape] and waited for them to arrive on
Aurora (belonging to Sedat Akdemir, a member of the Turk-
ish Institute of Nautical Archaeology-TINA). We greet-
ed the Minister and his wife, Nihal, as well as Sedat, Ayhan,
TINA's Oguz Aydemir, and various members of the press.
I said a few words in Turkish to the press, followed by the
minister, who was a very good sport. He got in the sub
with Murat and, smiling broadly and wearing an (NA cap,
went down. On the seabed, he talked to his wife above, to
the delight of the press from seven television channels and

Tufan Turanh follows the route of Carolyn by watching a small bi
mersible tows.

'hoto: 1. luranui
Talay, Turkey's Minister of Culture, inaugurates INA 's 2001 sur-
dive to five ancient wrecks.

seven newspapers. Murat took him first to the fourth-centu-
ry BCE wreck, and then moved to the sixth-century CE
Church Wreck. There, Don Frey (to take video), Tufan Turanh
(to take stills), and Yasar Yildiz (our representative of the
Ministry of Culture) dived with scuba from Millawanda to
join them. They moved on to the eleventh-century CE Mill-
stone Wreck (cover), the Byzantine Wreck, and the first cen-
tury CE Roman Column Wreck. At a press conference after
lunch, the minister spoke at length, saying quite a bit about
underwater archaeology, saying nice things about INA,
TINA, and me. Then it was over, and we shook
hands and said our goodbyes.

2 October 2001
We were up at 6:00 for a 7:00 A.M. de-
parture for the only bay on the part of the coast
we plan to survey next that offers protection
from the feared lodos (south wind). We began
searching the steep cliffs to the north, but the
northern poyraz was blowing so hard, and the
waves were so choppy, that we decided to go
back toward the [bay south of TektaS Bumu]
and continue searching in calmer waters.
Feyyaz and I dived in Carolyn. Within half an
hour, at 11:30 A.M., thirty-seven meters deep,
Feyyaz said: "What is this? What is this?" He
had spotted several concretions of eleventh-
century Byzantine iron anchors lying partly
on a large millstone, with a few amphoras ly-
I: G. F. Bass ing around. We shouted with joy, for in just
ioy the sub- two survey dives we had found two wrecks!
We called Don and Muttu down, and while

INA Quarterly 29.2

Photo: G. E Bass
Above. Carolyn prepares to deploy from Millawanda during the 2001
submersible survey.

Right. The submersible and archaeologists can work together to better effect
than either could have accomplished alone. Here, Mutlu Gunay holds up for
inspection one of the few visible amphoras on the Pabu9 Burnu wreck.

"U. U. r. Aicy

Mutlu swept sand and counted amphoras, of two types,
Don took video coverage. One of the amphoras that Mutlu
brought over to Carolyn for Feyyaz and me to inspect was
exactly like those on the Serge Limaru Glass Wreck. As on
that wreck, the anchors on this newly found wreck rest on
millstones. Mutu raised one of the smaller amphoras. Mov-
ing on, we saw that the wreck is probably quite large, for
similar amphoras were scattered over some distance. We
continued the survey and probably found another wreck;
there was an iron anchor concretionn) with sherds of sev-
eral seventh-century (?) Byzantine amphoras around it.
Mutlu, now back on Millawanda, took a GPS reading. Car-
olyn surfaced after about two hours and forty minutes...

4 October 2001
Murat and I dived in Carolyn right outside the north
side of the entrance to [a bay farther south], trying to contin-
ue the survey exactly where we left off yesterday. Directly
below us, at about fifty-two meters, we spotted immediately
a small pile of pottery on a large broken terracotta vessel in
which an octopus had made a home, piling lots of rocks out-
side: a pitcher, two conical amphoras much like those from
the first wreck we found (and probably ridged horizontal-
ly). We moved a few meters away and saw the top of what
looked like a large krater [punchbowl-like vessel in which
the ancient Greeks mixed wine and water] with several han-
dles, and then moved on and saw the top of an amphora. I

called Don and Mutlu down. They dug out the amphora,
which was spherical, like seventh-century Byzantine ampho-
ras, but it did not seem to be combed. I was puzzled. Then
they moved to the krater, and found another like it, which,
although broken, Mutlu was able to hold up so that it ap-
peared intact in the sub and in Don's video. We had found
another wreck. After a quick lunch on board Millawanda,
Don and Murat started on the opposite, south side of [the
bayl to see a Roman wreck that Murat, Tufan, and Yasar
had all dived on in the past. It is now largely looted except
for some sherds.

6 October 2001
[While Feyyaz and I were diving, Askm Cambazoglu
called by cell phone to say that one of his assistants, Selim
Dincer, had found a classical Greek shipwreck at Orak
Adasi, not far from Bodrum.] Askm was an archaeologist
with the Bodrum Museum who used to work with Don on
surveys, but for many years has run a number of diving
businesses in and around Bodrum.

9 October 2001
Don came with Askm to the Institute at noon so
Askin could tell me more about the wreck. He agreed to
take us to the site that afternoon and told us that the wreck
did not actually lie at Orak Adasi, but not far away at Pabuc
Buru. We left Bodrum around 4:00, so although the trip to

INA Quarterly 29.2

the site took only about forty-five minutes by Virazon (we did not take
Millawanda and Carolyn), Don, Mutlu, Yasar, and Aslan did not enter
the water until well after 5:00. Still, Don got some good videos. He is
unsure if the wreck is coherent and the videos'did not clarify this.
There are simply a fair number of amphoras lying scattered around,
some half buried, but others lying cleanly on seabed.

10 October 2001
Went back to the wreck found by Askan's assistant last week.
Don and Mutlu dug, as I watched from Carolyn with Murat at the
controls, without finding anything under the sand. However, they
raised an intact amphora, which Don photographed so we could
send a digital image to Mark Lawall, the amphora expert at the Uni-
versity of Manitoba who dated the Tekta$ Burnu amphoras. It got
extremely muddy, but Tufan and Yasar had better luck, which we
could not see from inside the sub, by finding intact amphoras under
the surface of the seabed. By early afternoon the wind and waves
were so high we had to abandon the site and return to Bodrum. [I
went by way of] the Sea Garden Hotel not far away, where Askm
has a diving center and school. The rooms and conference room are
quite nice; it is a five-star hotel. Then we went to the Iber Hotel,
which is much nearer the site (and only a twenty to twenty-five
minute drive back to Bodrum). It is only four-star, but is [more]
convenient. By evening, Don had sent color photos of the amphora
to Mark Lawall, who immediately answered:

1inUor: r. Dass5
The only amphora raised from the site at Pabuq Bur-
nu provided the best date for the wreck.

Photo: C. F. Bass
Millawanda sets out for another day of surveying.

"From: Mark Lawall
To: Donald Frey; George Bass
Sent: Wednesday, October 10, 2001 6:33 P.M.
Subject: Re: amphora photos
Thanks a billion, those images are perfect-I'll send more substan-
tive comments later today or tomorrow, but it looks very much like
a late sixth or very early fifth-century [BCE] jar from the region of
Sarnos, Ephesos, Miletos. Very exciting, thanks again, Mark"

11 October 2001
Up at 4:30 A.M. in order to sail to the Knidian Peninsula in
the calm of the morning. There were gale warnings, so I wanted to
get Millawanda across before any large swells started...I dived at
1:18, with Feyyaz at the controls. Within half an hour, we saw Byz-
antine amphoras and fifteen minutes later we found a Roman wreck
about thirty-seven meters deep...
The submersible is surely the best thing that ever came along
for finding ancient wrecks-so much better than the ROVs that so
many experts tried to talk us into. There is more than finding wrecks
during these deep cruises. Schools of barracudas appear and disap-
pear, a swimming octopus (the first I had ever seen) and another,
much larger, lurking in its hole; a couple of rays doing their under-
water ballet-a married couple?-not far beneath us; two immense
moray eels poke their heads out to see us pass over and then with-
draw into their dark caves; and a small, lonely tuna (did he get lost

INA Quarterly 29.2

-nowo: i. r. ass
The acrylic sphere that forms the submersible's crew cabin provides an un-
paralleled view of the surrounding world.

Carolyn hovers above the amphora pile marking an undersea archaeologi-
cal site.

from his mommy?). Some ignore us, but groupers must
think we are a yellow monster predator, for they dart quick-
ly under rocks at our passing. Below us cliffs drop down
to deserts, rare cowrie shells sparkle here and there, and
boulders and mesas spring up and then fade into the dis-
tance. It is magical.
[My son] Alan sent me a message addressed to
"Wrecks Rex," which is pretty cute.

12 October 2001
Feyyaz and I found a scattered wreck about thirty-
seven meters deep bearing Knidian amphoras, on rock, not
worth a dive, [but] I videotaped it. It's interesting how lit-
tle we talk in the sub. For example, during quite a long
Feyyaz: "Did you eat your apple?"
George: "What apple?"
Feyyaz: "I brought out an apple for everybody
George: "I didn't know."
Long silence.
George: "I forgot to eat my orange. I brought
it from my refrigerator so it wouldn't rot. It's
on my bunk."
No response from Feyyaz.
Another long silence.

23 October 2001
Feyyaz and Mutlu circumnavigated Mersincik Adasi
and discovered a very modem boat, with engine still in place.

15 October 2001
It blew all night, a north wind (poyraz), so there are
white caps and the weather turned cooler. We saw how
wrecks happen. [An elderly couple] sailed out of the har-
bor but did not notice a line trailing from their stern that
quickly became wrapped around their propeller. At the
harbor mouth they had no power and were being banged
helplessly against the end of the rocky breakwater of huge
boulders. Someone on Virazon spotted the danger and
Yasar and Huseyin quickly went to the rescue in our din-
ghy with its outboard and towed them back to the quay.
Yasar snorkeled down and cleared their prop, and off they
went again, and out of the harbor we saw them hoist their
sail. I do hope they do not have any further trouble.

19 October 2001
As Murat summed it up after we returned to Kni-
dos and Virazon at dusk: "It was a perfect day, George Bey."
[In the morning Feyyaz and I dived on and record-
ed with video three wrecks known from earlier INA sur-
veys. These include a sixth-century CE amphora carrier
that had sailed from the Holy Land, a fourth-century BCE

INA Quarterly 29.2

cargo of kraters, with tiles, presumably from
its galley's roof, and a cargo of amphoras Ce-
mal Pulak had earlier dated to the fifth centu-
ry BCE].
The next dive, with Feyyaz and Yasar,
continued the search from where Feyyaz and
I had surfaced yesterday. Don had called
down to say that a sponge diver, years before,
had told him that very deep, probably fifty-
five meters, there was a wreck on the other
side of a spine running out from the point.
Feyyaz and Yasar found an underwater spine
and followed it out so far into the bay that I
told them to surface so we could take them
across the bay on Millawanda. At that moment,
Yasar called up to say that they had found the
wreck: two anchor stocks and some intact am-
phoras at fifty-five meters-at least three hun-
dred meters from shore! The chance of our
finding this so easily with divers was very,
very small. I told Tufan and Selim Dincer, now
diving with us, to suit up to dive on the wreck,
which Yasar thinks is third century BCE, to
do a little hand fanning, but then thought:
"Today has gone so well, why risk anything
by sending divers that deep, especially since
Selim has had little time to really acclimatize."
Murat, at the wheel of Millazoanda, agreed with
me. So I called Carolyn up and we ate lunch as
we headed back up [the coast].
[On] a second, afternoon dive, I went
down with Murat in see if we
could examine a fifth-century BCE wreck Ithat
Don had found more than fifteen years earlier].
Yasar called down soon to say that our buoy
showed we were probably only fifty meters
or so away. Don described the huge boulder
right below the rock-sand interface that
marked the spot (I had actually seen a photo-
graph of the rock in his wreck report of that
year). Unfortunately, there were a lot of huge
boulders at the interface, but this one did stand

Top. One of the many amphora piles marking a
shipwreck explored during the 2001 INA submers-
ible survey. Photo: D. A. Frey.

Center. The surfacing Carolyn was always greeted
by helpful hands and smiling faces. Photo: G. F.

Bottom. Communications officer Mutlu Gunay
remained in constant contact with the crew below.
Photo: G. F. Bass

[NA Quarterly 29.2

out when we came on it and saw some broken amphora
sherds around it. When four divers [Don, Mutlu, Feyyaz,
and Yasar] descended, Mutlu uncovered what seemed like
an intact amphora, but it proved to be only a partial. Then,
in a few minutes, Mutlu called me over the intercom to say
that Feyyaz had found something. We followed the four
divers to a spotjust above the boulder, not even thirty meters
deep, and saw them digging furiously in the sand! Mutlu
said they had an amphora and a cooking pot. The cloud of
silt stirred up made it impossible to see what they had. Then,
in triumph, Feyyaz lifted from the deep hole something,
which he cradled in his arms, and brought to the sub. "My
God! Oh my God! I don't believe this! I don't believe this!"
was all I could say, overcome by emotion, as he held to
Carolyn's sphere a perfectly preserved red-figure krater!
(It turned out later
that Yasar was dig-
ging out a new type
of amphora when
Feyyaz came to help
him and spotted the
rim of the krater.)
The surface
was a different story.
By now, the waves
had grown into large
whitecaps. The divers
were unable to de-
compress on oxygen
below Millawanda,
because the catama-
ran could not stay in
position without run-
ning its motors, risk-
ing cutting off the
oxygen hoses with
the propellers. I
wanted to stay down INA's twenty meter research vessel
so that the divers support for the 2001 Turkish survey.
could be lifted safely
from the water on
Millawanda's ramp, but I must not have made this clear to
Murat, for we were soon on the surface in quite high seas.
I wanted to stay there while the divers completed their air
decompression on nearby rocks. Murat felt that we were
far too close to the rocky shore, with the wind driving us
against it, to remain where we were, and insisted that we
be lifted on Millawanda. When we got close, we were real-
ly endangered at one point when the sharp metal stem of
one of the catamaran's pontoons came sloshing down only
inches away from our acrylic sphere. Tufan and Selim
pushed us away with their feet and Tufan raced forward
to the controls to move Millawanda forward. I then sug-

gested that Murat drive us on the surface to shelter not far
away, where we would wait for the divers to be taken first
onto Millawanda. This we did, and soon we learned that all
four divers were safely on the catamaran. When it ap-
proached Carolyn, I radioed my question: what did they
all think of the find? Those who had not dived had not yet
seen it, for it was in a plastic basket on Kastrga! They felt it
was safer handing it up to Hiseyin on Kasirga than trying
to swim onto the ramp.
So, in the slight shelter we had, Carolyn was lifted
onto Millawanda, and then Hiiseyin brought Kasirga along-
side and handed over the treasure. Some of the black glaze
was missing, but we could make out a woman holding a
staff, with a meander border at the bottom. We did not in-
spect the krater long, however, for it would have dried quickly
in the wind. We put it
in a plastic container to
keep it wet and head-
ed back to [the bay
where we had left Vi-
razonj in what by now
were really big waves.
These crashed over the
bows of Millawanda's
pontoons, sending
sheets of water overher
deck. Supper was a joy-
ful occasion... Before
and after supper we all
crowded into the day
cabin to watch the vid-
eos of the day on a TV
monitor. I had been up
since 2:30 A.M., so I
turned off my bunk
Photo: G. E Bass
Tirazon provided living quarters and 4 November 2001
Today was
probably the last day
of the survey. When
I woke up at 3:00 A.M., the wind was howling. When
Feyyaz called around 8:00 A.M., he said the weather was
too bad to sail. It was starting to sprinkle when I drove
with Claude to the marina to get my things from Virazon. I
learned that Feyyaz and Mutlu, at least, had gone to Mu-
rat's house to wake him up at 2:00 A.M., and then they re-
anchored Millawanda more securely.

We have applied for permission from the Turkish
Ministry of Culture to begin excavation of the Pabu Bur-
nu wreck in 2002. A wreck of the sixth century BCE has
never been excavated in the eastern Mediterranean. ,

INA Quarterly 29.2


A Red Figure Bell Krater from Turkish Waters

Deborah N. Carlson

Archaeologists exploring the site of Arslan Burnu
during the 2001 JNA shipwreck survey retrieved a red fig-
ure bell krater from the seabed (figs. 1 and 2, also see p. 9).
Red figure vases have been excavated from terrestrial sites
in such large quantities that individual vessels can often
be dated, and in some cases attributed to specific painters,
on the basis of particular stylistic details. For this reason,
the red figure bell krater from Arslan Bumu is a diagnos-
tic artifact of particular importance.
Red figure was a style of vase painting popular in
ancient Greece from the late sixth until the late fourth cen-
turies BCE. Artists used a thick black paint (actually a slip)
for the background of a vase, leaving the figures reserved
in the reddish-orange color of the fabric. The fabric took
its unique color from the iron-rich clays of the Athenian
countryside. This deep orange clay became the hallmark
of Attic red figure pottery, which was deemed so desir-
able that other cities imitated itby applying an orange wash
to their own locally-produced pottery.
The Greeks used kraters to mix water and wine-the
ancient version of a punch bowl. The bell krater was one of
several different krater styles, named for its curving bowl,
which resembles an inverted bell. The earliest bell kraters,
which appear in the Greek world around 500 BCE, feature a
full, rounded bowl and lug handles. The shape evolved grad-
ually but steadily towards a more elongated, more curvilin-
ear form. Bell kraters of the fourth century are characterized
by a flaring rim, sharply curved handles, and a slender bowl
that tapers considerably toward the foot. The rather round-
ed, heavy bowl and thick rim of the Arslan Burnu krater
suggest a date in the first half of the fifth century.

ri-oto: u. A. rrey
Fig. 1. The [obversel conversation scene of the Arslan Burnu krater.

Bell kraters of all periods were usually finished with
a simple disc foot, but the Arslan Burnu krater features a
molded foot that may have been borrowed from the con-
temporary water jar, or hydria. This decorative molded base
is a rare attribute of bell kraters, seen in at least seven oth-
er vessels. Most of these kraters have been dated between
460 and 430 BCE and all but one have lug handles.
The painted decoration of the Arslan Burnu krater
shows a man and woman facing one another and appar-
ently engaged in conversation. The man, at left, holds in his
right hand a staff that is a marker of his citizen status. The
woman holds out her right hand in a gesture of welcome or
empathy. The figures are framed by a bordered key ground
line below and a tongue pattern molding above. The reverse
is too damaged for definitive identification, but the subject
appears tobe a man on the left, pursuing a woman who turns
toward the right in an effort to flee. Red figure vases were
occasionally decorated with an event from Greek mythol-
ogy or epic on one side and a scene from everyday life on
the other. It is likely, therefore, that the damaged side of
the Arslan Burnu krater showed a scene from Greek my-
thology, such as the rape of a famous female.
Detailed photographs of the conversation scene show
how centuries of exposure in a marine environment have
uniformly eroded the surface of the vessel. Those areas once
coated with thick black paint, whether applied liberally to
the background or more carefully to highlight details of dress
and expression, were better protected. These are preserved
at a slightly higher level than those surfaces left unpainted.
This vestigial painted decoration, though often difficult to
see, provides important clues about the krater's date. One of

rnoto: u. A. rrey
Fig. 2. The [reverse] pursuit (?) scene of the Arslan Burnu krater.

INA Quarterly 29.2

the most diagnostic tools for the study of
vase painting is the treatment of eyes. Be-
ginning about470 BCE, vase painters ren-
der the eye in a naturalistic profile, as
shown on the Arslan Burnu krater. The
figures are large and set against a clean
black background; their drapery falls in
neat, dean, folds with none of the fussy
patterning that is typical of the Late Clas-
sical style. For these reasons, I am in-
clined to assign a date of around 460 or
450. Having arrived at that date, I was
pleased to subsequently learn from Don
Frey that a survey of this site by INA ar-
chaeologists in 1981 yielded a Chian am-
phora of the bulbous-necked type, which
is generally dated to approximately the
rmid fifth century BCE. o

Photos: D. A. Frey
Fig. 3 (above, left). Close-up of the male from the conversation scene.
Fig. 4 (above, right). Close-up of thefemalefrom the conversation scene.
Fig. 5 (below, left). A bell krater by the Pan Painter, ca, 470-460 BCE. Note the molded foot and lug handles. From J. Boardman,
Athenian Red Figure Vases: The Archaic Period (Thames and Hudson 1975),fig. 335.1.
Fig. 6. (below, right) A fourth-century BCE bell krater by the Black-Thyrsus Painter. From J. Boardman, Athenian Red Figure
Vases: The Classical Period (Thames and Hudson 1989), fig. 344.
777. ."

i-- . :.:

Acknowledgments: I would like to thank George Bass for sharing this exciting find, and John Boardman, John Oakley,
and Thomas Mannack of the Beazley Archives for sharing their thoughts, observations, and expertise. This brief study
would not have been possible without the very fine artifact photographs taken by Don Frey.

INA Quarterly 29.2

The 2001 Excavation Season at Tekta Burnu, Turkey

Deborah N. Carlson, Assistant Director

When we departed Tekta4 Burnu in September 2000,
on the heels of a very successful excavation season, many
unknowns lay ahead of us: would the Turkish winter
devastate our camp as it had in 1999, what items lay
yet to be discovered on the seabed, and how long would
it take us to finish the excavation? Of all the scenarios
that we envisioned, none of us imagined returning for a
season at TektaS Buru without team member Erkut Ar-
cak, who passed away just before the season began. Yet
we did return, in June, 2001, a team of fifteen students and
INA staff, though the summer certainly wasn't as colorful
without Erkut.
We were pleased to see that virtually all of the
camp structures built in previous years had survived the
winter exceptionally well, so that we needed only to con-
struct a dive platform and conservation area for process-
ing artifacts. These were built quickly, but the dive area
was not long-lived, for on June 19, the waves began to grow
as a lodos (south wind) approached. The lodos worsened
and the next day enormous swells completely dismantled
our newly-built structure (fig. 1). In three short days, a
small group of team members, under the superb guidance
of engineer Robin Piercy, rebuilt the demolished dive plat-
form. On June 23, we greeted the arrival of the rest of our
team, who cruised into camp aboard the catamaran Milla-

Photo: R.C.M. Piercy
Fig. 1. The dive platform under heavy seas.

wanda, bringing with them our generators, compressors,
and recompression chamber.
Our goal for the 2001 season was to finish the
excavation of three grid squares at the center of the
wreck and completely remove the dense sand at the
wreck's periphery, where whole artifacts had been
found in previous seasons (fig. 2). We had high hopes
of finding coins and other small artifacts nestled with-
in the remains of the ship's hull. Almost immediately
after we started diving on June 25, team member Mark
Polzer recovered an oil lamp from R5, at the upper part
of the wreck. However, further downslope in R9, which
had produced Greek pottery and perfume flasks in 1999
and 2000, Ken Trethewey and Annette Schreur reached
bedrock after a week of excavation. In the coming weeks,
as airlifting continued around the wreck, excavators found
bedrock in areas where we had hoped to find hull remains.
Two more oil lamps surfaced in the loose sand north of
the wreck. One of these was raised on July 8, during an
official visit by Istemihan Talay, the Turkish Minister
of Culture (fig. 3), the Director and Deputy Director of
Antiquities, and ten members of the Turkish Institute
of Nautical Archaeology (TINA). Minister Talay, the
first Cultural Minister to ever visit an INA excavation,
spoke very enthusiastically about his desire to forge a

Fig. 2. Computer generated site plan. Courtesy ofNational Geographic Magazine.

INA Quarterly 29.2

Ihoto: U. Larlson

Fig. 3 (left). Minister Talay inspecting an oil lamp from the wreck.
Fig. 4 (center). The four anchor stock cores found at fifty-four meters.
Fig. 5 (right). Team members in camp reading last year's INA Quarterly report.

partnership with the Institute in an effort to protect Tur-
key's underwater archaeological resources.
By mid-July, it had become apparent to us that
the only area of the wreck still requiring careful and me-
thodical excavation was grid square Q7, where Kris Trego
and Sheila Matthews discovered that a handful of artifacts
had been partially concealed by an overhanging rock.
These included a broken kantharos (two-handled drinking
cup), nails, wood fragments and a table amphora. Beneath
the artifacts in Q7, and in adjacent portions of R7 and R8,
we excavated a thin but discrete layer of fish bones, which
may be the remains of whole fish stowed on board.
Near the end of July, as divers reached bedrock in
almost every section of the site, Murat Tilev located a clus-
ter of three amphoras almost ten meters away. These jars,
which were later mapped and raised, appear to have rolled
away from the wreck and become lodged in the crevice in
which they were found.
As the season drew to an inevitable close, we asked
Tufan Turanli to swim over the site with a metal detector.
In fifty-four meters of water, at the base of the shelf on
which the wreck sits, Tufan's detector emitted a very strong

signal. We began digging immediately and, under a meter
of sand, we found four lead anchor stock cores identical to
the four found on the wreck in 2000 (fig. 4). The location of
the lead cores suggest that the anchor was cast out in an
initial attempt to keep the ship off of the rocky coast, but
the effort failed. This anchor may, however, have held long
enough to allow the crew to gather their possessions and
abandon ship.
We dived for the last time at Tekta$ Burnu on Au-
gust 7, bringing the 2001 season to a close in exactly six
weeks. With few exceptions, all of the artifacts raised in
2001 represent types known from previous seasons. We
were extremely disappointed not to have found hull re-
mains anywhere on the TektaS Burnu wrecksite; what we
found instead was a stratum of densely-packed cam shells,
in all the areas where we expected to find wood. It seems
likely that when the largest intact portion of the hull sank
it did not come to rest on the seabed but became sand-
wiched between large rocks which kept it exposed until it
was devoured by marine life.
The ship that sank at TektaS Bumu in the third
quarter of the fifth century BCE was a modest-probably

INA Quarterly 29.2

Ihoto: D. Frey

local-merchant ship, not more than ten or twelve meters
long. It plied the waters of the eastern Aegean, calling at var-
ious ports along the Ionian coast including the islands of
Chios and Rhodes. Team member and Greek historian Wil-
liam Murray describes our ship as the ancient equivalent of
a FedEx truck. The Tekta5 Bumu ship appears to have had
little in common with the enormous merchantman that came
to grief near the Greek island of Alonnesos between 420 and
400 BCE. Partial excavation by the Greek Department of
Maritime Antiquities in 1992 and 1993 indicates that the Alon-
nesos ship was carrying a cargo of Athenian black glaze pot-
tery and more than four thousand amphoras from northern

Greece. A cargo of this size and nature fits precisely the pic-
ture painted by Greek historians, playwrights, and poets, who
describe the dizzying array of both raw materials and luxu-
ry imports that were regularly off-loaded in massive quanti-
ties at the Athenian port of Piraeus. By contrast, pottery finds
from TektaS Bumu indicate that our more modest ship had
frequented the Ionian coast of Asia Minor, calling at the is-
lands of Chios, Rhodes, and Lesbos, but not at Athens. In
this respect, the wreck promises to shed light on the exist-
ence of small-scale trade networks that were geographically
independent of Athens, but not entirely free from the ef-
fects of Athenian economic policy. a

Fig. 6. The 2001 Tekta$ Burnu excavation team.

Acknowledgments: The 2001 season at TektaS Burnu was realized through the financial support of the Institute of
Nautical Archaeology and the National Geographic Society. Our short summer season was highlighted by visits from
INA Director Alex Nason and TINA members Jonathan, Erika, and Natalie Beard (with canine Carmen), and Emre
Temelli. Evren Tuxkmenoglu, a member of Nergis Giinsenin's shipwreck excavation team at Caralh Burnu in the Sea
of Marmara, worked with us for a short time, as did Mehmet Yildiz, and underwater archaeologist Ouafa Ben Slimane
from Tunisia. Toward the end of the summer we received a visit from Ayhan and Ceren Ylldtz, as well as conservators
Beth Edelstein, Diane Fullick, Matthew Hayes, Caitlin O'Grady, and Luna Velazquez of the American excavation team
at Sardis. While it would be easy to say that the level of efficiency and ability achieved in our third season at Tekta
Burnu falls under the rubric of "third time's a charm," I want in no way to diminish the outstanding dedication and
professionalism of our 2001 team (figs. 5 and 6). Their resilient good humor and perseverance in the face of rough seas,
fallen compressors, lost data, and dropped desserts was inspiring. It was nothing short of an honor for me to have been
involved in this project and to have worked with such fine people.

LNA Quarterly 29.2


Archaeological Survey of the Maltese Archipelago-2001

Ayse Devrim Atauz

The three islands of the Maltese archipelago have
been inhabited since the sixth millennium BCE, yet what
stands out to the historian and archaeologist of today is
the unusual incompleteness of the archaeological record
(fig. 1). It is almost impossible to survey or excavate an-
cient sites, since they have been under constant occupa-
tion since before the beginning of history. Therefore,
underwater archaeology is of crucial importance in Malta,
not only because underwater material is often the only
available archaeological evidence but because the archi-
pelago received all its occupants and cultural influences
by sea.
Summer 2001 was the third season of INA's system-
atic survey of the Maltese coastline in cooperation with
the National Museum of Archaeology (INA Quarterly 27.1,
1-6; 28.1, 22-28). This was the most successful underwater
archaeology season to date in Malta, due to the support of
INA Director Gregory Cook. He made it possible for us to
carry out the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) survey
phase of the project. Special thanks are also due to Chair-
man Mark Bonello of the Malta Maritime Authority for his
enthusiasm and interest in the project.
The project's objective is to locate underwater cul-
tural remains such as shipwrecks, anchors, submerged set-
tlements, aircraft wrecks, and harbor structures in Maltese
territorial waters, to document the discovered sites, and

conduct excavations when warranted. Our ultimate goal
is to help determine the role played by the Maltese islands
throughout the history of Mediterranean seafaring. We
hope to answer questions such as: where the main harbors
and anchorages were located, what products were ex-
changed, and how major historical events in.the Mediter-
ranean affected long-distance trade. The results of our work
so far mark rewarding progress towards preliminary an-
swers to these questions.
The team pursued work in four major areas during
2001. On Malta, we surveyed two areas: (1) the area adja-
cent to the Quarantine Hospital in the Marsamxett Harbor
and (2) the area near Zonkor Point where two swivel guns
were previously reported to the National Museum. In ad-
dition, two areas on the neighboring island of Gozo were
surveyed using various techniques. A diving team inves-
tigated the area near the watchtower at the entrance of the
inlet of Mgarr ix-Xini. We used an ROV to survey both an
area near Xlendi Bay and the area between Xatt l'Ahmar
and Mgarr ix-Xini inlets,
Marsamxett Harbor near the Quarantine Hospital
The two large and well-protected harbors of Malta,
Marsamxett and Grand Harbor, are located respectively
to the north and south of Valletta, the national capital. To-
day, a small bridge connects Manoel Island in the middle

INA Quarterly 29.2

of Marsamxett Harbor to land (figs. 2 and 3). Conducting
a survey around the island was important for at least four
reasons. First, it is impossible to understand the maritime
history of Malta without understanding land use around
this second-most important harbor in the archipelago. Sec-
ond, Manoel Island was the site of the Ottoman camp in
1565 during the Great Siege of Malta. It is possible that
archaeological objects from this period are preserved in
the harbor silt. Third, Marsamxett is mentioned in medi-
eval texts from the times when the Catholic Church banned
trade with the Islamic world. Christian and Muslim "pi-
rates" exchanged their goods on Manoel Island, away from
the prying eyes of the tax collectors at the medieval harbor
of Birgu.
Finally, and perhaps the most important reason for
our survey in Marsamxett, is that Manoel Island was the
quarantine center of Europe for nearly two centuries. Quar-
antine control was institutionalized in Malta in the mid-
seventeenth century, in order to protect the European

Fig. 2 (below). Marsamxett Harbor showing the
location of Lazzaretto Creek, Manoel Island, and
the Quarantine Hospital in relation to the Grand
Harbor and Valletta.

Fig. 3 (right). Excavation area near the Quaran-
tine Hospital showing the position of the Hospital
Building, the Carolita shipwreck, and the exca-
vation squares. The locations with a letter sign
indicate the approximate location of the sand pock-
ets excavated on the upper slope.

Maps: A. Atauz

mainland from passengers and goods inbound from coun-
tries where plague was considered active. The disease was
endemic in the lands under Ottoman rule, including Dal-
matia, Greece, the Aegean islands, Asia Minor, Levant,
Cyprus, Egypt, Tripoli, and the Maghreb. Occasional out-
breaks occurred in the Western Mediterranean. Passengers
and goods coming from all these lands had to be cleared
by the quarantine authorities before being granted access
to Malta and continental destinations.
The quarantine lasted forty days, during which the
cargo was unloaded and fumigated within the isolation fa-
cility (Lazzaretto). The ship, crew, and passengers remained
at anchor nearby for the full term of the quarantine period.
Manoel Island was first used as a temporary Lazzaretto dur-
ing the plague epidemic of 1593. The first building in the
permanent Lazzaretto was built by Grand Master Lascaris of
the Knights of Malta in 1643 and was enlarged in later peri-
ods. This structure still stands today; the INA team used it
as a dive platform during the survey.

INA Quarterly 29.2

Our investigations in the area began in April 2000,
when a team from INA and the Malta Maritime Authority
conducted an archaeological and geological hazard sur-
vey around Manoel Island using a high-resolution sub-
bottom profiler. Divers inspected the identified targets, and
recovered material dating from Roman times to the mod-
em era. The abundance of artifacts near the Quarantine
Hospital justified an extended survey in the summer of
2001 that involved a systematic collection of surface mate-
rial and the excavation of a number of trenches.
The underwater slope in front of the Hospital is lit-
tered with furniture discarded from the building, as well
as large boulders that tumbled into the sea during bomb-
ing in the Second World War. In addition to beds and boul-
ders, the site features Carolita, a modem iron-hulled wreck,
which attracts fish and sport divers to the area. Visibility
is never higher than three meters-provided that the bot-
tom is not disturbed. Carolita looks almost haunted in the
murky waters of the harbor. We conducted the diving sur-
vey near the Quarantine Hospital in two phases: a system-
atic surface collection of archaeological material and the
excavation of test trenches in the most promising areas.
The team consisted of eight divers from INA, the
National Museum of Archaeology, the University of Mal-
ta, and Bristol University. The work at the Quarantine
Hospital site was made possible with the help of MIDI
Inc.--special thanks to Benjamin Muscat and Alex Torpi-
ano. I would also like to thank MedSurf for allowing ac-
cess to the site on their restricted property and providing
temporary storage for our equipment during the excava-
tion. They also made it possible to survive this excavation
by providing information about the boat traffic and ship
movements in this part of the harbor. Christopher Faine
and Christopher Longstaff were indispensable members
of our diving team during the survey off the Quarantine

Hospital, thanks to the University of Bristol for making
the funds available for their participation. Students Joanne
Mallia and Elaine Azzopardi from the University of Malta
also formed an invaluable part of the diving team. It was
due to their hard work at the museum that we were able
to finish the desalination and documentation of all the ar-
tifacts. Special thanks are due the University for making
the funds available for their participation.
Initial dives focused on acclimating the team mem-
bers to diving in zero visibility while collecting archaeo-
logically diagnostic surface material. After each dive, a
short meeting was held to familiarize the team members
with the archaeological material recovered and hone their
skills of discernment. The surface material was mostly
white porcelain used by the British Navy in the nineteenth
and twentieth centuries, broken artifacts dating to the six-
teenth and seventeenth centuries, and a few Late Roman
or Byzantine sherds.
Once the surface survey data were analyzed, sever-
al excavation areas were selected. Two-meter squares of
PVC pipe were positioned and each diver was assigned
one quarter of a square. The collection of material began
with photography and sketching. A water dredge was set
up to remove the silt and improve visibility. Divers were
responsible for labeling and on-site logging of the artifacts
from their sections. In addition to the squares, a number of
up-slope sand pockets were excavated. These formed nat-
ural traps for material and had better stratification of pre-
served artifacts. Once the loose silt was removed, we
immediately reached the grayish and more compact level
that contained earlier artifacts, especially in the sand pock-
ets. However, a layer below the gray silt preserved the trac-
es of poseidonia grass roots. This grows only on a sandy
bottom, and dates approximately to the seventeenth cen-
tu.ry. Archaeological material from this layer yielded more

Examples of artfocts from lha _
Quaantlne Hospltal Areo tIenche

4r .2

i ; J

OQ 058
Green Glazed Jug
()16tl-7th century)

Gfeen Gaawe Bow dH BA

QH 349A
Polychrorne Mqolica Bowl
(18Ih-19th century)

Drawings: A. Atauz and E. DeGaetano

QH 375
t~wlmic Amphora
(Sicilian productionP)

(fate lot-mid I th century) 17th century)

Fig. 4. Examples of artifacts from the Quarantine Hospital excavation.

ji7ih century)

[NA Quarterly 29.2


consistent dates. The location of the squares and the exca-
vated sand pockets were measured and positioned on
a large-scale map with actual coordinates.
Ceramics from the excavation were cleaned, desali-
nated, reconstructed, photographed, and drawn once the
excavation was over (fig. 4). We entered all 434 logged ar-
tifacts into a database that allowed comparison of the ar-
chaeological material in terms of their number, date, and
origin. Although ceramic studies are still being carried out,
preliminary observations indicate that eleventh- to twelfth-
century Islamic ceramics (possibly of North African origin)
outnumber the seventeenth- to early nineteenth-century poly-
chrome majolica sherds of the Knights' period, when the
Quarantine Hospital was in full service. This underlines
the extensive use of the harbor during medieval times. We
expect that a thorough analysis of the pottery will empha-

size the maritime trade contacts of Malta in the medieval
Survey off Xlendi
The second phase of the survey included the inspec-
tion of an area of seafloor near the entrance to Xlendi Bay
in Gozo. The initial survey relied on the scanning sonar
that was part of the standard ROV equipment. ROV cam-
eras immediately inspected anomalies detected by the so-
nar. The equipment and personnel were provided by the
NTNU (Norwegian University of Science and Technolo-
gy) and Sperre A.S. The work off Xlendi could have never
been possible (or so much fun) without the cooperation of
the Malta Maritime Authority. They provided the small,
yet efficient survey vessel Madonna ta Pinu with her talent-
ed crew: Joseph Bianco, Godwin Borg, Charlie Scicluna,

INA Quarterly 29.2

Type I T Type 2 Type 3 \/ Type 4 \

o ai t 00

Fig. 5. Major ampho-
ra types represented
in the Xlendi site.
Type 5 Type 6 Type 7
Drawing: A. Atauz

- I

Francis Mifsud, and Johan Camilleri. Fredrik Soreide
(NTNU) and Thor Olav Sperre (Sperre A.S.) both sacrificed
their vacations to make their ROV equipment available for
our survey and work for the project. They promised wrecks
and kept their promise.
The major find in 2001 was an amphora scatter off
the entrance to Xlendi Bay. This includes thousands of
amphoras, representing at least ten different types, spread
over an area of about four hundred by one hundred meters
on a flat, sandy bottom at a depth of 130 meters. The depth
and nature of the location compel us to identify it as a ship-
wreck site. However, it is unclear whether it represents
the remains of a single large vessel or is from multiple
One of the major hurdles to be overcome is the dif-
ficulty in determining precise dates for the Xlendi ampho-
ras. The equipment and time available in 2001 allowed for
the retrieval of only one archaeological sample. This par-
ticular ovoid Punic amphora dates to the third century BCE,
and is likely to be the product of a workshop in Western
Sicily or the vicinity of Carthage. We selected it as a repre-
sentative sample because the majority of the amphoras on
the site are of this type. These containers are distributed
widely in the Mediterranean, including sites from the At-
lantic coast of Spain, the Balearic Islands, near Carthage,
and Maltese Punic tombs. Another less common amphora
type at the Xlendi site is a "MafiA C" (form 3) also dating
to the same period as the first type (late third to early sec-
ond century BCE). This Punic type was likely produced in
Tripolitania or in Western Sicily. It is found in archaeolog-
ical contexts in Spain, the Balearic Islands, Sardinia, Corsi-
ca, the southern coast of France, the Italian peninsula, and
Tunisia. Another amphora type with numerous examples
on the site is a Greco-Italic type (Type MGS II) likely to be
a product of Sicily between the fifth and fourth centuries
Further study of the Xlendi Wreck site might change
the chronology and dating of the site, as the other types
we observed are even more problematic. The fact that we
do not have hands-on access to the actual artifacts means
that we must rely on the images captured by the ROV, cre-
ating difficulties in precise dating of the site. Amphora ty-
pologies and dating may drastically change depending on
small details that are difficult to observe without the orig-
inal artifact. However, it seems plausible that a number of
types are more "recent" than the ones described above.
Two of these might date to the first century CE. At least
three other types seen in quantity on the site have no par-
allels in known typologies. They may be products of a lo-
cal workshop yet to be discovered or prove identifiable
when raised in future seasons. In either case, it is certain
that it will be difficult to determine the nature of the site in
its entirety before a detailed site map is produced and oth-
er archaeological samples are brought to the museum for

study and analysis. It is important to note that this site is
the first underwater site of such an extent ever discovered
in Malta. The importance of the study of the material lies
in the insight it can provide into the history of the islands
and the dynamics of trade in the central Mediterranean
during the Punic Wars.

Areas of minor importance
The National Museum of Archaeology in Valletta
suggested an extensive search in the area near Zonkor point
in Malta. There were concerns about the future integrity
of a site where a swivel-gun, possibly part of galley arma-
ment, was raised in 2000 and another one was stolen. The
recovered weapon dated to the seventeenth century. We
hoped to determine if the site represented a silted-over
shipwreck that might contain other guns and artifacts.
Unfortunately, we were not able to locate any metal ob-
jects during our search using a hand-held underwater
metal detector.
Both a diving team and ROV surveyed an area near
the inlet of Mgarr ix-Xini on Gozo, another of only three
potential sheltered anchorages on the island. The diving
survey was an attempt to relocate cannons that had been
observed in the vicinity of a nearby watchtower (possibly
having fallen into the sea from that location). Unfortunate-
ly, the guns are now either obscured by marine growth or
stolen by looters. Mgarr ix-Xini has very similar character-
istics to that of Xlendi on the same side of the island, so we
expected a similar quantity of archaeological material. Our
hypothesis was disproved by a complete absence of arti-
facts near the entrance to Mgarr ix-Xini. This confirms the
greater importance of Xlendi. Sailing was difficult and risky
around Gozo, where even the best natural shelter on the
island is dangerous.

Future plans
Our work in the Quarantine Hospital area is sched-
uled to continue during the summer of 2002. The diving
team will continue to excavate sections of this very prom-
ising area based on the finds and interpretations of the
previous season. We also plan to carry out extended sur-
face surveys in other harbors and anchorages around Malta
to provide comparative material for the Quarantine Hos-
pital finds.
However, the primary goal of the 2002 season is to
completely document the wreck site off Xlendi. A multi-
beam sonar will be used to determine the extent of the site
and to map the adjacent seafloor. Acoustic images pro-
duced by the sonar will be geographically positioned and
processed to create a three-dimensional rendering. A sub-
bottom profiler will determine the extent and depth of the
site below the seafloor. Simultaneously, the ROV will tape
the video footage required to produce a detailed photo-
mosaic that will be superimposed on the multi-beam map.

INA Quarterly 29.2


Once a detailed map of the site is available, we willbe able
to determine the concentration of contemporaneous am-
phora and ceramic types. This will aid in determining the
nature of the site in general and the number and extent of
the shipwrecks. After careful evaluation of the data, we
plan to raise at least one representative example of each

amphora type for accurate dating and pottery analysis.
INA and ProMare will be working together to develop and
apply the equipment required for the project. The Xlendi
site is the perfect proving ground for sub-sea mapping and
excavation technologies, and will be a watershed for on-
going work in Malta and elsewhere.

Acknowledgements: The Malta Project is the product of several individuals' dedication and hard work. In addition to
those named above, Brett Phaneuf helped me to design, carry out, and fund the project and supported me in every
phase of my fieldwork. Timothy Gambin assisted with project logistics as well as being an invaluable member of both
the diving and the ROV team.
Michael Spitteri and Edmond Cardona represented the National Museum of Archaeology during the survey.
They were part of the diving team and were present during the ROV investigations. Curator Nathaniel Cutajar of the
NMA provided pivotal support during the work, including practical matters such as providing us a place in the muse-
um to work, and finding chairs, desks, and shelves to set up a laboratory. He also helped set up the scientific frame-
work of the survey design and made a major contribution as the project's pottery specialist. Vanessa Ciantar and
Elizabeth DeGaetano from the University of Malta made beautiful archaeological illustrations for the project and Gab-
rielle Fabri from Southampton University assisted us in conservation and analysis.
The project is indebted to Assistant Curators Rodriguez Espinoza (Maritime Museum), George Azzopardi (Gozo,
Cittadella) and Mark Anthony Mifsud for their assistance, interest and help. I also would like to thank Joseph Muscat
and John Wood for their assistance in providing information about the shipbuilding and maritime history of Malta.
Finally, I must thank the Turkish Institute of Nautical Archaeology (TINA) for supporting my doctoral studies, and my
parents and friends who came all the way to Malta to support my work and ensure my sanity. a

RPM Nautical Foundation:

Thanks for Your Support!

William H. Charlton Jr.

I have long been an advocate of continuing edu-
cation and training for all archaeological scuba divers.
During my time as INA's Diving Safety Officer, many
of our students (and even one professor, Dr. Fred Hock-
er) have received their Divemaster certifications. Addi-
tional training in diving, as in most other walks of life,
simply makes one better prepared to do the job at hand.
A better-trained diver is more confident, competent,
and-ultimately-more productive. Recreational dive
training assuredly does not address the needs of the
professional working diver. Most aspects of work as an
underwater archaeologist, biologist, oceanographer, or
other scientist are incomparably different from standard
recreational diving.

Some countries in Europe (France and Denmark, for
example) require every candidate for work as an under-
water scientist to be a trained and certified commercial div-
er. I was once turned down to work on a shipwreck
excavation in Corsica because I did not hold commer-
cial certification. The American Academy of Underwa-
ter Sciences (AAUS), the non-governmental
organization that now sets the standards for scientific
diving in the United States, has chosen a different ap-
proach. It has specific guidelines for scientific diver
training. Most organizations that conduct scientific div-
ing-universities, research institutes, marine laborato-
ries, and the like-now require that all their divers
complete a training course that meets AAUS standards and

INA Quarterly 29.2

qualify for the Scientific Diver certification. Many of these
organizations conduct their own training courses.
Most Quarterly readers are aware that INA and the
Nautical Archaeology Program (NAP) dive under the aus-
pices of Texas A&M University, but many may not know
that A&M has never had a formal scientific diving training
program. INA's procedure has been to require divers to
meet a very basic set of prerequisites before they go on a
diving project, where they are taught the specific pro-
cedures required for that project. That these methods
have worked for so many years, resulting in our great
safety record, is a tribute to the dive leadership on each
of our projects. These same informal training methods
were common throughout the scientific diving commu-
nity for many years, but scientific diving has changed
drastically over the past few years, especially in the area of
dive training. While our divers are working on projects
under our own umbrella, we have no problem. We are not
answerable to anyone but ourselves for our training meth-
ods or the conduct of our diving operations. However,
many of the INA and NAP divers still carry only a basic
Open Water Diver certification, with no way to verify fur-
ther training if the need should arise.
There are several reasons why as many INA and
NAP divers as possible should be certified by the AAUS.
The first concern is reciprocity. I had quite a difficult time
a few years ago getting three of our divers approved to
dive on a Florida State University underwater archaeolo-
gy project. They ended up having to take new physical
exams and perform a series of training and checkout dives
before they could go to work. In contrast, any diver hold-
ing an AAUS Scientific Diver card can go to almost any
organization and start work immediately. Everyone un-
derstands the training levels without further inquiry. A
second concern is the employability of NAP graduates.
Many research organizations seeking both short-term
and long-term diving employees now simply state
"AAUS Scientific Diver certification required." Two dif-
ferent cultural resources management firms contacted me
during this last summer looking for archaeological divers
for short-term projects. Both required AAUS certification
as a condition of employment. Finally, there is the issue of
possible liability in the event of a diving accident. Certifi-
cation would make verifying the training of the persons
involved much easier.
Early in the spring semester of 2000, I learned that
an AAUS-sanctioned scientific diving training course was
available from Texas A&M University at Galveston, taught

by Dr. Tom Iliffe. The course consists of two parts, an aca-
demic program taught during the spring semester and
a two-week diving trip to north Florida between the
spring semester and first summer session (see INA
Quarterly 27.4, 16-19). I arranged to accompany the group
to Florida that year and was convinced of the overwhelm-
ing effectiveness of the course. Some students had better
and more varied diving skills by the end of the trip than
some INA and NAP divers have, even after working on a
shipwreck excavation.
I was able to get five NAP graduate students into
Dr. Iliffe's Spring 2001 diving course, I served as his in-
structor for the dive course in College Station, while he
taught in Galveston. However, neither the students nor the
Program could afford to send all of them to Florida to com-
plete the course. The two who did finish, Sara Brigadier and
Mark Feulner, could hardly have praised it more highly.
Mark has gone on to complete his cave diver certification.
He will assist me during the 2002 dive course, training to
become a diving instructor.
I felt very strongly that this training would benefit
every NAP student and INA diver, but few were able to
afford it. There was no obvious solution to this problem
until I heard a presentation by Dan Davis, a graduate
of the Program who is now the Operations Chief of RPM
Nautical Foundation in Key West, Florida. I knew of
the organization because I had been involved in the ac-
quisition of a nitrox and air fill station they received in
the summer of 2001. Dan came to College Station to tell
us about the foundation's desire to support nautical ar-
chaeology projects and research. When I mentioned our
problem, Dan said that RPM Nautical might also be inter-
ested in supporting diver education, and that I should
submit a proposal for funding to support the AAUS train-
My proposal was approved. We will get four more
NAP graduate students, plus the three who were unable
to finish last year, into the 2002 dive training course. I have
been advised that if this year's training is a success, the
support could continue into future years. This training will
provide a better-trained cadre of divers for future INA and
NAP projects, and aid our graduates in their future en-
Many students will benefit from this training, so I
would like to express my gratitude to Mr. George Robb
and his RPM Nautical Foundation. As the title of this arti-
cle says, "RPM Nautical Foundation-Thanks for Your
Support!" W

INA Quarterly 29.2

The "Mica" Shipwreck Excavation:

Deep-water Archaeology in the Gulf of Mexico

Brett Phaneuf

Accidental discoveries in archaeology can lead to
significant consequences. In February 2001, an eight-inch
gas pipeline placed on the seafloor at the Mica Prospect in
the Gulf of Mexico passed directly through the midships
section of a historic shipwreck. This was discovered in a
post-installation survey of the pipeline conducted with a
remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Upon discovery, the
shipwreck was immediately reported to the Mineral Man-
agement Service (MMS), the agency with jurisdiction over
submerged archaeological resources discovered in federal
waters in the Gulf of Mexico. The shipwreck lies approxi-
mately eight hundred meters deep, sitting upright on its
keel with the remaining portion of the hull clad in copper
A preliminary study of the shipwreck was conduct-
ed by ROV and funded by Exxon-Mobil, Inc. This revealed
that the hull of the ship was constructed of Eastern White
Pine that grows only along the eastern seaboard of the
United States north of Virginia. Based on the presence of
copper sheathing (to protect the hull from wood-boring
marine organisms) and the general morphology of the ship,
it most likely dates between the years 1775 and 1830. Small
coastal merchant vessels (approximately twenty-five
meters in length) were ubiquitous in the Gulf of Mexico,
the Caribbean, and throughout North American coastal

waters. Ships of this type were the lifeblood of commerce
and industry in the burgeoning United States. Archaeolo-
gists believe that this small merchant ship, found on the
main shipping route to and from New Orleans, was either
heading to or departing from that port when it came to
In order to specifically identify the shipwreck, two
Texas A&M graduate students are reviewing customs
records of ships entering and leaving New Orleans. They
will enter all available data into a Geographic Information
System (GIS) to be mated with other databases concerning
historical accounts of shipwrecks in the Gulf of Mexico.
Combined with data gathered during the excavation, this
database will be a powerful tool for aiding MMS and A&M
scholars to identify the ship, and for subsequent underwa-
ter archaeological research in the deep Gulf of Mexico.
Following the preliminary study, the MMS entered
into a cooperative agreement with Texas A&M Universi-
ty. The Nautical Archaeology Program (NAP) in the De-
partment of Anthropology and the Deep Tow Research
Group (DTRG) in the Department of Oceanography were
to design a program of archaeological and oceanographic
study of the wreck-site and the surrounding area.
Scientists from the MMS and A&M consulted with
pipeline engineers regarding moving the pipe off the site

Fig. 1. Image of the bow and stern of the shipwreck as it rests upright on its keel

INA Quarterly 29.2

and determined that this would be detrimental to the ship-
wreck. Pipelines can be under tremendous tension, com-
pression, or torsion and the archaeologists were concerned
that if the pipeline were lifted it could "whip," destroying
the important and well-preserved bow and stern sections
of the shipwreck. Therefore, the archaeologists studying
the site requested that the pipeline not be moved. Howev-
er, little information was lost due to the placement of the
line itself. The midships is usually the least structurally
complex area of a vessel. The bow and stern sections pro-
vide considerably more information about the construc-
tion techniques used to build the ship, and generally
preserve more detail from the actual construction process.
Additionally, the center section of this wreck was already
the least well preserved section of the site.
DTRG and NAP requested the use of the United States
Navy SSV Carolyn Chouest and the nuclear research subma-
rine NR1 to conduct the study and to compile detailed side-
scan sonar imagery and photo-mosaics of the site, to recover
a limited number of diagnostic artifacts, and to determine
the origin and precise age of the ship. The plan was for NR1,
an ROV launched from the submarine, and a surface-
launched ROV deployed from Carolyn Chouest, to be used.
These were to compile detailed sonar and photo-mosaics of
the site and collect detailed photographic documentation of
all features of the shipwreck prior to excavation. Once data
for a complete site map was collected, the team would pro-
ceed to gently remove sediment from within the shipwreck
and recover artifacts located during the process. Simulta-
neously, the surface-launched ROV would excavate small
test-pits around the periphery of the site and map the lo-
cation of and collect artifacts. After this, additional sonar
and photo-mosaics were to be compiled.
This was the first deep-sea excavation conducted by
archaeologists in the United States and the impetus for
developing a program at A&M focused on deep-sea ar-
chaeological research in the Gulf of Mexico. It was also the
first collaborative venture between the Department of
Oceanography and the NAP, which are now considering
a joint advanced degree program in deep-sea archaeolog-
ical research and exploration.
The INA ROV (NR14) was upgraded and installed
on the submarine, and a larger ROV on loan from the Na-
val Oceanographic Office was loaded on Carolyn Chouest.
The weather could not have been more perfect for our op-

erations. Within moments of arriving at our rendezvous
point at sea, NAP student Toby Jones was transferred to
NRI for three days of intensive investigation on the
wreck site. Unfortunately, that was when our luck be-
gan to erode. As Toby worked to record and image the
shipwreck below, the ROV aboard the Carolyn Chouest
malfunctioned during preliminary diving operations
and was lost. To make matters worse, the NR1/4 also
failed to function properly due to telemetry problems
brought on by the incursion of seawater into the cable
connecting it to the NR1.
We shifted our attention immediately to making the
best possible use of NR1. For nearly six days Toby, Kevin
Crisman of the NAP faculty, and MMS Archaeologist Rick
Anuscewicz worked with the sub's crew. They imaged the
wreck site with cameras and sonar, removed sediment from
the site, and revealed well-preserved timbers and a pleth-
ora of artifacts, Finally, they removed the uppermost sec-
tion of the sterpost. As NR1 surfaced with this in its
manipulator arm, a sudden drop in hydraulic pressure
spelled the loss of the artifact, as it fell back to the seafloor
through 815 meters of seawater.
Due to the string of bad luck, everyone experienced
first hand the hardships of working on a deep archaeolog-
ical site. That being said, the mission was successful as a
model for collaborative research between the military, a
federal agency, and an academic institution, something we
intend to continue in the future. Data collected with NR1
is also still being analyzed and will be presented in a fol-
low-up article along with future research on the site to be
conducted this fall with the help of industry partners in
the Gulf of Mexico.
All artifacts recovered will be shipped to the Con-
servation Research Laboratory at Texas A&M where they
will be studied, conserved, and prepared for public muse-
um display. Depending on the type and number of arti-
facts recovered, conservation time is estimated to vary
between six months and two years. After the conservation
is complete, the MMS will designate a repository or muse-
um to house and display the artifacts along with an inter-
pretive display of the shipwreck material.
ExxonMobil, generously providing the lion's share
of the needed capital, funded the season of research. Funds
were also provided by Texas A&M and the SeaGrant Col-
lege Program. ,

INA Quarterly 29,2

The Cais do Sodre Ship

Paulo Rodrigues

A remarkable ship came to light during the 1995
construction of a subway station at Cais do Sodr6 Square
in Lisbon, Portugal. Digging in a zone that was once a shore-
line, the contractor found the remains of a wooden hull at a
depth of five to six and a half meters. Although the walls of
the subway hall had cut the stem and sterposts, the derelict
was preserved to the turn of the bilge along twenty-four
meters of flat keel (fig. 1). With the exception of part of a
whipstaff, no loose artifacts were found in any of the lay-
ers above or below the ship remains (fig. 2). Two wood
samples were taken for radiocarbon analysis and yielded
dates around the end of the fifteenth century.
The contractor, Metropolitano de Lisboa E.P.,
stopped work immediately and called for help from the
Institute Portugues do Patrim6nio Arquitect6nico e Ar-
queol6gico (IPPAR), the institution that was charged with

the preservation of the Portuguese nautical cultural heritage
at the time. The ship remains were carefully recorded in situ
by a team of archaeologists under my direction, and disran-
tied for storage in a warehouse. The 1993-1995 treasure hunt-
ing legislation period in Portugal (INA Quarterly 25.4,
16-18) delayed study and conservation of the timbers.
Further work did not start until 2000, again under
my direction but this time with the Centro Nacional de
Arqueologia Nautica e Subaquitica (CNANS), created in
1997 within the Instituto Portugues de Arqueologia (IPA),
the Portuguese state agency for archaeology. A team from
the Institute of Nautical Archaeology (INA) at Texas A&M
University recorded the timbers during the summer of
2001. This work was the subject of my Th6se de Doctorat
at the Universit6 de Sorbonne Paris 1 under the supervi-
sion of Dr. Eric Rieth.

INA Quarterly 29.2

Fig. 2 (left). The ship during excavation.

Fig. 3 (above). The remains of a whipstaff.

Photos: F Alves, CNANS

The ship remains encompass a keel (in four parts),
keelson, deadwood, frames, four stringers, one breast hook,
one beam, one stanchion, planking and ceiling, as well as
some smaller pieces. These timbers were cut from several
different species of wood. The two fragments of the haw-
thorn (Crataegus monogyna) whipstaff found at the stern
were perhaps the most important remains (fig. 3). The mid-
ship frames were presumably destroyed before the sub-
way construction was stopped, so the master frame is
missing. However, further study on the planking may re-
veal its position and number. In the Portuguese shipbuild-
ing tradition, large ships could have three master frames.
All of the timbers were of oak (Quercusfaginea) ex-
cept the single breast hook section which was of oak (Quer-
cus robur) while the ceiling between the stringers were of
pine-one plank and one strake on the starboard (Pinus pin-
ea) and three planks and one strake on the port side (Pinus

sylvestris). The keelson consisted of three sections. A total
of thirty-seven frames were present, fourteen forward, and
twenty-three aft. Upper and lower stringers were both com-
posed of three to four timbers. Extensive planking com-
prised of twenty planks (six strakes) to starboard and,
twenty-two (eight strakes) to port while the bottom ceil-
ing consisted of sixteen planks from eight strakes. Both
the beam and stanchion consisted of a single fragment each.
It is too soon to make any definitive statements.
However, the hull is very interesting from a number of
aspects. First, its central frames are numbered with roman
numerals, from one to eighteen, and the floors are attached
to the futtocks with dovetail joints (figs. 4 and 5). Second,
the frames abaft the presumed after tail frame (numbered
XVIII) show a pronounced kink outwards, suggesting a
very low transom (fig. 6). Third, the four keel sections are
butt-joined, with no apparent fastenings (fig. 7).

Fig. 4 (left). Construction marks on floor C87.

Fig. 5 (below). Dovetail joints.

Photo: P. Goncalves, CNANS

TNA Quarterly 29.2

Fig. 6. Floor number C78.

The first two characteristics mentioned above may
be typical of the Portuguese shipbuilding tradition. They
are mentioned in the sixteenth-century treatises by Feran-
do Oliveira (1580) and Joio Baptista Lavanha (c. 1610), and
have been found in several Iberian wrecks, such as the Pep-
per Wreck (INA Quarterly 27.4, 3-9) or the Aveiro A wreck
(INA Quarterly 25.4, 17). The third characteristic, however,

Fig. 7. Keel. e
Drawing: P. J. Rodrigues

is only found in the Culip VI wreck and the 1696 Traitl de
Construction de Galeres, a manuscript kindly shown to me
by Dr. Rieth.
Work on the Cais do Sodr6 wreck will continue for
at least two more years. I plan a 1:10 scale replica as a way
to understand the conception and construction sequence
of this vessel.

Acknowledgments: 1 wish to thank the administration of the Metropolitano de Lisboa, E.P. for supporting the excava-
tion, dismantling, and preservation of the Cais do Sodre ship. IPA/CNANS and Dr. Francisco Alves supported the
housing and study of the timbers, and Dr. Eric Rieth supported me with his always kind and enlightened help. INA and
Dr. Kevin Crisman sponsored the dream team: Erika Laanela, Gustavo Garcia, Anthony Randolph, Eric Flynn, Carrie
Sownden, and Katie Custer. Finally, I must thank Texas A&M University and my good friend Dr. Filipe Vieira de
Castro for his help in the ongoing preparation of the final drawings. s

Suggested Readings

Rodrigues, Paulo
1995 Relat6rio Preliminar dos trabalhos de desobstrucao e registo
arqueogrAfico dos restos do navio encontrado no Cais do Sodre,
nas obras do Metropolitano de Lisboa, Lisboa.

Rodrigues, Paulo, et al.
2001 "L'pave d'un navire de la deuxieme moiti6 du XVeme sidcle/
d6but du XVITme, trouvee au Cais do Sodre (Lisbonne). Note
prdliminaire." In Francisco Alves, ed. Proceedings International Sym-
posium on Archaeology of Medieval and Modern Ships of Iberian-At-
lantic Tradition, IPA, Trabalhos de Arqueologia nl18, 347-380.

INA Quarterly 29.2

Photo: P. J. Rodrigues

A Recompression Chamber for INA-Egypt

William H. Charlton Jr.

INA has for several years recognized the need for a
recompression chamber to support diving projects in
Egypt, which are often carried out in very remote loca-
tions. INA-Egypt did not require a large, fixed-plant cham-
ber for their operations, but one that could be used in a
portable configuration, installed on a trailer, and towed to
the different project locations.
Years before, Dr. William Fife--Texas A&M Univer-
sity's long-time Diving Health and Safety Officer (now re-
tired)-gave INA an old skid-mounted double-lock
recompression chamber, commonly called a "deck chamber."
It had long ago been stripped of its piping, valves, and gaug-
es. At the time, INA did not have a use for the equipment or
a place to store it, so it remained beside Dr. Fife's former
Hyperbaric Laboratory in the woods on the western edge of
the campus. William H. Charlton, Jr., INA's Diving Safety
Officer, had kept the deck chamber in the back of his mind
since learning of its existence from Dr. Fife ten years ago.
Charlton realized that the old equipment at the Hyperbaric
Lab could fill the bill for INA-Egypt. However, the chamber
would require much work... if it could be salvaged at all.
The first requirement, then, was to determine if the
vessel could still be pressurized without blowing its seals,
window ports, or the wide variety of connectors and adapt-
ers screwed into its outer skin. To discover this, Charlton
enlisted the aid of Tom Sutton, Operations Chief of the
Hermann Center for Hyperbaric Medicine in Houston,
Texas, and dive doctor on several INA projects in Turkey.
The two conducted a hydrostatic test on the chamber. This
check, commonly called simply a "hydro," is conducted
by filling the vessel with as much water as can be pumped
into it, and then pressurizing it the rest of the way up to its
working pressure with air. To their great surprise, it stood

the stress, so they knew INA had an intact, functioning
pressure vessel.
The next step was to determine how to get the equip-
ment back into operational condition. Initial conversations
with some commercial companies that refurbish chambers
as a routine business gave some discouraging news. This
job could cost many tens of thousands of dollars. The
thought of actually being able to use the equipment went
on hold until the day Tom Sutton contacted Bill Charlton
with the cryptic message, "Call John Wood."
Follow-on discussions resulted in a fantastic offer
from Mr. Wood, owner of The Ocean Corporation, a small
commercial diving training school located on the west side
of Houston, Texas, only one hundred miles from INA's
headquarters in College Station. John would volunteer to
return our old chamber to operational condition, if INA
would allow him to use the project to train a select group
of commercial divers in the operation and maintenance of
decompression and recompression chambers. With his
substantial hands-on field experience with such equipment,
as well as his many years of teaching these same subjects,
John Wood is eminently qualified for this type of work.
The only cost to INA was for the parts required for the job,
which it found affordable.
The refurbishment took a few months, as scheduled,
and the chamber is now back at INA's facility in College
Station. It has a shiny new coat of tough paint, as well as
new high-pressure piping, valves, and gauges. The work
also included installation of new overboard-dump masks
for those portions of Decompression [lness treatments re-
quiring administration of pure oxygen, as well as new in-
side and outside communication equipment. The last step
in the project will be to ship the chamber to Egypt. -

INA Quarterly 29.2

Just Released

By Christine Powel

The Art and Archaeology of Venetian Ships and Boats
by Lillian Ray Martin

College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2001
ISBN 1-58544-098-1, 236 pp, 104 b&w photos, 54 line drawings, 6 tables,
4 appendices, notes, bibliography, index. Cloth. Price: $77.50

Medieval and Renaissance Venice was the queen of the seas-the dom-
inant naval and merchant shipping power of Christendom. For much of the
Middle Ages, the city-state enjoyed a virtual monopoly on trade between Eu-
rope and the Eastern Mediterranean. At its height in the thirteenth through fif-
teenth centuries, Venice controlled a maritime empire with influence reaching all the way from England to China, with actual
colonies from the Adriatic to the Black Sea. However, we know relatively little about the ships that made this power possible. There
are very few archaeological remains and there have been no prior adequate studies of the iconographic material. In the latest
volume of the Studies in Nautical Archaeology series from Texas A&M Press (published in England by Chatham Publishing), Lillian
Ray Martin goes a considerable distance toward plugging this gap in our knowledge.
The core of this book is a section of over a hundred pages providing a catalog of maritime images in the art of Venice
and the neighboring cities before the High Renaissance. These come from church murals, drawings, paintings, woodcuts,
engravings, book illustrations, and a range of other sources, An appendix provides a twelve-page list of museums, libraries,
and church sites consulted. The extremely high-quality illustrations of the book reproduce these images. Some readers may
regret the absence of color, but the monochrome prints on glossy paper may actually make the details of the ships easier to
distinguish. Although this is not an exhaustive collection (many images are inaccessible or unpublishable for various reasons), it
provides a representative sample of images from Venice, Aquileia, Belluno, Bologna, Bolzano, Padua, Ravenna, Rimini,
Verona, and Vittorio Venito. As background to the catalog, the author provides a brief overview of Venetian history and art
between the fourth century and the Fifteenth. This provides the relevant context in history, economics, and art history for
interpreting the images. The introductory chapter is supplemented by a detailed chronology in another appendix.
Iconography is particularly important for this period because of the scarcity of material evidence. Mediterranean
archaeology has found very few medieval shipwrecks of European origin. When The Art and Archaeology of Venetian Ships
and Boats was written, archaeologists in the region around Venice had only excavated and studied three ships and five smaller
boats from before the seventeenth century. The Contarina I merchant ship dates from the thirteenth century, while Contarina I is
a sixteenth-century merchantman. These and the fifteenth-century galley from Lazise on Lake Garda do not provide adequate
physical evidence for Venetian shipbuilding without the interpretive lens provided by contemporary art As Lillian Ray Martin
notes, "To develop the most accurate picture of medieval Venetian watercraft possible, evidence gleaned from textual sources,
pictorial evidence, and nautical archaeology must be integrated, because each contributes different types of information."
She attempts this task in the second major section of her text, which describes the additional evidence for Venetian water-
craft and combines it with the data from the cataloged images. The combination of sources allows her to reach conclusions
about the variety of rigs and hull construction techniques that marked this prosperous maritime regime. A functional
typology of Venetian ships and boats substantiates the author's claim that they had "diversity to meet every need."
However, Martin acts as a guide, rather than as a dictator. The detailed information in The Art and Archaeology of Vene-
tian Ships and Boats allows the reader to reach independent conclusions about the subject. Two additional appendices
include representative ship and boat measurements from the textual and archaeological sources and a discussion of the
anchor requirements in thirteenth-century maritime codes. Although recent archaeological discoveries in Italy may
substantially supplement this information, the book will probably constitute the foundation of our knowledge about
Venetian ships, boats, and shipbuilding for many years to come. ,6

INA Quarterly 29.2


By Donny L. Hamilton

Spanish Colonial Gold Coins in the Florida Collection
Alan K. Craig

Florida Heritage Publication, University Press of Florida, 2000
ISBN: 0-8130-1802-1,112 pages, 284 gold coin photos, map, 17 tables, .,
appendixes, glossary, notes, bibliography, index, paperback

This volume describes the gold coins held by the Florida
Bureau of Archaeological Research on behalf of the State of Flor- ""
ida. As such, the book's title explains the contents. The described
coins represent the state's twenty-five percent share from vari- ," .
ous salvage operations, primarily from the 1715 and 3733 Span-
ish Fleets and the 1695 Jupiter Wreck. '
After a short historical background, the cob coins of the ', .i
Lima, Cuxco, Mexico, and Bogota mints are described, followed
by summary remarks on the coins produced by each mint. The
descriptions of the different varieties of coins from the four mints
and the die variations used to stamp the coins are thorough and
well illustrated with black and white photographs, color photographs, and composite drawings. In short, the book does
what it sets out to do-describe the Florida Collection. It is not, however, a definitive study of the gold cob coins minted
in the Spanish colonies of the New World.
Interesting tidbits of historic data are incorporated into the text, but in many instances the absence of references
prevents the interested reader from evaluating or pursuing the subject. An example is the reference to the privateer
Henry Jennings, of Port Royal, Jamaica, attacking the Spanish salvage camp at the 1715 Fleet disaster, and making off
with over one hundred thousand silver pieces of eight. Another example is the discussion of the ratio of one-, two-,
four-, and eight-escudo coins in the collection. The author asserts that mint production records indicate that more eight-
escudos were produced than four-escudos in all of the mints. Therefore, he feels that the nearly equal number of four-
and eight-escudo Mexican coins in the Florida collection is skewed. He later states, "Perhaps Mexican coinage totals
will eventually prove to be representative of what was being produced there during the first decade of the eighteenth
century, but the currently available evidence suggest otherwise." No references are provided for evaluating these state-
ment and no real discussion of why the totals represented in the Florida Collection can not be assumed to be represen-
tative, even when the nature by which the collection was acquired is taken into consideration. Many readers would be
interested in knowing the basis for these statements.
The book, while successfully recording the Florida Collection, would benefit from a discussion of the relative
value of escudos versus reals in the monetary system, everyday mint operations, taxation procedures, the production
of coin dies in the Spanish colonies, and a thorough discussion of the significance of the legends and the meaning of the
devices and symbols used in the crests at different time periods and at the different mints. This information is largely
absent or lacking, but is precisely the kind of data that places the coins within their historic context and makes them
culturally relevant. The glossary, while providing some useful information, could be much more extensive.
Interestingly, readers will be exposed to words such as mulctt," "tontine-like," and "exergue" which will send
many to the dictionary. Some might suggest that more common words could have been used, but others will enjoy
learning new vocabulary. The book, while easy to read, is not a substitute for a more definitive reference on cob coinage
in the Spanish colonies for those seeking to identify a given coin. The primary value of the book is in making the gold
cobs of the Florida Collection accessible to other researchers for purposes of comparative research. -

INA Quarterly 29.2

George Bass Honored with National Medal of Science

"The medals we present today are the highest honors-the highest honors-a President can bestow in the fields of
science and technology. Today's honorees have earned this recognition with their tireless work." With these words, Presi-
dent of the United States George W. Bush awarded the National Medal of Science to Dr. George F. Bass, INA Co-Founder
and President Emeritus, and fourteen other recipients at a White House ceremony on June 12, 2002.
Congress established the Medal in 1959 as a Presidential Award for individuals "deserving of special recognition by
reason of their outstanding contributions to knowledge in the physical, biological, mathematical, or engineering sciences."
In 1980, Congress expanded the mandate of the Medal to recognize the social and behavioral sciences. A distinguished
committee of twelve scientists and engineers appointed by the President evaluates the nominees for the award.
The fifteen recipients of the 2001 President's Medal of Science included six biologists, three physical scientists, two
chemists, two mathematicians, and an engineer. Dr. Bass was the sole recipient of the Medal this year in behavioral and
social sciences. The presidential citation pointed out his accomplishments "for fathering underwater archaeology after
publishing the first complete excavation findings of an ancient shipwreck." In honoring Dr. Bass, the nation also tacitly
recognized the work and sacrifice of all those who have sustained the Institute of Nautical Archaeology since it was found-
ed in 1972.
George Bass was proudly supported by Ann Bass and their sons Gordon and Alan, along with Alan's wife Lesa, who were
all in the White House for the presentation. The National Science Foundation hosted a black-tie banquet in honor of the laureates
the next evening. Dr. Bass notes, "We were joined at our table by INA Directors Bill Allen and Ray Bowen (of course Ray is
also President of Texas A&M University), with Carol Allen and Sally Bowen, as well as INA Counsel James Goold with his
wife Dabney." Of course, every INA member and supporter was there in spirit to pay tribute to his accomplishment.
As President Bush said, "It is an honor to be with so many incredibly bright and innovative people. I want to wel-
come the winners; I want to welcome your family members; I want to welcome your friends; and I want to welcome those
of us who are just happy to be in your presence." That pretty well sums up the feelings of all who have worked with Dr.
Bass over the years! The President concluded, "The world of our children will be shaped by the people we honor today. On
behalf of all Americans, I want to thank you for your lifelong commitment to making our world a better place." v

INA Quarterly 29.2


Change is inevitable if an organization is to survive, and it can be good, even if awkward at times. For
the past few years, the Institute of Nautical Archaeology has been undergoing a series of important changes. In
a significant administrative transition effective July 31, 2002, Dr. Jerome L. Hall has resigned as President to
pursue an academic career at the University of San Diego, and I have succeeded him. I want to join everyone
associated with INA in thanking Dr. Hall for the three years he guided us and wish him the best in his new
For those of you who don't know me, here is a little background information: I am a native-born Texan
(an important fact for those who can claim it). I was raised in Pecos, far from any seacoast. It is as mystifying to
me as it might be to any of you as to how I happened to become interested in nautical archaeology. I received
my Bachelor of Arts degree from Texas Tech University in anthropology and my doctorate from The Universi-
ty of Texas at Austin in 1975. My dissertation was written on the conservation of metal objects from underwa-
ter archaeological sites, which continues to be one of my main specialties.
In 1978, I joined the faculty of the Nautical Archaeology Program at Texas A&M University (TAMU) to
become one of the first four faculty members. The others included Dr. George Bass, the founder of both INA
and the Nautical Archaeology Program (NAP), Mr. J. Richard Steffy who provided us with shipbuilding ex-
pertise, and Dr. Frederick van Doominck who provided expertise in classical archaeology. On arriving at
TAMU, I established the conservation laboratory, which holds an international reputation and plays an impor-
tant role both for the academic program of NAP and for INA. I also provided a New World perspective. For
over a decade, we four provided the direction for NAP and to a large degree that for INA as well. I am the last
of the original faculty; the others have retired from A&M. However, all three continue to be active in the affairs
of INA-Bass as Founder and Steffy and van Doorinck as Directors.
After twenty-four years with TAMU and INA, I hold a number of administrative positions. In addition
to serving as President of INA, I am Head of the Nautical Archaeology Program, Associate Head of the An-
thropology Department (of which NAP is part), and Director of the Conservation Research Laboratory. So, I
am familiar with most aspects of both INA and TAMU. Archaeologically speaking, I am best known for the ten
years I spent excavating the seventeenth-century sunken city of Port Royal, Jamaica, and for my conservation
work on both the 1554 Spanish Plate Fleet and the hull and contents of La Belle, which belonged to the famous
French explorer La Salle. On occasion, I still do some prehistoric archaeology as well. I am currently working
on the final publication of the Port Royal excavations and completing a book on conservation.
My full attention is and will be devoted to the affairs of INA. Soon there will be a new generation of nautical
archaeologists trained in underwater archaeology, unlike the original faculty members, who were essentially self-
taught. My mission in serving INA as its sixth President is to assist in this transition, embark on new avenues of
research, establish a sound administrative structure, and put INA on a firm financial foundation.
New shipwrecks are being found and opportunities are opening up in the Mediterranean (in Turkey,
Greece, Italy, Morocco, and Egypt); the Caribbean (in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Mexico); South America; various
parts of Asia; and the coasts, lakes, and waterways of North America. All of these-and more-are potential
areas for INA projects. We intend to be a part of new shipwreck excavations in these areas as we strengthen
our established bases and branch off in fresh directions. Along the way, we will expand the Board of Directors
to support new research. With the cooperation of the INA Board of Directors and membership, Texas A&M
University, and our research staff, we will continue to be the world leader in nautical archaeology. The future
is ours... as long as we have the vision to pursue it.
Additional information about INA, NAP, the staff, the faculty, and the projects is on the Internet at: E-mail questions can be directed to

Donny Hamilton

INA Quarterly 29.2


Christine A. Powell
Donny L. Hamilton, PhD., President*
Donald A. Frey, Ph.D., Vice President* Cemal M. Pulak, Ph.D., Vice President
Jamnes A Goold, J.D., Secretary & General Counsel* Claudia LeDoux, Assistant Secretary & Assistant Treasurer

William L. Allen
Oguz Aydemir*
John H. Baird
Joe Ballew
George F. Bass, Ph.D.*
Edward O. Boshell, Jr.,*
Chairman and Treasurer
John A. Brock
Elizabeth L. Bruni
Allan Campbell, M.D.

Raynette Boshell
Nicholas Griffis
Robin P Hartmann
Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D.

John Cassils Charles Johnson, Ph.D.
Gregory M. Cook Harry C. Kahn nI
William C. Culp, M.D. Mustafa Kog
Lucy Darden Francine LeFrak-Friedberg
Thomas F Darden* Robert E, Lorton
John De Lapa Alex G. Nason
Claude Duthuit* George E. Robb, Jr.
Danielle J. Feeney' Lynn Baird Shaw
Robert Gates. Ph.D. Ayhan Sicimoglu'

Susan Katzev Thomas McCasland, Jr.
William C. Klein, M.D. Dana F. McGinnis
George Lodge Michael Plank

J. Richard Steffy
Wilham T. Sturgis
Frederick H. van Doominck, Ir., Ph.D.'
Robert L. Walker, Ph.D.'
Lew O. Ward, Vice Chairman'
Peter M. Way
Garry A. Weber
George 0. Yamini
Sally M. Yarnini
*Executive Committee

Molly Reily
Betsey Boshell Todd
Casidy Ward
William Ward

Filipe Castro, Ph.D., Assistant Professor
Kevin J. Crisman, Ph.D., Nautical Archaeology Faculty Fellow
Donny L. Hamilton, Ph.D., Frederick R. Mayer Faculty Fellow
Cemal M. Pulak, Ph.D., Frederick R. Mayer Faculty Fellow of Nautical Archaeology
C. Wayne Smith, Ph.D., Assistant Professor/Director of the Archaeological Preservation Research Laboratory
Shelley Wachsmann, Ph.D., Meadows Associate Professor of Biblical Archaeology
George E Bass, Ph.D.,
George T. & Gladys H. Abell Professor of Nautical Archaeology, George 0. Yamini Family Professor of Liberal Arts, & Distinguished Professor Emeritus
Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr., Ph.D., Frederick R. Mayer Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
J. Richard Steffy, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus

Mr. & Mrs. Ray H. Siegfried II Graduate Fellow: Matthew Harpster Marian M. Cook Graduate Fellows: Peter D. Fix and Taras P. Pevny

J. Barto Arnold, M.A., Texas Operations

Ayge Atauz
Kroum N. Batchvarov, M.A
Katie Custer
Dan Davis, M.A.

Arthur Cohn, J.D.
David Gibbins, Ph.D.
Nergis Ginsenin

Australian Institute of Maritime Archae
Boston University
Brown University
Bryn Mawr College
University of California, Berkeley
University of Cincinnati

Esra Altbnarnt-Goksu
Miinevver Babac.k
Mustafa Babacik
Hani Bedeir
Chasity Burns
Michelle Chmelar
Mehmet Ciftlikl
Marion Feildel

Douglas Haldane, M.A., INA-Egypt

Tulan U.

Donald G. Geddes IM Margaret E. Lashikar-Denton, Ph.D.
leremy Green, M.A. Maria del Pilar Luna Erreguerina
Andrew Hall, M.A. John McManamon, Ph.D.
Jerome L. Hall, Ph.D. Thomas J. Oertling, M.A.

Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D. Carolyn G. Koehler, Ph.D.
Fredrik T Hiebert, Ph.D. William M. Murray, Ph.D.
Frederick Hocker, Ph.D David I. Owen, Ph.D.
otlogy Cornell University University ol
Corning Museum of Glass Partners for I
DepartamentodeArqueologia SubacuAtica de University M
a LNA.H, Mexico Texas A&M
University of Maryland, Baltimore County Texas A&M I
New York University, Institute of Fine Arts University ol

Tuba Ekmekoi Sheila D. Matthews, M.A.
Adel Farouk Mistie Moore
Zafer Gill Eric Nordgren
Bilge Giinedogdu Asaf Oron
Jane Haldane Muam.amer Ozdenur
Thomas Kahlau Ralph K. Pedersen, M.A.
Gilser Kazancioglu Robin C. M. Piercy
Emad Khalil Sema Pulak, M.A.

Turanli, Turkish Headquarters

Ralph K. Pedersen, M.A.
Brett A. Phaneuf
Donald Rosencrantz

Cheryl Ward, Ph.D.
Gordon P. Watts, Jr., Ph.D

f North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Livable Places
museum, University of Pennsylvania
Research Foundation
f Texas at Austin

$iikran enyiz
Sherif Shabban
A. Feyyaz Subay
Murat Tilev
Sileyman Torel
Giines Yasar


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