Group Title: INA quarterly
Title: The INA quarterly
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 Material Information
Title: The INA quarterly
Alternate Title: Institute of Nautical Archaeology quarterly
Abbreviated Title: INA q.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Publisher: Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Place of Publication: College Station TX
College Station TX
Publication Date: Fall 2001
Copyright Date: 1997
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Underwater archaeology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Archéologie sous-marine -- Périodiques   ( rvm )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 19, no. 1 (spring 1992)-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 23, no. 2 (summer 1996).
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098800
Volume ID: VID00035
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 26536606
lccn - sf 94090290
issn - 1090-2635
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Preceded by: INA newsletter (Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.))


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Fall 2001 Volume 28 No. 3
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The INA Quarterly

Volume 28 No. 3 Fal 2001

3 On the Shores of the Maghreb-el-Asqa:
The 1999 Survey of Tangier Bay, Morocco MEMBERSHIP
Athena Trakadas and Stefan Claesson Institute of Nautical Archaeology
P.O. Drawer HG
16 The 2000 Reconnaissance Project in Butrint, Albania College Station, TX 77841-5137
Elizabeth Greene Learn firsthand of the latest discov-
eries in nautical archaeology. Mem-
22 Photomosaics in Underwater Archaeology bers receive the INA Quarterly and
Sarah Webster, Oscar Pizarro, and Hanumant Singh other benefits.

26 Archeologia delle acque: Researcher (students only).... $25
Semestrale di antropologia, archeologia etnografia, storia Seafarer ................... $75
dell'acqua, Anno II-N.4, Luglio-Dicembre 2000. Surveyor ................... $150
Restorer .................. $500
Reviewed y John M. McManamon, S.J. Curator ................. $1,000
Excavator................ $2,500
28 In Memoriam: Erkut Arcak Navigator ............. $5,000

30 Navigation and Trade in the Mediterranean: Checks in U.S. currency should bemade
(Seventh to Nineteenth Century CE) payable to INA. The portion of any do-
Svnation in excess of $10.00 is a tax-de-
George K. Livadas ductible, charitable contribution.

31 From the President

On the cover. Several of the cannon cast with the mark, "Trafalgar 1777," that have fallen into the sea from a land
fortification on the eastern shore of Tangier Bay, Morocco. In the background is the port of Tangier. Photo: A. Traka-

September 2001 by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. All rights reserved.
INA welcomes requests to reprint INA Quarterly articles and illustrations. Articles for publication should be submitted in hard copy and on a 3.25
diskette (Macintosh, DOS, or Windows format acceptable) along with all artwork Please address all requests and submissions to the Editor INA
Quarterly, P.O. Drawer HG, College Station, TX 77841-5137; tel (979) 845-6694, fax (979) 847-9260, e-mail powlrye@texasnet
The Home Page for INA is at
The Institute of Nautical Archaeology is a non-profit scientific and educational organization, incorporated in 1972. Since 1976, INA has
been affiliated with Texas A&M University, where INA faculty teach in the Nautical Archaeology Program of the Department of Anthro-
pology. The opinions expressed in Quarterly articles are those of the authors, and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Institute.

The INA Quarterly was formerly the INA Newsletter (vols. 1-18).

Editor: Christine A. Powell

On the Shores of the Maghreb-el-Asqa:

The 1999 Survey of Tangier Bay, Morocco

Athena Trakadas and Stefan Claesson (NOAA Nancy Foster Scholar)

The strong westerly current and alternating winds
that pass through the Straits of Gibraltar have threatened
ships since ancient times. Separating the African and Eu-
ropean continents by just thirteen kilometers, these nar-
row waters represented the western-most limit of the
Mediterranean world to the ancient Greeks. The Atlantic
Ocean was, as Pindar sang, "...the trackless sea beyond
the Pillars of Herakles, those witnesses to the furthest lim-
it of voyaging." Past the notorious gateway were the Ely-
sian Plain, the entrance to Hades, and the ends of the earth.
Many ships, however, eventually did combat the obvious
navigational dangers of the fifty-seven kilometer-long
Straits. The first accounts we possess of the passage are of
mariners from the eastern Mediterranean searching for
bounty from the western coasts of Africa and Iberia. Later,
during Post-Medieval times, European powers sought con-
trol of the Straits in order to dictate lucrative trading con-
cessions for their vessels in the Mediterranean and western
Semi-circular Tangier Bay, Morocco, offers the only
protected anchorage to ships at the western entrance and
along the southern coast of the Straits of Gibraltar. The bay's
strategic position on the northwestern tip of the African
continent has imparted a complicated but compelling his-
tory upon the port of Tangier. It was once called by Sam-

uel Pepys, "the most considerable place the King of En-
gland hath in the world," and this position has made the
surrounding waters an ideal venue for a maritime survey
(fig. 1). In the summer of 1999, INA undertook a three-
month-long underwater survey of Tangier Bay and neigh-
boring coasts (fig. 2). We had the cooperation and assistance
of the Kingdom of Morocco's archaeological department,
Institute National des Sciences d'Archdologie et du Patri-
moine (INSAP).
According to Greek myth, Tangier-ancient Tingi-
was a product of Herakles' eleventh labor of gathering gold-
en apples from Hera's tree in the Garden of the Hesperides
(thought to be near ancient Lixus). Upon his labor's comple-
tion, Herakles killed a Libyan king, Antaeus, and founded
the city in honor of Tingis, Antaeus' widow and Herakles'
new bride (cf. Pliny, NH V.3). Hanno the Carthaginian, who
made a colonizing voyage through the Straits to the west
coast of Africa in the late sixth century BCE, does not men-
tion the city. He claims instead to have founded Thymiateri-
on, identified by some scholars as Tingi. Mythology aside,
Tingi's less-fanciful foundation appears to have been the re-
sult of cooperation between foreign immigrants and the
indigenous population of the region.

Maps: A. Trakadas
Fig. 1 (left). Morocco, on the northwest coast of the African continent.

Fig. 2 (right). The INA survey area of northern Morocco, including the Straits of Gibraltar and the southern Iberian Peninsula.

INA Quarterly 28.3

From the eighth century BCE, the ancient autochth-
onous populations of northwest Africa, called variously
and collectively Libyians, Ethiopians, Mauro sioiand
b rbaro(from which are derived the terms Moors and Ber-
bers, respectively), were subjected to the constant presence
of foreigners. The first immigrants to the region were Phoe-
nician, who, in search of murex-shell sources for their famed
dye, established themselves along the Atlantic coast of Mo-
rocco just south of Cap Spartel, as well as further south, at
Lixus and Mogador. The varied grave goods of these first
settlers indicate that they were relatively wealthy and re-
mained in contact with the eastern Mediterranean, but were
more strongly associated with the Phoenician populations
who had settled in the southern Iberian Peninsula.
By the end of the fifth century BCE, the Phoenician
and indigenous populations of the Cap Spartel area had co-
alesced on the western bluff of Tangier Bay and settled on
the city's present site. Tingi's earliest mention is in Hecatae-
us of Miletus' now-fragmentary Periegesis (ca. 500 BCE), in-
dicating that the cityhad rapidly become a known port, even
to those in the eastern Mediterranean. Indeed, Tingi's posi-
tion adjacent to the coast's only protected bay certainly facil-
itated sea-borne trade. It allowed the city to become a major
component in a Phoenician-dominated commercial circuit
around the Straits of Gibraltar that included Gades (Cadiz),
Calpe (Gibraltar), Sexi (Almunecar), and Baria (Villaricos)
on the southern Iberian coast, as well as Lixus and Moga-
dor on the Moroccan Atlantic coast (fig. 3).
The scant presence of Punic ceramics indicates that over
the next few centuries, Tingi enjoyed relative autonomy from
Carthage. The Roman destruction of that former Tyrian col-
ony in 146 BCE did not seem to affect Tingi, and the local
production and circuit trade continued unmolested. How-
ever, as Rome began to assert itself more strongly in Iberia
and North Africa, it also sought to control the Straits of Gibral-
tar and its major southern port As a reward for having cho-
sen his side in the war against Antony, Octavian made Tingi
a Roman colony in 38 BCE. Roman influence-visible in
material goods, city planning, and government-readily
penetrated Tingi, and rapidly spread south into the hinter-
land. From the city of Volubilis in the foothills of the Atlas
Mountains, Romanized Berber puppet kings nominally ruled
for a time, but desire for full control of the region and its re-
sources soon led to complete Romanization. The last Berber king
Ptolemy, was killed at thebehest of Claudius, and the area north-
west of the Atlas Mountains was fully annexed by the Emperor
in 43 CE. As the major port of a hinterland with no navigable
rivers, Tingi became the capital of the western-most Roman Af-
rican province, Mauritania Tingitana. Later, Volubilis became the
seat of the Roman governor who ruled over a diverse popula-
tion of Berber tribes, and the descendants of Phoenician settlers
and Carthaginian refugees.
Over the next two centuries, Mauritania Tingitana
was a relatively productive, but by no means wealthy, Ro-

g 0o too 0 300km
SMogador Map: A. Trakadas
Fig. 3. Earlier Phoenician sites and the later Roman cities of
Mauritania Tingitana.

man province. It was even characterized by Pliny as some-
what of a backwater. The thirty Roman cities (described
accurately by Ptolemy, Geography 4.1) and village rusticae of
the province produced wine, grains, olive oil, figs, dates,
and carobs. The Atlas Mountains produced lead and cop-
per, and provided exotic animals for Rome's Forum. The
sea was also exploited, and centers that produced garum
(fermented fish paste) and salasmenta (salted fish) were
uniformly established along the Atlantic and Mediterra-
nean coasts. From Tingi, these goods were exported local-
ly and throughout the Empire.
However, the native Berber populations seemingly
were never comfortable under Roman rule, and began what
was to be an almost constant series of uprisings against for-
eign hegemony. By 250 CE, the Berber raids on Roman cit-
ies and farms throughout Mauritania Tingitana had so
hindered the provincial administration that Volubilis was
abandoned, and Roman citizens fled north to seek refuge in
Tingi. By the beginning of the fourth century, these raids
around Tingi, as well as throughout other North African
provinces, forced the Emperor Diocletian to institute drastic
military reforms. As Tingi was the remaining Roman city of
the province, the legion Comitatus Tingitanae was stationed
at several small centenaria (frontier forts) that were quickly
built along the limes (defendable ditches and barriers) that
now isolated the peninsula. Despite these measures, the pro-
tection of the remaining territory from the perpetual raids of
malcontented Berbers proved too costly and time-consum-
ing for the Empire. The military presence was gone by the
mid-fourth century, and the administration of the port was
conducted from southern Iberia, making Tingi a marginal
part of the province of Baetica.
Tingi was all but ignored by the emerging Byzan-
tine Empire in the east and the Vandalic forces that crossed

INA Quarterly 28.3

the Straits on their way to seize Carthage in 439 CE-Gei-
seric occupied Ad Septem Fratres (Ceuta) instead. Howev-
er, the Visigoths, who had by now settled in southern Iberia,
periodically raided both Tingi and Ad Septem Fratres.
Emperor Justinian's re-conquest in 533-34 of the former
Roman North African provinces led Belisarius' forces to
temporarily occupy Tingi and Ad Septem Fratres as bases
from which to attack the Visigoths across the Straits.
In 683 CE, less than a half-century after the Prophet
Muhammed fled to Medina, the first Muslim Arabs from
Egypt and Tunisia penetrated west of the Atlas Mountains.
They explored the area they called the Magreb-el-Asqa ("the
furthest west;" later corrupted to "Morocco"). By 698, the
ruling Islamic Umayyed Dynasty of Damascus had ap-
pointed Ibn Nusayr, a Tunisian Muslim, governor of what
is now northern Morocco. In the last year of his military
campaign of 705-709, Ibn Nusayr managed to occupy Tingi
and gave it the Arabic name of Tangier. In 711, ari army of
Arab Muslims and a few local Berber converts, under the
leadership of the newly appointed Tangierian governor
Tarik ibn Ziyad, sailed across the Straits to conquer the frag-
mented Visigothic forces still in Iberia. Landing at Calpe,
modern Gibraltar (a corruption of Jebel Tarik, later named
in Ibn Ziyad's honor), Muslim forces soon spread through
the peninsula, reaching the Pyrenees by 732.
The Church had never penetrated extensively west
of the Atlas Mountains under the Roman or Byzantine
Empires, and the fervent Christianity common in other
North African provinces had never greatly appealed to the
heterogeneous population of Mauritania Tingitana. The sud-
den emergence of Islam into the region in the late seventh
century likewise created neither enthusiasm nor opposi-
tion among the native population. Despite the rapid spread
of Islam in the Iberian Peninsula in the eighth century, the

Fig. 4. The cities that emerged under Berber self-rule and Arab
and Portuguese intervention in the Maghreb-el-Asqa.

Berber tribes were slow to convert to the religion, but it
eventually garnered favor throughout the Maghreb-el-Asqa.
Although conversion of the Berber populations to Islam
was important to the region's Arab governors, the newest
invaders immediately realized and focused upon exploit-
ing the potential wealth of the region. Southern Atlas Ber-
ber tribes, who traded with the indigenous groups of the
Sahara and Niger regions, began to funnel the lucrative
trade of slaves and gold north. By the 730s, the Arab gov-
ernors of Tangier regularly conducted profitable slave-
raids south of the Atlas Mountains.
Much as they had against the Romans, the Maghrebi
Berber tribes soon rebelled against the Arab invaders. The
Sufrite Kharijite tribe, during a series of rebellions that be-
gan in the north in 739-40, occupied Tangier, killed the Arab
governor, and installed their own government. Simulta-
neously, another Islamic Berber group, the Sunnite Idrissides,
established themselves at Volubilis, and from there controlled
the Atlas foothills. Beginning what was to be a continuous
tradition of Berber-led Islam in Morocco, the Idrisside Dy-
nasty had firm control of the Maghreb by 810. For the next
several centuries, no one native tribe was able to establish
a lasting hegemony over the region (fig. 4). Rather, many
different Berber dynasties established indigenous control
of the entire Maghreb from their capitals of Fes, Marrakesh,
and Meknes in the foothills of the Atlas Mountains.
The inter-dynastic instability of Berber rule, com-
bined with the promise of wealth from the trans-Saharan
trade, soon attracted other foreign interests to the Magh-
reb. Over the next six centuries, European powers endlessly
vied for political and economic control of the region. Al-
ready in the twelfth century, the ambitious Genoese had
visited Ceuta, and by 1162 had sailed as far as the Atlantic
coastal city of Sale. A Genoese contingent failed to capture
the port of Ceuta in the mid-thirteenth century, but through
their persistence, managed to gain certain key commercial
trading privileges in North Africa. Ugalino and Vadino
Vivaldi attempted a more permanent Genoese settlement
on the sandy western coast in 1253, but no lasting trade
concessions were established.
Genoese trade waned within the next century, and
continued only at a marginal level along the Atlantic coast
of the Maghreb in the early fourteenth century. Eventually,
more forceful European powers sought to exploit the region.
Before its firm interest in the New World and the Indies, Por-
tugal's expansionist policy was focused almost wholly upon
North Africa. A Portuguese fleet successfully captured Ceu-
ta in 1415, but in their attempt to occupy Tangier in 1437, lost
Crown Prince Fernando to the defending forces of the Ber-
ber Wattasid Dynasty. The Portuguese refused to surrender
Ceuta in return for the prince, and in 1447, Henry the Navi-
gator led another attempt for Tangier. Badly defeated, Por-
tugal was forced to cede Ceuta to the Wattasids in exchange
for Prince Fernando in 1448, eleven years after his capture.

INA Quarterly 28.3

From the mid-fifteenth to mid-sixteenth centuries,
Portugal invested a considerable amount of manpower and
finances to obtain forced trading concessions in Morocco.
Other foreign entities, as well as Portugal, were constantly
involved in engagements with the Berbers, who themselves
were embroiled in a civil war between the Wattasid and
Saadian tribes. The comprehensive struggle, referred to as
"the Hundred Years War for Morocco," saw the Berber
tribes, Portugal, Spain, and briefly even the Ottoman Em-
pire vie for control of the Maghreb. Portugal re-captured
Ceuta in 1450, only to have it stripped away by its emerg-
ing competitor, the Kingdoms of Castille and Aragon, soon
to become Spain. While Spain moved east and occupied
the Mediterranean city of Melilla (later to be challenged
by Ottoman forces), Portugal sought to take control of the
Straits of Gibraltar, and occupied Ksar-es-Seghir in 1458
(fig. 2). A fleet led by Afonso V in 1463 intended to land at
Tangier, but thwarted by the loss of numerous ships in the
Straits due to storms, changed course and re-conquered
Ceuta. In 1470, Afonso again attempted to take Tangier.
Storms forced his fleet away and down the Atlantic coast
where he attacked Arzila instead. The inhabitants of Tang-
ier finally abandoned the city to Portuguese forces in 1472.
Portugal rapidly established a series of coastal for-
tresses at Ceuta, Ksar-es-Seghir, Tangier, Asilah, Larache,
Azemmour, Mazagan, Safi, Mogador, and Agadir that al-
lowed its traders access to goods from the interior of the con-
tinent, The resulting trade in slaves, copper, wheat, barley,
cattle, horses, honey, wax, indigo, lacquer, textiles, ebony,
rhinoceros horns, and gold, initially created immense wealth
for Portugal. However, the strong Berber Saadian tribe, con-
trary to the Wattasid tribe, sought to expel all foreign inter-
ests from Morocco. Berber raids suddenly made the
maintenance and defense of the coastal forts too costly for

the Portuguese Crown, which desired to remedy the situa-
tion and thereby preserve its trading wealth.
The Hundred Years War for Morocco concluded in
1578, when King Sebastian of Portugal attacked the Saadian
Dynasty's forces. Against the wishes of his uncle, King Phil-
ip Il of Spain, and the advice of his primary Maghrebi ally,
the Wattasid ex-Sultan al-Mutawakkil of Morocco, Sebastian
landed at Larache with some eight hundred ships and sev-
enteen thousand troops. Marching inland fifty kilometers to
a desolate plain near Ksar-el-Kebir, the Portuguese forces
encountered the Saadian Sultan Abd-al-Malik and forty thou-
sand horsemen. Seven thousand Portuguese soldiers were
annihilated, and Sebastian, al-Mutawakkil, and Abd-al-Ma-
lik were killed in what became known as "the Battle of the
Three Kings." The expedition cost the Portuguese Crown
over half of its annual budget, and the subsequent ransom-
ing of troops drew every last cruzado from the families of
Portugal. Because of this crushing blow, Portugal abandoned
most of its Atlantic coastal fortresses, but managed not to
cede its last possession, Mazagan, until 1769. Essentially,
however, the Saadian Dynasty had succeeded in expelling
all major uninvited foreign interests from Morocco.
In 1661, the Portuguese, who still controlled the south
coast of the Straits of Gibraltar, gave Tangier to Charles II of
England as part of the dowry of Catherine of Braganza. Un-
like its predecessors, England was not interested in the goods
from the interior of the African continent. Rather, it sought
to protect India-bound ships and trade interests in the Med-
iterranean from the corsairs who plied the Barbary coasts.
England invested considerable energy and money into colo-
nizing Tangier, in order to "keep the place against all the
world, and give the law to all that trade in the Mediterra-
nean" (Sir John Lawson, Commander-in-Chief of the British
Navy 1659-64) (fig. 5). However, in 1684, the city was aban-

Fig. 5. Wenceslaus Hollar's drawing of Tangier's wide mole built by the British during their brief occupation of the port. Looking
north across the Straits, a portion of Tangier's fortified walls is visible in the left of the picture, as well as a detail of the mole's
composite structure. From E. M. G. Routh, 1912.

INA Quarterly 28.3

doned by the British due to constant and bloody Berber
attacks on its garrison and citizens alike. When the British
forces left, they razed the port's mole and city fortifica-
tions they had worked twenty years to build. As other
European powers still sought Tangier as a trade and mili-
tary port, the English did not want their competitors to
profit from their toil. Eventually, Britain succeeded in oc-
cupying Gibraltar in 1704, from which it managed and con-
tinues to manage its Mediterranean interests.
The next century was a period of relative internal
political stability for the region, but increased corsair pira-
cy along Morocco's shores drew heavy criticism from prac-
tically all of Europe as well as the United States. Through
collective international diplomatic action, Morocco was
forced to end its piratical practices in 1818 and abolish the
infamous Sale Rovers. However, piracy continued for de-
cades on a reduced scale. Despite a brief respite from for-
eign attacks, Tangier was still the object of desire for
competing powers. A French fleet unsuccessfully bombard-
ed Tangier in 1844, and in 1860, a Spanish legion marching
west from Ceuta was stopped from taking the city by a
British fleet that had filled Tangier Bay.
In an attempt to prevent further foreign attacks on
its shores, as well as to control internal strife, Morocco's
Sultan offered the country as a protectorate to the United
States in 1871, The U.S. refused. Finally, in 1912, France
and Spain agreed to joint administration: France's protec-
torate was along the Atlantic coast, and Spain occupied
the eastern section of the country, including the Tangerian
peninsula. Tangier, due to its strategic location, was made
an international free port, a position which rapidly brought
immense wealth to the city. This political situation contin-
ued until 1956, when the protectorates were nullified with
the emergence of the strong Cherifian dynasty, led by
Muhammed VI since July of 1999.

Research Objectives and Methods
Despite the history of Morocco's coasts, underwa-
ter exploration of the region has been minimal. In the ear-
ly 1960s, Jacques Cousteau discovered an almost complete
Roman wreck at a depth of three hundred meters while
surveying the Straits in a submarine for placement of an
underwater pan-Gibraltarian pipeline. More scholarly but
perfunctory underwater surveying around the Tangierian
Peninsula also began at this time, conducted by Michel
Ponsich, the former Inspecteur des Antiquites of Morocco.
Ponsich's few publications of both terrestrial and under-
water surveys and excavations, as well as historic docu-
ments and charts reviewed in the Tangier American
Legation Museum's library, provided valuable informa-
tion used in determining the focal areas of INA's survey.
The primary intent of the INA project was to identi-
fy ancient and historic shipwrecks and ship-related mate-
rial along Morocco's Tangerian peninsular coasts through

remote sensing, test excavations, and limited recovery of
artifacts. The project's priorities were to identify specific
geographical areas for their shipwreck potential and peri-
ods of historical significance. This required recording un-
derwater environments (including currents, winds, and
ocean bottom type), and determining the extent of preser-
vation of any underwater shipwreck remains. Although a
majority of the effort took place within the confines of Tang-
ier Bay, Morocco's Gibraltarian and northern Atlantic
coasts were also examined.
The survey's operations were based on RV Robo,
INA Director George Robb Jr.'s twenty-meter Hatteras
yacht. Outfitted for maritime archaeological surveying and
diving, Robo was docked at the Tangier Yacht Club's mari-
na in the Port of Tangier. In addition, a five-meter RIB-
Novurania, a rigid-hulled inflatable boat, was used to
conduct separate dive operations in Tangier Bay. INA Di-
rector George Robb, Jr., INA members Brett Phaneuf
(Project Director), Stefan Claesson (Project Archaeologist),
Athena Trakadas (Divemaster and archaeologist), as well
as the crew of Robo, all participated as divers on the sur-
vey. Complimenting the team were the survey's Moroc-
can members: Drs. Elarbi Erbati and Abdelatif Elboudjay
(INSAP), several Moroccan navy divers, and a local Tang-
ierian coral diver. Brett Phaneu and George Robb, Jr. op-
erated the remote-sensing equipment.
The general approach to the survey was two-fold:
remote sensing equipment (including a side-scan sonar,
magnetometer, and gradiometer) was first used to map the
ocean floor and identify potential shipwreck sites. Divers
then performed underwater surveys or small test excava-
tions in order to determine the significance of the anoma-
lies detected through remote sensing. Areas in which it
proved too difficult to operate remote-sensing equipment
were examined solely by visual surveys. Sites previously
identified by the surveys of Ponsich, and other potential
sites found by local apnea divers (breath-holding free
divers) were examined first, when possible. In order to
document and map more effectively the anomalies and
sites, the coastline was divided into distinct geographic
sections. Artifacts subsequently recovered were catalogued
by region, specific site identification, and assigned artifact
number (e.g., LEO-021-01). An unused portion of the Tang-
ier Kasbah Museum (which occupies the site of the city's
Roman baths) served as a laboratory space for the project.
Artifacts recovered on dives were catalogued, conserved,
documented and stored here, and continue to be main-
tained by the museum staff.
Throughout the survey, several types of remote sens-
ing equipment were used. Initially, a MarineSonics side-
scan sonar was used to provide an image of the ocean
bottom, while a Geometrics prototype port/starboard tan-
dem gradiometer was towed with the sonar in order to
detect magnetic anomalies. This towing arrangement was

INA Quarterly 28.3

very effective in providing real-time images of the ocean floor on a
computer screen while at the same time displaying magnetic vari-
ations detected by the gradiometer on an adjacent screen. The vi-
sual image, combined with the magnetic signature of an anomaly,
aided in the immediate determination of potential underwater sites
and dive locations.
The effectiveness of this system was offset by the cumber-
some simultaneous deployment of three tow fish and cables. This
difficulty, and initial operational problems with the gradiometer's
computer software application, led us to abandon the system for a
MarineSonics "MagScan" side-scan sonar and magnetometer cou-
pled into a single tow fish. This system was wholly sufficient for
our survey, and produced essentially the same results as the sepa-
rate gradiometer and sonar, but was slightly less sensitive and ac-
curate in the mapping of magnetic anomalies.
After initial remote sensing data was collected, subsequent
diving surveys were conducted in pairs, and all dives were done
on Nitrox-an oxygen-enriched breathing mixture allowing long-
er dives. When examining an identified "hit," marked by D-GPS
(differential Global Positioning System), marine metal detectors
were used. These were particularly useful when the anomaly in
question was buried under the sea floor (fig. 6). Contact with Robo
was maintained by diver-to-boat remote intercom, which in light
of the strong prevailing currents and tidal surges typical of the C
region, assisted in maintaining the safety of the survey's dives.

Photo: M. Claesson

Straits of Gibraltar Fig. 6. Athena Trakadas, left, and RV Robo crew mem-
traits of Gibraltarber Craig Jones, right, prepare to dive with marine metal
detectors on a remote sensing "hit" in Tangier Bay, while
lie Perekhil Ras Leona captain Cristian Swanson looks on.
Ras Cires .Survey Regions
Ras Leona and hie Perekhil: The easternmost survey region was
Dahlia designated as Ras Leona and fle Perekhil in the Straits of Gibral-
Ceuta tar (fig. 7). Ras Leona is a promontory that forms the seaward
(Spain) extension of Jebel Musa, the highest peak on Morocco's north-
em coast and sometimes identified as the southern column of
the Pillars of Herakles (the other candidate being Monte Hacho
Ksar-es-Seghir at Ceuta). In the shadow of Jebel Musa and 15 kilometers due
N west of Ras Leona, is te Perekhil, the sole island in the Straits.
The island is difficult to see upon approach, as its own sheer cliff
face blends in with the topography of the surrounding main-
land. A narrow but shallow channel on the leeward side of the
island is an ideal spot for ships to anchor and wait for favorable
w--w winds in the Straits. It is one of the few spots along the coast
where a vessel can remain hidden from sight. These neighbor-
0 10 km ing sites are isolated, and the area's remote location seems to
have deterred any coastal development or major disturbance of
the underwater sites investigated.
A dive reconnaissance was first conducted at Ras Leo-
Fig. 7. The survey regions of Ras Leona, le Perekhil, and Ras na's point. This revealed the most interestingunderwater envi-
Cires (Dahlia) in the Straits of Gibraltar. ronment of the survey project. Unusual rock pillars and

INA Quarterly 28.3

Photo: A. Trakadas Photo: S. Claesson
Fig. 8 (left). One of the cannons from the late-eighteenth or early-nineteenth
century British shipwreck at Ras Leona.
Fig. 9 (right). Set of nested weights (top) andfirearm side-plate (bottom)from the British shipwreck at Ras Leona.
large boulders at this promontory, as well as good visibility World War 11 British naval vessel reportedly had wrecked in
and active marine life, made for an interesting survey of the the narrow channel that separates lie Perekhil from Ras Leo-
site of a shipwreck identified as a late eighteenth or early nine- na. However, as the wreck site is purported to be at sixty
teenth-century British ship-o-the-line. Scattered amongst rocks meters depth, and therefore beyond the dive limits of our
on a very steep cliff face and extending beyond thirty meters survey, its exact location was not confirmed.
depth, were approximately twenty-five to thirty large cannon, At the western tip of ie Perekhil, between the island and
3.15 meters long with bore diameters of fifteen centimeters (fig. a small rock pinnacle that is exposed at low tide, a Roman
8). The recovery of a set of nested weights and a serpentine- shipwreck was discovered in the 1960s. Our first reconnais-
shaped firearm side-plate marked with aBritish "Broad Arrow" sance dives immediately located many pottery fragments
verified the nationality of the shipwreck (fig. 9). However, due scattered to a depth of thirteen meters. Numerous coarseware
to the underwater topography and depth of the site, no hull body sherds and a few small, worn rim fragments were
remains were located during our investigation. Archival research found, but none very large or nearly diagnostic to lend them-
indicates that this most likely is the shipwreck of the HMS Cour- selves to certain identification. Several two-handled jars with
ageux, which sank in 1796. The 74-gun vessel broke its moorings a cylindrical body, long rod-like handles, and a short spike-
at Gibraltar, drifted south across the Straits, and eventually similar to Dressel 1A amphoras, but possibly of local manu-
foundered at Ras Leona. facture-were previously recovered here in the 1960s.
le Perekhil was the site of a British observation out- Although these suggest a terminus post quem of the mid-sec-
post during the World Wars. No terrestrial survey was con- ond century BCE for the wreck, no similar types were found
ducted. However, a deteriorated cement dock on the island during our survey. The underwater accumulation of rocks
and numerous late nineteenth and early twentieth-century and boulders at the base of the island's western cliff face indi-
stoneware beer bottles (stamped "Gibraltar") found scattered cated that some artifacts might have been gradually covered by
in the surrounding waters testify to its recent occupation. A rockslides.

Fig. 10. The two complete lead bars with quartz inclusions found off lte Perekhil: the larger piece viewed from above (left); the
smaller, wider piece in profile (right). Photo: S. Claesson

INA Quarterly 28.3

Despite the lack of diagnostic ceramics, two com-
plete and one partial small lead bars with numerous quartz
inclusions were recovered (fig. 10). The two complete pieces
differ in size and shape, although they are generally rect-
angular in profile and slightly curved throughout their
length. They are similar in shape to Type II anchor stock
cores, but their non-trapezoidal sections and lack of dis-
tinguishing features suggest that they do not belong to an
anchor. However, their shape and quartz inclusions also
make identification as lead ingots tenuous.

Ras Cires (Dahlia): Five kilometers to the southwest of lie
Perekhil, the fishing village of Dahlia encircles a small bay
adjacent to the rocky promontory of Ras Cires (fig. 7). The
shallow bay, although exposed to the prevailing westerly
current and the occasional westerly winds of the Straits,
might have been attractive to ships in search of a slightly
protected anchorage along the formidable coast. During
our initial attempts to anchor here, we noticed submerged
rocks just off the point of Ras Cires, and postulated that
these might have caused problems for unsuspecting ships.
Midway through the survey season, subsiding cur-
rents and a slack tide allowed us to conduct dives from Robo
around the submerged rocks off the Ras Cires promontory.
During the initial dives, a few scattered, very coarse ampho-
ra rim fragments, as well as some glazed and incised late
Islamic pottery sherds (ca. sixteenth century) were collected.
Many iron fasteners (approximately twenty centimeters in
length) were also found, as well as fragments of copper-al-
loy sheeting, which may have belonged to an early nine-
teenth-century ship that had foundered on the rocks. Further
dives, however, revealed no more material, but the surround-
ing sandy sea floor was not investigated thoroughly.

Inoto: A
Fig. 12. View of the port of Tangier looking east to Point Malabal

Fig. 11. The survey regions of Point Malabata, Tangier Bay,
and the Marshan.

Point Malabata and Environs: When remote sensing was a
priority with Robo, diving reconnaissance in and around
Tangier Bay was conducted from the five-meter RIB-No-
vurania, with assistance from the Tangier Gendarme's boat.
With the more maneuverable and lighter craft, we took
the opportunity to survey areas in which it was difficult
for Robo to operate; therefore, we focused upon the transi-
tional waters at the east entrance of Tangier Bay to Point
Malabata in the Straits (fig. 11). When we surveyed the
area, we decided that although the several hundred-meters-
long, sloping rock shelves are oriented north-south under-
water, the strong westerly current of the Straits dictated
drift dives east along the coast. Our survey
team felt that these topographical and hydro-
graphical factors, in addition to the site's prox-
imity to Tangier Bay, might have caused some
vessels to founder here; however, after sever-
':: =- al days of investigation, we failed to locate any
shipwreck material.

Tangier Bay: Survey work in Tangier Bay it-
self, although appealing, proved difficult
because of natural and human produced en-
vironmentally restrictive factors. As Tangi-
er is the main working port of northern
Morocco, marine traffic is heavy, including
large car ferries that sail hourly between Spain
and Tangier, Moroccan Navy vessels, and nu-
merous fishing and large cargo ships (fig. 12).
Small-scale fishing activity within the confines
. Trakadas of the bay also hampered the survey, and on
a from the one occasion, a poorly marked fishing net was
caught in Robo's propellers.

INA Quarterly 28.3

Fig. 13. Sonar image of the "Cement Wreck" at the entrance to
Tangier's port.

Fig. 14. Plan of the "Millstone Wreck" in Tangier Bay.

The seafloor of a large portion of Tangier Bay is
sandy, particularly near the southern shore and areas that
are cose to watershed outlets. Most of the rivers that flow
into the bay are impeded by waterfront development and
are now nothing more than small, perennial streams. Nev-
ertheless, sediment transport and deposition within the bay
are still dramatic due to the Atlantic current entering the
western Straits. At the east and west sides of the bay, the
seafloor transforms from sand to large sporadic rock out-
crops covered with kelp. In addition, numerous cables and
pipelines cross the bottom of the bay. These factors greatly
inhibited the correct interpretation of the remote sensing
Just at the entrance to the port, we initially tested
our remote-sensing equipment on the wreck of a modem
cargo ship that had been overloaded with its freight of ce-
ment (fig. 13). This wreck, along with that of a German U-
boat, and another modern cargo ship that ran aground near
Cap Spartel, reminded our survey crew of the difficulties

still experienced by modern vessels in and around the
One of the first sites examined by the survey team
was a known historic shipwreck in the southeastern shal-
lows of Tangier Bay, almost directly in front of a late-fif-
teenth-century Portuguese fort (fig. 11). Local Moroccan
apnea divers helped locate this shipwreck site, of which
four millstones and three cannon were visible (fig. 14). This
very shallow site (five meters maximum depth), called the
"Millstone Wreck," was contaminated with a great deal of
modem debris, and the strong tidal surge continually
stirred up the sandy bottom during the documentation
dives. Many iron concretions were discovered during the
brief investigation, but only a few glazed red-ware sherds
and small ballast stones were recovered from the wreck
site. Since neither hull fragments nor diagnostic artifacts
were found that could help identify the vessel's nationali-
ty or period of use, the light armament can only suggest a
tentative date of the first half of the nineteenth century for

[NA Quarterly 28.3

Fig. 15. The fourteenth-century glazed Islamic bowl found in
the eastern shallows of Tangier Bay.

Fig. 16. The stone anchor recovered in front of the mole of Tangier.

their manufacture. Apparently, we were fortunate to catch
a glimpse of this site, as the constantly shifting sands of
the bay usually keep it covered.
One kilometer to the northeast of the "Millstone
Wreck" site, local apnea divers claimed the existence of an-
other shipwreck. The prospective area was just off-shore from
the site of a late Roman (ca. third century CE) centenarius called
Gandori Two scattered wrecks, identified as a second-century
BCE Graeco-Italic wreck and a first-century CE Roman Baet-
ican wreck, were reported in the general area by Ponsich in
1964. Although sonar runs and several diving surveys locat-
ed no artifacts in the immediate area, further offshore, in fif-
teen meters of water, remote sensing data indicated an
anomaly approximately fifteen meters long and four meters
wide. After divers measured a baseline through the long axis
of the anomaly, small test trenches were dug at two-meter
intervals in the sandy bottom. In the middle trenches, a large
scatter of burnt animal bones, mainly goat, was found im-
mediately below the surface. Amongst these fragments, a
nearly complete, fourteenth-century Islamic bowl with
white-slip exterior was found (fig. 15). Further test trench-
es revealed no more artifacts but a large metal pipe, which

most likely had caused the remote sensing equipment to
register the large anomaly.
The eastern shore of Tangier Bay, often labeled as
"Old Tangier" on historic maps, was surveyed first by foot.
Here, a small Portuguese tower called Fort Burj is located
just north of the Roman centenarius site of Gandori, and fur-
ther north along the shore, directly facing Tangier, is anoth-
er small installation that has now subsided into the sea. The
site consisted of a low brick wall and at least five cannon,
three of which bear the casting mark, "Trafalgar 1777" (see
cover). A lone cannon was found half a kilometer further
north in a few meters of water, but no other ship-related
material was present in this area.

The Marshan: The survey also investigated the western ap-
proach to Tangier Bay (fig. 11). This area included, from
east to west, the seaward face of the port's modern mole,
the area directly in front of the kasbah on the Marshan pla-
teau, and the region known as Jew's River (where several
bloody battles between the English and Berbers were
fought in 1662 and 1682). Since the port, as well as a series
of artificial moles, has been in the same location since his-

INA Quarterly 28.3

toric and possibly ancient times, expectations
of locating ship-related material were high.
During a drift dive in front of the mole, a large
(approximately thirty-five kilogram) single-
holed stone anchor was located at a depth of
seventeen meters and recorded in situ. Two
more similar, single-holed stone anchors were
subsequently located in the same area and re-
corded. One was recovered and is now at the
Kasbah Museum (fig. 16). Although a few
small, irregularly-shaped, single-hole stone
anchors have been found in the waters around
Ceuta, these larger, regular types correspond
more closely to several examples found off the
southern and eastern Iberian coasts.
In the same vicinity as the stone an-
chors, a dive to investigate a remote-sensing
anomaly located a medium-sized lead anchor
stock (fig. 17). This stock was recovered and
transported to the Kasbah Museum for con-
servation and documentation. Simple in design
crossbar in the shaft hole, the lead piece is a fin
of a Type iIC anchor stock. The medium size s
meters long) is of a type that was widely used in
em Mediterranean in antiquity. Similar finds a
uted off the shores of Italy, Tunisia, France,
Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts of Spain, PC
well as near Ceuta. However, since the stock lad
tion or decoration and is an isolated find, only a t

Fig. 18. The Atlantic coast survey region.


I I~r.
- .~~--.

Fig. 17. The Type IIIC lead anchor stock found in front of the mole of Tangier.

,n, with a from the mid-second century BCE to first century CE can
e example be assigned to the artifact.
stock (1.15
the west- Cap Spartel and the Atlantic Coast: Cap Spartel, called Ampe-
re distrib- hasium (Cape of the Vines) by the Romans, and identified
both the as Soloeis in Hanno the Carthaginian's Periplus, is the prom-
)rtugal, as ontory that separates the Atlantic Ocean from the Straits of
ks inscrip- Gibraltar (fig. 18). The large rock plateau that forms this north-
)road date western-most promontory of Africa, called Jebel Kebir, ex-
tends for several kilometers along the Atlantic coast south of
Cap Spartel. Ras Achakar, the site of the earliest Phoenician
tomb excavated in Morocco (dated to the late eighth century
ibraltar BCE), marks the southern extent of Jebel Kebir. It is along
the southern face of this plateau that the first Phoenician col-
onists settled in Morocco. From Ras Achakar, a sandy beach
extends south to another rock bluff above the sea, the so-
called "Caves of Herakles." The natural caves in this bluff
Were first occupied during the Paleolithic era, and were in
use almost continually. Most recently, they were a quarry
for millstones during the last century.
Adjacent to the bluff of caves, but separated by a
small perennial stream, is the archaeological site of Cotta.
This was originally a murex-dye installation built on the
beach by the local Phoenician population during the fourth
century BCE. Cotta was modified at the beginning of the
second century CE into a standardized Roman garum and
S km salasmenta production center, complete with its own tem-
ple and residential quarters. After the Romans refurbished
it, Cotta was comparable in size and production to Lixus,
further to the south on the Atlantic coast.
It was quickly apparent from the numerous ship tim-
bers scattered along the wide beach of Sidi Kacem, south
of Cotta, that there is a very high probability of shipwrecks
buried beneath the sands of Morocco's Atlantic shoreline.

INA Quarterly 28.3

Photo; A. Trakadas

A twentieth-century fishing vessel and a second wooden
mid-nineteenth century vessel, approximately twenty
meters in length, with internal iron banding and heavy
framing, were located during a low tide survey of the beach.
Several other modem wrecks have been reported
along this historic coastline by tunny-fish boats that ply
the waters. Accordingly the first dives of the survey were
conducted here. Just south of Cotta, offshore of the beach
of Sidi Kacem, a steel-hulled vessel with a cargo of World
War II-era jeep axles provided our first glimpse of a ship-
wreck in/Moroccan waters. Interestingly, fragments of an
older,(vooden ship were discovered beneath the modern
hulk, determining the date and nationality of the older site,
however, was obviously hindered by the deposition of the
more modem wreck.
Dives were also conducted in the waters adjacent to
the Caves of Herakles and Cotta. Unfortunately, investi-
gation offshore of these two rich terrestrial archaeological
sites revealed nothing more than large quantities of mod-
em fishhooks and line sinkers. The active sediment trans-
port might contribute to artifacts being easily buried under
the sandy seafloor; however, as the area is popular with
beach-goers and local fishermen, smaller artifacts can be
easily removed.
During the last week of our survey, we decided to
investigate a shipwreck just at the point of Cap Spartel on
the Atlantic coast, reported by Ponsich to contain forty lead
ingots, dated to ca. 100 BCE-50 CE. The waters here, how-
ever, proved too treacherous for us to investigate, so we
instead anchored between Cap Spartel and Ras Achakar,
in the hopes that the submerged rock outcrops might re-
veal some shipwreck related material. At the base of the
promontory Ras Achakar, a scatter of "Roman period"
amphoras exposed at low tide were reported by Ponsich

in 1964. During our survey, no trace of ceramics was found
around the rocks, above or below water.
However, earlier remote-sensing information
from the area indicated metallic anomalies clustered
several hundred meters offshore. Here, a large rock
outcrop, approximately five hundred square meters,
protrudes above an otherwise sandy sea bottom. Five
Type RIIC lead anchor stocks (similar to the one recov-
ered in front of the Tangier mole), two sets of Type IIA
lead cores for wooden anchor stocks, and one isolated
lead anchor collar were discovered. These were concen-
trated along the north side of the outcrop at twenty-
five meters depth, and amongst many modem anchors.
One set of the Type IIA lead anchor cores and the lead
collar were recovered and documented, and are now in
the Kasbah Museum (figs. 19 and 20).
The Type IIA lead cores are the earliest pieces,
now known from the Tekta Buru excavation to have
been in use in the eastern Mediterranean as early as the
third quarter of the fifth century BCE (see INA Quarter-
ly 26.4, 9). The Type IIIC anchor stocks, like the one pre-
viously recovered by the survey, suggests a terminus ante
quem of the end of the first century CE. These ancient
anchor parts indicate that the rock outcrop was possi-
bly an anchorage for ships associated with the site of
Cotta, or even with settlements in the vicinity of Ras
Achakar. The strong northerly current here-our three-
minute dive safety stops on the anchor line were con-
ducted in a horizontal position- combined with
prevailing northerly winds, also suggests an anchor-
age for ships waiting to enter into the Straits of Gibral-
tar. The distribution of historical and modem anchors
in the area confirms that these transitional waters still
affect many ships.

Fig. 19. One of the lead cores from a Type IIA anchor stock pair
recovered near Ras Achakar.

Fig. 20. The lead anchor collarfound near Ras Achakar, recovered
from the site that came to be known as the "Roman anchor frm" by
our crew.
Photos: A. Trakadas

[NA Quarterly 28.3

__ __

Even though preliminary in nature, the 1999 INA
survey of Tangier Bay and the Tangerian peninsular coasts
of Morocco did not disappoint in revealing the magnitude
of the region's varied maritime history. The artifacts re-
covered or surveyed by the project reflect that these wa-
ters had considerable significance in the Roman, Islamic,
Portuguese, and British maritime quests for control of the
region's trade. They also testify to the region's significance
as a major passageway between the Mediterranean Sea and
Atlantic Ocean.
By conducting many kilometers of remote sensing
runs in and around Tangier Bay, and by diving on a ma-
jority of sonar and magnetometer "hits," we were able to
establish a general and relatively clear picture of local mar-
itime history. The survey allowed us to determine which

areas have had continuous or isolated significance during
ancient and historical times. The promising survey areas
warrant more rigorous investigation in the future. We can
defer working in areas relatively devoid of shipwrecks and
ship-related materials.
Since Ponsich's pioneering but only cursory under-
water investigations some thirty years ago, the INA sur-
vey in 1999 was the first systematic underwater
investigation in Moroccan waters that also included remote
sensing. The enthusiasm shown by the Moroccan archae-
ological authorities of INSAP, despite their current lack of
resources, promises future cooperation and survey possi-
bilities, not only in the Tangier region but elsewhere. The
maritime archaeological potential that awaits the country
is prodigious.

Acknowledgments: The 1999 INA survey would .not have been possible without the cooperation and support of our
hosts, the Kingdom of Morocco and INSAP. Our deepest gratitude is expressed to them and their archaeological repre-
sentatives, Drs. Elarbi Erbati and Abdelatif Elboudjay. The Tangier Gendarmerie and the always-cooperative Moroc-
can divers who participated in the project-Benzekri, Rashid, Ahmed, and Ahmed Meshbahi-all made working in
Tangier with its idiosyncrasies much easier. Additionally, the crew of Robo-Cristian Swanson, Craig Jones, and Kevin
Milligan-admirably navigated the Moroccan waters, worked the remote sensing equipment, and dived at a moment's
notice. Many people assisted in the terrestrial logistics of the project. Dr. Muhammed Habibi, director of the Tangier
Kasbah Museum, generously furnished an exotic location for a conservation lab and a final home for all the recovered
artifacts. The staff of Hotel Chellah cheerfully tolerated the crew's extended residence for over three months. Thor and
Elizabeth Kuniholm, directors-in-residence of the Tangier American Legation Museum, repeatedly provided us with
not only a breath-taking, kasbah roof-top view of the Straits, but also inestimable and lucid advice about working in
Morocco. They also allowed access to the Legation Library's materials that proved invaluable in making this survey
work. Patrick Lize's archival research for the RPM Nautical Foundation regarding HMS Courageux was also very help-
ful. Most especially, however, we would like to extend thanks to INA Project Director Brett Phaneuf, who conceived the
project, and then worked several years in establishing the contacts instrumental to its success, and to INA Director
George Robb, Jr., who not only lent financial support, the boat, and diving equipment, but also was above all complete-
ly dedicated to the project. M'saha! s

Suggested Reading

Abun-Nasr, J.M.
1990 A History of the Maghrib in the Islamic Period. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Chatelain, L.
1944 Le Maroc des Romains. Paris: E. de Boccard.

Cook, Jr., W.F.
1994 'The Hundred Years War for Morocco: Gunpowder and Military." Revolution in the Early Modern Muslim World.
Boulder: Westview Press.

Ponsich, M.
1970 Recherches archeologiques a Tanger et dans sa region. Paris: Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique

Routh, E.M.G.
1912 Tangier: England's Lost Atlantic Outpost 1661-1684. London: J. Murray.

INA Quarterly 283

The 2000 Reconnaissance Project in Butrint, Albania

Elizabeth Greene
INA Research Associate

Illyrian woodlands, echoing falls
Of water, sheets of summer glass
The long divine Peneian pass,
The vast Akrokeraunian walls...
Tennyson, To E.L.,
On his travels in Greece

Fig. 1. Edward Lear watercolor of Butrint dated
March 7, 1857 (courtesy of the Butrint Foundation).

Following in the footsteps of E.L.-Edward Lear,
who painted the scenic region around Butrint in 1857-
the Institute of Nautical Archaeology (INA) recently con-
ducted a brief reconnaissance of the area (fig. 1). The project
was included in the protocol for the Anglo-Albanian exca-
vations of the Late Antique and Byzantine phases at Butrint.
It had three primary goals: to support the Byzantine Butrint
project by investigating underwater areas of archaeological
interest to the team, to investigate reported shipwreck sites
and artifact scatters in the coastal region from Dema Wall to
Cuka e Aitoit, and to determine the logistics for future un-
derwater survey efforts in this area (fig. 2).
INA had long planned to work in Albania, and had
scheduled an initial survey in 1996. Political troubles in
the region prevented this, as well as the possibility of INA's
return to Albania until June 2000. The current stability of
the country bodes well for future research. Our only trou-

ble came from fishermen using dynamite, who occasion-
ally confused the bubbles from our scuba equipment with
those of the fish they sought. A surface snorkeler solved
this problem easily. All other arrangements-from the ac-
quisition of permits to the identification of survey locales-
were organized with the assistance of Auron Tare, the
current director of the Butrint National Park.
The Historical Significance of Butrint
Designated by UNESCO in 1997 as a World Heri-
tage Site in Danger, Butrint served as a critical Ionian port
throughout antiquity (fig. 3). According to legend, the Tro-
jan Helenus, son of King Priam, founded the city in the
twelfth century BCE when he sailed westward after the
fall of Troy. Land excavations reveal pottery dating to the
eighth century BCE, when the local Chaonian tribes con-
trolled the port.

INA Quarterly 28.3

By the seventh or sixth century, Corcyra modernr
Corfu) ruled Butrint, which provided access for the island-
ers to a trading port on the mainland. During the fourth cen-
tury, the port town was developed into a larger urban center,
with an expanded harbor, fortified acropolis, sanctuary, the-
ater, and agora. A few centuries later, the llyrian conquest
of Corfu and the coastal region around Butrint effectively
blocked Roman access to the Straits of Corfu. The impact of
this conquest on Roman trade with the East led to an imme-
diate reaction; in 229 BCE the Romans took Butrint and
Corfu, freeing the seas from llyrian piracy.
In Roman times, the coast of modem-day Albania
served as the site of various battles between Julius Caesar
and Pompey d during the civil wars. Caesar himself describes
being shipwrecked in a storm while sailing along the Acro-
ceraunian Mountains on the coast north of Butrint. After the
civil wars, the city was developed as a colony for the veteran
soldiers of Caesar. Butrint was expanded with an aqueduct,
baths, and enlarged harbor. Due to its position as a vital way
station for journeys and trade by land and sea, it contin-
ued to prosper under Roman and Byzantine rule.
Archaeological evidence suggests a gradual aban-
donment of the city during the sixth and seventh centuries
CE, but by the ninth century, literary sources show Butrint
under Byzantine control. In 1084, the Normans led by Rob-
ert Guiscard tried to seize Butrint, but were defeated in a
large-scale naval battle in the bay. Over the next few centu-
ries, control over Butrint, Corfu, and the straits that separate
the mainland from the island switched hands frequently. The
most notable struggles were those between the Venetians
and Ottoman Turks in the fifteenth through eighteenth cen-
turies, which culminated in the rise of Ali Pasha of Tepelene.

Fig. 3. Aerial view ofthe land site of Butrint (photo courtesy of the B

Fig. 2. Southern Albania from the Dema Wall to Cuka e Aitoit,
the parameters of the 2000 reconnaissance project (after Ceka 1999).

Al Pasha's castle at the mouth of the Butrint channel stands
as a marker of the final stage in Butrint's active history.
The nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
brought a series of British hunters, travelers, and artists,
including Edward Lear, as well as the beginning of archae-
ological research in the region by Albanian and
Italian teams. Currently, an Anglo-Albanian team
directed by Dr. Kosta Lako and Prof. Richard
Hodges is carrying out excavations on the Late An-
tique and Byzantine phases of Butrint. At the same
time, the site of Butrint and its environs are being
developed and preserved as a National Park un-
der the management of Auron Tare.
Concerned with the preservation of the cul-
tural heritage of Butrint on land and sea, Tare in-
vited INA to return to Albania in the summer of
2000. To this end, a small team of INA archaeolo-
gists visited Butrint and Saranda with plans to in-
vestigate the evidence for seafaring activity in
Butrint and its surrounding coastal areas. Our aim
was to obtain a preliminary sense of the region
and to determine the logistics for future research.

Butrint and the Southern Coast
In late May, project Divemaster Dick Rinkes
utrint and I flew into Tirana where we were met by Dr.
Iris Pojani, a representative of the Albanian Ministry

INA Quarterly 28.3

Photo: E. Williams
Fig. 4 (above). Saranda in modem Albania served as the base for an
investigation of ancient Albania.

Fig. 5 (right). Auron Tare, Dick Rinkes, and Eli Williams prepare to inv
one of the areas along the coast south ofButrint identified by local fisher

of Culture and the director of the Packard Archaeological
Center. Modeled after the British and American institutes in
Greece and Rome, the Packard Center was designed to sup-
port interaction between Albanian and foreign archaeologists.
The Center also houses a newly established rescue archaeology
unit that works with the Albanian Institute of Archaeology to
protect and record the nation's cultural heritage in the face of
new building projects. In addition to visiting the Packard Cen-
ter, we needed to collect the dive gear, tanks, and compressor
that were stored in Tirana when I left the country in 1996. De-
spite the political disturbances in the intervening years, our gear
survived safely in the International Qendra Stefan, run by
Chris Dakas. After two days of preparation, we headed south.
In Saranda (fig. 4), Dr. Pojani introduced us to Au-
ron Tare, whose villa-formerly owned by Enver Hoxha,
Albania's post-war Communist leader--served as our base
for the project. The day after our remaining team mem-
bers (Danish archaeologist Bjorn Lov4n and Princeton
University student Elisha Williams) arrived, we drove
twenty kilometers south to Butrint. Here, Sally Martin, the
project manager for the Anglo-Albanian excavations,
showed us around the archaeological site and explained
the areas where the land team hoped to benefit from un-
derwater survey. After coordinating our plans with Dr.
Kosta Lako, our representative from the Albanian Insti-
tute of Archaeology, we were prepared to begin.
At the site of Butrint, the team investigated the Vi-
vari channel in search of foundations for a bridge or aque-
duct structure, remains of which have been excavated on
land. Although we found evidence of artificial structures-
probably the piers of the bridge-the poor visibility in the

Photo: E. Greene
water (less than a half meter) combined with a strong cur-
rent to make further identification of these structures impos-
sible at the time. Fishermen report that the channel becomes
much clearer during the months of July and August, when
structures can be seen from the surface of the water.
Visibility was somewhat better in the water of Lake
Butrint around the site of Diaporit, where the Anglo-Al-
banian team is currently excavating a Roman villa and bath-
house, as well as a later basilica. We searched for remains
of building or quay structures in the water around the site.
With a snorkeling survey in the shallow water, we found
occasional worked stones that confirm the rising levels in
Lake Butrint since Roman times. Future survey work in
the channel, lake, and bay of Butrint will be difficult with-
out the use of sonar, as the poor visibility does not allow
for the clear identification of structures or artifacts by
divers. Strabo's description of Butrint as a city on the mouth
of the Pelodes Limen, or "Muddy Harbor," is as valid today
as it was in antiquity.
During our investigation of reported shipwreck sites
and artifact scatters, the team focused on the coastal re-
gion south of Butrint and Ksamili Bay. The locations in-
vestigated were brought to our attention by Tare, who
learned of the areas through personal exploration and dis-
cussions with local fishermen (fig. 5). South of Butrint, we
accompanied fishermen to regions where they reported
finds of ceramic artifacts. The team found scattered frag-
ments of Greek, Roman, and Byzantine pottery on virtual-
ly every dive we conducted (fig. 6). Additionally, the
remnants of a modem shipwreck were discovered in
the region in association with Late Roman or Byzantine

INA Quarterly 28.3

~~%a;i~~:-~:3 L~_-= I.~? ge ,~~-~lr I ~~ :~J-.
.'P ill~-" '
,r r

~~c "' '"~
: ""-:
*"I~" '':~
: ...*a
., i-.i .;-~--
'i' i-~'. ~ -` .-"-; :' i ::~iz. .i~r ~

Fig. 6 (left). Bjorn Lovin collects samples from a large scatter ofampho-
rafragments pointed out by fishermen.

rnoro: U. KlnKes
pottery and a shallow copper bowl (figs. 7). Along with
the metal remains, we found blocks of TNT that offer a
possible cause for the vessel's destruction. The earlier pot-
tery suggests the presence of a second wreck in the same
On one of our expeditions with the local fishermen,
we were told of a large group of amphoras that looked "as
if they were tied together with string." We investigated
the area where the fisherman said he had seen this pot-
tery, but have not yet discovered it. Amphoras arranged
in a row seem to suggest the cargo of a shipwreck, but

Fig. 8. A view of Ksamili Bay.

S(above). Dick Rinkes investigates the metal remains of a modern

could be little more than ceramic vessels used by fisher-
man as octopus traps. Only future survey in the region
can reveal the answer to this question. Further investiga-
tion is certainly warranted by the fact that we discovered
ceramics or hull remains on every dive we conducted.
This detail is even more striking in light of the reality
that we made only three day-trips to the coastal region south
of Butrint At times I felt like Edward Lear, who described some
of the trials of his travels. On January 6, 1857, "No boat was
there, & it turned out that none had come so Frank could not get
to the party at the head of the lake, & we walked back in the rain.
I bought a lamb for the sailors, from some shepherds
for 20d." Although we drank coffee instead of eating
lamb when our boat did not arrive, we shared Lear's
experience with the regularity of Albanian fishing
boat schedules. For future survey in the south, we
plan to acquire our own small vessel.
On the days that we did not set out with
the fishermen, we investigated the waters of
Ksamili, a small town just north of Butrint that
served as a base for the Anglo-Albanian land ar-
chaeologists (fig. 8). According to Strabo's descrip-
e tion of harbors along the Ionian coast (Geog. 7.7.5),
S there is a place called Poseidium that lies between
green Onchesmus (Saranda in antiquity) and Buthrotum

INA Quarterly 28.3

Fig. 9, 10 and 11. Yellow and green glazed ceramics (left), slip-decorated wares (center), and an intact spice container (right), all
from an early modern wreck in Ksamili Bay (Photos: E. Williams).

(ancient Butrint). Local legend places a sanctuary of Posei-
don, the Greek deity of the sea, on one of the four small
islands that protect the harbor at Ksamili, making it a prime
candidate for Strabo's harbor. Tare, an avid swimmer and
snorkeler, had spent years in the bay and was able to point
out various sites that he thought would be of archaeologi-
cal interest.
In Ksamili Bay, Tare led us to a significant scatter of
pottery, including an assortment of green and yellow-
glazed ceramics, some with plastic floral motifs, as well as
some unglazed, slip-decorated wares, and an intact spice
container (figs. 9, 10, and 11). Dutch archaeologist Joanita
Vroom dated these finds to the late nineteenth century CE.
The artifacts probably formed the car-
go of an Italian ship bringing pottery to
Greece or Albania for common house-
hold use. Although no hull timbers re-
mained in the shallow water, the heavy
concentration of artifacts suggests a
Just off the northern shore of
Ksamili Bay, we found a concentration
of pottery dating from the fifth to sec-
ond centuries BCE, as identified by
Bjem Lov4n and Paul Reynolds. The
pottery includes roof tiles, coarseware
amphora fragments, and a few sherds
of black glaze ware and decorated pot-
tery. The ceramics originate from Atti-
ca, Campania, Chios, Cos, Knidos,
Mende, and Thasos. This chronological
range, the variety of wares, and the close
proximity of the scatter to the shore, sug-
gests a submerged settlement site rath-
er than a shipwreck, perhaps the result Fig. 12. Thisfrag
of rising water levels over time. local fisherman.

Further surveying in the center of Ksamili Bay and
around the small islands revealed occasional finds of bro-
ken pottery, primarily Late Roman and Byzantine, confirm-
ing the early usage of the region as a harbor or safe haven
for ships. The locations of all finds in Ksamili and along
the southern coast were marked by a hand-held global po-
sitioning system. Diagnostic pottery samples were raised
for documentation and returned to the ocean at the end of
the reconnaissance season. Until the creation of a conser-
vation facility designed to preserve waterlogged artifacts,
nothing will be raised permanently from the sea floor,
Fishermen in Ksamili provided an additional re-
source for archaeological information. They report that the

ment of a Late Classical terracotta figurine was shown to us by a

INA Quarterly 28.3

waters of Ksamili Bay, an attractive location for Albanian
and foreign tourists, have already been explored by divers.
One afternoon, a resident of the town brought a collection
of artifacts for our examination that a friend had discov-
ered in the bay. The objects included various items from
the nineteenth-century wreck mentioned above, as well as
the lower half of a terracotta figurine, representing a fe-
male leg draped with cloth (fig. 12). Although our contact
reported that this figurine had come from a larger deposit
of artifacts, he was unable to point out its exact location.
As well as being a key survey area, certainly wor-
thy of future investigation, Ksamili Bay also served as our
base for introductory lectures and practical exercises in
nautical archaeology for the Albanian students participat-
ing in the Anglo-Albanian excavations at Butrint. I pre-
sented three lectures on the history and methods of
shipwreck archaeology to a group of fifteen students from
the newly developed archaeology program at Tirana Uni-
versity. In addition, our team offered the students a prac-
tical introduction to scuba skills. Part of our commitment
to the future of nautical archaeology in Albania includes
forming a core of native archaeologists, trained in mari-
time techniques, whose cooperation in upcoming survey
and excavation work will be critical.

Building for the Future
It is my belief that the coastal regions north and
south of Butrint should be the focus of future shipwreck
survey seasons. The poor visibility in Lake Butrint, Butrint
Bay, and the Vivari Channel makes survey by divers im-
practical, though sonar survey might yield fruitful results.
Numerous finds were discovered in regions north of
Butrint such as Ksarnili and we hope to explore more of
the coast between Butrint and Saranda, especially in light
of the recent development of hotels and cafes along the

road between the two regions. The geography of the coast
south of Butrint is perhaps the most promising for the ex-
istence of shipwrecks and the likelihood of their discov-
ery. That there is no coastal road south of Butrint means
little traffic and development and therefore fewer possi-
bilities for looting. To date, only fishermen have access to
these regions and virtually all speak of ceramic discover-
ies. The pottery scatters seen during the reconnaissance
project establish the presence of seafaring traffic in the re-
gion throughout antiquity. In the summer of 2002, we plan
to investigate the coast as far south as Ishulli Tongo. For
the future, we hope to continue north from Saranda to-
wards Porto Palermo (ancient Panormus) and Oricum, both
important harbors in antiquity. Currently, I am working
with Auron Tare, Richard Hodges, and the Albanian Insti-
tute of Archaeology to develop a protocol for INA activity
in Albania over the next five years,
Unlike many of the regions where INA has under-
taken shipwreck surveys, such as Turkey and Egypt, the
Albanian coastline offers a daunting trial. In Turkey, sponge
divers have revealed to INA the location of numerous ship-
wrecks including those at Uluburun and Bozburun. In Egypt,
the tourism industry has created a great market for scuba
diving. Professional divers have explored much of the Red
Sea and have given information about the location of ship-
wrecks, such as the Sadana Island site. INA can benefit from
no such information in Albania. No diving industry exists
and even fishing was discouraged under the Communist re-
gime. The recent development of small-scale fishing in the
south-by trawlers, dynamite, and spear fishermen-has
provided some useful data, but there is little local lore about
the specific location of wrecks underwater. This dearth of
information presents a challenge, but there is a key advan-
tage: the unexplored nature of the southern Albarian coast
offers an unparalleled opportunity for future discovery.

Acknowledgements: For the funding to carry out this reconnaissance project, I am grateful to the Institute of Nautical
Archaeology as well as to the Department of Classics, the Program in the Ancient World, the Program in Hellenic
Studies, and the Council for Regional Studies at Princeton University. Ani Tare, Chris Dakas, Richard Hodges, Sally
Martin, and Iris Pojani provided practical assistance without which the project would have been impossible; Joanita
Vroom, Paul Reynolds, and Bjorn Lov6n assisted with pottery identifications. Dr. Kosta Lako represented the Albanian
Institute of Archaeology and offered constant support to our team. Thanks are also due to my team members Dick
Rinkes, Bjern Lov&n, and Eli Williams, &

Suggested Readings

Ceka, N.
1999 Butrint: A Guide to the City and its Monuments. Lon-
don: Butrint Foundation.

Greene, E. and P. van Alfen
1995 "Albania's Adriatic Coast: An Unexplored Region
of the Mediterranean," INA Quarterly 22.2:9-11.

Lear, Edward
1988 The Corfu Years, P. Sherrard, ed. Athens: Denise
Harvey and Company.

de Souza, P.
1999 Piracy in the Graeco-Roman World, Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.

INA Quarterly 28.3

Photomosaics in Underwater Archaeology

Sarah Webster, Oscar Pizarro, and Hanumant Singh

For an archeologist working on an underwater site,
visibility is limited except in the clearest of waters. Light
attenuates quickly, and at depths where natural sun-
light cannot reach, artificial lights can illuminate only a
small part of the wreck at any single time. Often, even
a single object of interest cannot be photographed in
one picture. With these limitations, the ability to piece
together many smaller photographs of a site to get an
overview picture is extraordinarily useful for layout in-
formation and site planning. Photomosaics offer a com-
posite view of objects-or entire sites-too large for a
single image by merging several overlapping pictures.
Originally, mosaics were performed manually using
darkroom techniques, a long and labor-intensive task.
The advent of inexpensive computational resources and
effective image processing techniques, together with the
ever increasing amount of digital imagery, has made
the use of digital mosaics the option of choice. It offers

unmatched flexibility, ease of manipulation, and facili-
ty in using complementary image enhancement algo-
Understanding these issues is fundamental for an
effective use of mosaics in underwater archaeology, as well
as in other oceanographic applications.

Mosaicking Procedure
The basic procedure for the production of mosaics
from underwater imagery follows these steps: (1) Record
the area of interest with overlapping images; (2) Cor-
rect for lighting; (3) Align/warp the images; (4) Mosaic
the images by merging and reducing seam effects. For
example, the individual images in figure 1 were taken
in strips over the site. Each strip, or trackline, was mo-
saicked together first, and then the strips were merged
with each other. This is a typical process in the produc-
tion of photomosaics.

Step Vehicle op-
erators conduct a
carefully planned
survey over the area
of interest to ensure
sufficient coverage
and overlap in the
imagery. Image foot-
prints are projected
on the area of inter-
est to allow opera-
tors to choose indi-
vidual images for
use in the mosaic.

Step 2 Individual im-
ages are processed to re- Step 3 Individual strips
move lighting and other are then mosaiced together
artifacts. These images using a technique similar
are then merged into to that used in Step 2.
single strip mosaics by
identifying common
features in successive

Step 4 Ongoing work focuses
on understanding and improv-
ing the quantitative nature of
the mosaicing process.

Photo: H. Singh

Fig. 1. The process of producing photomosaics,

INA Quarterly 28.3

Photos: M. Cormier, B. Ryan, H. Singh
Fig. 2. The use of corrective equalization on imagery acquired at a geological site in the East Pacific Rise that was non-uniformly lit.
Original imagery (left) and equalized version (right).

Deep sea mosaics are generated from images ob-
tained using robotic devices like the remotely operated ve-
hicles (ROV) Jason and ABE (Autonomous Benthic
Explorer), or towed vehicles like Argo. If possible, a grid
approach is used to survey the area of interest. Vehicle
speed and the rate at which images are acquired are ad-
justed to ensure adequate overlap between successive im-
ages along the direction of motion. The parallel tracklines
are spaced so that the successive paths overhang one an-
other across the direction of motion. The overlap assists
the mosaicking process by providing sufficient correspond-
ing points between successive images, thereby allowing
the accurate connection of one to the next. At least a forty-
percent overlap between successive images is desired, al-
though less than twenty percent makes mosaic production
very difficult and inaccurate.

Mosaicking Algorithms
The advent of inexpensive computational resources
and image processing techniques now allows us to generate
photomosaics on computers in an automatic or semi-auto-
matic fashion. Many commercial processing programs, for ex-
ample VideoBrush Photographer (www.videobrushcom) and
IRAS/C from Intergraph ( use feature-
matching algorithms. VideoBrush performs most of the mosa-
icking automatically, with relatively little input. IRAS/C offers
more control: users identify corresponding points, choose the
warping algorithms to align images and decide where to draw
the seam- The second program requires more input, which means
more time to perform the task. Results also depend on how well
the operator chooses corresponding points. The fully automatic
package is preferable because of time and ease of use, but is
only effective when the overlapping images have uniform
lighting, slight perspective changes, and sufficient features

for the computer to match.
Using an underwater vehicle with precise navigation al-
lows the replacement of images before constructing the mosa-
ic. This puts the images in the right place with respect to each
other. Replacement helps prevent large area distortions and lim-
its spatial inaccuracies. This is particularly useful for large-area
mosaics (hundreds of images) and feature-poor areas. It is pos-
sible to create mosaics from photographs taken by divers aswell;
in such cases, it is necessary to have enough matching features
in successive pictures to assemble the mosaic.

Difficulties of Mosaicking
Lighting: Since sunlight attenuates considerably in phe first
few meters underwater, artificial lighting sources are required
to image at allbut very shallow depths. The concentrated light
source, together with attenuation, can cause very uneven
lighting throughout the field of view. Corrective procedures
(for example, adaptive histogram specification) can compen-
sate for most of this effect if the optical sensors have enough
dynamic range (fig. 2). Even with histogram specification,
image borders will tend to be darker. As the mosaic is con-
structed, these darker edges can appear as shadows that are eas-
ily misinterpreted as changes in elevation of the terrain (fig. 3).
An additional problem with artificial lighting is that
the shadows cast by a moving light source also move from
image to image. The changing shadows confuse the match-
ing algorithms because most mosaicking programs assume
a uniform and stationary light source.
Range, resolution, and perspective When taking images, there is a
trade off between coverage and resolution As photographs are
taken further away from the target, each one covers a larger
area. This requires fewer images for the final mosaic, which saves
time and could mean less distortion. Images taken from afar, at
a higher altitude, also show less change in perspective as the

INA Quarterly 28.3

_ _

Fig. 3. Shadow A on this mosaic ofa fourth-century BCE Ro-
man shipwreck shows a small pit, while Shadow B is not a change
in elevation but simply an effect of non-uniform lighting.

camera moves, and less change in perspective requires less
warping of the images in the mosaic. The big drawback in
high altitude images is in the loss of resolution as each pixel
corresponds to a larger area. There is also greater light at-
tenuation, which results in darker images, and noticeable
backscattering from particles in suspension. Overall, the
images tend to become grainy and noisy contaminatedd with
random visual elements) as the distance from the target
increases (fig. 4).
In photographing closer to the target, each individ-
ual image will contain more detail and less backscatter,
but the mosaic must be constructed of a larger number of
images. Another problem when photographing three-di-

mensional objects or structures from closer distances is the
change in perspective from one image to the next, result-
ing in distortions in the mosaic.
Camera Motion: Two mosaics of the modem oceanograph-
ic research vessel RV Northern Horizon, created automati-
cally using VideoBrush, illustrate several of the issues
involved. In figure 5 the images were collected by keeping
the camera in place and rotating it. Notice how the bow
and stem of the ship appear smaller than the midsections,
and how the process results in the bending of the ship to
match successive images. Another method for acquiring
images is to keep the camera at a fixed distance with a fixed
orientation, while translating it parallel to the object of

Fig. 4. Details from a low altitude (left) and
high altitude (right) photomosaic of a fouth-
century BC Roman shipwreck. As expected,
the imagery from the low altitude photomo-
saic has much higher resolution.

Photo: (left) US Navy, (right) H. Singh

INA Quarterly 28.3

Photo: H. Singh

Lrnoto: U. rizarrO
Fig. 5. Mosaic of the RV Northern Horizon and some of the individual images in the mosaic taken by rotating the camera. The ship is
warped because the distance from the camera to the target changes as the camera is rotated. The camera perspective stays the same from
image to image, though, which makes the individual images line up with each other more accurately.

Photo: O. Pizarro
Fig. 6. Mosaic of the RV Northern Horizon and some of the individual images in the mosaic taken by translating the camera The ship has
roughly the correct proportions in this mosaic, but the change in perspective of the individual images causes problems when mosaicking.

INA Quarterly 28.3

interest (fig. 6). In this case, the ship is roughly the same
size in each image but the change in perspective from image to
image is considerable, making mosaicking difficult.
One must take special care in archeological mosaics
to insure that artifacts are neither repeated nor left out of the
final product. In figure 5, the person is not seen in the final
mosaic. Notice how the car present in the individual im-
ages is not present in the final mosaic, and how the single
mast becomes two (fig. 6). This process can be used to the
archaeologist's advantage in other ways, such as eliminat-
ing unwanted passing clutter, such as marine life.

Digital mosaics are a valuable tool to aid in the inter-
pretation and identification of underwater objects, allowing
archaeologists to view large areas of the sea floor despite
limited visibility. As we have seen, current techniques for
the production of mosaics are limited by lighting, range ver-
sus resolution, and perspective changes that occur when im-
aging three-dimensional objects. Distortions can result from
the merger of successive images so the final mosaic may pro-
vide a qualitative-rather than quantitative-representation
of the site.

Acknowledgments: This work was supported by a sub-contract from the Office of Naval Research (contract #N00014-95-1-1316).
This is Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution publication number 10483. o

Ballard, RID.
1998 High Tech Search for Roman Shipwrecks. National
Geographic Magazine 193 (4), 32-42.

Stewart, W. K.
1991 High-Resolution Optical and Acoustic Remote
Sensing for Under water Exploration. Oceanus 34
(1), 10-22.

i Readings
Singh, H., Howland, J., Pizarro, O.
In Print Large Area Photomosaicking Underwater. IEEE
Journal of Oceanic Engineering.

Singh, H., Roman, C., Whitcomb, L.L., Yoerger, D.R.
2000 Advances in Fusion of High Resolution Under-
water Optical and Acoustic Data. Proceedings of
the 2000 International Symposium on Underwater
Technology, Tokyo. 206-11.


Archeologia delle acque: Semestrale di antropologia, archeologia etnografia, storia dell'acqua,
Anno II-N.4, Luglio-Dicembre 2000.

Fittingly, the land that gave Europe its most signifi-
cant Renaissance is now experiencing a flourishing rebirth
of interest in maritime archaeology. Nautical archaeologists
in Italy have received potent stimuli in recent years. A
graveyard of late antique shipwrecks has been unearthed
in Pisa. A treasure of ancient and medieval wrecks has been
located along the coast of Sardinia. Two derelict hulls from
the fourteenth century-one of them a galley-are pres-
ently being freed from the mud of Venice's lagoon. These
developments only skim the surface.
Research in the Veneto and Emilia Romagna has led
to the publication in Forli of a new journal entitled Archeo-
logia delle acque. This appears twice a year under the editor-
ship of Dr. Silvia Costantini and the scientific supervision
of Dr. Luigi Fozzati. It is co-sponsored by the Nucleo Ar-
cheologia Subacquea del Veneto, headquartered in Ven-
ice, and the Museo della Regina, situated in Cattolica. The
most recent number appeared in the fall of 2000. Typically,
the journal includes a series of articles organized around a
specific theme, in this instance the "archaeology of the

waters of Emilia Romagna," and in-depth reports on field
work in progress in various parts of Italy.
To communicate to members of INA the riches of
this resource, let me summarize important findings in the
specific field of nautical archaeology and the broader realm
of aquatic archaeology. The journal's fourth number of-
fers enticing details on the excavation and recording of
shipwrecks from ancient and medieval times. Edoardo
Tortorici supplies an in-depth report on the first season of
excavation of an ancient wreck discovered in the Adriatic
Sea approximately seven nautical miles from Grado. That
first season allowed the excavators to publish a site plan
and recover objects deemed at risk. These included two
lead anchor stocks, one whole amphora, and several am-
phora sherds. Analysis of all the ceramic material suggests
a uniform cargo of wine amphoras of Greco-Italiot type.
Tortorici proposes that the best parallels come from the
mid-third century BCE and that promising comparisons
have been made to amphoras found in the necropoleis of
Adria and Spina.

INA Quarterly 28.3

With understandable excitement, Tortorici examines
the implications of the find. If confirmed to be a large trad-
ing vessel carrying wine amphoras manufactured in South-
ern Italy and shipped to Adriatic ports around the year 250
BCE, the shipwreck would be the oldest yet discovered in
the Upper Adriatic. It would help fill an existing void in ma-
terial remains from that region in the third century. More-
over, the wreck almost surely predates the founding of the
Roman colony at Aquileia in 181 BCE. Therefore, it will com-
pel a reconsideration of Hellenistic trade routes and ports in
the Upper Adriatic and the commercial relations between
that region and Magna Grecia to the south.
That "Republican" wreck near Grado was located
in the course of examining another wreck dated to the
Roman Imperial period and excavated from 1988 to 1999.
Carlo Beltrame and Dario Gaddi explain the methodology
they will use to record and reconstruct the hull of that Ro-
man vessel, which was dismantled on the bottom and
raised in pieces. The skilled Venetian model-builder Gil-
berto Penzo has been recruited to contribute a detailed scale
rendering. Initial analysis of the surviving timbers has al-
ready yielded evidence of repairs to the planking, graffiti
traced on the planking by the ship's carpenter during con-
struction, and traces of whitewash painted upon the hull.
The journal has finally published the analysis of a
late-medieval hull that Marco Bonino completed in 1981.
Fragmentary remains of the medieval vessel were found in
1979 in a sand and gravel pit near Ravenna. The pit is on the
site of a former lagoon near Porto Fuori that was used as an
emergency anchorage until the end of the fourteenth centu-
ry. Bonino judiciously proposes that the surviving timbers
come from the stem, given the angle of the post and the
rounded shapes produced by the frames. The timbers in-
dude a section of the rabbeted keel, frames of irregular di-
mension including an elegant Y-frame, and a section of the
keelson. The inner hull received longitudinal strengthening
from the keelson and three stringers, while the outer hull
was reinforced by at least two wales. Bonino interprets the
wales as an integral aid in the construction process; because
they overlap the joints in the frames, the wales were most
likely installed before the planking and accompanied the
mounting of the frame elements. Overall, Bonino argues
that we have the remains of a fourteenth-century coasting
vessel equipped with a lateen rig which sank at a relative-
ly young age. The vessel's construction features fall be-
tween the Contarina I wreck from around 1300 and the
Logonovo boat from around 1400.
Members of INA will also find of interest the broader
concerns of the journal-beyond nautical archaeology in
the strict sense. The editors have chosen to treat questions
of anthropology, ethnography, and history as they are re-
flected in waters of every sort, from rivers to lagoons to
the sea. In discussing the water systems used for transport
around Modena in ancient times, Remy Mussati and Ele-

na Righi produce textual evidence of a fascinating episode.
Roman generals managed to communicate with their
troops in Mutina in 43 BCE by engraving a message on a
lead plate and tying it to the wrist of a diver who smug-
gled it into the besieged city.
Contemporary volunteer divers assisted Maria Luisa
Stoppioni in the last phase of her excavation of a Roman well
at Cattolica. Materials in the lowest stratum such as African
clay paterae (shallow bowls) and pitchers were dropped into
the well by accident. Other materials were tossed in as refuse
when the surrounding Roman mansion was abandoned late
in the third century. The refuse includes three roof tiles with
the stamp of "Fuscus," a manufacturer already known from
a collection of eleven stamps in the Cattolica Museum. The
density of these finds suggests that Fuscus had his manufac-
turing kiln in the immediate vicinity of Cattolica.
Dumping of refuse continued in the Middle Ages
and continues to be a valuable source of information. Mar-
co Bortoletto sampled the organic remains excavated along
Venice's Grand Canal near the medieval market situated
at the Rialto bridge. Though the Commune of Venice had
set up in that neighborhood a series of wooden containers
for the collection of garbage, the containers were emptied
only twice a week. Filled to overflowing in the interim,
they attracted rats and drove the residents to fall back upon
the easy alternative of dumping their garbage directly into
the canals. Heavier materials such as sheep's heads, whole
eggs, and pine nuts accumulated in the canals and eventu-
ally threatened to block the city's vital waterways. In ad-
dition to the organic remains from the market, Bortoletto
also found ceramic, metal, and glass debris at the base of
the stone embankment built at the Rialto in 1398. In a city
renowned for her glass manufacturing, it seems only fit-
ting that the Venetians themselves showed a decided pref-
erence for glazed ceramics, comprising eighty-seven
percent of the material that Bortoletto recovered.
From a careful examination of this single number of Ar-
cheologia delleacque, it should be apparent that the journal offers a
range of material of decided interest to readers of the INA Quar-
terly. For confirmation, they need only consult the second num-
ber of volume I, edited by Dr. Marco D'Agostino and dedicated
entirely to nautical archaeology. That issue contains Mauro Bon-
dioli's fascinating examination of the rivalry between native
Venetian shipwrights and their foreign competitors from Rhodes
in the first half of the fifteenth century. In fact, INA itself is well
represented in that number through the articlesof Patricia Sibel-
la on a Roman dolia wreck excavated off the coast of Corsica at
La Giraglia and Frederick Hocker on the ninth-century Byzan-
tine wreck excavated off the coast of Turkey at Bozburun. Arche-
ologia delle acque is published by ABACO editions in Forli.
Interested readers can find further information on the journal
and ways to subscribe at the publisher's website: http:// .
John M. McManamon, S.J.

INA Quarterly 28.3


Erkut Arcak


The unexpected loss of Erkut Arcak cost INA and
the Texas A&M University Nautical Archaeology Pro-
gram a promising student, a valued colleague, and a dear
friend. He passed away on June 9,2001, a breezy Istanbul
evening, at the young age of thirty, suddenly and unex-
pectedly, after having visited his beloved Ottoman gal-
ley, the Kadirga, earlier in the day. At his funeral, family
and friends related their vivid images of his joyful smile.
It is this smile that will be etched in our hearts and minds
forever. He is survived by his wife Cory and their son
Andrew, his mother GWlhan and father Yurdakul, his old-
er brother Aykut, sister-in-law Tijen, and their daughter
Berfin, and his younger brother Enver.
Althoughhewasbom in Eazg, easterTurkey, many
of Erkut's school years
were spent in Ankara.
After graduating from
high school, he was
admitted to Middle
Eastern Technical
University (METU),
where he received a
bachelor's degree in
Philosophy in 1996.
During his university
years, Erkut not only
found a ripe environ-
ment to foster his love
for the sea, but he also
became interested in
ancient shipwrecks. ;.
To prepare himself
for a career in his new
passion, he applied to the graduate program of Bilkent
University's Department of Archaeology and History
of Art.
Erkut's participation in many surveys and exca-
vations galvanized his interest in the field. In his own
words, "he aspired to journey the less traveled roads."
While serving as the president of the Subaqua Society
at METU, he formed a group to investigate shipwrecks.
Apart from those conducted by INA, these surveys were
among the first of their kind in Turkey. They ranged
from ancient shipwrecks along Turkey's Mediterranean
coast off Cilicia and Iskenderun to eighteenth-century
shipwrecks of the Turco-Russian wars off Sinop, in the
Black Sea, and at CeSme, in the Aegean. The results of

these surveys were mostly presented at annual sympo-
sia in Ankara and later published in their proceedings.
Erkut also assisted Nergis Gunsenin with her surveys
in the Sea of Marmara. There, he was among the team
that discovered and investigated a thirteenth-century
CE shipwreck, now in its first year of excavation.
During the summer of 1995, at Bozburun, near
Marmaris, Erkut began his first direct collaboration with
INA. He took part in the excavation of the ninth-centu-
ry CE Bozburun shipwreck under the directorship of
George Bass and Fred Hocker. Erkut became a regular
member of this project until its conclusion in the fall of
1998. In 1996, after the excavation season at Bozburun,
he also worked with Eric Rieth on the Sorbonne Uni-
versity's excavation
of the Port-Berteau
Charante shipwreck
in France. He was
one of the few stu-
dents chosen in 1999
to represent INA in
the Black Sea project
conducted jointly by
Fred Hiebert of the
University of Penn-
sylvania's Universi-
ty Museum, Robert
Ballard of the Insti-
tute for Exploration,
and Cheryl Ward of
INA. Concurrently,
Photo: C. Arcak he worked on the ex-
cavation of a fifth-
century BCE shipwreck at Tektas Burnu, near (eome,
directed by George Bass and Deborah Carlson.
However, Erkut was soon to realize that, no mat-
ter how much practical experience he gained in the field,
for his passion to bloom into a full profession he had to
compliment it with theoretical knowledge and a solid
academic background. With that goal in mind, Erkut
enrolled in the Nautical Archaeology Program at Texas
A&M in 1997 and began his coursework the next year.
His main interest was in Medieval and Ottoman
seafaring and shipbuilding. Erkut and I launched a long-
term study in 1999 of the famed Sultans' galley, the
Kadirga, in the Naval Museum in Istanbul. I had pon-
dered its origins and constructional aspects since I first

INA Quarterly 28.3

' .. ..
Photo: C
Photo: C

saw it at the age of fifteen. In conjunction with my study
of a late sixteenth-century Ottoman shipwreck we ex-
cavated off Bodrum in 1982 and 1983, I learned much
about the Kadirga but had simply not found the time
for an in-depth study of this remarkable vessel. The op-
portunity came when Erkut expressed his interest in
Ottoman seafaring and the Kadirga, and invited me to
be the chairman of his thesis committee. I could not have
had a more enthusiastic, encouraging, and driven indi-
vidual with whom to work.
Erkut was nearing the completion of a prelim-
inary study for submission to A&M as his thesis for
the Master of Arts. This would have been the first
step toward a comprehensive treatise that Erkut and
I envisioned. I considered myself privileged to be col-
laborating with him on this project. We spent several
weeks for the last three summers in Istanbul recording
and studying this historic vessel. At the end of each day,
we laughed heartily at our pathetic chimney-sweep
appearance from crawling through the grimy
bowels of the ship. Back in College Station,
Erkut would spend many hours each day be-
hind the drafting table drawing and, after
checking with me, often redrawing the ship's
features. He never took any offence at my cor-
rections and requests for additional modifica-
tions. The Old World Laboratory is just not the
same without Erkut crouched over the plans of
the Kadirga with his usual inquisitive, and some-
times puzzled, expression. He was a disci-
plined, devoted, and enthusiastic student
Erkut had great prospects for the fu-
ture. He dreamed of establishing a nautical
archaeology curriculum in an academic insti-
tution in Turkey after concluding his studies
in the United States. All the doors to his

dreams seemed to be opening when he died.
He was already regarded by some as the fu-
ture of nautical archaeology in Turkey, and
as having a major role in the future of INA's
Turkish branch.
Erkut always made time for his friends
and for soccer, an activity he pursued diligent-
ly in the amateur league in his native Turkey.
He was also an ardent scuba diver. Erkut felt
completely at home under water. In the flur-
ry of his archaeological activities, he operat-
ed his own diving school between 1995 and
1998, and certified countless sport divers. He
took his students to KaS in southern Turkey
S for most of their training dives-a region he
Arcak loved for its crystal-clear waters and excellent
diving. A dive site there is now named after
him and a marble and titanium plaque placed on the
seabed in his memory reminds scuba divers of his kind-
ness and dedication.
Erkut was a close friend to all and touched each
person in a special way. He was dependable-a confi-
dante who always managed to express a genuine inter-
est in the lives of his companions. He made them feel
that every day was a special one. His radiant smile and
friendly personality made him equally special to us.
Erkut was laid to rest in his land-locked home
city of Ankara, the parched earth over his grave
quenched with seawater from his beloved Kas. His tem-
porary tombstone bore the words, "Erkut Arcak, div-
ing to eternity," now replaced with, "Carpe Diem." We
are left with a void that can never be filled and we miss
him terribly. An old African adage says "a man is never
truly dead until he is forgotten." Erkut Arcak lives, for
those whose lives he enriched will always remember
him. af
Cemal Pulak

INA Quarterly 28.3

Navigation and Trade in the Mediterranean

(Seventh to Nineteenth Century CE)

George K. Livadas, Athens

The Greek islands of Chios and Oinousses hosted
the Eighth International Congress on Graeco-Oriental and
African Studies, "Navigation and Trade in the Mediterra-
nean (Seventh to Nineteenth Century CE)" from July 5 to
9, 2000. This successful conference was organized by the
Greek Institute for Graeco-Oriental and African Studies,
in collaboration with the University of Cairo and the Fac-
ulty of Arts of Ain Shams University, Egypt. Participants
included representatives of renowned institutions from all
over the world. These included the Vienna Academy of
Sciences (Austria) and universities such as Cairo (Egypt),
Princeton (USA), Rand Afrikaans (South Africa), St. Pe-
tersburg (Russia), and the Sorbonne (France), among many
Several notable speakers opened the first session of
the Congress, July 5 on Chios. These included Alexander
Beihammer of the Austrian Academy (on the seventh-cen-
tury Arab raids on Cyprus), V. Christides of the Greek In-
stitute for Graeco-Oriental and African Studies (on seventh
to fourteenth-century Arab sources on trade and commer-
cial activities in Cyprus, Crete, and Chios), and T. Hagg of
Bergen University, Norway (on a Byzantine chronicle of a
visit to Bergen in 1430).
The morning session on July 6 included various
papers on North African and Eastern Mediterranean his-
tory. Alia Hanafi of Ain Shams University presented a
papyrus from the Copenhagen collection concerning the
role of palm trees in the refitting and building of ships. E.
Venitis of the University of lonnina (Greece) spoke on the
Sassanid occupation of Egypt. G. M. A. Al-Tahir of the Lib-
yan School of Athens discussed in detail the Red Sea ports.
Finally, C. Makrypoulias of the University of lonnina dealt
with the question of Byzantine triremes, concluding that
Byzantine warships could not contain more than two banks
of rowers. This session was followed by a tour of the Mar-
itime Museum of Chios.
The evening session took place on the nearby small
island of Oinousses, in the impressive facilities of the
George C. Lemos Cultural Center of Oinousses. Roxanne
Margaritis of Princeton University (a graduate of the Nau-
tical Archaeology Program at Texas A&M University) com-
pared the ports of Aden and Alexandria. H. Khalilieh of
Haifa University (Israel) talked about the legal status of
slaves at sea in Islamic and Byzantine times. V. Vavrinek
of the Institute for Slavic Studies (Prague, Czech Repub-
lic) spoke on the Adriatic Sea as the connection between
Byzantium and the Slav lands north of the Danube. M.
Cook of Princeton examined a distinctive Shi'ite doctrine
of the Qibla. Finally, N. Orfanoudakis offered a very inter-

testing examination of the evidence concerning portable
flame throwers in the Byzantine, Islamic, and Chinese
armies. This was followed by the presentation of a full scale
model Arab and Byzantine flame thrower, based on these
The evening closed with the opening of a maritime
exhibition. This was prepared by two teams under the over-
all direction of V. Christides. The research team at the Uni-
versity of Athens included K. Karapli, C. Spanoudis, G. M.
A. Al-Tahir, and I. Fadel. The construction team included
J. Angelidakis and C. Kaniadakis, with designs by M. Bon-
nino and J. Nakas. The exhibition includes Arab and Byz-
antine ship models, based on the iconographic and literary
sources, as well as maritime illuminations from Arab and
Byzantine manuscripts.
On July 7, the final presentations maintained the
high quality of the Congress. Jehan Desanges of the Sor-
bonne examined Byzantine geographic sources pertaining
to the Red Sea and North Africa. Archaeologist Monique
Longerstay talked on the Punic navy, C. Edmund Bosworth
of the University of Manchester (UK) on Cilicia in the ear-
ly nineteenth century as presented by William Burckhardt
Barker, and B. Arbel of Tel-Aviv University (Israel) on Ve-
netian shipboard life in the sixteenth century. C. Gasparis
and N. G. Moschonas of the Greek National Research Cen-
ter presented, respectively, on maritime activity in Crete
and the Eastern Mediterranean during the eighteenth cen-
tury. S. Soucek of Princeton discussed naval engagements
near Oinousses between the Ottoman navy and Venice
(1695) and Russia (1770). B. Hendrixx of Rand Africaans
University examined the commercial and political impli-
cations of the factumm pacis and concordiae" (1219) between
Theodoros Lascaris and Giacomo Tiepolo.
The Congress ended with a round table discussion
of the Egyptian Nobel Prize-winning novelist Naguib Mah-
fuz, under the direction of M. Hamdy Ibrahim, Vice-Rec-
tor of the University of Cairo, and M. Hagazzi of the same
institution. The experience was rounded off by a day cruise
around the island of Oinousses on Saturday, July 8. The
acts of the Congress are to be published in the ninth vol-
ume of Graeco-Arabica, as the first part of a Festschrift in
honor of Professor V. Christides.
Acknowledgments: The Congress would have been impos-
sible without the great support of the municipalities of the
Greek Islands of Chios and Oinousses, and in particular
the Mayor of Oinousses, Evangelos Angelakos, the George
C. Lemos Cultural Center of Oinousses, the Development
Center of Oinoussai-Aegean, and the Maritime Museum
of Chios. *

INA Quarterly 28.3


I was sitting at a desk in San Diego, California when the teacher sadly proclaimed that our President had
been murdered in Dallas, Texas. From behind that desk I had learned that intelligence, wealth, power, fame,
popularity--and yes, even good looks-guarantee absolutely nothing in this world. Minutes later, we poured
through the door of Room Seven out into the lunch arbor where, away from our classroom, we grappled with our
own ideas of and reactions to that sorrowful event.
The "desk" and the "door" have always been strong, defining points in the geography of my education. At
one I sat passively while formal introduction was made to someone else's ideas and accomplishments; at the other
came the call to realize, embellish, and create. It was at a desk that my classmates and I first shook hands with
Schubert and Bizet, painstakingly contended with iambic pentameter, and pondered the simple logic of the scien-
tific process. Yet at day's end, when we passed through the door, quarter notes came alive in our garages, Frost
was proclaimed, albeit by rote memory, along the drainage ditches of our shoreline, and ad hoc chemistry exper-
iments-the kind that rousted the neighborhood-were conducted in the alley behind Old Man Trenton's garage.
In the highly charged academic environment of INA, 1 am reminded daily of the role of education and the
importance of scholarship in the affairs of our Institute. As students from around the world come to Texas A&M
University to study in the Nautical Archaeology Program and to participate in INA projects, the desk and the
door are still powerful, tangible symbols of the education that they pursue.
There are presently fifty graduate students enrolled in the Nautical Archaeology Program, among them our own
Christine Powell. NA Quarterly Editor, Bill Charlton, INA Diving Safety Officer, and Janalyn Gober, INA Archivist and
Website Manager. A&M is still the best place in the world for aspiring underwater archaeologists to prepare for their future
endeavors. Drs. Cemal Pulak and Shelley Wachsmann carry the responsibility of educating potential scholars in Biblical and
Near Eastern archaeology. Drs. Kevin Crisman and Felipe Castro have dedicated their careers to researching and teaching
the intricacies of shipbuilding techniques and the impact that they hold in shaping the seafaring history of the New World.
Drs. Wayne Smith and Donny Hamilton ensure that each new generation of graduate students becomes familiar with the
cutting-edge techniques of understanding and conserving our submerged cultural heritage.
Moreover, when the semester concludes, INA provides the opportunities necessary to round out the classroom
experience. The field is where students test many of the things they learned behind their desks. Those of you familiar
with the processes of underwater archaeology know that most discoveries actually take place in the library and the
laboratory. So, for every door through which our students walk-for each INA project in which they participate-
they eventually wind up back at the desk, researching in greater detail the significance of the data they have collected.
In this volume of the INA Quarterly-and in many to come-you will read of the numerous accomplishments
of Nautical Archaeology Program students: Elizabeth Greene, Stefan Claesson and Athena Trakadas are all graduates
of the Program. John McManamon, INA Research Assistant and former visiting scholar in the Program, also authored
an article. Thanks to your support, many graduate students have realized their own archaeological projects in
2001, among them Matthew Harpster, Asaf Oron, Ayse Atauz, Ralph Pedersen, and Kroum Batchvarov.
Sadly, INA and the Nautical Archaeology Program lost an aspiring young scholar earlier this year. Erkut Arcak,
whose memorial tribute written by Cemal Pulak is featured in this issue of the Quarterly, had a promising career in the field
of underwater archaeology, one that had already been partially realized at both the "desk" and the "door." The last conver-
sation we had, just days before he left for the field, was a candid discussion-a look forward, if you will-of how one
maintains a passion for their work over many years. Erkut proudly proclaimed that his enthusiasm for researc-be it
behind a desk or through the door-would never diminish. His self-imposed challenge still rings in my ears.
So, Texas A&M University furnishes the desk; INA opens the door. Together they afford each new genera-
tion of students opportunities that are essential not only for managing their own successful futures, but also for
carrying the discipline of nautical archaeology forward into the twenty-first century.
I would like to thank you for the difference that your membership makes. Without it, these wonderful student-driven
projects could never be realized. You, and your participation in this adventurous collaboration, are greatly appreciated. d

Jerome Lynn Hall

INA Quarterly 28.3


George F Bass, Ph.D., Co-Founder
Jack W. Kelley, Co-Founder
Jerome L. Hall, Ph.D., President

William L. Allen
Okuz Aydemir
John H. Baird
Joe Ballew
Edward O. Boshell, Jr.,
Chairman and Treasurer
Ray M. Bowen
John A. Brock
Elizabeth L. Bruni
Gregory M. Cook
Harlan Crow
William C. Culp, M.D.

Allan Campbell, M.D.
Nicholas Griffis

Donald A. Frey, Ph.D., Vice President
Cernal M. Pulak, Ph.D., Vice President

Thomas F. Darden
John De Lapa
Claude Duthuit
Danielle J. Feeney
Donald G. Geddes ll (Emeritus)
Charles Johnson, Ph.D.
Harry C. Kahn U (Emeritus)
Michael L. Katzev
Mustafa Ko
Robert E. Lorton
Alex G. Nason
George E. Robb, Jr.

Robin P. Hartmann
Bill Klein, M.D.

James A. Goold, JD., Secretary & General Counsel
Claudia LeDoux, Assistant Secretary
& Assistant Treasurer

L. Francs Rooney
Lynn Baird Shaw
Ayhan Sicimoglu
Willam T. Sturgis
Frederick H- van Doominck, Jr., Ph.D.
Robert L. Walker, Ph-D.
Lew O. Ward
Peter M. Way
Garry A. Weber
George 0. Yamini
Sally M. Yamini

Dana F. McGinnis
Molly Reily

George F. Bass, Ph.D.,
George T. & Gladys H. Abell Professor of Nautical Archaeology, George O. Yanmini Family Professor of Liberal Arts, and
Distinguished Professor Emeritus
Filipe Castro, Ph.D., Assistant Professor
Kevin J. Crisman, Ph.D., Nautical Archaeology Faculty Fellow
Donny L. Hamilton, Ph.D., Frederick R. Mayer Faculty Fellow
Cemal M. Pulak, Ph.D., Frederick R. Mayer Faculty Fellow of Nautical Archaeology
C. Wayne Smith, Ph.D., Assistant Professor/Director of the Archaeological Preservation Research Laboratory
J. Richard Steffy, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr., Ph.D., Frederick R Mayer Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
Shelley Wachsmann, Ph.D., Meadows Associate Professor of Biblical Archaeology

J. Barto Arnold, M.A., Texas Operations

Esra Altnarut-G6ksu
Mtinevver Babacik
Mustafa Babaok
Hard Bedeir
Chasity Bums
William H. Charlton, Jr., M.A.
Michelle Chmelar
Mehmet Cftlikli
Marion Feildel
Tuba Ekmekdi
Adel Farouk
Jana Gober
Zafer Gil
Jane Haldane
Kathy Hall
Emad Khalil
Sheila D. Matthews, M.A.
Mistie Moore
Eric Nordgren
Muammer Ozdemir
Robin C. M. Piercy
Sema Pulak, M.A.
Sakran enyfiz
Guilser Sinaca
Sheriff Shabban

Douglas Haldane, M.A., INA-Egypt

STAFF (continued)
Murat Tdev
Suileyman Tuirel
GiineS Yaar

Jeremy Green
Andrew Hall
John McManamon, Ph.D.
Thomas J. Oertling, MA.
Ralph K Pedersen, M.A.
Brett A. Phaneuf
Donald Rosencrantz

Arthur Cohn, J.D.
David Gibbins, Ph.D.
Faith D. HentscheL Ph.D.
Fredrik T. Hiebert, Ph.D.
Carolyn G. Koehler, Ph.D.
William M. Murray, Ph.D.
David I. Owen, Ph.D.
Cheryl Ward, Ph.D.
Gordon P. Watts, Jr., Ph.D.

Christine A. Powell

Tufan U. Turanjh, Turkish Headquarters

Australian Institute of Maritime Archaeology
Boston University
Brown University
Bryn Mawr College
University of California, Berkeley
University of Cincinnati
Cornell University
Coming Museum of Glass
Departamento de Arqueologia Subacuitica de
la LN.A.H., Mexico
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
New York University, Institute of Fine Arts
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Partners for Livable Places
University Museum, University of Pennsylvania
Texas A&M Research Foundation
Texas A&M University
University of Texas at Austin
Mr. and Mrs. Ray H. Siegfried I
Graduate Fellow: Matthew Harpster
Marian M. Cook Graduate Fellow:
Peter D. Fix and Taras P. Pevny

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